WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban health center

  1. Art and community health: lessons from an urban health center.

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    Siegel, Wilma Bulkin; Bartley, Mary Anne

    2004-01-01

    Staff at a nurse-managed urban health center conducted a series of art sessions to benefit the community. The authors believe the program's success clearly communicated the relationship between art and community health. As a result of the success of the sessions, plans are in the works to make art a permanent part of the health center's services.

  2. Evaluation of Student Care Process in Urban and Rural Health Care Centers and Health House in Tabriz Using Tracer Methodology

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    Neda Kabiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Tracer methodology is a novel evaluation method which its purpose is to provide an accurate assessment of systems and processes for the delivery of care, treatment, and services at a health care organization. This study aimed to assess student care process in Tabriz using Tracer methodology. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in autumn 1391. Population study consisted of all the students who were covered by Tabriz health care center and study sample included an urban health care center, a rural health care center, a health house, and two schools in urban and rural areas which were selected by simple sampling method. Also, all the complicated and problematic processes were chosen to be assessed. Data were collected by interviewing, observing, and surveying documents and were compared with current standards. Results : The results of this study declared the percentage of points that each target group gained from tracer evaluation in student care process was 77% in health house, 90% in rural health care center and 83% in urban health care center. Findings indicated that documentation was the main weak point. Conclusion : According to the results of this study, student care process is sufficient; despite the fact that there are some deficiencies in caring process, as it may be improved through appropriate strategies. Furthermore, tracer methodology seems to be a proper method to evaluate various levels of health care system. ​

  3. The impact of managed care and current governmental policies on an urban academic health care center.

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    Rodriguez, J L; Peterson, D J; Muehlstedt, S G; Zera, R T; West, M A; Bubrick, M P

    2001-10-01

    Managed care and governmental policies have restructured hospital reimbursement. We examined reimbursement trends in trauma care to assess the impact of this market driven change on an urban academic health center. Patients injured between January 1997 and December 1999 were analyzed for Injury Severity Score (ISS), length of hospital stay, hospital cost, payer, and reimbursement. Between 1997 and 1999, the volume of patients with an ISS less than 9 increased and length of stay decreased. In addition, overall cost, payment, and profit margin increased. Commercially insured patients accounted for this margin increase, because the margins of managed care and government insured patients experienced double-digit decreases. Patients with ISS of 9 or greater also experienced a volume increase and a reduction in length of stay; however, costs within this group increased greater than payments, thereby reducing profit margin. Whereas commercially insured patients maintained their margin, managed care and government insured patients did not (double- and triple-digit decreases). Managed care and current governmental policies have a negative impact on urban academic health center reimbursement. Commercial insurers subsidize not only the uninsured but also the government insured and managed care patients as well. National awareness of this issue and policy action are paramount to urban academic health centers and may also benefit commercial insurers.

  4. Lessons Learned Recruiting Minority Participants for Research in Urban Community Health Centers.

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    Fam, Elizabeth; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2018-02-01

    To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey. Using a series of immersion-crystallization cycles, fieldnotes and research reflections written by recruiters, along with notes from team meetings during the study, were qualitatively analyzed. Clinic level barriers included: physical layout of clinic, very low or high patient census, limited private space, and long wait times for patients. Staff level barriers included: unengaged staff, overburdened staff, and provider and staff turnover. Patient level barriers included: disinterested patients, patient mistrust and concerns over confidentiality, no-shows or lack of patient time, and language barrier. We describe strategies used to overcome these barriers and provide recommendations for in-person recruitment of underserved populations into research studies. To help mitigate health disparities, disseminating recruiters' experiences, challenges, and effective strategies used will allow other researchers to build upon these experience in order to increase recruitment success of underserved and underrepresented minority populations into research studies. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Information, education, and communication services in MCH care provided at an urban health center

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    Banerjee Bratati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular IEC programs during antenatal and intranatal period, through individual or group approach, brings desirable changes in health practices of people, resulting in a healthy mother and a healthy baby. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to assess the level of IEC services regarding pregnancy and child care, received by the women at an MCH clinic of an urban health center, where the study subjects comprised 400 antenatal (AN and postnatal (PN women and mothers of children under five years. Results: Warning signs of danger was explained to only 10% of the AN and PN women. Advice regarding family planning appeared to be the most frequently covered, though that too was explained to less than half of the subjects. About one third of the women were advised on breast feeding. Only 8% of the mothers had been told about all issues regarding pregnancy and child care. Breast feeding and weaning was properly explained to 85.7 and 81.1% of the total mothers of U5 children. Advice regarding subsequent nutrition was given to 60.9% of mothers. About only a quarter of the total mothers were advised on home management of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. Very few mothers were counseled about the growth pattern of the children and none were shown the growth chart. Only 12.9% of the mothers were informed about all issues. Conclusion: IEC regarding maternal and child care other than feeding practices is a neglected service in the health facility where the study was conducted.

  6. The digital divide at an urban community health center: implications for quality improvement and health care access.

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    Denizard-Thompson, Nancy M; Feiereisel, Kirsten B; Stevens, Sheila F; Miller, David P; Wofford, James L

    2011-06-01

    Health care policy encourages better electronic connectivity between patient and the office practice. However, whether patients are able to partner with the practice in using communication technologies is not known. We sought to determine (1) the proportion of clinic patients who use internet and cell phone text messaging technologies, (2) the level of patient interest in using these technologies for the purpose of managing clinical appointments and patient education. Consecutive adult patients, clinicians and staff at an urban community health center were surveyed during a one-week period in order to estimate the frequency of technology use by patients. A total of 308 survey cards were collected during the designated week (response rate of 85% (308/362). One-third (34.0%, 105) of surveyed patients used the internet and text messaging daily or weekly, while nearly two-thirds (59.7%, 182) never used these technologies. There were no racial or gender differences in the proportion of patients who used the internet daily or weekly. In contrast, African-Americans used text messaging more often than whites (28.2 vs. 21.4%, P 50) used the internet and text messaging more often than older patients (50.6 vs. 16.6%, 44.3 vs. 7.3%, respectively). Despite the low use of both technologies, patient's interest in managing clinic appointments was high (40.3% for the Internet and 56.8% for text messaging). Clinicians and staff estimated patient's daily/weekly use of internet and cellphone messaging at 40.3% (± 22.0), and 56.8% (± 25.7), respectively. Most patients at this urban community health center reported never using the internet or cell phone text messaging. Clinicians overestimated technology use by patients. Planning for clinic infrastructure, quality improvement, and patient education should include assessment of technology use patterns by patients.

  7. Seroprevalence study of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women referred to Aleshtar rural and urban health centers in 2008

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    korosh Cheraghi pour

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the a parasitic infectious caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause abortion or fetus damage in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis (IgG & IgM among the pregnant women referred to Aleshtar rural and urban health centers in 2008. Materials and Methods: Total 331 blood samples were collected from 204 urban and 127 rural pregnant wemon referred to rural and urban health centers of Aleshtar. After recording their information in the questionnaire and preparation of sample, all samples were evaluated with IgG- and IgM-ELISA to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: In this study seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in urban and rural pregnant women were 36/2% and 44%, respectively. And 11. 2% of the urban and 9. 4% of the rural women suffered from acute Toxoplasma infection while 25% and 34. 6% of the urban and the rural cases had chronic infection, respectively. The results of analysis showed that there were significant relationships between seropositivity (IgG and IgM and education level, age, contact with raw meat, contact with cat, kind of food, washing vegetables, consumption of vegetables and milk in both urban and rural pregnant women (p<0. 05. There was no significant difference between seropositivity and other variables. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the high level of education and preferment health awareness can reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, %60. 8 of the pregnant women in this study didn’t have previous history of toxoplasma infection and are exposed to primary infectin and acute disease. Therefore, preventive measures and controlled programs are necessary.

  8. Awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women attending urban health care center Azizabad Sukkur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.A.; Nisar, N.

    2008-01-01

    To assess level of awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women (15-49 years) of reproductive age at Urban Health Center, Azizabad Sukkur, Sindh. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2005 at Urban Health Care Center Azizabad Sukkur. Two hundred women of reproductive age group were interviewed by using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire visiting the health care center during the study period. Information was obtained after taking informed consent regarding socio demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and pattern of utilizing family planning services. The data was entered and analyzed by using statistical package SPSS version 13. About 75% of women and 42.5% husbands were found illiterate, 85% women were housewives, 69.5% were married before 18 years of age and 54% had nuclear family. Regarding desired number of children women responded one child (3%), 2-3 children (11%), 4-5 (37.5%), more than five children (36%), 5.5% said that children are God gifted and 7% did not answer. About 60% of women reported use of at least one contraceptive method and 40% had never used any contraceptive method. The women who received counseling from the health care provider were 48.5% and only 6% received information through media. Religious prohibition, shortage of female staff and cost of family planning contraceptive methods were the main reasons identified for not utilizing contraceptive methods. The unsatisfactory variables were long waiting hours at the center, non-availability of contraceptive, shortage of the female staff and cost. Limited number of women was aware and practice contraception in the area and utilization of family planning services were low. The efforts should be made for providing information to couple and improving quality of family planning services in the area. (author)

  9. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center – “Health in Beagá” Study

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    Michelle Ralil da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents.METHODS Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, physical activity, markers of nutritional habits, and subjective well-being (body image, personal satisfaction, and satisfaction with their present and future life. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using robust Poisson regression.RESULTS The prevalence of bullying was 26.2% (28.0% among males, 24.0% among females. The location of most bullying cases was at or on route to school (70.5%, followed by on the streets (28.5%, at home (9.8%, while practicing sports (7.3%, at parties (4.6%, at work (1.7%, and at other locations (1.6%. Reports of bullying were associated with life dissatisfaction, difficulty relating to parents, involvement in fights with peers and insecurity in the neighborhood.CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of bullying among participating adolescents was found, and the school serves as the main bullying location, although other sites such as home, parties and workplace were also reported. Characteristics regarding self-perception and adolescent perceptions of their environment were also associated with bullying, thus advancing the knowledge of this type of violence, especially in urban centers of developing countries.

  10. Task shifting of HIV/AIDS case management to Community Health Service Centers in urban China: a qualitative policy analysis.

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    Ma, Fuchang; Lv, Fan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Dapeng; Meng, Sining; Ju, Lahong; Jiang, Huihui; Ma, Liping; Sun, Jiangping; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-07-02

    The growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China points to an increased need for case management services of HIV/AIDS. This study sought to explore the challenges and enablers in shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) to Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) in urban China. A qualitative method based on the Health Policy Triangle (HPT) framework was employed to gain in-depth insights into four elements of the task shifting strategy. This included a review on published literature and health policy documents, 15 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four types of key actors from three cities in China. A total of 78 studies and 17 policy files at the national, municipal and local levels were obtained and reviewed comprehensively. Three semi-structured interview guides were used to explore key actors' views on shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services to CHSCs. It is necessary and feasible for CHSCs to engage in case management services for PLWHA in local communities. The increasing number of PLWHA and shortage of qualified health professionals in CDCs made shifting case management services downwards to CHSCs an urgent agenda. CHSCs' wide distribution, technical capacity, accessibility and current practice enabled them to carry out case management services for PLWHA. However our findings indicated several challenges in this task shifting process. Those challenges included lack of specific policy and stable financial support for CHSCs, inadequate manpower, relatively low capacity for health service delivery, lack of coordination among sectors, PLWHA's fear for discrimination and privacy disclosure in local communities, which may compromise the effectiveness and sustainability of those services. Shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from CDCs to CHSCs is a new approach to cope with the rising number of PLWHA in China, but it should be

  11. Find a Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HRSA Health Centers care for you, even if you have no health insurance – you pay what you can afford based on your income. Health centers provide services that...

  12. A model project in community mental health: Consultation to an urban welfare center serving a single-room occupancy hotel.

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    Levitt, L I; Brownlee, W H; Lewars, M H

    1968-12-01

    A continuing consultative relationship between a general hospital department of psychiatry and an urban welfare center serving the residents of a privately owned hotel is described-the relationship is based on biweekly seminars. Individual case study is the method of training, and an activity program the vehicle for development of indigenous resident leadership. Problems in residents' relationship to their community, worker-resident relationships, resistances of residents, anticipating both workers and residents' readiness to assume responsibility, and defining the role of consultant were confronted. The project demonstrates the effectiveness of the technique, pointing up the need for refinement of the process and the development of tools for measurement.

  13. Health and urban living.

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    Dye, Christopher

    2008-02-08

    The majority of people now live in urban areas and will do so for the foreseeable future. As a force in the demographic and health transition, urbanization is associated with falling birth and death rates and with the shift in burden of illness from acute childhood infections to chronic, noncommunicable diseases of adults. Urban inhabitants enjoy better health on average than their rural counterparts, but the benefits are usually greater for the rich than for the poor, thus magnifying the differences between them. Subject to better evidence, I suggest that the main obstacles to improving urban health are not technical or even financial, but rather are related to governance and the organization of civil society.

  14. Quality of Life in the Elderly People Covered by Health Centers in the Urban Areas of Markazi Province, Iran

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    Ali Agha nouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve quality of life in the elderly through proper plans and active involvement of elderly in their family and community, we should get a lot of information about health-related quality of life because the composition of our population has changed. Infact, the aged population is increasingly growing, that this will, in turn, have an effect on economic progression and well-being in the country. Thus, this study assessed quality of life and its determinants in the people aged 60 years and over living in the urban areas of Central Province. Methods & Materials: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic survey that included 165 elderly peoples in the urban areas of Markazi Province. Data was obtained via a general and a quality of life (using SF-36 questionnaire. The results were analyzed by Chi-Square, Fisher, independent T-test, ANOVA, Regression, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The average age of the subjects was 70.7 years (men 44.8% and women 55.2%. The mean of total SF-36, physical and mental components' scores were 55.66±22, 51.32±21 and 57.30±25 respectively. Additionally, the mean scores of eight health-related dimensions were as follows: physical functions 56.26±45, role limitations due to physical problems 50.60±27, body pain 51.26±38, general health 45.26±53, vitality 53.24±09, social functioning 67.85±27, role limitations due to mental problems 57.14±45 and mental health 62.88±25. Also, the quality of life scores were significantly associated with sex, previous employment, leisure activities, income, current exercising, present disease and drug consumption (P<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that the elderly's quality of life in the urban areas in Markazi province is in the middle level and the individuals have better mental health compared to physical health. Moreover, various factors are associated with the elderly’s quality of life, which require comprehensive planning for

  15. Conducting a randomized trial in rural and urban safety-net health centers: Added value of community-based participatory research

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    Meera Muthukrishnan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in the US. Despite evidence that screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality, screening rates are sub-optimal with disparities by race/ethnicity, income, and geography. Rural-urban differences in CRC screening are understudied even though approximately one-fifth of the US population lives in rural areas. This focus on urban populations limits the generalizability and dissemination potential of screening interventions. Methods: Using community-based participatory research (CBPR principles, we designed a cluster-randomized trial, adaptable to a range of settings, including rural and urban health centers. We enrolled 483 participants across 11 health centers representing 2 separate networks. Both networks serve medically-underserved communities; however one is primarily rural and one primarily urban. Results: Our goal in this analysis is to describe baseline characteristics of participants and examine setting-level differences. CBPR was a critical for recruiting networks to the trial. Patient respondents were predominately female (61.3%, African-American (66.5%, and earned <$1200 per month (87.1%. The rural network sample was older; more likely to be female, white, disabled or retired, and have a higher income, but fewer years of education. Conclusions: Variation in the samples partly reflects the CBPR process and partly reflects inherent differences in the communities. This confirmed the importance of using CBPR when planning for eventual dissemination, as it enhanced our ability to work within diverse settings. These baseline findings indicate that using a uniform approach to implementing a trial or intervention across diverse settings might not be effective or efficient. Keywords: Colorectal cancer screening, Community-based participatory research, Health disparities, Medically underserved populations, Dissemination and implementation, Randomized trial

  16. Application of Donabedian quality-of-care framework to assess the outcomes of preconception care in urban health centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2012

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    Fatemeh Ghaffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Improving patient health status is the primary goal of healthcare system. and planning to improve the health care services without taking into account the views of care receivers is not possible .In this regard, Donabedian Model as an appropriate framework in assessing the quality of health care, has particular attention to the issue of "outcomes", which are sometimes seen as the most important indicators of quality. This study therefore aimed to assess the outcomes of preconception care including changes to health knowledge as well as patient satisfaction in urban health centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2012. Methods: In this descriptive study, 350 women of reproductive age who received preconception care in urban health centers of Mashhad, Iran, were selected using a two stage sampling design. Demographic and obstetric data were collected through a self-structured questionnaire.  Outcomes of preconception care including health knowledge as well as patient satisfaction were measured using a questionnaire adopted from Donabedian Model. Data were analyzed with SPSS Software version 16 and statistical tests such as ANOVA, Chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings: The mean age of women was 22.5 ± 26.93 and the mean score of their marriage years was 6.32±4.77.  67.4% of subjects experienced between one and six pregnancies. The mean score of health knowledge of preconception care was 53.4 ± 8.14 and the highest score of its subdomains was related to the personal hygiene. The mean score of patients' satisfaction of preconception care was 84.11 ± 56.75 and its highest score was in relation to counseling and provided care. Conclusion: According to the results, planning to provide better education services for clients, raising public awareness regarding preconception care and more emphasis on preconception care importance in continuous education of health care providers are recommended.  

  17. Mental Health Screening Center

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    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  18. Prevalence of Sexual Violence and its Association with Depression among Male and Female Patients with Risky Drug Use in Urban Federally Qualified Health Centers.

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    Bone, Curtis W; Goodfellow, Amelia M; Vahidi, Mani; Gelberg, Lillian

    2018-02-01

    Sexual violence (SV) is common; however, the prevalence of SV and its long term sequela vary geographically and among subpopulations within the USA. As such, the aims of this study are the following: (1) to determine the prevalence of SV, (2) to identify correlates of SV, and (3) to determine if SV is associated with depression among male and female risky drug users in urban Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in Los Angeles. This study includes adult patients of five urban FQHCs who self-reported risky drug use. We identified survivors of SV and those experiencing depression through survey questions that queried, before or after age 18, "Were you ever sexually assaulted, molested or raped?" and with the RAND Mental Health Index (MHI-5). We utilized Pearson's chi-square tests to assess predictors of SV and logistic regression to assess for an association between SV and depression. Data collection took place from February 2011 to November 2012. Of the 334 study patients, 49% of females and 25% of males reported surviving SV. Exposure to SV, (both before 18 years of age and after 18 years of age) was the strongest predictor of depression among men and women in this study (OR 4.7, p < 0.05). These data demonstrate that sexual violence is prevalent in this urban FQHC population and is strongly associated with depression. Providers should consider screening both men and women with risky drug use for SV while health systems should continue to align mental health and primary care services to appropriately care for these extremely vulnerable patients. Trial Registration Clinical Trials. gov ID NCT01942876, Protocol ID DESPR DA022445, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  19. School Based Health Centers

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    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  20. Health Services Cost Analyzing in Tabriz Health Centers 2008

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    Massumeh gholizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Health Services cost analyzing is an important management tool for evidence-based decision making in health system. This study was conducted with the purpose of cost analyzing and identifying the proportion of different factors on total cost of health services that are provided in urban health centers in Tabriz. Material and Methods : This study was a descriptive and analytic study. Activity Based Costing method (ABC was used for cost analyzing. This cross–sectional survey analyzed and identified the proportion of different factors on total cost of health services that are provided in Tabriz urban health centers. The statistical population of this study was comprised of urban community health centers in Tabriz. In this study, a multi-stage sampling method was used to collect data. Excel software was used for data analyzing. The results were described with tables and graphs. Results : The study results showed the portion of different factors in various health services. Human factors by 58%, physical space 8%, medical equipment 1.3% were allocated with high portion of expenditures and costs of health services in Tabriz urban health centers. Conclusion : Based on study results, since the human factors included the highest portion of health services costs and expenditures in Tabriz urban health centers, balancing workload with staff number, institutionalizing performance-based management and using multidisciplinary staffs may lead to reduced costs of services. ​

  1. [The behavioral determinants for health centers in health districts of urban Africa: results of a survey of households in Kinshasa, Congo].

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    Manzambi, J K; Tellier, V; Bertrand, F; Albert, A; Reginster, J Y; Van Balen, E H

    2000-08-01

    This study analyses the choice determinants of the population for health centres through a survey of the behaviour of families in a representative sample of 1,000 households in the health districts of Kinshasa, Congo in 1997. For the most recent episode of illness, the respondents turned to seven types of care: the health centre (37%), private dispensaries (26.5%), self-medication through a pharmacy (23.9%), traditional practitioner (21%), traditional self-medication (16.9%), private outpatients' clinic (16.7%) and a reference hospital (10.4%). Past logistics have shown that patients resort to a health centre rather than another type of care structure (P = 0.05) when looking for quality care, reasonable prices and the availability of varied services. On the other hand, concern about the geographical proximity in relation to the family's residence calls for using the private dispensary. When looking for a doctor or the existence of a 'convention', families are more inclined to choose a private officially recognized outpatients' clinic. Those who had been looking for a solution to a special type of illness opted primarily for a traditional practitioner. In conclusion, the results of this study show that if people choose the care offered by health centres, it is because they judge it to be of good quality. The integrated care offered by the same technician, with a required training, is a major asset in the acceptability of the first line of primary health care in Kinshasa. This study suggests that it would no doubt be beneficial to integrate non-official private care structures into the primary health care system, as far as it is possible for them to achieve a level of quality comparable to that of the health centres. In order that the traditional practitioner might play an important complementary role in the realization of primary health care, even in urban areas, the possibility of promoting sites of communication should be studied. Moreover, considering the weak

  2. An exploratory, descriptive study of consumer opinions and behaviors regarding health products sales at 4 chiropractic practices in a large, western Canadian urban center.

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    Page, Stacey A; Mbadiwe, Chinyere; McMorland, D Gordon; Grod, Jaroslaw P

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the opinions and behaviors of chiropractic patients in a large, western Canadian urban center regarding the sale of health products by doctors of chiropractic. A brief, descriptive survey consisting of both fixed-choice and open-ended questions was distributed by clinic reception staff at 4 chiropractic offices in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Each practice sold a range of health products, including those relating to musculoskeletal care and nutrition, and served between 275 and 320 clients per week. After a 10-week recruitment interval between January and March 2013, a convenience sample of 103 chiropractic patients was obtained. Most patients supported the sale of health products by doctors of chiropractic (n = 101; 98.1%), and most had made health product purchases from a doctor of chiropractic at some point (n = 73; 70.9%). Products relating to muscular care, exercise/rehabilitation products, and pillows were purchased most often (>40%). Consumers were most supportive of doctors of chiropractic selling products they perceived to be directly related to musculoskeletal care. Some participants believed that there should be limits placed on the range of products sold including the products had to be consistent with the practitioner's area of expertise and had to have some demonstrated level of effectiveness. Primary reasons for health product purchase included the doctor's recommendations, convenience, and perception that the product would improve well-being (>50%). This study found that chiropractic patients were supportive of health product sales by doctors of chiropractic, assuming certain conditions were met. Consumers believed that product sales should be undertaken with integrity and should be consistent with the doctor's area of expertise. Consumer beliefs appeared to impact their purchasing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Community health centers and primary care access and quality for chronically-ill patients - a case-comparison study of urban Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Leiyu; Lee, De-Chih; Liang, Hailun; Zhang, Luwen; Makinen, Marty; Blanchet, Nathan; Kidane, Ruth; Lindelow, Magnus; Wang, Hong; Wu, Shaolong

    2015-11-30

    Reform of the health care system in urban areas of China has prompted concerns about the utilization of Community Health Centers (CHC). This study examined which of the dominant primary care delivery models, i.e., the public CHC model, the 'gate-keeper' CHC model, or the hospital-owned CHC models, was most effective in enhancing access to and quality of care for patients with chronic illness. The case-comparison design was used to study nine health care organizations in Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen cities within Guangdong province, China. 560 patients aged 50 or over with hypertension or diabetes who visited either CHCs or hospitals in these three cities were surveyed by using face-to-face interviews. Bivariate analyses were performed to compare quality and value of care indicators among subjects from the three cities. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the association between type of primary care delivery and quality as well as value of chronic care after controlling for patients' demographic and health status characteristics. Patients from all three cities chose their current health care providers primarily out of concern for quality of care (both provider expertise and adequate medical equipment), patient-centered care, and insurance plan requirement. Compared with patients from Guangzhou, those from Dongguan performed significantly better on most quality and value of care indicators. Most of these indicators remained significantly better even after controlling for patients' demographic and health status characteristics. The Shenzhen model (hospital-owned and -managed CHC) was generally effective in enhancing accessibility and continuity. However, coordination suffered due to seemingly duplicating primary care outpatients at the hospital setting. Significant associations between types of health care facilities and quality of care were also observed such that patients from CHCs were more likely to be satisfied with traveling time and follow-up care by

  4. Mortality pattern in otorhinolaryngology ward: A 5 years retrospective study at an urban tertiary health care center in India.

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    Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Satish; Chandra Sharma, Naresh; Kumar, Badal

    2017-10-01

    To recognize deaths in the otorhinolaryngology indoor wards, determine the reason behind the mortalities and recommend modifications for betterment of patient care and surgical outcomes. Data was collected from the mortality register, operation theatre registers, ward registers and case notes of patients declared dead at an urban tertiary health care center in India for a period of 5 years; from January 2012 to December 2016. The data included date of admission, age, sex, educational status, residence, and clinical diagnosis, course of hospital stay and medical cause of death. Data acquired was reviewed and statistically interpreted and presented in graphical and descriptive formats. 6157 admissions were made in otorhinolaryngology (ENT) ward in the 5 year period which included 3969 males and 2188 female patients. 58 deaths were recorded during this period which gives overall death per admission crude mortality rate of 9.42% at an average of about 12 (11.60) deaths per year. The major causes of death were malignancy and septicemia. The significance of health education, aggressive healthcare campaigns, enhancement of healthcare services and wide accessibility of healthcare services to remote areas has been emphasized. Role of structured study and protocols in the management of serious cases is highlighted along with the need for prompt referral and better interdepartmental cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2018-01-01

    . Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric services...

  6. Development of a wellness trust to improve population health: Case-study of a United States urban center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Romero

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the United States health systems are recognizing the urgency of addressing the social determinants of health in order to improve population health. Wellness trusts, modeled after financial trusts support primary health prevention in community settings, provide an innovative opportunity for better community-clinical linkages, collaboration, and impact. This study aimed to understand the necessary tenets for a wellness trust in Brooklyn, New York (USA and examined community interest and political will; administrative, financing, and leadership structures; and metrics and data sources to monitor and assess impact. We employed a multi-method design. Key informant interviews (KIIs (n = 15 were conducted from 7/2016 to 1/2017. A content analysis of grey literature was used to analyze community interest and political will (n = 38. Extant datasets, such as New York City Community District profiles, were reviewed, and a narrative review was used to assess cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions (n = 33. The KIIs and grey literature underwent thematic analysis. Findings indicated healthcare issues dominated the health agenda despite recognition of social determinants of health. Braided funding (discrete funds that are coordinated but tracked separately and blended funding (funds pooled from multiple sources tracked together are common funding mechanisms. Robust data systems exist to assess impact. Indicators should address social determinants, performance and impact, be measurable, geographically specific, and include communities. Wellness trusts should be sustainable, engage communities, foster collaboration, and have adequate capacity. The Collective Impact Framework, a mechanism to coordinate and maximize efforts, offers this organizational structure. Wellness trusts are promising mechanisms to advance population health. Keywords: Wellness trusts, Mixed-methods design, Collective Impact Framework, Primary prevention

  7. Poverty and elimination of urban health disparities: challenge and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.

  8. School-Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care group, such as a community health center, hospital, or health department. A few are run by the school district itself. Centers often get money from charities and the government so they can give care ...

  9. Environmental risk factors of childhood asthma in urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malveaux, F J; Fletcher-Vincent, S A

    1995-09-01

    Asthma morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high in urban centers, and minority children are especially vulnerable. Factors that contribute to this dilemma include inadequate preventive medical care for asthma management, inadequate asthma knowledge and management skills among children and their families, psychosocial factors, and environmental exposure to allergens or irritants. Living in substandard housing often constitutes excess exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants. Allergens associated with dust mites (DM) and cockroaches (CR) are probably important in both onset and worsening of asthma symptoms for children who are chronically exposed to these agents. Young children spend a great deal of time on or near the floor where these allergens are concentrated in dust. Of children (2 to 10 years of age) living in metropolitan Washington, DC, 60% were found to be sensitive to CR and 72% were allergic to DM. Exposure to tobacco smoke contributes to onset of asthma earlier in life and is a risk factor for asthma morbidity. Since disparity of asthma mortality and morbidity among minority children in urban centers is closely linked to socioeconomic status and poverty, measures to reduce exposure to environmental allergens and irritants and to eliminate barriers to access to health care are likely to have a major positive impact. Interventions for children in urban centers must focus on prevention of asthma symptoms and promotion of wellness.

  10. Adolescent health in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramadass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, from ages 10 to 19 years. It is a period of dynamic brain development. During this period, adolescents learn from the social behavior and environmental surroundings of their community. Because of rapid urbanization without accounting for the basic health-care amenities, health disparities tend to arise. In this review, we have tried to describe the health profile of adolescents in urban India. Relevant articles were extracted from PubMed and related websites. Adolescents in urban areas perceive their physical environment as very poor. Social capital and social cohesion are very important in their development. Increasing child marriage and poor antenatal care among adolescents are key challenges in improving the reproductive and sexual health. More than half of adolescents are undernourished. About 56% of adolescent girls are anemic. At this time of fighting against under-nutrition, burden of overweight and obesity is increasing among the urban adolescents. Mass media use and increased sedentary lifestyle increase the risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Labile mental and emotional behavior makes them prone to suicide and intentional self-harm. Another avoidable key challenge among adolescents is addiction. Urban living and regular media exposure are positively associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. Among unintentional injuries, road traffic accidents dominate the picture. Various health programs targeting adolescent health have been launched in the recent past.

  11. [Heat vulnerability assessment in Jinan city: a comparison between residents living in urban centers and urban-fringe areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fangjun; Xin, Zheng; Zhou, Lin; Bai, Li; Wang, Yongming; Gu, Shaohua; Liu, Shouqin; Li, Mengmeng; Sang, Shaowei; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-06-01

    To find out the differences in regional characteristics of heat vulnerability between people living in urban centers and urban-fringe areas of Jinan city so as to provide basis for the development of adaptation measures to heat. A cross-sectional survey on heat vulnerability was conducted in urban center and urban-fringe areas of Jinan city, using a self-designed questionnaire among 801 residents at the age of 16 years or older in August 2013. Data of 23 indicators related to heat vulnerability were collected and aggregated to 7 dimensions:health and medical insurance, social networks, heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, resources, living environment and working environment. An index score was calculated using a balanced weighted average approach for each dimension, ranging from 0 to 1, with the closer to 1 as greater vulnerability. The scores on heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, resources and working environment dimensions for urban-fringe areas were 0.42,0.63,0.55 and 0.62, statistically significantly higher than the urban center area of 0.41,0.51,0.26 and 0.41. Scores of living environment, social networks and health/medical insurance dimensions for urban center area were 0.57,0.49 and 0.31, which were all higher than the urban-fringe areas of 0.50,0.46 and 0.25, with differences statistically significant. Residents living in the urban center might be more vulnerable to heat in terms of living environment, health/medical insurance and social networks while residents living in the urban-fringe areas might more be vulnerable in terms of heat perception and adaptive behavior, economic status, life resources and working environment. These facts indicated that heat vulnerability among residents could be quite different, even at a fine geographic sale. We would thus suggest that intervention strategies on protecting people from heat, should be more targeted.

  12. Center for Environmental Health Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary research objective of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) at the University of Montana is to advance knowledge of environmental impacts...

  13. Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The long term goals of the Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment are to examine how exposures to environmental pollutants and allergens may relate to...

  14. Center for Urban Environmental Research and Education (CUERE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Urban Environmental Research and Education (CUERE) at UMBC was created in 2001 with initial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and...

  15. National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search the CDC National Center for Health Statistics Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Survey of Family Growth Vital Records National Vital Statistics System National Death Index Vital Statistics Rapid Release ...

  16. School Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining student health, safety, and welfare is a primary goal for any K-12 school system. If a child becomes sick, is injured, or seems in any other way incapacitated at school, it is the understood responsibility that the school will provide care and, if necessary, contact the parents and direct the child to outside treatment. Beyond that…

  17. Defining the medical imaging requirements for a rural health center

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book establishes the criteria for the type of medical imaging services that should be made available to rural health centers, providing professional rural hospital managers with information that makes their work more effective and efficient. It also offers valuable insights into government, non-governmental and religious organizations involved in the planning, establishment and operation of medical facilities in rural areas. Rural health centers are established to prevent patients from being forced to travel to distant urban medical facilities. To manage patients properly, rural health centers should be part of regional and more complete systems of medical health care installations in the country on the basis of a referral and counter-referral program, and thus, they should have the infrastructure needed to transport patients to urban hospitals when they need more complex health care. The coordination of all the activities is only possible if rural health centers are led by strong and dedicated managers....

  18. Beyond urban penalty and urban sprawl: back to living conditions as the focus of urban health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2005-02-01

    Researchers have long studied urban health, both to describe the consequences of urban living and to design interventions to promote the health of people living in cities. Two approaches to understanding the impact of cities on health have been dominant, namely, urban health penalty and urban sprawl. The urban penalty approach posits that cities concentrate poor people and expose them to unhealthy physical and social environments. Urban sprawl focuses on the adverse health and environmental effects of urban growth into outlying areas. We propose a model that integrates these approaches and emphasizes urban living conditions as the primary determinant of health. The aim of the model is to move beyond describing the health-related characteristics of various urban populations towards identifying opportunities for intervention. Such a shift in framework enables meaningful comparisons that can inform public health activities at the appropriate level and evaluate their effectiveness in improving the health of urban populations. The model is illustrated with two examples from current urban public health practice.

  19. The framework of urban exposome: Application of the exposome concept in urban health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianou, Xanthi D; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2018-05-02

    Horizontal challenges, such as climate change or the growing populations, and their manifestations require the development of multidisciplinary research synergies in urban health that could benefit from concepts, such as the human exposome. Cities are composed of interconnected systems which are influenced, by global trends, national policies and local complexities. In this context, the exposome concept could be expanded having the city setting in its core, providing the conceptual framework for the new generation of urban studies. The objectives of this work were to define the urban exposome and outline its utility. The urban exposome can be defined as the continuous spatiotemporal surveillance/monitoring of quantitative and qualitative indicators associated with the urban external and internal domains that shape up the quality of life and the health of urban populations, using small city areas, i.e. neighborhoods, quarters, or smaller administrative districts, as the point of reference. Research should focus on the urban exposome's measurable units at different levels, i.e. the individuals, small, within-city areas and the populations. The urban exposome framework applied in the city of Limassol, Cyprus combines three elements: (i) a mixed-methods study on stakeholders' opinions about quality of life in the city; (ii) a systematic assessment of secondary data from the cancer and death registries, including city infrastructure data; and (iii) a population health and biomonitoring survey. Continuous assessment of environmental and health indicators that are routinely collected, and the incorporation of primary data from population studies, will allow for the timely identification of within-city health and environmental disparities to inform policy making and public health interventions. The urban exposome could facilitate evidence-based public health response, offering researchers, policy-makers, and citizens effective tools to address the societal needs of large

  20. Urban Form, Air Pollution, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-12-01

    Urban form can impact air pollution and public health. We reviewed health-related articles that assessed (1) the relationships among urban form, air pollution, and health as well as (2) aspects of the urban environment (i.e., green space, noise, physical activity) that may modify those relationships. Simulation and empirical studies demonstrate an association between compact growth, improved regional air quality, and health. Most studies are cross-sectional and focus on connections between transportation emissions and land use. The physical and mental health impacts of green space, public spaces that promote physical activity, and noise are well-studied aspects of the urban environment and there is evidence that these factors may modify the relationship between air pollution and health. Urban form can support efforts to design clean, health-promoting cities. More work is needed to operationalize specific strategies and to elucidate the causal pathways connecting various aspects of health.

  1. Smart urban design to reduce transportation impact in city centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezzai, Soufiane; Mazouz, Said; Ahriz, Atef

    2018-05-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious problems facing human being; urban wastes are in first range of energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gasses. Transportation or car traffic is one of the most consumer sectors of fuel, and most pollutant. Reducing energy consumption in transportation and the emission of pollutant gasses becomes an important objective for urban designers; many solutions may be proposed to help solving this problem in future designs, but it depend on other factors in existing urban space especially in city centers characterized with high occupation density. In this paper we investigate traffic rate in the city center of the case study, looking for the causes of the high traffic using gate count method and estimating fuel consumption. We try to propose some design solutions to reduce distances so fuel consumption and emission of pollutant gasses. We use space syntax techniques to evaluate urban configuration and verify the proposed solutions.

  2. 76 FR 17139 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive... Improvement Project (CIP) from Saint Vincent's Catholic Medical Centers (SVCMC) of New York, current grantee...

  3. Urban mental health: Challenges and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review: To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. Recent findings: The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban...... services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric...

  4. Environmental Assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville, Indiana, October and November 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Ulberg, Amanda L.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2007-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville in Jennings County, Indiana, was completed during October and November 2005. As part of the Department of Defense Earth Science Program, the U.S. Geological Survey collected information about environmental conditions at the 825-acre former State of Indiana mental health facility prior to its conversion by the Indiana National Guard into an urban training center. The assessment was designed to investigate the type and extent of potential contamination associated with historical activities in selected areas of the facility.

  5. Environmental risk factors of childhood asthma in urban centers.

    OpenAIRE

    Malveaux, F J; Fletcher-Vincent, S A

    1995-01-01

    Asthma morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high in urban centers, and minority children are especially vulnerable. Factors that contribute to this dilemma include inadequate preventive medical care for asthma management, inadequate asthma knowledge and management skills among children and their families, psychosocial factors, and environmental exposure to allergens or irritants. Living in substandard housing often constitutes excess exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants. Alle...

  6. The concurrent validity of the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale in adolescent patients in an urban federally qualified health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sharon M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; Schwartz, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) substance use/abuse subscale has been validated with high school students, adolescents with criminal justice involvement, and adolescent substance use treatment samples using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R and DSM-IV. This study examines the concurrent validity of the POSIT's standard 17-item substance use/abuse subscale and a revised, shorter 11-item version using DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses. Adolescents (N = 525; 93% African American, 55% female) 12-17 years of age awaiting primary care appointments at a Federally Qualified Health Center in Baltimore, Maryland completed the 17-item POSIT substance use/abuse subscale and items from a modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview corresponding to DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were examined with DSM-5 AUD, CUD, and a diagnosis of either or both disorders for the standard and revised subscales using risk cutoffs of either 1 or 2 POSIT "yes" responses. For the 17-item subscale, sensitivities were generally high using either cutoff (range: 0.79-1.00), although a cutoff of 1 was superior (sensitivities were 1.00 for AUD, CUD, and for either disorder). Specificities were also high using either cutoff (range: 0.81-0.95) but were higher using a cutoff of 2. For the 11-item subscale, a cutoff of 1 yielded higher sensitivities than a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.96-1.00 and 0.79-0.86, respectively). Specificities for this subscale were higher using a cutoff of 2 (ranges for 1 and 2: 0.82-0.89 and 0.89-0.96, respectively). Findings suggest that the POSIT's substance use/abuse subscale is a potentially useful tool for screening adolescents in primary care for AUD or CUD using a cutoff of 1 or 2. The briefer, revised subscale may be preferable to the standard subscale in

  7. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  8. NIEHS/EPA Children’s Environmental Health Centers: Lifecourse Exposures & Diet: Epigenetics, Maturation & Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  9. NIEHS/EPA CEHCs: Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Center - Dartmouth College

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  10. Comparison of optimal cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with Type 2 diabetes who attended urban medical health center with those attended a tertiary care center: Experiences from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Moradi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Both centers have failure in target achievement in some risk factors; however, the inability of the primary care center in controlling hyperlipidemia in comparison with the tertiary center is a serious warning to provide training about managing dyslipidemia in these centers.

  11. Gunshot wounds to the face: level I urban trauma center: a 10-year level I urban trauma center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Clifford; Boyd, J Brian; Dickenson, Brian; Putnam, Brant

    2012-04-01

    Gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the face are an infrequent occurrence outside of a war zone. However, when they occur, they constitute a significant reconstructive challenge. We present our 10-year experience at an urban level I trauma center to define the patterns of injury, assess the morbidity and mortality, and estimate the cost to the health care system. A retrospective review was performed on all patients admitted to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center with GSWs to the head and neck region between January 1997 and January 2007. Those who had sustained GSWs to the face requiring operative intervention were closely reviewed. Between 1997 and 2007, a total of 702 patients were admitted to the Harbor UCLA Emergency Department having sustained GSWs to the head and neck region, of which 501 patients survived. Of the survivors, 28 patients (26 male, 2 female) sustained GSWs to their face requiring operative intervention. The mean age of these patients was 28 (±8.3) years. They generally presented within a few hours of the injury, but 1 individual arrived over 24 hours later. Low-velocity single gunshots (from handguns) were predominantly involved, with facial fractures occurring in all cases. Fractures were of a localized shattering type without the major displacement of bony complexes seen in motor vehicle accidents. Most required wound debridement and fracture fixation. A few patients (14.2%) underwent free tissue transfer for reconstruction (3 fibular flaps, 1 TRAM). Tracheostomy was performed in 35.7% of patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 8.3 (±7.1) days, with 50% of cases requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Mean length of intensive care unit stay was 5.2 (±5.7) days. The average cost per patient exceeded $100,000.

