WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban health status

  1. Gender and rural-urban differences in reported health status by older people in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Tishelman, Carol; Agüero-Torres, Hedda; Chowdhury, A M R; Winblad, Bengt; Höjer, Bengt

    2003-01-01

    The study aims to (i) describe regional variation and gender differences in health status of older people (60 years and older) in Bangladesh, indicated by self-reported health problems and functional ability; (ii) explore influence of socio-economic factors on health status of older people. In a cross-sectional study in rural and urban Bangladesh, 696 older persons were asked about their health problems and ability to manage activities of daily living (ADL). More than 95% of older people reported health problems. Approximately 80% of elderly women in both the regions reported having four or more health problems compared with 42% and 63% elderly men in the urban and rural regions, respectively. More women (urban: 55%; rural: 36%) than men (urban: 32%; rural: 22%) also reported difficulties with ADL. Irrespective of age, sex and area of residence, those reporting greater number of health problems were more likely to report difficulty with at least one ADL task. Reporting pattern of specific health problems varied between urban and rural regions. Socio-economic indicators were found to have little influence on reporting of health problems, particularly in the rural region. Observed regional difference may be related to the influence of social and environmental factors, and level of awareness concerning certain health conditions.

  2. Women's health status in urban Ghana: dimensions and differentials using short form 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frempong-Ainguah, Faustina; Bailey, Claire E; Hill, Allan G

    2018-04-24

    Global discourse on population, health and development have placed women's health issues at the top of development agenda. Women's reproductive health has received some attention in Ghana since the mid-1990s. However, studies on women's general health status, dimensions and the differentials in a rapidly growing urban setting is poorly understood and under-researched. This study sought to examine the various pathways in which individual socio-demographic factors, economic characteristics and endowment influence self-assessed health status among women living in the city of Accra, Ghana. The paper draws on a cross-sectional study carried out in 2008 and 2009 using a representative sample of urban women 20 years and older (n = 2814). Multivariate stepwise linear regression models were performed to investigate the influence of socio-demographic, economic and health indicators on health-related quality of life, measured by eight sub-scales of the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Interaction effects between some demographic and socio-economic variables were also performed. The analyses show diverse relationships between demographic, socio-economic and health indicators and health outcomes assessed using eight SF-36 sub-scales. Education, disease symptoms and age of the respondent were the most significant factors influencing good overall health status. Interestingly, age has no significant effect on mental health after controlling for all other explanatory variables. The findings show that health issues are multi-faceted requiring socio-cultural, health and economic policy interventions. Investing in women's education is important to improve health status. There is also the need for more effective collaboration across various sectors to improve the health and well-being of women in general. Ageing has increasing relationship with poor physical health status and the elderly should be given needed attention and support.

  3. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.

  4. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-02-05

    China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.

  5. Social determinants of urban slums - perception of health status with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... question will lead to improvements in outcomes e.g. improving nutrition is likely to reduce the incidence of diseases. These problems though important are numerous, and it is unlikely that piecemeal solutions will be amply cost effective to achieve health of women in slums; rather these problems require parallel attention.

  6. A systematic review of health status, health seeking behaviour and healthcare utilisation of low socioeconomic status populations in urban Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Lee, Kheng Hock; Low, Lian Leng

    2018-04-02

    It is well-established that low socioeconomic status (SES) influences one's health status, morbidity and mortality. Housing type has been used as an indicator of SES and social determinant of health in some studies. In Singapore, home ownership is among the highest in the world. Citizens who have no other housing options are offered heavily subsidised rental housings. Residents staying in such rental housings are characterised by low socioeconomic status. Our aim is to review studies on the association between staying in public rental housing in Singapore and health status. A PubMed and Scopus search was conducted in January 2017 to identify suitable articles published from 1 January 2000 to 31 January 2017. Only studies that were done on Singapore public rental housing communities were included for review. A total of 14 articles including 4 prospective studies, 8 cross-sectional studies and 2 retrospective cohort studies were obtained for the review. Topics addressed by these studies included: (1) Health status; (2) Health seeking behaviour; (3) Healthcare utilisation. Staying in public rental housing was found to be associated with poorer health status and outcomes. They had lower participation in health screening, preferred alternative medicine practitioners to western-trained doctors for primary care, and had increased hospital utilisation. Several studies performed qualitative interviews to explore the causes of disparity and concern about cost was one of the common cited reason. Staying in public rental housing appears to be a risk marker of poorer health and this may have important public health implications. Understanding the causes of disparity will require more qualitative studies which in turn will guide interventions and the evaluation of their effectiveness in improving health outcome of this sub-population of patients.

  7. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths’ psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. Method and Results We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12–17 years, n = 677) drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, padaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies. PMID:26716829

  8. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.

  9. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF GIRL STUDENTS IN AN URBAN AREA OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahera Parvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess status of reproductive health and nutrition amongst girls attending high school in an urban area of Bangladesh. Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in four selected girl’s high schools. A structured pre-tested questionnaire and a checklist were used to collect data through face-to-face interview and anthropometry. Results: A total of 360 adolescents girls were interviewed. The mean age at menarche of the respondents was found to be 12.4 years. More than half (54.2% of the respondents were malnourished (BMI < 18.5. More than four-fifths (83% were found to be suffering from reproductive health problems during or after menstruation. The most common complain (60% disclosed by the adolescent girls was dysmenorrhoea. Majority (300 of the respondents acknowledged practicing unhygienic protective measures during menstruation. Conclusion: More than half of the adolescents were malnourished, practiced unhygienic protective measures during menstruation and disclosed different types of reproductive health complaints. Findings of the study strongly recommend that adolescent girls of urban Bangladesh need proper and appropriate management of their reproductive health problems. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(1: 9-11

  10. Health status in Europe: comparison of 24 urban areas to the corresponding 10 countries (EURO-URHIS 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, E M; de Gelder, R; Di Nardo, F; Williams, G; Harrison, A; van Buren, L P; Lyshol, H; Patterson, L; Birt, C A; Higgerson, J; Achterberg, P W; Verma, A; van Ameijden, E J C

    2017-05-01

    : In Europe, over 70% of the population live in urban areas (UAs). Most international comparative health research is done using national level data, as reliable and comparable urban data are often unavailable or difficult to access. This study aims to investigate whether population health is different in UAs compared with their corresponding countries. : Routinely available health-related data were collected by the EURO-URHIS 2 project, for 10 European countries and for 24 UAs within those countries. National and UA level data for 11 health indicators were compared through the calculation of relative difference, and geographical patterns within Europe were investigated using the Mann Whitney U test. Linear regression modelling was used to adjust for population density, gross domestic product and urbanicity. : In general, the urban population in Eastern Europe is less healthy than the Western European urban population. However, people in Eastern Europe have significantly better broad health outcomes in UAs as compared with the corresponding country as a whole, whereas people in Western Europe have generally worse broader health outcomes in UAs. : For most European countries and UAs that were investigated, the national level health status data does not correspond with the health status at UA level. In order to identify health problems in UAs and to provide information for local health policy, health monitoring and international benchmarking should also be conducted at the local level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. and health service study of a peri-urban in Kwazulu A health status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health status of the under-fives. Fifty-nine (87%) of the 68 children were examined, and 29% were found to have a condition considered as requiring medical treatment. These were: upper respiratory infections in 5, scabies in 4~ impetigo in 4, and severe malnutrition in 4 children. Three children had Tinea capiris infections.

  12. Studying the Environmental Health Status and Consumption of Baking Soda in Military and Urban Lavash Bakeries of Tehran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rostami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:Consumption of baking soda, as a primary material for preparation of bread dough, has been banned due to its health complications in Iran. So bread production in our country faced difficulties and one part of them is related to health issues which are bread production. Also, in some cases, baking soda is used in the bread production. This study was done to study the environmental health status and consumption of baking soda in the military and urban Lavash bakeries of Tehran in 2012. Materials and methods:This is a descriptive comparative study done on Lavash bread production of 14 military bakeries and 14 corresponding urban bakeries near them. PH in the samples was tested based on Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran No. 2628. To check the status of environmental health and personal hygiene of bakeries, the check list of Cereal Research Center was used. Results:In terms of environmental health status,28.6% military bakeries and7.1% urban bakeries were at good level. In terms of personal hygiene, all bakeries were in the poor category. Also,42.9% of military Lavash bakeries and 14.3% of urban Lavash bakeries used baking soda in their bread production. Conclusion:Environment health and personal hygiene status in military bakeries are better than the urban bakeries however, hygiene status was not desirable in military bakeries. Also, baking soda consumption in military bakeries was more common than the urban bakeries. According to the results of this study, control of health status and avoiding baking soda consumption in the bakeries are necessary.

  13. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  14. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  15. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p<.05 was found with parity and birth interval from last birth.  But the association of anaemia with ethnicity, education and other factors like gestational age (trimester was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  16. Urban groundwater quality in sub-Saharan Africa: current status and implications for water security and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D. J.; Nkhuwa, D. C. W.; Okotto-Okotto, J.; Pedley, S.; Stuart, M. E.; Tijani, M. N.; Wright, J.

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater resources are important sources of drinking water in Africa, and they are hugely important in sustaining urban livelihoods and supporting a diverse range of commercial and agricultural activities. Groundwater has an important role in improving health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). An estimated 250 million people (40% of the total) live in urban centres across SSA. SSA has experienced a rapid expansion in urban populations since the 1950s, with increased population densities as well as expanding geographical coverage. Estimates suggest that the urban population in SSA will double between 2000 and 2030. The quality status of shallow urban groundwater resources is often very poor due to inadequate waste management and source protection, and poses a significant health risk to users, while deeper borehole sources often provide an important source of good quality drinking water. Given the growth in future demand from this finite resource, as well as potential changes in future climate in this region, a detailed understanding of both water quantity and quality is required to use this resource sustainably. This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the water quality status, both microbial and chemical, of urban groundwater in SSA across a range of hydrogeological terrains and different groundwater point types. Lower storage basement terrains, which underlie a significant proportion of urban centres in SSA, are particularly vulnerable to contamination. The relationship between mean nitrate concentration and intrinsic aquifer pollution risk is assessed for urban centres across SSA. Current knowledge gaps are identified and future research needs highlighted.

  17. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  18. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Background China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investig...

  19. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  20. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Cheng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH and subjective health complaints (SHC of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL.We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II. Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%, eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%, and insomnia (1542, 18.9%. Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000 and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37.Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  1. Oral health status of rural-urban migrant children in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Li; McGrath, Colman; Lin, Huan-Cai

    2011-01-01

    In China, there is a massive rural-urban migration and the children of migrants are often unregistered residents (a 'floating population'). This pilot study aimed to profile the oral health of migrant children in South China's principal city of migration and identify its socio-demographic/behavioural determinants. An epidemiological survey was conducted in an area of Guangzhou among 5-year-old migrant children (n = 138) who received oral examinations according to the World Health Organization criteria. Parents' oral health knowledge/attitude, child practices, and impact of children's oral health on their quality-of-life (QoL) were assessed. The caries rate and mean (SD) dmft were 86% and 5.17 (4.16), respectively, higher than those national statistics for both rural and urban areas (P Oral hygiene was satisfactory (DI-S Oral health impacts on QoL were considerable; 60% reported one or more impacts. 58% variance in 'dmft' was explained by 'non-local-born', 'low-educated parents', 'bedtime feeding', 'parental unawareness of fluoride's effect and importance of teeth', and 'poor oral hygiene' (all P oral health-related QoL (both P Oral health is poor among rural-urban migrant children and requires effective interventions in targeted sub-groups. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2004-01-01

    %), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention...

  3. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Adrion, Marius; Gamauf, Anita

    2018-01-01

    As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus) of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests) along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner-city nestlings are

  4. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sumasgutner

    Full Text Available As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner

  5. [Child nutritional status in contexts of urban poverty: a reliable indicator of family health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huergo, Juliana; Casabona, Eugenia Lourdes

    2016-03-01

    This work questions the premise that the nutritional status of children under six years of age is a reliable indicator of family health. To do so, a research strategy based in case studies was carried out, following a qualitative design (participant observation and semistructured interviews using intentional sampling) and framed within the interpretivist paradigm. The anthropometric measurements of 20 children under six years of age attending the local Child Care Center in Villa La Tela, Córdoba were evaluated. Nutritional status was understood as an object that includes socially determined biological processes, and was therefore posited analytically as a cross between statistical data and its social determination. As a statistic, child nutritional status is merely descriptive; to assist in the understanding of its social determination, it must be placed in dialectical relationship with the spheres of sociability proposed to analyze the reproduction of health problems.

  6. Child nutritional status in contexts of urban poverty: a reliable indicator of family health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Huergo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work questions the premise that the nutritional status of children under six years of age is a reliable indicator of family health. To do so, a research strategy based in case studies was carried out, following a qualitative design (participant observation and semistructured interviews using intentional sampling and framed within the interpretivist paradigm. The anthropometric measurements of 20 children under six years of age attending the local Child Care Center in Villa La Tela, Córdoba were evaluated. Nutritional status was understood as an object that includes socially determined biological processes, and was therefore posited analytically as a cross between statistical data and its social determination. As a statistic, child nutritional status is merely descriptive; to assist in the understanding of its social determination, it must be placed in dialectical relationship with the spheres of sociability proposed to analyze the reproduction of health problems.

  7. Differences in mental health outcomes by acculturation status following a major urban disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.

  8. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  9. Oral health status and oral health behaviors of 12-year-old urban and rural school children in Udupi, Karnataka, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Singh Thakur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the oral health status and oral health behavior among 12-year-old urban and rural school children and to evaluate the relative effect of sociobehavioral risk factors on caries experience. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included urban and rural subgroups of 12-year-old school children. The final study population covered two groups: 12 years rural (n = 261 and urban school children (n = 264. Data were collected and compared using Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the importance of variables associated with dental caries. Results: Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were observed between rural and urban school children for the use of oral hygiene aids, frequency of tooth brushing, and dental services utilization. Dental caries level was significantly higher (P < 0.03 for rural children. Decayed teeth (DT component constituted majority of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (FT in both population. 55.6% of the rural school children required treatment compared to 42.4% of urban school children. Mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified values, mean DT, and FT were statistically significant for urban and rural school children. Logistic regression analysis showed that government or private school, dental care utilization, socioeconomic status, and malocclusion status were significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusion: Poor oral health and high treatment needs of children belonging to low socioeconomic background is an alarming situation. Strengthening of oral health care in the rural and underprivileged section should be priority of the policymakers.

  10. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  11. Assessment of the urban trees health status on the base of nutrient and pigment content in their leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLAVEYA PETROVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Town settlements have different load level by emissions originated mostly from transport, industry and heating system. Their environmental and climate conditions are more or less changed that effect to growth, physiology and vigor of woody plants at the city public vegetation areas. Our study on determining the impact of urban environment on the tree health status was focused on the quantities of nutrients and main components of the pigment complex – chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. Leaves of Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Betula pendula Roth. were sampled from urban areas with different type of anthropogenic pressure in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of the elements Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, and S were analyzed by ICP-MS. Health condition of trees in the city parks and suburban areas was acceptable, but in the central part and close to the industrial area it was non-satisfactory. This preliminary research pointed ecophysiological tools as useful to develop new criteria for sustainable urban arboriculture, including species selection (based on stress tolerance criteria, nursery hardening and preconditioning, and care after planting.

  12. Health service utilisation of rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China: does employment status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolei; Zou, Guanyang; Chen, Wen; Han, Siqi; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li

    2017-01-01

    To describe the self-reported health status and service utilisation of employed, retired and unemployed migrants in Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China. A cross-sectional study adapted from the National Health Service Survey was conducted between September and December in 2014. Based on the distribution of occupation of migrants, multistage sampling was used to recruit individuals. Logistic regression was applied to explore the factors influencing their service utilisation. Of 2906 respondents, 76.6% were employed, 9.2% retired and 14.2% unemployed. Only 8.1% reported having an illness in the previous 2 weeks, and 6.5% reported having been hospitalised in the previous year. Employed migrants had the lowest recent physician consultation rate (3.4%) and the lowest annual hospitalisation rate (4.5%) (P rates (6.8% and 14.5% respectively, P employed (1.5%) and unemployed migrants (3.4%) (P gender, employment status remained significant in explaining the recent two-week treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants (P Employed migrants make the least use of health services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Differences in adults' health and health behaviour between 16 European urban areas and the associations with socio-economic status and physical and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Rianne; Koster, Emmy M; van Buren, Laurens P; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Harrison, Annie; Birt, Christopher A; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    With a growing proportion of the European population living in urban areas (UAs), exploring health in urban areas becomes increasingly important. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of differences in health and health behaviour between adults living in urban areas (UAs) across Europe. We also explored whether and to what extent such differences can be explained by socio-economic status (SES) and physical or social environment. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, performed between as part of the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) project. Using multi-level logistic regression analysis, UA differences in psychological distress, self-assessed health, overweight and obesity, daily smoking, binge drinking and physical exercise were assessed. Median Odds Ratios (MORs) were calculated to estimate the extent to which the observed variance is attributable to UA, individual-level SES (measured by perceived financial strains, education level and employment status) and/or characteristics of physical and social environment. The dataset included 14 022 respondents in 16 UAs within 9 countries. After correction for age and gender, all MORs, except that for daily smoking, indicated statistically significant UA health differences. SES indicators (partly) explained UA differences in psychological distress, decreasing the MOR from 1.43 [95% credible interval (Cr.I.) 1.27-1.67, baseline model], to 1.25 (95% Cr.I. 1.14-1.40, SES model): a reduction of 42%. Accounting for the quality of green areas reduced the MOR for psychological distress by an additional 40%, to 1.15 (95% Cr.I. 1.05-1.28). Our study showed large differences in health and health behaviour between European UAs. Reducing socio-economic disadvantage and improving the quality of the neighbourhood's green spaces may reduce UA differences in psychological distress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  14. Health status of Afro-Asian refugees in an Italian urban area: a cross-sectional monocentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pinto, R; Pietropaoli, D; Russomando, U; Evangelista, P; Ferri, C

    2018-04-05

    The recent sociopolitical events in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern areas have significantly impacted international migration flows. As disease prevalence and type are different among western and Afro-Asian countries, physicians dealing with refugees should be aware of their specific health needs. We aimed at evaluating the health status and disease history of refugees at their arrival in the urban area of L'Aquila (Italy). This is a monocentric cross-sectional study. Refugees hosted at the local reception center in L'Aquila (Italy) between July 2014 and December 2014 were cross-sectionally evaluated for anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory features. A subset of randomly selected participants underwent further assessments (screening for tuberculosis, hepatitis B/C, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis; ambulatory blood pressure measurement [ABPM]) to better define their health status. Ninety-three adult male refugees (27.34 ± 7.41 years) from Africa (76%) and Asia (24%) were enrolled. Overall, the most prevalent diseases according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th revision affected the digestive tract (15.6%) and musculoskeletal apparatus (14.4%). The analysis by continent of origin did not show significant differences in the distribution of diseases, although a trend toward some differences was observed. African refugees had a significantly greater prevalence of viral hepatitis (hepatitis B virus, P = 0.004; hepatitis C virus, P = 0.007) compared with Asians. Hypertension, as detected by ABPM, was uncommon. No written vaccination history was available. Health issues of our sample of Afro-Asian refugees span both non-communicable and communicable diseases, requiring attention for the safety of the individual and the community. National health systems should provide adequate information and shared guidelines for health professionals regarding identification and management of refugees' health

  15. The association between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life among Polish postmenopausal women from urban and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, M; Pacholska-Bogalska, J; Kwaśniewski, W; Kotarski, J; Halerz-Nowakowska, B; Goździcka-Józefiak, A

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, more scholarly attention has been paid to a growing range of geographic characteristics as antecedents of inequalities in women's health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in health-related quality of life between rural and urban Polish postmenopausal women. Using a data set from a reproductive health preventive screening of 660 postmenopausal women aged 48-60 years, inhabitants of Wielkopolska and Lublin provinces, the association of place of residence, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors with health-related quality of life (the SF-36 instrument) was evaluated using ANCOVA models and multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination steps. A consistent rural-to-urban gradient was found in all indices of physical health functioning and well-being but not in vitality, social functioning, emotional role and mental health scales with women in large cities being likely to enjoy the highest and those in villages the lowest quality of life. The rural-urban disparities in health-related quality of life were mediated by women's socioeconomic status. The likelihood of worse physical and mental functioning and well-being was 2-3 times greater for the low socioeconomic status rural women than their counterparts from more affluent urban areas. The educational attainment and employment status were the most powerful independent risk factors for health-related quality of life in both rural and urban women. Better understanding of the role of socioeconomic status that acts as a mediator in the association between area of residence and health-related quality of life may be useful in developing public health policies on health inequalities among women at midlife. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issler Roberto M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  17. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M.S. Issler

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  18. Assessment of oral health status and periodontal treatment needs among rural, semi-urban, urban, and metropolitan population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of various etiologic factors in periodontal disease has been investigated by means of epidemiologic surveys and clinical studies. The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN provides a picture of the public health requirements in the periodontal field, which is essential for national oral health policy-making and specific interventions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 4000 individuals among rural, semi-urban, and metro population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State, to find out the oral health status and periodontal treatment needs (TNs using CPITN index. Results: An inference was drawn from the results that among 4000 participants from all the four population groups' maximum, i.e., 63.80% of individuals needed TN2 whereas 18.20% of individuals needed TN3 and 18.10% of individuals needed TN1. Conclusion: It can be concluded with a word of hope and a word of warning. Hope lies in the fact that the measurement of periodontal diseases by epidemiological study of this condition is improving and receiving wide spread attention. The warning lies in the varied nature of the condition which goes to make up periodontal disease and perplexing ways in which these conditions blend. In addition to dental practitioner, periodontist and public health workers must devote more time and effort toward controlling periodontal disease than they seem to be devoting at present.

  19. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L

    2017-01-01

    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differences in Mental Health Outcomes by Acculturation Status following a Major Urban Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N=2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major de...

  1. Use of hospital services and socio-economic status in urban India: Does health insurance ensure equitable outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir

    2012-01-01

    In recent years universal health coverage has become an important issue in developing countries. Successful introduction of such a social security system requires knowledge of the relationship between socio-economic status and usage of health care services. This paper examines this relationship, and analyzes the impact of introducing health insurance into the model, using data for India, a major developing country with poor health outcomes. In contrast to similar works undertaken for develope...

  2. Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Satyawan G; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health.

  3. Health and urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christopher

    2008-02-08

    The majority of people now live in urban areas and will do so for the foreseeable future. As a force in the demographic and health transition, urbanization is associated with falling birth and death rates and with the shift in burden of illness from acute childhood infections to chronic, noncommunicable diseases of adults. Urban inhabitants enjoy better health on average than their rural counterparts, but the benefits are usually greater for the rich than for the poor, thus magnifying the differences between them. Subject to better evidence, I suggest that the main obstacles to improving urban health are not technical or even financial, but rather are related to governance and the organization of civil society.

  4. Oral Health Status of Independent Older Adults in Texas: An observational study comparing urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie L; Boyd, Linda D; Tapias-Perdigón, Helena; LaSpina, Lisa M

    2017-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health needs of community-dwelling older adults participating in congregate meal centers and to determine whether differences exist in the oral health needs of older adult populations residing in urban versus rural communities in the state of Texas. Methods: Study participants were recruited at 6 congregate meal centers located in identified rural and urban communities in the greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. (N=78) Participants completed a validated, modified questionnaire containing 20 items on the following topics: self-reported oral health, tooth loss, dental insurance, frequency of dental visits, time since last dental visit, access to dental care, dry mouth, and oral cancer screening. Each participant received an oral health screening based on the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors Basic Screening Survey for Older Adults. The examiners received hands-on training prior to the study to ensure the validity of their findings and to test for inter-examiner reliability.The chi-square test of independence was performed to analyze the participants' responses on the Basic Screening Survey to identify any relationships between the variables. Results: There were no significant differences in oral health conditions of older adults residing in urban versus rural communities. Over 50% of the participants (64.9% urban; 56.1% rural) reported incomes below $15,000 and lacked dental insurance to cover all or a portion of their oral health care needs. Eighty-seven percent of the participants reported tooth loss due to dental caries, 35% required periodontal care, and 37% reported occasional and 43% reported frequent oral pain over the last 12 months. Conclusions: Oral health promotion and disease prevention is an emergent need for older adult populations residing in urban and rural communities of the state of Texas. Analysis revealed that the majority of the older adult populations in both

  5. Nutritional status of urban adolescents: individual, household and neighborhood factors based on data from The BH Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bispo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing prevalence of overweight in young people suggests that adolescent nutritional status is influenced by environmental factors. Using hierarchical modelling, this study aimed to analyse the association between individual, household and neighborhood factors and adolescent nutritional status and well-being. The study used data from a population-based household survey conducted in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Data was obtained from an adult and adolescent in each household using a confidential questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Adolescent nutritional status was evaluated using multinomial regression analysis considering distal and proximal influences. The prevalence of overweight and thinness among the sample of 1,030 adolescents was 21.9% and 4.6%, respectively. Although variables from all blocks remained in the final model, head of household education level, family habits and family nutritional status were shown to strongly influence adolescent nutritional status. New approaches to public health are needed which focus on raising awareness and promoting health education targeting teenagers and their social context.

  6. Shame, Blame, and Status Incongruity: Health and Stigma in Rural Brazil and the Urban United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lesley Jo; Trainer, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Stigma is a powerful determinant of physical and mental health around the world, a perennial public health concern that is particularly resistant to change. This article builds from sociologist Erving Goffman's classic conception of stigma as a unitary social phenomenon to explore the stigma attached to two seemingly dissimilar conditions: food insecurity in rural Brazil, and obesity in the urban United Arab Emirates. Our analyses underscore that both conditions are stigmatized because they represent a departure from a deeply-held social norm, and in both cases, self-stigma plays an important role. Furthermore, in both cases, the stigma associated with food insecurity and obesity is likely at least as harmful to personal wellbeing as are the biological consequences of these conditions. Finally, evidence increasingly links obesity and food insecurity causally. Our analyses suggest that these forms of stigma transcend individuals and are largely structural in their origins, and therefore that they are most likely to be improved through structural change.

  7. Urban mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2018-01-01

    . Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...

  8. Nutritional status of urban adolescents: individual, household and neighborhood factors based on data from The BH Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bispo, Stephanie; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The increasing prevalence of overweight in young people suggests that adolescent nutritional status is influenced by environmental factors. Using hierarchical modelling, this study aimed to analyse the association between individual, household and neighborhood factors and adolescent nutritional status and well-being. The study used data from a population-based household survey conducted in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Data w...

  9. Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-à-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology.

  10. Urban land rights and child nutritional status in Peru, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Tom S

    2007-07-01

    Advocates of land-titling programs in developing countries posit that these programs lead to a multitude of benefits, including health improvements. This paper presents the results of a child health survey of several Lima communities after various time exposures to Peru's urban land-titling program. The results provide suggestive evidence that improved property rights increase children's weight but not their height, which is consistent with previous work on the topic. However, titles also appear to raise children's risk of being overweight or obese, implying that the observed weight gain is not necessarily an improvement in nutritional status.

  11. Adolescent health in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramadass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, from ages 10 to 19 years. It is a period of dynamic brain development. During this period, adolescents learn from the social behavior and environmental surroundings of their community. Because of rapid urbanization without accounting for the basic health-care amenities, health disparities tend to arise. In this review, we have tried to describe the health profile of adolescents in urban India. Relevant articles were extracted from PubMed and related websites. Adolescents in urban areas perceive their physical environment as very poor. Social capital and social cohesion are very important in their development. Increasing child marriage and poor antenatal care among adolescents are key challenges in improving the reproductive and sexual health. More than half of adolescents are undernourished. About 56% of adolescent girls are anemic. At this time of fighting against under-nutrition, burden of overweight and obesity is increasing among the urban adolescents. Mass media use and increased sedentary lifestyle increase the risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Labile mental and emotional behavior makes them prone to suicide and intentional self-harm. Another avoidable key challenge among adolescents is addiction. Urban living and regular media exposure are positively associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. Among unintentional injuries, road traffic accidents dominate the picture. Various health programs targeting adolescent health have been launched in the recent past.

  12. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes...... aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled...... with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important...

  13. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Entropy Weight Extension Decision Model in Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem health evaluation can assist in sustainable ecological management at a regional level. This study examined urban agglomeration ecosystem health in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River with entropy weight and extension theories. The model overcomes information omissions and subjectivity problems in the evaluation process of urban ecosystem health. Results showed that human capital and education, economic development level as well as urban infrastructure have a significant effect on the health states of urban agglomerations. The health status of the urban agglomeration’s ecosystem was not optimistic in 2013. The majority of the cities were unhealthy or verging on unhealthy, accounting for 64.52% of the total number of cities in the urban agglomeration. The regional differences of the 31 cities’ ecosystem health are significant. The cause originated from an imbalance in economic development and the policy guidance of city development. It is necessary to speed up the integration process to promote coordinated regional development. The present study will aid us in understanding and advancing the health situation of the urban ecosystem in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and will provide an efficient urban ecosystem health evaluation method that can be used in other areas.

  14. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harremoës, P

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes aspects of the papers presented at the INTERURBA-II conference in 2001 and the discussions during the conference. Tools for integrated analysis have been developed, but there is less implementation than could be expected. That is due to lack of adequate knowledge about important mechanisms, coupled with a significant conservatism in the business. However, significant integrated analyses have been reported. Most of them deal with the sewer system and the treatment plant, while few incorporate the receiving water as anything but the object of the loads to be minimised by engineering measures up-stream. Important measures are local infiltration, source control, storage basins, local treatment and real time control. New paradigms have been introduced: risk of pollution due to system failure, technology for water reuse, sustainability, new architecture and greener up-stream solutions as opposed to down-stream concrete solutions. The challenge is to combine the inherited approaches with the new approaches by flexibility and adaptability.

  15. Understanding the health impacts of urbanization in China: A living laboratory for urban biogeochemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population in the world, and by 2011, more than 50% of its population are now living in cities. This ongoing societal change has profound impacts on environmental quality and population health. In addition to intensive discharges of waste, urbanization is not only changing the land use and land cover, but also inducing fundamental changes in biogeochemical processes. Unlike biogeochemistry in non-urban environment, the biological component of urban biogeochemistry is dominated by direct human activities, such as air pollution derived from transport, wastewater treatment, garbage disposal and increase in impervious surface etc. Managing urban biogeochemistry will include source control over waste discharge, eco-infrastructure (such as green space and eco-drainage), resource recovery from urban waste stream, and integration with peri-urban ecosystem, particularly with food production system. The overall goal of managing urban biogeochemistry is for human health and wellbeing, which is a global challenge. In this paper, the current status of urban biogeochemistry research in China will be briefly reviewed, and then it will focus on nutrient recycling and waste management, as these are the major driving forces of environmental quality changes in urban areas. This paper will take a holistic view on waste management, covering urban metabolism analysis, technological innovation and integration for resource recovery from urban waste stream, and risk management related to waste recycling and recovery.

