WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban forestry research

  1. Future Directions for Urban Forestry Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....

  2. Urban forestry research needs: a participatory assessment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Linda E. Kruger

    2010-01-01

    New research initiatives focusing on urban ecology and natural resources are underway. Such programs coincide with increased local government action in urban forest planning and management, activities that are enhanced by scientific knowledge. This project used a participatory stakeholder process to explore and understand urban forestry research and technology transfer...

  3. Knowledge Co-production at the Research-Practice Interface: Embedded Case Studies from Urban Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen; Lara A. Roman

    2016-01-01

    Cities are increasingly engaging in sustainability efforts and investment in green infrastructure, including large-scale urban tree planting campaigns. In this context, researchers and practitioners are working jointly to develop applicable knowledge for planning and managing the urban forest. This paper presents three case studies of knowledge co-production in the...

  4. Urban forestry research in the United State: the state of art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings include 15 papers presented during four group sessions at the IUFRO XXI World Congress held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during August 2000. Six papers were presented during two sessions organized by IUFRO Research Group (RG) 6.01.00 'Forest recreation, landscape and nature conservation'. The first of session was titled 'Integration of...

  5. Forestry serving urban societies in the north atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the North Atlantic Region, the social services provided by forests play a major role. With the high level of urbanisation in many of these countries, forests and other green areas are of great importance as recreational settings for urban dwellers. In order to ensure that forests cater...... of Ministers and was organised in collaboration with the Nordic-Baltic Centre of Advanced Research on Forestry Serving Urbanised Societies (CARe-FOR-US), the European Forest Network, Icelandic Forest Research and the Icelandic Forestry Association. Over 120 delegates represented researchers, planners...... and managers of forests and other green areas, policy makers and students. This issue of TemaNord presents a selection of papers presented at the conference, covering topics such as planning for environmental services, urban forest strategies, public involvement, and urban woodland management....

  6. Forestry research in Asia and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Chamberlain; Erin Moore

    1992-01-01

    Much research has been done in Asia and the Pacific that might help Pacific Island countries produce more biomass and better manage their natural resources. National forestry research institutes throughout the region have examined many important aspects of forestry. Not all research findings are directly transferable between countries, but research methods and results...

  7. URBAN FORESTRY AND ITS PRACTICES IN ARTVIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Güner

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban population expansion is taking place most rapidly in Turkey, and cities are experiencing some serious problems: deterioration of air quality, higher air temperatures, increased noise levels, greater psychological stress and a decreased sense of community. Urban forests are all the trees and other vegetation growing in and close to urban areas, and it should be managed for their economic, environmental and social benefits. The amount, type, location and condition of urban vegetation directly affect the amount of benefits derived from the vegetation and their associated costs. Trees and green spaces help keep cities cool, act as natural filters and noise absorbers; improve microclimates and protect and improve the quality of natural resources, including soil, water, vegetation and wildlife. Trees contribute significantly to the aesthetic appeal of cities, thereby helping to maintain the psychological health of their inhabitants. Beyond ecological and aesthetic benefits, urban forestry has a role in helping resource-poor populations meet basic needs, particularly but not exclusively in developing countries. The city of Artvin isn’t rich in urban trees which are those in street trees and in local parks but rich in those along greenspace areas around city. But, trees and green spaces didn’t play an important role in improving city living conditions. Thus, urban forests in Artvin should become an integral part of the efforts to improve the quality of life in Artvin. Forest General Directorate established an “urban forest” in Artvin in 2006 and this area contains more than 95 plant species.

  8. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry: guidelines for professional and volunteer tree planters

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; James R. Simpson

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry—Guidelines for professional and volunteer tree planters has been developed by the Pacific Southwest Research Station’s Western Center for Urban Forest Research and Education as a tool for utilities, urban foresters and arborists, municipalities, consultants, non-profit organizations and others to...

  9. 78 FR 30847 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ..., Forestry Research Advisory Council, USDA Forest Service Research and Development, Mail Stop 1120, 1400... Service Office of the Deputy Chief for Research and Development, 202-205-1665. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339...

  10. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  11. 77 FR 26734 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... and proposals by May 31, 2012 to Daina Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry Research Advisory...: Daina Apple, Forest Service, Office of the Deputy Chief for Research and Development, (202) 205-1665. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The meeting is open to the public. Council discussion is limited to Forest Service...