  12. 76 FR 1441 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive... for Services (IDS) and a portion of the Capital Improvement Project (CIP) from Saint Vincent's...

  13. Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Established in November 2015, the Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies (CMSHS) promotes safety and health for all maritime workers, including those employed...

  14. Reinventing the academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Darrell G; Grigsby, R Kevin; Zolko, Wayne W; Moskowitz, Jay; Hefner, David S; Souba, Wiley W; Carubia, Josephine M; Baron, Steven D

    2005-11-01

    Academic health centers have faced well-documented internal and external challenges over the last decade, putting pressure on organizational leaders to develop new strategies to improve performance while simultaneously addressing employee morale, patient satisfaction, educational outcomes, and research growth. In the aftermath of a failed merger, new leaders of The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center encountered a climate of readiness for a transformational change. In a case study of this process, nine critical success factors are described that contributed to significant performance improvement: performing a campus-wide cultural assessment and acting decisively on the results; making values explicit and active in everyday decisions; aligning corporate structure and governance to unify the academic enterprise and health system; aligning the next tier of administrative structure and function; fostering collaboration and accountability-the creation of unified campus teams; articulating a succinct, highly focused, and compelling vision and strategic plan; using the tools of mission-based management to realign resources; focusing leadership recruitment on organizational fit; and "growing your own" through broad-based leadership development. Outcomes assessment data for academic, research, and clinical performance showed significant gains between 2000 and 2004. Organizational transformation as a result of the nine factors is possible in other institutional settings and can facilitate a focus on crucial quality initiatives.

  15. Urban Extension: Aligning with the Needs of Urban Audiences Through Subject-Matter Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Gaolach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The educational program model is the principle approach Extension uses to deliver on its mission of “taking knowledge to the people.” However, with county-based faculty fully engaged in long-term program delivery, they may have little or no capacity to address emerging issues faced by urban communities. Urban governments often seek the research capacity of a university in addition to, or instead of, the traditional Extension programming model but sometimes turn first to other urban-serving universities. Washington State University Extension has addressed these challenges by establishing subject-matter centers. This article examines how subject-matter centers can add capacity to traditional Extension offices in order to be responsive to emerging local needs, suggesting models that other university Extension programs may use or adapt to their local communities. These models also foster more community engagement and articulate greater public value for the institution as a whole.

  16. Differences in the use of spirometry between rural and urban primary care centers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Martín, Eduardo; Soriano, Joan B; Rubio, Myriam Calle; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability and practice of spirometry, training of technicians, and spirometry features in primary care centers in Spain, evaluating those located in a rural environment against those in urban areas. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 by a telephone survey in 970 primary health care centers in Spain. The centers were divided into rural or urban depending on the catchment population. The survey contacted technicians in charge of spirometry and consisted of 36 questions related to the test that included the following topics: center resources, training doctors and technicians, using the spirometer, bronchodilator test, and the availability of spirometry and maintenance. Although the sample size was achieved in both settings, rural centers (RCs) gave a lower response rate than urban centers (UCs). The number of centers without spirometry in rural areas doubled those in the urban areas. Most centers had between one and two spirometers. However, the number of spirometry tests per week was significantly lower in RCs than in UCs (4 [4.1%] vs 6.9 [5.7%], Pspirometries was higher in RCs than in UCs (209 [73.0%] vs 207 [64.2%], P=0.003). RCs were more satisfied with the spirometries (7.8 vs 7.6, P=0.019) and received more training course for interpreting spirometry (41.0% vs 33.2%, P=0.004). The performance of the bronchodilator test showed a homogeneous measure in different ways. The spirometer type and the reference values were unknown to the majority of respondents. This study shows the differences between primary care RCs and UCs in Spain in terms of performing spirometry. The findings in the present study can be used to improve the performance of spirometry in these areas.

  17. Center for the Advancement of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Prepared Patient Blogs » WHAT IS PATIENT ENGAGEMENT? HEALTH BEHAVIOR NEWS Urban Parks and Trails Are Cost-Effective Ways to Promote Exercise December 8, 2014 Military Culture Enables Tobacco Use ...

  18. Public health emergencies in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Prasad Acharya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergencies in urban India can be caused by natural or man-made disasters. Occurrence of a public health emergency adds to the already stretched health system. This paper looks into the public health emergency conditions in urban India, and our preparedness to tackle them. To address this composite threat to nation’s health and development, a concerted public health response is needed, that can ensure efficient delivery in emergency situations Public health emergency is an occurrence or eminent threat of an illness or health condition caused by bio-terrorism, epidemic or pandemic disease, or novel and highly fatal infectious agent or biological toxin, that possess a substantial risk of a significant number of human facilities or incidents or permanent or long–term disability (1. It is a condition that requires the government to declare a state of public health emergency. The declaration of a state of public health emergency permits the government to suspend state regulations,and change the functions of state agencies (2. Term “Urban” refers to perplexing variety of environments.  Health circumstances of small cities and town differ in many ways from larger cities and metros. Within cities, change in lifestyle of residents is observed. The urban system is often present with full array of health providers ranging from traditional healer, street drug seller to highly –trained surgeons (3.

  19. The Health Penalty of China's Rapid Urbanization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid urbanization could have positive and negative health effects, such that the net impact on population health is not obvious. It is, however, highly pertinent to the human welfare consequences of development. This paper uses community and individual level longitudinal data from the

  20. Health Screening Behaviour among Female Urban Dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nairan Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ageing population is a public health challenge, affects most countries. Health screenings are able to detect diseases at the earliest stage. A cross-sectional study in December 2014 conducted among 643 older women who randomly interviewed using structured questionnaire from two urban governmental health centres in Malaysia. Aims of the study were to describe health screening services behaviour and health care accessibility among women aged 50 and above. Factors such as living arrangement and age played important roles in health screening execution among older female community dwellers. Advocacy on health screening is vital as to reduce the morbidity and mortality among them.

  1. Urbanization and health - An overview | Nnebue | Orient Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization and health - An overview. ... and health with emphasis on approach and options for the promotion of healthy behaviours and safety. ... The urban context of particular cities may also affect health as well as modify the effect that ...

  2. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  3. 75 FR 2549 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive Replacement Award to Regional Health Care Affiliates. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) will be transferring Health Center Program (section 330 of the Public Health Service Act...

  4. A atuação do nutricionista na Atenção Básica à Saúde em um grande centro urbano The participation of the nutritionist in Primary Health Care in a large urban center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Cervato-Mancuso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O nutricionista é um profissional importante na implementação de ações de promoção, tratamento e reabilitação da saúde. Porém, sua participação na Atenção Básica (AB é reduzida. A cidade de São Paulo vem passando por um processo desigual de urbanização, produzindo novas situações de insegurança alimentar e nutricional. Este trabalho analisará a atuação do nutricionista na AB em um grande centro urbano. Trata-se de estudo de abordagem quantitativa no qual foram utilizados dados populacionais da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde e um questionário semiestruturado aplicado em entrevistas individuais. Encontraram-se 123 nutricionistas atuando na rede Básica de Saúde e 51 em Núcleos de Apoio à Saúde da Família (NASF. Todas as regiões do município apresentaram-se com menor número de nutricionistas quando comparada à recomendação do Conselho Federal de Nutricionistas. Em 57,3% dos NASF do município identificou-se a presença deste profissional. Cada nutricionista de NASF acompanha, em média, 7,1 equipes de saúde da família. As faixas etárias que correspondem à infância são as atendidas com menor frequência pelos nutricionistas das UBS e dos NASF. Comparando-se as atividades desenvolvidas, observa-se a transição de um modelo de assistência primária centrado no atendimento individual para um que prioriza o atendimento em grupo.Nutritionists are important professionals for ensuring the implementation of health promotion, treatment and rehabilitation. However, their participation in primary healthcare from a quantitative standpoint is limited. The city of São Paulo has experienced an uneven urbanization process triggering new problems of insecurity in terms of food and nutrition. This article analyzes the performance of the primary healthcare nutritionist in a large urban center. It is a quantitative study that used data from the Municipal Health Department, population data of São Paulo and a semi

  5. National Center for Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # Environmental Health Topics Emergency and Environmental Health Services Chemical Weapons Elimination Environmental Health Services Healthy Homes Healthy Places – Community ...

  6. Health and the urban environment: revolutions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGranahan, Gordan

    2009-05-15

    From cholera pandemics to smog episodes, urban development driven by narrow economic interests has shown itself to be a serious threat to human health and wellbeing. Past revolutions in sanitation and pollution control demonstrate that social movements and governance reforms can transform an urban health penalty into a health advantage. But many environmental problems have been displaced over time and space, and never truly resolved. Health concerns need once again to drive an environmental agenda – but this time it must be sustainable over the long haul, and globally equitable. With the global economic crisis raising the ante, what's needed is no less than a revolution in environmental justice that puts health, not economics, at the core of its values.

  7. Urban distribution centers : a means to reducing freight vehicle miles traveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The present study examines the model of freight consolidation platforms, and urban distribution centers (UDCs) in particular, as a means to solve the last mile problem of urban freight while reducing vehicle miles traveled and associated environmenta...

  8. Marketing and Community Mental Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferniany, Isaac W.; Garove, William E.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that a marketing approach can be applied to community mental health centers. Marketing is a management orientation of providing services for, not to, patients in a systematic manner, which can help mental health centers improve services, strengthen community image, achieve financial independence and aid in staff recruitment. (Author)

  9. Medical Waste Management in Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Rezapour, Ramin; Saadati, Mohammad; Seifi, Samira; Amini, Behnam; Varmazyar, Farahnaz

    2018-02-01

    Non-standard management of medical waste leads to irreparable side effects. This issue is of double importance in health care centers in a city which are the most extensive system for providing Primary Health Care (PHC) across Iran cities. This study investigated the medical waste management standards observation in Tabriz community health care centers, northwestern Iran. In this triangulated cross-sectional study (qualitative-quantitative), data collecting tool was a valid checklist of waste management process developed based on Iranian medical waste management standards. The data were collected in 2015 through process observation and interviews with the health center's staff. The average rate of waste management standards observance in Tabriz community health centers, Tabriz, Iran was 29.8%. This case was 22.8% in dimension of management and training, 27.3% in separating and collecting, 31.2% in transport and temporary storage, and 42.9% in sterilization and disposal. Lack of principal separation of wastes, inappropriate collecting and disposal cycle of waste and disregarding safety tips (fertilizer device performance monitoring, microbial cultures and so on) were among the observed defects in health care centers supported by quantitative data. Medical waste management was not in a desirable situation in Tabriz community health centers. The expansion of community health centers in different regions and non-observance of standards could predispose to incidence the risks resulted from medical wastes. So it is necessary to adopt appropriate policies to promote waste management situation.

  10. NIEHS/EPA Children’s Environmental Health Centers: Novel Methods to Assess Effects of Chemicals on Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  11. [Effects of urban noise on mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belojević, G; Jakovljević, B; Kocijancić, R; Pjerotić, L; Dimitrijević, J

    1995-01-01

    The results of the latest studies on the effects of urban noise on mental health are presented in this paper. Numerous psychiatric symptoms have been frequently noticed in the population of the settlements with a high level of urban noise: fatigue, headaches, tension, anxiety, irritability, bad concentration, insomnia, whith a consequently high consumption of psychotropic medicines. Higher admission rates in psychiatric hospitals have been noticed from noisy areas in comparison with low noise regions. By use of diagnostic psychiatric interviews it has been shown as well, that in sensitive categories of population positive correlation can be expected between the number of persons with mental disorder and the level of environmental noise. Noise annoyance and sleep disturbance, namely shortening or absence of the sleep phase 4 and REM, are the basic negative psychological effects of noise, with an adverse effect on mental health in general.

  12. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffery R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the purpose, potential members and participants of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC). Included in the overview is a brief description of the administration and current activities of the NHHPC.

  13. [Communication center in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, W; Grimminger, F; Krause, B

    2002-06-01

    The Communications Center's portfolio covers areas such as marketing, contacts, distribution of information, sales activities and collection of bills by telephone (encashment). A special emphasis is Customer Care Management (Customer Relationship Management) to the patient and his caregivers (relatives), the customers, especially the physicians who send their patients to the hospital and the hospital doctor. By providing communication centers, the hospital would be able to improve the communication with the G.P.s, and identify the wishes and requirements more accurately and easily from the beginning. Dealing effectively with information and communication is already also of special importance for hospital doctors today. One can assume that the demands on doctors in this respect will become even more complex in the future. Doctors who are involved in scientific research are of course fully aware of the growing importance of the Internet with its new information and communication channels. Therefore analysing the current situation, the demands on a future information management system can be formulated: A system that will help doctors to avoid dealing with little goal-oriented information and thus setting up effective communication channels; an information system which is multi-media oriented towards the interests and needs of the patients and patient's relatives and which is further developed continually and directly by those involved.

  14. Urban as a determinant of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, David; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Proietti, Fernando; Ompad, Danielle; Quinn, Andrew; Nandi, Vijay; Galea, Sandro

    2007-05-01

    Cities are the predominant mode of living, and the growth in cities is related to the expansion of areas that have concentrated disadvantage. The foreseeable trend is for rising inequities across a wide range of social and health dimensions. Although qualitatively different, this trend exists in both the developed and developing worlds. Improving the health of people in slums will require new analytic frameworks. The social-determinants approach emphasizes the role of factors that operate at multiple levels, including global, national, municipal, and neighborhood levels, in shaping health. This approach suggests that improving living conditions in such arenas as housing, employment, education, equality, quality of living environment, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. While social determinant and multilevel perspectives are not uniquely urban, they are transformed when viewed through the characteristics of cities such as size, density, diversity, and complexity. Ameliorating the immediate living conditions in the cities in which people live offers the greatest promise for reducing morbidity, mortality, and disparities in health and for improving quality of life and well being.

  15. Job satisfaction survey among health centers staff

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Daniali, Seyede Shahrbanoo; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the importance of health care organizations with significant responsibility for prevention and care, assessment of job satisfaction among health care staff is essential. Quality of health services will be decreased provided they are not satisfied. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of health care staff in Khomeinishahr (centers, buildings, and networks) If they had at least 6 months work experience, they could enter the study. Data included a t...

  16. Nature of urban interventions in changing the old center of a globalizing Doha

    OpenAIRE

    Gharib, Remah; Salama, Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Doha, Qatar is continuously positioning itself at the forefront of international urbanism with different qualities of expression in terms of economy, culture, and global outlook, and is characterized by fast-tracked urban development process with large-scale urban interventions in the old center. Although the unprecedented urban growth of this city continues to be a subject of discussion, little attention has been given to investigate the new interventions and the resulting effects they have ...

  17. Public Health Nursing: Public Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , Alaska 99752 Phone: 442-7144 Fax: 442-7292 e-mail: Josephine Oke, Program Manager [back to top] North Phone: 852-0270 Fax: 852-2855 email: Andrey Boskhomdzhiev [back to top] Municipality of Anchorage P.O

  18. Fecal sludge management in developing urban centers: a review on the collection, treatment, and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odey, Emmanuel Alepu; Li, Zifu; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Kalakodio, Loissi

    2017-10-01

    The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting. However, human feces are considerably liable to spread microorganisms to other persons. Thus, sanitation, stabilization, and composting should be the main objectives of FS treatment to minimize the risk to public and environmental health. This review presents an improved FS management (FSM) and technology option for soil amendment that is grouped into three headings, namely, (1) collection, (2) treatment, and (3) composting. On the basis of the literature review, the main problems associated with the collection and treatment of FS, such as inadequate tools and improper treatment processes, are summarized, and the trends and challenges that concern the applicability of each of the technologies in developing urban centers are critically reviewed. Stabilization during pretreatment before composting is suggested as the best method to reduce pathogens in FS. Results are precisely intended to be used as a support for decisions on policies and strategies for FSM and investments for improved treatment facilities.

  19. Academic Medical Centers as digital health catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, Jacqueline W; Chen, Connie E; Sawyer, Aenor; Jethwani, Kamal; Sim, Ida

    2014-09-01

    Emerging digital technologies offer enormous potential to improve quality, reduce cost, and increase patient-centeredness in healthcare. Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) play a key role in advancing medical care through cutting-edge medical research, yet traditional models for invention, validation and commercialization at AMCs have been designed around biomedical initiatives, and are less well suited for new digital health technologies. Recently, two large bi-coastal Academic Medical Centers, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) through the Center for Digital Health Innovation (CDHI) and Partners Healthcare through the Center for Connected Health (CCH) have launched centers focused on digital health innovation. These centers show great promise but are also subject to significant financial, organizational, and visionary challenges. We explore these AMC initiatives, which share the following characteristics: a focus on academic research methodology; integration of digital technology in educational programming; evolving models to support "clinician innovators"; strategic academic-industry collaboration and emergence of novel revenue models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmaro, G.M.; Cardinale, M.A.; Summerfield, B.R.; Tipton, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials

  1. Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers in Sub- Saharan Africa. ... their pregnancies were normal during antenatal care visits, hostile attitude of health workers, poverty and mode of payment. Majority of the PHCs provided antenatal, normal delivery, and post natal services. Rural mothers lacked ...

  2. High School Students' Experiences of Bullying and Victimization and the Association with School Health Center Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of…

  3. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Entropy Weight Extension Decision Model in Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem health evaluation can assist in sustainable ecological management at a regional level. This study examined urban agglomeration ecosystem health in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River with entropy weight and extension theories. The model overcomes information omissions and subjectivity problems in the evaluation process of urban ecosystem health. Results showed that human capital and education, economic development level as well as urban infrastructure have a significant effect on the health states of urban agglomerations. The health status of the urban agglomeration’s ecosystem was not optimistic in 2013. The majority of the cities were unhealthy or verging on unhealthy, accounting for 64.52% of the total number of cities in the urban agglomeration. The regional differences of the 31 cities’ ecosystem health are significant. The cause originated from an imbalance in economic development and the policy guidance of city development. It is necessary to speed up the integration process to promote coordinated regional development. The present study will aid us in understanding and advancing the health situation of the urban ecosystem in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and will provide an efficient urban ecosystem health evaluation method that can be used in other areas.

  4. The delivery dispatching problem with time windows for urban consolidation centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the dispatch decision problem faced by an urban consolidation center. The center receives orders according to a stochastic arrival process, and dispatches them for the last-mile distribution in batches. The operator of the center aims to fi nd the cost-minimizing consolidation

  5. Consequences of urban pollution on Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Lagos state Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), (Nigeria)

    2000-07-01

    In most urban areas, the major air pollutants as earlier highlighted are CO, PbO. SO{sub 2}. NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons, particulate matters and even excess CO{sub 2}. Some of these have direct effects on health while some are of indirect effects. Other common gaseous emissions from industries are toxic waste fumes and dust/ fluff from spinning, weaving and other processes. In most cases when not properly taken care of may lead to human and plant lives being endangered. For instance it is an established fact that prolonged inhalation of fluff can also lead to Prysinosis with attendant symptoms of chest tightening and pain. In advanced stage, the situation could lead to tuberculosis. Similarly, heavy air pollution leads to acute and chronic harmful effects such as chronic bronchitis, asthma. dermatitis allergy and hypersensitivity. The processing houses produce substantial quantity of volatile chemicals. which pollute the air and could result in health impairment in human beings. It is sad to note that most African Countries including Nigeria still use leaded gasoline. The air quality degradation by these pollutants causes or aggravates most of the respiratory and air-borne diseases like asthma. tuberculosis etc which are rampant in a typical urban city like Lagos. The chart below buttresses this fact. (author)

  6. Urban public health: is there a pyramid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Jiao

    2013-01-28

    Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH). Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London) are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000-2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development.

  7. Urban Public Health: Is There a Pyramid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH. Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000–2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development.

  8. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  9. [Health centers: history and future prospects.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Marie-Pierre; Acker, Dominique

    2009-03-29

    Health houses and health centers are often hailed as specifically modern forms of medical practice in mobile healthcare provision. Yet the concept of health center emerged in the seventeenth century. The founding principles of these institutions were to promote access to good-quality universal healthcare and to practice a form of healthcare that treated patients in their globality (i.e. within their social and environmental context) based on public healthcare measures. Though they constitute a response to a specific healthcare project, healthcare centers face a number of specific difficulties that pose a challenge to their durability and development. Payment per consultation is ill-adapted to the remuneration of their services, and methods of remuneration that may be applicable to independent medical practitioners do not apply in the context of health centers, which may struggle to survive without the support of territorial collectivities (i.e. regional and local authorities) or associations. Health houses face similar difficulties in terms of their structural expenses. Expectations are high for trying out new methods of remuneration. The perspective and experience of healthcare centers will likely prove to be essential in this context. Their future needs to be envisaged alongside health houses and medical hubs. The growth of precarity and the increasing difficulties affecting access to healthcare provision need to be taken into account. The choice of the specific type of structure will depend on local realities, on the political will of regional authorities and on the specific projects of healthcare professionals. Yet whatever solution is envisaged, it will not be possible without public funding.

  10. Comparing Sexual Function in Females of Reproductive Age Referred to Rural and Urban Healthcare Centers in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadifar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Healthy sexual function can be considered as an important element to improve personal and public hygiene. The sexual desire plays an important role in mental health and improving the quality of life. Objectives The current study aimed to compare sexual function of females in urban and rural areas. Methods The current descriptive study adopted 800 females of reproductive age (range 15 - 45 years referred to rural and urban healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran, in 2015. Samples were randomly selected. Applied instruments in the study were demographic information and female sexual dysfunction questionnaires (FSFI. Independent T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were employed to analyze data by SPSS ver. 22. Results The result showed a significant statistical difference between females in urban and rural areas in terms of sexual desire, vaginal lubrication, intercourse pain and sexual function (P 0.05. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was 59.9% in females in rural and36.5% in urban areas and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (0.000. In both groups, the highest sexual disorder frequency was related to intercourse pain. Conclusions According to the obtained results, females in the rural areas had lower sexual function than the ones in the urban areas. It is suggested to establish female sexual health units in healthcare centers to give female sexual function consultation adjusted with awareness and culture of females and consider the existing problems.

  11. 42 CFR 124.515 - Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., migrant health centers and certain National Health Service Corps sites. 124.515 Section 124.515 Public... Unable To Pay § 124.515 Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and... migrant health center under section 329 of the Act is in substantial compliance with the terms and...

  12. Measuring Health-related Transportation Barriers in Urban Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; Sharp, Lisa K; Syed, Saming T; Bhansari, Shikhi; Gerber, Ben S

    Access to reliable transportation is important for people with chronic diseases considering the need for frequent medical visits and for medications from the pharmacy. Understanding of the extent to which transportation barriers, including lack of transportation, contribute to poor health outcomes has been hindered by a lack of consistency in measuring or operationally defining "transportation barriers." The current study uses the Rasch measurement model to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure designed to capture types of transportation and associated barriers within an urban context. Two hundred forty-four adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from within an academic medical center in Chicago and completed the newly developed transportation questions as part of a larger National Institutes of Health funded study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01498159). Results suggested a two subscale structure that reflected 1) general transportation barriers and 2) public transportation barriers.

  13. The urban built environment and associations with women's psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention.

  14. Differences in the use of spirometry between rural and urban primary care centers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Martín E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Márquez-Martín,1 Joan B Soriano,2 Myriam Calle Rubio,3 Jose Luis Lopez-Campos1,4 On behalf of the 3E project 1Unidad Médico-Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, 2Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario de la Princesa (IISP, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cátedra UAM-Linde, 3Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability and practice of spirometry, training of technicians, and spirometry features in primary care centers in Spain, evaluating those located in a rural environment against those in urban areas.Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 by a telephone survey in 970 primary health care centers in Spain. The centers were divided into rural or urban depending on the catchment population. The survey contacted technicians in charge of spirometry and consisted of 36 questions related to the test that included the following topics: center resources, training doctors and technicians, using the spirometer, bronchodilator test, and the availability of spirometry and maintenance.Results: Although the sample size was achieved in both settings, rural centers (RCs gave a lower response rate than urban centers (UCs. The number of centers without spirometry in rural areas doubled those in the urban areas. Most centers had between one and two spirometers. However, the number of spirometry tests per week was significantly lower in RCs than in UCs (4 [4.1%] vs 6.9 [5.7%], P<0.01. The availability of a specific schedule for conducting spirometries was higher in RCs than in UCs (209 [73.0%] vs 207 [64.2%], P=0.003. RCs were more satisfied with the spirometries (7.8 vs 7.6, P

  15. The public health response to 'do-it-yourself' urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Shannon L; Graham, Ross; Gilliland, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Greater understanding of the important and complex relationship between the built environment and human health has made 'healthy places' a focus of public health and health promotion. While current literature concentrates on creating healthy places through traditional decision-making pathways (namely, municipal land use planning and urban design processes), this paper explores do-it-yourself (DIY) urbanism: a movement circumventing traditional pathways to, arguably, create healthy places and advance social justice. Despite being aligned with several health promotion goals, DIY urbanism interventions are typically illegal and have been categorized as a type of civil disobedience. This is challenging for public health officials who may value DIY urbanism outcomes, but do not necessarily support the means by which it is achieved. Based on the literature, we present a preliminary approach to health promotion decision-making in this area. Public health officials can voice support for DIY urbanism interventions in some instances, but should proceed cautiously.

  16. A Protocol for a Feasibility and Acceptability Study of a Participatory, Multi-Level, Dynamic Intervention in Urban Outreach Centers to Improve the Oral Health of Low-Income Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Metcalf, Sara S; Yi, Stella; Zhang, Qiuyi; Gu, Xiaoxi; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2018-01-01

    While the US health care system has the capability to provide amazing treatment of a wide array of conditions, this care is not uniformly available to all population groups. Oral health care is one of the dimensions of the US health care delivery system in which striking disparities exist. More than half of the population does not visit a dentist each year. Improving access to oral health care is a critical and necessary first step to improving oral health outcomes and reducing disparities. Fluoride has contributed profoundly to the improved dental health of populations worldwide and is needed regularly throughout the life course to protect teeth against dental caries. To ensure additional gains in oral health, fluoride toothpaste should be used routinely at all ages. Evidence-based guidelines for annual dental visits and brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste form the basis of this implementation science project that is intended to bridge the care gap for underserved Asian American populations by improving access to quality oral health care and enhancing effective oral health promotion strategies. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide information for the design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a participatory, multi-level, partnered (i.e., with community stakeholders) intervention to improve the oral and general health of low-income Chinese American adults. This study will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a partnered intervention using remote data entry into an electronic health record (EHR) to improve access to oral health care and promote oral health. The research staff will survey a sample of Chinese American patients (planned n  = 90) screened at three outreach centers about their satisfaction with the partnered intervention. Providers (dentists and community health workers), research staff, administrators, site directors, and community advisory board members will participate in structured interviews

  17. A Protocol for a Feasibility and Acceptability Study of a Participatory, Multi-Level, Dynamic Intervention in Urban Outreach Centers to Improve the Oral Health of Low-Income Chinese Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Northridge

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWhile the US health care system has the capability to provide amazing treatment of a wide array of conditions, this care is not uniformly available to all population groups. Oral health care is one of the dimensions of the US health care delivery system in which striking disparities exist. More than half of the population does not visit a dentist each year. Improving access to oral health care is a critical and necessary first step to improving oral health outcomes and reducing disparities. Fluoride has contributed profoundly to the improved dental health of populations worldwide and is needed regularly throughout the life course to protect teeth against dental caries. To ensure additional gains in oral health, fluoride toothpaste should be used routinely at all ages. Evidence-based guidelines for annual dental visits and brushing teeth with fluoride toothpaste form the basis of this implementation science project that is intended to bridge the care gap for underserved Asian American populations by improving access to quality oral health care and enhancing effective oral health promotion strategies. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide information for the design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a participatory, multi-level, partnered (i.e., with community stakeholders intervention to improve the oral and general health of low-income Chinese American adults.MethodsThis study will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a partnered intervention using remote data entry into an electronic health record (EHR to improve access to oral health care and promote oral health. The research staff will survey a sample of Chinese American patients (planned n = 90 screened at three outreach centers about their satisfaction with the partnered intervention. Providers (dentists and community health workers, research staff, administrators, site directors, and community advisory board members will

  18. 1 POPULATION PRESSURE AND HEALTH RISKS IN URBAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on urban market environment (and in this case, Bodija Market, Ibadan). Particular ... markets in most LDCs have become huge waste production centers. ... market. With about 90 percent of food purchases of urban residents being sourced from .... up a child's excrement in between attending to customers are created. Often ...

  19. Health services at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E. B.; Humbert, P.; Long, I. D.; Tipton, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Comprehensive occupational health services are provided to approximately 17,000 workers at the Kennedy Space Center and an additional 6000 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. These areas cover about 120,000 acres encompassing part of the Merritt Island Wild Life Refuge and wetlands which are the habitat of numerous endangered and protected species of wildlife. The services provided at the Kennedy Space Center optimally assure a safe and healthy working environment for the employees engaged in the preparation and launching of this country's Space Shuttle and other important space exploration programs.

  20. Ecohealth Works: Health in Urban Environments

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cities attract millions of people seeking a better life and greater opportunities. ... By looking at urban environments ... Urban environments are changing, exposing people to new .... the river basin that are now actively engaged in promoting ...

  1. Substance abuse in outpatients attending rural and urban health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse in outpatients attending rural and urban health centres in Kenya. ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among patients attending primary health centres in urban and rural areas of Kenya. Design: A ... Socio-cultural factors might be responsible for the differences noted.

  2. Understanding the health impacts of urbanization in China: A living laboratory for urban biogeochemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population in the world, and by 2011, more than 50% of its population are now living in cities. This ongoing societal change has profound impacts on environmental quality and population health. In addition to intensive discharges of waste, urbanization is not only changing the land use and land cover, but also inducing fundamental changes in biogeochemical processes. Unlike biogeochemistry in non-urban environment, the biological component of urban biogeochemistry is dominated by direct human activities, such as air pollution derived from transport, wastewater treatment, garbage disposal and increase in impervious surface etc. Managing urban biogeochemistry will include source control over waste discharge, eco-infrastructure (such as green space and eco-drainage), resource recovery from urban waste stream, and integration with peri-urban ecosystem, particularly with food production system. The overall goal of managing urban biogeochemistry is for human health and wellbeing, which is a global challenge. In this paper, the current status of urban biogeochemistry research in China will be briefly reviewed, and then it will focus on nutrient recycling and waste management, as these are the major driving forces of environmental quality changes in urban areas. This paper will take a holistic view on waste management, covering urban metabolism analysis, technological innovation and integration for resource recovery from urban waste stream, and risk management related to waste recycling and recovery.

  3. Social conditions and urban health inequities: realities, challenges and opportunities to transform the urban landscape through research and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Snyder, V Nelly Salgado; Friel, Sharon; Fotso, Jean Christophe; Khadr, Zeinab; Meresman, Sergio; Monge, Patricia; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita

    2011-12-01

    The process of urbanization entails social improvements with the consequential better quality-of-life for urban residents. However, in many low-income and some middle-income countries, urbanization conveys inequality and exclusion, creating cities and dwellings characterized by poverty, overcrowded conditions, poor housing, severe pollution, and absence of basic services such as water and sanitation. Slums in large cities often have an absence of schools, transportation, health centers, recreational facilities, and other such amenities. Additionally, the persistence of certain conditions, such as poverty, ethnic heterogeneity, and high population turnover, contributes to a lowered ability of individuals and communities to control crime, vandalism, and violence. The social vulnerability in health is not a "natural" or predefined condition but occurs because of the unequal social context that surrounds the daily life of the disadvantaged, and often, socially excluded groups. Social exclusion of individuals and groups is a major threat to development, whether to the community social cohesion and economic prosperity or to the individual self-realization through lack of recognition and acceptance, powerlessness, economic vulnerability, ill health, diminished life experiences, and limited life prospects. In contrast, social inclusion is seen to be vital to the material, psychosocial, and political aspects of empowerment that underpin social well-being and equitable health. Successful experiences of cooperation and networking between slum-based organizations, grassroots groups, local and international NGOs, and city government are important mechanisms that can be replicated in urban settings of different low- and middle-income countries. With increasing urbanization, it is imperative to design health programs for the urban poor that take full advantage of the social resources and resourcefulness of their own communities.

  4. Teachers' Perspectives of Children's Mental Health Service Needs in Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Horvath, Violet E.; Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a phenomenological approach to investigate elementary school teachers' perspectives on children's mental health service needs. Focus groups were conducted at two elementary schools with differing levels of available social services in a moderate-sized urban midwestern school district. Data collection centered on six prominent…

  5. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-09-29

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  6. [Effectiveness of support for asbestos health consultation in health centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Yasuko

    2011-09-01

    In this research, we aimed to evaluate the support for asbestos health consultation in health centers. In this exploratory descriptive study, a self-administered original questionnaire was developed and used. Among all 517 health centers, valid responses were returned from 323 (62.5%) consenting centers. Consultations in the previous year ranged from 0-108 cases, with a facility median of 3.0 cases. Among staff members, 86.4% did not receive training and 35.4% had never used the manual. Workplaces that use asbestos within their jurisdiction were recognized by 39.2% of staff members, and 16.7% of these members always supported consultants psychologically. The staff members were not confident about asbestos health consultation: 71.2% for general questions, 76.2% for questions about asbestos-related diseases, and 76.4% for questions about risk of asbestos-related diseases; 51.4% were not confident about the Asbestos-Related Health Damage Relief System. Health center staff members who were significantly more confident were those who had more staff to work with; dealt with many consultations in the previous year; recognized the workplaces using asbestos within their jurisdiction; often used the manual and often psychologically supported consultants. According to the covariance structure analysis model, the 'use of support systems' consisting of 'the use of manual', 'training attendance' and 'recognition of workplaces that use asbestos' positively affected the frequency of psychological support (peffective in building the confidence of health center staff in relation to asbestos health consultation, although the use of these support systems was low.

  7. National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is an academic center tasked with leading federal, and coordinating national, efforts to develop...

  8. Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

  9. The delivery dispatching problem with time windows for urban consolidation centers

    OpenAIRE

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the dispatch decision problem faced by an urban consolidation center. The center receives orders according to a stochastic arrival process, and dispatches them for the last-mile distribution in batches. The operator of the center aims to fi nd the cost-minimizing consolidation policy, depending on the orders at hand, pre-announced orders, and stochastic arrivals. We present this problem as a variant of the Delivery Dispatching Problem that includes dispatch windows, and m...

  10. Coordinated Management of Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, Jeffrey R; Stead, William W

    2017-01-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are the nation's primary resource for healthcare discovery, innovation, and training. US healthcare revenue growth has declined sharply since 2009, and is forecast to remain well below historic levels for the foreseeable future. As the cost of education and research at nearly all AHCs is heavily subsidized through large transfers from clinical care margins, our institutions face a mounting crisis. Choices centering on how to increase the cost-effectiveness of the AHC enterprise require unprecedented levels of alignment to preserve an environment that nurtures creativity. Management processes require governance models that clarify decision rights while harnessing the talents and the intellectual capital of a large, diverse enterprise to nimbly address unfamiliar organizational challenges. This paper describes key leadership tactics aimed at propelling AHCs along this journey - one that requires from all leaders a commitment to resilience, optimism, and willingness to embrace change.

  11. CMS Innovation Center Health Care Innovation Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sandra H.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Morganti, Kristy Gonzalez; Auerbach, David I.; Beckett, Megan K.; Chen, Peggy G.; Farley, Donna O.; Han, Bing; Harris, Katherine M.; Jones, Spencer S.; Liu, Hangsheng; Lovejoy, Susan L.; Marsh, Terry; Martsolf, Grant R.; Nelson, Christopher; Okeke, Edward N.; Pearson, Marjorie L.; Pillemer, Francesca; Sorbero, Melony E.; Towe, Vivian; Weinick, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation within the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has funded 108 Health Care Innovation Awards, funded through the Affordable Care Act, for applicants who proposed compelling new models of service delivery or payment improvements that promise to deliver better health, better health care, and lower costs through improved quality of care for Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Program enrollees. CMS is also interested in learning how new models would affect subpopulations of beneficiaries (e.g., those eligible for Medicare and Medicaid and complex patients) who have unique characteristics or health care needs that could be related to poor outcomes. In addition, the initiative seeks to identify new models of workforce development and deployment, as well as models that can be rapidly deployed and have the promise of sustainability. This article describes a strategy for evaluating the results. The goal for the evaluation design process is to create standardized approaches for answering key questions that can be customized to similar groups of awardees and that allow for rapid and comparable assessment across awardees. The evaluation plan envisions that data collection and analysis will be carried out on three levels: at the level of the individual awardee, at the level of the awardee grouping, and as a summary evaluation that includes all awardees. Key dimensions for the evaluation framework include implementation effectiveness, program effectiveness, workforce issues, impact on priority populations, and context. The ultimate goal is to identify strategies that can be employed widely to lower cost while improving care. PMID:28083297

  12. Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; ... still women in urban settings do not use available maternal health services. Especially ... health services, safe water supplies, poor sanitation and .... selected cities are confined to crowded places, lack of.

  13. Academic health centers in competitive markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, J; Gaskin, D

    1997-01-01

    Academic health center (AHC) hospitals and other major teaching hospitals have funded a portion of their academic missions through patient care revenues. Using all-payer state discharge data, this DataWatch presents information on how these institutions are being affected by market changes. Although AHCs are not as successful as other hospitals are in attracting managed care patients, competitive pressures had not eroded AHCs' financial status as of 1994. However, increasing enrollment in managed care and potential changes in both Medicare and Medicaid suggest that pressure on the financing of these institutions' social missions will continue to grow over time.

  14. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Kondo; Jaime Fluehr; Thomas McKeon; Charles. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world's population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This...

  15. Nature of urban interventions in changing the old center of a globalizing Doha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remah Y. Gharib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Doha, Qatar is continuously positioning itself at the forefront of international urbanism with different qualities of expression in terms of economy, culture, and global outlook, and is characterized by fast-tracked urban development process with large-scale urban interventions in the old center. Although the unprecedented urban growth of this city continues to be a subject of discussion, little attention has been given to investigate the new interventions and the resulting effects they have on the old center. This study aims to examine three important urban interventions, namely, the Museum of Islamic Art, the reconstruction of the traditional market called Souq Waqif, and the Msheireb urban regeneration project. It examines local and global issues, universal standard practices, and traditional knowledge. This study employs a descriptive analysis of these interventions to explore the impact of change in the old center, exemplified by socio-spatial and typo-morphological aspects. Reference is made to a number of empirical studies, including behavioral mapping, GIS population statistics, and analysis of historical maps. Results analytically narrate the reactions of these interventions to the possibility of simultaneously adopting universal practices with local knowledge, and whether prioritizing local influences would represent narrow-mindedness in shaping the city.

  16. The Urban Teaching Cohort: Pre-Service Training to Support Mental Health in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Tammy; Dinnen, Hannah; Smith-Millman, Marissa K.; Dixon, Maressa; Flaspohler, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Supporting students' mental health needs is critical in high-poverty urban school districts where many students are at risk for mental health problems. Although teacher-student relationships are at the core of student mental health promotion in the classroom, many teacher preparation programmes do not adequately prepare pre-service teachers…

  17. Monitoring of health and demographic outcomes in poor urban settlements: evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques; Beguy, Donatien; Zulu, Eliya M; Ezeh, Alex C; Muindi, Kanyiva; Elung'ata, Patricia; Otsola, John K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2011-06-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements to provide a platform for investigating linkages between urban poverty, health, and demographic and other socioeconomic outcomes, and to facilitate the evaluation of interventions to improve the wellbeing of the urban poor. Data from the NUHDSS confirm the high level of population mobility in slum settlements, and also demonstrate that slum settlements are long-term homes for many people. Research and intervention programs should take account of the duality of slum residency. Consistent with the trends observed countrywide, the data show substantial improvements in measures of child mortality, while there has been limited decline in fertility in slum settlements. The NUHDSS experience has shown that it is feasible to set up and implement long-term health and demographic surveillance system in urban slum settlements and to generate vital data for guiding policy and actions aimed at improving the wellbeing of the urban poor.

  18. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C.; Fluehr, Jaime M.; McKeon, Thomas; Branas, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This review is a first step toward assessing the possibility of causal relationships between nature and health in urban settings. Methods: Through systematic review of published literature, we explored the association between urban green space and human health. Results: We found consistent negative association between urban green space exposure and mortality, heart rate, and violence, and positive association with attention, mood, and physical activity. Results were mixed, or no association was found, in studies of urban green space exposure and general health, weight status, depression, and stress (via cortisol concentration). The number of studies was too low to generalize about birth outcomes, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cancer, diabetes, or respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: More studies using rigorous study design are needed to make generalizations, and meta-analyses, of these and other health outcomes possible. These findings may assist urban managers, organizations, and communities in their efforts to increase new or preserve existing green space. PMID:29510520

  19. Urban renewal, gentrification and health equity: a realist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Marra, Giulia; Melis, Giulia; Gelormino, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Up to now, research has focused on the effects of urban renewal programs and their impacts on health. While some of this research points to potential negative health effects due to gentrification, evidence that addresses the complexity associated with this relation is much needed. This paper seeks to better understand when, why and how health inequities arise from urban renewal interventions resulting in gentrification. A realist review, a qualitative systematic review method, aimed to better explain the relation between context, mechanism and outcomes, was used. A literature search was done to identify theoretical models of how urban renewal programs can result in gentrification, which in turn could have negative impacts on health. A systematic approach was then used to identify peer-reviewed studies that provided evidence to support or refute the initial assumptions. Urban renewal programs that resulted in gentrification tended to have negative health effects primarily in residents that were low-income. Urban renewal policies that were inclusive of populations that are vulnerable, from the beginning were less likely to result in gentrification and more likely to positively impact health through physical and social improvements. Research has shown urban renewal policies have significant impacts on populations that are vulnerable and those that result in gentrification can result in negative health consequences for this population. A better understanding of this is needed to impact future policies and advocate for a community-participatory model that includes such populations in the early planning stages.