  16. Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz Landy, Christine; Sword, Wendy; Ciliska, Donna

    2008-10-03

    Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA) postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns. Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000) who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use. When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01-2.18)], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35-0.67)], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64-4.4)]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47-3.40)]. Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar health service needs and utilization patterns to more SEA women

  17. Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns. Methods Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000 who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use. Results When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01–2.18], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35–0.67], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64–4.4]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47–3.40]. Conclusion Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar

  18. Beyond urban penalty and urban sprawl: back to living conditions as the focus of urban health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-02-01

    Researchers have long studied urban health, both to describe the consequences of urban living and to design interventions to promote the health of people living in cities. Two approaches to understanding the impact of cities on health have been dominant, namely, urban health penalty and urban sprawl. The urban penalty approach posits that cities concentrate poor people and expose them to unhealthy physical and social environments. Urban sprawl focuses on the adverse health and environmental effects of urban growth into outlying areas. We propose a model that integrates these approaches and emphasizes urban living conditions as the primary determinant of health. The aim of the model is to move beyond describing the health-related characteristics of various urban populations towards identifying opportunities for intervention. Such a shift in framework enables meaningful comparisons that can inform public health activities at the appropriate level and evaluate their effectiveness in improving the health of urban populations. The model is illustrated with two examples from current urban public health practice.

  19. Urban Form, Air Pollution, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-12-01

    Urban form can impact air pollution and public health. We reviewed health-related articles that assessed (1) the relationships among urban form, air pollution, and health as well as (2) aspects of the urban environment (i.e., green space, noise, physical activity) that may modify those relationships. Simulation and empirical studies demonstrate an association between compact growth, improved regional air quality, and health. Most studies are cross-sectional and focus on connections between transportation emissions and land use. The physical and mental health impacts of green space, public spaces that promote physical activity, and noise are well-studied aspects of the urban environment and there is evidence that these factors may modify the relationship between air pollution and health. Urban form can support efforts to design clean, health-promoting cities. More work is needed to operationalize specific strategies and to elucidate the causal pathways connecting various aspects of health.

  20. Urban mental health: Challenges and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review: To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. Recent findings: The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban...... services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric...

  1. Health status ofhostel dwellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-15

    Jun 15, 1991 ... and measles is an important preventive health care strategy. I. In southern Africa, recent ... on pr~vious in-depth investigations. The reasons for ..... of the recent M immunisation campaign in Cape Town/ coupled with access to ...

  2. Health status ofhostel dwellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-15

    Jun 15, 1991 ... or population classification.3 In this anicle we have end~avou~ed to complement this ... distribution of services parallels this political divide.8. ,9. Department of .... Cape Town City Council Technical Management. Services .... Health, City of Cape Town, for his co-operation; and to Dr Derek. Yach, of the ...

  3. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C.; Fluehr, Jaime M.; McKeon, Thomas; Branas, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This review is a first step toward assessing the possibility of causal relationships between nature and health in urban settings. Methods: Through systematic review of published literature, we explored the association between urban green space and human health. Results: We found consistent negative association between urban green space exposure and mortality, heart rate, and violence, and positive association with attention, mood, and physical activity. Results were mixed, or no association was found, in studies of urban green space exposure and general health, weight status, depression, and stress (via cortisol concentration). The number of studies was too low to generalize about birth outcomes, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cancer, diabetes, or respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: More studies using rigorous study design are needed to make generalizations, and meta-analyses, of these and other health outcomes possible. These findings may assist urban managers, organizations, and communities in their efforts to increase new or preserve existing green space. PMID:29510520

  4. Urban public health assessment and pattern analysis: comparison of four cities in different countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Chen; Lu, Weiwei; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Urban public health is an important global issue, and receives extensive attention. It is necessary to compare urban public health status among different cities, so that each city can define its own health patterns and limiting factors. The following assessment indicators were established to evaluate urban public health status: living conditions, physical health, education and culture, environmental quality, and social security. A weighted-sum model was used in combination with these indicators to compare the urban public health status in four cities—Beijing, New York, London, and Tokyo—using data for 2000-2009. Although the urban public health level of Beijing was lower than that of the other cities, it showed the greatest increase in this level over the study period. Different patterns of urban public health were identified: London had the most balanced, steady pattern (almost all factors performed well and developed stably); New York and Tokyo showed balanced, but unsteady patterns (most factors remained high, though social security and environmental quality fluctuated); Beijing had the most unbalanced, unsteady pattern (the different factors were at different levels, and education and culture and social security fluctuated). For enhanced urban public health status, environmental quality and education and culture clearly need to be improved in Beijing. This study demonstrates that a comparison of different cities is helpful in identifying limiting factors for urban public health and providing an orientation for future urban development.

  5. [New statuses of women and urbanization in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, P; Nanitelamio, J

    1990-01-01

    apart from marriage. The sexual market is assuming ever greater importance in urban zones. Prostitution is its most obvious aspect, but it is only 1 among many. The status of mother is no longer forcibly related to that of wife in African cities. New female statuses are organized around 3 main themes: affirmation of the individual, enlarged scope of life, and greater eroticization of sexual relations. The social desire for motherhood persists but that for marriage has eroded. The demographic importance of the different new statuses of women requires evaluation. Social and health policies should be based on knowledge of the real society. Too often population policies take into account only wives, neglecting the growing number of women who are not traditional wives and neglecting also the adolescent women who are also vitally concerned.

  6. Marital status, health and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2012-12-01

    Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to ...

  8. Subjective social status and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euteneuer, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.

  9. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part VI. Tobacco smoking, alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...

  10. [Health status of elderly persons in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Kim, M S; Byon, Y S; Won, J S

    1990-12-01

    This Study was done to design and test an instrument to measure the health status of the elderly including physical, psychological and social dimensions. Data collection was done from July 18 to August 17, 1990. Subjects were 412 older persons in Korea. A convenience sample was used but the place of residence was stratified into large, medium and small city and rural areas. Participants located in Sudaemun-Gu, Mapo-Gu, and Kangnam-Gu, Seoul were interviewed by brained nursing students, and those in Chungju, Jonju, Chuncheon, and Jinju by professors of nursing colleges. Rural residents were interviewed by community health practitioners working in Kungsang-Buk-Do, Kyngsang-Nam-Do, Jonla Buk-Do, and Kyung Ki-Do. The tool developed for this study was a structured questionnaire based on previous literature and then tested for reliability and validity. This tool contained 20 physical health status items, 17 mental-emotional health status items and 38 social health status items. Physical health status items clustered in to six factors such as personal hygiene, activity, home management, digestive, sexual, sensory, and climatization functions. Mental-emotional health status items clustered into two factors, mental health and emotional health. Social health status items clustered into seven factors, grandparent, parent, spouse, friend, kinships, group member and religious role functions. Data analysis included percentage, average, S.D., t-test and ANOVA. The results of the analysis were as follows: 1. The tool measuring the health status of the elderly and developed for this research had a relatively high reliability indicated by a Cronbach = 0.97793. 2. Average score of the subjects physical health status was 4,054 in a 5 point likert scale, mental-emotional health status was 3.803, social health status was 2.939 and the total average was 3.521. The social status of the subjects was the lowest and the next was mental-emotional health status; physical health status was the

  11. Potential Relationships Between Urban Development and the Trophic Status of Tampa Bay Tributaries and Lake Thonotosassa, Further the Potential Effect on Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Allhamdan, Mohammad; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maury

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of remote sensing to monitor the relationships between the urban development and water quality in Tampa Bay and the tributaries. It examines the changes in land cover/land use (LU/LC) and the affects that this change has on the water quality of Tampa Bay, Lake Thonotosassa and the tributaries, and that shows the ways that these changes can be estimated with remote sensing.

  12. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality

  13. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately

  14. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  15. A comparison of health inequalities in urban and rural Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Leyland, Alastair H

    2006-03-01

    Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. Health inequalities between the deprived and affluent in Scotland have been rising over time. The aim of this study was to examine health inequalities between deprived and affluent areas of Scotland for differing ruralities and look at how these have changed over time. Postcode sectors in Scotland were ranked by deprivation and the 20% most affluent and 20% most deprived areas were found using the Carstairs indicator and male unemployment. Scotland was then split into 4 rurality types. Ratios of health status between the most deprived and most affluent areas were investigated using all cause mortality for the Scottish population, 1979-2001. These were calculated over time for 1979-1983, 1989-1993, 1998-2001. Multilevel Poisson modelling was carried out for all of Scotland excluding Grampian to assess inequalities in the population. There was an increase in inequalities between 1981 and 2001, which was greatest in remote rural Scotland for both males and females; however, male health inequalities remained higher in urban areas throughout this period. In 2001 female health inequalities were higher in remote rural areas than urban areas. Health inequalities amongst the elderly (age 65+) in 2001 were greater in remote rural Scotland than urban areas for both males and females.

  16. Social context of neighborhood and socioeconomic status on leisure-time physical activity in a Brazilian urban center: The BH Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Goston, Janaína Lavalli; César, Cibele Comini; Xavier, César Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Diez Roux, Ana V; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and investigate its association with contextual characteristics of the social and physical environment in different socioeconomic statuses, using a household survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (2008-2009). Leisure-time physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; and the social and physical environment by scales arising from perception of neighborhood attributes. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each socioeconomic status stratum. The overall prevalence of leisure-time physical activity was 30.2%, being 20.2% amongst participants of low socioeconomic status, 25.4% in the medium and 40.6% in the high socioeconomic status group. A greater perception of social cohesion was associated with increased leisure-time physical activity only amongst participants of the lowest socioeconomic status even after adjusting for individual characteristics. The results demonstrate the importance of social cohesion for the promotion of leisure-time physical activity in economically disadvantaged groups, supporting the need to stimulate interventions for enhancing social relationships in this population.

  17. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.

  18. Health Journalism: Health Reporting Status and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, Mahrokh; Yamani, Niko; Adibi, Peyman; Shahnazi, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015-2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.

  19. Public health emergencies in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Prasad Acharya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergencies in urban India can be caused by natural or man-made disasters. Occurrence of a public health emergency adds to the already stretched health system. This paper looks into the public health emergency conditions in urban India, and our preparedness to tackle them. To address this composite threat to nation’s health and development, a concerted public health response is needed, that can ensure efficient delivery in emergency situations Public health emergency is an occurrence or eminent threat of an illness or health condition caused by bio-terrorism, epidemic or pandemic disease, or novel and highly fatal infectious agent or biological toxin, that possess a substantial risk of a significant number of human facilities or incidents or permanent or long–term disability (1. It is a condition that requires the government to declare a state of public health emergency. The declaration of a state of public health emergency permits the government to suspend state regulations,and change the functions of state agencies (2. Term “Urban” refers to perplexing variety of environments.  Health circumstances of small cities and town differ in many ways from larger cities and metros. Within cities, change in lifestyle of residents is observed. The urban system is often present with full array of health providers ranging from traditional healer, street drug seller to highly –trained surgeons (3.

  20. The Health Penalty of China's Rapid Urbanization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid urbanization could have positive and negative health effects, such that the net impact on population health is not obvious. It is, however, highly pertinent to the human welfare consequences of development. This paper uses community and individual level longitudinal data from the

  1. Health Screening Behaviour among Female Urban Dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nairan Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ageing population is a public health challenge, affects most countries. Health screenings are able to detect diseases at the earliest stage. A cross-sectional study in December 2014 conducted among 643 older women who randomly interviewed using structured questionnaire from two urban governmental health centres in Malaysia. Aims of the study were to describe health screening services behaviour and health care accessibility among women aged 50 and above. Factors such as living arrangement and age played important roles in health screening execution among older female community dwellers. Advocacy on health screening is vital as to reduce the morbidity and mortality among them.

  2. Having a Son Promotes Clean Cooking Fuel Use in Urban India: Women's Status and Son Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Kishore; Dean Spears

    2014-01-01

    Urban Indian households with a male first child are approximately 2 percentage points more likely to use clean cooking fuel than comparable households with a female first child. Given Indian son preference, there are at least two mechanisms by which child sex could affect fuel choice: by improving the intrahousehold status of women, who bear more of the costs of traditional fuels, or by presenting an opportunity to invest in children's health, in the context of a preference for healthier boys...

  3. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Leslie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.

  4. Urbanization and health - An overview | Nnebue | Orient Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization and health - An overview. ... and health with emphasis on approach and options for the promotion of healthy behaviours and safety. ... The urban context of particular cities may also affect health as well as modify the effect that ...

  5. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  6. What Aspects of Rural Life Contribute to Rural-Urban Health Disparities in Older Adults? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A; Cook, Sarah K; Sando, Trisha A; Sabik, Natalie J

    2017-11-29

    Rural-urban health disparities are well-documented and particularly problematic for older adults. However, determining which specific aspects of rural or urban living initiate these disparities remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between place-based characteristics of rural-urban status and health among adults age 65+. Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were geographically linked to place-based characteristics from the American Community Survey. Self-reported health (SRH), obesity, and health checkup within the last year were modeled against rural-urban status (distance to nearest metropolitan area, population size, population density, percent urban, Urban Influence Codes [UIC], Rural-Urban Continuum Codes [RUCC], and Rural-Urban Commuting Area [RUCA]) using generalized linear models, accounting for covariates and complex sampling, overall, and stratified by area-level income. In general, increasing urbanicity was associated with a reduction in negative SRH for all 7 measures of rural-urban status. For low-income counties, this association held for all measures and characteristics of rural-urban status except population density. However, for high-income counties, the association was reversed-respondents living in areas of increasing urbanicity were more likely to report negative SRH for 4 of the 7 measures (RUCC, UIC, RUCA, and percent urban). Findings were mixed for the outcome of obesity, where rural areas had higher levels, except in low-income counties, where the association between rurality and obesity was reversed (OR 1.033, 95%CI: 1.002-1.064). These results suggest that rural-urban status is both a continuum and multidimensional. Distinct elements of rural-urban status may influence health in nuanced ways that require additional exploration in future studies. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  7. Health and the urban environment: revolutions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGranahan, Gordan

    2009-05-15

    From cholera pandemics to smog episodes, urban development driven by narrow economic interests has shown itself to be a serious threat to human health and wellbeing. Past revolutions in sanitation and pollution control demonstrate that social movements and governance reforms can transform an urban health penalty into a health advantage. But many environmental problems have been displaced over time and space, and never truly resolved. Health concerns need once again to drive an environmental agenda – but this time it must be sustainable over the long haul, and globally equitable. With the global economic crisis raising the ante, what's needed is no less than a revolution in environmental justice that puts health, not economics, at the core of its values.

  8. Art and community health: lessons from an urban health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Wilma Bulkin; Bartley, Mary Anne

    2004-01-01

    Staff at a nurse-managed urban health center conducted a series of art sessions to benefit the community. The authors believe the program's success clearly communicated the relationship between art and community health. As a result of the success of the sessions, plans are in the works to make art a permanent part of the health center's services.

  9. Health Care and Aboriginal Seniors in Urban Canada: Helping a Neglected Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loleen Berdahl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canadian researchers and policymakers have paid limited attention to the health care needs of Aboriginal seniors. This lack of attention is problematic, as the situation of Aboriginal seniors – including both status and non-status First Nations, Métis and Inuit – is particularly bleak. Using Winnipeg, Regina and Saskatoon as examples, this paper analyses the health care challenges facing Aboriginal seniors in urban Canada. We ask, what policy approaches are needed to improve the health and wellbeing of urban Aboriginal seniors so that they can have good quality living reflective of their needs and culture? We suggest that, in thinking throughpresent and future health services for urban Aboriginal seniors, policymakers should consider four key factors: socioeconomic conditions; underutilization of urban health services; jurisdiction; and elder abuse.

  10. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  11. HIV status and hearing loss among children between 6 and 12 years of age at a large urban health facility in south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakku, Doreen; Nyaiteera, Victoria; Llowet, Evelyn; Nanseera, Dennis; Nakalema, Gladys; Westerberg, Brian; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric HIV infection and treatment may increase the risk for hearing loss (HL), both sensorineural (SNHL) and conductive hearing loss (CHL). There is limited data on this subject, especially from sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among HIV positive and negative children, to determine the types of hearing loss and whether Nevirapine (NVP) based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with HL. We conducted a cross sectional study at two tertiary health facilities in south western Uganda. We consecutively enrolled 79 HIV negative and 148 HIV positive children aged between 6 and 12 years. Inclusion criteria were completion of written consent, ability to follow instructions to perform an audiogram and absence of congenital HL. We conducted hearing screening using the iPad Shoebox ® audiometer, and confirmatory assessments were conducted using pure tone audiometry. Hearing was classified as either normal hearing, CHL, SNHL or mixed. Of the 227 children enrolled, 115 (50.7%) were female. The mean age was 9.2 years (median = 9). Based on self-report, frequency of HL among HIV positive children was 6.8% and 20.3% among HIV negative children (p=children was 8.8% compared to 10.1% among the HIV negative children (p = 0.74). CHL was generally more frequent than SNHL but SNHL occurred more frequently among HIV positive (7.4%) compared to HIV negative children (3.8%). No association was found between NVP based ART and HL (p = 0.41). Logistic regression showed that older age of the child (p = 0.01), previous ear infection (p=children. Older age of the child, previous ear infection, use of TB drugs and long duration on ART among the HIV positive children increase the odds of having hearing loss among children. However, use of NVP was not associated with HL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Status of Current National Guard Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proctor, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    .... The objectives are to: 1) describe the current health status of this ARNG cohort, 2) examine to what extent the job strain of ARNG service affects the relationship between Civilian job strain and health and job performance outcomes and, 3...

  13. Urban green spaces assessment approach to health, safety and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari Neisiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city is alive with dynamic systems, where parks and urban green spaces have high strategic importance which help to improve living conditions. Urban parks are used as visual landscape with so many benefits such as reducing stress, reducing air pollution and producing oxygen, creating opportunities for people to participate in physical activities, optimal environment for children and decreasing noise pollution. The importance of parks is such extent that are discussed as an indicator of urban development. Hereupon the design and maintenance of urban green spaces requires integrated management system based on international standards of health, safety and the environment. In this study, Nezami Ganjavi Park (District 6 of Tehran with the approach to integrated management systems have been analyzed. In order to identify the status of the park in terms of the requirements of the management system based on previous studies and all Tehran Municipality’s considerations, a check list has been prepared and completed by park survey and interview with green space experts. The results showed that the utility of health indicators were 92.33 % (the highest and environmental and safety indicators were 72 %, 84 % respectively. According to SWOT analysis in Nezami Ganjavi Park some of strength points are fire extinguishers, first aid box, annual testing of drinking water and important weakness is using unseparated trash bins also as an opportunities, there are some interesting factors for children and parents to spend free times. Finally, the most important threat is unsuitable park facilities for disabled.

  14. association between health status and visual functioning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... High blood pressure and abnormal body mass have been observed to correlate negatively with health status. Of interest in this study, is the impact such health status have on visual function indicated by near point of convergence. In this community based cross sectional study, 250 randomly selected ...

  15. The impact of migraine on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F

    PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than

  16. The impact of migraine on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, M. L.; van Royen, L.; Krabbe, P.; Bonsel, G. J.; Rutten, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    PROBLEMS--What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than

  17. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Kanavos, Panos

    2012-09-18

    Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as "excellent or good" and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  18. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality. PMID:22989200

  19. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  20. The urban built environment and associations with women's psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention.

  1. Health status of rural population in Ialomita county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-MARIA TALOS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Health is an issue that manages to provide many top ics in various fields (medicine, geography, sociology, psychology. This study aims to highlight the territorial disparities in health status of Ialomi ţ a county, to identify the health determinants and to make a preliminary analysis of the relationships between the lifestyle and the health status, using an objective assessment (statistics and a subjective evaluation (health surveys. There were analyzed elements such as mortality and morbidity, using health indic ators (mortality rate, infant mortality rate, specific mortality rate and specific morbidity rate and an aggregate index (health index. Combining statistic analysis and spatial analysis, t he study offers the possibility of comparing the rural areas with urban area, and it can be a base f or further studies. The health services, ageing and the characteristics of lifestyle could explain the territorial disparities in health status. A health study can reveal important details about eco nomic features, social behavior, mentality and social environment.

  2. Differences in health care seeking behaviour between rural and urban communities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. Design A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to) health care was collected. Results The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988). Conclusion Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour. PMID:22691443

  3. [Effects of urban noise on mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belojević, G; Jakovljević, B; Kocijancić, R; Pjerotić, L; Dimitrijević, J

    1995-01-01

    The results of the latest studies on the effects of urban noise on mental health are presented in this paper. Numerous psychiatric symptoms have been frequently noticed in the population of the settlements with a high level of urban noise: fatigue, headaches, tension, anxiety, irritability, bad concentration, insomnia, whith a consequently high consumption of psychotropic medicines. Higher admission rates in psychiatric hospitals have been noticed from noisy areas in comparison with low noise regions. By use of diagnostic psychiatric interviews it has been shown as well, that in sensitive categories of population positive correlation can be expected between the number of persons with mental disorder and the level of environmental noise. Noise annoyance and sleep disturbance, namely shortening or absence of the sleep phase 4 and REM, are the basic negative psychological effects of noise, with an adverse effect on mental health in general.

  4. Association between neighborhood safety and overweight status among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Renee M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse. Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students. Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6% of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p p = 0.025. In the fully adjusted model (including grade and school stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among

  5. Rural and urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan: determinants of their physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Walter; Shiao, Wen-Been; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-12-01

    Different geographical areas with unique social cultures or societies might influence immigrant health. This study examines whether health inequities and different social factors exist regarding the health of rural and urban married Asian immigrants. A survey was conducted on 419 rural and 582 urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan in 2009. Whereas the descriptive results indicate a worse mental health status between rural and urban married Asian immigrants, rural married immigrants were as mentally healthy as urban ones when considering different social variables. An analysis of regional stratification found different social-determinant patterns on rural and urban married immigrants. Whereas social support is key for rural immigrant physical and mental health, acculturation (i.e., language proficiency), socioeconomics (i.e., working status), and family structure (the number of family members and children living in the family) are key to the mental health of urban married immigrants in addition to social support. This study verifies the key roles of social determinants on the subjective health of married Asian immigrants. Area-differential patterns on immigrant health might act as a reference for national authorities to (re)focus their attention toward more area-specific approaches for married Asian immigrants.

  6. Urban as a determinant of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, David; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Proietti, Fernando; Ompad, Danielle; Quinn, Andrew; Nandi, Vijay; Galea, Sandro

    2007-05-01

    Cities are the predominant mode of living, and the growth in cities is related to the expansion of areas that have concentrated disadvantage. The foreseeable trend is for rising inequities across a wide range of social and health dimensions. Although qualitatively different, this trend exists in both the developed and developing worlds. Improving the health of people in slums will require new analytic frameworks. The social-determinants approach emphasizes the role of factors that operate at multiple levels, including global, national, municipal, and neighborhood levels, in shaping health. This approach suggests that improving living conditions in such arenas as housing, employment, education, equality, quality of living environment, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. While social determinant and multilevel perspectives are not uniquely urban, they are transformed when viewed through the characteristics of cities such as size, density, diversity, and complexity. Ameliorating the immediate living conditions in the cities in which people live offers the greatest promise for reducing morbidity, mortality, and disparities in health and for improving quality of life and well being.

  7. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  8. Discrimination, perceived social inequity, and mental health among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-04-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.

  9. Ecosystem health pattern analysis of urban clusters based on emergy synthesis: Results and implication for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Fath, Brian D.; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study. - Highlights: • The use of integrated emergy synthesis and set pair analysis model was standardized. • The integrated model was applied on the scale of an urban cluster. • Health patterns of different urban clusters were compared. • Policy suggestions were provided based on the health pattern analysis

  10. Cultural capital and self-rated health in low income women: evidence from the Urban Health Study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using chi (2) tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95-6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09-4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities.

  11. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  12. Differential impacts of social support on mental health: A comparison study of Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and their urban counterparts in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2017-02-01

    The number of internal migrant children in China has reached 35.8 million by the end of 2010. Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings regarding the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, as well as the impact of peer, teacher and parental support on the mental health of Chinese adolescent migrants. Using a comparative approach, this study attempted to compare the mental health status between migrant and urban-born adolescents and to clarify the specific roles of different sources of social support in the mental health of migrant and urban adolescents. A cross-sectional survey using a cluster convenience sampling strategy was performed in Beijing, China. A structured questionnaire was filled out by 368 rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and 325 urban-born adolescents. A significant difference was found only for positive affect (PA) but not for negative affect (NA) between the two groups, favouring the urban-born adolescents. Social support from all the three sources were all predictive of PA among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, while only peer support contributed to PA among urban-born adolescents. Unexpectedly, teachers' support contributed to an increase in NA among urban-born adolescents. The findings contribute to understanding of the mental health status of migrant adolescents in China and the differential impact of the various sources of social support on migrant and urban-born adolescents. Also the findings may inform the development of mental health services and programmes that can potentially benefit a large number of internal migrant adolescents in China.

  13. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experienc...

  14. Health Status and Measurement of Some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good school health programme is necessary to optimize the educational opportunities and make appropriate adjustments for optimal development of the school child. This study was done to determine some haematological parameters as a correlate of health status of new entrants in two mission owned ...

  15. Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Drawing upon data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in India during 2005-06, this study compares the utilization of selected maternal and child health care services between the urban poor and non-poor in India and across selected Indian states. A wealth index was created, separately for urban areas, using Principal Component Analysis to identify the urban poor. The findings suggest that the indicators of maternal and child health care are worse among the urban poor than in their non-poor counterparts. For instance, the levels of antenatal care, safe delivery and childhood vaccinations are much lower among the urban poor than non-poor, especially in socioeconomically disadvantageous states. Among all the maternal and child health care indicators, the non-poor/poor difference is most pronounced for delivery care in the country and across the states. Other than poverty status, utilization of antenatal services by mothers increases the chances of safe delivery and child immunization at both national and sub-national levels. The poverty status of the household emerged as a significant barrier to utilization of health care services in urban India.

  16. Winter birth, urbanicity and immigrant status predict psychometric schizotypy dimensions in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimarakis, D; Roumeliotaki, T; Roussos, P; Giakoumaki, S G; Bitsios, P

    2018-01-01

    Urbanicity, immigration and winter-birth are stable epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia, but their relationship to schizotypy is unknown. This is a first examination of the association of these epidemiological risk factors with positive schizotypy, in nonclinical adolescents, controlling for a range of potential and known confounders. We collected socio-demographics, life-style, family and school circumstances, positive schizotypy dimensions and other personality traits from 445 high school pupils (192 males, 158 immigrants) from 9 municipalities in Athens and Heraklion, Greece, which covered a range of host population and migrant densities. Using multivariate hierarchical linear regressions models, we estimated the association of schizotypy dimensions with: (1) demographics of a priori interest (winter-birth, immigrant status, urban characteristics), including family financial and mental health status; (2) factors resulting from principal component analysis (PCA) of the demographic and personal data; (3) factors resulting from PCA of the personality questionnaires. Adolescent women scored higher on schizotypy than men. High anxiety/neuroticism was the most consistent and significant predictor of all schizotypy dimensions in both sexes. In the fully adjusted models, urbanicity predicted magical thinking and unusual experiences in women, while winter-birth and immigration predicted paranoid ideation and unusual experiences respectively in men. These results support the continuum hypothesis and offer potential insights in the nature of risk conferred by winter-birth, urbanicity and immigration and the nature of important sex differences. Controlling for a wide range of potential confounding factors increases the robustness of these results and confidence that these were not spurious associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Health status of Hispanic elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassford, T L

    1995-02-01

    Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.

  18. Health status of ayahuasca users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Poverty and elimination of urban health disparities: challenge and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.

  20. Intimate relationship status variations in violence against women: urban, suburban, and rural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.

  1. Consequences of urban pollution on Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Lagos state Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), (Nigeria)

    2000-07-01

    In most urban areas, the major air pollutants as earlier highlighted are CO, PbO. SO{sub 2}. NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons, particulate matters and even excess CO{sub 2}. Some of these have direct effects on health while some are of indirect effects. Other common gaseous emissions from industries are toxic waste fumes and dust/ fluff from spinning, weaving and other processes. In most cases when not properly taken care of may lead to human and plant lives being endangered. For instance it is an established fact that prolonged inhalation of fluff can also lead to Prysinosis with attendant symptoms of chest tightening and pain. In advanced stage, the situation could lead to tuberculosis. Similarly, heavy air pollution leads to acute and chronic harmful effects such as chronic bronchitis, asthma. dermatitis allergy and hypersensitivity. The processing houses produce substantial quantity of volatile chemicals. which pollute the air and could result in health impairment in human beings. It is sad to note that most African Countries including Nigeria still use leaded gasoline. The air quality degradation by these pollutants causes or aggravates most of the respiratory and air-borne diseases like asthma. tuberculosis etc which are rampant in a typical urban city like Lagos. The chart below buttresses this fact. (author)

  2. Urban public health: is there a pyramid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Jiao

    2013-01-28

    Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH). Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London) are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000-2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development.

  3. Urban Public Health: Is There a Pyramid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH. Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000–2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development.

  4. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  5. The public health response to 'do-it-yourself' urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Shannon L; Graham, Ross; Gilliland, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Greater understanding of the important and complex relationship between the built environment and human health has made 'healthy places' a focus of public health and health promotion. While current literature concentrates on creating healthy places through traditional decision-making pathways (namely, municipal land use planning and urban design processes), this paper explores do-it-yourself (DIY) urbanism: a movement circumventing traditional pathways to, arguably, create healthy places and advance social justice. Despite being aligned with several health promotion goals, DIY urbanism interventions are typically illegal and have been categorized as a type of civil disobedience. This is challenging for public health officials who may value DIY urbanism outcomes, but do not necessarily support the means by which it is achieved. Based on the literature, we present a preliminary approach to health promotion decision-making in this area. Public health officials can voice support for DIY urbanism interventions in some instances, but should proceed cautiously.

  6. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.

  7. Socioeconomic status and health of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacková, Jitka; Brabcová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to acquaint the general public with select socioeconomic status (SES) parameters (type of work, education level, employment category, and net monthly income) of select nationalities (Ukrainians, Slovaks, Vietnamese, Poles, and Russians) from a total of 1,014 immigrants residing in the Czech Republic. It will also present a subjective assessment of socioeconomic status and its interconnection with subjective assessment of health status. This work was carried out as part of the "Social determinants and their impact on the health of immigrants living in the Czech Republic" project (identification number LD 13044), which was conducted under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) agency. Quantitative methodology in the form of a questionnaire was selected to facilitate the research aim. Data was processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the Pearson chi-square test, adjusted residual analysis, and multivariate correspondence analysis. The results of these tests demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between subjective assessments of socioeconomic status and the following related select characteristics: type of work performed (manual/intellectual), employment categories, education, and net monthly income. Results indicate that those situated lowest on the socioeconomic ladder feel the poorest in terms of health; not only from a subjective perspective, but also in terms of objective parameter comparisons (e.g. manual laborers who earn low wages). As the level of subjective SES assessment increases, the level of subjective health assessment increases, as well. Thus, the relationship has a natural gradient, as was described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 2003. Our study found no evidence of a healthy immigrant effect. Therefore, it was not possible to confirm that health status deteriorates

  8. (UnHealthy in the City: Respiratory, Cardiometabolic and Mental Health Associated with Urbanity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma L Zijlema

    Full Text Available Research has shown that health differences exist between urban and rural areas. Most studies conducted, however, have focused on single health outcomes and have not assessed to what extent the association of urbanity with health is explained by population composition or socioeconomic status of the area. Our aim is to investigate associations of urbanity with four different health outcomes (i.e. lung function, metabolic syndrome, depression and anxiety and to assess whether these associations are independent of residents' characteristics and area socioeconomic status.Our study population consisted of 74,733 individuals (42% males, mean age 43.8 who were part of the baseline sample of the LifeLines Cohort Study. Health outcomes were objectively measured with spirometry, a physical examination, laboratory blood analyses, and a psychiatric interview. Using multilevel linear and logistic regression models, associations of urbanity with lung function, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed. All models were sequentially adjusted for age, sex, highest education, household equivalent income, smoking, physical activity, and mean neighborhood income.As compared with individuals living in rural areas, those in semi-urban or urban areas had a poorer lung function (β -1.62, 95% CI -2.07;-1.16, and higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.35;2.00, and generalized anxiety disorder (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.35;1.84. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, however, was lower in urban areas (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.44;0.59. These associations were only partly explained by differences in residents' demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics and socioeconomic status of the areas.Our results suggest a differential health impact of urbanity according to type of disease. Living in an urban environment appears to be beneficial for cardiometabolic health but to have a detrimental

  9. Effects of Rural – Urban Interaction on Socio-Economic Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic status of rural dwellers in the study area. Policy makers and development workers should exploit the role of rural-urban interaction to bring about sustainable livelihood in the present changing perspective of extension system in ...