  12. Forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on forestry describes how climate change will affect forests in Canada with particular focus on the consequences of these changes for the forestry sector. It also presents potential adaptation options. Forests are a vital part of Canada's economy and culture. There are more than 400 million hectares of forested land in Canada, accounting for nearly half of the total land mass and one-tenth of the world's total forest cover. Approximately one million hectares of commercial forest lands are harvested each year, mostly for the lumber and paper industry. Climate affects forest distribution, health and productivity, and strongly impacts the disturbance regimes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact forestry through a wide-range of positive and negative biophysical and socio-economic impacts. One of the problems in projecting the impacts of climate change on forests is the fact that most climate models cannot accurately predict future precipitation patterns. Some studies have suggested that higher temperatures would improve the growth rate of trees, but the increase in the frequency and severity of moisture stress and forest disturbances would create other problems. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration could also improve the efficiency of water use by some plants, leading to increases in forest productivity. In general, the impacts of climate change on forests growth and health is expected to vary on a regional basis and will be influenced by species composition, site conditions and local micro climate. It was noted that adaptation measures in the forestry sector will have implications for other sectors such as

  13. 76 FR 43651 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... send their names and proposals by August 1, 2011 to Daina Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daina Apple, Forest Service Office of the Deputy Chief for Research and Development, (202) 205-1665. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The meeting is open to the public. Council discussion is limited...

  14. Examining Volunteer Motivations and Recruitment Strategies For Engagement in Urban Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Moskell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in urban forestry have examined the motivations of urban forestry volunteers. In this research, two social psychological theories (Volunteer Functions Inventory and Volunteer Process Model are utilized to examine motivations for participating in tree planting activities. The Volunteer Functions Inventory can be used to examine the needs, goals and motivations that individuals seek to fulfill through volunteerism. The Volunteer Process Model sheds light on the antecedents, experiences and consequences of volunteerism at multiple levels (individual, interpersonal, organizational, societal. An understanding of volunteer motivations can aid practitioners in the development and implementation of participatory urban forestry programs that are attractive to stakeholders. We conducted a survey of volunteers who participated in a MillionTreesNYC volunteer planting event and a focus group of urban forestry practitioners. Survey results reveal that volunteers have varied motivations and a limited knowledge of the community level impacts of trees. Results from the focus group reveal that providing education about the benefits of trees and maintaining long-term communication with volunteers are frequently used strategies for engagement. However, the public’s lack of knowledge about urban forestry and an inability to connect to audiences are practitioner-identified challenges for recruiting stakeholders to participate in their programs.

  15. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Archives: Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Innovative urban forestry governance in Melbourne?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Hertzog, Kelly; Shears, Ian

    2018-01-01

    and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature......A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving....... In this paper, we aim to contribute to this re-assesment of urban environmental governance by examining the City of Melbourne's approach to urban re-naturing governance from a place-based perspective. Here we focus on the city's internationally-acclaimed urban forest strategy (UFS), investigating how...

  19. Socio Economic Assessment of Urban Forestry Respondents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    KEY WORDS: Income, urban forest, education, age ... at the various levels of his education, his endeavours ... conservation developmental activities should be ... tourism. Well-maintained trees improve residential. “curb appeal” and increase ...

  20. Digital forestry in the wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wimberly; Yangjian Zhang; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    Growing human populations have led to the expansion of the Wildland-Urban interface (WUI) across the southeastern United States. The juxtaposition of buildings, infrastructure, and forests in the WUI creates challenges for natural resource managers. The presence of flammable vegetation, high rates of human-caused ignitions and high building densities combine to...

  1. Tropical forestry research at the USDA Forest Service's Institute of Pacific Island Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Eugene Conrad; Jerry A. Sesco

    1992-01-01

    Deforestation during the last decade has grown at an alarming rate, giving rise to concern for its potential adverse effects on global climate. The impetus for focusing greater emphasis on tropical forestry management and research was provided by the International Forestry Cooperation Act enacted into law in 1990. The Act enables the Forest Service to intensify its...

  2. Trends in research on forestry decentralization policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Ribot, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    institutions; studies focusing on power and the role of elites in forestry decentralization, and; studies that historicize and contextualize forestry decentralization as reflective of broader societal phenomena. We argue that these strands reflect disciplinary differences in values, epistemologies, and methods...

  3. Introducing Urban Food Forestry: A Multifunctional Strategy for Enhancing Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Clark, K.