  20. Ethiopia's urban primary health care reform: Practices, lessons, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yayeh

    to assess the implementation of the pilot initiatives. ... Keywords:- Urban, health extension professionals, PHC, pilot. Background. The history of .... The FHT is divided into two sub-teams. .... helped in drawing attention to social sectors that were.

  1. Governance for Urban Health Equity: Mobilizing Demand for Primary ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... New research will identify opportunities to improve health care for the urban poor and involve communities ... Addressing this governance crisis will be paramount to improving service delivery for slum residents and to ...

  2. Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health programmes in Kenya. ... These were hardly implemented in the projects, according to the data gathered. ... Conclusion: Land and income were big issues according to the responses.

  3. Shopping centers as attractive spaces for urban mobility. The case of the Community of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina López García de Leániz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malls have become important focal points of trips in the outskirts of major urban conurbations. These trips take place predominantly in private vehicles, this compromising the objectives of sustainable mobility policies set by most of the metropolis. This article aims at characterizing the mobility patterns attracted by shopping malls within the Madrid metropolitan area. It is based on surveys carried out in eleven large commercial centers. Its departing hypothesis underlines that the location of shopping centers largely determines its incoming travel patterns. Therefore, from the standpoint of public policy, solutions should be addressed more from the perspective of urban planning that from the improvement of infrastructure and transport services.

  4. Bringing Wellness to Schools: Opportunities and Challenges to Mental Health Integration in School Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce mental health access-to-care barriers and improve educational outcomes for youth. This qualitative study evaluates the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district, as they attempt to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. Methods The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semi-structured interviews with each participant were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded using Atlas.ti 5.1, and collapsed into three domains: Operations, Partnership, and Engagement. Results Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both health and mental health services to co-located services. Sites with the Health Agency providing at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites utilized SBHC coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and Health Agency and Community Mental Health Clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement, through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and “drop-in” lunches. Conclusions Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of health-mental health-education integration. Among the provider models observed, the combined health and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions for operational problems and family engagement in mental health services. Implications for future SBHCs as an integrated model are described. PMID:27417895

  5. A Human-Centered Approach to Enhance Urban Resilience, Implications and Application to Improve Outdoor Comfort in Dense Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Chokhachian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience in urban design and decision-making is principally focused on change instead of resistance over an adaptive process. For cities, this concept in a broader scale means how to withstand unforeseen events that will fundamentally amend the city’s wellbeing, rather than being stabilized and protected. The same concept is applicable for outdoor comfort as an adaptive approach to compensate extreme heat waves and health risk conditions. This chapter presents methods, tools, and applications to enhance urban resilience at a micro scale looking for correlations between environmental factors and human behavior in terms of outdoor comfort.

  6. Achieving excellence in community health centers: implications for health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurewich, Deborah; Capitman, John; Sirkin, Jenna; Traje, Diana

    2012-02-01

    Existing studies tell us little about care quality variation within the community health center (CHC) delivery system. They also tell us little about the organizational conditions associated with CHCs that deliver especially high quality care. The purpose of this study was to examine the operational practices associated with a sample of high performing CHCs. Qualitative case studies of eight CHCs identified as delivering high-quality care relative to other CHCs were used to examine operational practices, including systems to facilitate care access, manage patient care, and monitor performance. Four common themes emerged that may contribute to high performance. At the same time, important differences across health centers were observed, reflecting differences in local environments and CHC capacity. In the development of effective, community-based models of care, adapting care standards to meet the needs of local conditions may be important.

  7. Evaluation of a Worksite Diabetes Education Program at a Large Urban Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Susan; Baernholdt, Marianne; Becker, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes education can be delivered at the worksite to better support employees' diabetes self-management and improve productivity and health care costs. This study was conducted to address the feasibility of a diabetes worksite education program for employees at a large urban academic health care institution. The diabetes education program was delivered in the diabetes center at the institution, a resource that was previously underutilized by employees. Through collaboration with groups in the institution, 20 employees of diverse ethnicity participated in the worksite diabetes education program with positive outcomes: improved glycemic control measured (HbA1c), attainment of self-management goals, and satisfaction with the program. Work absences trended downward, but numbers of hospitalizations and emergency department visits were unchanged in the 3 months following education. Recommendations include replication of the study with more employee participation and program evaluation over a longer period of time to continue assessment of employees' educational needs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Establishment of a Community-Based Mental Health Center in Yazd: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golrasteh Kholasehzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About 40 years ago, the mental health services providing strategies have been dramatically changed worldwide. As well as, it is considered as a new revolution in mental health and named as community-based mental health movement. Moreover, mental health centers in Iran have been established in order to make a change in urban community-based mental health (CMHC. The first CMHC was founded in Tehran 16th district in 2010. In Yazd, it was established in 2010. In this article, the steps for establishment of the first CMHC were described.

  9. 78 FR 9055 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the..., Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo...

  10. Job satisfaction survey among health centers staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Daniali, Seyede Shahrbanoo; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the importance of health care organizations with significant responsibility for prevention and care, assessment of job satisfaction among health care staff is essential. Quality of health services will be decreased provided they are not satisfied. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of health care staff in Khomeinishahr (centers, buildings, and networks) If they had at least 6 months work experience, they could enter the study. Data included a two-part questionnaire with a standardized questionnaire, demographic variables, and Smith job descriptive index, which is a questionnaire with six domains. Reliability was obtained for each domain and its validity was reported 0.93. The results showed an overall satisfaction score averages 43.55 ± 12.8 (from 100). Job satisfaction score was not significantly different between the sexes. However, within the current attitude toward job satisfaction, men scores was better than women (P = 0.001). Highest score in job satisfaction was related to relationships with colleagues and lowest score was related to the income, benefits, and job promotion. The more the years of work, the less the job satisfaction was. The attitude toward the current job had a direct relationship with income (P = 0.01). There was a significant inverse relationship between educational level and job satisfaction in domains promotion, income, and benefits (P = 0.01). The staff with higher education levels was less satisfied with income and job promotion qualification. Managers should focus on job qualification to increase job satisfaction and improve the quality of work.

  11. 78 FR 42788 - School-Based Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration School-Based... Gadsden County. SUMMARY: HRSA will be transferring a School-Based Health Center Capital (SBHCC) Program... support the expansion of services at school-based health centers will continue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  12. Toward improved public health outcomes from urban nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Danielle F; Lin, Brenda B; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J; Dean, Julie H; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    There is mounting concern for the health of urban populations as cities expand at an unprecedented rate. Urban green spaces provide settings for a remarkable range of physical and mental health benefits, and pioneering health policy is recognizing nature as a cost-effective tool for planning healthy cities. Despite this, limited information on how specific elements of nature deliver health outcomes restricts its use for enhancing population health. We articulate a framework for identifying direct and indirect causal pathways through which nature delivers health benefits, and highlight current evidence. We see a need for a bold new research agenda founded on testing causality that transcends disciplinary boundaries between ecology and health. This will lead to cost-effective and tailored solutions that could enhance population health and reduce health inequalities.

  13. Population health and urban form : a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    A review examining the links between public health and living spaces was presented. The aim of the review was to explore whether different urban forms created communities that encouraged healthy living and resulted in a healthier population as well as to suggest avenues and approaches for further research of the subject in British Columbia. The historical links between public health and community planning were examined. A conceptual model of the linkages of urban form and population health was developed and used to identify ways in which urban form and population health are linked. Areas of concern include vehicle emissions, water quality and heat build-up as well as noise pollution. Issues concerning health inequalities related to income and access to health services were examined, as well as the role that urban form plays as a barrier to physical activity. Findings indicated that there is a strong correlation between urban form and health. Lower density urban forms that require a vehicle generated more miles travelled by car with more traffic crashes and higher risks to pedestrians and cyclists. A growing body of evidence has indicated that community contacts are scarcer in low density areas. In addition, low density dwellers seemed to have higher stress levels. Car dependent lifestyles had negative impacts on children's play, growth and development. Urban forms which promoted a range of housing options in terms of affordability, tenure and type allowed people to remain within their neighbourhoods. Disadvantaged groups fared better in denser areas where there were more public facilities. 62 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs

  14. Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal health service utilization in urban slums of selected towns in Ethiopia: Qualitative study. ... Reasons were found to be attributed to individual characteristics, perceived capacities of health facilities and friendliness of service providers and socio-cultural factors including socially sanctioned expectations at community ...

  15. Nature-based strategies for improving urban health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Eugenia C. South; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature...

  16. Center for Devices and Radiological Health Publications Index, August 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This is the first Publications Index to be published by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Previous indexes, titled 'Bureau of Radiological Health Publications Index', were published before the Center was formed in 1982 through the merger of the Bureau of Radiological Health and the Bureau of Medical Devices; the last of these indexes was published in October 1980. The 1988 edition contains records of medical device and radiological health documents authored or published by the Center from 1978 through 1986. It should not be considered all-inclusive since those documents for which bibliographic information was not available have been excluded. The Publications Index is being distributed to Center staff, state radiological health programs, and libraries on the Center's publication mailing list. The Center plans to update and publish the Index every other year to provide a convenient record of published Center documents

  17. Definitions of urban areas feasible for examining urban health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Patterson, Lesley; Scharlach, Martina; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    As part of the EU-funded project, European Urban Health Indicator System (EURO-URHIS), a definition of urban areas (UAs) and of urban populations was needed to be able to identify comparable UAs in all member states. A literature review on existing definitions, as well as those used by other relevant projects, was performed. A survey of national experts in public health or land planning was also conducted. An algorithm was proposed to find UAs, which were feasible for the focus of EURO-URHIS. No unique general definition of UAs was found. Different fields of research define UAs differently. None of the definitions found were feasible for EURO-URHIS. All of them were found to have critical disadvantages when applied to an urban health project. An ideal definition for this type of project needs to provide a description of the situation without recourse to administrative boundaries yet inform the collection of routine data for urban health monitoring. These requirements were found to contradict each other and were not met in any existing definition. An algorithm was developed for the definition of UAs for the purpose of this study whereby national experts would select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health; identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin (e.g. by aerial photos); identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible and list all administrative areas which are contained in the larger UA. The aggregation of all administrative areas within the original region formed the UA which was used in the project. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Mental well-being of migrants in urban center of India: Analyzing the role of social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Ghuncha

    2017-01-01

    Rural to urban migration has become a salient feature of the country. However, there is a dearth of study highlighting impact of this movement on mental health of the migrant people. The main objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between specific components of social environment and psychological well-being of migrants in an urban center. The National Capital Territory of Delhi was selected for intensive study and has an exploratory design supported by cross-sectional primary data. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain data about the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents. For measuring the mental well-being, the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO5) was used. The required information was procured through interview method from 1230 sampled respondents. Influence of socioeconomic variables on mental well-being of the people was estimated through multivariate logistic regression methods. For different combinations of risk factors, five models were developed based on unstandardized likelihood coefficients. Poor mental health was significantly higher among single/widow/divorced/separated (odds ratio [OR] =0.76, P income level ( P < 0.001) were positively related to mental health. Poor housing conditions ( P < 0.001), adjustment problem ( P < 0.001), and feeling insecure ( P < 0.01) were independent predictors of poor mental health. Socioeconomic and environmental problem caused by the migrants and faced by the migrants is required in-depth study to formulate comprehensive policies.

  19. Area health education centers and health science library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R T; Howard, F H

    1977-07-01

    A study to determine the impact that the Area Health Education Center type of programs may have on health science libraries was conducted by the Extramural Programs, National Library of Medicine, in conjunction with a contract awarded by the Bureau of Health Manpower, Health Resources Administration, to develop an inventory of the AHEC type of projects in the United States. Specific study tasks included a review of these programs as they relate to library and information activities, on-site surveys on the programs to define their needs for library services and information, and a categorization of library activities. A major finding was that health science libraries and information services are generally not included in AHEC program planning and development, although information and information exchange is a fundamental part of the AHEC type of programs. This study suggests that library inadequacies are basically the result of this planning failure and of a lack of financial resources; however, many other factors may be contributory. The design and value of library activities for these programs needs explication.

  20. A comparison of health inequalities in urban and rural Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Leyland, Alastair H

    2006-03-01

    Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. Health inequalities between the deprived and affluent in Scotland have been rising over time. The aim of this study was to examine health inequalities between deprived and affluent areas of Scotland for differing ruralities and look at how these have changed over time. Postcode sectors in Scotland were ranked by deprivation and the 20% most affluent and 20% most deprived areas were found using the Carstairs indicator and male unemployment. Scotland was then split into 4 rurality types. Ratios of health status between the most deprived and most affluent areas were investigated using all cause mortality for the Scottish population, 1979-2001. These were calculated over time for 1979-1983, 1989-1993, 1998-2001. Multilevel Poisson modelling was carried out for all of Scotland excluding Grampian to assess inequalities in the population. There was an increase in inequalities between 1981 and 2001, which was greatest in remote rural Scotland for both males and females; however, male health inequalities remained higher in urban areas throughout this period. In 2001 female health inequalities were higher in remote rural areas than urban areas. Health inequalities amongst the elderly (age 65+) in 2001 were greater in remote rural Scotland than urban areas for both males and females.

  1. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pollutants and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    % of CO (up to 95% in cities) is emitted by on-road vehicles. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) NOx can cause atmospheric air in the presence of sunlight. Generally, O3 formation in urban areas is more VOC-sensitive ozone when in the sunlight). Total Hydrocarbons (THCs) Hydrocarbons are a group of compounds comprised

  3. Health literacy of an urban business community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara H; Hayes, Sandra C; Ekundayo, Olugbemiga T; Wheeler, Primus; Ford, D'Arcy M

    2012-02-01

    The impact of community-based organizations on the delivery of health care knowledge is well documented. Little research has focused on the importance of health literacy in the dissemination of health care information by minority small business owners. This study sampled 38 business owners within a local business district to assess their level of health literacy. Although adequate health literacy is not required to serve as a community resource, it may be necessary to understand the health literacy level of local business owners as gatekeepers in order to develop appropriate training/educational programs. The results of this descriptive cross-sectional study indicate that for sample of business owners, health literacy levels are adequate. The findings suggest the feasibility of using local business owners as disseminators of health-related materials to the communities in which they operate their businesses.

  4. Bringing Wellness to Schools: Opportunities for and Challenges to Mental Health Integration in School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Karen; Guo, Sisi; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Puffer, Maryjane; Kataoka, Sheryl H

    2016-12-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) reduce access barriers to mental health care and improve educational outcomes for youths. This qualitative study evaluated the innovations and challenges of a unique network of SBHCs in a large, urban school district as the centers attempted to integrate health, mental health, and educational services. The 43 participants sampled included mental health providers, primary care providers, and care coordinators at 14 SBHCs. Semistructured interviews with each participant were audio recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified and coded by using Atlas.ti 5.1 and collapsed into three domains: operations, partnership, and engagement. Interviews revealed provider models ranging from single agencies offering both primary care and mental health services to colocated services. Sites where the health agency provided at least some mental health services reported more mental health screenings. Many sites used SBHC wellness coordinators and coordination team meetings to facilitate relationships between schools and health agency and community mental health clinic providers. Partnership challenges included confidentiality policies and staff turnover. Participants also highlighted student and parent engagement through culturally sensitive services, peer health advocates, and "drop-in" lunches. Staffing and operational models are critical in the success of integrating primary care, mental health care, and education. Among the provider models observed, the combined primary care and mental health provider model offered the most integrated services. Despite barriers, providers and schools have begun to implement novel solutions to operational problems and family engagement in mental health services.

  5. Clinical quality performance in U.S. health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Leiyu; Lebrun, Lydie A; Zhu, Jinsheng; Hayashi, Arthur S; Sharma, Ravi; Daly, Charles A; Sripipatana, Alek; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2012-12-01

    To describe current clinical quality among the nation's community health centers and to examine health center characteristics associated with performance excellence. National data from the 2009 Uniform Data System. Health centers reviewed patient records and reported aggregate data to the Uniform Data System. Six measures were examined: first-trimester prenatal care, childhood immunization completion, Pap tests, low birth weight, controlled hypertension, and controlled diabetes. The top 25 percent performing centers were compared with lower performing (bottom 75 percent) centers on these measures. Logistic regressions were utilized to assess the impact of patient, provider, and institutional characteristics on health center performance. Clinical care and outcomes among health centers were generally comparable to national averages. For instance, 67 percent of pregnant patients received timely prenatal care (national = 68 percent), 69 percent of children achieved immunization completion (national = 67 percent), and 63 percent of hypertensive patients had blood pressure under control (national = 48 percent). Depending on the measure, centers with more uninsured patients were less likely to do well, while centers with more physicians and enabling service providers were more likely to do well. Health centers provide quality care at rates comparable to national averages. Performance may be improved by increasing insurance coverage among patients and increasing the ratios of physicians and enabling service providers to patients. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Department of Defense, Deployment Health Clinical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... general public of trends in mental health and mental health care within the Military Health System Get The Numbers Real Warriors Campaign Real Warriors Campaign A multimedia public awareness campaign designed to combat the stigma associated with ...

  7. From Information to Urban Sustainability through Innovations in Citizen Centered Transparency Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2017-12-01

    Current urban information mechanisms in developing countries operate only through linear exchanges between institutions and users and therefore reinforce hierarchical relationships. Coupled with conflicting interests and perspectives of stakeholders in multilevel climate-governance and absence of grassroots information-networking for adaptation decision-making, there are therefore, existing information gaps. Central to urban sustainability is the need for citizen centered transparency (CCT) mechanisms that encompass and address the needs of the marginalized and vulnerable communities in developing countries especially. The study discloses the existing information gaps through information-needs assessment of stakeholders, and attempts to chart the desired course for responsible action within frame-work of Citizen Centered Transparency (CCT) mechanism. This involved analysis of several urban development projects for Indian metropolitans that mainly involved end-user association, and the parameters considered for breaking complexity for assessment included: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve resource consumption literacy and consequently urban behaviour and sustainable lifestyles(feedback technology, consumption displays, eco-labeling, billing, advisory services, sensor technology), and b. Administrative Traditions and Institutional Policy: Rewarding-punishing to enforce desired action(subsidies, taxation). The research thus answered: 1.Who gets the information whereas who requires it (Equity in Information Distribution)? and 2. How can information translate to responsible action in future (Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that, how, by using the CCT innovations it is practically possible to embed responsibilities in urban development planning, and manifesting environmental goals in municipal policies so that they bear clear potential short-term benefits, short-term costs, and have maximum compliance with the objectives of sustainable urban

  8. National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State Offices Search the Organizations Database Center for Oral Health Systems Integration and Improvement (COHSII) COHSII is a ... needs of the MCH population. Brush Up on Oral Health This monthly newsletter provides Head Start staff with ...

  9. Integrating Informational, Social, and Behavioral Exchanges Between Humans, Urban Centers, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    behaviors were solely enacted within the physical bounds of an urban center- mall , outdoor shopping plaza, or downtown, to name a few. The Internet has...Homans, G. 1974. Social Behavior , revised ed. New York: Harcourt-Brace. Langford, Gary O. 2012. Engineering Systems Integration: Theory , Metrics, and...merging of city theory ( plans , goals, aggregate functions) with physical design (Levy 2013). City planning takes into consideration the needs, benefits

  10. ENEL high and medium voltage electrical substations for power supply to urban centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigia, A.; Boatto, C.; Di Mario, A.; Fava, N.; Sciarra, S.; Speziali, R.

    1991-12-01

    Modular high and medium voltage gas insulated electrical substations are being used by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) to meet the specific needs of urban centers with special design and sizing constraints of a historical/architectural nature. This paper illustrates the key design, construction operation and performance characteristics of these standardized units. The descriptions include brief notes on equipment-transformer interconnection, interchangeability and environmental compatibility. Performance test procedures and results of actual reliability and certification tests on some substations are reported

  11. 78 FR 49357 - National Health Center Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... America A Proclamation Community health centers play a critical role in providing affordable, high-quality... people living in the United States depends on their services. They are an important source of jobs in... extend our thanks to the women and men who operate America's health centers. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK...

  12. The Community Mental Health Center as a Matrix Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen L.

    1978-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the literature on matrix organizational designs and discusses the ways in which the matrix design might be applied to the special features of a community mental health center. The phases of one community mental health center's experience in adopting a matrix organizational structure are described. (Author)

  13. Sanitation health risk and safety planning in urban residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this review paper was to determine the best sanitation health risk and safety planning approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was achieved by reviewing the concept of sanitation safety planning as a tool. The review adopted exploratory research approach and used secondary data ...

  14. Urban Environmental Noise Pollution and Perceived Health Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban environmental noise pollution has impact on the quality of life and it is a serious health and social problem. The aim of this study was to assess the sources and noise levels, and possible impacts in selected residential neighbourhoods of Ibadan metropolis. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from ...

  15. Health Impact Assessment of New Urban Water Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales Ortells, H.

    2015-01-01

    Water features in urban areas are increasingly perceived by citizens as a positive element because they provide aesthetic quality to the neighbourhood and offer recreation opportunities. They may also lead, however, to increased health risks due to the potential presence of waterborne pathogens.

  16. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  17. Population pressure and health risks in urban market environment: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population pressure and health risks in urban market environment: a study of Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... This study was directed at permanent sellers in Bodija Market, (men and women) and people who frequent the market to make purchases.

  18. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  19. Health problems and the health care provider choices: A comparative study of urban and rural households in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma B. Galal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Urban families have less health complaints than rural; however, rural families recover sooner. Families bypass often public primary health care services. Urban families overuse outpatient clinics in public hospitals.

  20. Insuring the uninsured: potential impact of Health Care Reform Act of 2010 on trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Ogola, Gerald; Fleming, Neil; Rayan, Nadine; Kudyakov, Rustam; Barnes, Sunni A; Ballard, David J

    2012-11-01

    Viability of trauma centers is threatened by cost of care provided to patients without health insurance. The health care reform of 2010 is likely to benefit trauma centers by mandating universal health insurance by 2014. However, the financial benefit of this mandate will depend on the reimbursement provided. The study hypothesis was that compensation for the care of uninsured trauma patients at Medicare or Medicaid rates will lead to continuing losses for trauma centers. Financial data for first hospitalization were obtained from an urban Level I trauma center for 3 years (n = 6,630; 2006-2008) and linked with clinical information. Patients were grouped into five payments categories: commercial (29%), Medicaid (8%), Medicare (20%), workers' compensation (6%), and uninsured (37%). Prediction models for costs and payments were developed for each category using multiple regression models, adjusting for patient demographics, injury characteristics, complications, and survival. These models were used to predict payments that could be expected if uninsured patients were covered by different insurance types. Results are reported as net margin per patient (payments minus total costs) for each insurance type, with 95% confidence intervals, discounted to 2008 dollar values. Patients were typical for an urban trauma center (median age of 43 years, 66% men, 82% blunt, 5% mortality, and median length of stay 4 days). Overall, the trauma center lost $5,655 per patient, totaling $37.5 million over 3 years. These losses were encountered for patients without insurance ($14,343), Medicare ($4,838), and Medicaid ($15,740). Patients with commercial insurance were profitable ($5,295) as were those with workers' compensation ($6,860). Payments for the care of the uninsured at Medicare/Medicaid levels would lead to continued losses at $2,267 to $4,143 per patient. The health care reforms of 2010 would lead to continued losses for trauma centers if uninsured are covered with Medicare

  1. Opportunities and challenges within urban health and sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Jack E.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Loft, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals mark aunique window of opportunity for both human and planetaryhealth. With rising life expectancy and rapidly expanding urbanpopulations exposed to pollution and sedentary lifestyles, thereis a greater focus on reducing the gap between life...... expectancyand number of healthy years lived, whilst limiting anthropogenicactivities contributing to pollution and climate change. Thus,urban development and policies, which can create win–winsituations for our planet and human health, falls into the realmand expertise of public health. However, some...

  2. Promoting Ecological Health Resilience for Minority Youth: Enhancing Health Care Access through the School Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss-Ehlers, Caroline C. C.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the demographic realities of children of color in the U.S., with a focus on health care needs and access issues that have an enormous influence on health status. An ecologic model is presented that incorporates cultural values and community structures into the school health center. (Contains 50 references.) (GCP)

  3. Observing principles of medical ethics during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Motevallizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family planning has been defined in the framework of mothers and children plan as one of Primary Healthcare (PHC details. Besides quantity, the quality of services, particularly in terms of ethics, such as observing individuals’ privacy, is of great importance in offering family planning services.Objective: A preliminary study to gather information about the degree of medical ethics offered during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed for study. In the first question regarding informed consent, 47 clients who were advised about various contraception methods were asked whether advantages and disadvantages of the contraceptive methods have been discussed by the service provider. Then a certain rank was measured for either client or method in 2007. Finally, average value of advantage and disadvantage for each method was measured. In questions about autonomy, justice and beneficence, yes/no answers have been expected and measured accordingly.Results: Health care providers have stressed more on the advantages of pills and disadvantages of tubectomy and have paid less attention to advantages of injection ampoules and disadvantages of pills in first time clients. While they have stressed more on the advantages and disadvantages of tubectomy and less attention to advantages of condom and disadvantages of vasectomy in second time clients. Clients divulged their 100% satisfaction in terms of observing turns and free charges services.Observance degree of autonomy was 64.7% and 77.3% for first time and second- time clients respectively.Conclusion: Applying the consultant’s personal viewpoint for selecting a method will breach an informed consent for first and second time clients. System has good consideration to justice and no malfeasance

  4. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality

  5. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately

  6. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  7. Nature-Based Strategies for Improving Urban Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; South, Eugenia C; Branas, Charles C

    2015-10-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature and greenery. In this paper, we describe the current understanding of place-based influences on public health and safety. We focus on nonchemical environmental factors, many of which are related to urban abandonment and blight. We then review findings from studies of nature-based interventions regarding impacts on health, perceptions of safety, and crime. Based on our findings, we suggest that further research in this area will require (1) refined measures of green space, nature, and health and safety for cities, (2) interdisciplinary science and cross-sector policy collaboration, (3) observational studies as well as randomized controlled experiments and natural experiments using appropriate spatial counterfactuals and mixed methods, and (4) return-on-investment calculations of potential economic, social, and health costs and benefits of urban greening initiatives.

  8. Social and Architectural Aspects of Revitalization of Historic Urban Centers: Foreign Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrė Gražulevičiutė-Vileniškė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and architecture of many European cities has started their development during the Middle Ages or even earlier. The historic cores gradually had become centers of contemporary cities and are constantly evolving. They are affected by the tendencies of destruction, initiatives and movements of preservation are also taking place there. The comprehensive works of rehabilitation of Lithuanian historic urban centers were carried out during the period of soviet occupation. The insularity of the Soviet empire, ideological reasons and the absence of the private property has determined certain architectural expressions and solutions for the social problems. After the restoration of the country‘s independence the problems and tendencies typical to Western city centers, such as commercialization and gentrification, started to appear in Lithuanian historic urban cores. This justifies the aim of the article which is to analyze the tendencies of revitalization of historic city centers in Western countries with the main attention to the social and architectural aspects.Article in Lithuanian

  9. 42 CFR 405.2462 - Payment for rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... integral and subordinate part of a hospital, skilled nursing facility or home health agency participating... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center services. 405.2462 Section 405.2462 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  10. Deployment Health Centers Review, 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    the short and long-term adverse effects of military service on the physical and mental health of veterans. We recommend that the DHB continue to...adverse effects of military service on the physical and mental health of veterans” by expanding on current clinical, surveillance, and research efforts...the ability to identify, treat, and minimize the short- and long-term adverse effects of military service on the mental and physical health of

  11. South Florida Health Care Centers | NSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Optometric Care Complete range of personalized eye care delays or symptoms on the autism spectrum. Support services are also available for families with a child Segal Center provides programs for early childhood, parenting, and autism. Institutes Distance Education

  12. Naval Health Research Center 1985 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    strengthening programs for the entire crew. Aerobic programs for select populations (e.g., overweight personnel), however, were found on 20% of the...Institute, Lima Detachment, Peru (Command) 25-26 UCOR R. Kallal, CUP W. J. Lambert, & M. Nave, Naval Data Services Center, Bethesda, Maryland (Dr

  13. St. Luke's Medical Center: technologizing health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanguil, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    The computerization of the St. Luke's Medical Center improved the hospital administration and management, particularly in nuclear medicine department. The use of computer-aided X-ray simulator machine and computerized linear accelerator machine in diagnosing and treating cancer are the most recent medical technological breakthroughs that benefited thousands of Filipino cancer patients. 4 photos

  14. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D H [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  15. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  16. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, S; Chapman, S; Spetz, J; Brindis, CD

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities.Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if rese...

  17. The Role of Urban Financial Centers within the Economy of Global Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is no doubt that state economy refers to city economy. In other words, the most part of a state‘s GDP is given by the urban environment, especially by capitals, which are often the economic engine of this environment. There are also cities having great economic importance abroad, beyond the state and even continental borders. These are the so-called global cities where the financial activities play an important role. There are a few cities (New York, London, Hong Kong etc. centering financial activities which are influential for large geographic areas. This research highlights the importance of the financial sector within urban economy and, subsequently, how it consolidates the status of global city. These cities are the engine of the international financial system as they host the headquarters of the most important and famous international stock exchange markets, financial supervision institutions, law firms and consulting companies.

  18. Comparing Performance of Public and Cooperative Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Farahbakhsh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health cooperatives in similar structure of health network in Iran, give primary health cares to defined population with supervisory of public sector. Materials and method: This study compares health system performance between public (PHC and cooperative (CHC health centers. Results: Client's satisfaction was 4.14 in CHC and 3.9 in PHC in 5 point Likert scale. The mean for daily health services of CHC and PHC were 110.8 and 85 respectively. Conclusion: Health cooperatives are appropriate strategy for downsizing of government in health sector

  19. 75 FR 48853 - National Health Center Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... communities by conducting outreach and education, ensuring patients can communicate with their providers, and... information technology systems, and meet their critical care needs. The reforms in the landmark new health.... Community health centers are at the heart of a modern, reformed health care system in America. We must...

  20. Role modalities in Urban Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    ), and on the other hand as a semantic preparation for participation in behavioural activities such as co-decision making, different preventive initiatives are analysed. The theoretical framework combines elements from system theory (Luhmann, 1995a), pedagogical studies and health education theory in order to grasp...... food, drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes or having sexual relationships, the children are brought into a moral, political and lifestyle oriented discourse on risks. In this discourse their identity (as children or adolescents) is at stake as they are expected to participate as well...

  1. Planning for the Mercy Center for Breast Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, V Ed

    2002-01-01

    During the last months of 2000, administrators at the Mercy San Juan Medical Center in Carmichael, Calif., convened a steering committee to plan the Mercy Center for Breast Health. The Steering Committee was composed of the director of ancillary and support services, the oncology clinical nurse specialist, the RN manager of the oncology nursing unit, the RN surgery center manager, and me, the manager of imaging services. The committee was responsible for creating a new business with five specific objectives: to position the Center as a comprehensive diagnostic and resource center for women; to generate physician referrals to the Breast Center through various vehicles; to create awareness of the Breast Center's capabilities among area radiologists; to create awareness of the Breast Center among employees of six sister facilities; to create "brand awareness" for the Mercy Center for Breast Health among referring physicians and patients who could use competing centers in the area. The Steering Committee's charter was to design a center with a feminine touch and ambience and to provide a "one-stop shopping" experience for patients. A major component of the Breast Center is the Dianne Haselwood Resource Center, which provides patients with educational support and information. The Steering Committee brought its diverse experience and interests to bear on arranging for equipment acquisition, information and clerical systems, staffing, clinic office design, patient care and marketing. Planning the Mercy Center for Breast Health has been a positive challenge that brought together many elements of the organization and people from different departments and specialties to create a new business venture. Our charge now is to grow and to live up to our vision of offering complete breast diagnostic, education and support services in one location.

  2. Urban green spaces assessment approach to health, safety and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari Neisiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city is alive with dynamic systems, where parks and urban green spaces have high strategic importance which help to improve living conditions. Urban parks are used as visual landscape with so many benefits such as reducing stress, reducing air pollution and producing oxygen, creating opportunities for people to participate in physical activities, optimal environment for children and decreasing noise pollution. The importance of parks is such extent that are discussed as an indicator of urban development. Hereupon the design and maintenance of urban green spaces requires integrated management system based on international standards of health, safety and the environment. In this study, Nezami Ganjavi Park (District 6 of Tehran with the approach to integrated management systems have been analyzed. In order to identify the status of the park in terms of the requirements of the management system based on previous studies and all Tehran Municipality’s considerations, a check list has been prepared and completed by park survey and interview with green space experts. The results showed that the utility of health indicators were 92.33 % (the highest and environmental and safety indicators were 72 %, 84 % respectively. According to SWOT analysis in Nezami Ganjavi Park some of strength points are fire extinguishers, first aid box, annual testing of drinking water and important weakness is using unseparated trash bins also as an opportunities, there are some interesting factors for children and parents to spend free times. Finally, the most important threat is unsuitable park facilities for disabled.

  3. Urban versus rural populations' views of health care in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Hinds, Kerstin; Richards, Helen; Godden, David

    2005-10-01

    To compare satisfaction with, and expectations of, health care of people in rural and urban areas of Scotland. Questions were included in the 2002 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey (SSAS). The Scottish House-hold Survey urban-rural classification was used to categorize locations. A random sample of 2707 people was contacted to participate in a face-to-face interview and a self-completion questionnaire survey. SPSS (v.10) was used to analyse the data. Relationships between location category and responses were explored using logistic regression analysis. In all, 1665 (61.5%) interviews were conducted and 1507 (56.0%) respondents returned self-completion questionnaires. Satisfaction with local doctors and hospital services was higher in rural locations. While around 40% of those living in remote areas thought A&E services too distant, this did not rank as a top priority for health service improvement. This could be due to expectations that general practitioners would assist in out-of-hours emergencies. Most Scots thought services should be good in rural areas even if this was costly, and that older people should not be discouraged from moving to rural areas because of their likely health care needs. In all, 79% of respondents thought that care should be as good in rural as urban areas. Responses to many questions were independently significantly affected by rural/urban location. Most Scots want rural health care to continue to be good, but the new UK National Health Service (NHS) general practitioner contract and service redesign will impact on provision. Current high satisfaction, likely to be due to access and expectations about local help, could be affected. This study provides baseline data on attitudes and expectations before potential service redesign, which should be monitored at intervals in future.

  4. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Adrion, Marius; Gamauf, Anita

    2018-01-01

    As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus) of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests) along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner-city nestlings are

  5. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sumasgutner

    Full Text Available As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner

  6. Job satisfaction of primary health-care providers (public sector in urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. The core components of information necessary for what satisfies and motivates the health work force in our country are missing at policy level. Therefore present study will help us to know the factors for job satisfaction among primary health care providers in public sector. Materials and Methods: Present study is descriptive in nature conducted in public sector dispensaries/primary urban health centers in Delhi among health care providers. Pretested structured questionnaire was administered to 227 health care providers. Data was analyzed using SPSS and relevant statistical test were applied. Results: Analysis of study reveals that ANMs are more satisfied than MOs, Pharmacist and Lab assistants/Lab technicians; and the difference is significant (P < 0.01. Age and education level of health care providers don′t show any significant difference in job satisfaction. All the health care providers are dissatisfied from the training policies and practices, salaries and opportunities for career growth in the organization. Majority of variables studied for job satisfaction have low scores. Five factor were identified concerned with job satisfaction in factor analysis. Conclusion: Job satisfaction is poor for all the four groups of health care providers in dispensaries/primary urban health centers and it is not possible to assign a single factor as a sole determinant of dissatisfaction in the job. Therefore it is recommended that appropriate changes are required at the policy as well as at the dispensary/PUHC level to keep the health work force motivated under public sector in Delhi.

  7. Variability in urban soils influences the health and growth of native tree seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara C. Pregitzer; Nancy F. Sonti; Richard A. Hallett

    2016-01-01

    Reforesting degraded urban landscapes is important due to the many benefits urban forests provide. Urban soils are highly variable, yet little is known about how this variability in urban soils influences tree seedling performance and survival. We conducted a greenhouse study to assess health, growth, and survival of four native tree species growing in native glacial...

  8. Personal networks and locus of control in large urban centers of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Grande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between locus of control and interpersonal relations structures in Argentina. After a representative sample (n = 1500 of households in seven major urban centers (>200,000 inhabitants, it examines the relationship between the externality of locus of control and different aspects of personal networks of each respondent. The results show that people having more relations experiment lower levels of externality of locus of control. Likewise, lower levels of externality are informed when personal ties outside the neighborhood are available, as well as ties high educational level. In this regard, significant associations are verified between control and personal relations structures.

  9. University of Illinois at Chicago Health Policy Center - Funding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Funding Data, Appropriations...

  10. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  11. Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS), a service of the Postgraduate Dental College, is chartered by the Department of Defense TRICARE Management...

  12. Plan for radiological security at a university health center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiaman Mendoza, G.M.; Sanchez Riojas, M.M.; Felix JImenez, D.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows a radiological security plan applied to a Basic Radiological Service at a university health center. Factors taken into account were installation designs, equipment operation parameters, work procedures, image system and responsibilities

  13. Implementing Community-based Health Planning and Services in impoverished urban communities: health workers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwameme, Adanna Uloaku; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2018-03-20

    Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary. The Community Health Officers (CHOs) and their supervisors are the frontline providers of health in the community and there is a need to analyze and document the health sector response to urban CHPS. The study was solely qualitative and 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with all the CHOs and key health sector individuals in supervisory/coordinating positions working in urban CHPS zones to elicit relevant issues concerning urban CHPS implementation. Thematic content data analysis was done using the NVivo 7 software. Findings from this appraisal suggest that the implementation of this urban concept of the CHPS programme has been well undertaken by the health personnel involved in the process despite the challenges that they face in executing their duties. Several issues came to light including the lack of first aid drugs, as well as the need for the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) programme and more indepth training for CHOs. In addition, the need to provide incentives for the volunteers and Community Health Committee members to sustain their motivation and the CHOs' apprehensions with regards to furthering their education and progression in their careers were key concerns raised. The establishment of the CHPS concept in the urban environment albeit challenging has been

  14. Utilization of Mental Health Services in School-Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Ranbir M.; Cusson, Regina; White-Frese, Jesse; Walsh, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background: We summarize utilization patterns for mental health services in school-based health centers. Methods: Administrative data on school-based health center visits in New Haven, Connecticut were examined for the 2007-2009 school years. Relative frequencies of mental health visits by age were calculated as a percentage of all visits and were…

  15. 75 FR 56549 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, e...

  16. 75 FR 39265 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Prevention, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337, Hyattsville, MD...

  17. 78 FR 53148 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337...

  18. HEALTH OF URBAN POPULATION IN MOSCOW AND BEIJING AGGLOMERETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Malkhazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained under the joint Russian-Chinese RFBR project № 12-05-91175-ГФЕН_а aimed at assessment of the state of the environment and health of the population in urban areas in Russia and China. The paper presents the authors’ approach to a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of the environment on the populationhealth of urban agglomerations and a method of regional medico-geographical analysis. A series of analytical and synthetic maps was compiled and used for a comparative geographical analysis of medical and environmental situation in Moscow and Beijing – major metropolitan areas with different natural and socio-economic conditions. The paper discusses the influence of the environment on the state of public health and identifies the leading risk factors, both general and specific to each region.

  19. Service utilization in community health centers in China: a comparison analysis with local hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an important part of China's Urban Health Care Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs have been established throughout the entire country and are presently undergoing substantial reconstruction. However, the services being delivered by the CHCs are far from reaching their performance targets. In order to assess the role of the CHCs, we examined their performance in six cities located in regions of South-East China. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the utilization and the efficiency of community health resources that are able to provide basic medical and public health services. Methods The study was approved by Peking University Health Science Center Institutional Reviewing Board (NO: IRB00001052-T1. Data were collected from all the local health bureaux and processed using SPSS software. Methods of analysis mainly included: descriptive analysis, paired T-test and one-way ANOVA. Results The six main functions of the CHCs were not fully exploited and the surveys that were collected on their efficiency and utilization of resources indicate that they have a low level of performance and lack the trust of local communities. Furthermore, the CHCs seriously lack funding support and operate under difficult circumstances, and residents have less positive attitudes towards them. Conclusion The community health service must be adjusted according to the requirements of urban medical and health reform, taking into account communities' health needs. More research is required on the living standards and health needs of residents living within the CHC's range, taking into consideration the users' needs in expanding the newly implemented service, and at the same time revising the old service system so as to make the development of CHCs realistic and capable of providing a better service to patients. Several suggestions are put forward for an attainable scheme for developing a community health service.

  20. 78 FR 24756 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...'s funded section 330 grant application. Genesee County Community Mental Health (GCCMH)--now Genesee... operations of the grant program since its award in June 2012. On January 1, 2013, the State of Michigan... care services on the County of Genesee's behalf and has indicated an ability to continue operations...