  10. Oral health status in diabetic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Qureshi, A.; Iqbal, N.; Khan, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes causes numerous oral and salivary changes leading to cariogenic and gingival lesions. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of diabetes mellitus in oral health. A cross-sectional study including 60 diabetic children (case group) and 30 non diabetic children (control group) of age 3-14 years was conducted. HbA1c and blood glucose level was measured along with the oral health including gingival status and dental caries status was visually assessed. Gingival status was coded for healthy, marginal gingivitis and calculus. Dental caries status (decayed and filled) for both deciduous and permanent dentition was assessed. Data was recorded in a pre-coded oral health proforma, which was then entered and analyzed in SPSS version 10.0. Descriptive analysis such as percentage frequencies and means was performed. Exact Chi-square test was used to analyze any significant changes observed amongst the study population, where level of significance was p < 0.05 with confidence interval 95%. The results show important difference between both groups of children. Dental caries level is significantly higher in diabetic children both in deciduous and permanent dentition than in non-diabetic children (p <0.05). Gingival health was also observed to be debilitated in diabetic children than nondiabetic children (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights that special preventive measures must be adopted to maintain a good oral health of the diabetic children. (author)

  11. Health inequalities among urban children in India: a comparative assessment of Empowered Action Group (EAG) and South Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, P; Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2013-03-01

    As India rapidly urbanizes, within urban areas socioeconomic disparities are rising and health inequality among urban children is an emerging challenge. This paper assesses the relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the less developed Empowered Action Group (EAG) states and more developed South Indian states in urban India using data from the 2005-06 National Family Health Survey. Focusing on urban health from varying regional and developmental contexts, socioeconomic inequalities in child health are examined first using Concentration Indices (CIs) and then the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the CIs of health variables are derived. The results reveal, in order of importance, pronounced contributions of household economic status, parent's illiteracy and caste to urban child health inequalities in the South Indian states. In contrast, parent's illiteracy, poor economic status, being Muslim and child birth order 3 or more are major contributors to health inequalities among urban children in the EAG states. The results suggest the need to adopt different health policy interventions in accordance with the pattern of varying contributions of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the more developed South Indian states and less developed EAG states.

  12. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-11

    To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural), and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES) designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas of SSA. Specific

  13. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  14. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Associated Risk Factors among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jiali; You, Liming

    2017-11-14

    Rural-to-urban migration, which has achieved a huge scale during China's economic reform, is a potential risk factor for the mental health of migrant children. To test this hypothesis, this study assessed the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant children. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, the study explored the risk factors associated with mental health. The study recruited 1182 fifth/sixth-grade children from four private and four public primary schools in Guangzhou in 2014 in a descriptive cross-sectional design. Mental health status was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Predisposing characteristics including demographics (e.g., age, gender), social structure (e.g., education, occupation) and health beliefs (health attitude) were recorded. Enabling characteristics including family and community resources and the need for health services were analyzed to explore the risk factors. The results indicate that more rural-to-urban migrant children were classified in the abnormal (21.0%) or borderline (18.8%) categories based on the total difficulties scores, the proportions of which were much higher than those of local children (9.8% abnormal, 13.8% borderline). Factors associated with a greater likelihood of mental health problems included single-parent families, seeking health information actively, family income cannot meet basic needs and poor perceived health status. Compared with the local children, the rural-to-urban migrant children had relatively poor mental health, hence monitoring and supporting mental health for rural-urban migrant children is critical.

  15. Ecohealth Works: Health in Urban Environments

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cities attract millions of people seeking a better life and greater opportunities. ... By looking at urban environments ... Urban environments are changing, exposing people to new .... the river basin that are now actively engaged in promoting ...

  16. Substance abuse in outpatients attending rural and urban health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse in outpatients attending rural and urban health centres in Kenya. ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among patients attending primary health centres in urban and rural areas of Kenya. Design: A ... Socio-cultural factors might be responsible for the differences noted.

  17. Urban Ecology Solutions - Status of Knowledge and Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    The book describes the history of urban ecology in Denmark, criterias for 'good' urban ecology and a vast number of methods and technologies that have the potential of making the built environment more sustainable - based on the present knowledge and experience....

  18. Variations in health status within and between socioeconomic strata

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, R; Palmer, R

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse the variability in health status within as well as between socioeconomic groups. What is the range of individual variability in the health effects of socioeconomic status? Is the adverse effect of lower socioeconomic status uniform across the entire distribution of health status?

  19. Does the Universal Health Insurance Program Affect Urban-Rural Differences in Health Service Utilization among the Elderly? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Yang, Fang-An

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the introduction of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) on urban-rural inequality in health service utilization among the elderly. Methods: A longitudinal data set of 1,504 individuals aged 65 and older was constructed from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly. A difference-in-differences…

  20. The framework of urban exposome: Application of the exposome concept in urban health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianou, Xanthi D; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2018-05-02

    Horizontal challenges, such as climate change or the growing populations, and their manifestations require the development of multidisciplinary research synergies in urban health that could benefit from concepts, such as the human exposome. Cities are composed of interconnected systems which are influenced, by global trends, national policies and local complexities. In this context, the exposome concept could be expanded having the city setting in its core, providing the conceptual framework for the new generation of urban studies. The objectives of this work were to define the urban exposome and outline its utility. The urban exposome can be defined as the continuous spatiotemporal surveillance/monitoring of quantitative and qualitative indicators associated with the urban external and internal domains that shape up the quality of life and the health of urban populations, using small city areas, i.e. neighborhoods, quarters, or smaller administrative districts, as the point of reference. Research should focus on the urban exposome's measurable units at different levels, i.e. the individuals, small, within-city areas and the populations. The urban exposome framework applied in the city of Limassol, Cyprus combines three elements: (i) a mixed-methods study on stakeholders' opinions about quality of life in the city; (ii) a systematic assessment of secondary data from the cancer and death registries, including city infrastructure data; and (iii) a population health and biomonitoring survey. Continuous assessment of environmental and health indicators that are routinely collected, and the incorporation of primary data from population studies, will allow for the timely identification of within-city health and environmental disparities to inform policy making and public health interventions. The urban exposome could facilitate evidence-based public health response, offering researchers, policy-makers, and citizens effective tools to address the societal needs of large

  1. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...

  2. Urban-rural status affects associations between domains of environmental quality and adverse birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental domain and urbanicity. To account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for health research. We used U.S. county level data rep...

  3. Body Mass Index and Rural Status on Self-Reported Health in Older Adults: 2004-2013 Medicare Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Scherer, Emily A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    To ascertain whether rural status impacts self-reported health and whether the effect of rural status on self-reported health differs by obesity status. We identified 22,307 subjects aged ≥60 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2013. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. Physical and mental component scores of the Short Form-12 assessed self-reported health status. Rural/urban status was defined using metropolitan statistical area. Weighted regression models ascertained the relative contribution of predictors (including rural and BMI) on each subscale. Mean age was 70.7 years. Rural settings had higher proportions classified as obese (30.7 vs 27.6%; P rural residents had lower physical health status (41.7 ± 0.3) than urban (43.4 ± 0.1; P rural/urban by BMI. Individuals classified as underweight or obese had lower physical health compared to normal, while the differences were less pronounced for mental health. No differences in mental health existed between rural/urban status. A BMI * rural interaction was significant for physical but not mental health. Rural residents report lower self-reported physical health status compared to urban residents, particularly older adults who are obese or underweight. No interaction was observed between BMI and rural status. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Doshi, Riddhi; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy

    2013-01-01

    Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06), this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs), institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501), institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214), children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340), underweight children (CI = -0.19420), and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596). Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical pathways through which economic factors operate on inequalities in

  5. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Goli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. METHODS: Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06, this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs, institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR. Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. RESULTS: The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501, institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214, children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340, underweight children (CI = -0.19420, and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596. Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical

  6. Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; ... still women in urban settings do not use available maternal health services. Especially ... health services, safe water supplies, poor sanitation and .... selected cities are confined to crowded places, lack of.

  7. Anxiety, Depression, and Functional Status Are the Best Predictors of Health Status Patients With Heart Failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeJong, Marla

    2004-01-01

    .... Therefore, health status is an increasingly important concept in the management of HF. In fact, most symptomatic patients are more concerned about their everyday health status than the length of their life...

  8. Socio-economic Factors and Residents' Health in Nigeria Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study then suggested the introduction of standard yardstick policy, which could be used to measure socio-economic status of residents in relation to their health status determinants in this country. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp.

  9. Women's health status and gender inequality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M Y; Sarri, R

    1997-12-01

    This paper examines the health status of women in China by reviewing levels and trends of female mortality at several phases of a woman's life cycle focusing on infancy girlhood, childbearing and old age. The mortality rates of Chinese women and men are compared for the period 1950-1990 as are comparisons with women in selected countries. The cause-specific death rate, expressed as a percentage of all deaths, and the burden of disease, measured in terms of the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), are used to reflect the changing patterns of female diseases and causes of deaths. Significant improvement in the health status of Chinese women since 1950 is widely acknowledged as a major achievement for a developing country with the largest population in the world, but the differentials in women's health by region and urban/rural areas are considerable. The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) indicates that the overall level of physical well-being of Chinese women has increased in recent decades, but disparity in health between men and women still exists. The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) further reveals that China has achieved significant progress in women's health during the past four decades, but far less has been achieved with respect to gender equality overall. The final sections of the paper focus on the discussion of some health problems faced by the female population during the process of economic reform since the 1980 s. In order to promote gender equality between women and men, concerns on women's health care needs are highlighted.

  10. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Kondo; Jaime Fluehr; Thomas McKeon; Charles. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world's population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This...

  11. Determinants of Household Socio-economic Status in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.

  12. Weight status and eating habits of adolescent Nigerian urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depression, anxiety, low self-esteem and feelings of guilt.[1-3] Studies have shown ... relation to the eating habits of adolescent urban secondary school girls in Benin City, Nigeria. ..... Malaysian Journal of Nutrition 2006;12:1-10. 25. Shaw ME.

  13. a survey of nutritional status and disease patterns among urbanized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-30

    Apr 30, 1983 ... The most common cause of death in males was respiratory disease, and in females ... elevated mortality rates.l-4 The pattern of disease among these people is characterized by the dominance of infective ... total Black (African) population was urbanized in 1911. This figure had risen to 28% by 1960 and is ...

  14. The Urban Teaching Cohort: Pre-Service Training to Support Mental Health in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Tammy; Dinnen, Hannah; Smith-Millman, Marissa K.; Dixon, Maressa; Flaspohler, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Supporting students' mental health needs is critical in high-poverty urban school districts where many students are at risk for mental health problems. Although teacher-student relationships are at the core of student mental health promotion in the classroom, many teacher preparation programmes do not adequately prepare pre-service teachers…

  15. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  16. Monitoring of health and demographic outcomes in poor urban settlements: evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques; Beguy, Donatien; Zulu, Eliya M; Ezeh, Alex C; Muindi, Kanyiva; Elung'ata, Patricia; Otsola, John K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2011-06-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements to provide a platform for investigating linkages between urban poverty, health, and demographic and other socioeconomic outcomes, and to facilitate the evaluation of interventions to improve the wellbeing of the urban poor. Data from the NUHDSS confirm the high level of population mobility in slum settlements, and also demonstrate that slum settlements are long-term homes for many people. Research and intervention programs should take account of the duality of slum residency. Consistent with the trends observed countrywide, the data show substantial improvements in measures of child mortality, while there has been limited decline in fertility in slum settlements. The NUHDSS experience has shown that it is feasible to set up and implement long-term health and demographic surveillance system in urban slum settlements and to generate vital data for guiding policy and actions aimed at improving the wellbeing of the urban poor.

  17. Decomposing the causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality among urban and rural populations in China: a new decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoli; Coyte, Peter C; Zhao, Hongzhong

    2017-07-18

    In recent decades, China has experienced tremendous economic growth and also witnessed growing socioeconomic-related health inequality. The study aims to explore the potential causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality in urban and rural areas of China over the past two decades. This study used six waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 to 2006. The recentered influence function (RIF) regression decomposition method was employed to decompose socioeconomic-related health inequality in China. Health status was derived from self-rated health (SRH) scores. The analyses were conducted on urban and rural samples separately. We found that the average level of health status declined from 1989 to 2006 for both urban and rural populations. Average health scores were greater for the rural population compared with those for the urban population. We also found that there exists pro-rich health inequality in China. While income and secondary education were the main factors to reduce health inequality, older people, unhealthy lifestyles and a poor home environment increased inequality. Health insurance had the opposite effects on health inequality for urban and rural populations, resulting in lower inequality for urban populations and higher inequality for their rural counterparts. These findings suggest that an effective way to reduce socioeconomic-related health inequality is not only to increase income and improve access to health care services, but also to focus on improvements in the lifestyles and the home environment. Specifically, for rural populations, it is particularly important to improve the design of health insurance and implement a more comprehensive insurance package that can effectively target the rural poor. Moreover, it is necessary to comprehensively promote the flush toilets and tap water in rural areas. For urban populations, in addition to promoting universal secondary education, healthy lifestyles should be promoted

  18. Urban renewal, gentrification and health equity: a realist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Marra, Giulia; Melis, Giulia; Gelormino, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Up to now, research has focused on the effects of urban renewal programs and their impacts on health. While some of this research points to potential negative health effects due to gentrification, evidence that addresses the complexity associated with this relation is much needed. This paper seeks to better understand when, why and how health inequities arise from urban renewal interventions resulting in gentrification. A realist review, a qualitative systematic review method, aimed to better explain the relation between context, mechanism and outcomes, was used. A literature search was done to identify theoretical models of how urban renewal programs can result in gentrification, which in turn could have negative impacts on health. A systematic approach was then used to identify peer-reviewed studies that provided evidence to support or refute the initial assumptions. Urban renewal programs that resulted in gentrification tended to have negative health effects primarily in residents that were low-income. Urban renewal policies that were inclusive of populations that are vulnerable, from the beginning were less likely to result in gentrification and more likely to positively impact health through physical and social improvements. Research has shown urban renewal policies have significant impacts on populations that are vulnerable and those that result in gentrification can result in negative health consequences for this population. A better understanding of this is needed to impact future policies and advocate for a community-participatory model that includes such populations in the early planning stages.

  19. Ethiopia's urban primary health care reform: Practices, lessons, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yayeh

    to assess the implementation of the pilot initiatives. ... Keywords:- Urban, health extension professionals, PHC, pilot. Background. The history of .... The FHT is divided into two sub-teams. .... helped in drawing attention to social sectors that were.

  20. Governance for Urban Health Equity: Mobilizing Demand for Primary ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... New research will identify opportunities to improve health care for the urban poor and involve communities ... Addressing this governance crisis will be paramount to improving service delivery for slum residents and to ...

  1. Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health programmes in Kenya. ... These were hardly implemented in the projects, according to the data gathered. ... Conclusion: Land and income were big issues according to the responses.

  2. Health status as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A

    2009-01-01

    Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence...... on the influence of health status on prognosis in CHF and CAD....

  3. Weight status and eating habits of adolescent Nigerian urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of declining levels of physical activity as well as nutrition transition characterised by a trend ... The developmental transition (physical, psychological and social) during ...... status in adolescents over Europe: An overview of current studies in the ...

  4. The relationship between health literacy with health status and healthcare utilization in 18-64 years old people in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Saeed; Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mohsen; Jazi, Marzie Jafarian; Khorasani, Elahe

    2014-01-01

    Today, much attention has been paid to the patient role as the central factor in the management of their own health. It is focused on the issue that the patient has a more critical role compared with the health-care provider in controlling the patient own health. defines health literacy as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. The objective of this study was to determine health literacy, health status, healthcare utilization and the relationship between them in 18 - 64 years old people in Isfahan. This study was a descriptive analytical survey, which was conducted on 300 subjects of 18-64 years old in Isfahan with Multi-stage sampling method proportional to selected sample size. For collecting the data, questionnaire adapted from CHAP (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) health literacy questionnaire was used. Health status was measured based on an assessment of the physical and mental health over the past 6 months by 5° Likert scale. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS 18, descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and multivariate analysis of variance. There was no significant correlation between health literacy, health status and healthcare utilization. Utilization was less in the urban area No. 6 of the city. In the bachelor's degree group, the health status was lower than the other groups in these cases: Older ages, married, women, large family size, undergraduates, and urban area No. 14. Due to the average prevalence of health literacy in 18-64 years old individuals in Isfahan and low- healthcare utilization, the followings are recommended: Necessity of more attention to the issue of health literacy, improving the physician-patient relationship and community awareness, whether through health promotion programs or media for the optimum use of available resources.

  5. Dietary practices and nutritional status of under-five children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senbanjo, Idowu O; Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O; Afolabi, Wasiu A O

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. However, data establishing whether this difference in prevalence of undernutrition could be ascribed to difference in dietary practices are few. The aim of this study was to compare dietary practices and nutritional status of children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative-analytical study conducted using the multistage sampling technique to select the study cases. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, including 150 each from rural and urban communities. Data collected include demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometric measurements of the participants. Food intake data were collected using 24-h dietary recall. Malnutrition in children was determined by calculating the prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-age (underweight), and low weight-for-height (wasting) using the World Health Organization cutoff points. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (25.3% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.516), use of formula feeds (48.7% vs. 44%; P = 0.077), and mean age of child at introduction of semisolid foods (7.54 ± 4.0 months vs. 8.51 ± 7.3 months; P = 0.117) were not significantly different between urban and rural communities. The diversity of food choices and frequencies of consumption were similar between urban and rural communities. However, prevalence levels of underweight and stunted children were significantly higher in rural than that of urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, P rural communities.

  6. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Buehler; Ranka Junge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF). In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustai...

  7. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with smoke-free laws but not urban/rural status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Hahn, Ellen J; Bratset, Hilarie; Robertson, Heather; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with and without smoke-free laws in urban and rural communities. The research hypothesis was that SHS exposure in public places could be improved by smoke-free law regardless of urban and rural status. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues was assessed in 53 communities (16 urban and 37 rural) before smoke-free laws; 12 communities passed smoke-free laws during the study period. Real-time measurements of particulate matter with 2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were taken 657 times from 586 distinct venues; about 71 venues had both pre- and post-law measurements. Predictors of log-transformed PM2.5 level were determined using multilevel modeling. With covariates of county-level percent minority population, percent with at least high school education, adult smoking rate, and venue-level smoker density, indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type and their interaction. The geometric means for restaurants, bars, and other public places in communities without smoke-free policies were 22, 63, and 25 times higher than in those with smoke-free laws, respectively. Indoor air quality was not associated with urban status of venue, and none of the interactions involving urban status were significant. SHS exposure in public places did not differ by urban/rural status. Indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free law status and venue type. This study analyzed 657 measurements of indoor PM2.5 level in 53 communities in Kentucky, USA. Although indoor air quality in public places was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type, it did not differ by urban and rural status. The finding supports the idea that population in rural communities can be protected with smoke-free policy. Therefore, it is critical to implement smoke-free policy in rural communities as well as urban areas.

  8. Health status evaluation in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Arkhipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status was analyzed in extremely preterm infants at a postconceptual age of 38–40 weeks and in the first year of life. All the infants in the analyzed group were shown to have respiratory disorders, severe perinatal CNS lesions, and the high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the first year of life, these children belonged to a group of the frequently ill. Dysfunction of the digestive system and intestinal microflora and residual signs of rickets were detected in the majority of the patients; the manifestations of bronchopulmonary dysplasia persisted in 50%. 40% of the infants had disabling complications.

  9. Water Recycling via Aquifers for Sustainable Urban Water Quality Management: Current Status, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Bekele

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR is used worldwide in urban environments to replenish groundwater to provide a secure and sustainable supply of potable and non-potable water. It relies on natural treatment processes within aquifers (i.e., filtration, sorption, and degradation, and in some cases involves infiltration through the unsaturated zone to polish the given source water, e.g., treated wastewater, stormwater, or rainwater, to the desired quality prior to reuse. Whilst MAR in its early forms has occurred for millennia, large-scale schemes to replenish groundwater with advanced treated reclaimed water have come to the fore in cities such as Perth, Western Australia, Monterey, California, and Changwon, South Korea, as water managers consider provision for projected population growth in a drying climate. An additional bonus for implementing MAR in coastal aquifers is assisting in the prevention of seawater intrusion. This review begins with the rationale for large-scale MAR schemes in an Australian urban context, reflecting on the current status; describes the unique benefits of several common MAR types; and provides examples from around the world. It then explores several scientific challenges, ranging from quantifying aquifer removal for various groundwater contaminants to assessing risks to human health and the environment, and avoiding adverse outcomes from biogeochemical changes induced by aquifer storage. Scientific developments in the areas of water quality assessments, which include molecular detection methods for microbial pathogens and high resolution analytical chemistry methods for detecting trace chemicals, give unprecedented insight into the “polishing” offered by natural treatment. This provides opportunities for setting of compliance targets for mitigating risks to human health and maintaining high performance MAR schemes.

  10. Toward improved public health outcomes from urban nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Danielle F; Lin, Brenda B; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J; Dean, Julie H; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    There is mounting concern for the health of urban populations as cities expand at an unprecedented rate. Urban green spaces provide settings for a remarkable range of physical and mental health benefits, and pioneering health policy is recognizing nature as a cost-effective tool for planning healthy cities. Despite this, limited information on how specific elements of nature deliver health outcomes restricts its use for enhancing population health. We articulate a framework for identifying direct and indirect causal pathways through which nature delivers health benefits, and highlight current evidence. We see a need for a bold new research agenda founded on testing causality that transcends disciplinary boundaries between ecology and health. This will lead to cost-effective and tailored solutions that could enhance population health and reduce health inequalities.

  11. Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-11

    Oct 11, 2017 ... More than half of all participants reported feeling sad, blue or depressed ... and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary .... select significant independent factors associated with HIV status. Variables with a ...... the disability grant: A South African dilemma? Journal of the ...

  12. Socio-economic status and menarcheal age in urban African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...

  13. Economic Segmentation and Health Inequalities in Urban Post-Reform China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyoung

    2016-01-01

    During economic reform, Chinese economic labor markets became segmented by state sector associated with a planned redistributive economy and private sector associated with the market economy. By considering an economic sector as a concrete institutional setting in post-reform China, this paper compares the extent to which socioeconomic status, measured by education and income, is associated with self-rated health between state sector and private sector. The sample is limited to urban Chinese employees between the ages of 18 and 55 who were active in the labor force. By analyzing pooled data from the 1991-2006 Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey , I find that there is a stronger association between income and self-rated health in the private sector than in the state sector. This study suggests that sectoral differences between market and redistributive economies are an important key to understanding health inequalities in post-reform urban China.

  14. Economic Segmentation and Health Inequalities in Urban Post-Reform China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Kwon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During economic reform, Chinese economic labor markets became segmented by state sector associated with a planned redistributive economy and private sector associated with the market economy. By considering an economic sector as a concrete institutional setting in post-reform China, this paper compares the extent to which socioeconomic status, measured by education and income, is associated with self-rated health between state sector and private sector. The sample is limited to urban Chinese employees between the ages of 18 and 55 who were active in the labor force. By analyzing pooled data from the 1991–2006 Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey, I find that there is a stronger association between income and self-rated health in the private sector than in the state sector. This study suggests that sectoral differences between market and redistributive economies are an important key to understanding health inequalities in post-reform urban China.

  15. Vitamin D status and childhood health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovi­ taminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25­hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter, insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (non­white, older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 μg of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents.

  16. [Health status and intimate partner violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Urban sprawl and climate changes, status and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Marion; Voisin, Denis; Vandaele, Diane; Quirion, Philippe; Bernard, Emmanuel; Delcroix, Julie; Boucher, James; Den Hartig, Cyrielle; Lenoir, Didier; Andre, Yann

    2011-07-01

    After an overview of the various factors of urban sprawl (issues related to housing demand, housing supply, and housing market structure and organisation), this publication reviews the impacts of urban sprawl on the environment (greenhouse gas emissions related to transports and to buildings, impacts on agriculture, vulnerability of territories to impacts of climate changes), its social and economic impacts (building costs, urbanisation costs, private costs for mobility, additional costs related to density or to differences in service providing, increase of household indebtedness, stronger spatial segregation). Proposals are formulated for a true strategic planning at the life basin scale, a reform of property and real estate taxes, introduction of a climate-energy contribution, a reform of the PTZ (loan with zero interest), launching of a large dwelling renewal program, building of social housing at the vicinity of town centres, reduction of speed limit for cars and development of alternative solutions to car, a better articulation between town planning and mobility, and development of the use of measures of protection of agricultural and natural lands by local communities

  18. Population health and urban form : a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    A review examining the links between public health and living spaces was presented. The aim of the review was to explore whether different urban forms created communities that encouraged healthy living and resulted in a healthier population as well as to suggest avenues and approaches for further research of the subject in British Columbia. The historical links between public health and community planning were examined. A conceptual model of the linkages of urban form and population health was developed and used to identify ways in which urban form and population health are linked. Areas of concern include vehicle emissions, water quality and heat build-up as well as noise pollution. Issues concerning health inequalities related to income and access to health services were examined, as well as the role that urban form plays as a barrier to physical activity. Findings indicated that there is a strong correlation between urban form and health. Lower density urban forms that require a vehicle generated more miles travelled by car with more traffic crashes and higher risks to pedestrians and cyclists. A growing body of evidence has indicated that community contacts are scarcer in low density areas. In addition, low density dwellers seemed to have higher stress levels. Car dependent lifestyles had negative impacts on children's play, growth and development. Urban forms which promoted a range of housing options in terms of affordability, tenure and type allowed people to remain within their neighbourhoods. Disadvantaged groups fared better in denser areas where there were more public facilities. 62 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs

  19. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, W G F; van Ginneken, J K

    2011-08-01

    To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health status. Data from the World Health Organization's World Health Surveys of former Soviet Republics that include information on ethnicity (i.e. Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Russia) were used. Russia was included as the benchmark population as it is the country of origin of ethnic Russians. Data were collected from respondents aged ≥25 years in 2001-2003. Principal component analysis was used to derive the Health Status Index and Household Wealth Index. Multiple classification analysis was applied to examine the effects of the determinants on health status, including ethnic group membership. In Estonia and Kazakhstan, ethnic Russians have, on average, a lower health status than members of the majority population, while their health status is higher in Ukraine. Higher levels of material wealth, educational attainment and physical activity were associated with a higher health status. The association of these variables with health status was often stronger than the association between ethnic group membership and health status. Differences in health status between Russian ethnic minorities and the majority populations were found in Estonia and Kazakhstan, but were non-existent in Latvia and were the opposite of what was expected in Ukraine. Use of the Health Status Index in combination with multiple classification analysis proved to be a useful approach to examine health status differentials, and to identify and profile vulnerable groups in a society. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The glycemic status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yun-Kyu; Kwon, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Byung Wan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Khun, Touch; Cha, Bong-Yun; Cho, Nam H

    2014-05-01

    Recently the Korea Diabetes Association participated in the 'Cambodia-Korea Twinning Project' to help Cambodia establish its own modernized diabetes center and to raise awareness of the seriousness of diabetes. Here we report the status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia as obtained through this project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns in Ethiopia: Qualitative study. ... Reasons were found to be attributed to individual characteristics, perceived capacities of health facilities and friendliness of service providers and socio-cultural factors including socially sanctioned expectations at community ...

  2. Nature-based strategies for improving urban health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Eugenia C. South; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature...

  3. Nutritional Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly in France in Urban and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marion J.; Dorigny, Béatrice; Kuhn, Mirjam; Berr, Claudine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors. Methods Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI) cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area) and the Three-City (3C) cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones) were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately. Results In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status. Conclusion Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:25133755

  4. Nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly in France in urban and rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion J Torres

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors.Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area and the Three-City (3C cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately.In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status.Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals.

  5. Definitions of urban areas feasible for examining urban health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Patterson, Lesley; Scharlach, Martina; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    As part of the EU-funded project, European Urban Health Indicator System (EURO-URHIS), a definition of urban areas (UAs) and of urban populations was needed to be able to identify comparable UAs in all member states. A literature review on existing definitions, as well as those used by other relevant projects, was performed. A survey of national experts in public health or land planning was also conducted. An algorithm was proposed to find UAs, which were feasible for the focus of EURO-URHIS. No unique general definition of UAs was found. Different fields of research define UAs differently. None of the definitions found were feasible for EURO-URHIS. All of them were found to have critical disadvantages when applied to an urban health project. An ideal definition for this type of project needs to provide a description of the situation without recourse to administrative boundaries yet inform the collection of routine data for urban health monitoring. These requirements were found to contradict each other and were not met in any existing definition. An algorithm was developed for the definition of UAs for the purpose of this study whereby national experts would select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health; identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin (e.g. by aerial photos); identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible and list all administrative areas which are contained in the larger UA. The aggregation of all administrative areas within the original region formed the UA which was used in the project. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2007-01-01

    By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  7. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  8. Health behaviours explain part of the differences in self reported health associated with partner/marital status in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, I M; Stronks, K; van de Mheen, H; Mackenbach, J P

    1995-10-01

    To describe the differences in health behaviours in disparate marital status groups and to estimate the extent to which these can explain differences in health associated with marital status. Baseline data of a prospective cohort study were used. Directly age standardised percentages of each marital group that engaged in each of the following behaviours--smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, breakfast, leisure exercise, and body mass index--were computed. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the health differences associated with marital status with and without control for differences in health behaviours. The population of the city of Eindhoven and surrounding municipalities (mixed urban-rural area) in The Netherlands in March 1991. There were 16,311 men and women, aged 25-74 years, and of Dutch nationality. There were differences in relation to marital status for each health behaviour. Married people were more likely to practise positive health behaviours (such as exercise and eating breakfast) and less likely to engage in negative ones (such as smoking or drinking heavily) than the other groups. Control for all six health behaviours could explain an average of 20-36% of the differences in perceived and general health and subjective health complaints. Differences in health behaviours explained a considerable amount, but not all, of the health differences related to marital status. Longitudinal data are necessary to confirm these findings; to determine whether the differences in health behaviours related to marital status are caused by selection effects or social causation effects; and to learn how social control, social support, and stress inter-relate to reinforce negative or to maintain positive health behaviours.

  9. Oral Health Status, Treatment Needs and Knowledge, Attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health care workers (HCWs) from an important component of the health care system of any nation. Adequate knowledge regarding oral health is also mandatory as it is directly related to general health. Aim: The present study was undertaken to assess oral health status and treatment needs of the health ...

  10. Self-assessed dental health, oral health practices, and general health behaviors in Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin

    2005-01-01

    cigarette smoking at least once, while 41% reported having tasted alcohol drinks. Multivariate regression analyses showed that perceived dental health status and needs were associated with gender, age, unhealthy lifestyles, poor school performance, and socio-economic status. The establishment of school...