    2012-12-01

    We propose combining elements of urban agriculture and urban forestry into what we call "urban food forestry" (UFF), the practice of growing perennial woody food-producing species ("food trees") in cities. We used four approaches at different scales to gauge the potential of UFF to enhance urban sustainability, in the context of trends including increasing urbanization, resource demands, and climate change. First, we analyzed 37 current international initiatives based around urban food trees, finding that core activities included planting, mapping, and harvesting food trees, but that only about a quarter of initiatives engaged in more than one of these activities necessary to fully utilize the food potential of urban trees. Second, we analyzed 30 urban forestry master plans, finding that only 13% included human food security among their objectives. Third, we used Burlington, Vermont as a case study to quantify the potential caloric output of publicly accessible open space if planted with Malus domestica (the common apple) under 9 different scenarios. We found that the entire caloric deficit of the very low food security population could be met on as few as 29 hectares (representing 16% of total open space), and that 98% of the daily recommended minimum intake of fruit for the entire city's population could be met under the most ambitious planting scenario. Finally, we developed a decision-making tool for selecting potential food trees appropriate for temperate urban environments, the Climate-Food-Species Matrix. We identified a total of 70 species, 30 of which we deemed "highly suitable" for urban food forestry based on their cold hardiness, drought tolerance, and edibility. We conclude that urban food forestry provides multiple pathways for building urban sustainability through local food production, and that our framework can be used to increase the coordination between and effectiveness of a growing number of related initiatives.

  4. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment lays emphasis on ... issues in different aspects of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Management, Agriculture, ... Ethnobotanical assessment of plants used for the treatment of endocrine disorder ... esculenta Crantz) cultivated in crude-oil- contaminated soil in Nigeria ...

  5. Introduction to Urban and Community Forestry in the United States of America: History, Accomplishments, Issues and Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yadong; Zhang Zhiqiang

    2003-01-01

    The urban and community forestry movement in the United States has matured over the last 20 years from managing street trees, to understanding the benefits of trees in urban ecosystems, and now to managing urban green infrastructure. This paper introduced the history, development, and major accomplishments of the urban and community forestry movement, highlighted the economic, ecological, environmental, and social values of forests and trees to communities, and discussed issues and trends of the urban and community forestry program in the United States.

  6. A comparative perspective of urban forestry in Belgrade, Serbia and Freiburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guduric, Ivana; Tomicevic, Jelena; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    space in urban development. Looking through the lens of urban forestry, this paper compares the status, planning and management of urban woodland in the Serbian capital of Belgrade with the German city of Freiburg. Holding up the difficult situation in Belgrade to the good-practice case of Freiburg...... of urban woodland management have being much less developed than in Freiburg. Furthermore, Belgrade faces various problems that need to be solved, e.g. in terms of developing the policy framework for urban forestry and the need to promote political awareness about its importance. Important lessons can......As in many countries after periods of political unrest and with unstable economical conditions, urban woodland and green spaces are becoming prioritized in the last decade in Serbia. This stands in stark contrast to countries like Germany, where there is a long history of integrating urban green...

  7. 78 FR 2950 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Advisory Council, USDA Forest Service Research and Development, Mail Stop 1120, 1400 Independence Ave. SW... of the Deputy Chief for Research and Development, 202-205-1665. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between...

  8. Activities of the Alabama Consortium on forestry education and research, 1993-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas

    2002-01-01

    The Alabama Consortium on Forestry Education and Research was established in 1992 to promote communication and collaboration among diverse institutions involved in forestry in the State of Alabama. It was organized to advance forestry education and research in ways that could not be accomplished by individual members alone. This report tells the story of the consortium...

  9. Criteria for deciding about forestry research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1981-01-01

    In early 1979, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, was required to decide several significant issues affecting its future research program. These decisions were in response to requirements of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA). The decisions required information that was not either available or assembled. Most...

  10. 75 FR 46903 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Development, 1400 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20250-1120, or fax their names and proposed agenda... Deputy Chief for Research and Development, (202) 205-1665. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a...

  11. Sustainable Urban Forestry Potential Based Quantitative And Qualitative Measurement Using Geospatial Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, A. Z.; Reba, M. N. M.; Roslan, N.; Room, M. H. M.

    2014-02-01

    In order to maintain the stability of natural ecosystems around urban areas, urban forestry will be the best initiative to maintain and control green space in our country. Integration between remote sensing (RS) and geospatial information system (GIS) serves as an effective tool for monitoring environmental changes and planning, managing and developing a sustainable urbanization. This paper aims to assess capability of the integration of RS and GIS to provide information for urban forest potential sites based on qualitative and quantitative by using priority parameter ranking in the new township of Nusajaya. SPOT image was used to provide high spatial accuracy while map of topography, landuse, soils group, hydrology, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil series data were applied to enhance the satellite image in detecting and locating present attributes and features on the ground. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique provides structural and pair wise quantification and comparison elements and criteria for priority ranking for urban forestry purpose. Slope, soil texture, drainage, spatial area, availability of natural resource, and vicinity of urban area are criteria considered in this study. This study highlighted the priority ranking MCDM is cost effective tool for decision-making in urban forestry planning and landscaping.