  1. Johnson Space Center Health and Medical Technical Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    1.HMTA responsibilities: a) Assure program/project compliance with Agency health and medical requirements at identified key decision points. b) Certify that programs/projects comply with Agency health and medical requirements prior to spaceflight missions. c) Assure technical excellence. 2. Designation of applicable NASA Centers for HMTA implementation and Chief Medical Officer (CMO) appointment. 3. Center CMO responsible for HMTA implementation for programs and projects at the center. JSC HMTA captured in "JSC HMTA Implementation Plan". 4. Establishes specifics of dissenting opinion process consistent with NASA procedural requirements.

  2. Effects of a randomized intervention to improve workplace social capital in community health centers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojie; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Kun; Li, Wen; Oksanen, Tuula; Shi, Lizheng

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether workplace social capital improved after implementing a workplace social capital intervention in community health centers in China. This study was conducted in 20 community health centers of similar size in Jinan of China during 2012-2013. Using the stratified site randomization, 10 centers were randomized into the intervention group; one center was excluded due to leadership change in final analyses. The baseline survey including 447 staff (response rate: 93.1%) was conducted in 2012, and followed by a six-month workplace social capital intervention, including team building courses for directors of community health centers, voluntarily public services, group psychological consultation, and outdoor training. The follow-up survey in July 2013 was responded to by 390 staff members (response rate: 86.9%). Workplace social capital was assessed with the translated and culturally adapted scale, divided into vertical and horizontal dimensions. The facility-level intervention effects were based on all baseline (n = 427) and follow-up (n = 377) respondents, except for Weibei respondents. We conducted a bivariate Difference-in-Difference analysis to estimate the facility-level intervention effects. No statistically significant intervention effects were observed at the center level; the intervention increased the facility-level workplace social capital, and its horizontal and vertical dimensions by 1.0 (p = 0.24), 0.4 (p = 0.46) and 0.8 (p = 0.16), respectively. The comprehensive intervention seemed to slightly improve workplace social capital in community health centers of urban China at the center level. High attrition rate limits any causal interpretation of the results. Further studies are warranted to test these findings.

  3. Health Literacy Innovations in California Community College Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenia, Joanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Limited health literacy is a national public health problem contributing to adverse health outcomes and increasing healthcare costs. Both health and educational systems are intervention points for improvement; however, there is paucity in empirical research regarding the role of educational systems. This needs assessment study explored health…

  4. Quality and Electronic Health Records in Community Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Adoption and use of health information technology, the electronic health record (EHR) in particular, has the potential to help improve the quality of care, increase patient safety, and reduce health care costs. Unfortunately, adoption and use of health information technology has been slow, especially when compared to the adoption and use of…

  5. Adolescent health promotion based on community-centered arts education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Giselly Milhome da Costa Farre

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the contribution of arts education to health promotion of adolescents in situations of urban social vulnerability. Method: Participatory evaluative research, with a qualitative approach, using as a reference the theoretical constructs of Paulo Freire's Conscientization and the Empowerment Evaluation as a method of collecting with adolescents and teachers of an arts education program in the field of the Family Health Strategy. Results: Participants constructed a collective mission that represented the concept of adolescent health promotion. Arts education activities were prioritized and ranked with a mission focus, and over a three-month period, the program implemented health goals through art. In the reevaluation, the group presented a broad look at the implementation of activities and self-determination for change. Final considerations: Arts education is a potential space for nurses to act in the conscientization and empowerment of adolescent health in Primary Health Care.

  6. 75 FR 12766 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research... Review, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800...

  7. 75 FR 9421 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research..., National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  8. Experiences and Lessons from Urban Health Insurance Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haichang

    2016-08-01

    Health care systems often face competing goals and priorities, which make reforms challenging. This study analyzed factors influencing the success of a health care system based on urban health insurance reform evolution in China, and offers recommendations for improvement. Findings based on health insurance reform strategies and mechanisms that did or did not work can effectively inform improvement of health insurance system design and practice, and overall health care system performance, including equity, efficiency, effectiveness, cost, finance, access, and coverage, both in China and other countries. This study is the first to use historical comparison to examine the success and failure of China's health care system over time before and after the economic reform in the 1980s. This study is also among the first to analyze the determinants of Chinese health system effectiveness by relating its performance to both technical reasons within the health system and underlying nontechnical characteristics outside the health system, including socioeconomics, politics, culture, values, and beliefs. In conclusion, a health insurance system is successful when it fits its social environment, economic framework, and cultural context, which translates to congruent health care policies, strategies, organization, and delivery. No health system can survive without its deeply rooted socioeconomic environment and cultural context. That is why one society should be cautious not to radically switch from a successful model to an entirely different one over time. There is no perfect health system model suitable for every population-only appropriate ones for specific nations and specific populations at the right place and right time. (Population Health Management 2016;19:291-297).

  9. Globalisation and climate change in Asia: the urban health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Asia's economic development successes will create new policy areas to address, as the advances made through globalisation create greater climate change challenges, particularly the impact on urban health. Poverty eradication and higher standards of living both increase demand on resources. Globalisation increases inequalities and those who are currently the losers will carry the greatest burden of the costs in the form of the negative effects of climate change and the humanitarian crises that will ensue. Of four major climate change challenges affecting the environment and health, two—urban air pollution and waste management—can be mitigated by policy change and technological innovation if sufficient resources are allocated. Because of the urban bias in the development process, these challenges will probably register on policy makers' agenda. The second two major challenges—floods and drought—are less amenable to policy and technological solutions: many humanitarian emergency challenges lie ahead. This article describes the widely varying impact of both globalisation and climate change across Asia. The greatest losers are those who flee one marginal location, the arid inland areas, only to settle in another marginal location in the flood prone coastal slums. Effective preparation is required, and an effective response when subsequent humanitarian crises occur.

  10. Urban health. A challenge for the third millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli, S.; Menditto, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of the bilateral governmental programme for scientific and technical cooperation existing between Italy and Hungary a successful series of biennial Symposia were undertaken since the early 1980s. These were designed to provide scientists of both countries with a permanent forum for the evaluation of ongoing joint projects, the exchange of views on future priorities dealt with by these Symposia always made the participation of prominent scientists from other countries a necessary complement substantially enhancing the international characteristics of such events. Each Symposium features a specific theme of primary importance within the general context of human health and environmental protection. In this respect, the ninth edition of this series of Symposia focuses on the major concerns raised by chemical pollution on all aspects of urban life. More than one half of the world population lives today in big cities, with all the attendant problems as regards air, water and soil quality, safe disposal of urban waste, occupational exposure, in one word, the physical, mental and cultural welfare of citizens at large. All facets concurring to protect and maintain urban health will be thus taken into consideration and highlighted in about forty invited lectures, while posters will be displayed in a permanent session throughout the conference duration [it

  11. Developing a conceptual framework of urban health observatories toward integrating research and evidence into urban policy for health and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiaffa, W T; Friche, A A L; Dias, M A S; Meireles, A L; Ignacio, C F; Prasad, A; Kano, M

    2014-02-01

    Detailed information on health linked to geographic, sociodemographic, and environmental data are required by city governments to monitor health and the determinants of health. These data are critical for guiding local interventions, resource allocation, and planning decisions, yet they are too often non-existent or scattered. This study aimed to develop a conceptual framework of Urban Health Observatories (UHOs) as an institutional mechanism which can help synthesize evidence and incorporate it into urban policy-making for health and health equity. A survey of a select group of existent UHOs was conducted using an instrument based on an a priori conceptual framework of key structural and functional characteristics of UHOs. A purposive sample of seven UHOs was surveyed, including four governmental, two non-governmental, and one university-based observatory, each from a different country. Descriptive and framework analysis methods were used to analyze the data and to refine the conceptual framework in light of the empirical data. The UHOs were often a product of unique historical circumstances. They were relatively autonomous and capable of developing their own locally sensitive agenda. They often had strong networks for accessing data and were able to synthesize them at the urban level as well as disaggregate them into smaller units. Some UHOs were identified as not only assessing but also responding to local needs. The findings from this study were integrated into a conceptual framework which illustrates how UHOs can play a vital role in monitoring trends in health determinants, outcomes, and equity; optimizing an intersectoral urban information system; incorporating research on health into urban policies and systems; and providing technical guidance on research and evidence-based policy making. In order to be most effective, UHOs should be an integral part of the urban governance system, where multiple sectors of government, the civil society, and businesses can

  12. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural Competence, Lay-beliefs in Narratives of Diabetes among the Rural Poor in the Eastern Cape ... to exist in the utilization of cardiac diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, prescription of analgesia for pains, treatment of diabetes (e.g. gym exercise).

  13. Forging successful academic-community partnerships with community health centers: the California statewide Area Health Education Center (AHEC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Virginia; Blossom, H John; Mitchell, Brenda; Herrera-Mata, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Increased access to insurance under the Affordable Care Act will increase demands for clinical services in community health centers (CHCs). CHCs also have an increasingly important educational role to train clinicians who will remain to practice in community clinics. CHCs and Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) are logical partners to prepare the health workforce for the future. Both are sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration, and they share a mission to improve quality of care in medically underserved communities. AHECs emphasize the educational side of the mission, and CHCs the service side. Building stronger partnerships between them can facilitate a balance between education and service needs.From 2004 to 2011, the California Statewide AHEC program and its 12 community AHECs (centers) reorganized to align training with CHC workforce priorities. Eight centers merged into CHC consortia; others established close partnerships with CHCs in their respective regions. The authors discuss issues considered and approaches taken to make these changes. Collaborative innovative processes with program leadership, staff, and center directors revised the program mission, developed common training objectives with an evaluation plan, and defined organizational, functional, and impact characteristics for successful AHECs in California. During this planning, centers gained confidence as educational arms for the safety net and began collaborations with statewide programs as well as among themselves. The AHEC reorganization and the processes used to develop, strengthen, and identify standards for centers forged the development of new partnerships and established academic-community trust in planning and implementing programs with CHCs.

  14. 76 FR 40733 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), World Trade Center Health Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), World Trade Center Health Program Science/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP-STAC) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on June 23...

  15. Is the Urban Child Health Advantage Declining in Malawi?: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Biesma, Regien; Chirwa, Maureen; Darker, Catherine

    2018-06-01

    In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Rate differences between urban and rural values for selected child health indicators were calculated to denote whether urban-rural differentials showed a trend of declining urban advantage in Malawi. The results show that all forms of child mortality have significantly declined between 1992 and 2015/2016 reflecting successes in child health interventions. Rural-urban comparisons, using rate differences, largely indicate a picture of the narrowing gap between urban and rural areas albeit the extent and pattern vary among child health indicators. Of the 13 child health indicators, eight (neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality rates, stunting rate, proportion of children treated for diarrhea and fever, proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, and children fully immunized at 12 months) show clear patterns of a declining urban advantage particularly up to 2014. However, U-5MR shows reversal to a significant urban advantage in 2015/2016, and slight increases in urban advantage are noted for infant mortality rate, underweight, full childhood immunization, and stunting rate in 2015/2016. Our findings suggest the need to rethink the policy viewpoint of a disadvantaged rural and much better-off urban in child health

  16. The Rise of Urban Centers in the Golden Horde and the City of Ükek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Schamiloglu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives and materials: This essay discusses the rise of cities in the territories of the Golden Horde. It contextualizes the information found in European travelers such as Marco Polo and William of Rubruck to examine the transition from a nomadic economy to a sedentary economy. Arabic sources such as Abū l‑Fidā allow a survey of the location of the major urban centers while Ibn Baṭṭūṭa allows a deeper understanding of the composition of cities. While Ukek started as an urban center situated at the northern limit of the annual nomadic migration route and midway between the capital city Saray in the south and the city of Bulgar in the north, the essay argues that it is likely that it later gained in importance as a center for grain production as the result of climate change. It also attempts to understand the origin and meaning of the name Ukek, for the etymology of which it offers a detailed examination of medieval and modern data. Results and novelty of the research: The essay proposes that the name Ukek actually relays information about the geological formation of the site on which it is built. While most scholars have understood the original meaning of ‘box’ to represent fortifications built on the city wall, the author argues that the name refers rather to the boxlike hollow shape of the formation, which offered both shelter and an elevated location which would be both visible to travelers as well as a shape easily recognized by travelers coming from thousands of kilometers from the southeast, where there were several other such formations carrying the same name.

  17. Patients' satisfaction evaluation with the health center of elis province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavida, Angeliki; Stamouli, Maria-Aggeliki; Balis, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    Patient satisfaction related to the provided health services is a key indicator of the quality of the health sector. The SERVQUAL model was employed as a way of measuring the level of patient satisfaction with the services of the Health Center of Elis Province. Although certain aspects such as "Assurance" and "Empathy" meet the users' needs, improvements like a detailed medical record and an overhaul of the equipment need to be introduced.

  18. Patient-centered medical home model: do school-based health centers fit the model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu A; Chapman, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) are an important component of health care reform. The SBHC model of care offers accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family-centered, coordinated, and compassionate care to infants, children, and adolescents. These same elements comprise the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care being promoted by the Affordable Care Act with the hope of lowering health care costs by rewarding clinicians for primary care services. PCMH survey tools have been developed to help payers determine whether a clinician/site serves as a PCMH. Our concern is that current survey tools will be unable to capture how a SBHC may provide a medical home and therefore be denied needed funding. This article describes how SBHCs might meet the requirements of one PCMH tool. SBHC stakeholders need to advocate for the creation or modification of existing survey tools that allow the unique characteristics of SBHCs to qualify as PCMHs.

  19. Competitive service centers location in the cities with aim to reduce traffic (Case study: Health centers location in the city if Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moradi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Distribution of goods and services in cities is of utmost importance. Selecting appropriate venues for different service centers in a city not only enables the citizens to access these services much more easily, but also reduces the traffic load caused by trips made to reach them. Unfortunately, the lack of a correct urban planning has led to inappropriate formation of many cities around the world in terms of the locations assumed for different service centers. Since the private sector has been given the responsibility to construct most of these centers, changing their current locations may be restricted due to legal obligations. Therefore, it seems necessary for the government to construct new service centers with high competitive facilities to attract customers and to compete with those built by the private sector. In this paper, the selection of appropriate locations to construct new service centers has been studied. Such locations have been selected in a way to fulfill goals such as rapid and easy accessibility for the customers and reduction of traffic drawbacks caused by the related trips. In this regard, a model for service centers with restricted capacity has been designed and a parallel simulated annealing algorithm has been proposed to solve it. Finally, the proposed algorithm has been utilized to locate the health centers around the city of Isfahan and its efficiency has been investigated. The findings highlight the accuracy and speed of the proposed algorithm in location of the health centers of Isfahan.

  20. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special?children?s center

    OpenAIRE

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children?s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the ...

  1. Health care practices influencing health promotion in urban black women in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.

  2. The role of health centers in preventive care provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemetova G.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess the importance of the Centers of Health in the organization and provision of preventive care to the population, in the early detection of risk factors for the development of chronic non-communicable diseases and the development of a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. On the basis of the Health Center of Engels Center for Medical Prevention in the Saratov Region, the detection of risk factors for 2011-2015 was analyzed according to statistical reporting (form No. 68 and health cards (form025-CZ/y of 207 patients. To assess the satisfaction of visitors with the work of the Center, a specially developed questionnaire was conducted, which included 22 questions that characterize the patient profile, his attitude to the organization and the results of the survey, and the motivation to modify the way of life. Results. The study confirmed the important role of the Centers of Health in the organization and provision of preventive care to the population, the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the early detection of diseases and risk factors for their development. Conclusion. Only joint efforts of medical institutions, authorities, educational organizations, mass media can lead to the formation of the population's responsibility for their health and readiness to modify the way of life.

  3. Academic health centers and society: an ethical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, E D

    1999-08-01

    Academic health centers--which combine university, medical school, and hospital--exist to satisfy universal human needs and thus are by definition instruments of social purpose. Their core mission is threefold: to provide medical knowledge that can help relieve and prevent illness and suffering, to supply practitioners able to apply that knowledge wisely, and to serve as sites where optimal use of medical knowledge can be demonstrated and investigated. Maintaining a balance between core mission and responsiveness to social trends is a delicate exercise. Overly close accommodation to such trends can endanger the core mission, as has occurred in the United States with regard to managed care. Society and academic health centers have mutual obligations. Obligations of society include giving academic health centers financial and other support and allowing them sufficient freedom to pursue their mission; obligations of academic medical centers include accepting greater scrutiny by society and providing social criticism on matters relating to health. A task for the future is to discern how academic health centers can be responsive to social needs without being totally subservient to societal desires.

  4. The place of health and the health of place: dengue fever and urban governance in Putrajaya, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, K; Elliott, S J; Schuster-Wallace, C

    2012-05-01

    This case study investigates the connections among urban planning, governance and dengue fever in an emerging market context in the Global South. Key informant interviews were conducted with leading figures in public health, urban planning and governance in the planned city of Putrajaya, Malaysia. Drawing on theories of urban political ecology and ecosocial epidemiology, the qualitative study found the health of place - expressed as dengue-bearing mosquitoes and dengue fever in human bodies in the urban environment - was influenced by the place of health in a hierarchy of urban priorities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban Air Environmental Health Indicators for Kuala Lumpur City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leh, O.L.H.; Shaharuddin Ahmad; Kadaruddin Aiyub; Yaakob Mohd Jani; Hwa, T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Air environmental health indicators were defined operationally as a combination of air quality and air-related health indicators. Clean air is a basic precondition of human health. Air pollutants had been identified with potential negative impact on health especially on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, studies are necessary to identify and understand the state of environmental health. This study was aimed to examine and analyses the air environmental health condition in city of Kuala Lumpur by using a set of indicators. House to house questionnaire survey was carried out to collect air-related health data, and air quality sampling was carried out to identify ambient air quality level of the city. In general, city of Kuala Lumpur was found to have a moderate level of air quality. Air-related illnesses indicated by acute respiratory infection and asthma were found to be higher in more developed or higher density zones, as compared to other zones. Besides, air-related illnesses were significantly correlated to respondents exposure to air pollution. The findings imply that human health can be improved by managing the urban development and its environmental quality properly. (author)

  6. Role of the health center in health crisis management, especially in a radiation disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurahashi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In a disaster, in particular a radiation disaster, health centers should play an active role in taking advantage of its own expertise. There are various causes of a health crisis; the response to a health crisis is defined according to each cause. However, it should be adequately addressed by assuming the worst case for a health crisis of unknown cause. The role of health centers, in addition to the implementation of appropriate and timely treatment of any health crisis, is prevention of a future health crisis, advanced preparation, and damage recovery; activities during normal times are also important to maintain. Regarding the specific activities of the health center, judgment in the preference of measures to be performed is important. That the information is collected properly based on the idea of risk communication, coordination, and public relations transmission is required also for health centers. (author)

  7. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue.

  8. The Organizational Health of Urban Elementary Schools: School Health and Teacher Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Tara G.; Atkins, Marc S.; Frazier, Stacy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Organizational Health Inventory-Elementary version (OHI-E; Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991) in a sample of 203 teachers working in 19 high-poverty, urban schools and the association of organizational school health with teacher efficacy, teacher stress, and job satisfaction. Results indicated a similar factor structure of the OHI-E as compared with the population of schools in the original sample (Hoy et al., 1991), and that specific components of organizational health, such as a positive learning environment, are associated with teacher efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. Overall, teachers’ relations with their peers, their school leadership, and their students appear especially critical in high-poverty, urban schools. Recommendations for research and practice related to improving high-poverty, urban schools are presented. PMID:23935763

  9. The Organizational Health of Urban Elementary Schools: School Health and Teacher Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Tara G; Atkins, Marc S; Frazier, Stacy L

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Organizational Health Inventory-Elementary version (OHI-E; Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991) in a sample of 203 teachers working in 19 high-poverty, urban schools and the association of organizational school health with teacher efficacy, teacher stress, and job satisfaction. Results indicated a similar factor structure of the OHI-E as compared with the population of schools in the original sample (Hoy et al., 1991), and that specific components of organizational health, such as a positive learning environment, are associated with teacher efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. Overall, teachers' relations with their peers, their school leadership, and their students appear especially critical in high-poverty, urban schools. Recommendations for research and practice related to improving high-poverty, urban schools are presented.

  10. A revisionist view of the integrated academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Judith

    2004-02-01

    Like many academic health centers that had expanded aggressively during the 1990s, the nation's first vertically integrated academic health center, the University of Pennsylvania Health System, was profoundly challenged by the dramatic and unanticipated financial impacts of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. The author explains why-although Penn's Health System had lost $300 million over two years and its debts threatened to cause serious financial and educational damage to the rest of the University-Penn chose to manage its way out of the financial crisis (instead of selling or spinning off its four hospitals, clinical practices, and possibly even its medical school). A strategy of comprehensive integration has not only stabilized Penn's Health System financially, but strengthened its position of leadership in medical education, research, and health care delivery. The author argues that a strategy of greater horizontal integration offers important strategic advantages to academic health centers. In an era when major social and scientific problems demand broadly multidisciplinary and highly-integrated approaches, such horizontally integrated institutions will be better able to educate citizens and train physicians, develop new approaches to health care policy, and answer pressing biomedical research questions. Institutional cultural integration is also crucial to create new, innovative organizational structures that bridge traditional disciplinary, school, and clinical boundaries.

  11. Health Extension in New Mexico: An Academic Health Center and the Social Determinants of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Powell, Wayne; Alfero, Charles; Pacheco, Mario; Silverblatt, Helene; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Lucero, Ken; Corriveau, Erin; Vanleit, Betsy; Alverson, Dale; Scott, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Agricultural Cooperative Extension Service model offers academic health centers methodologies for community engagement that can address the social determinants of disease. The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center developed Health Extension Rural Offices (HEROs) as a vehicle for its model of health extension. Health extension agents are located in rural communities across the state and are supported by regional coordinators and the Office of the Vice President for Community Health at the Health Sciences Center. The role of agents is to work with different sectors of the community in identifying high-priority health needs and linking those needs with university resources in education, clinical service and research. Community needs, interventions, and outcomes are monitored by county health report cards. The Health Sciences Center is a large and varied resource, the breadth and accessibility of which are mostly unknown to communities. Community health needs vary, and agents are able to tap into an array of existing health center resources to address those needs. Agents serve a broader purpose beyond immediate, strictly medical needs by addressing underlying social determinants of disease, such as school retention, food insecurity, and local economic development. Developing local capacity to address local needs has become an overriding concern. Community-based health extension agents can effectively bridge those needs with academic health center resources and extend those resources to address the underlying social determinants of disease. PMID:20065282

  12. Social Environmental Eeterminants and Health: Rural Brazil versus Brazil Urban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackynelly Alves SARMENTO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural population lives in socioeconomic inequality conditions motivated by several problems, including an insufficient sewage systems and water supply, these, sometimes, most responsibles by the appearance of waterborne diseases that contribute to the rise of child mortality and other problems. Rural areas in Brazil are defined by opposition and exclusion in urban areas. This definition is arbitrary and physical-geographic, not considering the social and economic processes involving the territories. This study purposed to verify, by means of sociodemographic aspects, environmental sanitation and main grievances/diseases importance for public health of the population from forest field and water, if the most rural municipalities (MMR are more precarious than the more urban (MMU. To this end, was carried out a descriptive study based on secondary sources (Atlas of Human Development in Brazil, IBGE census, PNAD and Sinan. Among the results, it follows that the rural population identified by IBGE boils down to 15.6% of Brazil’s population. In 29% of the municipalities, the population living in rural areas exceeds the city. The higher frequencies from IDMH very low are for MMR, while the higher frequency from IDMH very high and high are for MMU. In health, the MMR also exhibit deficiency. It was observed high incidence rates of diseases related to poor conditions of sanitation. From these results, it was identified a more precarious health profile in MMR when compared to MMU.

  13. Attitude toward mental illness amongst urban nonpsychiatric health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Pande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to examine the attitude of nonpsychiatric health professionals about mental illness in urban multispeciality tertiary care setting. Aim: To assess attitude toward mental illness among urban nonpsychiatric health professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire was administered to 222 medical and paramedical staff at two tertiary care hospitals at Chandigarh. Results: There is an increased awareness of mental illness especially in military subjects. Literacy was associated with a positive attitude toward mental illness. Health care givers commonly fail to ask about the emotional well being of their patients. Many saw referral to psychiatrist as a form of punishment. There is uniform desire for more knowledge about psychiatric disorders in medical and paramedical staff. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the need for educational programs aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the nonpsychiatric medical professional would help to allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization toward such persons.

  14. Studying the Environmental Health Status and Consumption of Baking Soda in Military and Urban Lavash Bakeries of Tehran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rostami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:Consumption of baking soda, as a primary material for preparation of bread dough, has been banned due to its health complications in Iran. So bread production in our country faced difficulties and one part of them is related to health issues which are bread production. Also, in some cases, baking soda is used in the bread production. This study was done to study the environmental health status and consumption of baking soda in the military and urban Lavash bakeries of Tehran in 2012. Materials and methods:This is a descriptive comparative study done on Lavash bread production of 14 military bakeries and 14 corresponding urban bakeries near them. PH in the samples was tested based on Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran No. 2628. To check the status of environmental health and personal hygiene of bakeries, the check list of Cereal Research Center was used. Results:In terms of environmental health status,28.6% military bakeries and7.1% urban bakeries were at good level. In terms of personal hygiene, all bakeries were in the poor category. Also,42.9% of military Lavash bakeries and 14.3% of urban Lavash bakeries used baking soda in their bread production. Conclusion:Environment health and personal hygiene status in military bakeries are better than the urban bakeries however, hygiene status was not desirable in military bakeries. Also, baking soda consumption in military bakeries was more common than the urban bakeries. According to the results of this study, control of health status and avoiding baking soda consumption in the bakeries are necessary.

  15. Teachers’ dialogue in a learner centered professional development initiative In a us urban high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Alvarez Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using paradigms emerging from Learner Centered Professional Development (LCPD, dialogic education and Transformative Pedagogical Practices (TPPs, this research study examined pedagogies that ignited a revitalization of shared values as a community of learners, challenged assumptions about learning while invigorating professional identities and cultivating possibilities for transforming praxis of a group of female teachers and female administrators in an urban high school. The LCPD initiative engaged teachers (13 and administrators (3 in dialogue, self-examination, and reflection, while also chipping away dearth perceptions of Latina/o student as learners and nourish possibilities for their successes. The data for this study is part of a larger corpus of data exploring teacher professional development initiatives in a large urban city in the southwestern region of Texas. Narrative analysis was the methodological tool used to code and analyze the data. The authors highlight the pedagogies that served to renew teachers and administrators’ sense of community, professional identities and modifications of teachers’ attitudes and pedagogies regarding themselves and Latina/o students. Our research findings underscore the urgency of educational reform to include on-going LCPD in order to transform and encourage professional enrichment, teacher agency and revive pedagogies that support all students’ academic and social successes.

  16. Factors affecting mortality after penetrating cardiac injuries: 10-year experience at urban level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Jhunjhunwala, Rashi; Gelbard, Rondi B; Dougherty, Stacy D; Carr, Jacquelyn S; Dente, Christopher J; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Vercruysse, Gary A; Feliciano, David V; Morse, Bryan C

    2017-06-01

    Despite the lethality of injuries to the heart, optimizing factors that impact mortality for victims that do survive to reach the hospital is critical. From 2003 to 2012, prehospital data, injury characteristics, and clinical patient factors were analyzed for victims with penetrating cardiac injuries (PCIs) at an urban, level I trauma center. Over the 10-year study, 80 PCI patients survived to reach the hospital. Of the 21 factors analyzed, prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] = 30), scene time greater than 10 minutes (OR = 58), resuscitative thoracotomy (OR = 19), and massive left hemothorax (OR = 15) had the greatest impact on mortality. Cardiac tamponade physiology demonstrated a "protective" effect for survivors to the hospital (OR = .08). Trauma surgeons can improve mortality after PCI by minimizing time to the operating room for early control of hemorrhage. In PCI patients, tamponade may provide a physiologic advantage (lower mortality) compared to exsanguination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in chronic disease management among community health centers (CHCs) in China: Has health reform improved CHC ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoxin; Shi, Jianwei; Wu, Zhigui; Xie, Huiling; Yu, Yifan; Li, Ping; Liu, Rui; Jing, Limei

    2017-07-01

    Since the 1980s, China has been criticized for its mode of chronic disease management (CDM) that passively provides treatment in secondary and tertiary hospitals but lacks active prevention in community health centers (CHCs). Since there are few systematic evaluations of the CHCs' methods for CDM, this study aimed to analyze their abilities. On the macroperspective, we searched the literature in China's largest and most authoritative databases and the official websites of health departments. Literature was used to analyze the government's efforts in improving CHCs' abilities to perform CDM. At the microlevel, we examined the CHCs' longitudinal data after the New Health Reform in 2009, including financial investment, facilities, professional capacities, and the conducted CDM activities. A policy analysis showed that there was an increasing tendency towards government efforts in developing CDM, and the peak appeared in 2009. By evaluating the reform at CHCs, we found that there was an obvious increase in fiscal and public health subsidies, large-scale equipment, general practitioners, and public health physicians. The benefited vulnerable population in this area also rose significantly. However, rural centers were inferior in their CDM abilities compared with urban ones, and the referral system is still not effective in China. This study showed that CHCs are increasingly valued in managing chronic diseases, especially after the New Health Reform in 2009. However, we still need to improve collaborative management for chronic diseases in the community and strengthen the abilities of CHCs, especially in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Overview on urban and peri-urban agriculture: definition, impact on human health, constraints and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang'ethe, E K; Grace, D; Randolph, T F

    2007-11-01

    To collate and synthesize current knowledge of components of urban agriculture (UA) with a thematic emphasis on human health impact and a geographic emphasis on East Africa. Data management followed a structured approach in which key issues were first identified and then studies selected through literature search and personal communication. Evidence-based principles. Urban agriculture is an important source of food security for urban dwellers in East Africa. Descriptors of UA are location, areas, activities, scale, products, destinations, stakeholders and motivation. Many zoonotic and food-borne diseases have been associated with UA but evidence on human health impact and management is lacking. Major constraints to UA are illegality and lack of access to input and market; policy options have been developed for overcoming these. Urban agriculture is an important activity and likely to remain so. Both positive and negative human health impacts are potentially important but more research is needed to understand these and set appropriate policy and support levels.

  19. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahman, Walid A.; Elamin, Abdalla S.; Al-Harazin, Ibrahim M.; Eqnaibi, Badie S.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  20. Managing service potentiality of small urban centers case study: City of Sardasht, south east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjam Rasoul

    2017-06-01

    Finding showed that those services which are more important in role fulfillment of Sardasht market-town include: sanitation house, health, remedial centers, drugstore, dentistry, high school, pre-university, library, transportation, trading agricultural instrument, referring to the banks, foodstuff and nonfood stuffs stores, post office and telecommunication, referring to official & disciplinary centers, medical services, veterinary. And to some extent farming instruments markets doesn’t affect role fulfillment so it should be focused by those locals in charge. Also the results showed that three settlements, Khomeinishahr, Jakdan and Goharan are going to continue the role fulfillment of Sardasht market- town.

  1. Implementing health management information systems: measuring success in Korea's health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Y M; Kim, S I; Lee, B H; Choi, S H; Kim, I S

    1994-01-01

    This article analyses the effects that the introduction and adoption of a health management information system (HMIS) can have on both the productivity of health center staff as well as on user-satisfaction. The focus is upon the service provided by the Kwonsun Health Center located in Suwon City, Korea. Two surveys were conducted to measure the changes in productivity and adoption (knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation) of health center staff over time. In addition, a third survey was conducted to measure the effects of HMIS on the level of satisfaction perceived by the visitors, by comparing the satisfaction level between the study health center and a similar health center identified as a control. The results suggest that HMIS increased the productivity and satisfaction of the staff but did not increase their persuasion and decision levels; and, that is also succeeded in increasing the levels of visitors' satisfaction with the services provided.

  2. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-07-05

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from "very good" health (people of Indian origin), to "good" health (white British), and "poor" health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled "Mixed BME" in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in "Mixed BME". Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this can play an

  3. Customer Quality during Prenatal Care in Health Care Centers in Tabriz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives :  Customer Quality (CQ refers to customer’s characteristics and is concerned with the knowledge, skills and confidence of health services customers who actively participate with health team in proper decision-making, appropriate activities and changing environment and health related behaviors. The purpose of this study was measuring customer quality of pregnant women during prenatal care. Materials and Methods :  This is a cross- sectional study which was conducted with the participation of 185 pregnant women who received prenatal care from urban health centers in Tabriz city. All participants were selected randomly from 40 health centers. Customer quality was measured based on CQMH-CQ questionnaire.  Questionnaire content validity was reviewed and confirmed by 10 experts and its reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha index (α = 0.714. Spss v.17 was used for data analysis. Results : According to the results, the mean score of customer quality among pregnant women was (11.29± 67.79   and only %14 of the participants reported the highest customer quality score and ability of continuity of care under stressful situations. There was a positive relationship between customer quality score and visiting midwife and a better evaluation of overall quality of care, but there was inverse relationship with early registration at health centers. Conclusion :  The participation of pregnant women in service delivery process and decision-making can promote costumer quality. Furthermore, training health care providers in empowering patients and using their abilities to improve quality of care and paying attention to patient-centered care will be helpful. ​

  4. Development of a tool to measure person-centered maternity care in developing settings: validation in a rural and urban Kenyan population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A; Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Golub, Ginger; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-09-22

    Person-centered reproductive health care is recognized as critical to improving reproductive health outcomes. Yet, little research exists on how to operationalize it. We extend the literature in this area by developing and validating a tool to measure person-centered maternity care. We describe the process of developing the tool and present the results of psychometric analyses to assess its validity and reliability in a rural and urban setting in Kenya. We followed standard procedures for scale development. First, we reviewed the literature to define our construct and identify domains, and developed items to measure each domain. Next, we conducted expert reviews to assess content validity; and cognitive interviews with potential respondents to assess clarity, appropriateness, and relevance of the questions. The questions were then refined and administered in surveys; and survey results used to assess construct and criterion validity and reliability. The exploratory factor analysis yielded one dominant factor in both the rural and urban settings. Three factors with eigenvalues greater than one were identified for the rural sample and four factors identified for the urban sample. Thirty of the 38 items administered in the survey were retained based on the factors loadings and correlation between the items. Twenty-five items load very well onto a single factor in both the rural and urban sample, with five items loading well in either the rural or urban sample, but not in both samples. These 30 items also load on three sub-scales that we created to measure dignified and respectful care, communication and autonomy, and supportive care. The Chronbach alpha for the main scale is greater than 0.8 in both samples, and that for the sub-scales are between 0.6 and 0.8. The main scale and sub-scales are correlated with global measures of satisfaction with maternity services, suggesting criterion validity. We present a 30-item scale with three sub-scales to measure person-centered

  5. Urban public health assessment and pattern analysis: comparison of four cities in different countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Chen; Lu, Weiwei; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Urban public health is an important global issue, and receives extensive attention. It is necessary to compare urban public health status among different cities, so that each city can define its own health patterns and limiting factors. The following assessment indicators were established to evaluate urban public health status: living conditions, physical health, education and culture, environmental quality, and social security. A weighted-sum model was used in combination with these indicators to compare the urban public health status in four cities—Beijing, New York, London, and Tokyo—using data for 2000-2009. Although the urban public health level of Beijing was lower than that of the other cities, it showed the greatest increase in this level over the study period. Different patterns of urban public health were identified: London had the most balanced, steady pattern (almost all factors performed well and developed stably); New York and Tokyo showed balanced, but unsteady patterns (most factors remained high, though social security and environmental quality fluctuated); Beijing had the most unbalanced, unsteady pattern (the different factors were at different levels, and education and culture and social security fluctuated). For enhanced urban public health status, environmental quality and education and culture clearly need to be improved in Beijing. This study demonstrates that a comparison of different cities is helpful in identifying limiting factors for urban public health and providing an orientation for future urban development.

  6. Polar pesticide contamination of an urban and peri-urban tropical watershed affected by agricultural activities (Yaoundé, Center Region, Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchet, Perrine; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Fenet, Hélène; Sebag, David; Ngatcha, Benjamin Ngounou; Borrell-Estupina, Valérie; Ngoupayou, Jules Remy Ndam; Kengne, Ives; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2018-04-18

    Urban agriculture is crucial to local populations, but the risk of it contaminating water has rarely been documented. The aim of this study was to assess pesticide contamination of surface waters from the Méfou watershed (Yaoundé, Cameroon) by 32 selected herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides (mainly polar) according to their local application, using both grab sampling and polar organic compounds integrative samplers (POCIS). Three sampling campaigns were conducted in the March/April and October/November 2015 and June/July 2016 rainy seasons in urban and peri-urban areas. The majority of the targeted compounds were detected. The quantification frequencies of eight pesticides were more than 20% with both POCIS and grab sampling, and that of diuron and atrazine reached 100%. Spatial differences in contamination were evidenced with higher contamination in urban than peri-urban rivers. In particular, diuron was identified as an urban contaminant of concern because its concentrations frequently exceeded the European water quality guideline of 0.200 μg/L in freshwater and may thus represent an ecological risk due to a risk quotient > 1 for algae observed in 94% of grab samples. This study raises concerns about the impacts of urban agriculture on the quality of water resources and to a larger extent on the health of the inhabitants of cities in developing countries. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  7. City and cosmology: genetics, health, and urban living in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Aaron

    2018-04-01

    In light of increasingly high rates of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity among citizens of the Arabian Gulf, popular health discourse in the region has emphasised the emergent Arab genome as the primary etiological basis of major health conditions. However, after many years of public dissemination of genomic knowledge in the region, and widespread acceptance of this knowledge among Gulf Arab citizens, the rates of chronic illness continue to increase. This paper briefly explores the clash between indigenous Islamic knowledge systems and biomedical knowledge systems imported into the United Arab Emirates. It presents vignettes collected from interviews and participant observation in Dubai as part of nearly four years of ethnographic research, completed as part of the author's doctoral work on 'Anxiety and Identity in Southeast Arabia'. Rather than radically informing health seeking behaviours among many UAE citizens, the emphasis on the 'Arab Genome' has instead reconfirmed the authority of Bedouin cosmological understandings of disease, reshaping the language that people use to engage with their bodies and their health. Local cosmology remains a powerful discursive element that often operates in contention, in sometimes powerfully subtle ways, with novel health initiative regimes. For many people in the region, genomic information, as it is often discussed and propagated in the UAE, shares an intimate relationship with ideas of fate and national identity, and sometimes serves to mitigate the increasingly uncertain terms of engagement that people share between the body, their health, and rapidly changing urban landscapes.

  8. (Un)Healthy in the City : Respiratory, Cardiometabolic and Mental Health Associated with Urbanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma L.; Klijs, Bart; Stolk, Ronald P.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that health differences exist between urban and rural areas. Most studies conducted, however, have focused on single health outcomes and have not assessed to what extent the association of urbanity with health is explained by population composition or socioeconomic

  9. (Un)Healthy in the City : Respiratory, Cardiometabolic and Mental Health Associated with Urbanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma L.; Klijs, Bart; Stolk, Ronald P.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has shown that health differences exist between urban and rural areas. Most studies conducted, however, have focused on single health outcomes and have not assessed to what extent the association of urbanity with health is explained by population composition or socioeconomic

  10. Urban physics : effect of the micro-climate on comfort, health and energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Defraeye, T.W.J.; Dorer, V.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The global trend towards urbanization explains the growing interest in the study of the modification of the urban climate due to the heat island effect and global warming, and its impact on energy use of buildings. Also urban comfort, health and durability, referring respectively to pedestrian

  11. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Lincoln Larson; Jessica Yun

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants...

  12. Urbanism, climate change and health: systems approaches to governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Synnott, Emma S; Holliday, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Effective action on climate change health impacts and vulnerability will require systems approaches and integrated policy and planning responses from a range of government agencies. Similar responses are needed to address other complex problems, such as the obesity epidemic. Local government, with its focus on the governance of place, will have a key role in responding to these convergent agendas. Industry can also be part of the solution - indeed it must be, because it has a lead role in relevant sectors. Understanding the co-benefits for health of climate mitigation actions will strengthen the case for early action. There is a need for improved decision support tools to inform urban governance. These tools should be based on a systems approach and should incorporate a spatial perspective.

  13. Process evaluation of child health services at outreach sites during health and nutrition day (Mamta Day) in urban slums of Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kedar; Pandya, Chandresh; Chavda, Paragkumar; Solanki, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    Health indicators of rural and urban India show a wide variation. Rural areas have received large focus in child health services, but on the flip side, urban areas have been the last to receive such attention. A cross-sectional study was conducted to include one randomly selected outreach session from all the 19 urban primary health centers of Vadodara city from April 2013 to May 2014. Nineteen session sites were observed for the process evaluation of three components of child health care, namely, "planning of Health and Nutrition Day," "availability of vaccines/logistics," and "direct observation of actual immunization process" at the site using a structured checklist. Most of the vaccines and logistics were present at all 19 sites visited, but adverse events following immunization kit were observed at ten sites (52%) only. Open vial policy, no-touch technique, and immediate cutting of syringe with hub cutter were implemented at all sites; however, completely filled Mamta Card was observed at 9 (47%) sites only. All four key messages were given at 5 (26%) sites only. Immunization services such as proper vaccine administration with no-touch technique and open vial policy were mainly focused; however, other services such as biomedical waste management, record keeping, and delivery of all four key messages need to be strengthened during Mamta Divas. Strengthening of other child health care services such as growth monitoring, Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses, and referral services is required in urban areas.