  11. Language and social status differences in two urban schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck

    This dissertation is about distinctions, social status differences and contemporary pupil diversity. It addresses how Copenhagen school children in two different schools use language to handle their social everyday lives and how this organizing involves constructions and ascriptions of identities...... and social stereotypes. My research is driven by an interest in learning more about the experience of being part of today´s diverse school environments. Therefore, I approach my data with an emphasis on the participant perspective and focus analytically on the ways in which the participants in my study enact...... of a connection between the prevalent focus on ethnicity in public debates on schooling and social class relations and then the interplay between these relations of power and prestige and the practices that I analyze. Key words: School children, youth, social interaction, linguistic and social difference, social...

  12. Marital Satisfaction and Depression as Predictors of Physical Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.

    1978-01-01

    Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…

  13. Health status of refugees settled in Alberta: changes since arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Katerina; Krahn, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    This paper sought to examine which pre- and post-migration factors might be associated with changes in refugees' health status. Using linear regression, the associations between pre- and post-migration factors and changes in self-rated mental and physical health status were examined in 525 refugees from the 1998 Settlement Experiences of Refugees in Alberta study. Having spent time in a refugee camp and having held professional/managerial jobs in one's home country were associated with a greater decline in mental health status since arrival in Canada. Having completed a university degree in one's home country was associated with a greater decline in physical health status. Being employed was associated with greater improvements in mental health status. Perceived economic hardship was associated with greater declines in physical health status. A higher number of settlement services received during the first year in Canada was associated with greater improvements in both mental and physical health status. Longer residence in Canada was associated with greater declines in physical health status but not in mental health status. While little can be done to alter refugees' pre-migration experiences, public policies can affect many post-migration experiences in order to mitigate the negative health consequences associated with resettlement. Results of this study point to the need for continued provision of settlement services to assist refugees with job training, labour market access, and credential recognition, as well as counseling for refugees who experienced the trauma of living in a refugee camp.

  14. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Amaral

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha, Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha, Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha, Combu Is. reserve (10 ha, Gunma Park reserve (10 ha and Mocambo reserve (5 ha. Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008 were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae, Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae, Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae, Manilkara huberi (Ducke Chevalier (Sapotaceae, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (Bignoniaceae, Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn. Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae. Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve, as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  15. Health literacy of an urban business community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara H; Hayes, Sandra C; Ekundayo, Olugbemiga T; Wheeler, Primus; Ford, D'Arcy M

    2012-02-01

    The impact of community-based organizations on the delivery of health care knowledge is well documented. Little research has focused on the importance of health literacy in the dissemination of health care information by minority small business owners. This study sampled 38 business owners within a local business district to assess their level of health literacy. Although adequate health literacy is not required to serve as a community resource, it may be necessary to understand the health literacy level of local business owners as gatekeepers in order to develop appropriate training/educational programs. The results of this descriptive cross-sectional study indicate that for sample of business owners, health literacy levels are adequate. The findings suggest the feasibility of using local business owners as disseminators of health-related materials to the communities in which they operate their businesses.

  16. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Vandeleest

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also

  17. Health status of Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, I W; Rawson, G K

    1979-05-19

    A comparison of health status between 779 Seventh-day Adventists, who have a strong commitment to heal-related life styles, and two other groups of people--8363 persons referred by general practitioners and 9825 volunteers--was made. The Seventh-day Adventists showed less impairment of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, of plasma cholesterol and plasma urate concentrations, and of lung ventilatory capacity; and less obesity at most specific ages. With increasing age, the level of breathlessness, reported heart disease, hypertension, and hypertensive and diuretic therapy in this sample approached that of the comparative groups, possibly because of natural attrition of high-risk persons in the latter. Depression, sleeplessness, use of sedatives and tranquillizers were lower in the Seventh-day Adventists; although, once again, a drawing together of the three groups in older age categories was evident. It is concluded that the life style of Seventh-day Adventists is conducive to lessened morbidity, delayed mortality, and decreased call on health services in comparison with the general population.

  18. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestan, Katarina Ana; Eržen, Ivan; Golobič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1) a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2) behavior observation and mapping and (3) a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups. PMID:25003173

  19. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ana Lestan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1 a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2 behavior observation and mapping and (3 a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  20. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  1. Maternal Health Literacy Is Associated with Early Childhood Nutritional Status in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Koné, Georges K; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Minoyan, Nanor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Pahwa, Smriti

    2016-07-01

    The global burden of child undernutrition is concentrated in South Asia, where gender inequality and female educational disadvantage are important factors. Maternal health literacy is linked to women's education and empowerment, can influence multiple malnutrition determinants, and is rapidly modifiable. This study investigated whether maternal health literacy is associated with child undernutrition in 2 resource-poor Indian populations. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site, interviewing 1 woman with a child aged 12-23 mo/household. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted independently for each site. The main exposure was maternal health literacy. We assessed respondents' ability to understand, appraise, and apply health-related information with the use of Indian health promotion materials. The main outcomes were severe stunting, severe underweight, and severe wasting. We classified children as having a severe nutritional deficiency if their z score was children of the same age and sex. Analyses controlled for potential confounding factors including parental education and household wealth. Rural and urban analyses included 1116 and 657 mother-child pairs, respectively. In each site, fully adjusted models showed that children of mothers with high health literacy had approximately half the likelihood of being severely stunted (rural adjusted OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.74; P = 0.001; urban adjusted OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94; P = 0.028) or severely underweight (rural adjusted OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.87; P = 0.009; urban adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.91; P = 0.025) than children of mothers with low health literacy. Health literacy was not associated with severe wasting. In resource-poor rural and urban settings in India, maternal health literacy is associated with child nutritional status. Programs targeting health literacy may offer effective entry points for intervention. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.

  3. Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Michélle; van Rooyen, Francois C; Walsh, Corinna M

    2017-12-01

    Higher socioeconomic status impacts profoundly on quality of life. Life-event stressors, such as loss of employment, marital separation/divorce, death of a spouse and food insecurity, have been found to accelerate disease progression among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to determine significant independent sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status in people from rural and urban communities in the Assuring Health for All study, which was undertaken in rural Trompsburg, Philippolis and Springfontein and urban Mangaung, in the Free State Province of South Africa. Sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status were determined in 886 households. Logistic regression with forward selection (p rural participants, 97 (17.1%) were HIV-infected, and 172 (40.6%) of the 424 urban participants. A relatively high percentage of respondents had never attended school, while very few participants in all areas had a tertiary education. The unemployment rate of HIV-infected adults was higher than that of HIV-uninfected adults. A high percentage of respondents in all areas reported running out of money to buy food, with this tendency occurring significantly more among urban HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected respondents. In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to feed their children, with significantly more HIV-infected urban respondents compared to their uninfected counterparts reporting this. Most participants in all areas had to cut the size of meals, or ate less because there was not enough food in the house or not enough money to buy food. During periods of food shortage, more than 50% of respondents in all areas asked family, relatives or neighbours for assistance with money and/or food, which occurred at a higher percentage of HIV-infected rural participants compared to HIV-uninfected rural participants. More than half of all

  4. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Matter Element Analysis: A Case Study of 13 Cities in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuefeng; Pu, Lijie

    2017-08-21

    Urban public health is an important global issue and receives public concern. The urban ecosystem health (UEH) indicator system was constructed with 27 assessment indicators selected from vigor, organization, resilience, service function, and population health, then the matter element analysis (MEA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) weighting method were used to assess the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province during the period of 2000-2014. The results show that the overall ecosystem health status of each city shows continuous improvement. The UEH status of each city gradually transferred from poor, general, and medium condition to good and excellent condition. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the city's UEH showing a steady status after increasing for 10 years, and their spatial variations have gradually reduced. The UEH status in Southern Jiangsu and Central Jiangsu was better than that of Northern Jiangsu Province. From each component point of view, the vigor, resilience, and population health of each city in Jiangsu Province showed a trend of continuous improvement, while the organization and service function first increased and then decreased. The common limiting factors of UEH in Jiangsu Province were Engel's coefficient of urban households, number of beds of hospitals, health centers per 10,000 people, and total investment in the treatment of environmental pollution as percent GDP. These results help decision makers to make suitable decisions to maintain the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province.

  5. Health status and measurement of some liver function parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good health program is necessary to optimize health care opportunities so as to make appropriate adjustments for optimal service delivery by our health workers in all health sectors. Aim: To determine some hepatic function parameters as a correlate of health status amongst staff of Niger Delta University ...

  6. Child health, nutrition and family size: a comparative study of rural and urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderama-guzman, V

    1978-01-01

    771 children from Baras, Rizal, and Pasay City, Philippines were studied. House interviews of mothers using precoded questionnaires were conducted and the children were given a complete physical examination. The study objectives were to compare the health and nutritional status of children in a rural and an urban area in greater Manila and to determine how family size affects the nutritional status of children 3 years and younger. The following were among the study results: 1) the weight curves of both urban and rural groups were similar until age 4-1/2 years, but beyond this age the mean weight curve of the rural group exceeded that of the urban group; 2) urban children between ages 1-5 enjoyed a height advantage; 3) there was a positive correlation between malnutrition and excessive family size; 4) the high prevalence of malnutrition among children 1-4 years of age was due to food deprivation because of poverty, parental ignorance, inappropriate folklores, oversized families, high episodes of illnesses, and inadequate medical care; and 5) dietary assessment of both groups showed the inadequacy of the quality and quantity of basic nutrients and elements needed for growth, development, and repair of tissues.

  7. Relationships among sense of coherence, resources, and mental health in urban and rural residents in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuno Yoko Sumikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salutogenic model states that coping resources are defined within sociocultural and historical contexts and that various social and historical factors influence the availability of such resources. Though previous studies have suggested the need for an interregional comparison of psychological and social resources, few studies have undertaken such an investigation. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations among coping resources, sense of coherence (SOC, and health status in a comparison of urban and rural residents. Methods General residents (aged 30–69 years in two areas were targeted for the current study. Through a random sampling selection, 1,000 residents from each area were picked, and an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to each resident. Ultimately, 269 and 363 valid responses from the urban and rural areas, respectively, were analyzed. SOC, both social and psychological resources, and mental health were assessed. To examine relationships between SOC and resources associated with mental health, mental health was defined as a dependent variable. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted with variables entered from sociodemographic characteristics, social and psychological resources, and SOC. Results Regarding regional characteristics, social capital and participation in community activities were significantly greater in the rural area than in the urban area. Urban residents reported significantly higher self-esteem and optimism than rural residents. SOC showed the most significant association with mental health in both areas. Mental health was significantly associated with physical activity limitations and life stressors in both areas. However, the associations were weakened when social and psychological resources and SOC were added, which demonstrated their buffering effect on the negative influence of life stressors on health. When SOC was added, the association of self-esteem with mental

  8. Sanitation health risk and safety planning in urban residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this review paper was to determine the best sanitation health risk and safety planning approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was achieved by reviewing the concept of sanitation safety planning as a tool. The review adopted exploratory research approach and used secondary data ...

  9. Urban Environmental Noise Pollution and Perceived Health Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban environmental noise pollution has impact on the quality of life and it is a serious health and social problem. The aim of this study was to assess the sources and noise levels, and possible impacts in selected residential neighbourhoods of Ibadan metropolis. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from ...

  10. Health Impact Assessment of New Urban Water Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales Ortells, H.

    2015-01-01

    Water features in urban areas are increasingly perceived by citizens as a positive element because they provide aesthetic quality to the neighbourhood and offer recreation opportunities. They may also lead, however, to increased health risks due to the potential presence of waterborne pathogens.

  11. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  12. Population pressure and health risks in urban market environment: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population pressure and health risks in urban market environment: a study of Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... This study was directed at permanent sellers in Bodija Market, (men and women) and people who frequent the market to make purchases.

  13. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Charles D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS. Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in

  14. Public’s Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the public’s health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents’ demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants’ demographics were associated with participant’s general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants’ gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents’ education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects. PMID:27571088

  15. Demand for Health Care Services and Child Health Status in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    poverty aside from physical capital (Strauss J and Thomas D, 1998). ... factors on health status of children across poverty groups and sector. ...... Decomposing Inequalities in Nutritional Status of ... The causal effect of health on social and.

  16. A comparative study on nutritional status and body composition of urban and rural schoolchildren from Brandsen district (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesani, Maria Florencia; Garraza, Mariela; Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Luis, María Antonia; Torres, María Fernanda; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural) of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina). Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA) and muscular (DM, EM) tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD) was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2). The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00). We conclude that the child population shows the "double burden" of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in rural

  17. A comparative study on nutritional status and body composition of urban and rural schoolchildren from Brandsen district (Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Florencia Cesani

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina. Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA and muscular (DM, EM tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2. The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00. We conclude that the child population shows the "double burden" of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in

  18. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  19. Health problems and the health care provider choices: A comparative study of urban and rural households in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma B. Galal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Urban families have less health complaints than rural; however, rural families recover sooner. Families bypass often public primary health care services. Urban families overuse outpatient clinics in public hospitals.

  20. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health

  1. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, ...

  2. Vitamin D Status of College Students: Implications for Health Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Eileen McKenna

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a pandemic with implications for compromised bone health and other chronic diseases. Few studies have examined vitamin D status in college-aged individuals where prevention of future health consequences is still possible. Serum vitamin D 25(OH)D status and vitamin D intake were examined in 98 college…

  3. Impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, Henk F.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Buskens, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Estimates regarding the impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status in patients treated for cardiovascular disease are scarce and of limited accuracy. Methods: We obtained individual patient data on health status (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire) and secondary

  4. Developing health status index using factor analysis | Mohamad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper intends to develop health status index among drug abuse prison inmates in Malaysia. A self-admistered questionnaire distributed to 1753 respondents. In this study, to calculate the health status index number of drug abuse inmates, descriptive and factor analyses applied. The data based on 10 indicators of ...

  5. The association between insomnia and perceived health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donners, A.; Bury, D.; Fernstrand, A.; Garssen, J.; Roth, T.; Verster, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired sleep can have a significant impact on perceived health status. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived health status and sleep quality, total sleep time, and insomnia. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch university

  6. Predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, Jan C.; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Hartman, Eline M. J.; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert J.; van Domburg, Ron T.

    2016-01-01

    Subjective health status is an increasingly important parameter to assess the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. Aim of this study was to determine medical and psychosocial predictors of poor subjective health status over a 10 years' post-PCI period. We included

  7. Opportunities and challenges within urban health and sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Jack E.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Loft, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals mark aunique window of opportunity for both human and planetaryhealth. With rising life expectancy and rapidly expanding urbanpopulations exposed to pollution and sedentary lifestyles, thereis a greater focus on reducing the gap between life...... expectancyand number of healthy years lived, whilst limiting anthropogenicactivities contributing to pollution and climate change. Thus,urban development and policies, which can create win–winsituations for our planet and human health, falls into the realmand expertise of public health. However, some...

  8. Wage differences according to health status in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline

    2014-11-01

    Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; Solomons, Noel W.; Doak, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status

  10. Nature-Based Strategies for Improving Urban Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; South, Eugenia C; Branas, Charles C

    2015-10-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature and greenery. In this paper, we describe the current understanding of place-based influences on public health and safety. We focus on nonchemical environmental factors, many of which are related to urban abandonment and blight. We then review findings from studies of nature-based interventions regarding impacts on health, perceptions of safety, and crime. Based on our findings, we suggest that further research in this area will require (1) refined measures of green space, nature, and health and safety for cities, (2) interdisciplinary science and cross-sector policy collaboration, (3) observational studies as well as randomized controlled experiments and natural experiments using appropriate spatial counterfactuals and mixed methods, and (4) return-on-investment calculations of potential economic, social, and health costs and benefits of urban greening initiatives.

  11. Nutritional status of preschool children in semi-urban Area of Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of preschool children under-5 years in Benue state Nigeria. in order to establish and provide baseline information on the health and nutritional status of the target group. The study was carried out using anthropometric measurements (weights and heights) which were ...

  12. Constraints on good child-care practices and nutritional status in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwa, Kissa B M; Kinabo, Joyce L D; Modest, Beata

    2006-09-01

    Care is increasingly being recognized as a crucial input to child health and nutrition, along with food security, availability of health services, and a healthy environment. Although significant gains have been made in the fight against malnutrition in Tanzania, the nutritional status of preschool children in urban areas is not improving. To assess child-care practices and the nutritional status of infants and young children with the aim of improvingfeeding practices and child nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The study involved 100 randomly selected mothers of children 6 to 24 months old from households in Ilala Municipality, one of the three municipalities that constitute the Dar-es-Salaam City Council. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire, spot-check observations, and anthropometric measurements. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and morbidity were 43%, 22%, 3%, and 80%, respectively. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was very low (9%), and most stunted children (88%) were not exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months. The mean age at which complementary foods and fluids were introduced was 3.26 +/- 1.12 months (range, 1 to 5 months). The fluids given were mainly water and thin cereal-based porridge. More than half of the households practiced good hygiene. Most of the psychosocial practices (e.g., caregiver's attention, affection, and involvement in child feeding, hygiene, health care, and training) were performed by mothers, except for cooking and feeding the children and child training, which were done mostly by alternative caregivers. Nearly half of the mothers (44%) worked out of the home. The mean number of working hours per day was long (10.32 +/- 2.13), necessitating the use of alternative caregivers. A negative correlation was found between height-for-age z-scores and the number of hours mothers worked outside the home. The prevalence rates of chronic

  13. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Kenneth N; Udoidung, Nsima I; Opara, Dominic C; Okon, Okpok E; Edosomwan, Evelyn U; Udoh, Anietie J

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA), weight-for-height (WH) and weight-for-age (WA) Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols. The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (Prural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (Pmalnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  14. Structura, diversitatea și starea de sănătate a vegetației urbane în București: un studiu de caz bazat pe aliniamente [Structure, diversity and health status of urban vegetation in Bucharest: a case study based on street tree alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea C.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Street tree alignments are among the most common green spaces within urban areas. The aim of this study was to assess the interspecific variability and the degree of defoliation of the trees within street alignments situated along four of the most common boulevards from Bucharest, namely Kiseleff, Ştefan cel Mare, Virtuţii and Timişoara. The total evaluated distance was 17.6 km. 1621 trees were sampled and more than 30 taxa were recorded. Autochthonous species were more numerous, compared with the allochthonous ones, but the non-indigenous trees were better represented, mainly due to the large number of London plane tree, northern red oak and horse-chestnut. The most common autochthonous species were smallleaved lime, silver linden and narrow-leafed ash. Half of the species were large, reaching heights up to 25 m or more. All four boulevards were dominated by three species. Almost 80% of the trees were in good health and only 7% were almost dead. Several tree features in accordance with the conditions for establishment of future street tree alignments were discussed

  15. Health status of anthracite surface coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amandus, H.E.; Petersen, M.R.; Richards, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled

  16. População indígena: uma reflexão sobre a influência da civilização urbana no estado nutricional e na saúde bucal Indigenous peoples: reflection about the influence of urban civilization on nutritional status and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Garcia de Moura

    2010-06-01

    processed foods that may be harmful to their oral health and nutritional status. The objective of this communication is to identify the influence of the dietary transition due to contact with urban civilization on the nutritional status and oral condition of native Brazilian populations. The data included in this investigation were obtained from the SciELO and MedLine, PubMed databases using the keywords: "South American natives", "dietary behavior", "nutritional status", "oral health". Studies have revealed a prevalence of childhood malnutrition, adult overweight and obesity, high caries rates and periodontal disease in the native Brazilian communities that have been experiencing changes in their cultural habits. In conclusion, dietary transition can lead to nutritional disorders and the development of oral diseases, suggesting the need for health care and basic sanitation programs and access to land and education, in order to intervene in or monitor these occurrences.

  17. The impact of smoking status on the health status of heart failure patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conard, Mark W

    2012-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.

  18. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, depression, and health status in the Look AHEAD (Action for health in diabetes) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...

  19. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D H [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  20. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  2. Health inequalities in hypertension and diabetes management among the poor in urban areas: a population survey analysis in south Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jee Jeon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes differed by residential areas. In addition, the rate of good hypertension or diabetes control was examined separately in men and women, and in urban and rural areas. Methods This study used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination V (2010–2012 data, a nationwide cross-sectional survey of general South Korean population. Residential areas were categorized into urban and rural areas. To examine differences between the residential areas in terms of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes we performed a multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol use, smoking, marital status, monthly income, and educational level. To investigate control of hypertension or diabetes within each residential area, we performed a subgroup analysis in both urban and rural areas. Results The prevalence of hypertension is higher among men in urban areas than among those in rural areas (OR = 0.80; 95 % CI = 0.67–0.96, reference group = urban areas. However, the subgroups did not differ in terms of diabetes prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Regardless of both sex and residential area, participants in good control of their hypertension and diabetes were younger. Inequality in good control of hypertension was observed in men who lived in urban (≤Elementary school, OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.60–0.92 and rural areas (≤Elementary school, OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.46–0.99. Inequality in health status was found in women who resided in urban areas (≤Elementary school, OR 0.53, 95 % CI 0.37–0.75. Good control of diabetes also showed inequalities in health status for both men (≤Elementary school, OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40–0.94; Middle/High school, OR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.49–0.96 and women in urban areas (≤1 million won, OR 0.56, 95

  3. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Terry; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes E

    2015-11-12

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents' emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces.

  4. Green Space Attachment and Health: A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223 of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands. These neighborhoods differ in the perceived and objectively measured accessibility and usability of green spaces, but are matched in the physically available amount of urban green space, as well as in demographic and socio-economic status, and housing conditions. Four dimensions of green space attachment were identified through confirmatory factor analysis: place dependence, affective attachment, place identity and social bonding. The results show greater attachment to local green space and better self-reported mental health in the neighborhood with higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The two neighborhoods did not differ, however, in physical and general health. Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the neighborhood differences in green space attachment and mental health, and also revealed a positive path from green space attachment to mental health. These findings convey the message that we should make green places, instead of green spaces.

  5. Does health status influence intention regarding screening mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Jeong; Park, Bo-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed information surveyed from a community-based sample of Korean women older than 40 years of age to understand the relationships between health status and screening behavior. In a cross-sectional population-based study, a two-stage, geographically stratified household-based sampling design was used for assembly of a probability sample of women aged 40-69 years living in Gunpo in Korea, resulting in a total sample size of 503 women. The primary outcome variable for this analysis was the respondent's intention to obtain a mammogram. Predictor variables included health status and other factors known to influence the use of cancer screening, such as age, education, income, marital status and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. Health status was assessed by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The median EQ visual analogue scale score was 75.0, ranging from 20 to 100. In bivariate analyses, the percentage of women reporting to have intention toward mammography use decreased with worsening health status. Women who had problems with mobility or anxiety/depression showed lower intention to undergo future screening mammography. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that health status was significantly associated with intention toward mammography use. Anxiety or depression was an independent predictor of future screening mammography use. Health status is significantly associated with intention regarding screening mammography use. Physicians or other health professionals should be aware that health status is an important component for health promotion, and should pay more attention to clients' possible vulnerability in screening mammography use due to their poor health status. (author)

  6. Role modalities in Urban Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    ), and on the other hand as a semantic preparation for participation in behavioural activities such as co-decision making, different preventive initiatives are analysed. The theoretical framework combines elements from system theory (Luhmann, 1995a), pedagogical studies and health education theory in order to grasp...... food, drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes or having sexual relationships, the children are brought into a moral, political and lifestyle oriented discourse on risks. In this discourse their identity (as children or adolescents) is at stake as they are expected to participate as well...

  7. Nutritional status of under-five children living in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Burke, Heather; Cosmas, Leonard; Bamrah, Sapna; Dooling, Kathleen; Feikin, Daniel R; Talley, Leisel E; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate whether food insecurity due to post-election violence resulted in high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition in children, a nutritional survey was undertaken among children aged 6-59 months within two villages in Kibera, where the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts population-based surveillance for infectious disease syndromes. During 25 March-4 April 2008, a structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,310 children identified through surveillance system databases to obtain information on household demographics, food availability, and child-feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements were recorded on all participating children. Indices were reported in z-scores and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 reference population to determine the nutritional status of children. Data were analyzed using the Anthro software of WHO and the SAS. Stunting was found in 47.0% of the children; 11.8% were underweight, and 2.6% were wasted. Severe stunting was found in 23.4% of the children; severe underweight in 3.1%, and severe wasting in 0.6%. Children aged 36-47 months had the highest prevalence (58.0%) of stunting while the highest prevalence (4.1%) of wasting was in children aged 6-11 months. Boys were more stunted than girls (p informal settlement, not specifically resulting from the relatively brief political crisis. The predominance of stunting in older children indicates failure in growth and development during the first two years of life. Food programmes in Kenya have traditionally focused on rural areas and

  8. Urban versus rural populations' views of health care in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Hinds, Kerstin; Richards, Helen; Godden, David

    2005-10-01

    To compare satisfaction with, and expectations of, health care of people in rural and urban areas of Scotland. Questions were included in the 2002 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey (SSAS). The Scottish House-hold Survey urban-rural classification was used to categorize locations. A random sample of 2707 people was contacted to participate in a face-to-face interview and a self-completion questionnaire survey. SPSS (v.10) was used to analyse the data. Relationships between location category and responses were explored using logistic regression analysis. In all, 1665 (61.5%) interviews were conducted and 1507 (56.0%) respondents returned self-completion questionnaires. Satisfaction with local doctors and hospital services was higher in rural locations. While around 40% of those living in remote areas thought A&E services too distant, this did not rank as a top priority for health service improvement. This could be due to expectations that general practitioners would assist in out-of-hours emergencies. Most Scots thought services should be good in rural areas even if this was costly, and that older people should not be discouraged from moving to rural areas because of their likely health care needs. In all, 79% of respondents thought that care should be as good in rural as urban areas. Responses to many questions were independently significantly affected by rural/urban location. Most Scots want rural health care to continue to be good, but the new UK National Health Service (NHS) general practitioner contract and service redesign will impact on provision. Current high satisfaction, likely to be due to access and expectations about local help, could be affected. This study provides baseline data on attitudes and expectations before potential service redesign, which should be monitored at intervals in future.

  9. Impact of Obesity on Clinical Outcomes in Urban Children Hospitalized for Status Asthmaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Elena; El-Magbri, Eussra; Wang, Justin; Scheckelhoff, Tessa; Scheckelhoff, Trevor; Hyacinthe, Assata; Nair, Suja; Khan, Amina; Nino, Gustavo; Pillai, Dinesh K

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of both childhood asthma and obesity remain at historically high levels and disproportionately affect urban children. Asthma is a common and costly cause for pediatric hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the effect of obesity on outcomes among urban children hospitalized with status asthmaticus. A retrospective cohort study was performed by using billing system data and chart review to evaluate urban children admitted for asthma. Demographics, asthma severity, reported comorbidities, and outcomes were assessed. Obesity was defined by BMI percentile (leanobese≥95%). Outcomes were length of stay, hospitalization charges, ICU stay, repeat admissions, and subsequent emergency department (ED) visits. Bivariate analysis assessed for differences between overweight/obese and lean children. Multivariable regression assessed the relationship between overweight status and primary outcomes while controlling for other variables. Post hoc age-stratified analysis was also performed. The study included 333 subjects; 38% were overweight/obese. Overweight/obese children admitted with asthma were more likely than lean children to have subsequent ED visits (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.6). When stratified by age, overweight/obese preschool-age children (2 times as likely to have repeat ED visits than lean preschool-age children (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0-5.6). There were no differences in the other outcomes between overweight/obese and lean individuals within the entire cohort or within other age groups. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3 years. Subjects were selected by random sampling. Socio demographic data was collected by questionnaire. Height, weight, hip circumference and waist circumference were measured following standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h dietary recall. The recommended dietary allowance was taken as the cut-off point for the assessment of the adequacy of individual nutrient intake. Results Undernourished, overweight and obese subjects composed 12.9%, 21.3% and 5.9% of the participants, respectively. Men were taller, heavier and had higher waist to hip ratio compared to women (P  Conclusions The overall risk of nutritional inadequacy among the study participants was high along with their poor dietary intake. Hence, more stress should be made on planning and implementing nutritional programmes in urban settings aimed at preventing or correcting micronutrient and some macronutrient deficiencies which may be useful in preventing nutrition related diseases in life.

  11. The Association Between Forms of Aggression, Leadership, and Social Status Among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Courtney N.; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Leff, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of elementary aged youth. The current study examined the associations between aggression, popularity, social preference, and leadership among 227 urban, ethnic minority (74 % African American, 9 % bi-racial including African American, 12 % other ethnic minorities, and 5 % European American) elementary school youth (average age 9.5 years, 48.5 % female). Results indicated that in an urban, high risk environment, displaying aggressive behaviors was associated with increased perceived popularity, decreased social preference, and, in some cases, increased perceived leadership. The results also suggested gender differences in the association between the forms of aggression (i.e. relational and overt) and popularity. The current study underscores the importance of examining youth leadership along with forms of aggression and social status among urban minority youth. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are highlighted. PMID:23086015

  12. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.

  13. Malnutrition Affects the Urban-Poor Disproportionately: A Study of Nigerian Urban Children of Different Socio-Economic Statuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonso E.C.C. Ejike

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Income inequality within the same place of residence may impact the nutritional status of children. This study therefore investigated the impact of income inequality on the nutritional status of children living in the same place of residence, using anthropometric tools. Children in four schools (Schools 1–4 within the vicinity of a housing estate in Umuahia, Nigeria, that charge fees making them ‘very affordable’, ‘affordable’, ‘expensive’ and ‘very expensive’, respectively, were recruited for the study. Thinness, overweight and obesity were defined using the Cole et al. reference standards. Thinness was present in 10.4% (13.0% of boys, 7.6% of girls; 20.4% (15.6% of boys, 27.3% of girls; and 0.7% (1.4% of boys, 0.0% of girls of children in Schools 1–3, respectively; but absent in school 4. Only 3.7% (1.4% of boys, 6.1% of girls and 5.6% (6.3% of boys, 4.5% of girls of children in Schools 1 and 2, respectively, were overweight/obese. Conversely, 25.8% (18.9% of boys, 32.5% of girls and 41.6% (38.8% of boys, 45.3% of girls of children in Schools 3 and 4, respectively, were overweight/obese. The urban-poor (School 2 are clearly affected by malnutrition disproportionately.

  14. Variability in urban soils influences the health and growth of native tree seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara C. Pregitzer; Nancy F. Sonti; Richard A. Hallett

    2016-01-01

    Reforesting degraded urban landscapes is important due to the many benefits urban forests provide. Urban soils are highly variable, yet little is known about how this variability in urban soils influences tree seedling performance and survival. We conducted a greenhouse study to assess health, growth, and survival of four native tree species growing in native glacial...