  12. Sustainable Urban Forestry Potential Based Quantitative And Qualitative Measurement Using Geospatial Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, A Z; Reba, M N M; Roslan, N; Room, M H M

    2014-01-01

    In order to maintain the stability of natural ecosystems around urban areas, urban forestry will be the best initiative to maintain and control green space in our country. Integration between remote sensing (RS) and geospatial information system (GIS) serves as an effective tool for monitoring environmental changes and planning, managing and developing a sustainable urbanization. This paper aims to assess capability of the integration of RS and GIS to provide information for urban forest potential sites based on qualitative and quantitative by using priority parameter ranking in the new township of Nusajaya. SPOT image was used to provide high spatial accuracy while map of topography, landuse, soils group, hydrology, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil series data were applied to enhance the satellite image in detecting and locating present attributes and features on the ground. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique provides structural and pair wise quantification and comparison elements and criteria for priority ranking for urban forestry purpose. Slope, soil texture, drainage, spatial area, availability of natural resource, and vicinity of urban area are criteria considered in this study. This study highlighted the priority ranking MCDM is cost effective tool for decision-making in urban forestry planning and landscaping

  13. Web-based tree crown condition evaluation training tool for urban and community forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil Clark; Matthew Winn; Philip Araman

    2009-01-01

    Volunteers are getting involved more and more, particularly in monitoring applications within the context of urban and community forestry. Training numerous volunteers becomes a substantial task given the numbers of people, time available, and a multitude of other projects. Hundreds of different individuals may be involved in a single field season. These individuals...

  14. assessment of public willingness to commit time to urban forestry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR AJEWOLE

    Time and money are very important prerequisite resources essential for participatory urban ..... Table 4 presents the results for the descriptive statistics for utility variables ..... Since Tobit coefficients do not directly give the marginal effects of the.

  15. Digital forestry in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wimberly; Yangjian Zhang; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    Growing human populations have led to the expansion of the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) across the southeastern United States. The juxtaposition of buildings, infrastructure. and forests in the WUI creates challenges for natural resource managers. The presence of flammable vegetation. high rates of human-caused ignitions and high building densities combine to...

  16. Population growth, urban expansion, and private forestry in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    Private forestlands in the United States face increasing pressures from growing populations, resulting in greater numbers of people living in closer proximity to forests. What often is called the "wildland/urban interface" is characterized by expansion of residential and other developed land uses onto forested landscapes in a manner that threatens forestlands...

  17. Urban forestry and the eco-city: today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret M. Carreiro; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, the Chicago Academy of Sciences held a conference, Sustainable Cities: Preserving and Restoring Urban Biodiversity, which led to the publication of a book entitled The Ecological City (Platt et aI., 1994). This symposium differed from others on cities at that time by focusing principally on cities as habitats for biodiversity. The thrust of the symposium was...

  18. Improving access to research outcomes for innovation in agriculture and forestry: the VALERIE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechini, Luca; Koenderink, N.J.J.P.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Corre, W.J.; Evert, van F.K.; Ruijter, de F.J.; Willems, D.J.M.; Zandstra, Anneke; Top, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Many excellent results are obtained in agricultural and forestry research projects, but their practical adoption is often limited. The aim of the European project VALERIE is to increase the transfer and application of innovations produced by research in agriculture and forestry, by facilitating

  19. Setting and measuring team goals and objectives for improved management of forestry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott J. Josiah

    1999-01-01

    As our world becomes more complex and diverse, many forestry research organizations are responding by adopting more interdisciplinary and collaborative research programs. Our rapidly increasing knowledge of the ecological, social, and economic factors affecting forestry and natural resource management makes it simply untenable to expect that complex problems can be...

  20. Integrating social science into forestry in the wildland/urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Brooks; Hannah Brenkert; Judy E. Serby; Joseph G. Champ; Tony Simons; Daniel R. Williams

    2006-01-01

    A different kind of storm--neither fire nor wind--brought 60 forestry practitioners who work in wildfire risk prevention and several social science researchers together near Lyons, CO. Brainstorm. This unique retreat--a meeting of the minds--commingled these two groups to share and tackle ideas concerning social issues that shape decisions and behaviors regarding...