  14. What do health coaches do? Direct observation of health coach activities during medical and patient-health coach visits at 3 federally qualified health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher; Saba, George; Wolf, Jessica; Gardner, Heather; Thom, David H

    2018-05-01

    To examine activities of health coaches during patient medical visits and when meeting one-on-one with patients at 3 urban federally qualified health centers. Encounters were videotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed using a matrix analysis approach that allowed a priori identification of expected categories of activity, based on the health coach training model and previously developed conceptual framework, which were modified based on activities observed. A total of 10 medical visits (patient, clinician and health coach), and 8 patient-coach visits were recorded. We identified 9 categories common to both medical and patient-coach visits and 2 categories unique to the medical visit. While observed activities were generally consistent with expected categories, some activities were observed infrequently or not at all. We also observed additional activity categories, including information gathering and personal conversation. The average amount of time spent on some categories of coaching activities differed substantially between medical visits and patient-coach visits. Health coaching activities observed differed in several respects to those expected, and differed between medical visits and coaching only visits. These results provide insights into health coaching behaviors that can be used to inform training and improve utilization of health coaches in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Urbanization and mental health: psychiatric morbidity, suicide and violence in the State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J

    1979-06-01

    Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world with over 85% of the population living in metropolitan and other urban areas. More important, the change from a predominantly rural society to an urbanized society has occurred within the last 100 years. To assess the effects of urbanization on mental health, rates of admissions to psychiatric institutions, suicides and violent crime in Victoria have been analysed for the last hundred years. Data on admissions to psychiatric facilities in Victoria from metropolitan, other urban and rural areas, as well as results of community health surveys carried out in metropolitan and rural areas were compared to examine for evidence of urban-rural differences in psychiatric morbidity. The findings do not support the notion that the level of psychiatric and psychosocial disorders in Victoria are related to urbanization or to urban living.

  16. Health care employee perceptions of patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbale, Salva Najib; Turcios, Stephanie; LaVela, Sherri L

    2015-03-01

    Given the importance of health care employees in the delivery of patient-centered care, understanding their unique perspectives is essential for quality improvement. The purpose of this study was to use photovoice to evaluate perceptions and experiences around patient-centered care among U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) health care employees. We asked participants to take photographs of salient features in their environment related to patient-centered care. We used the photographs to facilitate dialogue during follow-up interviews. Twelve VA health care employees across two VA sites participated in the project. Although most participants felt satisfied with their work environment and experiences at the VA, they identified several areas for improvement. These included a need for more employee health and wellness initiatives and a need for enhanced opportunities for training and professional growth. Application of photovoice enabled us to learn about employees' unique perspectives around patient-centered care while engaging them in an evaluation of care delivery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The Evolving Academic Health Center: Challenges and Opportunities for Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirin, Steven; Summergrad, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Regardless of the outcome of current efforts at healthcare reform, the resources that academic health centers need--to provide care for increasingly complex patient populations, support clinical innovation, grow the clinical enterprise, and carry out their research and teaching missions--are in jeopardy. This article examines the value…

  18. Mental Health Services in School-Based Health Centers: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Diallo, Ana F.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health issues affect 20-25% of children and adolescents, of which few receive services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to mental health services to children and adolescents within their schools. A systematic review of literature was undertaken to review evidence on the effectiveness of delivery of mental health services…

  19. Estimate the Health Literacy in Health Centers in the Border of Yazd City: Cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Gerayllo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Health literacy of women in general was unacceptable, and recommendations were made to establish continuous training for women to improve their views. Also consideration should be given to centers to plan the transformation of health literacy which has been launched, to increase the Health literacy of the population being studied as recipients of health services.

  20. Campus Health Centers' Lack of Information Regarding Providers: A Content Analysis of Division-I Campus Health Centers' Provider Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Evan K

    2018-07-01

    Campus health centers are a convenient, and usually affordable, location for college students to obtain health care. Staffed by licensed and trained professionals, these providers can generally offer similar levels of care that providers at off-campus clinics can deliver. Yet, previous research finds students may forgo this convenient, on-campus option partially because of a lack of knowledge regarding the quality of providers at these campus clinics. This study sought to examine where this information deficit may come from by analyzing campus health centers' online provider information. All Division-I colleges or universities with an on-campus health center, which had information on their websites about their providers (n = 294), had their providers' online information analyzed (n = 2,127 providers). Results revealed that schools commonly offer professional information (e.g., provider specialties, education), but very little about their providers outside of the medical context (e.g., hobbies) that would allow a prospective student patient to more easily relate. While 181 different kinds of credentials were provided next to providers' names (e.g., MD, PA-C, FNP-BC), only nine schools offered information to help students understand what these different credentials meant. Most schools had information about their providers within one-click of the homepage. Recommendations for improving online information about campus health center providers are offered.

  1. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  2. Role of public health center for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The role of public health center such as surveillance screening, mass decontamination, health consultation and management, and dosage of stable iodine tablets are thought by Nuclear Safety Commission in 2008. The pollution screening and decontamination, internal exposure screening and valuation, dosage of iodine tablets, health consultation of residents and risk communication, comparative evaluation of health risks, health management under the low dose exposure are discussed to handle problems by the government and local government, and to protect the right to know information. In order to prepare the serious health hazard, the children's thyroid gland test and internal exposure test and the follow-up system have to be practiced by the local government. (S.Y.)

  3. Construction Land Expansion and Transfer of Gravity Center from 1984 to 2016 : A study on Beijing - Tianjin - Hebei Urban Agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinxia; Jiang, Weiguo

    2017-04-01

    With the economic development and technological innovation, urban planning and construction has already broken through the shackles of the natural conditions such as topography and geomorphology, and the social factors such as politics and location have been affected by the urbanization process in the process of urbanization. At the same time, the synergies between urban development and local economy, national policy, industrial distribution and so on are also paid more attention. As the third pole of Chinese economy after the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolis Circle has attracted extensive attention on experts and scholars in its urban development and location. In recent years, studies on urban development have not only analyzed the spatial characteristics of urban or urban agglomerations, but also discussed the relationship between urban development and certain elements or phenomena. This paper presents a multi-threshold and multi-feature extraction method for building land using the optical characteristics of different landforms, based on Landsat remote sensing images from 1984 to 2016. The method selected Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Extraction Index (SOEI) and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (BUEI) to extract the construction land. It is an example study area of Beijing to extract the construction land in 30 years and to do a examine research. Using the ArcGIS software to calculate, we can get the coordinates of the city center of gravity in Beijing in various years. It can be seen that the center of gravity of built-up area and the movement of the center of gravity in Beijing. The results showed that the construction land in Beijing has an increasing tendency in recent 30 years. The main characteristic of expansion is the way of high-speed outward development. From 1984 to 1999, the center of gravity of the city shifted to the northeast, and

  4. Rural-Urban Disparities in Health and Health Care in Africa: Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical health care system, rural-urban disparities would seem obvious. .... have led to the development and onset of the illness and cure/controllability, what the ..... and then went back for the result but the nurse that I saw said that I should ...

  5. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  6. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  7. The relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarinejad, Farideh; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and convey information in various forms of media including print and nonprint requires media literacy, but the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed for appropriate decisions regarding health, considered an important element in a woman's ability to participate in health promotion and prevention activities for herself and her children, is needed to a level of health literacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers in Isfahan. This study used a descriptive correlation study. Data collection tools include Shahin media literacy and functional health literacy in adults' questionnaires. The population include pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan (4080 people). Ten out of the 351 health centers in Isfahan were selected as cluster. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Media literacy of respondents in the five dimensions was significantly lower than average 61.5% of pregnant women have inadequate health literacy, 18.8% had marginal health literacy, and only 19.7% of them have had adequate health literacy. There was a significant positive relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women. This study showed that the majority of pregnant women covered by health centers had limited health literacy and media literacy. Since one of the basic requirements for the utilization of health information is needed for adequate media literacy, promotion of media literacy is necessary for the respondents.

  8. Stennis Space Center observes 2009 Safety and Health Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Sue Smith, a medical clinic employee at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, takes the temperature of colleague Karen Badon during 2009 Safety and Health Day activities Oct. 22. Safety Day activities included speakers, informational sessions and a number of displays on safety and health issues. Astronaut Dominic Gorie also visited the south Mississippi rocket engine testing facility during the day to address employees and present several Silver Snoopy awards for outstanding contributions to flight safety and mission success. The activities were part of an ongoing safety and health emphasis at Stennis.

  9. Building diversity in a complex academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South-Paul, Jeannette E; Roth, Loren; Davis, Paula K; Chen, Terence; Roman, Anna; Murrell, Audrey; Pettigrew, Chenits; Castleberry-Singleton, Candi; Schuman, Joel

    2013-09-01

    For 30 years, the many diversity-related health sciences programs targeting the University of Pittsburgh undergraduate campus, school of medicine, schools of the health sciences, clinical practice plan, and medical center were run independently and remained separate within the academic health center (AHC). This lack of coordination hampered their overall effectiveness in promoting diversity and inclusion. In 2007, a group of faculty and administrators from the university and the medical center recognized the need to improve institutional diversity and to better address local health disparities. In this article, the authors describe the process of linking the efforts of these institutions in a way that would be successful locally and applicable to other academic environments. First, they engaged an independent consultant to conduct a study of the AHC's diversity climate, interviewing current and former faculty and trainees to define the problem and identify areas for improvement. Next, they created the Physician Inclusion Council to address the findings of this study and to coordinate future efforts with institutional leaders. Finally, they formed four working committees to address (1) communications and outreach, (2) cultural competency, (3) recruitment, and (4) mentoring and retention. These committees oversaw the strategic development and implementation of all diversity and inclusion efforts. Together these steps led to structural changes within the AHC and the improved allocation of resources that have positioned the University of Pittsburgh to achieve not only diversity but also inclusion and to continue to address the health disparities in the Pittsburgh community.

  10. Managing the risks of on-site health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2011-11-01

    This review sought to assess compliance concerns, determine risk management strategies, and identify opportunities for future research to contribute to employers' understanding of the laws and regulations that apply to on-site care. A comprehensive review of databases, professional organizations' websites, and journals resulted in 22 publications reporting on the consequences of noncompliance among on-site health centers accepted for inclusion. None of those studies reported a study design or quantifiable outcome data. Two noncompliance themes were repeated among the publications. First, direct penalties included fines, civil actions, loss of licensure, and, potentially, criminal charges. Second, noncompliance also resulted in indirect costs such as employee mistrust and lowered standards of care, which jeopardize on-site health centers' ability to demonstrate a return on investment. Further research with rigorous methodology is needed to inform employer decisions about on-site health services and associated risk management. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Accelerated Adoption of Advanced Health Information Technology in Beacon Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily; Wittie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To complement national and state-level HITECH Act programs, 17 Beacon communities were funded to fuel community-wide use of health information technology to improve quality. Health centers in Beacon communities received supplemental funding. This article explores the association between participation in the Beacon program and the adoption of electronic health records. Using the 2010-2012 Uniform Data System, trends in health information technology adoption among health centers located within and outside of Beacon communities were explored using differences in mean t tests and multivariate logistic regression. Electronic health record adoption was widespread and rapidly growing in all health centers, especially quality improvement functionalities: structured data capture, order and results management, and clinical decision support. Adoption lagged for functionalities supporting patient engagement, performance measurement, care coordination, and public health. The use of advanced functionalities such as care coordination grew faster in Beacon health centers, and Beacon health centers had 1.7 times higher odds of adopting health records with basic safety and quality functionalities in 2010-2012. Three factors likely underlie these findings: technical assistance, community-wide activation supporting health information exchange, and the layering of financial incentives. Additional technical assistance and community-wide activation is needed to support the use of functionalities that are currently lagging. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  12. Urbanization, economic development and health: evidence from China's labor-force dynamic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Li, Zhigang; Xue, Desheng

    2017-11-29

    The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood. To bridge these gaps, the present study investigates the impact of both urbanization and economic development on individuals' self-rated health and its underlying mechanisms in China. We use data from the national scale of the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey to analyze the impact of China's urbanization and economic development on health. A total of 14,791 individuals were sampled from 401 neighborhoods within 124 prefecture-level cities. Multilevel ordered logistic models were applied. Model results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between individuals' self-rated health and urbanization rates (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 42.0%) and a positive linear relationship between their self-rated health and economic development. Model results also suggested that the urbanization-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and middle-income people (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 0.0% and 49.2%, respectively), and the development-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and low-income people (with turning points of GDP per capita at 93,462 yuan and 71,333 yuan, respectively) and linear for middle-income people. The impact of urbanization and economic development on health in China is complicated. Careful assessments are needed to understand the health impact of China's rapid urbanization. Social and environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and economic growth

  13. Health impacts of ultraviolet radiation in urban ecosystems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Gordon M.

    2005-08-01

    This paper explores the literature on ultraviolet irradiance (UV) in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures. In examining the literature, special attention was given to seeking information on the question of whether it is important that shade be provided for elementary school play areas, and if so, how should it be accomplished? Before such practical questions could be dealt with, it became obvious that answers to several pertinent secondary questions had to be sought. Foremost of these was, what are the negative and positive health effects of UV exposure? Recent epidemiological findings of apparent benefits of sunlight because of vitamin-D photosynthesis and resulting anti-cancer effects make this highly relevant. Another basic question is that of trends in ozone depletion, which leads to interesting questions of long-term trends, short-term extremes, and urban influences on UV irradiance. A host of these and other pertinent questions, such as, "What is the relationship between climate of a location and dress," i.e., "How much exposure will people receive during time spent outdoors?" require much more study. Judging from current knowledge of typical spectra of solar radiation in tree shade and the difference between the action spectra for vitamin D synthesis and erythema in human skin, exposure to solar radiation in tree shade for a short period of time can be somewhat more beneficial for vitamin D synthesis and regulation than detrimental in producing sunburn.

  14. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300

  15. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman Am; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants' demographic and occupational data. A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers.

  16. Detecting Postpartum Depression in Referents to Medical and Health Centers in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shobeiri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pregnancy and childbirth are significant developmental excitable for most women. Physical, intrapersonal and relational adaptations are needed to adjust successfully to pregnancy and delivery. Postpartum depression is a serious psychiatric disorder and the adverse impact on infants has been noted. The purpose of this study was to detect postpartum depression in referents to medical and health centers in Hamadan city.Materials & Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study involving 400 women completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI within 2-8 weeks of delivery was conducted in urban health centers in Hamadan city, Iran. Data were collected through interviews with women in the clinics in the health centers. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS 10.0.Results: The results revealed that majority of women (68.0% were considered normal. Depression was detected in 32.0% of women. Out of these 19.0, 4.0 and 9.0% were mild, moderate and severe depression, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between postpartum depression and age, number of delivery, education, job and husband's job (P=0.000.Conclusion: Nearly 32.0% of selected women had depression. Therefore, it is important for medical personnel to be well versed in the course and treatment of postpartum depression. Post partum depression should be screened and treated as early as possible for several reasons. It can cause significant suffering for the woman who experiences it, and it can have deleterious consequences for the newborn.

  17. Are health centers in Thailand ready for health information technology? : a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsanayotin, Boonchai; Speedie, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The Thailand universal health care coverage scheme was instituted in 2001 and The Thailand Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) is restructuring its information systems to support this reform. The MOPH anticipates developing computerized health information systems which can provide information for administration tasks and can improve both healthcare delivery and public health services. To achieve these target goals, knowledge about users and organizations is vital. The knowledge of how health center workers currently use information technology (IT), their knowledge of IT, and acceptance of IT are not only beneficial to policy makers but also to system designers and implementers. The primary objective of this study is to learn how health centers in Thailand use IT, the level of basic IT knowledge among their workers, and their acceptance of health IT. We surveyed a random cross sectional sample of 1,607 health centers representing the total of 9,806 in Thailand in 2005. With an 82% response rate, the preliminary results indicate that information technology usage is pervasive in health centers. The respondents showed a moderately high degree of health information technology acceptance with a modest level of basic IT knowledge. There were no differences in degrees of acceptance among the four geographic regions. The mean score of "intention to use IT" was 5.6 on a scale of 7 and the average basic IT knowledge score was 13 out of 20. These results suggests the possibility of project success if the national health center information system projects are developed and implemented.

  18. [A basic health care center. Care oriented at the community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquilles Bonet, C; Quesada Santaulaira, L; Florensa Roca, C; Piñol Jové, M A; Cruz Esteve, I; Rodríguez Rosich, A

    1997-01-01

    Principle problems of a basic health care area (Lérida) are identified. This area, which has a patient case load of 22,244 people, was studied during the winter of 1993-94 by using information from various sources. Results indicate that the population of this community are basically young, urban, have a high cultural and social level, and are mostly employed. The principle causes of mortality are the same as in the rest of Cataluña. Diseases that cause the most working days lost to illness are: respiratory, mental and bone-joint problems. The most frequent diseases seen in the clinic are: hypertension, respiratory infections, endocrine and mental. An overall look at the state of health of these patients show that the principle problems are: tobacco use, high blood pressure, arthritis, lumbago, depression, stroke, diabetes and breast cancer.

  19. Analysis of Performance Differences among Students in Urban and Non-urban Centers Based on Compulsory Secondary Education Special Awards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Chao-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes how the teaching-learning contexts (urban and non-urban of four provinces and their different towns influence the school performance of Galician students who apply for the compulsory secondary education (ESO, in Spanish special award. The sample is of 1,212 students who have finished the 4th level of ESO with an average score greater than or equal to 9 between 2008 and 2012. For such purpose, we made a comparative analysis using independent samples with Levene’s test through the SPSS V. 22.0.0.0 statistical package. The results indicate that, out of the 12 scores (Galician, Spanish, foreign language, Mathematics and Social Sciences, Geography and History and a test to choose from different options (Physics and Chemistry, Biology and Geology, Latin, Music, Technology and Arts, students from urban schools get better results in 10 of them (83.33%, with significant differences in 6 subjects.

  20. The Relationship between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms in Urban Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.

    2008-01-01

    Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depres...

  1. New York State Health Foundation grant helps health centers win federal expansion funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, David; Cozine, Maureen

    2012-11-01

    With approximately 1.2 million New Yorkers poised to gain health insurance coverage as a result of federal health reform, demand for primary care services is likely to increase greatly. The Affordable Care Act includes $11 billion in funding to enhance primary care access at community health centers. Recognizing a need and an opportunity, in August 2010 the New York State Health Foundation made a grant of nearly $400,000 to the Community Health Care Association of New York State to work with twelve health centers to develop successful proposals for obtaining and using these federal funds. Ultimately, eleven of the twelve sites are expected to receive $25.6 million in federal grants over a five-year period-a sixty-four-fold return on the foundation's investment. This article describes the strategy for investing in community health centers; identifies key project activities, challenges, and lessons; and highlights its next steps for strengthening primary care.

  2. Holistic Health Care for the Medically Uninsured: The Church Health Center of Memphis

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, G. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Church Health Center (CHC) in Memphis was founded in 1987 to provide quality, affordable health care for working, uninsured people and their families. With numerous, dedicated financial supporters and health care volunteers, CHC has become the largest faith-based health care organization of its type nationally, serving >61,000 patients. CHC embraces a holistic approach to health by promoting wellness in every dimension of life. It offers on-site services including medical care, dentistry,...

  3. Consequences of urban pollution on health; Consequences de la pollution urbaine sur la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedeji, A. [Agence pour la Protection de l' Environnement de l' Etat de Lagos, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency - Lasepa (Nigeria)

    2002-11-01

    This article treats of the urbanization process in Africa and of the direct impact of urban pollution on people's health. After a description of the spectacular growth of urban populations in Africa since 1970, the author focusses on the experience of Nigeria and on the city of Lagos: urbanization causes, demographic growth, origins of urban pollution (road traffic, uncontrolled wastes tipping, sanitary conditions) and different types of pollution (atmospheric, hydric, domestic wastes, noise, heat..). The second part of the article deals with the impact of this urban pollution on the public health in conditions of overpopulation: domestic environment, diseases linked with water quality, diseases transmission, accidents, occupational diseases. This analysis stresses on the lack of urban management and development policies in Nigeria, and on the lack of a representative, liable and competent public authority. (J.S.)

  4. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's urban research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundquist, J K; Sugiyama, G A; Nasstrom, J

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates on radiological dispersion source terms and effects models with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NARAC was designated the interim provider of capabilities for the Department of Homeland Security's Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center by the Homeland Security Council in April 2004. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  5. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's Urban Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Sugiyama, G.; Nasstrom, J.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates on radiological dispersion source terms and effects models with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NARAC was designated the interim provider of capabilities for the Department of Homeland Security's Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center by the Homeland Security Council in April 2004. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  6. Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al. ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development.

  7. Adolescent Health Care in School-Based Health Centers. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008

    2008-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…

  8. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), Coordinating Center for Health Promotion (CCHP): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), Coordinating Center for Health Promotion (CCHP): Notice of Charter Amendment... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). [[Page 42449

  9. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  10. Urban Sustainability and Public Health: Throwing the Bath Water Out and Not the Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the affect of urbanization on community health. It exams urbanization trends in the Atlanta metro area and includes information on impervious surfaces, air quality, mitigation strategies, spatial growth modeling, land use, public health surveillance and different data collection methods.

  11. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Turki N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting.Objective: To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data.Results: A total 123 health care workers (45.6% experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5% and nonphysical violence (99.2%, including verbal violence (94.3% and intimidation (22.0%. Offenders were patients (71.5% in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%, or both (3.3%. Almost half (48.0% of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence.Conclusion: Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care

  12. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katrina N; Varga, Zoltán M; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding the health of our in-house fish colony. Here, we describe the biosecurity and health-monitoring program implemented at ZIRC. This strategy was designed to prevent introduction of new zebrafish pathogens, minimize pathogens already present in the facility, and ensure a healthy zebrafish colony for in-house uses and shipment to customers.

  13. Urban Forest Health Monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke; Jeffery T. Walton; Daniel E. Crane; Anne Cumming; Jack C. Stevens

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the urban forest resource and its numerous values, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service has initiated a pilot program to sample the urban tree population in Indiana, Wisconsin, and New Jersey and statewide urban street tree populations in Maryland, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts. Results from the pilot study in Indiana revealed that...

  14. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Matter Element Analysis: A Case Study of 13 Cities in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuefeng; Pu, Lijie

    2017-08-21

    Urban public health is an important global issue and receives public concern. The urban ecosystem health (UEH) indicator system was constructed with 27 assessment indicators selected from vigor, organization, resilience, service function, and population health, then the matter element analysis (MEA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) weighting method were used to assess the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province during the period of 2000-2014. The results show that the overall ecosystem health status of each city shows continuous improvement. The UEH status of each city gradually transferred from poor, general, and medium condition to good and excellent condition. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the city's UEH showing a steady status after increasing for 10 years, and their spatial variations have gradually reduced. The UEH status in Southern Jiangsu and Central Jiangsu was better than that of Northern Jiangsu Province. From each component point of view, the vigor, resilience, and population health of each city in Jiangsu Province showed a trend of continuous improvement, while the organization and service function first increased and then decreased. The common limiting factors of UEH in Jiangsu Province were Engel's coefficient of urban households, number of beds of hospitals, health centers per 10,000 people, and total investment in the treatment of environmental pollution as percent GDP. These results help decision makers to make suitable decisions to maintain the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province.

  15. User-Centered Design and Interactive Health Technologies for Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Myers, Brad A.; Mc Curry, Kenneth R.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Hawkins, Robert P.; Begey, Alex; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Despite recommendations that patients be involved in the design and testing of health technologies, few reports describe how to involve patients in systematic and meaningful ways to ensure that applications are customized to meet their needs. User-centered design (UCD) is an approach that involves end-users throughout the development process so that technology support tasks, are easy to operate, and are of value to users. In this paper we provide an overview of UCD and use the development of Pocket Personal Assistant for Tracking Health (Pocket PATH), to illustrate how these principles and techniques were applied to involve patients in the development of this interactive health technology. Involving patient-users in the design and testing ensured functionality and usability, therefore increasing the likelihood of promoting the intended health outcomes. PMID:19411947

  16. Changing structure to improve function: one academic health center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Davis, L; Kohler, P O

    1997-04-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) have been under siege for the past few years, with decreased federal and state funding for educational and research programs and increasing competition in the health care marketplace. In addition, many AHCs are burdened with the bureaucratic red tape of large educational institutions, which makes agility in responding to a demanding health care market difficult. The authors describe the response to these threats by Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU), an approach that has been different from those of most similar institutions. OHSU chose to change its structure from being part of the state system of higher education to being an independent public corporation. The authors outline the political process of building widespread support for the legislation passed in 1995, the key features of the restructuring, the challenges faced before and after the transition to a public corporation, and lessons learned in this metamorphosis to a new form.

  17. Health science center faculty attitudes towards interprofessional education and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Jodie C; Gosselin, Kevin; Bentley, Regina

    2018-03-01

    The attitudes of faculty towards interprofessional education (IPE) and teamwork impact the education of health professions education (HPE) students. This paper reports on a study evaluating attitudes from health professions educators towards IPE and teamwork at one academic health science center (HSC) where modest IPE initiatives have commenced. Drawing from the results of a previous investigation, this study was conducted to examine current attitudes of the faculty responsible for the training of future healthcare professionals. Survey data were collected to evaluate attitudes from HSC faculty, dentistry, nursing, medicine, pharmacy and public health. In general, positive HSC faculty attitudes towards interprofessional learning, education, and teamwork were significantly predicted by those affiliated with the component of nursing. Faculty development aimed at changing attitudes and increasing understanding of IPE and teamwork are critical. Results of this study serve as an underpinning to leverage strengths and evaluate weakness in initiating IPE.

  18. Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Fallahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

  19. UNDER-UTILIZATION OF COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTERS IN PURWOREJO REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Atik Triratnawati

    2006-01-01

    The basic strategy of the Ministry of Health to achieve Health For All In Indonesia 2010 is through health paradigm, decentralization, professionalism and health service management. Community health centers play an important role to achieve the goal. Unfortunately, underutilization of community health centers is still a problem in Purworejo. The purpose of this study was to know the utilization of community health centers using a sociological health approach. Qualitative research by observati...

  20. Pathways of Economic Inequalities in Maternal and Child Health in Urban India: A Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goli, Srinivas; Doshi, Riddhi; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequa...

  1. Community-centered responses to Ebola in urban Liberia: the view from below.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane; McLean, Kristen E; McKune, Sarah Lindley; Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Fallah, Mosoka; Monger, Josephine; Tehoungue, Kodjo; Omidian, Patricia A

    2015-04-01

    international response. Communities in urban Liberia adapted to the epidemic using multiple coping strategies. In the absence of health, infrastructural and material supports, local people engaged in self-reliance in order to contain the epidemic at the micro-social level. These innovations were regarded as necessary, but as less desirable than a well-supported health-systems based response; and were seen as involving considerable individual, social, and public health costs, including heightened vulnerability to infection.

  2. Community-centered responses to Ebola in urban Liberia: the view from below.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Alane Abramowitz

    2015-04-01

    state and international response. Communities in urban Liberia adapted to the epidemic using multiple coping strategies. In the absence of health, infrastructural and material supports, local people engaged in self-reliance in order to contain the epidemic at the micro-social level. These innovations were regarded as necessary, but as less desirable than a well-supported health-systems based response; and were seen as involving considerable individual, social, and public health costs, including heightened vulnerability to infection.

  3. 76 FR 35683 - Medicare Program; Conditions of Participation (CoPs) for Community Mental Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Community Mental Health Centers; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 117 / Friday June 17... (CoPs) for Community Mental Health Centers AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS... participation (CoPs) that community mental health centers (CMHCs) would have to meet in order to participate in...

  4. The Breast Health Center at Women & Infants Hospital: origin, philosophy, and features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberry, S S; Chung, M; Legare, R; Strenger, R; Wallace, D; Phillips, G; Morry, S; Marchant, D J; Cady, B

    2000-04-01

    The Breast Health Center, a component of the program in Women's Oncology at Women & Infants Hospital, is a multidisciplinary center devoted to the treatment and study of benign and malignant breast diseases. The philosophy, structure, and function of The Breast Health Center are described along with its specific components. The Breast Health Center's three fundamental missions of patient care, education, and research are discussed.

  5. Improving Pain Care with Project ECHO in Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daren; Zlateva, Ianita; Davis, Bennet; Bifulco, Lauren; Giannotti, Tierney; Coman, Emil; Spegman, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    Pain is an extremely common complaint in primary care, and patient outcomes are often suboptimal. This project evaluated the impact of Project ECHO Pain videoconference case-based learning sessions on knowledge and quality of pain care in two Federally Qualified Health Centers. Quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention, with comparison group. Two large, multisite federally qualified health centers in Connecticut and Arizona. Intervention (N = 10) and comparison (N = 10) primary care providers. Primary care providers attended 48 weekly Project ECHO Pain sessions between January and December 2013, led by a multidisciplinary pain specialty team. Surveys and focus groups assessed providers' pain-related knowledge and self-efficacy. Electronic health record data were analyzed to evaluate opioid prescribing and specialty referrals. Compared with control, primary care providers in the intervention had a significantly greater increase in pain-related knowledge and self-efficacy. Providers who attended ECHO were more likely to use formal assessment tools and opioid agreements and refer to behavioral health and physical therapy compared with control providers. Opioid prescribing decreased significantly more among providers in the intervention compared with those in the control group. Pain is an extremely common and challenging problem, particularly among vulnerable patients such as those cared for at the more than 1,200 Federally Qualified Health Centers in the United States. In this study, attendance at weekly Project ECHO Pain sessions not only improved knowledge and self-efficacy, but also altered prescribing and referral patterns, suggesting that knowledge acquired during ECHO sessions translated into practice changes. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  6. Nurse-midwives in federally funded health centers: understanding federal program requirements and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Midwives are working in federally funded health centers in increasing numbers. Health centers provide primary and preventive health care to almost 20 million people and are located in every US state and territory. While health centers serve the entire community, they also serve as a safety net for low-income and uninsured individuals. In 2010, 93% of health center patients had incomes below 200% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, and 38% were uninsured. Health centers, including community health centers, migrant health centers, health care for the homeless programs, and public housing primary care programs, receive grant funding and enjoy other benefits due to status as federal grantees and designation as federally qualified health centers. Clinicians working in health centers are also eligible for financial and professional benefits because of their willingness to serve vulnerable populations and work in underserved areas. Midwives, midwifery students, and faculty working in, or interacting with, health centers need to be aware of the regulations that health centers must comply with in order to qualify for and maintain federal funding. This article provides an overview of health center regulations and policies affecting midwives, including health center program requirements, scope of project policy, provider credentialing and privileging, Federal Tort Claims Act malpractice coverage, the 340B Drug Pricing Program, and National Health Service Corps scholarship and loan repayment programs. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  7. Community health centers and community development financial institutions: joining forces to address determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelchuck, Ronda; Lowenstein, Daniel; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2011-11-01

    Community health centers and community development financial institutions share similar origins and missions and are increasingly working together to meet community needs. Addressing the social and economic determinants of health is a common focus. The availability of new federal grants and tax credits has led these financial institutions to invest in the creation and expansion of community health centers. This article reviews the most recent trends in these two sectors and explores opportunities for further collaboration to transform the health and well-being of the nation's low-income communities.

  8. Investigating Medication Errors in Educational Health Centers of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Medication errors can be a threat to the safety of patients. Preventing medication errors requires reporting and investigating such errors. The present study was conducted with the purpose of investigating medication errors in educational health centers of Kermanshah. Material and Methods: The present research is an applied, descriptive-analytical study and is done as a survey. Error Report of Ministry of Health and Medical Education was used for data collection. The population of the study included all the personnel (nurses, doctors, paramedics of educational health centers of Kermanshah. Among them, those who reported the committed errors were selected as the sample of the study. The data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Chi 2 Test using SPSS version 18. Results: The findings of the study showed that most errors were related to not using medication properly, the least number of errors were related to improper dose, and the majority of errors occurred in the morning. The most frequent reason for errors was staff negligence and the least frequent was the lack of knowledge. Conclusion: The health care system should create an environment for detecting and reporting errors by the personnel, recognizing related factors causing errors, training the personnel and create a good working environment and standard workload.

  9. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523 to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin, to ”good” health (white British, and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups, labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME

  10. Understanding Relationships between Health, Ethnicity, Place and the Role of Urban Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Jenny; Aspinall, Peter A.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known about how differences in use and perceptions of urban green space impact on the general health of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. BME groups in the UK suffer from poorer health and a wide range of environmental inequalities that include poorer access to urban green space and poorer quality of green space provision. This study used a household questionnaire (n = 523) to explore the relationship between general health and a range of individual, social and physical environmental predictors in deprived white British and BME groups living in ethnically diverse cities in England. Results from Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) segmentation analyses identified three distinct general health segments in our sample ranging from “very good” health (people of Indian origin), to ”good” health (white British), and ”poor” health (people of African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani origin and other BME groups), labelled ”Mixed BME” in the analyses. Correlated Component Regression analyses explored predictors of general health for each group. Common predictors of general health across all groups were age, disability, and levels of physical activity. However, social and environmental predictors of general health-including use and perceptions of urban green space-varied among the three groups. For white British people, social characteristics of place (i.e., place belonging, levels of neighbourhood trust, loneliness) ranked most highly as predictors of general health, whilst the quality of, access to and the use of urban green space was a significant predictor of general health for the poorest health group only, i.e., in ”Mixed BME”. Results are discussed from the perspective of differences in use and perceptions of urban green space amongst ethnic groups. We conclude that health and recreation policy in the UK needs to give greater attention to the provision of local green space amongst poor BME communities since this

  11. Urbanization and health in China, thinking at the national, local and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhu; Song, Jinchao; Lin, Tao; Dixon, Jane; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Hong

    2016-03-08

    China has the biggest population in the world, and has been experiencing the largest migration in history, and its rapid urbanization has profound and lasting impacts on local and national public health. Under these conditions, a systems understanding on the correlation among urbanization, environmental change and public health and to devise solutions at national, local and individual levels are in urgent need. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of recent studies which have examined the relationship between urbanization, urban environmental changes and human health in China. Based on the review, coupled with a systems understanding, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for promoting the health and wellbeing of the whole nation at national, local, and individual levels. Urbanization and urban expansion result in urban environmental changes, as well as residents' lifestyle change, which can lead independently and synergistically to human health problems. China has undergone an epidemiological transition, shifting from infectious to chronic diseases in a much shorter time frame than many other countries. Environmental risk factors, particularly air and water pollution, are a major contributing source of morbidity and mortality in China. Furthermore, aging population, food support system, and disparity of public service between the migrant worker and local residents are important contributions to China's urban health. At the national level, the central government could improve current environmental policies, food safety laws, and make adjustments to the health care system and to demographic policy. At the local level, local government could incorporate healthy life considerations in urban planning procedures, make improvements to the local food supply, and enforce environmental monitoring and management. At the individual level, urban residents can be exposed to education regarding health behaviour choices while being encouraged to take

  12. Brief Report: Decentralizing ART Supply for Stable HIV Patients to Community-Based Distribution Centers: Program Outcomes From an Urban Context in Kinshasa, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Florian; Kalenga, Lucien; Lukela, Jean; Salumu, Freddy; Diallo, Ibrahim; Nico, Elena; Lampart, Emmanuel; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Shah, Safieh; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Zachariah, Rony; Van Griensven, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Facility-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision for stable patients with HIV congests health services in resource-limited countries. We assessed outcomes and risk factors for attrition after decentralization to community-based ART refill centers among 2603 patients with HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, using a multilevel Poisson regression model. Death, loss to follow-up, and transfer out were 0.3%, 9.0%, and 0.7%, respectively, at 24 months. Overall attrition was 5.66/100 person-years. Patients with >3 years on ART, >500 cluster of differentiation type-4 count, body mass index >18.5, and receiving nevirapine but not stavudine showed reduced attrition. ART refill centers are a promising task-shifting model in low-prevalence urban settings with high levels of stigma and poor ART coverage.

  13. Analysis of suffering at work in Family Health Support Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Débora Dupas Gonçalves do; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the work process in the Family Health Support Center. An exploratory, descriptive case study using a qualitative approach. Focus groups were conducted with 20 workers of a Family Health Support Center, and the empirical material was subjected to content analysis technique and analyzed in light of Work Psychodynamics. The category of suffering is presented herein as arising from the dialectical contradiction between actual work and prescribed work, from resistance to the Family Health Support Center's proposal and a lack of understanding of their role; due to an immediatist and curative culture of the users and the Family Health Strategy; of the profile, overload and identification with work. The dialectical contradiction between expectations from Family Health Strategy teams and the work in the Family Health Support Center compromises its execution and creates suffering for workers. Analisar o processo de trabalho no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família. Estudo de caso exploratório, descritivo e de abordagem qualitativa. Grupos focais foram realizados com 20 trabalhadores do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família, o material empírico foi submetido à técnica de análise de conteúdo e analisado à luz da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Apresenta-se aqui a categoria sofrimento que neste estudo decorre da contradição dialética entre o trabalho real e o trabalho prescrito, da resistência à proposta do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família e da falta de compreensão de seu papel; da cultura imediatista e curativa do usuário e da Estratégia Saúde da Família; do perfil, sobrecarga e identificação com o trabalho. A contradição dialética entre expectativas das equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família e o trabalho no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família compromete sua efetivação e gera sofrimento aos trabalhadores.

  14. City-ecological perspectives of the development of high urbanized multifunctional centers of the largest Russian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikov Sergey Anatol’evich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some results of the author’s dissertation research dedicated to formation of an architectural typology of high urbanized multifunctional units of urban structure of the largest cities (further HUMUUS as centers of social activity, which include buildings, constructions, transportation equipment and open spaces, where human flows transpose, start and end with the purpose of bringing into this space a concentrated maximum of goods, services and information with minimum time expenditures. This article draws attention to the development analysis of the structure-forming functions of HUMUUS and their town planning and environmental impact on the surrounding area. The study of planning structures of the largest Russian cities (Samara, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod made it possible to identify a number of main objects, in which structure-forming functions of HUMUUS are materialized: railroad complex (historically formed, developed, dominated, system-wide road junction, transport interchange hub (providing intraurban messages, public office and business centers, leisure and entertainment centers, shopping centers. Basing on researches of Russian and foreign experience, it is possible to predict with full confidence the following trends and streams of environmental and urban development of HUMUUS in the near-term perspective: Strengthening of the environmental and urban frame by network evolution of HUMUUS; Inclusion of green areas of HUMUUS in the system of citywide green areas; Increment of the interest of the investors to the public road junction for the purpose of reorganization of them to full HUMUUS with all characteristics of high-urbanized and environmental and urban reorganization (separation of traffic and pedestrian flows, maximum capacity, multiple-level system, multifunctional, increase in landscaped green space, reconstruction of engineering systems and communications, the use of modern ecological building designs and

  15. Electricity and risk of public health center had measles vaccine damage in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggita Bunga Anggraini

    2016-03-01

    related to PHC hadmeasles damage vaccines.Methods: The analysis used a part of the data of Research Health Facilities (Rifaskes in 2011. The Rifaskeswas conducted in all health centers in all (33 provinces in Indonesia. Furthermore, this analysis uses dataonly health center in the province who have measles immunization coverage the national prevalence rate(81.6% or more, and health centers that have measles prevalence rate above the national prevalence rate(1.18% or more. Statistical data analysis performed using logistic regression analysis to determine someof the risk factors related to the health center had has measles vaccine damaged.Results: A number of 7 provinces (Riau, Jakarta, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, CentralSulawesi, South Sulawesi, Gorontalo with 1259 PHC met the inclusion criteria. Health centers locatedin rural areas compared with urban areas had 3.4-fold risk of a PHC that had measles damage vaccines[adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 3.37; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.34 - 8.26]. Furthermore, the healthcenter with the availability of the electricity for less than 24 hours compared with available 24 hours had2.1-fold risk of PHC that had measles damage vaccines (ORa = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.02 - 4.33.Conclusion: Public health center in rural areas, or did not have not have commercial electric power, ordid not have the availability of day-to-day electricity less than 24 hours had more risk of a PHC that hadmeasles damage vaccines. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:116-20Keywords: measles, public health center, vaccine

  16. A new methodology for modelling of health risk from urban flooding exemplified by cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Jørgensen, Claus; Hammond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    outlines a novel methodology for linking dynamic urban flood modelling with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This provides a unique possibility for understanding the interaction between urban flooding and health risk caused by direct human contact with the flood water and hence gives...... and mortality, especially during floods. At present, there are no software tools capable of combining hydrodynamic modelling and health risk analyses, and the links between urban flooding and the health risk for the population due to direct contact with the flood water are poorly understood. The present paper...... an option for reducing the burden of disease in the population by use of intelligent urban flood risk management. The model linking urban flooding and health risk is applied to Dhaka City in Bangladesh, where waterborne diseases including cholera are endemic. The application to Dhaka City is supported...

  17. A Multidimensional Data Warehouse for Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjan, Kislaya; Toscos, Tammy; Turkcan, Ayten; Doebbeling, Brad N

    2015-01-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) play a pivotal role in healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations, but have not yet benefited from a data warehouse that can support improvements in clinical and financial outcomes across the practice. We have developed a multidimensional clinic data warehouse (CDW) by working with 7 CHCs across the state of Indiana and integrating their operational, financial and electronic patient records to support ongoing delivery of care. We describe in detail the rationale for the project, the data architecture employed, the content of the data warehouse, along with a description of the challenges experienced and strategies used in the development of this repository that may help other researchers, managers and leaders in health informatics. The resulting multidimensional data warehouse is highly practical and is designed to provide a foundation for wide-ranging healthcare data analytics over time and across the community health research enterprise.