  15. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Theresa HM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. Methods We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Results Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8% versus rural (-7.5% and low- (-13.0% or middle- (-13.8% versus high- (-9.6% poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Conclusion Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  16. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausauer, Amelia K; Keegan, Theresa H M; Chang, Ellen T; Glaser, Sally L; Howe, Holly; Clarke, Christina A

    2009-06-26

    Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8%) versus rural (-7.5%) and low- (-13.0%) or middle- (-13.8%) versus high- (-9.6%) poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  17. Implementing Community-based Health Planning and Services in impoverished urban communities: health workers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwameme, Adanna Uloaku; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2018-03-20

    Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary. The Community Health Officers (CHOs) and their supervisors are the frontline providers of health in the community and there is a need to analyze and document the health sector response to urban CHPS. The study was solely qualitative and 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with all the CHOs and key health sector individuals in supervisory/coordinating positions working in urban CHPS zones to elicit relevant issues concerning urban CHPS implementation. Thematic content data analysis was done using the NVivo 7 software. Findings from this appraisal suggest that the implementation of this urban concept of the CHPS programme has been well undertaken by the health personnel involved in the process despite the challenges that they face in executing their duties. Several issues came to light including the lack of first aid drugs, as well as the need for the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) programme and more indepth training for CHOs. In addition, the need to provide incentives for the volunteers and Community Health Committee members to sustain their motivation and the CHOs' apprehensions with regards to furthering their education and progression in their careers were key concerns raised. The establishment of the CHPS concept in the urban environment albeit challenging has been

  18. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method: A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results: In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions: Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  19. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  20. HEALTH OF URBAN POPULATION IN MOSCOW AND BEIJING AGGLOMERETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Malkhazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained under the joint Russian-Chinese RFBR project № 12-05-91175-ГФЕН_а aimed at assessment of the state of the environment and health of the population in urban areas in Russia and China. The paper presents the authors’ approach to a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of the environment on the populationhealth of urban agglomerations and a method of regional medico-geographical analysis. A series of analytical and synthetic maps was compiled and used for a comparative geographical analysis of medical and environmental situation in Moscow and Beijing – major metropolitan areas with different natural and socio-economic conditions. The paper discusses the influence of the environment on the state of public health and identifies the leading risk factors, both general and specific to each region.

  1. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma

    2016-01-01

    The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender ( P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale ( r = -0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  2. WEIGHT AND HEALTH STATUS OF BLACK FEMALE STUDENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    address not only the problems of undernutrition, but also to monitor the weight and health ..... women of low socio-economic status were found to be at the greatest risk of an .... Public Health, Harvard University Press. 1996. 2. World Health ...

  3. Forest Health Monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  4. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  5. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  6. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…

  7. Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmers, Angela; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; McDermott, Ann Y; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES was a significant predictor of overweight/obesity risk. Lower SES decreased the odds of being overweight/obese by 51.4 %. This association did not vary by gender nor was it explained by PA. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between SES and overweight/obesity may differ depending on the geographic location and sociocultural context of the population studied. Research on internal migration and health would benefit from the development of tailored acculturation measures and the evaluation of exploratory models that include diet.

  8. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort

  9. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:

  10. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Opara, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Methods:This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA, weight-for-height (WH and weight-for-age (WA Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols.Results:The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7% had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (P<0.001. The prevalence of stunting (HAZ < -2, underweight (WAZ < -2 and wasting (WHZ < -2 for rural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (P<0.05 higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides were each significantly (P<0.05 associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Since intestinal parasitic infections are associated with malnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  11. The status of occupational safety among health service providers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identify and bring under control at workplaces all health risks; provide ... on the status of occupational safety among hospital workers in Tanzania. ..... The assistance from the IPC/IS. National ... tions of the Healthcare Infection Prevention.

  12. Health Status of Military Women in the Total Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bray, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The study of Health Status of Military Women and Men in the Total Force will obtain comprehensive probability-based epidemiological data for women and men across all pay grades for active-duty Army...

  13. Rural-Urban Differences in Access to Preventive Health Care Among Publicly Insured Minnesotans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, John; Allen, Elizabeth M; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2018-02-01

    Reduced access to care and barriers have been shown in rural populations and in publicly insured populations. Barriers limiting health care access in publicly insured populations living in rural areas are not understood. This study investigates rural-urban differences in system-, provider-, and individual-level barriers and access to preventive care among adults and children enrolled in a public insurance program in Minnesota. This was a secondary analysis of a 2008 statewide, cross-sectional survey of publicly insured adults and children (n = 4,388) investigating barriers associated with low utilization of preventive care. Sampling was stratified with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities. Rural enrollees were more likely to report no past year preventive care compared to urban enrollees. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.00-1.88). Provider- and system-level barriers associated with low use of preventive care among rural enrollees included discrimination based on public insurance status (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.34-2.38), cost of care concerns (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89) and uncertainty about care being covered by insurance (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.85). These and additional provider-level barriers were also identified among urban enrollees. Discrimination, cost of care, and uncertainty about insurance coverage inhibit access in both the rural and urban samples. These barriers are worthy targets of interventions for publicly insured populations regardless of residence. Future studies should investigate additional factors associated with access disparities based on rural-urban residence. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  14. [A study on health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in six provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xueqiong; Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Huang, Xianggang

    2014-07-01

    To understand the status and its influencing factors of health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in China, and to explore the method for improving the health information literacy. From March to May in 2013, residents aged 18-60 years in six provinces in China were investigated with Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China about self-reported health information literacy. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6th national census data. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore influencing factors of health information literacy. A total of 4 416 residents were surveyed, and 4 282 (97.0%) valid questionnaires were collected. After weight adjustments, 30.1% of the residents aged 18-60 years had adequate health information literacy in China, and the 95%CI of the rate was 28.5% - 31.6%. Totally, 70.8% of the residents ever actively searched for health information, 43.7% of the residents could easily retrieve the health information, 49.1% of the residents could easily understand the health information, 41.8% of the residents could confidently differentiate the quality of the health information and 51.1% of the residents ever searched health information on the internet. The results of multi-logistic regression showed that the rural residents, the males, those with lower levels of education, those with poor health had a lower health information literacy. The most trusted health information source was from doctors, and the trust rate reached 97.0%, followed by family members, friends or colleagues. The residents trusted the interpersonal communication more than the mass media and the new media. The level of health information literacy of the residents was generally low in China. To improve the health information literacy, high-quality health information services should be delivered to the residents, and the health education on the internet provided by the medical professionals should also be explored.

  15. The Impacts of China's Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance on Healthcare Expenditures and Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Gan, Li

    2017-02-01

    At the end of 1998, China launched a government-run mandatory insurance program, the urban employee basic medical insurance (UEBMI), to replace the previous medical insurance system. Using the UEBMI reform in China as a natural experiment, this study identifies variations in patient cost sharing that were imposed by the UEBMI reform and examines their effects on the demand for healthcare services. Using data from the 1991-2006 waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, we find that increased cost sharing is associated with decreased outpatient medical care utilization and expenditures but not with decreased inpatient care utilization and expenditures. Patients from low-income and middle-income households or with less severe medical conditions are more sensitive to prices. We observe little impact on patient's health, as measured by self-reported health status. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Study of the health effects of bicycling in an urban atmosphere. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, M.; Weiss, S.; Articola, W.

    1977-10-14

    This report analyzes data on the health effects of bicycling in an urban environment through intensive study of ten healthy male subjects bicycling or driving in systematically varied conditions in the streets of Washington, D.C. Evaluation criteria for available technology and instrumentation are included and a methodology is developed for route selection. Specific air pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfates, nitrates, and particulates) are measured concurrently with exposure and subsequent changes in health status identified through pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular testing, and blood and symptoms analysis. The report concludes that no major adverse short-term health effects were noted for ten healthy male subjects while bicycling or driving in levels of pollution and thermal stress encountered during the study period. Recommendations for further research are also presented.

  17. Is migration status a determinant of urban nutrition insecurity? Empirical evidence from Mumbai city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neetu; Parthasarathy, D

    2009-09-01

    From an economic perspective that understood it as a spillover of development, migration is now also the subject of socioeconomic investigation incorporating the problems of assimilation, relative deprivation and isolation. The corollary is an increased emphasis on economic and social understanding of migration and its consequences. This entails studying migration or migrants in terms of factors beyond income. Health outcome is important among these non-income factors but at the same time remains less studied. Although there have been a few influential studies on health issues as linked to migration status, the issue of malnutrition in this context continues to be under-researched. This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, migration status and malnutrition in Mumbai in India. An econometric analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data gives insight into the dynamics of child and maternal undernutrition as mediated by migration status in Mumbai.

  18. Oral and general health behaviours among Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Jiang, Han; Peng, Bin

    2008-01-01

    distributions, regression analyses and factor analyses. RESULTS: Oral health-related behaviours among adolescents were associated with socioeconomic status of parents, school performance and peer relationships. The odds of a dental visit was 0.63 in adolescents of poorly educated parents and the corresponding...

  19. Experiences and Lessons from Urban Health Insurance Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haichang

    2016-08-01

    Health care systems often face competing goals and priorities, which make reforms challenging. This study analyzed factors influencing the success of a health care system based on urban health insurance reform evolution in China, and offers recommendations for improvement. Findings based on health insurance reform strategies and mechanisms that did or did not work can effectively inform improvement of health insurance system design and practice, and overall health care system performance, including equity, efficiency, effectiveness, cost, finance, access, and coverage, both in China and other countries. This study is the first to use historical comparison to examine the success and failure of China's health care system over time before and after the economic reform in the 1980s. This study is also among the first to analyze the determinants of Chinese health system effectiveness by relating its performance to both technical reasons within the health system and underlying nontechnical characteristics outside the health system, including socioeconomics, politics, culture, values, and beliefs. In conclusion, a health insurance system is successful when it fits its social environment, economic framework, and cultural context, which translates to congruent health care policies, strategies, organization, and delivery. No health system can survive without its deeply rooted socioeconomic environment and cultural context. That is why one society should be cautious not to radically switch from a successful model to an entirely different one over time. There is no perfect health system model suitable for every population-only appropriate ones for specific nations and specific populations at the right place and right time. (Population Health Management 2016;19:291-297).

  20. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  1. County-level poverty is equally associated with unmet health care needs in rural and urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Litaker, David G

    2010-01-01

    Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet need, a marker of health care access, by rural/urban setting. Multilevel, cross-sectional analysis of a state-representative sample of 39,953 adults stratified by rural/urban status, linked at the county level to data describing contextual characteristics. Weighted random intercept models examined the independent association of regional poverty with unmet needs, controlling for a range of contextual and individual-level characteristics. The unadjusted association between regional poverty levels and unmet needs was similar in both rural (OR = 1.06 [95% CI, 1.04-1.08]) and urban (OR = 1.03 [1.02-1.05]) settings. Adjusting for other contextual characteristics increased the size of the association in both rural (OR = 1.11 [1.04-1.19]) and urban (OR = 1.11 [1.05-1.18]) settings. Further adjustment for individual characteristics had little additional effect in rural (OR = 1.10 [1.00-1.20]) or urban (OR = 1.11 [1.01-1.22]) settings. To better meet the health care needs of all Americans, health care systems in areas with high regional poverty should acknowledge the relationship between poverty and unmet health care needs. Investments, or other interventions, that reduce regional poverty may be useful strategies for improving health through better access to health care. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Globalisation and climate change in Asia: the urban health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Asia's economic development successes will create new policy areas to address, as the advances made through globalisation create greater climate change challenges, particularly the impact on urban health. Poverty eradication and higher standards of living both increase demand on resources. Globalisation increases inequalities and those who are currently the losers will carry the greatest burden of the costs in the form of the negative effects of climate change and the humanitarian crises that will ensue. Of four major climate change challenges affecting the environment and health, two—urban air pollution and waste management—can be mitigated by policy change and technological innovation if sufficient resources are allocated. Because of the urban bias in the development process, these challenges will probably register on policy makers' agenda. The second two major challenges—floods and drought—are less amenable to policy and technological solutions: many humanitarian emergency challenges lie ahead. This article describes the widely varying impact of both globalisation and climate change across Asia. The greatest losers are those who flee one marginal location, the arid inland areas, only to settle in another marginal location in the flood prone coastal slums. Effective preparation is required, and an effective response when subsequent humanitarian crises occur.

  3. Urban health. A challenge for the third millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli, S.; Menditto, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of the bilateral governmental programme for scientific and technical cooperation existing between Italy and Hungary a successful series of biennial Symposia were undertaken since the early 1980s. These were designed to provide scientists of both countries with a permanent forum for the evaluation of ongoing joint projects, the exchange of views on future priorities dealt with by these Symposia always made the participation of prominent scientists from other countries a necessary complement substantially enhancing the international characteristics of such events. Each Symposium features a specific theme of primary importance within the general context of human health and environmental protection. In this respect, the ninth edition of this series of Symposia focuses on the major concerns raised by chemical pollution on all aspects of urban life. More than one half of the world population lives today in big cities, with all the attendant problems as regards air, water and soil quality, safe disposal of urban waste, occupational exposure, in one word, the physical, mental and cultural welfare of citizens at large. All facets concurring to protect and maintain urban health will be thus taken into consideration and highlighted in about forty invited lectures, while posters will be displayed in a permanent session throughout the conference duration [it

  4. Developing a conceptual framework of urban health observatories toward integrating research and evidence into urban policy for health and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiaffa, W T; Friche, A A L; Dias, M A S; Meireles, A L; Ignacio, C F; Prasad, A; Kano, M

    2014-02-01

    Detailed information on health linked to geographic, sociodemographic, and environmental data are required by city governments to monitor health and the determinants of health. These data are critical for guiding local interventions, resource allocation, and planning decisions, yet they are too often non-existent or scattered. This study aimed to develop a conceptual framework of Urban Health Observatories (UHOs) as an institutional mechanism which can help synthesize evidence and incorporate it into urban policy-making for health and health equity. A survey of a select group of existent UHOs was conducted using an instrument based on an a priori conceptual framework of key structural and functional characteristics of UHOs. A purposive sample of seven UHOs was surveyed, including four governmental, two non-governmental, and one university-based observatory, each from a different country. Descriptive and framework analysis methods were used to analyze the data and to refine the conceptual framework in light of the empirical data. The UHOs were often a product of unique historical circumstances. They were relatively autonomous and capable of developing their own locally sensitive agenda. They often had strong networks for accessing data and were able to synthesize them at the urban level as well as disaggregate them into smaller units. Some UHOs were identified as not only assessing but also responding to local needs. The findings from this study were integrated into a conceptual framework which illustrates how UHOs can play a vital role in monitoring trends in health determinants, outcomes, and equity; optimizing an intersectoral urban information system; incorporating research on health into urban policies and systems; and providing technical guidance on research and evidence-based policy making. In order to be most effective, UHOs should be an integral part of the urban governance system, where multiple sectors of government, the civil society, and businesses can

  5. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  6. Migration status, reproductive health knowledge and sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive health is an essential aspect of the wellbeing of adolescents. Therefore reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviour deservedly attract the attention of researchers, programme planners and policy implementers working with young people. Yet in Nigeria, little is known about the effect of migration ...

  7. Poor micronutrient intake and status is a public health problem among adolescent Mozambican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalo, Liisa; Freese, Riitta; Alfthan, Georg; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies can damage the health of adolescent girls and their offspring. There is a lack of population-based data on the micronutrient status of adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study to examine the biochemical status, prevalence of deficiency, dietary intake, and food sources of selected micronutrients among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique. Separate groups of study participants were recruited in 2 seasons in 2010. The participants were girls between 14 and 19 years of age (n = 551) from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts. Micronutrient status indicators were analyzed from blood and urine samples. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were also carried out. The overall prevalence with 95% confidence interval (calculated using sampling weights) among nonpregnant girls was 42.4% (37.2%-47.8%; n = 466) for anemia, 27.4% (23.1%-32.2%; n = 427) for low serum ferritin, 32.7% (27.7%-38.1%; n = 423) for low serum zinc, 14.7% (11.2%-19.0%; n = 426) for low plasma retinol, and 4.1% (2.9%-5.8%; n = 448) for low serum folate. The selenium status was considered sufficient. Mild to moderate iodine deficiency was found in the rural districts, whereas the iodine status of urban girls was adequate. Significantly lower serum folate concentrations were found in the urban area compared to the rural districts. The seasonal differences in vitamin A intake were significant. The intakes of micronutrients from animal source foods were small. In summary, adolescent Mozambican girls are at risk of several micronutrient deficiencies. This raises concern especially because adolescent motherhood is common in the region. Actions need to be taken to prevent and control micronutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural Competence, Lay-beliefs in Narratives of Diabetes among the Rural Poor in the Eastern Cape ... to exist in the utilization of cardiac diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, prescription of analgesia for pains, treatment of diabetes (e.g. gym exercise).

  9. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  10. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyle Donald N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.

  11. Is the Urban Child Health Advantage Declining in Malawi?: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Biesma, Regien; Chirwa, Maureen; Darker, Catherine

    2018-06-01

    In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Rate differences between urban and rural values for selected child health indicators were calculated to denote whether urban-rural differentials showed a trend of declining urban advantage in Malawi. The results show that all forms of child mortality have significantly declined between 1992 and 2015/2016 reflecting successes in child health interventions. Rural-urban comparisons, using rate differences, largely indicate a picture of the narrowing gap between urban and rural areas albeit the extent and pattern vary among child health indicators. Of the 13 child health indicators, eight (neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality rates, stunting rate, proportion of children treated for diarrhea and fever, proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, and children fully immunized at 12 months) show clear patterns of a declining urban advantage particularly up to 2014. However, U-5MR shows reversal to a significant urban advantage in 2015/2016, and slight increases in urban advantage are noted for infant mortality rate, underweight, full childhood immunization, and stunting rate in 2015/2016. Our findings suggest the need to rethink the policy viewpoint of a disadvantaged rural and much better-off urban in child health

  12. Assessing HPV and Cervical Knowledge, Preference and HPV Status Among Urban American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, Kristin R; Omidpanah, Adam A; Petereit, Daniel G

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate whether or not an educational intervention would lead to a change in knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccines, and cervical cancer. The HPV status was also investigated for interested participants. We provided HPV and cervical cancer education to urban American Indian (AI) women 18 and older using a pre and post-knowledge exam to assess knowledge and attitudes. Women were also given the option to perform vaginal self-tests for high risk HPV (hrHPV) analysis immediately after the education. Ninety-six women participated in our educational sessions. Improvement in performance on a knowledge exam increased from 61.6 to 84.3 percent. Ninety-three women performed the vaginal self-test with 63.1 percent of women preferring vaginal self-testing over conventional screening methods. Thirty-five out of 91 women (38.5 percent) had hrHPV types with 12 of the 35 harboring multiple hrHPV types (13 percent overall). HPV and cervical cancer education was beneficial for urban AI women with the majority of women preferring vaginal self-testing. HPV self-testing may be a strategy to improve screening rates for cervical cancer. Urban AI women had high rates of hrHPV compared to rural AI populations as reported in previous studies.

  13. Socio-economic status and urbanization are linked to snacks and obesity in adolescents in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene

    2011-12-01

    To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.

  14. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors of health literacy included education level, race, former occupation, household income, age, physical exercise, health examination, smoking, and health information access (p

  15. Association between oral health status and nutritional status in south Brazilian independent-living older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.

  16. Nutritional status and dietary habits of urban and rural Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the basic food ingredient level and some nutritional status indices between the two groups of adolescents: the first one from the urban environment and the other one from the rural environment. A series of tests were conducted on a 400-teenager-group (200 girls and 200 boys), which was divided into two age groups: 10.5-year-olds and 13.5-year-olds. Nutritional status was estimated on the basis of the following anthropometric measurements: body height, body mass index, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness. Food intake was assessed by means of a 24-h dietary recall. The analysis of the results of the investigation showed: rare overweight and obesity occur in rural children aged 10.5 years and a higher risk of undernutrition among rural children, especially boys; more frequent overweight and obesity in rural girls and urban boys aged 13.5 years; a lower protein consumption, especially animal protein, and a lower percentage of the accomplishment of the norm for many mineral components and vitamins in rural girls and boys.

  17. Health care practices influencing health promotion in urban black women in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.

  18. Determinants of the nutritional status of older adults in urban Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Rosy; Boulos, Christa; Adib, Salim M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the nutritional status, and its association with sociodemographic factors, health and functional status of community-dwelling older adults living in the Greater Beirut area. This was a cross-sectional study involving 905 randomly selected community dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years living in Greater Beirut (Beirut and surrounding suburbs). Participants completed a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, health characteristics, and functional and nutritional status, based on the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Among the older adults who participated in the study, 2.8% (95% CI 0.01-0.03) were malnourished, and 45.5% (95% CI 0.42-0.48) were at risk of malnutrition. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with the nutritional status. Variables significantly associated with poorer nutritional status were: poor perception of general health (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28-1.97), more chronic diseases (OR 2.05, 95% CI1.26-3.33), poor perception of oral health (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.61), depressive disorders (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.40), higher body mass index (OR 1.98, 95% CI1.67-2.34) and disability (OR 5.80, 95% CI 1.96-17.11). The present study showed an unacceptable risk of malnutrition among Lebanese older adults, independent of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The presence of comorbidities, treated or not, affecting general and oral health emerged as major determinants of poor nutrition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 424-432. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  20. The place of health and the health of place: dengue fever and urban governance in Putrajaya, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, K; Elliott, S J; Schuster-Wallace, C

    2012-05-01

    This case study investigates the connections among urban planning, governance and dengue fever in an emerging market context in the Global South. Key informant interviews were conducted with leading figures in public health, urban planning and governance in the planned city of Putrajaya, Malaysia. Drawing on theories of urban political ecology and ecosocial epidemiology, the qualitative study found the health of place - expressed as dengue-bearing mosquitoes and dengue fever in human bodies in the urban environment - was influenced by the place of health in a hierarchy of urban priorities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban Air Environmental Health Indicators for Kuala Lumpur City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leh, O.L.H.; Shaharuddin Ahmad; Kadaruddin Aiyub; Yaakob Mohd Jani; Hwa, T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Air environmental health indicators were defined operationally as a combination of air quality and air-related health indicators. Clean air is a basic precondition of human health. Air pollutants had been identified with potential negative impact on health especially on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, studies are necessary to identify and understand the state of environmental health. This study was aimed to examine and analyses the air environmental health condition in city of Kuala Lumpur by using a set of indicators. House to house questionnaire survey was carried out to collect air-related health data, and air quality sampling was carried out to identify ambient air quality level of the city. In general, city of Kuala Lumpur was found to have a moderate level of air quality. Air-related illnesses indicated by acute respiratory infection and asthma were found to be higher in more developed or higher density zones, as compared to other zones. Besides, air-related illnesses were significantly correlated to respondents exposure to air pollution. The findings imply that human health can be improved by managing the urban development and its environmental quality properly. (author)

  2. Employment characteristics and health status among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of jobs held by women as compared to men during the 1970s and assesses associations between job characteristics and family status with health status by sex. Sex differences in perceptions about the meaning of work, commitment to the work role, and stresses and rewards are considered. Survey data on 1490 employed men and women, ages 18-64, drawn from a random sample of enrollees of a large health maintenance organization in 1970-71 are linked with medical record data covering seven years of outpatient and inpatient services. The findings suggest important differences in the characteristics of jobs held by men and women and in the relative importance of these job characteristics in relation to health. Men held jobs with higher quality intrinsic work characteristics and perceived their jobs to be less stressful and less physically and mentally tiring than did women. Social support and integration through work and occupational status were significantly related to health status for both sexes, however, family responsibilities interact with job characteristics to affect health status for women. Single motherhood, in combination with low social support and integration through work, was related to poor health among women.

  3. Effect of a school feeding programme on nutritional status and anaemia in an urban slum: a preliminary evaluation in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan

    2013-06-01

    To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children.

  4. Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants attending child welfare clinics of a teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Maternal older age, multiparity and delivery at a government health facility were positively associated with higher rates of EBF (p < 0.05). Only 110 (48.2%) babies were put to the breast ...

  5. Status and review of health of Indian coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajan, R.; Satyanarayan, C.; Raghunathan, C.; Koya, S.S.; Ravindran, J.; Manikandan, B.; Venkataraman, K.

    Status of reef health incorporating species-wise cover of scleractinians has been reported covering 61 stations in 29 reef locations of the four major reef regions in India as of March 2011, alongside a review of available reef health data since...

  6. Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population's smoking status, their knowledge of the health ... the highest smoking rates are the Northern Cape (55%), ... expense of tobacco products and because of a medical ... tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health .... Although not shown in ... (35%) and cost of tobacco products (17%). ..... International tourist.

  7. Health status of people of slums in Nairobi, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, Gabriel; Mulumba, J.A.A.; Juma, Olivia; Kakosova, Beatrica

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the health status of people living in the slums of Nairobi. It was designed as a cross-sectional study based on data from visitors at a clinic at Trnava University located in Mukuru slum in Nairobi. There were about 16,000 visits registered at Mary Immaculate Clinic of Trnava University in Nairobi during 2 years of operation. A random 5% sample was drawn from the paper-card database of this clinic to assess basic characteristics and health complaints of visitors. Both self-reported health complaints and diagnoses written by physicians were used to assess health status of participants. More females with average age (by slum) ranging from 20.46 to 21.30 years than males with average age ranging from (by slum) 15.86 to 19.49 years are the visitors of the clinic. The major self-reported health complaints of visitors were cough, abdominal pain, and headache for both sexes. The most frequent diagnoses were consequently virosis, acute respiratory infections, and bronchitis. Differences in health complaints by slums were observed and are described herein. The major health complaints and diagnoses in addition to the differences in health complaints and diagnoses by slum show that environmental conditions can have major influences on health status. Therefore, environmental improvements are important in the improvement of health status. A very high prevalence of respiratory complaints and gastrointestinal problems signify that improvements in air pollution reduction, drinking water provision, and waste management in slums can lead to more significant and sustainable improvements in health status than just simple treatment. This fact should be taken into account when planning future relief programs

  8. Growth and health status of children and adolescents in medieval Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krenz-Niedbała Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subadult growth and health have been analyzed in three cemetery samples from medieval Poland, including two early-urban sites: Cedynia dated to the 10t-14th centuries AD, and Ostrów Lednicki dated to the 13th-15th centuries AD, and a rural site Słaboszewo dated to the 14th-17th centuries AD. The nutritional status was not expected to have substantially differed among the settlements, due to the culturally induced undiversified diet of children, and predominant share of medium-to-low status individuals. However, city life and village life were supposed to differ in factors correlated with the spread of infections, and as such it was expected to find significant differences in respiratory health among early-urban and rural dwellers.The prevalences of diet-dependent diseases, scurvy and rickets, were found to be statistically indistinguishable among the three studied populations, while higher frequency of skeletal signs of poor respiratory health was observed in early-urban Cedynia than rural Słaboszewo. Slightly lower prevalences of skeletal stress indicators were found for the rural than the early-urban site. Skeletal growth profiles and the dynamics of long bone growth were found to be remarkably similar for the early-urban samples (Cedynia and Ostrów Lednicki, with the rural subadults having the shortest diaphyseal lengths, and lower growth dynamics.It can be concluded that adverse factors associated with the urban settlement were more detrimental to respiratory health than those in the village. A variety of factors are potentially responsible for this pattern, including population density, building structure, quality of air and water, sanitation, and occupation. Perhaps, the key factor in response to environmental and socio-cultural constraints was the stability of living conditions in the village, which allowed the inhabitants to develop sufficient adaptive mechanisms. In contrast, the history of strongholds such as Cedynia was changeable

  9. Filipino American grandparent caregivers' roles, acculturation, and perceived health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the relationships between roles, acculturation, and perceived health status among 47 FA grandparent caregivers who were providing extensive caregiving to their grandchildren. Role satisfaction was significantly related to perceived health status. Role occupancy was significantly related to years lived in the U.S. and employment. Role integration and role stress were significantly related to gender and income. Acculturation was significantly related to role involvement, years lived in the U.S., language spoken, and education. The findings of this health disparities research study will lead to more contextual work in this area of study.

  10. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-10-14

    The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample ( n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.

  11. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue.

  12. The Organizational Health of Urban Elementary Schools: School Health and Teacher Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Tara G.; Atkins, Marc S.; Frazier, Stacy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Organizational Health Inventory-Elementary version (OHI-E; Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991) in a sample of 203 teachers working in 19 high-poverty, urban schools and the association of organizational school health with teacher efficacy, teacher stress, and job satisfaction. Results indicated a similar factor structure of the OHI-E as compared with the population of schools in the original sample (Hoy et al., 1991), and that specific components of organizational health, such as a positive learning environment, are associated with teacher efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. Overall, teachers’ relations with their peers, their school leadership, and their students appear especially critical in high-poverty, urban schools. Recommendations for research and practice related to improving high-poverty, urban schools are presented. PMID:23935763

  13. The Organizational Health of Urban Elementary Schools: School Health and Teacher Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Tara G; Atkins, Marc S; Frazier, Stacy L

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Organizational Health Inventory-Elementary version (OHI-E; Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991) in a sample of 203 teachers working in 19 high-poverty, urban schools and the association of organizational school health with teacher efficacy, teacher stress, and job satisfaction. Results indicated a similar factor structure of the OHI-E as compared with the population of schools in the original sample (Hoy et al., 1991), and that specific components of organizational health, such as a positive learning environment, are associated with teacher efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. Overall, teachers' relations with their peers, their school leadership, and their students appear especially critical in high-poverty, urban schools. Recommendations for research and practice related to improving high-poverty, urban schools are presented.

  14. Social Environmental Eeterminants and Health: Rural Brazil versus Brazil Urban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackynelly Alves SARMENTO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural population lives in socioeconomic inequality conditions motivated by several problems, including an insufficient sewage systems and water supply, these, sometimes, most responsibles by the appearance of waterborne diseases that contribute to the rise of child mortality and other problems. Rural areas in Brazil are defined by opposition and exclusion in urban areas. This definition is arbitrary and physical-geographic, not considering the social and economic processes involving the territories. This study purposed to verify, by means of sociodemographic aspects, environmental sanitation and main grievances/diseases importance for public health of the population from forest field and water, if the most rural municipalities (MMR are more precarious than the more urban (MMU. To this end, was carried out a descriptive study based on secondary sources (Atlas of Human Development in Brazil, IBGE census, PNAD and Sinan. Among the results, it follows that the rural population identified by IBGE boils down to 15.6% of Brazil’s population. In 29% of the municipalities, the population living in rural areas exceeds the city. The higher frequencies from IDMH very low are for MMR, while the higher frequency from IDMH very high and high are for MMU. In health, the MMR also exhibit deficiency. It was observed high incidence rates of diseases related to poor conditions of sanitation. From these results, it was identified a more precarious health profile in MMR when compared to MMU.

  15. Attitude toward mental illness amongst urban nonpsychiatric health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Pande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to examine the attitude of nonpsychiatric health professionals about mental illness in urban multispeciality tertiary care setting. Aim: To assess attitude toward mental illness among urban nonpsychiatric health professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire was administered to 222 medical and paramedical staff at two tertiary care hospitals at Chandigarh. Results: There is an increased awareness of mental illness especially in military subjects. Literacy was associated with a positive attitude toward mental illness. Health care givers commonly fail to ask about the emotional well being of their patients. Many saw referral to psychiatrist as a form of punishment. There is uniform desire for more knowledge about psychiatric disorders in medical and paramedical staff. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the need for educational programs aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the nonpsychiatric medical professional would help to allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization toward such persons.

  16. Current status of family health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Membrillo Luna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.

  17. Analysis of river health variation under the background of urbanization based on entropy weight and matter-element model: A case study in Huzhou City in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guangbo; Xu, Youpeng; Yu, Zhihui; Song, Song; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Maintaining the health of the river ecosystem is an essential ecological and environmental guarantee for regional sustainable development and one of the basic objectives in water resource management. With the rapid development of urbanization, the river health situation is deteriorating, especially in urban areas. The river health evaluation is a complex process that involves various natural and social components; eight eco-hydrological indicators were selected to establish an evaluation system, and the variation of river health status under the background of urbanization was explored based on entropy weight and matter-element model. The comprehensive correlative degrees of urban river health of Huzhou City in 2001, 2006 and 2010 were then calculated. The results indicated that river health status of the study area was in the direction of pathological trend, and the impact of limiting factors (such as Shannon's diversity index and agroforestry output growth rate) played an important role in river health. The variation of maximum correlative degree could be classified into stationary status, deterioration status, deterioration-to-improvement status, and improvement-to-deterioration status. There was a severe deterioration situation of river health under the background of urbanization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral lifestyle and mental health status of Japanese factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K

    1994-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.