  1. Proceedings of the 3. KEFRI Scientific Conference. Forestry Research in Environmental Conservation, Improved Livelihoods and Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchiri, M.N; Kamondo, B; Ochieng, D.; Tuwei, P.; Wanjiku, J.

    2007-01-01

    The papers presented in this conference covered a wide range of topics on forestry research. The theme of the conference was 'Forest research for enhancement of environmental conservation, livelihood and economic development'. The objective was to share recent research findings and technologies among forest scientists, extension staff, forest managers and investors. The papers presented in this conference covered the areas of : farm forestry, natural forests, dry land forestry, plantation forests, socio-economic and policy and forest extension and education

  2. Intellectual property implications for forestry research managers: Striving for win-win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Haines

    1999-01-01

    Competent management of intellectual property is now a key issue for research managers increasingly driven on the one hand by more commercial approaches to research management) and on the other by the need to enter into partnerships where both inputs and outputs are shared. Products of forestry research activities that are relevant to intellectual property discussions...

  3. 75 FR 68599 - Solicitation for Membership to the Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... nomination packages to Daina Dravnieks Apple, Senior Staff Assistant, U.S. Forest Service; Research and... Dravnieks Apple, Senior Staff Assistant, U.S. Forest Service; Research and Development, Forestry Research... eligible institutions, and State agricultural experiment stations; and (4) Volunteer public groups...

  4. A highly efficient machine planting system for forestry research plantations—the Wright-MSU method

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. McKenna; Oriana Rueda-Krauss; Brian. Beheler

    2011-01-01

    For forestry research purposes, grid planting with uniform tree spacing is superior to planting with nonuniform spacing because it controls density across the plantation and facilitates accurate repeat measurements. The ability to cross-check tree positions in a grid-type plantation avoids problems associated with dead or missing trees and increases the efficiency and...

  5. The Swedish energy forestry research programme at the Department of Short Rotation Forestry, SUAS, Uppsala. Summary report prepared for the evaluation of the short-rotation forestry research 1993-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledin, S.; Christersson, L. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The overall aim of the Department of Short Rotation Forestry is to carry out research for development of basic, theoretical and practical knowledge in the related disciplines of biology, ecology and cultivation techniques in order to reach a high and sustainable production of woody biomass for energy purposes using environmentally acceptable methods. This report gives summaries of nine research programs within the Department, and the reports were prepared for the evaluation of the research during the period 1993-1996. The projects are: 1. Competition in short rotation forests (Theo Verwijst); 2. Carbon allocation as a function of nutrient and water availability (Lars Rytter, Tom Ericsson); 3. States and fluxes of water and carbon dioxide in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (Anders Lindroth); 4. Root dynamics of fast growing deciduous trees (Rose-Marie Rytter); 5. Accumulation and mobilization of root reserves in coppice growth (Lisa Sennerby-Forsse, Lars Bollmark, Yuehua von Fircks); 6. Effects of nutrient supply on frost resistance in fast growing Salix clones (Heinrich von Fircks); 7. Optimizing water and nutrients in poplar and willow plantations for maximum growth (Sune Elowson); 8. Soil biology in relation to energy forestry (Ulf Granhall); and 9. Plant protection in short rotation forestry against fungi and bacteria (Mauritz Ramstedt)

  6. Jonkershoek research catchments: history and impacts on commercial forestry in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chapman, A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available conservation and allied problems” was endorsed by the 1935 Fourth Empire Forestry Conference held in Cape Town. By 1936 construction was underway on weirs in the Jonkershoek State Forest and a programme of research was developed, with Dr CL Wicht as Founder... collected within these research catchments. Other national impacts include: • Regulation of the R22 billion/a forest industry. The commercial forest industry today derives benefit in export markets from the Sustainable Forest Certification (FSC...

  7. Process models as tools in forestry research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Lisa Samuelson; Robert Teskey; Steve McNulty; Tom Fox

    2001-01-01

    Forest process models are mathematical representations of biological systems that incorporate our understanding of physiological and ecological mechanisms into predictive algorithms. These models were originally designed and used for research purposes, but are being developed for use in practical forest management. Process models designed for research...

  8. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access Policy. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. ... Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria Prof. H. Oluma Department of ...

  9. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  10. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., archive ((journal OR conference) NOT theses); Search for an exact phrase by putting it in quotes; e.g., "open access publishing"; Exclude a word by prefixing it with - or NOT; e.g. online -politics or online NOT politics ...