  18. Health at the center of health systems reform: how philosophy can inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Moes, Mark M

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary views hold that health and disease can be defined as objective states and thus should determine the design and delivery of health services. Yet health concepts are elusive and contestable. Health is neither an individual construction, a reflection of societal expectations, nor only the absence of pathologies. Based on philosophical and sociological theory, empirical evidence, and clinical experience, we argue that health has simultaneously objective and subjective features that converge into a dynamic complex-adaptive health model. Health (or its dysfunction, illness) is a dynamic state representing complex patterns of adaptation to body, mind, social, and environmental challenges, resulting in bodily homeostasis and personal internal coherence. The "balance of health" model-emergent, self-organizing, dynamic, and adaptive-underpins the very essence of medicine. This model should be the foundation for health systems design and also should inform therapeutic approaches, policy decision-making, and the development of emerging health service models. A complex adaptive health system focused on achieving the best possible "personal" health outcomes must provide the broad policy frameworks and resources required to implement people-centered health care. People-centered health systems are emergent in nature, resulting in locally different but mutually compatible solutions across the whole health system.

  19. Urban health and ecology: the promise of an avian biomonitoring tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lea; Ondrasek, Naomi R; Calisi, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Urban-dwelling birds have the potential to serve as powerful biomonitors that reveal the impact of environmental change due to urbanization. Specifically, urban bird populations can be used to survey cities for factors that may pose both public and wildlife health concerns. Here, we review evidence supporting the use of avian biomonitors to identify threats associated with urbanization, including bioaccumulation of toxicants and the dysregulation of behavior and physiology by related stressors. In addition, we consider the use of birds to examine how factors in the urban environment can impact immunity against communicable pathogens. By studying the behavior, physiology, and ecology of urban bird populations, we can elucidate not only how avian populations are responding to environmental change, but also how unintended consequences of urbanization affect the well-being of human and non-human inhabitants.

  20. Community Life as a Motive for Migration from the Urban Center to the Rural Periphery in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel

    2010-01-01

    A white house topped by a red roof, set in a garden, surrounded by a lawn dotted with trees and shrubs--this is not just a child's naive drawing. It is the aspiration of many in the modern world, Israelis among them. This case study deals with the inner migration of families, mainly from the urban center of Israel, to rural communities in its…

  1. Green Spaces as an Indicator of Urban Health: Evaluating Its Changes in 28 Mega-Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conghong Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces can yield considerable health benefits to urban residents. Assessing these health benefits is a key step for managing urban green spaces for human health and wellbeing in cities. In this study, we assessed the change of health benefits generated by urban green spaces in 28 megacities worldwide between 2005 and 2015 by using availability and accessibility as proxy indicators. We first mapped land covers of 28 megacities using 10,823 scenes of Landsat images and a random forest classifier running on Google Earth Engine. We then calculated the availability and accessibility of urban green spaces using the land cover maps and gridded population data. The results showed that the mean availability of urban green spaces in these megacities increased from 27.63% in 2005 to 31.74% in 2015. The mean accessibility of urban green spaces increased from 65.76% in 2005 to 72.86% in 2015. The increased availability and accessibility of urban green spaces in megacities have brought more health benefits to their residents.

  2. Utilization of Mental Health Services in School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Ranbir M; Cusson, Regina; White-Frese, Jesse; Walsh, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    We summarize utilization patterns for mental health services in school-based health centers. Administrative data on school-based health center visits in New Haven, Connecticut were examined for the 2007-2009 school years. Relative frequencies of mental health visits by age were calculated as a percentage of all visits and were stratified by sex, ethnicity/race, and insurance status. Mental health visits accounted for the highest proportion of visits (31.8%). The proportion of mental health visits was highest at 8 years (42.8%) and at 13 years (39.0%). The proportion of mental health visits among boys (38.4%) was higher than among girls (26.7%). Hispanic students had a lower proportion of mental health visits than black students (23.5% vs 35.8%) in all but 2 age groups. Students in the white/other ethnicity category had higher proportions of mental health visits than Hispanic and black students between ages 12 and 15. Students with no health insurance (22.5%) had lower proportions of mental health visits than students covered by Medicaid (34.3%) or private insurance (33.9%). The percentage of mental health visits by students with private insurance was highest (37.2%-49%) in the 13-15 age range. Usage patterns for mental health issues show pronounced, nonrandom variation relative to age and other demographic characteristics especially with 8-year-old boys. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  3. An ethnography of clinic "noise" in a community-based, promotora-centered mental health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getrich, Christina; Heying, Shirley; Willging, Cathleen; Waitzkin, Howard

    2007-07-01

    Community-based health interventions have emerged as a growing focus for anthropological research. The application of ethnographic approaches in clinical practice settings reveals that community-based interventions must grapple with "noise," or unanticipated factors such as patients' own perceptions of illness and treatment, primary care providers' non-adherence to guidelines-based treatment, the social dynamics of the clinic site itself, and incomplete understanding and acceptance of an intervention by a clinic's staff members. Such noise can influence the implementation and quality of treatment. Thus, identifying clinic-based noise is critical in assessments of fidelity to intervention protocols as well as outcomes of community-based interventions. This paper highlights findings from an evaluation of a mental health intervention focusing on the role of promotoras (briefly trained, non-professional community health workers) as mental health practitioners in two urban New Mexico, USA, community health centers. Our research identified three areas of clinic-based noise: the clinics' physical ability to "absorb" the intervention, the challenges of co-worker instability and interpersonal relationships, and balancing extra workplace demands. The findings demonstrate the value of ethnographic approaches in community-based intervention research.

  4. Urban Physics: Effect of the micro-climate on comfort, health and energy demand

    OpenAIRE

    Moonen, Peter; Defraeye, Thijs; Dorer, Viktor; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The global trend towards urbanisation explains the growing interest in the study of the modification of the urban climate due to the heat island effect and global warming, and its impact on energy use of buildings. Also urban comfort, health and durability, referring respectively to pedestrian wind/thermal comfort, pollutant dispersion and wind-driven rain are of interest. Urban Physics is a well-established discipline, incorporating relevant branches of physics, environmental chemistry, aero...

  5. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children's center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children's center. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to "wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity" before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of "gum disease". Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers' response in relation to their specific job. The special health care workers in the disabled children's center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices.

  6. Urban health. A challenge for the third millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroli, S [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Menditto, A [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Biochimica Clinica

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the bilateral governmental programme for scientific and technical cooperation existing between Italy and Hungary a successful series of biennial Symposia were undertaken since the early 1980s. These were designed to provide scientists of both countries with a permanent forum for the evaluation of ongoing joint projects, the exchange of views on future priorities dealt with by these Symposia always made the participation of prominent scientists from other countries a necessary complement substantially enhancing the international characteristics of such events. Each Symposium features a specific theme of primary importance within the general context of human health and environmental protection. In this respect, the ninth edition of this series of Symposia focuses on the major concerns raised by chemical pollution on all aspects of urban life. More than one half of the world population lives today in big cities, with all the attendant problems as regards air, water and soil quality, safe disposal of urban waste, occupational exposure, in one word, the physical, mental and cultural welfare of citizens at large. All facets concurring to protect and maintain urban health will be thus taken into consideration and highlighted in about forty invited lectures, while posters will be displayed in a permanent session throughout the conference duration. [Italian] Nel quadro degli accordi bilaterali di collaborazione tecnica e scientifica vigenti tra Italia ed Ungheria e' stata intrapresa con successo sin dall'inizio degli anni '80 una serie di simposi a cadenza biennale. Tali manifestazioni hanno lo scopo di fornire agli studiosi di entrambi i paesi un forum permanente per la valutazione dell'andamento dei progetti comuni di ricerca, lo scambio di idee sulle priorita' future e la proposta di nuove iniziative. D'altro canto, la natura sovranazionale dei problemi oggetto di questi simposi ha reso anche necessaria la presenza di qualificati esponenti scientifici di

  7. Urban health. A challenge for the third millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroli, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Menditto, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Biochimica Clinica

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the bilateral governmental programme for scientific and technical cooperation existing between Italy and Hungary a successful series of biennial Symposia were undertaken since the early 1980s. These were designed to provide scientists of both countries with a permanent forum for the evaluation of ongoing joint projects, the exchange of views on future priorities dealt with by these Symposia always made the participation of prominent scientists from other countries a necessary complement substantially enhancing the international characteristics of such events. Each Symposium features a specific theme of primary importance within the general context of human health and environmental protection. In this respect, the ninth edition of this series of Symposia focuses on the major concerns raised by chemical pollution on all aspects of urban life. More than one half of the world population lives today in big cities, with all the attendant problems as regards air, water and soil quality, safe disposal of urban waste, occupational exposure, in one word, the physical, mental and cultural welfare of citizens at large. All facets concurring to protect and maintain urban health will be thus taken into consideration and highlighted in about forty invited lectures, while posters will be displayed in a permanent session throughout the conference duration. [Italian] Nel quadro degli accordi bilaterali di collaborazione tecnica e scientifica vigenti tra Italia ed Ungheria e' stata intrapresa con successo sin dall'inizio degli anni '80 una serie di simposi a cadenza biennale. Tali manifestazioni hanno lo scopo di fornire agli studiosi di entrambi i paesi un forum permanente per la valutazione dell'andamento dei progetti comuni di ricerca, lo scambio di idee sulle priorita' future e la proposta di nuove iniziative. D'altro canto, la natura sovranazionale dei problemi oggetto di questi simposi ha reso anche necessaria la presenza di

  8. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Kanavos, Panos

    2012-09-18

    Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as "excellent or good" and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  9. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality. PMID:22989200

  10. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  11. Health Status and Health Care Experiences among Homeless Patients in Federally Supported Health Centers: Findings from the 2009 Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588

  12. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign.

  13. Ecosystem health pattern analysis of urban clusters based on emergy synthesis: Results and implication for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Fath, Brian D.; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study. - Highlights: • The use of integrated emergy synthesis and set pair analysis model was standardized. • The integrated model was applied on the scale of an urban cluster. • Health patterns of different urban clusters were compared. • Policy suggestions were provided based on the health pattern analysis

  14. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-11

    To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural), and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES) designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas of SSA. Specific

  15. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  16. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  17. Health Care and Aboriginal Seniors in Urban Canada: Helping a Neglected Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loleen Berdahl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canadian researchers and policymakers have paid limited attention to the health care needs of Aboriginal seniors. This lack of attention is problematic, as the situation of Aboriginal seniors – including both status and non-status First Nations, Métis and Inuit – is particularly bleak. Using Winnipeg, Regina and Saskatoon as examples, this paper analyses the health care challenges facing Aboriginal seniors in urban Canada. We ask, what policy approaches are needed to improve the health and wellbeing of urban Aboriginal seniors so that they can have good quality living reflective of their needs and culture? We suggest that, in thinking throughpresent and future health services for urban Aboriginal seniors, policymakers should consider four key factors: socioeconomic conditions; underutilization of urban health services; jurisdiction; and elder abuse.

  18. Environmental Health in Relation to Urban Planning and Human Physical Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.H.L.; Siti Nur Afiqah Mohamed Musthafa; Dasimah Omar

    2015-01-01

    The world is changing everyday in a fast pace that makes majority of the urbanized areas becoming more congested and polluted by the development. The planning of the urban world has brought about a great impact towards the environment and health. With the large number of human population, urban areas will have various kinds of activities that contributed to the higher rate of pollutants compared to areas with less development. In a car oriented urban development pattern, majority of the population will choose automobiles as their transportation modes rather than walking or cycling. Due to that, the air emission in urban areas will increase rapidly, and reduce the physical activity. Air pollutants contribute to various health problems, especially respiratory infection. Besides, lacking of physical activities also increase the health risk. However, there is limited study on the relationship between urban land use setting and health in developing country. Thus, a study had been carried out to establish the relationship between urban setting and human health. It involved air quality data collection, observation on land use setting, and questionnaire survey on human health and the lifestyle. Findings from the relationship analysis had been discussed with suitable recommendation and conclusion. (author)

  19. Politics and the success of school-based health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, B A; Button, J W; Wald, K D

    2000-10-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to health services by bringing providers to children (and sometimes parents) and furnishing low cost services in an atmosphere of trust. While the number of SBHCs has continued to grow and some clinics have continued to expand their services, others have barely survived and some have even closed. This study investigated factors, particularly political forces, that affected the success of SBHCs. Using a national survey of clinic directors, this study assessed clinic success in terms both of longevity and service delivery. Findings indicate the factors most consistently and significantly associated with success include not only measures of "need" (school size and percent African-American enrollment or population) but of "politics" (citizen political ideology and Southern conservatism). Thus, politics matters more than previous studies suggested.

  20. Oral Health Status of Independent Older Adults in Texas: An observational study comparing urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie L; Boyd, Linda D; Tapias-Perdigón, Helena; LaSpina, Lisa M

    2017-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health needs of community-dwelling older adults participating in congregate meal centers and to determine whether differences exist in the oral health needs of older adult populations residing in urban versus rural communities in the state of Texas. Methods: Study participants were recruited at 6 congregate meal centers located in identified rural and urban communities in the greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. (N=78) Participants completed a validated, modified questionnaire containing 20 items on the following topics: self-reported oral health, tooth loss, dental insurance, frequency of dental visits, time since last dental visit, access to dental care, dry mouth, and oral cancer screening. Each participant received an oral health screening based on the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors Basic Screening Survey for Older Adults. The examiners received hands-on training prior to the study to ensure the validity of their findings and to test for inter-examiner reliability.The chi-square test of independence was performed to analyze the participants' responses on the Basic Screening Survey to identify any relationships between the variables. Results: There were no significant differences in oral health conditions of older adults residing in urban versus rural communities. Over 50% of the participants (64.9% urban; 56.1% rural) reported incomes below $15,000 and lacked dental insurance to cover all or a portion of their oral health care needs. Eighty-seven percent of the participants reported tooth loss due to dental caries, 35% required periodontal care, and 37% reported occasional and 43% reported frequent oral pain over the last 12 months. Conclusions: Oral health promotion and disease prevention is an emergent need for older adult populations residing in urban and rural communities of the state of Texas. Analysis revealed that the majority of the older adult populations in both

  1. Public health evaluation of waste management plan of urban areas of Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Andrea; Lombardi, Lidia; Carpentieri, Matteo; Buiatti, Eva; Bartolacci, Simone; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Linzalone, Nunzia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Public health evaluation impact for solid municipal waste management of Florence urban areas is considered. In this case study the evaluation step of screening show the environmental analysis of pollutants in the urban areas and epidemiologic study of exposed population in the area

  2. Urban-rural variations in health in the Netherlands: does selective migration play a part?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.A.; Mheen, H.D. van de; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: urban-rural health differences are observed in many countries, even when socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are controlled for. People living in urban areas are often found to be less healthy. One of the possible causes for these differences is selective migration with

  3. impact of waste disposal on health of a poor urban community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-08

    Aug 8, 2004 ... and local authorities' policies of hostilities and eviction of poor urban informal settlers(7). This study assessed the human excreta and waste disposal facilities and their health implications among residents of the poor urban settlement of Epworth a few kilometers south east of Harare, Zimbabwe's capital city.

  4. Differences in health care seeking behaviour between rural and urban communities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. Design A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to) health care was collected. Results The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988). Conclusion Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour. PMID:22691443

  5. The levels of Community Involvement in Health (CIH: a case of rural and urban communities in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Mchunu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the practice of community involvement in health programmes.The study therefore explored the nature and practice of community involvementin health programmes in the two communities in KwaZulu Natal. Thestudy was guided by the conceptual framework adapted from Amstein’s,( 1969 Ladderof Citizen Participation. This framework shows different levels and steps in communityparticipation. A case study method was used to conduct the study. The twocases were one urban based and one rural based community health centers in theIlembe health district, in Kwa Zulu Natal. A sample of 31 persons participated in thestudy. The sample comprised 8 registered nurses, 2 enrolled nurses 13 communitymembers and 8 community health workers. Data was collected using structured individualinterviews and focus group interviews, and was guided by the case protocol.Community involvement in health largely depended on the type of community, withrural community members being in charge of their health projects and urban communitymembers helping each other as neighbours in times of need.

  6. Exploring complex causal pathways between urban renewal, health and health inequality using a theory-driven realist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Manzano, Ana; Borrell, Carme; Malmusi, Davide; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Muntaner, Carles; Pawson, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Urban populations are growing and to accommodate these numbers, cities are becoming more involved in urban renewal programs to improve the physical, social and economic conditions in different areas. This paper explores some of the complexities surrounding the link between urban renewal, health and health inequalities using a theory-driven approach. We focus on an urban renewal initiative implemented in Barcelona, the Neighbourhoods Law, targeting Barcelona's (Spain) most deprived neighbourhoods. We present evidence from two studies on the health evaluation of the Neighbourhoods Law, while drawing from recent urban renewal literature, to follow a four-step process to develop a program theory. We then use two specific urban renewal interventions, the construction of a large central plaza and the repair of streets and sidewalks, to further examine this link. In order for urban renewal programs to affect health and health inequality, neighbours must use and adapt to the changes produced by the intervention. However, there exist barriers that can result in negative outcomes including factors such as accessibility, safety and security. This paper provides a different perspective to the field that is largely dominated by traditional quantitative studies that are not always able to address the complexities such interventions provide. Furthermore, the framework and discussions serve as a guide for future research, policy development and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rural and urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan: determinants of their physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Walter; Shiao, Wen-Been; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-12-01

    Different geographical areas with unique social cultures or societies might influence immigrant health. This study examines whether health inequities and different social factors exist regarding the health of rural and urban married Asian immigrants. A survey was conducted on 419 rural and 582 urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan in 2009. Whereas the descriptive results indicate a worse mental health status between rural and urban married Asian immigrants, rural married immigrants were as mentally healthy as urban ones when considering different social variables. An analysis of regional stratification found different social-determinant patterns on rural and urban married immigrants. Whereas social support is key for rural immigrant physical and mental health, acculturation (i.e., language proficiency), socioeconomics (i.e., working status), and family structure (the number of family members and children living in the family) are key to the mental health of urban married immigrants in addition to social support. This study verifies the key roles of social determinants on the subjective health of married Asian immigrants. Area-differential patterns on immigrant health might act as a reference for national authorities to (re)focus their attention toward more area-specific approaches for married Asian immigrants.

  8. 75 FR 55587 - Family-to-Family Health Information Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Family-to-Family Health Information Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS... Vermont Family-to-Family Health Information Center (F2F HIC) grant (H84MC00002) from the Parent to Parent...

  9. 77 FR 50519 - Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS); Amendment of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS); Amendment of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA), Center for Mental Health Services...

  10. Creating and validating GIS measures of urban design for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purciel, Marnie; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Gina S; Quinn, James W; Weiss, Christopher; Bader, Michael D M; Ewing, Reid; Rundle, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Studies relating urban design to health have been impeded by the unfeasibility of conducting field observations across large areas and the lack of validated objective measures of urban design. This study describes measures for five dimensions of urban design - imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity - created using public geographic information systems (GIS) data from the US Census and city and state government. GIS measures were validated for a sample of 588 New York City block faces using a well-documented field observation protocol. Correlations between GIS and observed measures ranged from 0.28 to 0.89. Results show valid urban design measures can be constructed from digital sources.

  11. Health Promotion in the Community: Impact of Faith-Based Lay Health Educators in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Ooi, Gavyn; Teague, Paula; Daniel Hale, W

    2016-06-01

    Promoting wellness and providing reliable health information in the community present serious challenges. Lay health educators, also known as community health workers, may offer a cost-effective solution to such challenges. This is a retrospective observational study of graduates from the Lay Health Educator Program (LHEP) at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center from 2013 to 2014. Students were enrolled from the surrounding community congregations and from the hospital's accredited clinical pastoral education program. There were 50 events implemented by the lay health educators during the 2014-2015 time period, reaching a total of 2004 individuals. The mean time from date of graduation from the LHEP to implementation of their first health promotional event was 196 ± 76 days. A significant number of lay health educators implemented events within the first year after completing their training. Ongoing monitoring of their community activity and the clinical impact of their efforts should be a priority for future studies.

  12. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sexual Violence Screening Practices of Student Health Centers Located on Universities in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Valerie; Williams, Jessica R.; Gattamorta, Karina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe current sexual violence screening practices of student health centers located on universities in Florida. Participants: Institutional level data was collected from 33 student health centers from November 2015 through January 2016. The student health centers were located on public or private…

  14. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program Grantee; Exception to... Competition--Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program... supplement award to the University of Guam School of Nursing, an Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program...

  15. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Groot, Ana Maria Mahecha; Monteiro, Teofilo; Murphy, Kelly; O'Campo, Patricia; Broide, Emilia Estivalet; Kano, Megumi

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH) approach. The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil), Toronto (Canada), and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia). Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps. In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto), academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights. Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  16. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH approach METHODS: The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil, Toronto (Canada, and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia. Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps RESULTS: In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto, academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights CONCLUSIONS: Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  17. Indian public health standards in primary health centers and community health centers in Shimla District of Himachal Pradesh: A descriptive evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The health planners in India have visualized primary health centers (PHCs and community health centers (CHCs as the key healthcare delivery institutions in rural areas. These centers are supposed to have health manpower, infrastructure, and service delivery as per the Indian public health standards (IPHS guidelines (2010. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven CHCs and 12 PHCs, randomly selected from eight blocks of Shimla District and evaluated in terms of health manpower, infrastructure, and services from September 2011 to August 2012. Data was collected from the selected units using structured data collection instruments designed by the IPHS. Results: The health centers were assessed according to IPHS guidelines. Outpatient department services and referral services were provided in all the centers studied. No specialist doctor was posted at any of CHCs against a sanctioned strength of at least four (surgeon, physician, obstetrician, and pediatrician per CHC. In 3 (42.8% CHCs and 8 (75% PHCs, no pharmacist was posted. Eight (75% PHCs did not have any staff nurse posted. Three (42.8% CHCs and 10 (83.3% PHCs did not have a laboratory technician. In CHCs, separate labor room was available in 6 (85.7% whereas a separate laboratory was available in all seven. Separate labor room and laboratory were available in four (25% PHCs. Conclusions: IPHS guidelines are not being followed at PHC and CHC levels of the district. Health manpower shortage is the key bottleneck in service delivery. Political advocacy is needed to ensure sufficient health manpower availability to deliver quality healthcare.

  18. Collecting standardized urban health indicator data at an individual level for school-aged children living in urban areas: methods from EURO-URHIS 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D; Katreniak, Z; Guha, J; Puzzolo, E; Higgerson, J; Steels, S; Woode-Owusu, M; Bruce, N; Birt, Christopher A; Ameijden, E van; Verma, A

    2017-05-01

    Measuring health and its determinants in urban populations is essential to effectively develop public health policies maximizing health gain within this context. Adolescents are important in this regard given the origins of leading causes of morbidity and mortality develop pre-adulthood. Comprehensive, accurate and comparable information on adolescent urban health indicators from heterogeneous urban contexts is an important challenge. EURO-URHIS 2 aimed to develop standardized tools and methodologies collecting data from adolescents across heterogenous European urban contexts. Questionnaires were developed including (i) comprehensive assessment of urban health indicators from 7 pre-defined domains, (ii) use of previously validated questions from a literature review and other European surveys, (iii) translation/back-translation into European languages and (iv) piloting. Urban area-specific data collection methodologies were established through literature review, consultation and piloting. School-based surveys of 14-16-year olds (400-800 per urban area) were conducted in 13 European countries (33 urban areas). Participation rates were high (80-100%) for students from schools taking part in the surveys from all urban areas, and data quality was generally good (low rates of missing/spoiled data). Overall, 13 850 questionnaires were collected, coded and entered for EURO-URHIS 2. Dissemination included production of urban area health profiles (allowing benchmarking for a number of important public health indicators in young people) and use of visualization tools as part of the EURO-URHIS 2 project. EURO-URHIS 2 has developed standardized survey tools and methodologies for assessing key measures of health and its determinants in adolescents from heterogenous urban contexts and demonstrated the utility of this data to public health practitioners and policy makers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association

  19. Process evaluation of child health services at outreach sites during health and nutrition day (Mamta Day in urban slums of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health indicators of rural and urban India show a wide variation. Rural areas have received large focus in child health services, but on the flip side, urban areas have been the last to receive such attention. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to include one randomly selected outreach session from all the 19 urban primary health centers of Vadodara city from April 2013 to May 2014. Nineteen session sites were observed for the process evaluation of three components of child health care, namely, “planning of Health and Nutrition Day,” “availability of vaccines/logistics,” and “direct observation of actual immunization process” at the site using a structured checklist. Results: Most of the vaccines and logistics were present at all 19 sites visited, but adverse events following immunization kit were observed at ten sites (52% only. Open vial policy, no-touch technique, and immediate cutting of syringe with hub cutter were implemented at all sites; however, completely filled Mamta Card was observed at 9 (47% sites only. All four key messages were given at 5 (26% sites only. Conclusion: Immunization services such as proper vaccine administration with no-touch technique and open vial policy were mainly focused; however, other services such as biomedical waste management, record keeping, and delivery of all four key messages need to be strengthened during Mamta Divas. Strengthening of other child health care services such as growth monitoring, Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses, and referral services is required in urban areas.

  20. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  1. Sociodemographic disparities in the utilization of proton therapy for prostate cancer at an urban academic center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina D. Woodhouse, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Sociodemographic disparities exist in PT use for prostate cancer at an urban academic institution. Further investigation of potential barriers to access is warranted to ensure equitable distribution across all demographic groups.

  2. Gender and rural-urban differences in reported health status by older people in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Tishelman, Carol; Agüero-Torres, Hedda; Chowdhury, A M R; Winblad, Bengt; Höjer, Bengt

    2003-01-01

    The study aims to (i) describe regional variation and gender differences in health status of older people (60 years and older) in Bangladesh, indicated by self-reported health problems and functional ability; (ii) explore influence of socio-economic factors on health status of older people. In a cross-sectional study in rural and urban Bangladesh, 696 older persons were asked about their health problems and ability to manage activities of daily living (ADL). More than 95% of older people reported health problems. Approximately 80% of elderly women in both the regions reported having four or more health problems compared with 42% and 63% elderly men in the urban and rural regions, respectively. More women (urban: 55%; rural: 36%) than men (urban: 32%; rural: 22%) also reported difficulties with ADL. Irrespective of age, sex and area of residence, those reporting greater number of health problems were more likely to report difficulty with at least one ADL task. Reporting pattern of specific health problems varied between urban and rural regions. Socio-economic indicators were found to have little influence on reporting of health problems, particularly in the rural region. Observed regional difference may be related to the influence of social and environmental factors, and level of awareness concerning certain health conditions.

  3. Development of a Risk-Based Decision-Support-Model for Protecting an Urban Medical Center from a Nuclear Explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dor, G.; Shohet, I.M.; Ornai, D.; Brosh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear explosion is the worst man-made physical threat on the human society. The nuclear explosion includes several consequences, some of them are immediate and others are long term. The major influences are: long duration blast, extreme thermal release, nuclear radiations, and electro-magnetic pulse (EMP). Their damage range is very wide. When nuclear explosion occurs above or in an urban area it is possible that one or more medical centers will be affected. Medical centers include several layers of structures defined by their resistance capacity to the nuclear explosion influences, beginning with the structure's frame and ending with different systems and with vulnerable medical critical infrastructures such as communications, medical gas supply, etc. A comprehensive literature survey revealed that in spite of the necessity and the importance of medical centers in the daily life and especially in emergency and post nuclear explosion, there is a lack of research on this topic

  4. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.

  5. Richness and diversity patterns of birds in urban green areas in the center of San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel L. Vides-Hernández

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization has led to natural ecosystems being constantly replaced by an urban landscape, a process that is very noticeable in El Salvador, due to its small territorial extension (21.041 km. and high population density (291 hab/km.. We performed an inventory in 12 urban green areas, with different sizes, shape and distances from the largest forest area in the metropolitan zone, based on the McArthur and Wilson’s (1967 island biogeography theory. We evaluated if the richness, diversity and equitability of birds were related to the size and distance of the green areas and if their shape had any effect on the richness of birds. We observed a total of 20 bird species and we classified them according to their diet (generalist and specialist. We observed that the distance did not influence the bird richness and that there was no interaction between size and distance variables, but the size of the green area did influence. The richness of birds with specialist diet increased in the more circular green areas than in the irregular ones. We conclude that in the urban center of San Salvador, the presence of large and circular green areas contributes more to the specialist diet birds’ richness, than areas of similar size but of irregular shape. However, small areas contribute more to the specialist diet birds’ richness, if its shape is more circular.

  6. Integration of pharmacists into patient-centered medical homes in federally qualified health centers in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Ling; Barner, Jamie C; Sucic, Kristina; Nguyen, Michelle; Rascati, Karen L

    To describe the integration and implementation of pharmacy services in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) as adopted by federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and compare them with usual care (UC). Four FQHCs (3 PCMHs, 1 UC) in Austin, TX, that provide care to the underserved populations. Pharmacists have worked under a collaborative practice agreement with internal medicine physicians since 2005. All 4 FQHCs have pharmacists as an integral part of the health care team. Pharmacists have prescriptive authority to initiate and adjust diabetes medications. The PCMH FQHCs instituted co-visits, where patients see both the physician and the pharmacist on the same day. PCMH pharmacists are routinely proactive in collaborating with physicians regarding medication management, compared with UC in which pharmacists see patients only when referred by a physician. Four face-to-face, one-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with pharmacists working in 3 PCMH FQHCs and 1 UC FQHC to compare the implementation of PCMH with emphasis on 1) structure and workflow, 2) pharmacists' roles, and 3) benefits and challenges. On co-visit days, the pharmacist may see the patient before or after physician consultation. Pharmacists in 2 of the PCMH facilities proactively screen to identify diabetes patients who may benefit from pharmacist services, although the UC clinic pharmacists see only referred patients. Strengths of the co-visit model include more collaboration with physicians and more patient convenience. Payment that recognizes the value of PCMH is one PCMH principle that is not fully implemented. PCMH pharmacists in FQHCs were integrated into the workflow to address specific patient needs. Specifically, full-time in-house pharmacists, flexible referral criteria, proactive screening, well defined collaborative practice agreement, and open scheduling were successful strategies for the underserved populations in this study. However, reimbursement plans and provider

  7. Adolescent use of school-based health centers and high school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Suzanne E U; Pullmann, Michael D; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Lyon, Aaron R; Cosgrove, T J; Bruns, Eric J

    2011-07-01

    To determine the association between use of school-based health centers (SBHCs) and school dropout. Quasi-experimental longitudinal analysis of a retrospective student cohort, with SBHC use as the independent variable. We statistically controlled for dropout risk and used propensity score regression adjustment to control for several factors associated with SBHC use. Integrated database from an urban public school district (academic outcomes) and department of public health (SBHC use). District-enrolled students in their first semester of ninth grade in 2005 (N = 3334), followed up through their anticipated on-time graduation semester of 12th grade in 2009. Students were divided into 4 groups: never used (47%); low use (23%); moderate use (20%); and high users (10%). Time to nongraduation (described as dropout). Low to moderate SBHC use (0.125-2.5 visits per semester) was associated with a 33% reduction in dropout compared with non-SBHC users. The high-use group (>2.5 visits per semester) did not have dropout rates that differed from nonusers. For SBHC users who did drop out, dropout occurred approximately 1 semester later than nonusers. Exploratory analyses revealed that the association between SBHC use and prevention of dropout was greatest for higher-risk students. This study found an association between low to moderate SBHC use and reductions in dropout for high school students in an urban school district, especially for students at higher risk for dropout. This study supports the theory that benefits of SBHCs extend beyond managing physical and mental health needs to include academic outcomes.

  8. Rural-urban migration in Nigeria: consequences on housing, health-care and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnnie, P B

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the results of an on-going longitudinal study in selected high-density areas of Port Harcourt metropolis involving 240 respondents from 4 groups. When respondents in the 1st cohort (watchnights, laborers, and messengers) were asked what motivated them to move from rural areas to the city, 94% said to get better jobs and increase their earnings. 98% of the clerks migrated to Port Harcourt for better jobs and to find employment. All 40 school leavers confirmed that they had moved to the city to find jobs. In spite of the various statutory provisions and policy statements relating to housing in Nigeria there still exists an acute and noticeable shortage both in rural and urban housing. There not only exists a dearth of residential accommodation in these urban centers, but there is also a seemingly atrocious disparity in housing conditions between a large majority of poor urban dwellers and a negligible number of urban residents who are reasonably wealthy. With the growing number of persons migrating from the rural areas to the urban centers, there are also likely to be problems of overcrowding which would exacerbate the problems of communicable diseases and pollution. In terms of the allocation of medical personnel, equipment, and drugs, there is a disproportionately skewed distribution in favor of urban dwellers. 1 important cause of urban employment problems is the phenomenal growth in urbanization and the inability of these urban centers to be able to utilize or absorb the urban labor that was created through the process of urbanization. The other problem is the extremely slow pace of industrialization as compared to urbanization . A serious malady responsible for urban unemployment is the staggering rate at which young school leavers migrate to the city. Nigeria as a nation state has assumed the most dangerous dimensions of capitalism by deliberately erecting inequality and poverty in society. 1 way by which the state, controlled by the

  9. Assessment of oral health attitudes and behavior among students of Kuwait University Health Sciences Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Dena A

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess attitudes and behavior of oral health maintenance among students in four faculties (Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Health) and to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of all students at Kuwait University Health Sciences Center (KUHSC) based on their academic level. Students enrolled in the Faculties of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Allied Health at KUHSC were evaluated regarding their oral health attitudes and behavior by an e-mail invitation with a link to the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory survey that was sent to all 1802 students with Kuwait University Health Sciences Center e-mail addresses. The data were analyzed for frequency distributions, and differences among the groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant ( P < 0.05). The results of this study indicated that dental students achieved better oral health attitudes and behavior than that of their nondental professional fellow students ( P < 0.05). Students in advanced academic levels and female students demonstrated better oral health attitudes and behavior. Dental students and students who were in advanced levels of their training along with female students demonstrated better oral health practices and perceptions than students in lower academic levels and male students, respectively. Additional studies for investigating the effectiveness and identifying areas requiring modification within the dental curriculum at KUHSC may be warranted.

  10. Behavioral Health and Health Care Reform Models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the H...

  11. Analysis of health in health centers area in Depok using correspondence analysis and scan statistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, C.; Widyaningsih, Y.; Lestari, D.

    2017-07-01

    Hotspots indicate area that has a higher case intensity than others. For example, in health problems of an area, the number of sickness of a region can be used as parameter and condition of area that determined severity of an area. If this condition is known soon, it can be overcome preventively. Many factors affect the severity level of area. Some health factors to be considered in this study are the number of infant with low birth weight, malnourished children under five years old, under five years old mortality, maternal deaths, births without the help of health personnel, infants without handling the baby's health, and infant without basic immunization. The number of cases is based on every public health center area in Depok. Correspondence analysis provides graphical information about two nominal variables relationship. It create plot based on row and column scores and show categories that have strong relation in a close distance. Scan Statistic method is used to examine hotspot based on some selected variables that occurred in the study area; and Correspondence Analysis is used to picturing association between the regions and variables. Apparently, using SaTScan software, Sukatani health center is obtained as a point hotspot; and Correspondence Analysis method shows health centers and the seven variables have a very significant relationship and the majority of health centers close to all variables, except Cipayung which is distantly related to the number of pregnant mother death. These results can be used as input for the government agencies to upgrade the health level in the area.

  12. Job satisfaction: rural versus urban primary health care workers' perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (pfactors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.

  13. Explanatory models of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from urban centers of central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Bruck M; Kebede, Tedla; Fenta, Teferi G; Boon, Heather

    2016-09-13

    of their illness including emotional distress. Individuals providing the diabetes care should consider local and individual contexts and strive to make their approach patient-centered and engage active participation of patients. There appears to be a need for better training of health providers in different areas including health communications and the fundamentals of mental healthcare.

  14. 77 FR 37415 - Office of Urban Indian Health Programs; Title V HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Indian health program HIV/AIDS activities is necessary to reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the urban Indian communities by increasing access to HIV related services, reducing stigma, and making testing..., Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Health Resource and Services Administration, and...

  15. "Does Hope Change? Testing a Project-Based Health Intervention among Urban Students of Color"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusevics, Kaija L.; Johnson, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    Hope is positively correlated with educational attainment and health. Interventions based on project-based learning (PBL) may increase youth hope. This study examined how a PBL intervention affected hope among urban students of color. Students in health classes were invited to participate. A PBL health class was implemented in four classrooms. The…

  16. Provider Perspectives on School-Based Mental Health for Urban Minority Youth: Access and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…

  17. Assessing the public health impact of using poison center data for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Lyons, Rebecca; Choudhary, Ekta; Wolkin, Amy; Schier, Joshua

    2017-12-13

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.

  18. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  19. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  20. The Examination of The Outdoors of Family Health-Care Center: A Case Study In Çanakkale City Center

    OpenAIRE

    SAĞLIK, Alper; KELKİT, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The gardens of the health-care centers are areas of fear, anxiety and stress based. In the process of the treatment of patients, these areas have psychological, physical and social significance. For this reason, health-care center gardens should be designed to help treatment of patients. Well designed gardens are important for elimination of adverse effects of clinical environments on patients and helping patients to stay away from the stress by ensuring their socia...

  1. Evaluation of health care services provided for older adults in primary health care centers and its internal environment. A step towards age-friendly health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamdan, Adel A; Alshammari, Sulaiman A; Al-Amoud, Maysoon M; Hameed, Tariq A; Al-Muammar, May N; Bindawas, Saad M; Al-Orf, Saada M; Mohamed, Ashry G; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A; Calder, Philip C

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the health care services provided for older adults by primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the ease of use of these centers by older adults. Between October 2013 and January 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 15 randomly selected PHCCs in Riyadh City, KSA. The evaluation focused on basic indicators of clinical services offered and factors indicative of the ease of use of the centers by older adults. Evaluations were based upon the age-friendly PHCCs toolkit of the World Health Organization. Coverage of basic health assessments (such as blood pressure, diabetes, and blood cholesterol) was generally good. However, fewer than half of the PHCCs offered annual comprehensive screening for the common age-related conditions. There was no screening for cancer. Counseling on improving lifestyle was provided by most centers. However, there was no standard protocol for counseling. Coverage of common vaccinations was poor. The layout of most PHCCs and their signage were good, except for lack of Braille signage. There may be issues of access of older adults to PHCCs through lack of public transport, limited parking opportunities, the presence of steps, ramps, and internal stairs, and the lack of handrails. Clinical services and the internal environment of PHCCs can be improved. The data will be useful for health-policy makers to improve PHCCs to be more age-friendly.

  2. Evaluation of health care services provided for older adults in primary health care centers and its internal environment. A step towards age-friendly health centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Alhamdan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the health care services provided for older adults by primary health care centers (PHCCs in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, and the ease of use of these centers by older adults. Methods: Between October 2013 and January 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 15 randomly selected PHCCs in Riyadh City, KSA. The evaluation focused on basic indicators of clinical services offered and factors indicative of the ease of use of the centers by older adults. Evaluations were based upon the age-friendly PHCCs toolkit of the World Health Organization. Results: Coverage of basic health assessments (such as blood pressure, diabetes, and blood cholesterol was generally good. However, fewer than half of the PHCCs offered annual comprehensive screening for the common age-related conditions. There was no screening for cancer. Counseling on improving lifestyle was provided by most centers. However, there was no standard protocol for counseling. Coverage of common vaccinations was poor. The layout of most PHCCs and their signage were good, except for lack of Braille signage. There may be issues of access of older adults to PHCCs through lack of public transport, limited parking opportunities, the presence of steps, ramps, and internal stairs, and the lack of handrails. Conclusions: Clinical services and the internal environment of PHCCs can be improved. The data will be useful for health-policy makers to improve PHCCs to be more age-friendly.

  3. Leadership in Academic Health Centers: Transactional and Transformational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick O

    2015-12-01

    Leadership is a crucial component to the success of academic health science centers (AHCs) within the shifting U.S. healthcare environment. Leadership talent acquisition and development within AHCs is immature and approaches to leadership and its evolution will be inevitable to refine operations to accomplish the critical missions of clinical service delivery, the medical education continuum, and innovations toward discovery. To reach higher organizational outcomes in AHCs requires a reflection on what leadership approaches are in place and how they can better support these missions. Transactional leadership approaches are traditionally used in AHCs and this commentary suggests that movement toward a transformational approach is a performance improvement opportunity for AHC leaders. This commentary describes the transactional and transformational approaches, how they complement each other, and how to access the transformational approach. Drawing on behavioral sciences, suggestions are made on how a transactional leader can change her cognitions to align with the four dimensions of the transformational leadership approach.

  4. [Local planning: the speech of basic health care center manager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Márcia Regina

    2005-01-01

    As planning is understood as a management tool, this article offers an argument through the speech framework of Basic Health Care Center Managers in the city of Curitiba-PR, by means of the Collective Subject Speech Methodology on local planning aspects. Its purpose is to bring local managers to a reflection concerning their styles, practices and experiences, as well as to collaborate with central level leading teams towards building their planning processes in an upward, participatory, communicative and strategic way. Considerations of the speeches built from central ideas are presented: planning methodology; inter-sectoriality; territorial basis; team and community participation; training, autonomy and particular profile of local managers; the manager's agenda; and institutional culture.