  19. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake, and high bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-10-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving Urban Minority Girls' Health Via Community Summer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy M; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Burdette, Kimberly A; Ward, Amanda K; Silton, Rebecca L; Dugas, Lara R

    2017-12-01

    Summertime has emerged as a high-risk period for weight gain among low-income minority youth who often experience a lack of resources when not attending school. Structured programming may be an effective means of reducing risk for obesity by improving obesogenic behaviors among these youth. The current multi-method study examined sedentary time, physical activity, and dietary intake among low-income urban minority girls in two contexts: an unstructured summertime setting and in the context of a structured 4-week community-based summer day camp program promoting physical activity. Data were analyzed using paired-sample t tests and repeated-measure analyses of variance with significance at the p time of over 2 h/day and dairy consumption when engaged in structured summer programming. All improvements were independent of weight status and age, and African-American participants evidenced greater changes in physical activity during programming. The study concludes that structured, community-based summertime programming may be associated with fewer obesogenic behaviors in low-income urban youth and may be a powerful tool to address disparities in weight gain and obesity among high-risk samples.

  1. Health status of Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, O M

    1995-02-01

    The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.

  2. Equity in the use of antiretroviral treatment in the public health care system in urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Susan; Silal, Sheetal; Birch, Stephen; Carrara, Henri; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Rehle, Thomas; Schneider, Helen

    2011-03-01

    The scaling up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-infected adults requires a sizeable investment of resources in the South African public health care system. It is important that these resources are used productively and in ways that reach those in need, irrespective of social status or personal characteristics. In this study we evaluate whether the distribution of ART services in the public system reflects the distribution of need among adults in the urban population. Data from a 2008 national survey were used to estimate the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES) and sex in HIV-positive adults in urban areas. These findings were compared to SES and sex distributions in 635 ART users within 6 urban public ART facilities. Close to 40% of those with HIV are in the lowest SES quintile, while 67% are women. The distributions in users of ART are similar to these distributions in HIV-positive people. Patterns of ART use in study settings correspond to patterns of HIV in the urban population at the national level. This suggests that the South African ART programme is on track to ensure equitable delivery of treatment services in urban settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Overview on urban and peri-urban agriculture: definition, impact on human health, constraints and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang'ethe, E K; Grace, D; Randolph, T F

    2007-11-01

    To collate and synthesize current knowledge of components of urban agriculture (UA) with a thematic emphasis on human health impact and a geographic emphasis on East Africa. Data management followed a structured approach in which key issues were first identified and then studies selected through literature search and personal communication. Evidence-based principles. Urban agriculture is an important source of food security for urban dwellers in East Africa. Descriptors of UA are location, areas, activities, scale, products, destinations, stakeholders and motivation. Many zoonotic and food-borne diseases have been associated with UA but evidence on human health impact and management is lacking. Major constraints to UA are illegality and lack of access to input and market; policy options have been developed for overcoming these. Urban agriculture is an important activity and likely to remain so. Both positive and negative human health impacts are potentially important but more research is needed to understand these and set appropriate policy and support levels.

  4. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-07-05

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from "very good" health (people of Indian origin), to "good" health (white British), and "poor" health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled "Mixed BME" in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in "Mixed BME". Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this can play an

  5. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors

  6. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retel-Rude Nathalie

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36 was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items. Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70, factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL.

  7. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Ibtissam; Drouby, Nabil; Sabbah, Sanaa; Retel-Rude, Nathalie; Mercier, Mariette

    2003-01-01

    Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL) studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model) was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas) on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items). Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70), factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL. PMID:12952543

  8. Physician training rotations in a large urban health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ellen; Kim-Farley, Robert; Gunzenhauser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals are the normal setting for physician residency training within the United States. When a hospital cannot provide the specific training needed, a special rotation for that experience is arranged. Linkages between clinical and public health systems are vital to achieving improvements in overall health status in the United States. Nevertheless, most physicians in postgraduate residency programs receive neither training nor practical experience in the practice of public health. For many years, public health rotations have been available within the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (and its antecedent organizations). Arrangements that existed with local medical schools for residents to rotate with Los Angeles County Department of Health hospitals were extended to include a public health rotation. A general model for the rotation ensured that each resident received education and training relevant to the clinician in practice. Some parts of the model for experience have changed over time while others have not. Also, the challenges and opportunities for both trainees and preceptors have evolved and varied over time. A logic model demonstrates the components and changes with the public health rotation. Changes included alterations in recruitment, expectations, evaluation, formal education, and concepts related to the experience. Changes in the rotation model occurred in the context of other major environmental changes such as new electronic technology, changing expectations for residents, and evolving health services and public health systems. Each impacted the public health rotation. The evaluation method developed included content tests, assessment of competencies by residents and preceptors, and satisfaction measures. Results from the evaluation showed increases in competency and a high level of satisfaction after a public health rotation. The article includes examples of challenges and benefits to a local health department in providing a public

  9. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables; and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables. Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income, and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality. Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV. The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as

  10. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don't report their migration status? A population-based study in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-11-21

    Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs' chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence intervals, prevented the identification

  11. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional) asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables); and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables). Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income), and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV). The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as indicated by wide confidence

  12. City and cosmology: genetics, health, and urban living in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Aaron

    2018-04-01

    In light of increasingly high rates of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity among citizens of the Arabian Gulf, popular health discourse in the region has emphasised the emergent Arab genome as the primary etiological basis of major health conditions. However, after many years of public dissemination of genomic knowledge in the region, and widespread acceptance of this knowledge among Gulf Arab citizens, the rates of chronic illness continue to increase. This paper briefly explores the clash between indigenous Islamic knowledge systems and biomedical knowledge systems imported into the United Arab Emirates. It presents vignettes collected from interviews and participant observation in Dubai as part of nearly four years of ethnographic research, completed as part of the author's doctoral work on 'Anxiety and Identity in Southeast Arabia'. Rather than radically informing health seeking behaviours among many UAE citizens, the emphasis on the 'Arab Genome' has instead reconfirmed the authority of Bedouin cosmological understandings of disease, reshaping the language that people use to engage with their bodies and their health. Local cosmology remains a powerful discursive element that often operates in contention, in sometimes powerfully subtle ways, with novel health initiative regimes. For many people in the region, genomic information, as it is often discussed and propagated in the UAE, shares an intimate relationship with ideas of fate and national identity, and sometimes serves to mitigate the increasingly uncertain terms of engagement that people share between the body, their health, and rapidly changing urban landscapes.

  13. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Type D personality and health status in cardiovascular disease populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences...... in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated...

  15. (Un)Healthy in the City : Respiratory, Cardiometabolic and Mental Health Associated with Urbanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma L.; Klijs, Bart; Stolk, Ronald P.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that health differences exist between urban and rural areas. Most studies conducted, however, have focused on single health outcomes and have not assessed to what extent the association of urbanity with health is explained by population composition or socioeconomic

  16. (Un)Healthy in the City : Respiratory, Cardiometabolic and Mental Health Associated with Urbanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma L.; Klijs, Bart; Stolk, Ronald P.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has shown that health differences exist between urban and rural areas. Most studies conducted, however, have focused on single health outcomes and have not assessed to what extent the association of urbanity with health is explained by population composition or socioeconomic

  17. Urban physics : effect of the micro-climate on comfort, health and energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Defraeye, T.W.J.; Dorer, V.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The global trend towards urbanization explains the growing interest in the study of the modification of the urban climate due to the heat island effect and global warming, and its impact on energy use of buildings. Also urban comfort, health and durability, referring respectively to pedestrian

  18. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Lincoln Larson; Jessica Yun

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants...

  19. Psychological Perspectives on Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A.; Gallo, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is a reliable correlate of poor physical health. Rather than treat SES as a covariate, health psychology has increasingly focused on the psychobiological pathways that inform understanding why SES is related to physical health. This review assesses the status of research that has examined stress and its associated distress, and social and personal resources as pathways. It highlights work on biomarkers and biological pathways related to SES that can serve as intermediate outcomes in future studies. Recent emphasis on the accumulation of psychobiological risks across the life course is summarized and represents an important direction for future research. Studies that test pathways from SES to candidate psychosocial pathways to health outcomes are few in number but promising. Future research should test integrated models rather than taking piecemeal approaches to evidence. Much work remains to be done, but the questions are of great health significance. PMID:20636127

  20. Measuring Health-related Transportation Barriers in Urban Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; Sharp, Lisa K; Syed, Saming T; Bhansari, Shikhi; Gerber, Ben S

    Access to reliable transportation is important for people with chronic diseases considering the need for frequent medical visits and for medications from the pharmacy. Understanding of the extent to which transportation barriers, including lack of transportation, contribute to poor health outcomes has been hindered by a lack of consistency in measuring or operationally defining "transportation barriers." The current study uses the Rasch measurement model to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure designed to capture types of transportation and associated barriers within an urban context. Two hundred forty-four adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from within an academic medical center in Chicago and completed the newly developed transportation questions as part of a larger National Institutes of Health funded study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01498159). Results suggested a two subscale structure that reflected 1) general transportation barriers and 2) public transportation barriers.

  1. Urbanism, climate change and health: systems approaches to governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Synnott, Emma S; Holliday, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Effective action on climate change health impacts and vulnerability will require systems approaches and integrated policy and planning responses from a range of government agencies. Similar responses are needed to address other complex problems, such as the obesity epidemic. Local government, with its focus on the governance of place, will have a key role in responding to these convergent agendas. Industry can also be part of the solution - indeed it must be, because it has a lead role in relevant sectors. Understanding the co-benefits for health of climate mitigation actions will strengthen the case for early action. There is a need for improved decision support tools to inform urban governance. These tools should be based on a systems approach and should incorporate a spatial perspective.

  2. Health Insurance Status and Self-Perceived Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Listen as Dr. Machell Town, a branch chief and statistician with CDC's Division of Population Health, talks about her team's study on self-perceived health and reported mental distress among working-aged adults.

  3. The effect of perceived health status on patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Barber, Janet P

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of perceived health status on three components of patient satisfaction. The Household Component of the 1999 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for people 35-64 years of age was used to examine the effect of perceived health status on patient satisfaction measured in terms of access to care, provider quality and quality of care. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were used to describe the subjects and to examine the relationship between patient satisfaction and perceived health status controlling for patient demographic factors, health factors and provider characteristics. All analyses used STATA 8.0 which is designed to analyze weighted data. A total of 4,417 patients (71% women) met the inclusion criteria for the study. Patients who rated their health excellent or good scored higher on the three dimensions of patient satisfaction. Higher scores on one or more components of patient satisfaction were associated with being older, married, better educated and having higher income, health insurance and good mental health. Seeing the health-care provider for an old problem resulted in lower levels of patient satisfaction. Provider characteristics significantly related to patient satisfaction were listening to the patient, being a specialist, seeing patients in an office setting and being located in the South. This study has shown that patient satisfaction is influenced by a person's self-perceived health status and other personal characteristics that are external to the delivery of health care. These findings suggest that patient satisfaction data should be used judiciously because a significant portion of the variation may be attributed to factors endogenous to the patient and therefore are not amenable to provider intervention.

  4. Urbanization and mental health: psychiatric morbidity, suicide and violence in the State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J

    1979-06-01

    Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world with over 85% of the population living in metropolitan and other urban areas. More important, the change from a predominantly rural society to an urbanized society has occurred within the last 100 years. To assess the effects of urbanization on mental health, rates of admissions to psychiatric institutions, suicides and violent crime in Victoria have been analysed for the last hundred years. Data on admissions to psychiatric facilities in Victoria from metropolitan, other urban and rural areas, as well as results of community health surveys carried out in metropolitan and rural areas were compared to examine for evidence of urban-rural differences in psychiatric morbidity. The findings do not support the notion that the level of psychiatric and psychosocial disorders in Victoria are related to urbanization or to urban living.

  5. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Negeri, Gutema; Haile Mariam,Damen

    2016-01-01

    Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this stud...

  6. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Clement C; Ehizele, Adebola O; Umoh, Agnes; Ojehanon, Patrick I; Akhionbare, Osagie; Okechukwu, Robinson; Igbinosa, Lawrence

    2010-03-15

    To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3%) rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5%) agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life. Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%), tooth restoration (10.3%), to extraction (1.2%). This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.

  7. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C. Azodo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in training and dental technology students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental need. Results: The perception of oral health status and treatment need of the two groups of dental auxiliaries was the same. Fewer respondents (27.3% rated their oral health as excellent, while 50.4% rated their oral health as good. Majority (95.5% agreed that oral health is a part of general health and 94.6% agreed that oral health has a role in daily life.Out of 81.4% that had previous dental treatment, scaling and polishing accounted for 66.1%. Presently, 48.8% think they need dental treatment ranging from scaling and polishing (33.9%, tooth restoration (10.3%, to extraction (1.2%. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the students are aware that oral health is a component of general health and that it has an impact on an individual's daily life. More than half of the students perceived their oral health as good, but only a few knew that there is a need for a preventive approach to oral health as evident by the percentage that perceived scaling and polishing as a treatment need.

  8. Status of iodized salt coverage in urban slums of Cuttack City, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Ansuman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, it is necessary to consume adequately iodized salt on a regular basis and optimal iodine nutrition can be achieved through universal salt iodization. Objective: To assess the extent of use of adequately iodized salt in the urban slums of Cuttack. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random multi-stage cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional study involving 336 households and 33 retail shops selected randomly from 11 slums of Cuttack was conducted in 2005. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to obtain relevant information and salt iodine was estimated qualitatively by using a spot testing kit and quantitatively using the iodometric titration method. Statistical Analysis: Proportion, Chi-square test. Results: Only 60.1% of the households in urban slums of Cuttack were using adequately iodized salt i.e., the iodine level in the salt was ≥15 ppm. Iodine deficiency was significantly marked in sample salts collected from katcha houses as compared with salts collected from pucca houses. Households with low financial status were using noniodized/inadequately-iodized salt. Both crystalline and refined salts were sold at all retail shops. Crystalline salts collected from all retailers had an iodine content < 15 ppm and refined salts collected from one retailer had iodine content < 15 ppm. About 48.5% of salt samples collected from retail shops were adequately iodized. Conclusion: In the urban slums of Cuttack, retailers were selling crystalline salts, which were inadequately iodized- this would be a setback in the progress towards eliminating IDD.

  9. Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among the Urban Adult Population in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, M; Shalini, T; Balakrishna, N; Sudarshan, M; Lopamudra, P; Suryanarayana, P; Arlappa, N; Ravikumar, B P; Radhika, M S; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) leads to a wide spectrum of disorders that affect all age groups. However, reports on B12 and FA status in healthy adults in India are limited. Hence, we determined the plasma levels and dietary intake of B12 and FA in the adult population. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in an urban setup among 630 apparently healthy adults distributed into 3 age groups: 21-40, 41-60 and >60 years. Plasma concentrations of B12 and FA were analyzed by radio immunoassay and dietary intake by 24-hour recall method. The overall prevalence of FA deficiency was 12%, but there was no significant difference in plasma FA concentrations among the groups. While the overall prevalence of B12 deficiency was 35%, it was significantly higher in the 21-40 (44%) and 41-60 age groups (40%) when compared with the >60 group (30%). B12 deficiency was higher in vegetarians (54%) compared to those consuming mixed diet (31%), and the reverse was the case with FA. However, the dietary intakes of FA and B12 were not significantly different among the groups. These results indicate a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency in apparently healthy adults in an urban setup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Predictors of burnout and health status in Samaritans' listening volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Adeline; Ogden, Jane

    2017-12-01

    Samaritan listening volunteers provide emotional support to people in distress or suicidal. Samaritans' has high volunteer turnover, which may be due to burnout. This study evaluated the role of demographic and psychosocial factors in predicting Samaritans listening volunteers' burnout and health status. Samaritans' listening volunteers (n = 216) from seven branches across UK completed an online survey to assess their levels of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, personal accomplishment), subjective health status, coping, empathy and social support. Overall, listeners showed low levels of burnout and good health. Regression analysis revealed that higher emotional exhaustion was predicted by younger age and avoidant coping style; higher depersonalisation was predicted by lower empathy fantasy and higher avoidant coping style; lower personal accomplishment scores were predicted by higher empathy personal distress and worse health status was predicted by more hours per week spent on listening duties, lower social support and higher avoidant coping style. Overall, different factors influenced different facets of burnout. However, higher use of avoidant coping style consistently predicted higher burnout and worse health status, suggesting avoidant coping is an important target for intervention.

  11. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical health care system, rural-urban disparities would seem obvious. .... have led to the development and onset of the illness and cure/controllability, what the ..... and then went back for the result but the nurse that I saw said that I should ...

  12. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  13. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  14. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  15. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level Nível de pobreza e estado de saúde das crianças: um estudo de fatores de risco em população urbana de baixo nível socioeconômico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M.S. Issler

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.Para testar a hipótese de que a população de baixo nível socioeconômico apresenta diferentes níveis de pobreza que repercutem em seu estado de saúde, foi realizado estudo transversal envolvendo 477 famílias de uma população urbana pobre residente na Vila Grande Cruzeiro, em Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. O nível de pobreza dessas famílias foi medido por meio de um instrumento especialmente elaborado para populações urbanas pobres. Crianças oriundas de famílias vivendo em extrema pobreza (quartil inferior apresentaram maior taxa de mortalidade infantil, menor peso de nascimento, maior número de internações hospitalares e maiores índices de desnutrição, além de pertencerem a famílias mais numerosas. A população de baixo nível socioeconômico mostrou-se heterogênea em relação a diferentes indicadores de saúde. Concluiu-se que a identificação de subgrupos mais vulneráveis numa população permite concentrar as ações de saúde entre os mais necessitados.

  16. Relation between Observed and Perceived Traffic Noise and Socio-Economic Status in Urban Blocks of Different Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte von Szombathely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living in cities offers many benefits and thus more and more people are living in urban areas. However, the concentration of human activities also creates environmental stressors with severe influence on people’s health and well-being. Noise is an environmental stressor with known health impact. Despite this, studies investigating small-scale difference in noise exposure and annoyance are lacking. Against this background, this case study investigates environmental justice empirically, focusing on the distribution of road traffic noise and its perception in Hamburg, Germany. The study outlines a methodological approach that takes into account subjective and objective measures of exposure in small-scale residential blocks. The results show that annoyance by noise is clearly related to noise emission. Moreover, different groups are affected by noise pollution in our study area unequally. In particular, younger people and people with lower socio-economic status have higher probabilities to be affected by noise. Additionally, it emerged that participants reporting higher levels of annoyance from noise are on average younger than those feeling less annoyed. Overall, these results show that the current legal noise limits applicable to residential planning processes in German cities are not sufficient to prevent substantial annoyance effects in residential populations.

  17. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the

  18. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  19. Urbanization, economic development and health: evidence from China's labor-force dynamic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Li, Zhigang; Xue, Desheng

    2017-11-29

    The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood. To bridge these gaps, the present study investigates the impact of both urbanization and economic development on individuals' self-rated health and its underlying mechanisms in China. We use data from the national scale of the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey to analyze the impact of China's urbanization and economic development on health. A total of 14,791 individuals were sampled from 401 neighborhoods within 124 prefecture-level cities. Multilevel ordered logistic models were applied. Model results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between individuals' self-rated health and urbanization rates (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 42.0%) and a positive linear relationship between their self-rated health and economic development. Model results also suggested that the urbanization-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and middle-income people (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 0.0% and 49.2%, respectively), and the development-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and low-income people (with turning points of GDP per capita at 93,462 yuan and 71,333 yuan, respectively) and linear for middle-income people. The impact of urbanization and economic development on health in China is complicated. Careful assessments are needed to understand the health impact of China's rapid urbanization. Social and environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and economic growth

  20. Health impacts of ultraviolet radiation in urban ecosystems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Gordon M.

    2005-08-01

    This paper explores the literature on ultraviolet irradiance (UV) in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures. In examining the literature, special attention was given to seeking information on the question of whether it is important that shade be provided for elementary school play areas, and if so, how should it be accomplished? Before such practical questions could be dealt with, it became obvious that answers to several pertinent secondary questions had to be sought. Foremost of these was, what are the negative and positive health effects of UV exposure? Recent epidemiological findings of apparent benefits of sunlight because of vitamin-D photosynthesis and resulting anti-cancer effects make this highly relevant. Another basic question is that of trends in ozone depletion, which leads to interesting questions of long-term trends, short-term extremes, and urban influences on UV irradiance. A host of these and other pertinent questions, such as, "What is the relationship between climate of a location and dress," i.e., "How much exposure will people receive during time spent outdoors?" require much more study. Judging from current knowledge of typical spectra of solar radiation in tree shade and the difference between the action spectra for vitamin D synthesis and erythema in human skin, exposure to solar radiation in tree shade for a short period of time can be somewhat more beneficial for vitamin D synthesis and regulation than detrimental in producing sunburn.

  1. Impact of marital status on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2017-11-01

    The Farr-Bertillon law states that the mortality rate of single and widowed persons is about three times the rate of married people of same age. This excess mortality can be measured with good accuracy for all ages except for young widowers. The reason is that, at least nowadays, very few people become widowed under the age of 30. Here we show that disability data from census records can also be used as a reliable substitute for mortality rates. In fact excess-disability and excess-mortality go hand in hand. Moreover, as there are about ten times more cases of disability than deaths, the disability variable is able to offer more accurate measurements in all cases where the number of deaths is small. This allows a more accurate investigation of the young widower effect; it confirms that, as already suspected from death rate data, there is a huge spike between the ages of 20 and 30. By using disability rates we can also study additional features not accessible using death rate data. For example we can examine the health impact of a change in living place. The observed temporary inflated disability rate confirms what could be expected by invoking the ;Transient Shock; conjecture formuladted by the authors in a previous paper. Finally, in another observation it is shown that the disability rate of newly married persons is higher than for those who have been married for more than one year, a result which comes in confirmation of the ;newly married couple; effect reported in an earlier paper.

  2. Impact of the rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2008-01-01

    By 1979, 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Oral Health status and influential factors in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to comparatively analyze oral health status and influential factors in children with autism living in the Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Subjects and Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in two steps: 1 ‑ questionnaire and 2 ‑ interview. This study was conducted ...

  4. Oral health status and diet habit of institutionalized elder group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and diet habits of institutionalized elders in Lagos, Nigeria Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized elders in Lagos State, Nigeria. Age and sex matched non-institutionalized elderly were also ...

  5. Physical activity patterns, dietary intake and health status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health status based on lifestyle-related disease is a concern in many developing countries, including Kenya. Factors related to such disease conditions, are important in ensuring economic sustainability in future. Currently there is limited research in this area. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship ...

  6. Strategies for Promoting Nutritional and Health Status of Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at investigating the causes of poor nutritional and health status of students in higher institutions in Nigeria and the measures for improvement for sustainable national development. The population comprised nurses, medical doctors, nutritionists, Home Economics lecturers, post graduate students; ...

  7. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and

  8. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part II. Infant mortality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here a high infant mortality rate is examined against a low prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and syphilis and some of the effects of migrant labour on the health status of migrant hostel dwellers are identified. The low prevalence of disease among the Cape Town hostel residents suggests that migrant labour, by sifting ...

  9. Health status in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a promising treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, a subgroup of patients still report impaired health status, cardiac symptoms, and feelings of disability following CRT. The aims of this study were to examine (1) whether CHF patients treated...

  10. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...

  11. Trends of Mental Health Status in Iranian Population Aged 15 and above between 1999 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Kamali, Koorosh; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Hajebi, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Esalatmanesh, Sophia; Bagheri Yazdi, HanihalSadat; Abbasinejad, Maryam; Asadi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the results of mental health surveys on adult populations of all provinces in Iran, between 1999 and 2015. This study was an overview of two cross-sectional, descriptive studies that were performed in 1999 and 2015. The study population of these two studies consisted of urban and rural residents of all provinces in Iran. Samples were recruited by systematic random cluster sampling. In both studies, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to assess mental health status of respondents. Trained psychologists completed questionnaires, and data were analyzed using SPSS software-18. The results showed that in the survey of 1999, 21% of participants suffered from mental disorders (25.9% of females and 14.9% of males). In the survey of 2015, 23.4% of samples were suspected of having mental disorders (27.6% of females and 19.3% of males). The prevalence of mental disorders increased from 1999 to 2014 by about 1.12 fold (1.06 fold in females and 1.3 fold in males). In the survey of 1999, rural residents were more at risk of mental disorders, while in the survey of 2015, urban residents were more prone to mental disorders. In both studies, the risk of suspicion for mental disorders increased with increasing age, and was higher in people aged 65 and above, as well as widowed, divorced and illiterate individuals. The results of this study showed an increase in suspected cases of mental disorders in Iran from 1999 to 2015. Therefore, it is vital for policymakers and health officials to take action in order to improve and maintain mental health status of the people who are at risk in the country.

  12. The Relationship between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms in Urban Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.

    2008-01-01

    Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depres...

  13. The DRUID study: racism and self-assessed health status in an indigenous population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is now considerable evidence from around the world that racism is associated with both mental and physical ill-health. However, little is known about the mediating factors between racism and ill-health. This paper investigates relationships between racism and self-assessed mental and physical health among Indigenous Australians as well as potential mediators of these relationships. Methods A total of 164 adults in the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID) study completed a validated instrument assessing interpersonal racism and a separate item on discrimination-related stress. Self-assessed health status was measured using the SF-12. Stress, optimism, lack of control, social connections, cultural identity and reactions/responses to interpersonal racism were considered as mediators and moderators of the relationship between racism/discrimination and self-assessed health status. Results After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, interpersonal racism was significantly associated with the SF-12 mental (but not the physical) health component. Stress, lack of control and feeling powerless as a reaction to racism emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between racism and general mental health. Similar findings emerged for discrimination-related stress. Conclusions Racism/discrimination is significantly associated with poor general mental health among this indigenous population. The mediating factors between racism and mental health identified in this study suggest new approaches to ameliorating the detrimental effects of racism on health. In particular, the importance of reducing racism-related stress, enhancing general levels of mastery, and minimising negative social connections in order to ameliorate the negative consequences of racism. PMID:22333047

  14. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%, 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%, reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%, presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7% and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%. More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4% and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%. Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%. Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females. In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females. Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease.

  15. Consequences of urban pollution on health; Consequences de la pollution urbaine sur la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Agence pour la Protection de l' Environnement de l' Etat de Lagos, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency - Lasepa (Nigeria)

    2002-11-01

    This article treats of the urbanization process in Africa and of the direct impact of urban pollution on people's health. After a description of the spectacular growth of urban populations in Africa since 1970, the author focusses on the experience of Nigeria and on the city of Lagos: urbanization causes, demographic growth, origins of urban pollution (road traffic, uncontrolled wastes tipping, sanitary conditions) and different types of pollution (atmospheric, hydric, domestic wastes, noise, heat..). The second part of the article deals with the impact of this urban pollution on the public health in conditions of overpopulation: domestic environment, diseases linked with water quality, diseases transmission, accidents, occupational diseases. This analysis stresses on the lack of urban management and development policies in Nigeria, and on the lack of a representative, liable and competent public authority. (J.S.)

  16. Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al. ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development.

  17. [RIU project: perceived changes by health agents and professionals after a health intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviñó, Dory; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; La Parra Casado, Daniel; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    To describe how health agents and professionals working in a community project perceive the changes related to the population health status and their use of health-care services after the RIU intervention in an urban area of socioeconomic disadvantage. A qualitative descriptive study based on individual and group interviews and participant observation conducted between October 2008-July 2009. Raval (Algemesí-Valencia) We selected by purposive sample 7 women health agents, all persons who completed the intervention, and 10 professionals for their involvement in the intervention. We conducted a group interview with the women at 6 months and a group and 7 individuals interviews both at 9 months of intervention. We realized a thematic descriptive analysis from health promotion framework. We used participant observation in a meeting with professionals at 9 months and analyzed field notes as: appraisal project, detected changes, challenges and recommendations. Women acquired information about health, contraception, pregnancy and heath services; they noted changes in self-care and social skills and leadership; they internalized the role of health worker disseminating what they learned and showed improvement in self-esteem and social recognition. They caused changes in the people related on health care and access to services. Professionals didn't incorporate at their work the community perspective; they valued positively the project; professionals and women agreed on improving access and use of services and closeness population-professionals. RIU increases the capabilities of the participants, their social recognition and improves access and use of health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  19. Urban Sustainability and Public Health: Throwing the Bath Water Out and Not the Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the affect of urbanization on community health. It exams urbanization trends in the Atlanta metro area and includes information on impervious surfaces, air quality, mitigation strategies, spatial growth modeling, land use, public health surveillance and different data collection methods.

  20. Oral health status of children with autistic disorder in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu Rekha, C; Arangannal, P; Shahed, H

    2012-06-01

    To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.

  1. Effect of lifestyle, education and socioeconomic status on periodontal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Rupasree; Chava, Vijay K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The health model which forms the basis is knowledge, attitude, temporary, and permanent behaviors. Currently, more emphasis has been directed towards the combined influence of lifestyle, education, levels and socioeconomic factors, instead of regular risk factors in dealing with chronic illnesses. The present study is conducted to correlate the periodontal health of people with reference to lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, Narayana Dental College and Hospital, Nellore. A total of 1350 subjects were examined and 948 patients were randomly selected from out patient department. Information about their lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status were recorded using a questionnaire and correlated with the periodontal status. Results: The statistical analysis showed significant decrease in periodontitis when income and education levels increased. Also the prevalence of periodontitis associated with a healthy lifestyle is significantly lower when compared to an unhealthy lifestyle. Conclusions: There is a strong association of lifestyle, education level, and socioeconomic status with periodontal health. PMID:22114373

  2. Urban Forest Health Monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke; Jeffery T. Walton; Daniel E. Crane; Anne Cumming; Jack C. Stevens

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the urban forest resource and its numerous values, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service has initiated a pilot program to sample the urban tree population in Indiana, Wisconsin, and New Jersey and statewide urban street tree populations in Maryland, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts. Results from the pilot study in Indiana revealed that...

  3. [Self-perceived health status among immigrants in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Alessio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Rossi, Alessandra; Gargiulo, Lidia; Mirisola, Concetta; Costanzo, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate self-perceived health status of immigrants in Italy. cross-sectional study based on the representative national samples of the multipurpose surveys "Health conditions and use of health services" conducted in 2005 and 2013 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). the study was conducted on the age group of 18-64: No. 80,661 in 2005, among which 3.2% were immigrants, and No. 72,476 in 2013, among which 7.1% were immigrants. prevalence rate ratios (PRR) calculated through log-binomial regression models, stratified by survey edition and gender, by evaluating the association between the Physical Component Score (PCS), the Mental Component Score (MCS), and the overall health index and citizenship. Adjustment for the following confounding factors was performed: age, educational level, working condition, perceived economic resources, body mass index (BMI). in 2005, immigrants had a lower probability of poor-perceived physical health, both among men (PRR: 0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.89) and women (PRR: 0.89; 95%CI 0.82- 0.97), compared to Italians. In 2013, the perceived health advantage of immigrants was reduced for both genders (PRR males: 0.87; 95%CI 0.80-0.95; PRR females: 0.94; 95%CI 0.88-0.99). In the considered period, the prevalence of people with worse mental health conditions increases, with lower PRR among immigrants, compared to Italians. Higher probability of «NOT good» overall perceived health was also observed among immigrants residing in Italy for at least 10 years (PRR men: 1.24; PRR women: 1.15) and among immigrants men from America (PRR: 1.35). from 2005 to 2013, immigrants seemed to maintain a better perception of health status than Italians. Nevertheless, study results show a decrease in self-perceived health, particularly mental health, in the considered period - apart from demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors - as well as a worse overall self-perceived health status among immigrants who stayed in Italy longer. Such

  4. International Students: A Comparison of Health Status and Physical Health before and after Coming to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…

  5. Health and functional status among older people with HIV/AIDS in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Francien

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1 HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART for at least 1 year; 2 HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3 older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4 older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5 older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and

  6. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negeri KG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results: Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000 in the region. Conclusion: Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: health aid, infant mortality, developing countries, panel data

  7. A review on child and maternal health status of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.

  8. Pathways of Economic Inequalities in Maternal and Child Health in Urban India: A Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goli, Srinivas; Doshi, Riddhi; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequa...