  5. Rewards and challenges of community health center practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Allison M; Chen, Frederick M; Ford, Paul A; Phillips, William R; Stevens, Nancy G

    2014-04-01

    More than 1100 community health centers (CHCs) in the United States provide primary care to 20 million underserved patients annually. CHCs have struggled to recruit and retain qualified physicians. To understand physicians' work experiences in CHCs and identify major sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Using purposeful sampling, we conducted semistructured interviews with 12 family physicians practicing in CHCs. Interview questions assessed physicians' experiences in CHCs and sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Interview notes were coded and analyzed by 2 investigators using a grounded theory approach to identify key themes. Though family physicians feel tremendous satisfaction from care of underserved patients, they are frustrated with the overwhelming workload they experience. Family physicians also report poor administrative management while working in CHCs. Implementation of the Affordable Care Act, which relies on expansion of CHC services, may be adversely affected by family physicians' frustrations with CHC practice. Further research to explore and potentially improve the CHC work environment may be needed.

  6. High school students' experiences of bullying and victimization and the association with school health center use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D

    2015-05-01

    Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of school-based bullying and victimization and their use of SHCs. Data was analyzed from 2063 high school students in 5 Northern California school districts using the 2009-2010 California Healthy Kids Survey. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to measure associations. Students who were bullied or victimized at school had significantly higher odds of using the SHCs compared with students who were not, and were also significantly more likely to report confidentiality concerns. The magnitude of associations was largest for Asian/Pacific Islander students, though this was likely due to greater statistical power. African American students reported victimization experiences at approximately the same rate as their peers, but were significantly less likely to indicate they experienced bullying. Findings suggest that SHCs may be an important place to address bullying and victimization at school, but confidentiality concerns are barriers that may be more common among bullied and victimized youth. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  7. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to “wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity” before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of “gum disease”. Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers’ response in relation to their specific job. Conclusion: The special health care workers in the disabled children’s center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices. PMID:25878636

  8. Federally qualified health center dental clinics: financial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Howard L; Devitto, Judy; Myne-Joslin, Ronnie; Beazoglou, Tryfon; McGowan, Taegan

    2013-01-01

    Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) dental clinics are a major component of the dental safety net system, providing care to 3.75 million patients annually. This study describes the financial and clinical operations of a sample of FQHCs. In cooperation with the National Network for Oral Health Access, FQHC dental clinics that could provide 12 months of electronic dental record information were asked to participate in the study. Based on data from 28 dental clinics (14 FQHCs), 50 percent of patients were under 21 years of age. The primary payers were Medicaid (72.4 percent) and sliding-scale/self-pay patients (17.5 percent). Sites averaged 3.1 operatories, 0.66 dental hygienists, and 1.9 other staff per dentist. Annually, each FTE dentist and hygienist provided 2,801 and 2,073 patient visits, respectively. Eighty percent of services were diagnostic, preventive, and restorative. Patient care accounted for 82 percent of revenues, and personnel (64.2 percent) and central administration (13.4 percent) accounted for most expenses. Based on a small convenience sample of FQHC dental clinics, this study presents descriptive data on their clinical and financial operations. Compared with data from the UDS (Uniform Data System) report, study FQHCs were larger in terms of space, staff, and patients served. However, there was substantial variation among clinics for almost all measures. As the number and size of FQHC dental clinics increase, the Health Resources and Services Administration needs to provide them access to comparative data that they can use to benchmark their operations. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. 78 FR 45543 - Center for Mental Health Services; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Mental Health Services; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Mental...

  10. Marginalization and health service coverage among indigenous, rural, and urban populations: a public health problem in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, José; Álvarez, Marsela; Carrasco, María; Guarneros, Noé; Ledesma, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Chávez, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

      Marginalization is a significant issue in Mexico, involving a lack of access to health services with differential impacts on Indigenous, rural and urban populations. The objective of this study was to understand Mexico’s public health problem across three population areas, Indigenous, rural and urban, in relation to degree of marginalization and health service coverage.   The sampling universe of the study consisted of 107 458 geographic locations in the country. The study was retrospective, comparative and confirmatory. The study applied analysis of variance, parametric and non-parametric, correlation and correspondence analyses.   Significant differences were identified between the Indigenous, rural and urban populations with respect to their level of marginalization and access to health services. The most affected area was Indigenous, followed by rural areas. The sector that was least affected was urban.   Although health coverage is highly concentrated in urban areas in Mexico, shortages are mostly concentrated in rural areas where Indigenous groups represent the extreme end of marginalization and access to medical coverage. Inadequate access to health services in the Indigenous and rural populations throws the gravity of the public health problem into relief.

  11. The Oral Health Care Manager in a Patient-Centered Health Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Cheryl Westphal; Strauss, Shiela M; Northridge, Mary Evelyn; Birenz, Shirley

    2016-06-01

    The dental hygienist team member has an opportunity to coordinate care within an interprofessional practice as an oral health care manager. Although dental hygienists are currently practicing within interprofessional teams in settings such as pediatric offices, hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and federally qualified health centers, they often still assume traditional responsibilities rather than practicing to the full extent of their training and licenses. This article explains the opportunity for the dental hygiene professional to embrace patient-centered care as an oral health care manager who can facilitate integration of oral and primary care in a variety of health care settings. Based on an innovative model of collaboration between a college of dentistry and a college of nursing, an idea emerged among several faculty members for a new management method for realizing continuity and coordination of comprehensive patient care. Involved faculty members began working on the development of an approach to interprofessional practice with the dental hygienist serving as an oral health care manager who would address both oral health care and a patient's related primary care issues through appropriate referrals and follow-up. This approach is explained in this article, along with the results of several pilot studies that begin to evaluate the feasibility of a dental hygienist as an oral health care manager. A health care provider with management skills and leadership qualities is required to coordinate the interprofessional provision of comprehensive health care. The dental hygienist has the opportunity to lead closer integration of oral and primary care as an oral health care manager, by coordinating the team of providers needed to implement comprehensive, patient-centered care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Financial burden of healthcare for cancer patients with social medical insurance: a multi-centered study in urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Wenhui; Tang, Shenglan; Zhu, Ying; Xie, Zening; Chen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer accounts for one-fifth of the total deaths in China and brings heavy financial burden to patients and their families. Chinese government has made strong commitment to develop three types of social medical insurance since 1997 and recently, more attempts were invested to provide better financial protection. To analyze health services utilization and financial burden of insured cancer patients, and identify the gaps of financial protection provided by insurance in urban China....

  13. Urban political ecologies of informal recyclers׳ health in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate

    2015-05-01

    Buenos Aires׳ informal recyclers (cartoneros) confront multiple health hazards in their work. Based in a survey with (n=397) informal recyclers, this study establishes that these workers experience uneven health landscapes as evidenced through their health outcomes, the social determinants of their health, and their living and working environments. I argue that the analytical framework of urban political ecology can provide insights to the ways that the urban environments where cartoneros live and work are socially-constructed phenomena, drawing on concepts of crisis, metabolism, and multi-scalar analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Research on Value Assessment and Compensation for Health Hazards of Urban Air Pollution-A Case Study of Urumqi

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chen; Hui, Sun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution has become a serious threat to the health of urban residents. In this study, to investigate health hazards caused by air pollution for urban residents, concentrations of main air pollutants and annual coal consumption amounts during the period from 2000 to 2013 were analyzed. Our results showed that economic losses of Urumqi caused by air pollution amounted to 63.155 million yuan in 2013, accounting for ...

  15. Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Drawing upon data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in India during 2005-06, this study compares the utilization of selected maternal and child health care services between the urban poor and non-poor in India and across selected Indian states. A wealth index was created, separately for urban areas, using Principal Component Analysis to identify the urban poor. The findings suggest that the indicators of maternal and child health care are worse among the urban poor than in their non-poor counterparts. For instance, the levels of antenatal care, safe delivery and childhood vaccinations are much lower among the urban poor than non-poor, especially in socioeconomically disadvantageous states. Among all the maternal and child health care indicators, the non-poor/poor difference is most pronounced for delivery care in the country and across the states. Other than poverty status, utilization of antenatal services by mothers increases the chances of safe delivery and child immunization at both national and sub-national levels. The poverty status of the household emerged as a significant barrier to utilization of health care services in urban India.

  16. Synergies and trade-offs between energy-efficient urbanization and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Pachauri, Shonali; Creutzig, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Energy-efficient urbanization and public health pose major development challenges for India. While both issues are intensively studied, their interaction is not well understood. Here we explore the relationship between urban infrastructures, public health, and household-related emissions, identifying potential synergies and trade-offs of specific interventions by analyzing nationally representative household surveys from 2005 and 2012. Our analysis confirms previous characterizations of the environmental-health transition, but also points to an important role of energy use and urbanization as modifiers of this transition. We find that non-motorized transport may prove a sweet spot for development, as its use is associated with lower emissions and better public health in cities. Urbanization and improved access to basic services correlate with lower short-term morbidity (STM), such as fever, cough and diarrhea. Our analysis suggests that a 10% increase in urbanization from current levels and concurrent improvement in access to modern cooking and clean water could lower STM for 2.4 million people. This would be associated with a modest increase in electricity related emissions of 84 ktCO2e annually. Promoting energy-efficient mobility systems, for instance by a 10% increase in bicycling, could lower chronic conditions like diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases for 0.3 million people while also abating emissions. These findings provide empirical evidence to validate that energy-efficient and sustainable urbanization can address both public health and climate change challenges simultaneously.

  17. An Environmental Scan of Health and Social System Navigation Services in an Urban Canadian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Carter RN, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems navigation services provided by a designated provider or team have the potential to address health and social disparities. We conducted an environmental scan of navigation activities in a large urban Canadian community to identify and describe: service providers who engage in systems navigation; the clients who require systems navigation support and the issues they face; activities involved; and barriers and facilitators in providing systems navigation support to clients. Using an online survey and convenience sampling, we recruited individuals who self-identified as community navigators or practiced systems navigation activities as part of their role. The majority of respondents ( n  = 145 were social workers, social services workers, or nurses. Clients of navigators struggled with mental health or addictions issues, disabilities, chronic diseases, and history of trauma or abuse. The most frequently reported activities of navigators were building professional relationships, managing paperwork, and communicating with relevant agencies or organizations. Barriers to navigation were time available in the work day, difficulty partnering due to bureaucratic structures, differing philosophies and ways of working, and a lack of central information repository in the community. Facilitators were a client-centered organization, the availability of multiple community resources in the region, and organizational support. Participants struggled with client waitlists, system issues such as lack of resources and interagency collaboration, and role clarity.

  18. Assessment of health community at the level of Health center Rakovica: Goals and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the health status of the population is the foundation for troubleshooting health of the community. For this first step in solving the problems of health need to have adequate data. The basis for the registration of medical information is medical documentation. The aim is to assess the role and place of assessment of the health status of the community according to the literature in this field. We analyzed the available literature in the field of social medicine and health statistics, enlightened assessment of health in the community. The data necessary for determining the state of health can be related to many characteristics. The data can be accessed: review of available medical records and life statistics. Data analysis is performed with respect to the individual, family, group or the entire community. Based on the analysis and evaluation of health status can begin activities in the planning of preventive measures that should be implemented. To evaluate prevention plan is necessary to select and collect the appropriate data for the evaluation. The analysis and evaluation of individuals involved in cooperation with a team of health care health center for the level of Rakovica. Based on the good judgment of health condition can make appropriate plans of action to protect the health of the community.

  19. Differential associations of urbanicity and income with physical activity in adults in urbanizing China: findings from the population-based China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Samantha M; Howard, Annie-Green; Herring, Amy H; Zhang, Bing; Du, Shufa; Aiello, Allison E; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-12-12

    High urbanicity and income are risk factors for cardiovascular-related chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries, perhaps due to low physical activity (PA) in urban, high income areas. Few studies have examined differences in PA over time according to income and urbanicity in a country experiencing rapid urbanization. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based cohort of Chinese adults (n = 20,083; ages 18-75y) seen a maximum of 7 times from 1991-2009. We used sex-stratified, zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine occupational, domestic, leisure, travel, and total PA in Chinese adults according to year, urbanicity, income, and the interactions among urbanicity, income, and year, controlling for age and region of China. We showed larger mean temporal PA declines for individuals living in relatively low urbanicity areas (1991: 500 MET-hours/week; 2009: 300 MET-hours/week) compared to high urbanicity areas (1991: 200 MET-hours/week; 2009: 125 MET-hours/week). In low urbanicity areas, the association between income and total PA went from negative in 1991 (p Leisure PA was the only domain of PA that increased over time, but >95% of individuals in low urbanicity areas reported zero leisure PA at each time point. Our findings show changing associations for income and urbanicity with PA over 18 years of urbanization. Total PA was lower for individuals living in more versus less urban areas at all time points. However, these differences narrowed over time, which may relate to increases in individual-level income in less urban areas of China with urbanization. Low-income individuals in higher urbanicity areas are a particularly critical group to target to increase PA in China.

  20. Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Sato, Chikashi

    2009-01-01

    Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m 3 (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

  1. Discrimination, perceived social inequity, and mental health among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-04-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.

  2. Making Value-Based Payment Work for Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harold D

    2015-10-01

    Under fee-for-service payment systems, physicians and hospitals can be financially harmed by delivering higher-quality, more efficient care. The author describes how current "value-based purchasing" initiatives fail to address the underlying problems in fee-for-service payment and can be particularly problematic for academic health centers (AHCs). Bundled payments, warranties, and condition-based payments can correct the problems with fee-for-service payments and enable physicians and hospitals to redesign care delivery without causing financial problems for themselves. However, the author explains several specific actions that are needed to ensure that payment reforms can be a "win-win-win" for patients, purchasers, and AHCs: (1) disconnecting funding for teaching and research from payment for service delivery, (2) providing predictable payment for essential hospital services, (3) improving the quality and efficiency of care at AHCs, and (4) supporting collaborative relationships between AHCs and community providers by allowing each to focus on their unique strengths and by paying AHC specialists to assist community providers in diagnosis and treatment. With appropriate payment reforms and a commitment by AHCs to redesign care delivery, medical education, and research, AHCs could provide the leadership needed to improve care for patients, lower costs for health care purchasers, and maintain the financial viability of both AHCs and community providers.

  3. Patient-Centered e-Health Record over the Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos; Themistocleous, Marinos; Vassilacopoulos, George; Prentza, Andrianna; Kyriazis, Dimosthenis; Malamateniou, Flora; Maglaveras, Nicos; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Mourouzis, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Patient-Centered e-Health (PCEH) conceptual aspects alongside a multidisciplinary project that combines state-of-the-art technologies like cloud computing. The project, by combining several aspects of PCEH, such as: (a) electronic Personal Healthcare Record (e-PHR), (b) homecare telemedicine technologies, (c) e-prescribing, e-referral, e-learning, with advanced technologies like cloud computing and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), will lead to an innovative integrated e-health platform of many benefits to the society, the economy, the industry, and the research community. To achieve this, a consortium of experts, both from industry (two companies, one hospital and one healthcare organization) and academia (three universities), was set to investigate, analyse, design, build and test the new platform. This paper provides insights to the PCEH concept and to the current stage of the project. In doing so, we aim at increasing the awareness of this important endeavor and sharing the lessons learned so far throughout our work.

  4. Evaluating the Sustainability of School-Based Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Stephanie; Zirkle, Dorothy L; Barr, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    The United States is facing a surge in the number of school-based health centers (SBHCs) owing to their success in delivering positive health outcomes and increasing access to care. To preserve this success, experts have developed frameworks for creating sustainable SBHCs; however, little research has affirmed or added to these models. This research seeks to analyze elements of sustainability in a case study of three SBHCs in San Diego, California, with the purpose of creating a research-based framework of SBHC sustainability to supplement expertly derived models. Using a mixed methods study design, data were collected from interviews with SBHC stakeholders, observations in SBHCs, and SBHC budgets. A grounded theory qualitative analysis and a quantitative budget analysis were completed to develop a theoretical framework for the sustainability of SBHCs. Forty-one interviews were conducted, 6 hours of observations were completed, and 3 years of SBHC budgets were analyzed to identify care coordination, community buy-in, community awareness, and SBHC partner cooperation as key themes of sustainability promoting patient retention for sustainable billing and reimbursement levels. These findings highlight the unique ways in which SBHCs gain community buy-in and awareness by becoming trusted sources of comprehensive and coordinated care within communities and among vulnerable populations. Findings also support ideas from expert models of SBHC sustainability calling for well-defined and executed community partnerships and quality coordinated care in the procurement of sustainable SBHC funding.

  5. Implementation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool: a Case of Matsapha, Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makadzange, Kevin; Radebe, Zamahlubi; Maseko, Nokuthula; Lukhele, Voyivoyi; Masuku, Sabelo; Fakudze, Gciniwe; Mengestu, Tigest Ketsela; Prasad, Amit

    2018-04-03

    Equity in health implies that ideally everyone could attain their full health potential and that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstances. Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable contributes towards ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages in dignity, equality and in a healthy environment. This paper illustrates a case of applying the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in a small town in Africa. It describes the process followed, facilitating factors and challenges faced. A descriptive single-case study design using qualitative research methods was adopted to collect data from purposively selected respondents. The study revealed that residents of the Matsapha peri-urban informal settlements faced challenges with conditions of daily living which impacted negatively on their health. There were health equity gaps. The application of the tools was facilitated by the formation of an all-inclusive team, intersectoral collaboration and incorporating strategies for improving urban health equity into existing programmes and projects. Urban HEART is a simple and easy to use valuable tool for pursuing the goal of health equity towards attaining sustainable development through evidence-based approaches for intersectoral action and community involvement.

  6. Urban Slums and Children's Health in Less-Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We utilize first-difference panel regression analysis to assess the direct effect of urban slumprevalence on national level measures of under-5 mortality rates over the period 1990 to 2005.Utilizing data on 80 less developed countries, the results illustrate increasing urban slumprevalence over the period is a robust predictor of increasing child mortality rates. This effectobtains net the statistically significant influence of gross domestic product per capita, fertilityrate, and educational enrollment. Cross-sectional analyses for 2005 that include additionalcontrols provide further evidence of the mortality / urban slum relationship. The results confirmurban slum prevalence growth is an important contextual dynamic whereby the socialproduction of child mortality is enacted in the less developed countries.

  7. Holistic Health Care for the Medically Uninsured: The Church Health Center of Memphis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G Scott

    2015-11-05

    The Church Health Center (CHC) in Memphis was founded in 1987 to provide quality, affordable health care for working, uninsured people and their families. With numerous, dedicated financial supporters and health care volunteers, CHC has become the largest faith-based health care organization of its type nationally, serving >61,000 patients. CHC embraces a holistic approach to health by promoting wellness in every dimension of life. It offers on-site services including medical care, dentistry, optometry, counseling, social work, and nutrition and fitness education, to promote wellness in every dimension of life. A 2012 economic analysis estimated that a $1 contribution to the CHC provided roughly $8 in health services. The CHC has trained >1200 Congregational Health Promoters to be health leaders and is conducting research on the effectiveness of faith community nurses partnering with congregations to assist in home care for patients recently discharged from Memphis hospitals. The MEMPHIS Plan, CHC's employer-sponsored health care plan for small business and the self-employed, offers uninsured people in lower-wage jobs access to quality, affordable health care. The CHC also conducts replications workshops several times a year to share their model with leaders in other communities. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) recently completed a case study that concluded: "The CHC is one of a very few organizations successfully embodying all three components of the IHI Triple Aim by improving population health outcomes, enhancing the individual's health care experience, and controlling costs. All three have been part of the Center's DNA since its inception, and as a transforming force in the community, the model is well worth national attention."

  8. Segmenting Markets in Urban Higher Education: Community- versus Campus-Centered Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas A.; Scott, Patsy F.; Clark, Joseph L.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted enrollment analysis and a survey of current students at a large urban institution to examine the segmentation of students into "traditional" and "non-traditional." Found that local traditional students tend to be more like adult students than traditional students with a more distant permanent residence. Proposes…

  9. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  10. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control...

  11. (UnHealthy in the City: Respiratory, Cardiometabolic and Mental Health Associated with Urbanity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma L Zijlema

    Full Text Available Research has shown that health differences exist between urban and rural areas. Most studies conducted, however, have focused on single health outcomes and have not assessed to what extent the association of urbanity with health is explained by population composition or socioeconomic status of the area. Our aim is to investigate associations of urbanity with four different health outcomes (i.e. lung function, metabolic syndrome, depression and anxiety and to assess whether these associations are independent of residents' characteristics and area socioeconomic status.Our study population consisted of 74,733 individuals (42% males, mean age 43.8 who were part of the baseline sample of the LifeLines Cohort Study. Health outcomes were objectively measured with spirometry, a physical examination, laboratory blood analyses, and a psychiatric interview. Using multilevel linear and logistic regression models, associations of urbanity with lung function, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed. All models were sequentially adjusted for age, sex, highest education, household equivalent income, smoking, physical activity, and mean neighborhood income.As compared with individuals living in rural areas, those in semi-urban or urban areas had a poorer lung function (β -1.62, 95% CI -2.07;-1.16, and higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.35;2.00, and generalized anxiety disorder (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.35;1.84. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, however, was lower in urban areas (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.44;0.59. These associations were only partly explained by differences in residents' demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics and socioeconomic status of the areas.Our results suggest a differential health impact of urbanity according to type of disease. Living in an urban environment appears to be beneficial for cardiometabolic health but to have a detrimental

  12. Using women's health research to develop women leaders in academic health sciences: the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, M; VandenBosche, G; Agatisa, P K; Hirshfield, A; Dan, A; Shaver, J L; Murasko, D; McLaughlin, M

    2001-01-01

    While the number of women entering U.S. medical schools has risen substantially in the past 25 years, the number of women in leadership positions in academic medicine is disproportionately small. The traditional pathway to academic leadership is through research. Women's health research is an ideal venue to fill the pipeline with talented women physicians and scientists who may become academic leaders in positions where they can promote positive change in women's health as well as mentor other women. The Office on Women's Health (OWH) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has contracted with 18 academic medical centers to develop National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health. Emphasizing the integral link between women's health and women leaders, each of the Centers of Excellence must develop a leadership plan for women in academic medicine as part of the contract requirements. This paper describes the training programs in women's health research that have developed at five of the academic medical centers: the University of Wisconsin, Magee Women's Hospital, the University of Maryland, Medical College of Pennsylvania Hahnemann University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. We discuss some of the challenges faced for both initiation and future viability of these programs as well as criteria by which these programs will be evaluated for success.

  13. Perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana: Implications for health sector staff internal migration control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Beyere, Christopher B; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, Prudence P

    2017-01-01

    The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70% of the estimated 27 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32% of the national health sector workforce works. Moreover, the rural-urban disparities in the density of health tutors (staff responsible for pre-service training of health professionals) are enormous. This paper explores perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana. This is a descriptive qualitative study conducted in the Greater Accra and Northern regions of Ghana. The Study used the deductive thematic and sub-thematic analysis approaches. Five health training institutions were randomly sampled, and 72 tutors engaged in separate focus group discussions with an average size of 14 participants per group in each training institution. Perceived rural-urban disparities among health tutors were found in the payment of extra duty allowances; school infrastructure including libraries and internet connectivity; staff accommodation; and opportunities for scholarships and higher education. Health tutors in rural areas generally expressed more frustration with these work conditions than those in urban areas. There is the need to initiate and sustain work incentives that promote motivation of rural health tutors to control ongoing rural-urban migration of qualified staff. It is recommended the following incentives be prioritized to promote retention of qualified health tutors in rural health training schools: payment of research, book and rural allowances; early promotion of rural staff; prioritizing rural tutors for scholarships, and introduction of national best health tutor awards.

  14. Neighborhood-health links: Differences between rural-to-urban migrants and natives in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that migrant workers tend to have different perceptions of neighborhood environments than urban natives. However, less is known about how these differences in perception may be linked to the health of members of these two groups. Objective: We investigated differences in links between perceived neighborhood social and physical environments and three health outcomes, self-rated health, social stress, and chronic conditions, between rural-to-urban migrants (migrant workers and Shanghai-born native urban residents in China. Methods: Data used in this study were based on a survey of 477 rural-to-urban migrants and 546 native urban residents aged 18-64, conducted in Shanghai in 2008. Logistic regression analyses were performed to model relationships for migrant workers and native residents. Results: We found that among migrant workers, more positive perceptions of neighborhood social environments (social cohesion and safety were linked to better self-rated health and lower levels of perceived stress but were not linked to chronic disease conditions; there were also no links between perceptions of physical environments and any of the three health outcomes of this study among migrant workers. By contrast, among urban natives, more positive perceptions of neighborhood social environments were linked to lower odds of chronic disease conditions but were not linked to self-rated health and perceived stress; more positive perceptions of physical environments (amenities and air quality were linked with lower odds of social stress and of chronic disease conditions. Conclusions: Neighborhood social and physical environments affected the health of migrant workers and urban natives differently.

  15. Health professionals’ experiences of person-centered collaboration in mental health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sommerseth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Rita Sommerseth, Elin DysvikUniversity of Stavanger, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Health Studies, Stavanger, NorwayObjective: The basic aim in this paper is to discuss health care professionals’ experiences of person-centered collaboration and involvement in mental health rehabilitation and suggest ways of improving this perspective. Furthermore, the paper explains the supportive systems that are at work throughout the process of rehabilitation.Method: The study design is a qualitative approach using three focus group interviews with a total of 17 informants with different professional backgrounds such as nurses, social workers, and social pedagogies. In addition, one nurse and one social worker participated in a semistructured in-depth interview to judge validity.Results: Our results may demonstrate deficits concerning mental health care on several levels. This understanding suggests firstly, that a person-centered perspective and involvement still are uncommon. Secondly, multidisciplinary work seems uncommon and only sporadically follows recommendations. Thirdly, family support is seldom involved. Lastly, firm leadership and knowledge about laws and regulations seems not to be systematically integrated in daily care.Conclusion: Taking these matters together, the improvement of a person-centered perspective implies cooperation between different services and levels in mental health care. In order to bring about improvement the health care workers must critically consider their own culture, coordination of competence must be increased, and leadership at an institutional and organizational level must be improved so that scarce rehabilitation resources are used to the optimal benefit of people with a mental illness.Keywords: multidisciplinary teams, person-centered collaboration, supportive systems, rehabilitation

  16. Revolving Loan Fund: A Novel Approach to Increasing Access to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Methods in Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Megan L; Breeze, Janis L; Paulus, Jessica K; Meadows, Audra

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a revolving loan fund (RLF) on timing of device insertion and long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) access among a high-risk urban population at 3 Boston community health centers. Three health centers were identified to implement a RLF. Each clinic received $5000 from the RLF to purchase LARC devices. Data collected through medical record review retrospectively 1 year prior to start of the RLF and prospectively for 1 year thereafter included patient demographics, type of LARC selected, patient's date of documented interest in a LARC device, and date of insertion. The effect of a RLF on delay to LARC insertion was tested using negative binomial regression, controlling for site and potential confounding variables between the pre- and post-RLF periods. Three urban community health centers. Reproductive-aged women who received family planning services at the 3 participating health centers. Increasing access to LARC and decreasing wait times to LARC insertion after implementation of the RLF. Data on 133 patients in the pre-RLF group and 205 in the post-RLF group were collected. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic or clinical characteristics between the 2 time periods. LARC uptake increased significantly from the pre- to post-RLF period, specifically among implant users. There was a statistically significant decrease in the mean number of days in delay from interest to insertion from the pre- to post-RLF period (pre-RLF: 31.3 ± 50.6 days; post-RLF: 13.6 ± 16.7 days, adjusted P < .001). The reasons for the delay did not differ significantly between the 2 time periods. The RLF decreased wait time for the devices and increased overall insertion rates. This may serve as a promising solution to improve LARC access in community health centers. This project could be expanded to include more health centers, creating a city wide RLF. This expansion could allow for further data analysis

  17. Science–policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keune, H; De Blust, G; Van den Berge, K; Brosens, D; Van Herzele, A; Simoens, I; Kretsch, C; Gilbert, M; Linard, C; Flandroy, L; Versteirt, V; Hartig, T; De Keersmaecker, L; Eggermont, H; Dessein, J; Vanwambeke, S; Prieur-Richard, A H; Wittmer, H; Martens, P; Mathijs, E

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human–nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem–human/public health–urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed. (letter)

  18. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. Methods. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Results. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. Conclusion. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  19. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujičić, Maja; Jovičić-Bata, Jelena; Rađen, Slavica; Novaković, Budimka; Šipetić-Grujičić, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  20. Psychological health among Chinese college students: a rural/urban comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Qi, Qing; Delprino, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    The literature on suicide among the Chinese indicates that younger individuals from rural areas are at higher risk of suicide than their urban counterparts. While earlier studies have investigated the relationship between psychological health and major demographic variables, the relationship of psychological health as it relates to suicide by those from urban and rural areas have been rare. Studying the psychological health of college students from rural China in comparison with students who originate from urban areas may shed light on the mental health disparities of the two populations. This study examined the relationship of psychological health and rural/urban origins of college students in China. Data was obtained from 2 400 college students who completed a survey questionnaire while in attendance at a key university in Beijing China in 2013. Four standardised psychological health scales were administered to obtain measures of participants' self-esteem, depression, social support, and suicide ideation. Findings indicated that urban students had significantly higher scores than their rural counterparts on self-esteem and social support. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on measures of depression and suicide ideation.

  1. Urban water pollution by heavy metals and health implication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of common heavy metals were conducted at Onitsha, Anambra State, the most urbanized city in Southeastern Nigeria. It was discovered that both surface and subsurface water were heavily polluted. Seven (7) heavy metals namely: arsenic (As+2), cadmium (Cd+2), lead (Pb+2), mercury (Hg+2), zinc (Zn+2), copper ...

  2. Oral health behaviour of urban and semi-urban schoolchildren in the Lao PDR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    To describe the oral health related knowledge, behaviour, and attitude towards health of 12-year old Lao schoolchildren; analyse how health risk factors relate to socio-demographic background; and determine the relative effect of living conditions on health and risk behaviour....

  3. Using mHealth technologies to improve the identification of behavioral health problems in urban primary care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Staeheli, Martha; Aseltine, Robert H; Schilling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Daren; Gould, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral health disorders remain under recognized and under diagnosed among urban primary care patients. Screening patients for such problems is widely recommended, yet is challenging to do in a brief primary care encounter, particularly for this socially and medically complex patient population. Methods: In 2013, intervention patients at an urban Connecticut primary clinic were screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and risky drinking (n?=?146) using an elec...

  4. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Elliott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects, three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology, six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  5. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Background China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investig...

  6. Prevalence and predictors of major depression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Bamenda, a semi-urban center in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley N Gaynes

    Full Text Available Recent blue-ribbon panel reports have concluded that HIV treatment programs in less wealthy countries must integrate mental health identification and treatment into normal HIV clinical care and that research on mental health and HIV in these settings should be a high priority. We assessed the epidemiology of depression in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in a small urban setting in Cameroon by administering a structured interview for depression to 400 patients consecutively attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital AIDS Treatment Center. One in five participants met lifetime criteria for MDD, and 7% had MDD within the prior year. Only 33% had ever spoken with a health professional about depression, and 12% reported ever having received depression treatment that was helpful or effective. Over 2/3 with past-year MDD had severe or very severe episodes. The number of prior depressive episodes and the number of HIV symptoms were the strongest predictors of past-year MDD. The prevalence of MDD in Cameroon is as high as that of other HIV-associated conditions, such as tuberculosis and Hepatitis B virus, whose care is incorporated into World Health Organization guidelines. The management of depression needs to be incorporated in HIV-care guidelines in Cameroon and other similar settings.

  7. The Union Health Center: a working model of clinical care linked to preventive occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, R; Plattus, B; Kellogg, L; Luo, J; Marcus, M; Mascolo, A; Landrigan, P J

    1997-03-01

    As health care provision in the United States shifts to primary care settings, it is vital that new models of occupational health services be developed that link clinical care to prevention. The model program described in this paper was developed at the Union Health Center (UHC), a comprehensive health care center supported by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (now the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees) serving a population of approximately 50,000 primarily minority, female garment workers in New York City. The objective of this paper is to describe a model occupational medicine program in a union-based comprehensive health center linking accessible clinical care with primary and secondary disease prevention efforts. To assess the presence of symptoms suggestive of occupational disease, a health status questionnaire was administered to female workers attending the UHC for routine health maintenance. Based on the results of this survey, an occupational medicine clinic was developed that integrated direct clinical care with worker and employer education and workplace hazard abatement. To assess the success of this new approach, selected cases of sentinel health events were tracked and a chart review was conducted after 3 years of clinic operation. Prior to initiation of the occupational medicine clinic, 64% (648) of the workers surveyed reported symptoms indicative of occupational illnesses. However, only 42 (4%) reported having been told by a physician that they had an occupational illness and only 4 (.4%) reported having field a workers' compensation claim for an occupational disease. In the occupational medicine clinic established at the UHC, a health and safety specialist acts as a case manager, coordinating worker and employer education as well as workplace hazard abatement focused on disease prevention, ensuring that every case of occupational disease is treated as a potential sentinel health event. As examples of the success

  8. Claiming territory: medical mission, interreligious revivalism, and the spatialization of health interventions in urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, new religious actors have become involved in the provision of medical care in urban Tanzania. Muslim revivalist organizations and neo-Pentecostal churches in particular have established a range of health interventions that are tied to revisionist claims about religion, spirituality, and politics in society. In this article I discuss medical mission in Dar es Salaam in the light of (post)colonial histories of health service provision as well as with regard to inter- and intradenominational contestations over health and well-being, a morally acceptable life, and political participation. I argue that the nature of the inscription of revivalist organizations in urban space through health interventions depends on their structural location and their respective members' social and economic capital. I also show that the ongoing transformations of urban space through medical mission have become reflective of, as well as are triggering, moral interpretations of history and social inequality in contemporary Tanzania.

  9. Characterization of anthropogenic impacts in a large urban center by examining the spatial distribution of halogenated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane, bis(hexachlorocyclopentadieno)cyclooctane (DP) and hexabromobenzene. The sum concentrations of HFRs and PBDEs were in the ranges of 0.66-6500 and 0.37-5700 (mean: 290 and 250) ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively, around the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant compound likely due to the huge amounts of usage and its persistence. The concentrations of HFRs were greater in the land-use types of residency, industry and landfill than in agriculture, forestry and drinking water source, and were also greater in the central PRD than in its surrounding areas. The concentrations of HFRs were moderately significantly (r(2) = 0.32-0.57; p urbanization levels, population densities and gross domestic productions in fifteen administrative districts. The spatial distribution of DP isomers appeared to be stereoselective as indicated by the similarity in the spatial patterns for the ratio of anti-DP versus the sum of DP isomers (fanti-DP) and DP concentrations. Finally, the concentrations of HFRs sharply decreased with increasing distance from an e-waste recycling site, indicating that e-waste derived HFRs largely remained in local soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating Mitigation Effects of Urban Heat Islands in a Historical Small Center with the ENVI-Met® Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Ambrosini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban morphology and increasing building density play a key role in the overall use of energy and promotion of environmental sustainability. The urban environment causes a local increase of temperature, a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island (UHI. The purpose of this work is the study of the possible formation of an UHI and the evaluation of its magnitude, in the context of a small city, carried out with the ENVI-met® software. For this purpose, a simulation was needed, and this simulation is preparatory for a monitoring campaign on site, which will be held in the immediate future. ENVI-met® simulates the temporal evolution of several thermodynamics parameters on a micro-scale range, creating a 3D, non-hydrostatic model of the interactions between building-atmosphere-vegetation. The weather conditions applied simulate a typical Italian summer heat wave. Three different case-studies have been analyzed: Base Case, Cool Case and Green Case. Analysis of the actual state in the Base Case shows how even in an area with average building density, such as the old town center of a small city, fully developed UHI may rise with strong thermal gradients between built areas and open zones with plenty of vegetation. These gradients arise in a really tiny space (few hundreds of meters, showing that the influence of urban geometry can be decisive in the characterization of local microclimate. Simulations, carried out considering the application of green or cool roofs, showed small relevant effects as they become evident only in large areas heavily built up (metropolis subject to more intense climate conditions.

  11. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number ...

  12. Quality of Prenatal Care Services in Karabuk Community Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care services according to gestastional week in Karabuk Community Health Center (CHC. Methods: In this descriptive study 365 pregnant women was selected as sample among 753 pregnant women registered at Karabuk CHC in 18/01/2011. 93.0% of women in the selected sample has been visited in their homes and the face to face interviews were done. The questionnaire was prepared according to Prenatal Care Management Guidelines (PCMG of Ministry of Health. Findings The number of follow-ups was not complete in 23.7% of 15-24 month, 34.4% of 25-32 month, 52,1% of 33-42 month pregnant women. At least four follow-up visits were completed only in 66,7% of postpartum women. Timing of first visit was after 15th week in 15,6% of women. In follow up visits 62.5% of of women’s height were never measured, in 13,0% the women hearth sound of infants didn’t monitored at least once. Laboratory test numbers were under the level required by PCMG. The delivery conditions weren’t planned in 41,8% of last trimester and postpartum women and training about breastfeeding wasn’t given to 15,5 of the same group. Result In family medicine model in Karabuk CHC developments in number of prenatal follow-up visits were observed, but no substantial improvements were found in quality of prenatal visits. Regular in service trainings shoud be given to family doctors and midwives. The use of prenatal care guideline published by MoH should be increased. Keywords: Prenatal care, pregnancy, timing of first visit, qality of prenatal care [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 153-162

  13. Social Capital and Health Outcomes among Older Adults in China: The Urban-Rural Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrand, Julie A.; Xu, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines different types of individual-level social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and their relationships with physical and emotional health among older Chinese living in urban and rural settings. Design and Methods: Using the 2005 China General Social Survey, physical and emotional health were regressed on social…

  14. Urban forest influences on exposure to UV radiation and potential consequences for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the literature on ultraviolet (UV) irradiance in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in the planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures, especially for high use pedestrian areas and school play...

  15. Fine-Scale Environmental Indicators of Public Health and Well-Being for Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban ecosystem services contribute to public health and well-being by buffering natural and man-made hazards, and by promoting healthful lifestyles that include physical activity, social interaction, and engagement with nature. As part of the EnviroAtlas online mapping tool, EP...

  16. Green Space Attachment and Health : A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Theodorus; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of

  17. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement.

  18. First case of autochthonous human visceral leishmaniasis in the urban center of Rio de Janeiro: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement.

  19. Behavioral health and health care reform models: patient-centered medical home, health home, and accountable care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs.

  20. 78 FR 78966 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned..., NCHS; discussion of vital statistics; future program reviews; National Health Interview Survey 2017...

  1. Intention and Usage of Computer Based Information Systems in Primary Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosizah; Kuntoro; Basuki N., Hari

    2016-01-01

    The computer-based information system (CBIS) is adopted by almost all of in health care setting, including the primary health center in East Java Province Indonesia. Some of softwares available were SIMPUS, SIMPUSTRONIK, SIKDA Generik, e-puskesmas. Unfortunately they were most of the primary health center did not successfully implemented. This…

  2. Differential impacts of social support on mental health: A comparison study of Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and their urban counterparts in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2017-02-01

    The number of internal migrant children in China has reached 35.8 million by the end of 2010. Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings regarding the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, as well as the impact of peer, teacher and parental support on the mental health of Chinese adolescent migrants. Using a comparative approach, this study attempted to compare the mental health status between migrant and urban-born adolescents and to clarify the specific roles of different sources of social support in the mental health of migrant and urban adolescents. A cross-sectional survey using a cluster convenience sampling strategy was performed in Beijing, China. A structured questionnaire was filled out by 368 rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and 325 urban-born adolescents. A significant difference was found only for positive affect (PA) but not for negative affect (NA) between the two groups, favouring the urban-born adolescents. Social support from all the three sources were all predictive of PA among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, while only peer support contributed to PA among urban-born adolescents. Unexpectedly, teachers' support contributed to an increase in NA among urban-born adolescents. The findings contribute to understanding of the mental health status of migrant adolescents in China and the differential impact of the various sources of social support on migrant and urban-born adolescents. Also the findings may inform the development of mental health services and programmes that can potentially benefit a large number of internal migrant adolescents in China.

  3. Experience report: a training center for health response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurmo, Alexandre M.; Leite, Teresa C.S.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Professor Nelson Valverde Training Center was created within FEAM (The ELETRONUCLEAR Medical Assistance Foundation) with the objective of capacitating Radio Nuclear Accident Responders for the Health Area in the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Central (Angra dos Reis - RJ - Brazil). The first step was structuring the contents for this training using IAEA's Manuals as base (EPR Medical - 2005, EPR First Responders - 2006 and TMT - Handbook - 2009) and data from REAC/TS. The second step was to capacitate instructors. The third step was the integration with the Company's Radiological Protection Division, giving radiological assessment. Finally, the development of training applications, ending with Drills, Tests and Assessment, gathering data and suggestions, objectifying the constant improvement. Training Programs with pre and post evaluations have been started. Since 2004 training internal courses were ministered for 125 professionals with annual re-training and were ministered to 130 professionals from several external institutions. During the same period training courses were ministered to 140 trainees from the Radiological Protection Division of The Nuclear Power Plant of Angra dos Reis, as First Lay Responders, objectifying the improvement of the quality of the emergency response. (author)

  4. Health professionals' job satisfaction and associated factors at public health centers in West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriba, Beyazin Kebede; Sinke, Shimele Ololo; Ereso, Berhane Megersa; Badacho, Abebe Sorsa

    2017-05-30

    Human resources are vital for delivering health services, and health systems cannot function effectively without sufficient numbers of skilled, motivated, and well-supported health workers. Job satisfaction of health workers is important for motivation and efficiency, as higher job satisfaction improves both employee performance and patient satisfaction. Even though several studies have addressed job satisfaction among healthcare professionals in different part of the world, there are relatively few studies on healthcare professionals' job satisfaction in Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among health professionals working in health centers in April 2015 using self-administered structured questionnaires. All 322 health professionals working in 23 randomly selected public health centers were included. Factor scores were computed for the identified items by varimax rotation to represent satisfaction. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed, and the effect of independent variables on the regression factor score quantified. Three hundred eight respondents participated with a response rate of 95.56%. The overall level of job satisfaction was 41.46%. Compensation (benefits) (beta 0.448 [95% CI 0.341 to 0.554]), recognition by management (beta 0.132 [95% CI 0.035 to 0.228]), and opportunity for development (beta 0.123 [95% CI 0.020 to 0.226]) were associated with job satisfaction. A unit increase in salary and incentives and recognition by management scores resulted in 0.459 (95% CI 0.356 to 0.561) and 0.156 (95% CI 0.065 to 0.247) unit increases in job satisfaction scores, respectively. The overall level of job satisfaction in health professionals was low. Salary and incentives, recognition by management, developmental opportunities, and patient appreciation were strong predictors of job satisfaction.