  9. The association of employment status and family status with health among women and men in four Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, E; Lahelma, E; Saastamoinen, P; Elstad, J-I

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic countries have relatively equal employment participation between men and women, but some differences between countries exist in labour market participation. The aim was to examine the association between employment status and health among women and men in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and analyse whether this association is modified by marital status and parental status. The data come from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Denmark (n = 2,209), Finland (n = 4,604), Norway (n = 1,844) and Sweden (n = 5,360) in 1994-95. Women and men aged 25-49 were included. Employment status was categorized into full-time employed, part-time employed, unemployed, and housewives among women and into employed and unemployed among men. Health was measured by perceived health and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age and education. Marital status and parental status were analysed as modifying factors. The non-employed were more likely to report perceived health as below good and limiting longstanding illness than the employed among both women and men. The association between employment status and perceived health remained unchanged when marital status and parental status were adjusted for among all men and Finnish women, but the association was slightly strengthened among Danish and Swedish women, with the housewives becoming more likely to report ill health than employed women. The association between employment status and limiting longstanding illness was slightly strengthened among women, and slightly weakened among Norwegian men when marital and parental status were adjusted for. Non-employment was associated with poorer health in all countries, although there are differences in the employment patterns between the countries. Among women marital status and parental status showed a modest or no influence on the association between employment status and health. Among men there was no

  10. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Social conditions and urban health inequities: realities, challenges and opportunities to transform the urban landscape through research and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Snyder, V Nelly Salgado; Friel, Sharon; Fotso, Jean Christophe; Khadr, Zeinab; Meresman, Sergio; Monge, Patricia; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita

    2011-12-01

    The process of urbanization entails social improvements with the consequential better quality-of-life for urban residents. However, in many low-income and some middle-income countries, urbanization conveys inequality and exclusion, creating cities and dwellings characterized by poverty, overcrowded conditions, poor housing, severe pollution, and absence of basic services such as water and sanitation. Slums in large cities often have an absence of schools, transportation, health centers, recreational facilities, and other such amenities. Additionally, the persistence of certain conditions, such as poverty, ethnic heterogeneity, and high population turnover, contributes to a lowered ability of individuals and communities to control crime, vandalism, and violence. The social vulnerability in health is not a "natural" or predefined condition but occurs because of the unequal social context that surrounds the daily life of the disadvantaged, and often, socially excluded groups. Social exclusion of individuals and groups is a major threat to development, whether to the community social cohesion and economic prosperity or to the individual self-realization through lack of recognition and acceptance, powerlessness, economic vulnerability, ill health, diminished life experiences, and limited life prospects. In contrast, social inclusion is seen to be vital to the material, psychosocial, and political aspects of empowerment that underpin social well-being and equitable health. Successful experiences of cooperation and networking between slum-based organizations, grassroots groups, local and international NGOs, and city government are important mechanisms that can be replicated in urban settings of different low- and middle-income countries. With increasing urbanization, it is imperative to design health programs for the urban poor that take full advantage of the social resources and resourcefulness of their own communities.

  12. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  13. Rethinking the relationship between socioeconomic status and health: Challenging how socioeconomic status is currently used in health inequality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Thierry; Ghenadenik, Adrian E

    2018-02-01

    The Scandinavian Journal of Public Health recently reiterated the importance of addressing social justice and health inequalities in its new editorial policy announcement. One of the related challenges highlighted in that issue was the limited use of sociological theories able to inform the complexity linking the resources and mechanisms captured by the concept of socioeconomic status. This debate article argues that part of the problem lies in the often unchallenged reliance on a generic conceptualization and operationalization of socioeconomic status. These practices hinder researchers' capacity to examine in finer detail how resources and circumstances promote the unequal distribution of health through distinct yet intertwined pathways. As a potential way forward, this commentary explores how research practices can be challenged through concrete publication policies and guidelines. To this end, we propose a set of recommendations as a tool to strengthen the study of socioeconomic status and, ultimately, the quality of health inequality research. Authors, reviewers, and editors can become champions of change toward the implementation of sociological theory by holding higher standards regarding the conceptualization, operationalization, analysis, and interpretation of results in health inequality research.

  14. Employee Health Behaviors, Self-Reported Health Status, and Association With Absenteeism: Comparison With the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.

  15. Psychosocial adaptation status and health-related quality of life among older Chinese adults with visual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2009-09-01

    To examine the association of psychosocial adaptation status with vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the role of psychosocial adaptation in the linkage between visual impairment and vision-specific HRQOL outcomes among older adults with visual disorders. In this cross-sectional study, older urban adults with visual problems (N = 167) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess their self-reported visual function, general health, psychosocial adaptation status, and vision-specific HRQOL. Performance-based measure of visual function marked by distance visual acuity was clinically conducted by ophthalmologists. It was found in the study that psychosocial adaptation status was significantly associated with vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of mental health symptoms due to vision and dependency on others due to vision. The results also showed that psychosocial adaptation status could buffer the effect of visual impairment on vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of social function, mental health, and dependency. Psychosocial adaptation status is significantly associated with multiple domains of vision-specific HRQOL. The findings have significant implications for health education and psychosocial intervention for older adults with age-related vision loss.

  16. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim final rules with...

  17. Perceived health status and life satisfaction in old age, and the moderating role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Cristina G; Rubio, Laura; Rubio-Herrera, Ramona

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was on one hand to examine the associations between health impairment and life satisfaction, as well as social support and life satisfaction, and on the other, to analyze the moderating effect of social support with regard to health impairment and life satisfaction in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from urban areas of Granada, southern Spain. This was a cross-sectional survey in which a sample of 406 older adults with ages between 65 and 99 years old (M age = 74.88, SD = 6.75) was selected. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to assess the impact of health impairment and perceived social support on life satisfaction. Moderation analysis was performed using the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping approach. Significant differences in life satisfaction scores were found by number and type of disease, restrictions in daily life activities and subjective health. Perceived health and perceived social support predicted life satisfaction. Besides global social support, emotional and affectionate support moderated the link between perceived health and life satisfaction. Older people who do not rate their health status positively and indicate low levels of social support have a higher risk of being dissatisfied with their lives and due to this they should receive special attention from gerontologists.

  18. A comparative study on gender disparity in nutritional status in children under five years in rural and urban communities of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Yesmin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Under nutrition is a serious public health problem among children in the developing countries. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists, whether implicit or explicit, in nutrition and child care both in the rural and urban areas.  Different underlying factors are responsible for this disparity. Rationale: Girls face discrimination from the moment she is born. The UNICEF intergenerational cycle of malnutrition stresses on the fact that the problem of malnutrition spans generation and is a vicious cycle. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists. Therefore this study is conducted to document the gender disparity in nutritional status and compare rural and urban differences. Objective: 1.To compare the gender disparity in nutritional status in children aged 0-5 years in rural and urban areas.2.To assess the different socio-demographic factors influencing the gender disparity. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kamrup Rural and Kamrup Urban using a pre-tested schedule from August 2013-July 2014.A total of 400 children were examined and their mother’s interviewed. Data was entered into MS-Excel spread sheets for analysis. The statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 16 software. Percentages and Chi square tests were used to analyze epidemiological variables. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting in rural area was 31%, 29%, 15.5% respectively whereas in urban it was 39.5%, 36% and 24.5% respectively. In rural area, male child were 32% underweight, 28% stunted and 19% wasted compared to female who were 30% underweight, 30% stunted and 12% wasted. In urban area 48% of female child were underweight, 39% stunted and 27% wasted compared to 31%, 33% and 22% in male child respectively. A significant higher proportion of

  19. A comparative study on gender disparity in nutritional status in children under five years in rural and urban communities of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Yesmin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Under nutrition is a serious public health problem among children in the developing countries. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists, whether implicit or explicit, in nutrition and child care both in the rural and urban areas.  Different underlying factors are responsible for this disparity. Rationale: Girls face discrimination from the moment she is born. The UNICEF intergenerational cycle of malnutrition stresses on the fact that the problem of malnutrition spans generation and is a vicious cycle. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists. Therefore this study is conducted to document the gender disparity in nutritional status and compare rural and urban differences. Objective: 1.To compare the gender disparity in nutritional status in children aged 0-5 years in rural and urban areas.2.To assess the different socio-demographic factors influencing the gender disparity. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kamrup Rural and Kamrup Urban using a pre-tested schedule from August 2013-July 2014.A total of 400 children were examined and their mother’s interviewed. Data was entered into MS-Excel spread sheets for analysis. The statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 16 software. Percentages and Chi square tests were used to analyze epidemiological variables. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting in rural area was 31%, 29%, 15.5% respectively whereas in urban it was 39.5%, 36% and 24.5% respectively. In rural area, male child were 32% underweight, 28% stunted and 19% wasted compared to female who were 30% underweight, 30% stunted and 12% wasted. In urban area 48% of female child were underweight, 39% stunted and 27% wasted compared to 31%, 33% and 22% in male child respectively. A significant higher proportion of

  20. Association of vitamin D status with incidence of enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli diarrhoea in children of urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M S; Soares Magalhaes, R J; Long, K Z; Ahmed, T; Alam, Md A; Hossain, Md I; Islam, Md M; Mahfuz, M; Mondal, D; Haque, R; Mamun, A A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the association between vitamin D status and diarrhoeal episodes by enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli in underweight and normal-weight children aged 6-24 months in urban Bangladesh. Cohorts of 446 normal-weight and 466 underweight children were tested separately for ETEC, EPEC and EAEC from diarrhoeal stool samples collected during 5 months of follow-up while considering vitamin D status at enrolment as the exposure. Cox proportional hazards models with unordered failure events of the same type were used to determine diarrhoeal risk factors after adjusting for sociodemographic and concurrent micronutrient status. Vitamin D status was not independently associated with the risk of incidence of ETEC, EPEC and EAEC diarrhoea in underweight children, but moderate-to-severe retinol deficiency was associated with reduced risk for EPEC diarrhoea upon adjustment. Among normal-weight children, insufficient vitamin D status and moderate-to-severe retinol deficiency were independently associated with 44% and 38% reduced risk of incidence of EAEC diarrhoea, respectively. These children were at higher risk of ETEC diarrhoea with vitamin D deficiency status when adjusted for micronutrient status only. This study demonstrates for the first time that normal-weight children with insufficient vitamin D status have a reduced risk of EAEC diarrhoea than children with sufficient status. Moderate-to-severe deficiency of serum retinol is associated with reduced risk of EPEC and EAEC diarrhoea in underweight and normal-weight children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523 to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin, to ”good” health (white British, and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups, labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME

  2. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin), to ”good” health (white British), and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this

  3. Urbanization and health in China, thinking at the national, local and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhu; Song, Jinchao; Lin, Tao; Dixon, Jane; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Hong

    2016-03-08

    China has the biggest population in the world, and has been experiencing the largest migration in history, and its rapid urbanization has profound and lasting impacts on local and national public health. Under these conditions, a systems understanding on the correlation among urbanization, environmental change and public health and to devise solutions at national, local and individual levels are in urgent need. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of recent studies which have examined the relationship between urbanization, urban environmental changes and human health in China. Based on the review, coupled with a systems understanding, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for promoting the health and wellbeing of the whole nation at national, local, and individual levels. Urbanization and urban expansion result in urban environmental changes, as well as residents' lifestyle change, which can lead independently and synergistically to human health problems. China has undergone an epidemiological transition, shifting from infectious to chronic diseases in a much shorter time frame than many other countries. Environmental risk factors, particularly air and water pollution, are a major contributing source of morbidity and mortality in China. Furthermore, aging population, food support system, and disparity of public service between the migrant worker and local residents are important contributions to China's urban health. At the national level, the central government could improve current environmental policies, food safety laws, and make adjustments to the health care system and to demographic policy. At the local level, local government could incorporate healthy life considerations in urban planning procedures, make improvements to the local food supply, and enforce environmental monitoring and management. At the individual level, urban residents can be exposed to education regarding health behaviour choices while being encouraged to take

  4. Differences in health status and health behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. METHODS: The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participate...

  5. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...

  6. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Va, Puthiery; Yang, Wan-Shui; Nechuta, Sarah; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Gao, Shan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality. We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality. Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  7. Marital status and mortality among middle age and elderly men and women in urban Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiery Va

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality.We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2009 and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002-2009, two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40-70 years and 61,500 men aged 40-74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09. Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13 and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86 in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88 and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54 mortality.Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women.

  8. Misperception of weight status in the pacific: preliminary findings in rural and urban 11- to 16-year-olds of New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Frayon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent obesity is prevalent in Pacific region ethnic groups (European, Melanesian and Polynesian living in both urban and rural areas. Although body perception is an important factor of weight gain or loss, little is known about the body self-perceptions of Pacific region adolescents. This study therefore evaluated adolescent perceptions of body weight according to ethnicity (European, Melanesian or Polynesian, socioeconomic status (low, intermediate or high and living area (rural or urban in New Caledonia. Methods Sociodemographic and anthropomorphic data from 737 adolescents (351 boys and 386 girls with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years were collected and analysed. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF standards were used to define weight status as normal-weight, underweight or overweight/obese. Weight perception was assessed from detailed questionnaires, with adolescents rating their own weight with the following descriptors: ‘about the right weight’, ‘too heavy’, or ‘too light’. Results Results showed that only 8.5% of normal-weight adolescents (7% boys and 10% girls identifying themselves as ‘too heavy’. Normal-weight Melanesian adolescents were less likely than their European counterparts to assess themselves as too heavy (OR = 0.357. However, half the overweight/obese adolescents underestimated their weight status (53% boys and 48% girls. Weight misperception was associated with ethnicity, socioeconomic status and living area, with gender-specific differences. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that these sociodemographic factors should be taken into account when designing public health policies and health education school programmes in New Caledonia and, more broadly, the Pacific region.

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities and determinants of oral hygiene status among Urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manu Raj; Tsakos, Georgios; Parmar, Priyanka; Millett, Christopher J; Watt, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    To assess the socioeconomic inequalities in oral hygiene and to explore the role of various socioeconomic and psychosocial factors as determinants of these inequalities among adolescents residing in Delhi National Capital Territory. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1386 adolescents aged 12-15 years from three different socioeconomic groups according to their area of residence (middle-class areas, resettlement colonies and urban slum colonies). Level of oral hygiene was examined clinically using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to measure key socio-demographic variables and psychosocial and health-related behaviours. Logistic regression analysis tested the association between area of residence and poor oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene was observed in 50.2% of the adolescents. There was a socioeconomic gradient in poor oral hygiene, with higher prevalence observed at each level of deprivation. These differences were only partly explained, and the differences between adolescent groups remained statistically significant after adjusting for various demographic variables, standard of living, social capital, social support and health-affecting behaviours (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.30-2.76; and OR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.60-3.92 for adolescents from resettlement colonies and urban slums, respectively, than middle-class adolescents). Area of residence emerged as a strong socioeconomic predictor of prevalence of poor oral hygiene among Indian adolescents. Various material, psychosocial and behavioural factors did not fully explain the observed inequalities in poor oral hygiene among different adolescent groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nutritional status among the Shabar tribal children living in urban, rural and forest habitats of Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Chakrabarty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The current trend towards increasing urbanization due to urban migration among the scheduled tribes in developing countries like India should be reflected in differential nutritional outcomes and its associated factors. The aims of the present study are to investigate the nutritional status amongst Shabar children living in urban, rural and forest habitats and factors associated to nutritional state.

    Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 577 Shabar children (boys and girls aged 5 to 19 years (258 urban, 195 rural and 124 forest. The anthropometric nutritional indices, socio-economic condition and disease prevalence were used to evaluate the present conditions.

    Results: The results revealed that children from forest regions had the highest prevalence of under-nutrition followed by their rural and urban counterparts, 33.87%, 24.62% and 20.16%, respectively. Malaria prevalence in forest areas and economic conditions in rural and urban habitats might have been significantly related to underweight and stunting.

    Conclusions: To reduce the prevalence and the extent of under-nutrition, it is essential to improve the economic conditions and to simultaneously carry out measurements for reducing malaria specifically in forest habitats.

  11. A new methodology for modelling of health risk from urban flooding exemplified by cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Jørgensen, Claus; Hammond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    outlines a novel methodology for linking dynamic urban flood modelling with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This provides a unique possibility for understanding the interaction between urban flooding and health risk caused by direct human contact with the flood water and hence gives...... and mortality, especially during floods. At present, there are no software tools capable of combining hydrodynamic modelling and health risk analyses, and the links between urban flooding and the health risk for the population due to direct contact with the flood water are poorly understood. The present paper...... an option for reducing the burden of disease in the population by use of intelligent urban flood risk management. The model linking urban flooding and health risk is applied to Dhaka City in Bangladesh, where waterborne diseases including cholera are endemic. The application to Dhaka City is supported...

  12. Health status and health systems financing in the MENA region: roadmap to universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbu, Eyob Zere; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Kaissi, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Since the declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 1990, many countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region made some improvements in maternal and child health and in tackling communicable diseases. The transition to the global agenda of Sustainable Development Goals brings new opportunities for countries to move forward toward achieving progress for better health, well-being, and universal health coverage. This study provides a profile of health status and health financing approaches in the MENA region and their implications on universal health coverage. Time-series data on socioeconomics, health expenditures, and health outcomes were extracted from databases and reports of the World Health Organization, the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program and analyzed using Stata 12 statistical software. Countries were grouped according to the World Bank income categories. Descriptive statistics, tables and charts were used to analyze temporal changes and compare the key variables with global averages. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries account for more than three quarters of the disability-adjusted life years in all but two lower middle-income countries (Sudan and Yemen). Prevalence of risk factors (raised blood glucose, raised blood pressure, obesity and smoking) is higher than global averages and counterparts by income group. Total health expenditure (THE) per capita in most of the countries falls short of global averages for countries under similar income category. Furthermore, growth rate of THE per capita has not kept pace with the growth rate of GDP per capita. Out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) in all but the high-income countries in the group exceeds the threshold for catastrophic spending implying that there is a high risk of households getting poorer as a result of paying for health care. The alarmingly high prevalence of NCDs and injuries and associated risk factors, health spending falling short of the GDP

  13. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...

  14. Community participation to refine measures of socio-economic status in urban slum settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongo, Carrie Jane; Mathingau, Florence Alice; Burke, Heather; Brieger, William; Frick, Kevin; Chapman, Kimberly; Breiman, Robert

    Ownership of household durable assets can be a useful proxy for determining relative socio-economic status in a community, but the assets that should be measured are not always unambiguous. Often the selection of asset variables has been ad hoc or not well explained in the literature. Although the benefits of conducting focus groups to design surveys are widely recognized, the use of focus groups to adapt community-specific asset indices has not previously been reported in Kenya. This article describes how focus group discussions can allow communities to express how residents value assets and distinguish relative wealth. Focus group discussions were conducted within the informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants identified assets that distinguish between the poorest and the least poor in their community. They considered whether they would move away from the slum if they had the opportunity, and many would not, citing reasons ranging from loyalty to the community to greater living expenses on the outside. Local perceptions of relative poverty and mobility provide insight into how quality of life in this setting can be assessed and potentially improved. Moreover, a qualitative approach can lead to the adaptation of a community asset index for use in further research.

  15. Urban health and ecology: the promise of an avian biomonitoring tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lea; Ondrasek, Naomi R; Calisi, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Urban-dwelling birds have the potential to serve as powerful biomonitors that reveal the impact of environmental change due to urbanization. Specifically, urban bird populations can be used to survey cities for factors that may pose both public and wildlife health concerns. Here, we review evidence supporting the use of avian biomonitors to identify threats associated with urbanization, including bioaccumulation of toxicants and the dysregulation of behavior and physiology by related stressors. In addition, we consider the use of birds to examine how factors in the urban environment can impact immunity against communicable pathogens. By studying the behavior, physiology, and ecology of urban bird populations, we can elucidate not only how avian populations are responding to environmental change, but also how unintended consequences of urbanization affect the well-being of human and non-human inhabitants.

  16. Mental health status in patients with Thalassemia major in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Nasiri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia major is a genetic blood disorder that is detected by the symptoms of chronic and severe anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, failure to thrive and bone deformities in particular deformed face and bulging forehead. Due to changes in physical appearance, the disease can influence on other aspects of the patient's life, so the disease can have a strong impact on the mental health of these patients and their families. Previous studies showed that 80% of patients with thalassemia major have at least one psychiatric disorder. The aim of this paper was to review the mental health status of patients with Beta-thalassemia major in Iran.

  17. Language proficiency and health status: are bilingual immigrants healthier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ariela; Kimbro, Rachel T; Gorman, Bridget K

    2012-03-01

    Bilingual immigrants appear to have a health advantage, and identifying the mechanisms responsible for this is of increasing interest to scholars and policy makers in the United States. Utilizing the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS; n = 3,264), we investigate the associations between English and native-language proficiency and usage and self-rated health for Asian and Latino U.S. immigrants from China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The findings demonstrate that across immigrant ethnic groups, being bilingual is associated with better self-rated physical and mental health relative to being proficient in only English or only a native language, and moreover, these associations are partially mediated by socioeconomic status and family support but not by acculturation, stress and discrimination, or health access and behaviors.

  18. Determinants of inequalities in self-perceived health among the urban poor in Kenya: A gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O Eboreime Oikeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Gender health inequalities are largely socially determined. Though perception of health differs between the genders in many societies, little is known of the social determinants of gender inequalities in self-perceived health among the urban poor in developing economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives To identify the social determinants of self-perceived health among the genders in an urban informal settlement in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine the extent of the gender health inequalities. Methods This cross-sectional and observational community based study was carried out between August and November 2012 in Korogocho informal settlement of Nairobi, capital of Kenya; a sub-Saharan African country. Primary data were collected with pre-tested structured questionnaires from randomly selected adults aged 25 to 59 years residing in Korogocho. The independent variables were age, education and employment status. The dependent variable was categorized into poor and good self-perceived health. Data were analyzed with SPSS v 20. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results The mean age (±SD of the 719 participants was 34.2 ± 8.7 years. Women (73.9% of participants were younger on average but were still significantly less educated with higher levels of unemployment than men (all P<0.05. Women also had higher prevalence of poor self-perceived health than men (28.3% vs. 20.7%; P<0.05. Conclusion Though younger, the prevalence of poor health was significantly higher among women who were also more socially disadvantaged in terms of education and employment than men. The findings stress the importance of gender analysis in research and highlight the crying need for gender-informed social policies, strategies and interventions to reduce gender health inequalities among the urban poor.

  19. Green Spaces as an Indicator of Urban Health: Evaluating Its Changes in 28 Mega-Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conghong Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces can yield considerable health benefits to urban residents. Assessing these health benefits is a key step for managing urban green spaces for human health and wellbeing in cities. In this study, we assessed the change of health benefits generated by urban green spaces in 28 megacities worldwide between 2005 and 2015 by using availability and accessibility as proxy indicators. We first mapped land covers of 28 megacities using 10,823 scenes of Landsat images and a random forest classifier running on Google Earth Engine. We then calculated the availability and accessibility of urban green spaces using the land cover maps and gridded population data. The results showed that the mean availability of urban green spaces in these megacities increased from 27.63% in 2005 to 31.74% in 2015. The mean accessibility of urban green spaces increased from 65.76% in 2005 to 72.86% in 2015. The increased availability and accessibility of urban green spaces in megacities have brought more health benefits to their residents.

  20. Oral health status among 12 and 15 year old children from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio‑economic background. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between ...

  1. Urban Physics: Effect of the micro-climate on comfort, health and energy demand

    OpenAIRE

    Moonen, Peter; Defraeye, Thijs; Dorer, Viktor; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The global trend towards urbanisation explains the growing interest in the study of the modification of the urban climate due to the heat island effect and global warming, and its impact on energy use of buildings. Also urban comfort, health and durability, referring respectively to pedestrian wind/thermal comfort, pollutant dispersion and wind-driven rain are of interest. Urban Physics is a well-established discipline, incorporating relevant branches of physics, environmental chemistry, aero...

  2. Health status of UK care home residents: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam Lee; Franklin, Matthew; Bradshaw, Lucy; Logan, Pip; Elliott, Rachel; Gladman, John R F

    2014-01-01

    UK care home residents are often poorly served by existing healthcare arrangements. Published descriptions of residents' health status have been limited by lack of detail and use of data derived from surveys drawn from social, rather than health, care records. to describe in detail the health status and healthcare resource use of UK care home residents a 180-day longitudinal cohort study of 227 residents across 11 UK care homes, 5 nursing and 6 residential, selected to be representative for nursing/residential status and dementia registration. Barthel index (BI), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric index (NPI), Mini-nutritional index (MNA), EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), diagnoses and medications were recorded at baseline and BI, NPI, GHQ-12 and EQ-5D at follow-up after 180 days. National Health Service (NHS) resource use data were collected from databases of local healthcare providers. out of a total of 323, 227 residents were recruited. The median BI was 9 (IQR: 2.5-15.5), MMSE 13 (4-22) and number of medications 8 (5.5-10.5). The mean number of diagnoses per resident was 6.2 (SD: 4). Thirty per cent were malnourished, 66% had evidence of behavioural disturbance. Residents had contact with the NHS on average once per month. residents from both residential and nursing settings are dependent, cognitively impaired, have mild frequent behavioural symptoms, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and frequently use NHS resources. Effective care for such a cohort requires broad expertise from multiple disciplines delivered in a co-ordinated and managed way.

  3. Health Status of Individuals With Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Faith B.; Brown, Clayton H.; Daumit, Gail L.; LiJuan, Fang; Goldberg, Richard W.; Wohlheiter, Karen; Dixon, Lisa B.

    2006-01-01

    We examined indices of the health of persons with serious mental illness. A sample of 100 adults with schizophrenia and 100 with major mood disorder were recruited from randomly selected outpatients who were receiving community-based psychiatric treatment. Participants were surveyed about health indicators using items from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III and the National Health Interview Survey. Their responses were compared with those of matched samples from the general population surveys. A total of 1% of persons with serious mental illness, compared with 10% from the general population sample, met criteria for all 5 of selected health indicators: nonsmoker, exercise that meets recommended standards, good dentition, absence of obesity, and absence of serious medical co-occurring illness. Within the mentally ill group, educational level, but not a diagnosis of schizophrenia versus mood disorder, was independently associated with a composite measure of health behaviors. We conclude that an examination of multiple health indicators may be used to measure overall health status in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:16469943

  4. Urban health. A challenge for the third millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroli, S [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Menditto, A [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Biochimica Clinica

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the bilateral governmental programme for scientific and technical cooperation existing between Italy and Hungary a successful series of biennial Symposia were undertaken since the early 1980s. These were designed to provide scientists of both countries with a permanent forum for the evaluation of ongoing joint projects, the exchange of views on future priorities dealt with by these Symposia always made the participation of prominent scientists from other countries a necessary complement substantially enhancing the international characteristics of such events. Each Symposium features a specific theme of primary importance within the general context of human health and environmental protection. In this respect, the ninth edition of this series of Symposia focuses on the major concerns raised by chemical pollution on all aspects of urban life. More than one half of the world population lives today in big cities, with all the attendant problems as regards air, water and soil quality, safe disposal of urban waste, occupational exposure, in one word, the physical, mental and cultural welfare of citizens at large. All facets concurring to protect and maintain urban health will be thus taken into consideration and highlighted in about forty invited lectures, while posters will be displayed in a permanent session throughout the conference duration. [Italian] Nel quadro degli accordi bilaterali di collaborazione tecnica e scientifica vigenti tra Italia ed Ungheria e' stata intrapresa con successo sin dall'inizio degli anni '80 una serie di simposi a cadenza biennale. Tali manifestazioni hanno lo scopo di fornire agli studiosi di entrambi i paesi un forum permanente per la valutazione dell'andamento dei progetti comuni di ricerca, lo scambio di idee sulle priorita' future e la proposta di nuove iniziative. D'altro canto, la natura sovranazionale dei problemi oggetto di questi simposi ha reso anche necessaria la presenza di qualificati esponenti scientifici di

  5. Urban health. A challenge for the third millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroli, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Menditto, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Biochimica Clinica

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the bilateral governmental programme for scientific and technical cooperation existing between Italy and Hungary a successful series of biennial Symposia were undertaken since the early 1980s. These were designed to provide scientists of both countries with a permanent forum for the evaluation of ongoing joint projects, the exchange of views on future priorities dealt with by these Symposia always made the participation of prominent scientists from other countries a necessary complement substantially enhancing the international characteristics of such events. Each Symposium features a specific theme of primary importance within the general context of human health and environmental protection. In this respect, the ninth edition of this series of Symposia focuses on the major concerns raised by chemical pollution on all aspects of urban life. More than one half of the world population lives today in big cities, with all the attendant problems as regards air, water and soil quality, safe disposal of urban waste, occupational exposure, in one word, the physical, mental and cultural welfare of citizens at large. All facets concurring to protect and maintain urban health will be thus taken into consideration and highlighted in about forty invited lectures, while posters will be displayed in a permanent session throughout the conference duration. [Italian] Nel quadro degli accordi bilaterali di collaborazione tecnica e scientifica vigenti tra Italia ed Ungheria e' stata intrapresa con successo sin dall'inizio degli anni '80 una serie di simposi a cadenza biennale. Tali manifestazioni hanno lo scopo di fornire agli studiosi di entrambi i paesi un forum permanente per la valutazione dell'andamento dei progetti comuni di ricerca, lo scambio di idee sulle priorita' future e la proposta di nuove iniziative. D'altro canto, la natura sovranazionale dei problemi oggetto di questi simposi ha reso anche necessaria la presenza di

  6. The relationship between seven health practices and oral health status in community-dwelling elderly Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Shinada, Kayoko; Wright, Fredrick A C; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to analyse the relationship between seven health practices, oral health behaviors, and oral health status in community dwelling elderly Thai. The subjects were 612 elderly people (mean age = 68.8 ± 5.9 years). Questionnaires survey about sociodemographics, self-reported seven health practices and oral health behaviors were conducted by trained interviewers. Oral examinations investigated the number of teeth present, decayed teeth, periodontal status and functional tooth units (FTUs). Oral malodor was assessed by Organoleptic Test, and unstimulated saliva was collected for 5 min. Five health practices (smoking, drinking, physical activity, breakfast and weight maintenance) were significantly related with oral health behaviors. ancova analysis demonstrated the following significant associations: (i) smoking behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (ii) drinking alcohol behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iii) eating breakfast behavior with periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iv) eating between-meal snack with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth and periodontal disease, (v) maintaining weight with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease and oral malodor, (vi) sleeping with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (vii) physical activity with periodontal disease and salivary flow rate. Good health practices were related with good oral health behaviors. Moreover, general health practices were associated with the clinical oral health status such as number of teeth present, decayed teeth, FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate. The elderly with good general health practices were considered to have good oral health status. Improving general health

  7. Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Filip Holst; Pedersen, Christina Gravgaard; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke

    Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.......Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome....