  5. Transportation barriers to accessing health care for urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Serena; Zarr, Robert L; Kass-Hout, Taha A; Kourosh, Atoosa; Kelly, Nancy R

    2006-11-01

    The Texas Children's Hospital Residents' Primary Care Group Clinic provides primary care to urban low-income children. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of transportation problems on a family's ability to keep an appointment. One hundred eighty-three caregivers of children with an appointment were interviewed. Caregivers who kept their appointment were compared with those who did not with respect to demographic and transportation-related characteristics. Logistic regression modeling predicted caregivers with the following characteristics were more likely not to keep an appointment: not using a car to the last kept appointment, not keeping an appointment in the past due to transportation problems, having more than two people in the household, and not keeping an appointment in the past due to reasons other than transportation problems. Future research should focus on developing interventions to help low-income urban families overcome non-financial access barriers, including transportation problems.

  6. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  7. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  8. Urban health in daily practice: livelihood, vulnerability and resilience in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Brigit

    2003-12-01

    Health is the core value and ultimate goal of health development, yet we know very little about health conceptions in everyday life. Inspired by investigations into lay health concepts in Europe, our study explores experiences and meanings of health in a strikingly different context, namely, in a low-income neighbourhood of an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, we introduce the concept of 'health practice' and examine health definitions, explanations, and activities of urban Swahili women. Our findings show that representations of health form a set of experiences, meanings and embodied practice centring on the links between body, mind, and living conditions. We suggest that 'livelihood', 'vulnerability' and 'resilience' best capture women's main concerns of health practice in such a setting. All women face an emotional burden of being exposed to urban afflictions and an intellectual and practical burden of overcoming them, but some meet this challenge more successfully than others do. This approach tips the balance towards a positive view of health that has been neglected in medical anthropology. It also opens new lines of inquiry in urban health research by consequently following a resource orientation that acknowledges women's struggle to stay healthy and directs attention to their agency.

  9. What Aspects of Rural Life Contribute to Rural-Urban Health Disparities in Older Adults? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A; Cook, Sarah K; Sando, Trisha A; Sabik, Natalie J

    2017-11-29

    Rural-urban health disparities are well-documented and particularly problematic for older adults. However, determining which specific aspects of rural or urban living initiate these disparities remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between place-based characteristics of rural-urban status and health among adults age 65+. Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were geographically linked to place-based characteristics from the American Community Survey. Self-reported health (SRH), obesity, and health checkup within the last year were modeled against rural-urban status (distance to nearest metropolitan area, population size, population density, percent urban, Urban Influence Codes [UIC], Rural-Urban Continuum Codes [RUCC], and Rural-Urban Commuting Area [RUCA]) using generalized linear models, accounting for covariates and complex sampling, overall, and stratified by area-level income. In general, increasing urbanicity was associated with a reduction in negative SRH for all 7 measures of rural-urban status. For low-income counties, this association held for all measures and characteristics of rural-urban status except population density. However, for high-income counties, the association was reversed-respondents living in areas of increasing urbanicity were more likely to report negative SRH for 4 of the 7 measures (RUCC, UIC, RUCA, and percent urban). Findings were mixed for the outcome of obesity, where rural areas had higher levels, except in low-income counties, where the association between rurality and obesity was reversed (OR 1.033, 95%CI: 1.002-1.064). These results suggest that rural-urban status is both a continuum and multidimensional. Distinct elements of rural-urban status may influence health in nuanced ways that require additional exploration in future studies. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  10. The occupational safety of health professionals working at community and family health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Havva; Babacan, Elif

    2014-10-01

    Healthcare professionals encounter many medical risks while providing healthcare services to individuals and the community. Thus, occupational safety studies are very important in health care organizations. They involve studies performed to establish legal, technical, and medical measures that must be taken to prevent employees from sustaining physical or mental damage because of work hazards. This study was conducted to determine if the occupational safety of health personnel at community and family health centers (CHC and FHC) has been achieved. The population of this cross-sectional study comprised 507 nurses, 199 physicians, and 237 other medical personnel working at a total of 18 family health centers (FHC) and community health centers (CHC) in Trabzon, Turkey. The sample consisted of a total of 418 nurses, 156 physicians, and 123 other medical personnel. Sampling method was not used, and the researchers tried to reach the whole population. Data were gathered with the Occupational Safety Scale (OSS) and a questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics and occupational safety. According to the evaluations of all the medical personnel, the mean ± SD of total score of the OSS was 3.57 ± 0.98; of the OSS's subscales, the mean ± SD of the health screening and registry systems was 2.76 ± 1.44, of occupational diseases and problems was 3.04 ± 1.3 and critical fields control was 3.12 ± 1.62. In addition, occupational safety was found more insufficient by nurses (F = 14.18; P occupational safety to be insufficient as related to protective and supportive activities.

  11. A Record Linkage Protocol for a Diabetes Registry at Ethnically Diverse Community Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Maizlish, Neil A.; Herrera, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Community health centers serve ethnically diverse populations that may pose challenges for record linkage based on name and date of birth. The objective was to identify an optimal deterministic algorithm to link patient encounters and laboratory results for hemoglobin A1c testing and examine its variability by health center site, patient ethnicity, and other variables. Based on data elements of last name, first name, date of birth, gender, and health center site, matches with ≥50% to < 100% o...

  12. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Doshi, Riddhi; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy

    2013-01-01

    Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06), this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs), institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501), institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214), children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340), underweight children (CI = -0.19420), and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596). Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical pathways through which economic factors operate on inequalities in

  13. Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in urban India: a decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Goli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. METHODS: Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06, this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs, institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR. Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. RESULTS: The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501, institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214, children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340, underweight children (CI = -0.19420, and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596. Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical

  14. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium - a protocol for building a national environmental exposure data platform for integrated analyses of urban form and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Jeffrey R; Setton, Eleanor M; Seed, Evan; Shooshtari, Mahdi; Doiron, Dany

    2018-01-08

    Multiple external environmental exposures related to residential location and urban form including, air pollutants, noise, greenness, and walkability have been linked to health impacts or benefits. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium (CANUE) was established to facilitate the linkage of extensive geospatial exposure data to existing Canadian cohorts and administrative health data holdings. We hypothesize that this linkage will enable investigators to test a variety of their own hypotheses related to the interdependent associations of built environment features with diverse health outcomes encompassed by the cohorts and administrative data. We developed a protocol for compiling measures of built environment features that quantify exposure; vary spatially on the urban and suburban scale; and can be modified through changes in policy or individual behaviour to benefit health. These measures fall into six domains: air quality, noise, greenness, weather/climate, and transportation and neighbourhood factors; and will be indexed to six-digit postal codes to facilitate merging with health databases. Initial efforts focus on existing data and include estimates of air pollutants, greenness, temperature extremes, and neighbourhood walkability and socioeconomic characteristics. Key gaps will be addressed for noise exposure, with a new national model being developed, and for transportation-related exposures, with detailed estimates of truck volumes and diesel emissions now underway in selected cities. Improvements to existing exposure estimates are planned, primarily by increasing temporal and/or spatial resolution given new satellite-based sensors and more detailed national air quality modelling. Novel metrics are also planned for walkability and food environments, green space access and function and life-long climate-related exposures based on local climate zones. Critical challenges exist, for example, the quantity and quality of input data to many of

  15. Barriers to Providing Health Education During Primary Care Visits at Community Health Centers: Clinical Staff Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Planas, Jessica; Pose, Alix; Smith, Linda

    2016-04-01

    The rapid increase of diverse patients living in the US has created a different set of needs in healthcare, with the persistence of health disparities continuing to challenge the current system. Chronic disease management has been discussed as a way to improve health outcomes, with quality patient education being a key component. Using a community based participatory research framework, this study utilized a web-based survey and explored clinical staff perceptions of barriers to providing patient education during primary care visits. With a response rate of nearly 42 %, appointment time allotment seemed to be one of the most critical factors related to the delivery of health education and should be considered key. The importance of team-based care and staff training were also significant. Various suggestions were made in order to improve the delivery of quality patient education at community health centers located in underserved areas.

  16. Building research infrastructure in community health centers: a Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and "matchmaking" between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings.

  17. Strategies for the Integration of Medical and Health Representation within Law Enforcement Intelligence Fusion Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrissey, James F

    2007-01-01

    Terrorism-related intelligence gathering, analysis and information dissemination would be improved and enhanced by including a medical and health element in law enforcement intelligence fusion centers...

  18. University of Illinois FRIENDS Children’s Environmental Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FRIENDS Children's Environmental Health Center at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, was established in 2001 to investigate the interactive effects of...

  19. Community-centered family health history: a customized approach to increased health communication and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, James; Edelson, Vaughn; Gardner, Nicora; Gepp, Alejandra; Kyler, Panelpha; Moore, Penelope; Petruccio, Claudia; Williams, Marc; Terry, Sharon; Bowen, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    There has been little study of whether family health history (FHH) tools used by individuals, families, and communities inspire measurable changes in communication and behavior. The Community-Centered Family Health History (CCFHH) project was a collaborative endeavor among national and community-based organizations with an interest in genetics education and health. Using community- based participatory research principles as a foundation, CCFHH examined whether the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit, a set of two customizable booklets on health and genetics, encourages discussion and collection of FHH information across diverse communities. Five communities across the country measured the utility of customized versions of the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit. Each community partner recruited families, consisting of two or more blood relatives, to use the toolkit for 3 months, discuss it among their family members, and consider the implications of the health information. Pre- and postintervention surveys measured family communication about family history and disease risk and the use of FHH information in health care provider interactions. After aggregate, cross-community analysis of individual responses, from pre- to post-toolkit use family members showed increases in communication about family history of disease risk (p < .05) and in awareness about FHH (p < .05). These findings indicate that diverse communities are receptive to FHH intervention, and tailored health educational materials can lead to increased conversations and awareness about health issues across communities.

  20. Rooftop greenhouses in educational centers: A sustainability assessment of urban agriculture in compact cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Ana; Pons, Oriol; Cuerva, Eva; Rieradevall, Joan; Josa, Alejandro

    2018-06-01

    Today, urban agriculture is one of the most widely used sustainability strategies to improve the metabolism of a city. Schools can play an important role in the implementation of sustainability master plans, due their socio-educational activities and their cohesive links with families; all key elements in the development of urban agriculture. Thus, the main objective of this research is to develop a procedure, in compact cities, to assess the potential installation of rooftop greenhouses (RTGs) in schools. The generation of a dynamic assessment tool capable of identifying and prioritizing schools with a high potential for RTGs and their eventual implementation would also represent a significant factor in the environmental, social, and nutritional education of younger generations. The methodology has four-stages (Pre-selection criteria; Selection of necessities; Sustainability analysis; and Sensitivity analysis and selection of the best alternative) in which economic, environmental, social and governance aspects all are considered. It makes use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory and Multi-Criteria Decision Making, through the Integrated Value Model for Sustainability Assessments and the participation of two panels of multidisciplinary specialists, for the preparation of a unified sustainability index that guarantees the objectivity of the selection process. This methodology has been applied and validated in a case study of 11 schools in Barcelona (Spain). The social perspective of the proposed methodology favored the school in the case-study with the most staff and the largest parent-teacher association (social and governance indicators) that obtained the highest sustainability index (S11); at a considerable distance (45%) from the worst case (S3) with fewer school staff and parental support. Finally, objective decisions may be taken with the assistance of this appropriate, adaptable, and reliable Multi-Criteria Decision-Making tool on the vertical integration and

  1. [Supporting the intermediate level of health care in urban health areas in Kinshasa (1995-2005), DR Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbeva, Jean-Bosco Kahindo; Schirvel, Carole; Karemere, Hermès; Porignon, Denis

    2012-06-08

    As a result of the decentralization of health systems, some countries have introduced intermediate (provincial) levels in their public health system. This paper presents the results of a case study conducted in Kinshasa on health system decentralization. The study identified a shift from a focus on regulation compliance assessment to an emphasis on health system coordination and health district support. It also highlighted the emergence of a?managerial (as opposed to a bureaucratic) approach to health district support. The performance of health districts in terms of health care coverage and health service use were also found to have improved. The results highlight the importance of intermediate levels in?the health care system and the value of a more organic and managerial rationality in supporting health districts faced with the complexity of urban environments and the integration of specialized multi-partner programs and interventions.

  2. WASH (Water and Sanitation for Health) Rainwater Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes project funded by U.S. Agency for International Development to provide short-term technical assistance (general, technology transfer, institutional development and training, information support) to rural and urban fringe water supply and sanitation projects. Initial steps, special collection, and future components of rainwater network…

  3. School-Based Health Centers and Childhood Obesity: "An Ideal Location to Address a Complex Issue"

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of today's most pressing public health problems is the rise in childhood overweight and obesity. School-based health centers (SBHCs)--the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health in schools--represent an important element in the public health toolbox for combating the challenging epidemic. When working side-by-side in a…

  4. Trends in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services at the Nation’s Community Health Centers: 1998–2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druss, Benjamin G.; Bornemann, Thomas; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne W.; McCombs, Harriet G.; Politzer, Robert M.; Rust, George

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We examined trends in delivery of mental health and substance abuse services at the nation’s community health centers. Methods. Analyses used data from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Bureau of Primary Care’s (BPHC) 1998 and 2003 Uniform Data System, merged with county-level data. Results. Between 1998 and 2003, the number of patients diagnosed with a mental health/substance abuse disorder in community health centers increased from 210 000 to 800 000. There was an increase in the number of patients per specialty mental health/substance abuse treatment provider and a decline in the mean number of patient visits, from 7.3 visits per patient to 3.5 by 2003. Although most community health centers had some on-site mental health/substance abuse services, centers without on-site services were more likely to be located in counties with fewer mental health/substance abuse clinicians, psychiatric emergency rooms, and inpatient hospitals. Conclusions. Community health centers are playing an increasingly central role in providing mental health/substance abuse treatment services in the United States. It is critical both to ensure that these centers have adequate resources for providing mental health/substance abuse care and that they develop effective linkages with mental health/substance abuse clinicians in the communities they serve. PMID:17008573

  5. Challenging urban health: towards an improved local government response to migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Vearey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the PhD thesis undertaken by Joanna Vearey that explores local government responses to the urban health challenges of migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbanisation in South Africa is a result of natural urban growth and (to a lesser extent in-migration from within the country and across borders. This has led to the development of informal settlements within and on the periphery of urban areas. The highest HIV prevalence nationally is found within urban informal settlements. South African local government has a ‘developmental mandate’ that calls for government to work with citizens to develop sustainable interventions to address their social, economic, and material needs. Through a mixed-methods approach, four studies were undertaken within inner-city Johannesburg and a peripheral urban informal settlement. Two cross-sectional surveys – one at a household level and one with migrant antiretroviral clients – were supplemented with semi-structured interviews with multiple stakeholders involved with urban health and HIV in Johannesburg, and participatory photography and film projects undertaken with urban migrant communities. The findings show that local government requires support in developing and implementing appropriate intersectoral responses to address urban health. Existing urban health frameworks do not deal adequately with the complex health and development challenges identified; it is essential that urban public health practitioners and other development professionals in South Africa engage with the complexities of the urban environment. A revised, participatory approach to urban health – ‘concept mapping’ – is suggested which requires a recommitment to intersectoral action, ‘healthy urban governance’ and public health advocacy.

  6. Challenging urban health: towards an improved local government response to migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis undertaken by Joanna Vearey that explores local government responses to the urban health challenges of migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbanisation in South Africa is a result of natural urban growth and (to a lesser extent) in-migration from within the country and across borders. This has led to the development of informal settlements within and on the periphery of urban areas. The highest HIV prevalence nationally is found within urban informal settlements. South African local government has a ‘developmental mandate’ that calls for government to work with citizens to develop sustainable interventions to address their social, economic, and material needs. Through a mixed-methods approach, four studies were undertaken within inner-city Johannesburg and a peripheral urban informal settlement. Two cross-sectional surveys – one at a household level and one with migrant antiretroviral clients – were supplemented with semi-structured interviews with multiple stakeholders involved with urban health and HIV in Johannesburg, and participatory photography and film projects undertaken with urban migrant communities. The findings show that local government requires support in developing and implementing appropriate intersectoral responses to address urban health. Existing urban health frameworks do not deal adequately with the complex health and development challenges identified; it is essential that urban public health practitioners and other development professionals in South Africa engage with the complexities of the urban environment. A revised, participatory approach to urban health – ‘concept mapping’ – is suggested which requires a recommitment to intersectoral action, ‘healthy urban governance’ and public health advocacy. PMID:21686331

  7. Evaluation of health resource utilization efficiency in community health centers of Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinglong; Zhou, Lulin; Antwi, Henry Asante; Chen, Xi

    2018-02-20

    While the demand for health services keep escalating at the grass roots or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remain stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, China's Deepen Medical Reform started in 2012 was intended to flush out possible disparities and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of healthcare resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight. Using a hybrid of panel data analysis and an augmented data envelopment analysis (DEA), we model human resources, material, finance to determine their technical and scale efficiency to comprehensively evaluate the transverse and longitudinal allocation efficiency of community health resources in Jiangsu Province. We observed that the Deepen Medical Reform in China has led to an increase concern to ensure efficient allocation of community health resources by health policy makers in the province. This has led to greater efficiency in health resource allocation in Jiangsu in general but serious regional or municipal disparities still exist. Using the DEA model, we note that the output from the Community Health Centers does not commensurate with the substantial resources (human resources, materials, and financial) invested in them. We further observe that the case is worst in less-developed Northern parts of Jiangsu Province. The government of Jiangsu Province could improve the efficiency of health resource allocation by improving the community health service system, rationalizing the allocation of health personnel, optimizing the allocation of material resources, and enhancing the level of health of financial resource allocation.

  8. Educational Needs Assessment of Family Health Providers in Tabriz Health Care Centers in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Ghoreyshyzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study intends to determine the educational needs of family health staff employed in health care centers in Tabriz, the provincial capital of east Azerbaijan, Iran in 2015. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 282 staff were enrolled, together with 22 managers, through census. The data collection tool was a researcher-designed questionnaire whose content validity were confirmed by 5 experts of health care and medical education centers. They self--evaluated their knowledge, skills and attitudes in 6 task processes including "integrated care for pregnant women", "women’s general and reproductive health", "child health care and breastfeeding", "vaccination skills", "teenagers’ and young adults’ health", and "common diseases prevention and control". Cronbach alpha coefficients were over 0.85. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16 and descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation and one-sample t tests were calculated to compare the mean of scores with midpoint criteria (=3. Results: Generally family health staff self-evaluated their knowledge, skills and attitudes in all task processes in higher than midpoint criteria level, which was consistent with the opinions of the managers, however, educational needs required by personnel in some processes or sub- process including "common diseases prevention and control" ( knowledge on referring thalassemia couples for genetic testing, mental health counseling, "vaccination skills" ( intradermal vaccination skills, "teenagers’ and young adults’ health" (Self-care training and parents education, "women’s general and reproductive health" (principles of family planning counseling and less needs stated in "integrated care for pregnant mothers" (except for diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy, placenta previa and abruption and "child health care" as compared to criteria (All P value <0.05. In contrast to self-assessment results, in interorganization evaluations

  9. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…

  10. Advancing a conceptual model to improve maternal health quality: The Person-Centered Care Framework for Reproductive Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Afulani, Patience; Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Donnay, France; Montagu, Dominic

    2017-11-06

    Background: Globally, substantial health inequities exist with regard to maternal, newborn and reproductive health. Lack of access to good quality care-across its many dimensions-is a key factor driving these inequities. Significant global efforts have been made towards improving the quality of care within facilities for maternal and reproductive health. However, one critically overlooked aspect of quality improvement activities is person-centered care. Main body: The objective of this paper is to review existing literature and theories related to person-centered reproductive health care to develop a framework for improving the quality of reproductive health, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This paper proposes the Person-Centered Care Framework for Reproductive Health Equity, which describes three levels of interdependent contexts for women's reproductive health: societal and community determinants of health equity, women's health-seeking behaviors, and the quality of care within the walls of the facility. It lays out eight domains of person-centered care for maternal and reproductive health. Conclusions: Person-centered care has been shown to improve outcomes; yet, there is no consensus on definitions and measures in the area of women's reproductive health care. The proposed Framework reviews essential aspects of person-centered reproductive health care.

  11. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentra......This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured...

  12. Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1992-07-01

    The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented.

  13. NHSC Jobs Center for Primary Care Medical, Dental and Mental Health Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Service Corps (NHSC) Jobs Center helps doctors and nurses who are interested in working at areas where there is the highest need find out more...

  14. Exploratory Study of Perceived Barriers to Learning in an Urban Educational Opportunity Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Min

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived barriers of adult learners to program in the State University of New York (SUNY) Manhattan Educational Opportunity Center (MEOC) from the perspectives of students and teachers. The study also sought to determine teachers' insights regarding means of motivating adult students to continue…

  15. Physician training rotations in a large urban health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ellen; Kim-Farley, Robert; Gunzenhauser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals are the normal setting for physician residency training within the United States. When a hospital cannot provide the specific training needed, a special rotation for that experience is arranged. Linkages between clinical and public health systems are vital to achieving improvements in overall health status in the United States. Nevertheless, most physicians in postgraduate residency programs receive neither training nor practical experience in the practice of public health. For many years, public health rotations have been available within the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (and its antecedent organizations). Arrangements that existed with local medical schools for residents to rotate with Los Angeles County Department of Health hospitals were extended to include a public health rotation. A general model for the rotation ensured that each resident received education and training relevant to the clinician in practice. Some parts of the model for experience have changed over time while others have not. Also, the challenges and opportunities for both trainees and preceptors have evolved and varied over time. A logic model demonstrates the components and changes with the public health rotation. Changes included alterations in recruitment, expectations, evaluation, formal education, and concepts related to the experience. Changes in the rotation model occurred in the context of other major environmental changes such as new electronic technology, changing expectations for residents, and evolving health services and public health systems. Each impacted the public health rotation. The evaluation method developed included content tests, assessment of competencies by residents and preceptors, and satisfaction measures. Results from the evaluation showed increases in competency and a high level of satisfaction after a public health rotation. The article includes examples of challenges and benefits to a local health department in providing a public

  16. Improving Urban Minority Girls' Health Via Community Summer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy M; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Burdette, Kimberly A; Ward, Amanda K; Silton, Rebecca L; Dugas, Lara R

    2017-12-01

    Summertime has emerged as a high-risk period for weight gain among low-income minority youth who often experience a lack of resources when not attending school. Structured programming may be an effective means of reducing risk for obesity by improving obesogenic behaviors among these youth. The current multi-method study examined sedentary time, physical activity, and dietary intake among low-income urban minority girls in two contexts: an unstructured summertime setting and in the context of a structured 4-week community-based summer day camp program promoting physical activity. Data were analyzed using paired-sample t tests and repeated-measure analyses of variance with significance at the p time of over 2 h/day and dairy consumption when engaged in structured summer programming. All improvements were independent of weight status and age, and African-American participants evidenced greater changes in physical activity during programming. The study concludes that structured, community-based summertime programming may be associated with fewer obesogenic behaviors in low-income urban youth and may be a powerful tool to address disparities in weight gain and obesity among high-risk samples.

  17. Assessing Culture and Climate of Federally Qualified Health Centers: A Plan for Implementing Behavioral Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L; Drummond, Karen L; Curran, Geoffrey M; Fortney, John C

    2017-01-01

    This study examines organizational factors relating to climate and culture that might facilitate or impede the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) targeting behavioral health in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). Employees at six FQHCs participating in an evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) initiative for mood disorders and alcohol abuse were interviewed (N=32) or surveyed using the Organizational Context Survey (OCS) assessing culture and climate (N=64). The FQHCs scored relatively well on proficiency, a previously established predictor of successful EBP implementation, but also logged high scores on scales assessing rigidity and resistance, which may hinder implementation. Qualitative data contextualized scores on FQHC culture and climate dimensions. Results suggest that the unique culture of FQHCs may influence implementation of evidence-based behavioral health interventions.

  18. Burnout of Physicians Working in Primary Health Care Centers under Ministry of Health Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawakid, Khalid; Abdulrashid, Ola; Mandoura, Najlaa; Shah, Hassan Bin Usman; Ibrahim, Adel; Akkad, Noura Mohammad; Mufti, Fauad

    2017-11-25

    Introduction The levels of physicians' job satisfaction and burnout directly affect their professionalism, punctuality, absenteeism, and ultimately, patients' care. Despite its crucial importance, little is known about professional burnout of the physicians in Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this research are two-fold: (1) To assess the prevalence of burnout in physicians working in primary health care centers under Ministry of Health; and (2) to find the modifiable factors which can decrease the burnout ratio. Methodology Through a cross-sectional study design, a representative sample of the physicians working in primary health care centers (PHCCs) Jeddah (n=246) was randomly selected. The overall burnout level was assessed using the validated abbreviated Maslach burnout inventory (aMBI) questionnaire. It measures the overall burnout prevalence based on three main domains i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Independent sample T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariate regression analysis were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22, IBM, Armonk, NY). Results Overall, moderate to high burnout was prevalent in 25.2% of the physicians. Emotional exhaustion was noted in 69.5%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that patient pressure/violence (p burnout. The patient's pressure/violence was the only significant independent predictor of overall burnout. Conclusion Emotional exhaustion is the most prominent feature of overall burnout in the physicians of primary health care centers. The main reasons include patient's pressure/violence, unorganized patient flow, less cooperative colleague doctors, fewer support services at the PHCCs, more paperwork, and less cooperative colleagues. Addressing these issues could lead to a decrease in physician's burnout.

  19. Antibiotic prescription practices in six primary health centers in South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsuir Munaf

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug utilization study, especially antibiotic usage in therapy of mild acute upper respiratory infections and acute diarrheas has been conducted in six Primary Health Center (PHC in urban, suburban and rural area in the Province of South Sumatra.  We conducted systematic random sampling during which 15% of patients in each PHC were taken. We collected information about drug utilization from medical record of out patient in each PHC for three months period (January to March 1997. We recorded the characteristics of patients, the diagnosis, the number and type of drug (including injection used. The number of cases studied was 1781, with the average number of drug per prescription being 2.7; the percentage of cases receiving an injection was 43%, and the percentage of cases receiving antibiotic was 48%. Sixty-four percent of 1277 acute respiratory tract infections (common cold, and 79% of 140 cases of acute diarrhea received antibiotic. This study showed that there is overuse or inappropriate use of drugs, especially antibiotic for acute nonspecific diarrhea and mild acute respiratory tract infections. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 44-9Keywords: drug utilization study, antibiotic use, acute upper respiratory infection, acute diarrhea

  20. GREEN ROOFS AND GREEN WALLS AS INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Małuszyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are exposed on those originating in various sources, emissions of pollutants that pose a threat to the health of living organisms. The type of pollutant and its toxicity to organisms and mold exposure as well as the frequency of their occurrence in the environment can have a negative impact on living organisms occurring in the area. Another element negatively affecting the environmental health is a rush of individuals and communities to prosperity, which, combined with a weak nervous resistance to stressful situations contributes to the reduction of resistance to disease becoming the scourge of society as bulimia, diabetes and cancer. The tendency to increase building occurring in urban areas and the increasing number of urban dwellers in Europe as well as increasing awareness of the population about the need to protect environmental health, points to the need to seek alternative and innovative solutions for urban greenery. Investments included in that group, the green roofs and green walls, the implementation of which will increase the biologically active surface in the cities, may be an essential element of urban infrastructure that contributes to improving the quality of life of communities living in the city.

  1. Juvenile coho salmon growth and health in streams across an urbanization gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, Andrew R.; Moran, Patrick W.; Larsen, Kimberly; Wetzel, Lisa; Hansen, Adam G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Expanding human population and urbanization alters freshwater systems through structural changes to habitat, temperature effects from increased runoff and reduced canopy cover, altered flows, and increased toxicants. Current stream assessments stop short of measuring health or condition of species utilizing these freshwater habitats and fail to link specific stressors mechanistically to the health of organisms in the stream. Juvenile fish growth integrates both external and internal conditions providing a useful indicator of habitat quality and ecosystem health. Thus, there is a need to account for ecological and environmental influences on fish growth accurately. Bioenergetics models can simulate changes in growth and consumption in response to environmental conditions and food availability to account for interactions between an organism's environmental experience and utilization of available resources. The bioenergetics approach accounts for how thermal regime, food supply, and food quality affect fish growth. This study used a bioenergetics modeling approach to evaluate the environmental factors influencing juvenile coho salmon growth among ten Pacific Northwest streams spanning an urban gradient. Urban streams tended to be warmer, have earlier emergence dates and stronger early season growth. However, fish in urban streams experienced increased stress through lower growth efficiencies, especially later in the summer as temperatures warmed, with as much as a 16.6% reduction when compared to fish from other streams. Bioenergetics modeling successfully characterized salmonid growth in small perennial streams as part of a more extensive monitoring program and provides a powerful assessment tool for characterizing mixed life-stage specific responses in urban streams.

  2. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  3. Introduction--Knowledge translation and urban health equity: advancing the agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, an interdisciplinary symposium was organized in Toronto, Canada to investigate prevailing models of health policy change in the knowledge translation literature and to assess the applicability of these models for equity-focused urban health research. The papers resulting from the symposium have been published together, in the Journal of Urban Health, along with this introductory essay. This essay describes how the different papers grapple in different ways with how to understand and to bridge the gaps between urban health research and action. The breadth of perspectives reflected in the papers (e.g., social epidemiology, public health, political science, sociology, critical labor studies, and educational psychology) shed much light on core tensions in the relationship between KT and health equity. The first tension is whether the content of evidence or the context of decision making is the strong determinate of research impact in relation to health equity policy. The second tension is whether relationships between health equity researchers and decision makers are best viewed in terms of collaboration or of conflict. The third concerns the role that power plays in evidence-based policy making, when the issues at stake are not only empirical but also normative.

  4. Introducing sexual orientation and gender identity into the electronic health record: one academic health center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Edward J; Sitkin, Nicole; Ton, Hendry; Eidson-Ton, W Suzanne; Weckstein, Julie; Latimore, Darin

    2015-02-01

    Many U.S. populations experience significant health disparities. Increasing health care providers' awareness of and education about sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) diversity could help reduce health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. The authors share the University of California, Davis, Health System's (UCDHS's) experience as it became the first U.S. academic health center to formally introduce patient SO/GI demographic data into its electronic health record (EHR) as a step toward reducing LGBT health disparities. Adding these data to the EHR initially met with resistance. The authors, members of the UCDHS Task Force for Inclusion of SO/GI in the EHR, viewed this resistance as an invitation to educate leaders, providers, and staff about LGBT health disparities and to expose providers to techniques for discussing SO/GI with patients. They describe the strategies they employed to effect institutional culture change, including involvement of senior leadership, key informant interviews, educational outreach via grand rounds and resident workshops, and creation of a patient safety net through inviting providers to self-identify as welcoming LGBT patients. The ongoing cultural change process has inspired spin-off projects contributing to an improved climate for LGBT individuals at UCDHS, including an employee organization supporting SO/GI diversity, support for and among LGBT medical learners through events and listservs, development and implementation of an LGBT health curriculum, and creation of peer navigator programs for LGBT patients with cancer. The authors reflect on lessons learned and on institutional pride in and commitment to providing quality care for LGBT patients.

  5. A user-centered model for designing consumer mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Rojas, Marlene; Bakken, Suzanne; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Carry, Monique; Gelaude, Deborah; Mosley, Jocelyn Patterson; Travers, Jasmine

    2016-04-01

    Mobile technologies are a useful platform for the delivery of health behavior interventions. Yet little work has been done to create a rigorous and standardized process for the design of mobile health (mHealth) apps. This project sought to explore the use of the Information Systems Research (ISR) framework as guide for the design of mHealth apps. Our work was guided by the ISR framework which is comprised of 3 cycles: Relevance, Rigor and Design. In the Relevance cycle, we conducted 5 focus groups with 33 targeted end-users. In the Rigor cycle, we performed a review to identify technology-based interventions for meeting the health prevention needs of our target population. In the Design Cycle, we employed usability evaluation methods to iteratively develop and refine mock-ups for a mHealth app. Through an iterative process, we identified barriers and facilitators to the use of mHealth technology for HIV prevention for high-risk MSM, developed 'use cases' and identified relevant functional content and features for inclusion in a design document to guide future app development. Findings from our work support the use of the ISR framework as a guide for designing future mHealth apps. Results from this work provide detailed descriptions of the user-centered design and system development and have heuristic value for those venturing into the area of technology-based intervention work. Findings from this study support the use of the ISR framework as a guide for future mHealth app development. Use of the ISR framework is a potentially useful approach for the design of a mobile app that incorporates end-users' design preferences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 2548 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned...; review of the ambulatory and hospital care statistics program; a discussion of the NHANES genetics...

  7. Opportunities for Increasing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Provision in School Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Feld, Ashley L.; O'Malley, Brittany; Entzel, Pamela; Smith, Jennifer S.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine remains low among adolescents in the United States. We sought to assess barriers to HPV vaccine provision in school health centers to inform subsequent interventions. Methods: We conducted structured interviews in the fall of 2010 with staff from all 33 school health centers in North…

  8. 78 FR 74163 - Harrison Medical Center, a Subsidiary of Franciscan Health System Bremerton, Washington; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-83,070] Harrison Medical Center, a Subsidiary of Franciscan Health System Bremerton, Washington; Notice of Negative Determination... workers of Harrison Medical Center, a subsidiary of Franciscan Health System, Bremerton, Washington...

  9. National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education (NRC) at the University of Colorado College of ... National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education Email: info@NRCKids.org Please read our disclaimer ...

  10. Recruiting community health centers into pragmatic research: Findings from STOP CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Retecki, Sally; Schneider, Jennifer; Taplin, Stephen H; Burdick, Tim; Green, Beverly B

    2016-04-01

    Challenges of recruiting participants into pragmatic trials, particularly at the level of the health system, remain largely unexplored. As part of Strategies and Opportunities to STOP Colon Cancer in Priority Populations (STOP CRC), we recruited eight separate community health centers (consisting of 26 individual safety net clinics) into a large comparative effectiveness pragmatic study to evaluate methods of raising the rates of colorectal cancer screening. In partnership with STOP CRC's advisory board, we defined criteria to identify eligible health centers and applied these criteria to a list of health centers in Washington, Oregon, and California affiliated with Oregon Community Health Information Network, a 16-state practice-based research network of federally sponsored health centers. Project staff contacted centers that met eligibility criteria and arranged in-person meetings of key study investigators with health center leadership teams. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to thematically analyze the content of discussions during these meetings to identify major facilitators of and barriers to health center participation. From an initial list of 41 health centers, 11 met the initial inclusion criteria. Of these, leaders at three centers declined and at eight centers (26 clinic sites) agreed to participate (73%). Participating and nonparticipating health centers were similar with respect to clinic size, percent Hispanic patients, and percent uninsured patients. Participating health centers had higher proportions of Medicaid patients and higher baseline colorectal cancer screening rates. Common facilitators of participation were perception by center leadership that the project was an opportunity to increase colorectal cancer screening rates and to use electronic health record tools for population management. Barriers to participation were concerns of center leaders about ability to provide fecal testing to and assure follow-up of

  11. Mobility environment and urban centers: A reflection about the sector of the Candelaria, Bogota, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez de V, Beatriz; Aguilar, Maria del pilar

    2007-01-01

    This article is part of the first bibliographic revision of the Sustainable mobility in historic centers in Colombia research, which proposes the inclusion of the concepts of technology, mobility, transport and environment, with emphasis on the impact of transport technologies on the built environment and the architectural heritage. The objective is to build a panoramic vision of the problem and so call attention to the important relationships that exist between technology, mobility, transport, environment and historic centers. Initially, a brief reference to the context and the sector of La Candelaria on the south eastern part of Bogota, Colombia, with an extension of 188.12 Hectares and an altitude of 2,600 meters above sea level, declared a National Monument in 1963. Further on, aspects concerning aspects associated with mobility and transport in Bogota during the 19th and 20th centuries, and the effect of transport methods on the environment and architectural heritage. Finally, a brief description of some projects, plans and mobility and transport studies searching for solutions to the problems created in the historic center by transport technologies

  12. Four aspects of the scope and quality of family planning services in US publicly funded health centers: Results from a survey of health center administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W; Gavin, Loretta; Zapata, Lauren B; Bornstein, Marta; Mautone-Smith, Nancy; Moskosky, Susan B

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe aspects of the scope and quality of family planning services provided by US publicly funded health centers before the release of relevant federal recommendations. Using nationally representative survey data (N=1615), we describe four aspects of service delivery: family planning services provided, contraceptive methods provided onsite, written contraceptive counseling protocols and youth-friendly services. We created a count index for each issue and used multivariable ordered logistic regression to identify health center characteristics associated with scoring higher on each. Half of the sample received Title X funding and about a third each were a community health center or health department clinic. The vast majority reported frequently providing contraceptive services (89%) and STD services (87%) for women in the past 3 months. Service provision to males was substantially lower except for STD screening. A total of 63% and 48% of health centers provided hormonal IUDs and implants onsite in the past 3 months, respectively. Forty percent of health centers included all five recommended contraceptive counseling practices in written protocols. Of youth-friendly services, active promotion of confidential services was among the most commonly reported (83%); offering weekend/evening hours was among the least (42%). In multivariable analyses, receiving Title X funding, having larger volumes of family planning clients and being a Planned Parenthood clinic were associated with higher scores on most indices. Many services were consistent with the recommendations for providing quality family planning services, but there was room for improvement across domains and health centers types. As assessed in this paper, the scope and quality of these family planning services was relatively high, particularly among Planned Parenthood clinics and Title X-funded centers. However, results point to important areas for improvement. Future studies should assess

  13. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Katrina N.; Varga, Zolt?n M.; Kent, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding ...

  14. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  15. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  16. Cultural capital and self-rated health in low income women: evidence from the Urban Health Study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using chi (2) tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95-6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09-4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities.

  17. Incidence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in women visiting Family Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    K?l??, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine the incidence and the risk factors of the urinary incontinence in women visiting the Health Family Center. Methods 430 women, who visited three Family Health Centers in the city center of Erzurum for any reason between 25 November and 20 January 2016, were included in this study without any sampling. The data were collected by using the face-to-face interview method. Percentage distribution, Chi square test, and logistic regression analys...

  18. Relationships among sense of coherence, resources, and mental health in urban and rural residents in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuno Yoko Sumikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salutogenic model states that coping resources are defined within sociocultural and historical contexts and that various social and historical factors influence the availability of such resources. Though previous studies have suggested the need for an interregional comparison of psychological and social resources, few studies have undertaken such an investigation. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations among coping resources, sense of coherence (SOC, and health status in a comparison of urban and rural residents. Methods General residents (aged 30–69 years in two areas were targeted for the current study. Through a random sampling selection, 1,000 residents from each area were picked, and an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to each resident. Ultimately, 269 and 363 valid responses from the urban and rural areas, respectively, were analyzed. SOC, both social and psychological resources, and mental health were assessed. To examine relationships between SOC and resources associated with mental health, mental health was defined as a dependent variable. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted with variables entered from sociodemographic characteristics, social and psychological resources, and SOC. Results Regarding regional characteristics, social capital and participation in community activities were significantly greater in the rural area than in the urban area. Urban residents reported significantly higher self-esteem and optimism than rural residents. SOC showed the most significant association with mental health in both areas. Mental health was significantly associated with physical activity limitations and life stressors in both areas. However, the associations were weakened when social and psychological resources and SOC were added, which demonstrated their buffering effect on the negative influence of life stressors on health. When SOC was added, the association of self-esteem with mental

  19. Socio-economic Factors and Residents' Health in Nigeria Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    of the variables, contributing to higher rates of ill health in the city no matter where you ... In another study on risky health behaviour such as smoking in Russia .... who is self employed and probably unskilled, will work very hard among others ...

  20. Potential and Actual Health Hazards in the Dense Urban Operational Environment: Critical Gaps and Solutions for Military Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Steven L; Dancy, Blair C R; Ippolito, Danielle L; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2017-11-01

    : This paper presents environmental health risks which are prevalent in dense urban environments.We review the current literature and recommendations proposed by environmental medicine experts in a 2-day symposium sponsored by the Department of Defense and supported by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.Key hazards in the dense urban operational environment include toxic industrial chemicals and materials, water pollution and sewage, and air pollution. Four critical gaps in environmental medicine were identified: prioritizing chemical and environmental concerns, developing mobile decision aids, personalized health assessments, and better real-time health biomonitoring.As populations continue to concentrate in cities, civilian and military leaders will need to meet emerging environmental health concerns by developing and delivering adequate technology and policy solutions.