  8. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  9. Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmers, A; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Gilman, RH; McDermott, AY; Smeeth, L; Miranda, JJ

    2015-01-01

    : To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES ...

  10. Correlates of the health statuses of the faculty at midlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvin Alaan Galeon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R, Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general.

  11. Health Status Measurement Instruments in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lacasse

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.

  12. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  13. 1 POPULATION PRESSURE AND HEALTH RISKS IN URBAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on urban market environment (and in this case, Bodija Market, Ibadan). Particular ... markets in most LDCs have become huge waste production centers. ... market. With about 90 percent of food purchases of urban residents being sourced from .... up a child's excrement in between attending to customers are created. Often ...

  14. Environmental Health in Relation to Urban Planning and Human Physical Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.H.L.; Siti Nur Afiqah Mohamed Musthafa; Dasimah Omar

    2015-01-01

    The world is changing everyday in a fast pace that makes majority of the urbanized areas becoming more congested and polluted by the development. The planning of the urban world has brought about a great impact towards the environment and health. With the large number of human population, urban areas will have various kinds of activities that contributed to the higher rate of pollutants compared to areas with less development. In a car oriented urban development pattern, majority of the population will choose automobiles as their transportation modes rather than walking or cycling. Due to that, the air emission in urban areas will increase rapidly, and reduce the physical activity. Air pollutants contribute to various health problems, especially respiratory infection. Besides, lacking of physical activities also increase the health risk. However, there is limited study on the relationship between urban land use setting and health in developing country. Thus, a study had been carried out to establish the relationship between urban setting and human health. It involved air quality data collection, observation on land use setting, and questionnaire survey on human health and the lifestyle. Findings from the relationship analysis had been discussed with suitable recommendation and conclusion. (author)

  15. Domestic Violence and its Effect on Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Kote, Sunder; Singh, Shilpi; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo; Vashishtha, Vaibhav

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights problem in the world today. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of domestic violence on oral health behavior and oral health status of females attending community outreach programmes in and around Modinagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through the community outreach programmes organized in Modinagar. A structured questionnaire was used to illicit information regarding socio demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and domestic violence. The dental health examination was done to record dental health status, intraoral and extraoral soft tissue injury, tooth fracture and tooth avulsion due to the injury. Results: Out of the total 304 women, 204(67.1%) reported positive domestic violence. Psychological violence was found to be severe whereas sexual violence was found to be mild in most of the cases. Significant difference was found between oral hygiene aids used , frequency of tooth brushing, periodontal status, missing teeth, intraoral soft tissue injuries and fractures between both the groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study confirmed that domestic violence had significant influence on oral health behavior and oral health status of women. Thus, the dental professionals also should make an attempt to help victims gain access to support and referral services and to provide adequate treatment to them so as to make a positive difference in their lives. PMID:25584297

  16. Oral health behavior of parents as a predictor of oral health status of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors of children and their parents. Oral health status of children was examined. The parent and their children oral health relationship were tested using regression and correlation analysis. Results. About 222 parents and children participated in the study. There was a significant relationship between history of having dental problems in parents and dmft index in their children (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between parental frequency of tooth brushing and child frequency of tooth brushing (P = 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between parental frequency of dental visits and those of their children (P = 0.1). Conclusion. The study concluded that some important health behaviors in parents, such as tooth brushing habits are important determinants of these behaviors in their young children. So promoting parent knowledge and attitude could affect their children oral health behavior and status.

  17. Public health evaluation of waste management plan of urban areas of Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Andrea; Lombardi, Lidia; Carpentieri, Matteo; Buiatti, Eva; Bartolacci, Simone; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Linzalone, Nunzia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Public health evaluation impact for solid municipal waste management of Florence urban areas is considered. In this case study the evaluation step of screening show the environmental analysis of pollutants in the urban areas and epidemiologic study of exposed population in the area

  18. Urban-rural variations in health in the Netherlands: does selective migration play a part?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.A.; Mheen, H.D. van de; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: urban-rural health differences are observed in many countries, even when socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are controlled for. People living in urban areas are often found to be less healthy. One of the possible causes for these differences is selective migration with

  19. impact of waste disposal on health of a poor urban community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-08

    Aug 8, 2004 ... and local authorities' policies of hostilities and eviction of poor urban informal settlers(7). This study assessed the human excreta and waste disposal facilities and their health implications among residents of the poor urban settlement of Epworth a few kilometers south east of Harare, Zimbabwe's capital city.

  20. Interrelationships of adult attachment orientations, health status and worrying among fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía

    2009-11-01

    This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Health literacy and English language comprehension among elderly inpatients at an urban safety-net hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Kristina M; Asch, Steven M; Franco, Idalid; Mangione, Carol M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between health literacy and age in chronically-ill inpatients at a safety-net hospital. We recruited 399 English- and Spanish-speaking inpatients being evaluated or treated for Congestive Heart Failure or Coronary Artery Disease at a large, urban safety-net teaching hospital in Southern California. Participants were interviewed to ascertain education, English comprehension, and in-home language use. Health literacy was assessed using The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). We compared by age (aged 65 or more, 51 to 64 years of age, and less than age 50) levels of health literacy, educational attainment, English comprehension, and language use. Prevalence of inadequate health literacy significantly increased with increasing age (87.2% in > or = 65, 48.9% for 51-64, and 26.3% in immigration status. Additionally, older patients were more likely to have never learned to read (34.9% in > or = 65, 6.5% for 51-64, and 1.5% in or = 65, 9.0% for 51-64, and 0.8% in or = 65, 43.5% for 51-64, and 35.8% in language at home (82.3% in > or = 65, 70.2% for 51-64, and 62.2% in < or = 50, p=0.015). To prepare to meet the chronic disease needs of a growing older patient population, and ameliorate the negative health effects of associated low literacy, safety-net hospital leaders and providers need to prioritize the development and implementation of low-literacy educational materials, programs, and services.

  2. Health Status and Health Dynamics in an Empirical Model of Expected Longevity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Ni, Huan

    2010-01-01

    Expected longevity is an important factor influencing older individuals’ decisions such as consumption, savings, purchase of life insurance and annuities, claiming of Social Security benefits, and labor supply. It has also been shown to be a good predictor of actual longevity, which in turn is highly correlated with health status. A relatively new literature on health investments under uncertainty, which builds upon the seminal work by Grossman (1972), has directly linked longevity with characteristics, behaviors, and decisions by utility maximizing agents. Our empirical model can be understood within that theoretical framework as estimating a production function of longevity. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we directly incorporate health dynamics in explaining the variation in expected longevities, and compare two alternative measures of health dynamics: the self-reported health change, and the computed health change based on self-reports of health status. In 38% of the reports in our sample, computed health changes are inconsistent with the direct report on health changes over time. And another 15% of the sample can suffer from information losses if computed changes are used to assess changes in actual health. These potentially serious problems raise doubts regarding the use and interpretation of the computed health changes and even the lagged measures of self-reported health as controls for health dynamics in a variety of empirical settings. Our empirical results, controlling for both subjective and objective measures of health status and unobserved heterogeneity in reporting, suggest that self-reported health changes are a preferred measure of health dynamics. PMID:18187217

  3. Exploring complex causal pathways between urban renewal, health and health inequality using a theory-driven realist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Manzano, Ana; Borrell, Carme; Malmusi, Davide; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Muntaner, Carles; Pawson, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Urban populations are growing and to accommodate these numbers, cities are becoming more involved in urban renewal programs to improve the physical, social and economic conditions in different areas. This paper explores some of the complexities surrounding the link between urban renewal, health and health inequalities using a theory-driven approach. We focus on an urban renewal initiative implemented in Barcelona, the Neighbourhoods Law, targeting Barcelona's (Spain) most deprived neighbourhoods. We present evidence from two studies on the health evaluation of the Neighbourhoods Law, while drawing from recent urban renewal literature, to follow a four-step process to develop a program theory. We then use two specific urban renewal interventions, the construction of a large central plaza and the repair of streets and sidewalks, to further examine this link. In order for urban renewal programs to affect health and health inequality, neighbours must use and adapt to the changes produced by the intervention. However, there exist barriers that can result in negative outcomes including factors such as accessibility, safety and security. This paper provides a different perspective to the field that is largely dominated by traditional quantitative studies that are not always able to address the complexities such interventions provide. Furthermore, the framework and discussions serve as a guide for future research, policy development and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of self-rated health: could health status explain the association between self-rated health and mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Chiyoe; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group, and functional status was also employed. Series of analysis found that factors associated with self-rated health and with mortality were not identical. Psychological factors such as perceived isolation at home or 'ikigai (one aspect of psychological well-being)' were associated with self-rated health only. Age, functional status, and social relations were associated both with self-rated health and mortality after controlling for possible confounders. Illnesses and functional status accounted for 35-40% of variances in the fair/poor self-rated health. Differences by gender and functional status were observed in the factors related to self-rated health. Overall, self-rated health effect on mortality was stronger for people with no functional impairment, for shorter follow-up period, and for young-old age group. Although, illnesses and functional status were major determinants of self-rated health, economical, psychological, and social factors were also related to self-rated health.

  5. Health Insurance and Health Status: Exploring the Causal Effect from a Policy Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Lei, Xiaoyan; Liu, Gordon G

    2016-11-01

    Whether health insurance matters for health has long been a central issue for debate when assessing the full value of health insurance coverage in both developed and developing countries. In 2007, the government-led Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) program was piloted in China, followed by a nationwide implementation in 2009. Different premium subsidies by government across cities and groups provide a unique opportunity to employ the instrumental variables estimation approach to identify the causal effects of health insurance on health. Using a national panel survey of the URBMI, we find that URBMI beneficiaries experience statistically better health than the uninsured. Furthermore, the insurance health benefit appears to be stronger for groups with disadvantaged education and income than for their counterparts. In addition, the insured receive more and better inpatient care, without paying more for services. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The impact of parental migration on health status and health behaviours among left behind adolescent school children in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congdon Nathan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One out of ten of China's population are migrants, moving from rural to urban areas. Many leave their families behind resulting in millions of school children living in their rural home towns without one or both their parents. Little is known about the health status of these left behind children (LBC. This study compares the health status and health-related behaviours of left behind adolescent school children and their counterparts in a rural area in Southern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among middle school students in Fuyang Township, Guangdong, China (2007-2008. Information about health behaviours, parental migration and demographic characteristics was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Overweight/obesity and stunting were defined based on measurements of height and weight. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in health outcomes between LBC and non-LBC. Results 18.1% of the schoolchildren had one or both parents working away from home. Multivariate analysis showed that male LBC were at higher risk of skipping breakfast, higher levels of physical inactivity, internet addiction, having ever smoked tobacco, suicide ideation, and being overweight. LBC girls were more likely to drink excessive amounts of sweetened beverage, to watch more TV, to have ever smoked or currently smoke tobacco, to have ever drunk alcohol and to binge drinking. They were also more likely to be unhappy, to think of planning suicide and consider leaving home. Conclusions Our findings suggest that parental migration is a risk factor for unhealthy behaviours amongst adolescent school children in rural China. Further research is required in addition to the consideration of the implications for policies and programmes to protect LBC.

  7. One-year change in health status and subsequent outcomes in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Sarah; Jones, Paul W; Müllerova, H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor health status has been associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. To date, the impact of changes in health status on these outcomes remains unknown. AIMS: To explore the relationship of clinically relevant changes in health status with exacerbation, hospitalis...

  8. HEALTH STATUS AND PROBLEMS OF THE SPECIAL NEEDS CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sh. Yafarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the new data on the prevalence and structure of the children's disablement in the Russian federation. Among the causes of the children's disablement, the authors mark dominance of the infectious and somatic diseases, neuropathies, mental diseases and congenital growth anomalies, in particular. They show the role of medical and biological, social and hygienic, medical and organizational and economical factors, defining the health formation and conducing to the children's incapacitation. The researchers characterize the health status of the disabled children in respect of the major indices: physical and neuropsychic growth, psychological personality peculiarities, sickness rate and quality of life. The article depicts many issues, arising within the family of an incapacitated child.Key words: disablement, children, prevalence, structure, causes, health indices.

  9. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  10. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  11. Gender inequality and bio-social factors in nutritional status among under five children attending anganwadis in an urban slum of a town in Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti A Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for under-5 children is of great importance as the foundation for life-time health, strength, and intellectual vitality is laid during this period. Globally, more than one-third of the child deaths are attributable to under-nutrition. The discriminatory attitudes against female children vary from being implicit to those that are quite explicit. So, the present cross-sectional study aims to assess the nutritional status (gender differences of 146 under-5 children attending Anganwadis and also to study the bio-socio-demographic factors associated with malnutrition attending three Anganwadis of Adopted Urban slum area, involving anthropometric examination using standardized techniques and interview using predesigned semi-structured questionnaire for the mothers in September-October 2011. Nutritional status grading was done based on weight for age as per Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP Classification and using height for age as per Vishveshwara Rao′s Classification. 51.4% were males, majority in age group of 2-3 years. 63% children were malnourished, majority in Grade I malnutrition. Out of the total females, 72% were stunted and 43% were severely malnourished having mid arm circumference <12.5 cm. Birth order ( P < 0.05, education status of the mother ( P < 0.001, socio-economic status ( P < 0.05 and type of family ( P < 0.05 were found to be significantly associated with malnutrition.

  12. Motivating and demotivating factors for community health workers: A qualitative study in urban slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew Sunil; Pant, Shradha; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2017-04-01

    Background Community health workers play an important role in delivering health-care services, especially to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. They have been shown to be successful in providing a range of preventive, promotive and curative services. This qualitative study investigated the factors motivating or demotivating community health workers in urban settings in Delhi, India. Methods In this sub-study of the ANCHUL (Ante Natal and Child Healthcare in Urban Slums) implementation research project, four focus-group discussions and nine in-depth interviews were conducted with community health workers and medical officers. Utilizing a reflexive and inductive qualitative methodology, the data set was coded, to allow categories of motivating and demotivating factors to emerge. Results Motivating factors identified were: support from family members for their work, improved self-identity, job satisfaction and a sense of social responsibility, prior experiences of ill health, the opportunity to acquire new skills and knowledge, social recognition and status conferred by the community, and flexible work and timings. Negative experiences in the community and at health centres, constraints in the local health system in response to the demand generated by the community health workers, and poor pay demotivated community health workers in this study, even causing some to quit their jobs. Conclusion Community-health-worker programmes that focus on ensuring the technical capacity of their staff may not give adequate attention to the factors that motivate or discourage these workers. As efforts get under way to ensure universal access to health care, it is important that these issues are recognized and addressed, to ensure that community health worker programmes are effective and sustainable.

  13. Creating and validating GIS measures of urban design for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purciel, Marnie; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Gina S; Quinn, James W; Weiss, Christopher; Bader, Michael D M; Ewing, Reid; Rundle, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Studies relating urban design to health have been impeded by the unfeasibility of conducting field observations across large areas and the lack of validated objective measures of urban design. This study describes measures for five dimensions of urban design - imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity - created using public geographic information systems (GIS) data from the US Census and city and state government. GIS measures were validated for a sample of 588 New York City block faces using a well-documented field observation protocol. Correlations between GIS and observed measures ranged from 0.28 to 0.89. Results show valid urban design measures can be constructed from digital sources.

  14. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320

  15. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS, we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7% occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P=0.000 and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45 compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70, but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P<0.05. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS.

  16. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dietary intake, physical activities and nutritional status of adolescent girls in an urban population of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbas Mohammad Kurshed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, under-nutrition is a common health problem, but for socio-cultural background, it is most predominant among the female population starting from their early life to motherhood. For the adolescent girls, there has been no such study though they will be the future mothers. Therefore, this study is designed to address the lifestyle and nutrition of the Bangladeshi female adolescents. The study was conducted purposively in Dhaka selecting randomly 15 of 95 City corporation wards of Dhaka City. All adolescent girls aged 10–18 years were considered eligible participants of an urban population of Bangladesh. The study included socio-demographic information, clinical examination, dietary intake, physical activities and body mass index (BMI = weight in kg / height in m. sq.. Overall, 352 adolescent girls volunteered. Socio-economically, 51% of them had monthly family income ³ 20,000 BDT and 11.4% had <10,000 BDT. Of the participants, 14.8% had BMI <18.5, 80.7% had 18.5 – 24.9, and 4.6% had ³ 25. BMI was found not to have significant association with physical activities. No clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency were observed. On clinical examination 75% of the participants were found healthy, 15.9% had anemia and 5.7% had diarrhea. Compared with the national dietary intake, the cereal intake was lower but protein containing foods like pulse and nuts, meat, egg, fish, milk and milk products were found very much close to the national intake. On the average, 95 % of calorie, 93.5 % of protein and 96.5 % of fat requirement were met. For micronutrient requirement, very low intake was observed with calcium (62 % and iron (63 %. In conclusion, the participants consumed rice daily with frequent consumption of vegetables. Although the study subjects were mostly from higher class of urban dwellers their dietary intake was found not healthy as evidenced by daily rice intake and very low intake of fruits, calcium and iron indicating lack of

  18. Health-related lifestyle behaviors among male and female rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; He, Fang; Wang, Tianhao; Liu, Yao; Shen, Yao; Gong, Jian; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jie; Tu, Yimin; Wang, Tianying; Shen, Lei; Wu, Yumiao; Xia, Xiuping; Xu, Donghao; Pan, Zhigang; Zhu, Shanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviors significantly impact health, yet remain poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. In a cross-sectional study of health-related behaviors of 5484 rural-to-urban migrants who had worked in Shanghai for at least six months, we assessed the contribution of demographics and physical and mental health to lifestyle behaviors in male and female participants by multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression. Respondents were 51.3% male. 9.9% exhibited abnormal blood pressure; 27.0% were overweight or obese; 11.2% reported abnormal mental health; 36.9% reported healthy lifestyle. Multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression indicated that men working in manufacturing reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in hospitality (cumulative odds ratio (COR) = 1.806, 95%CI 1.275-2.559) or recreation/leisure (COR = 3.248, 95%CI 2.379-4.435); and women working in manufacturing and construction reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in all other sectors. Unhealthy lifestyle was associated with small workplaces for men (COR = 1.422, 95%CI 1.154-1.752), working more than 8 or 11 hours per day for women and men, respectively, and earning over 3500 RMB in women (COR = 1.618, 95%CI 1.137-2.303). Single women and women who had previously resided in three or more cities were more likely to report unhealthy lifestyle (COR = 2.023, 95%CI 1.664-2.461, and COR = 1.311, 95%CI 1.072-1.602, respectively). Abnormal mental status was also correlated with unhealthy lifestyle in men (COR = 3.105, 95%CI 2.454-3.930) and women (COR = 2.566, 95%CI 2.024-3.252). There were different risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle score in male and female rural-to-urban migrants, especially in number of cities experienced, salary, marital status, work place scale. Several demographic groups: employment sectors (e.g. hospitality and recreation/leisure), working conditions (e.g. long hours) and abnormal mental status were associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors

  19. Health-related lifestyle behaviors among male and female rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    Full Text Available Lifestyle behaviors significantly impact health, yet remain poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants.In a cross-sectional study of health-related behaviors of 5484 rural-to-urban migrants who had worked in Shanghai for at least six months, we assessed the contribution of demographics and physical and mental health to lifestyle behaviors in male and female participants by multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression.Respondents were 51.3% male. 9.9% exhibited abnormal blood pressure; 27.0% were overweight or obese; 11.2% reported abnormal mental health; 36.9% reported healthy lifestyle. Multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression indicated that men working in manufacturing reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in hospitality (cumulative odds ratio (COR = 1.806, 95%CI 1.275-2.559 or recreation/leisure (COR = 3.248, 95%CI 2.379-4.435; and women working in manufacturing and construction reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in all other sectors. Unhealthy lifestyle was associated with small workplaces for men (COR = 1.422, 95%CI 1.154-1.752, working more than 8 or 11 hours per day for women and men, respectively, and earning over 3500 RMB in women (COR = 1.618, 95%CI 1.137-2.303. Single women and women who had previously resided in three or more cities were more likely to report unhealthy lifestyle (COR = 2.023, 95%CI 1.664-2.461, and COR = 1.311, 95%CI 1.072-1.602, respectively. Abnormal mental status was also correlated with unhealthy lifestyle in men (COR = 3.105, 95%CI 2.454-3.930 and women (COR = 2.566, 95%CI 2.024-3.252.There were different risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle score in male and female rural-to-urban migrants, especially in number of cities experienced, salary, marital status, work place scale. Several demographic groups: employment sectors (e.g. hospitality and recreation/leisure, working conditions (e.g. long hours and abnormal mental status were associated with unhealthy lifestyle

  20. Does where you live matter to your health? Investigating factors that influence the self-rated health of urban and rural Chinese residents: evidence drawn from Chinese General Social Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Zhenjun; Li, Zhigang

    2017-04-21

    .469, 1.381]). No evidence suggested that physical exercise exerted a moderating effect on the relationship between exposure to air pollution and health. On average, urban residents have better health than rural residents. Among four indicators for low environmental quality (air pollution, lack of green spaces, water pollution, uncertain access to freshwater resources), green space was an important determinant of urban residents' health status, while unreliable access to fresh water harmed rural residents' health. Physical exercise moderated the effects of exposure to green spaces on urban residents' health.

  1. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Groot, Ana Maria Mahecha; Monteiro, Teofilo; Murphy, Kelly; O'Campo, Patricia; Broide, Emilia Estivalet; Kano, Megumi

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH) approach. The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil), Toronto (Canada), and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia). Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps. In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto), academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights. Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  2. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH approach METHODS: The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil, Toronto (Canada, and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia. Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps RESULTS: In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto, academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights CONCLUSIONS: Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  3. Collecting standardized urban health indicator data at an individual level for school-aged children living in urban areas: methods from EURO-URHIS 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D; Katreniak, Z; Guha, J; Puzzolo, E; Higgerson, J; Steels, S; Woode-Owusu, M; Bruce, N; Birt, Christopher A; Ameijden, E van; Verma, A

    2017-05-01

    Measuring health and its determinants in urban populations is essential to effectively develop public health policies maximizing health gain within this context. Adolescents are important in this regard given the origins of leading causes of morbidity and mortality develop pre-adulthood. Comprehensive, accurate and comparable information on adolescent urban health indicators from heterogeneous urban contexts is an important challenge. EURO-URHIS 2 aimed to develop standardized tools and methodologies collecting data from adolescents across heterogenous European urban contexts. Questionnaires were developed including (i) comprehensive assessment of urban health indicators from 7 pre-defined domains, (ii) use of previously validated questions from a literature review and other European surveys, (iii) translation/back-translation into European languages and (iv) piloting. Urban area-specific data collection methodologies were established through literature review, consultation and piloting. School-based surveys of 14-16-year olds (400-800 per urban area) were conducted in 13 European countries (33 urban areas). Participation rates were high (80-100%) for students from schools taking part in the surveys from all urban areas, and data quality was generally good (low rates of missing/spoiled data). Overall, 13 850 questionnaires were collected, coded and entered for EURO-URHIS 2. Dissemination included production of urban area health profiles (allowing benchmarking for a number of important public health indicators in young people) and use of visualization tools as part of the EURO-URHIS 2 project. EURO-URHIS 2 has developed standardized survey tools and methodologies for assessing key measures of health and its determinants in adolescents from heterogenous urban contexts and demonstrated the utility of this data to public health practitioners and policy makers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association

  4. Perceived health status is associated with hours of exercise per week in older adults independent of physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults. As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week. Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week. We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.

  5. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  6. Differentials in reproductive and child health status in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh Parchure

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.

    Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.

    Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.

    Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.

  7. Oral Health Behavior of Parents as a Predictor of Oral Health Status of Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted ques...

  8. Relationship of Nutritional Status with Oral Health Status in Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharaphol Samnieng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the relationship of nutritional status with oral health status among visual impairment. The subjects were 146 elderly people (70 males and 76 females aged 20-72 years (mean 48.8±6.2 years, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA questionnaires were administered. Oral examinations investigated the number of present teeth, DMFT and Functional Tooth Units (FTUs. According to the MNA score, 44.5% of subjects were categorized as normal nutrition, 47.3% as questionable, and 8.2 % as malnutrition. The mean numbers of present teeth and FTUs were 17.8±6.9 and 6.9±3.2, respectively. Subjects with malnutrition had lower numbers of present teeth (10.7±1.4 and FTUs (4.3±1.7 than those with normal nutrition (20.2±0.7 and 12.3±0.5 (p≤0.05. Nutritional status of visual impaired Thai was associated with mean numbers of present teeth and FTUs. Keeping many natural teeth or having appropriate numbers of FTUs by replacing missing teeth with dentures would prevention malnutrition.

  9. The Effect of Childhood Health Status on Adult Health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Huyang; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai

    2018-01-26

    Childhood health in China was poor in the 1950s and 1960s because of limited nutrition. In the last three decades, China has distinguished itself through its tremendous economic growth and improvements in health and nutrition. However, prior to such growth, access to good nutrition was more variable, with potentially important implications, not only for childhood health, but also for adult health, because of its long-term effects lasting into adulthood. To shed light on these issues, this study examined the long-run association between childhood health and adult health outcomes among a middle-aged Chinese population and addresses the endogeneity of childhood health. A nationwide database from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was employed. Three adult health outcomes variables were used: self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function. The local variation in grain production in the subjects' fetal period and the first 24 months following birth was employed as an instrument for childhood health in order to correct for its endogeneity. Childhood health recalled by the respondents was positively and significantly associated with their adult health outcomes in terms of self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function in single-equation estimates that did not correct for the endogeneity of childhood health. A good childhood health status increased the probabilities of good adult health, good adult cognitive function, and good adult physical function by 16% (95% CI: 13-18%), 13% (95% CI: 10-15%), and 14% (95% CI: 12-17%), respectively. After correcting for endogeneity, the estimated effects of good childhood health were consistent but stronger. We also studied the male and female populations separately, finding that the positive effects of childhood health on adult health were larger for males. In China, childhood health significantly affects adult health. This suggests that early interventions to promote

  10. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  11. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  12. The effect of special health care needs and health status on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Cynthia A; Pastor, Patricia N

    2013-10-01

    Past studies have shown that specific child conditions are associated with poor school outcomes. A national health survey with noncategorical measures of health and indicators of school functioning offers the opportunity to examine this association. To compare links between two health measures (children with special health care needs and general health status) and multiple school outcomes. The analysis was based on 59,440 children aged 6-17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Child health was assessed using the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) screener and a question on general health status. CSHCN were classified by the complexity of their health care needs. Indicators of school functioning included special education use, many problem reports, repeated a grade, lack of school engagement, and many missed school days. Overall 22% of children were identified as CSHCN: 13% with more complex needs (C-CSHCN) and 9% with medication use only (CSHCN-RX). Approximately 17% of children were in less than optimal health. After controlling for a child's sociodemographic characteristics C-CSHCN had an increased risk of all of the negative school outcomes compared to children without SHCN, while CSHCN-RX had an increased risk of only one school outcome (many missed school days). Children in less than optimal health were at an increased risk of all negative school outcomes compared to children in optimal health. The CSHCN screener and health status question identify related, but distinct, groups of children with worse outcomes on the indicators of school functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Socioeconomic Status, Health Behaviors, Obesity and Self-Rated Health among Older Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, R N Rabia

    2017-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.

  14. Characteristics of electronic patient-provider messaging system utilisation in an urban health care organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Patrick Mikles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Research suggests that electronic messaging can improve patient engagement. Studies indicate that a ‘digital divide’ may exist, where certain patient populations may be using electronic messaging less frequently. This study aims to determine which patient characteristics are associated with different levels of usage of an electronic patient-provider messaging system in a diverse urban population.Methods Cross-sectional electronic health record data were extracted for patients 10 years of age or older who live in New York City and who visited a set of clinics between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012. Regression analyses determined which participant characteristics were associated with the sending of electronic messages.Results Older, female, English-speaking participants of white race who received more messages, had any diagnoses, more office visits and a provider who sent messages were more likely to send more messages. Non-Millennial, non-white participants who received fewer messages, had more office visits, any diagnoses, a provider who saw fewer patients with patient portal accounts, lived in a low socioeconomic status neighbourhood, and did not have private insurance were more likely to send zero messages.Conclusion This study found significant differences in electronic messaging usage based on demographic, socioeconomic and health-related patient characteristics. Future studies are needed to support these results and determine the causes of observed associations.

  15. Household food (in)security and nutritional status of urban poor children aged 6 to 23 months in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Maurice; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2015-10-13

    Millions of people in low and low middle income countries suffer from extreme hunger and malnutrition. Research on the effect of food insecurity on child nutrition is concentrated in high income settings and has produced mixed results. Moreover, the existing evidence on food security and nutrition in children in low and middle income countries is either cross-sectional and/or is based primarily on rural populations. In this paper, we examine the effect of household food security status and its interaction with household wealth status on stunting among children aged between 6 and 23 months in resource-poor urban setting in Kenya. We use longitudinal data collected between 2006 and 2012 from two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers and their new-borns were recruited into the study at birth and followed prospectively. The analytical sample comprised 6858 children from 6552 households. Household food security was measured as a latent variable derived from a set of questions capturing the main domains of access, availability and affordability. A composite measure of wealth was calculated using asset ownership and amenities. Nutritional status was measured using Height-for-Age (HFA) z-scores. Children whose HFA z-scores were below -2 standard deviation were categorized as stunted. We used Cox regression to analyse the data. The prevalence of stunting was 49 %. The risk of stunting increased by 12 % among children from food insecure households. When the joint effect of food security and wealth status was assessed, the risk of stunting increased significantly by 19 and 22 % among children from moderately food insecure and severely food insecure households and ranked in the middle poor wealth status. Among the poorest and least poor households, food security was not statistically associated with stunting. Our results shed light on the joint effect of food security and wealth status on stunting. Study findings underscore the need for social protection policies to

  16. Oral health-related quality of life and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Montoya, J A; Subirá, C; Ramón, J M; González-Moles, M A

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with malnutrition risk in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was designed using a representative sample of Spaniards over 65 years old. Data on sociodemographics and oral health status were gathered by interview and examination. Oral health-related quality of life was evaluated using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), and malnutrition risk using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The final sample included 2,860 elderly, 41.7 percent males and 58.3 percent females, with a mean age of 73.7 +/- 6.8 years. Mean GOHAI score was 52.1 +/- 7.2, with 70.7 percent of the sample needing oral health care according to this index. The mean MNA score was 24.0 +/- 3.31; 3.5 percent of the elderly were malnourished, 31.5 percent were at risk of malnutrition, and 65.0 percent were considered adequately nourished. A strong association was found between mean GOHAI and MNA scores.

  17. The effect of floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital in older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Nistrup, Anne; Vorup Petersen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    that the men in the floorball group improved in the SF-12 composite score for mental health, as well as the HADS subscales anxiety and depression, compared to the men in the petanque group. In addition, 21 interviews were conducted with a sample of the men engaged in floorball. According to the statements...... by many of the men as the main reason for their participation throughout the 12-week period. The statistical results and the interview findings suggest that participation in a ball game such as floorball has several benefits regarding health status, psychological health and social capital and in addition......This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary study which investigated the effects of a period with floorball training on health status, psychological health and social capital of older men. Thirty-nine untrained men aged 69.9 ± 0.6 (range: 65–76) were randomized into a group playing...

  18. Job satisfaction: rural versus urban primary health care workers' perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (pfactors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.

  19. 77 FR 37415 - Office of Urban Indian Health Programs; Title V HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Indian health program HIV/AIDS activities is necessary to reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the urban Indian communities by increasing access to HIV related services, reducing stigma, and making testing..., Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Health Resource and Services Administration, and...