  11. Prefered Feed of Anoa (Bubalus sp. at Manado Forestry Research Institute Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Irawati Dwi Arini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the type of fodder available and the level of scarcity of Anoa’s fodder at the condition prior to captivity at the Forestry Research Institute of Manado. The method employed was a trial of 12 (twelve types of fodder available around the captivity site given to 2 (two female anoas. The data were analyzed and displayed in tables and graphs while the data of preferred fodder were analyzed using Neu’s index equation. The findings suggest that anoa put in captivity at the Forestry Research Institute of Manado did not encounter problems during the process of feeding adaptation. The average fodder needs required anoa at the captivity site of the Forestry Research Institute of Manado range from 10.2 to 11.7 kg/ day in which the fodder was given twice a day. Meanwhile, based on the availability and ease of supplying the fodder from around the captivity site, the following are the types of fodder from higher to lower preferences, namely: field grass, kangkung, shoes banana, string beans, beans and cucumbers, respectively. While fodder with the lowest level of scarcity is the type of fodder with a hard texture such as sweet potatoes, carrots or potatoes. Based on the results of a number of studies, it is recommended that variations in anoa’s fodder can be done every 4-5 times a day.

  12. International evaluation of Swedish research projects in the field of short rotation forestry for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, W M [N.I. Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Armagh (Ireland); Isebrands, J [USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Namkoong, G [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Tahvanainen, J [Univ. of Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to inform NUTEK of the scientific quality of the research projects, as seen in an international context. The projects were therefore the main elements considered in the evaluation. The main basis of the evaluation was the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to NUTEK`s aims in the application of industrial research and development. The present report is based on the information contained in the written reports submitted by the grant holders, site visits and discussions between the grant holders and the Committee. The report first gives an overview and general recommendations concerning the overall programme in the field of Short Rotation Forestry for Energy. Thereafter, the 16 projects are evaluated separately

  13. Urban forestry and carbon: what the reporting protocol means to you

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2008-01-01

    Urban forests have a role to play in reducing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere (Abdollahi et al. 2000; Pataki et al. 2006). However, very few tree planting projects have been undertaken because of the uncertainty regarding their performance and permanence. The Urban Forest Project Reporting Protocol was developed to reduce...

  14. Improving access to research outcomes for innovation in agriculture and forestry: the VALERIE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many excellent results are obtained in agricultural and forestry research projects, but their practical adoption is often limited. The aim of the European project VALERIE is to increase the transfer and application of innovations produced by research in agriculture and forestry, by facilitating their integration into management practices. The project is still ongoing and the results illustrated in this paper are still temporary and subject to being improved. Here we present the methodology used in VALERIE to extract and summarise knowledge for innovation from research documents with the aim of making it available to final users through ask-Valerie.eu; we also report on current progress. The tasks associated with extracting and summarising knowledge are centred on: i an ontology; ii a document base; and iii a system (ask-Valerie.eu that allows users to effectively search the document base. An ontology defines a set of concepts and the relations between them. The VALERIE ontology is built by experts in the agricultural and forestry domain and contains 6169 concepts (21st October 2016. The document base is the collection of documents in which the system searches. The VALERIE document base includes scientific and practical documents derived from various sources, written in any of a number of languages. All documents contained in the document base are annotated using the ontology: each term (a word or a short phrase in the document that matches a concept in the VALERIE-ontology is linked to that concept. Annotation is an automated process that takes place whenever a document is added to the document base. The document base contains 4278 documents (October 2016. Among them, there are 201 minifactsheets written by members of the VALERIE project, each describing an innovation with: a short description of the innovation, a list of correlated projects, and some links to scientific and practical documents. ask-Valerie.eu searches documents and fragments of

  15. Research and Applications of Chemical Sciences in Forestry: Proceedings of the 4th Southern Station Chemical Sciences Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Vozzo; [Compiler

    1994-01-01

    This proceedings is the result of 65 scientists representing 34 facilities reported in 28 presentations. As titled, Research and Applications of Chemical Sciences in Forestry, the contributors represent academic, basic, and applied researchers from universities and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their presence and experience represent a significant showing toward...

  16. Innovative urban forestry governance in Melbourne?: Investigating "green placemaking" as a nature-based solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Hertzog, Kelly; Shears, Ian

    2018-02-01

    A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature. In this paper, we aim to contribute to this re-assesment of urban environmental governance by examining the City of Melbourne's approach to urban re-naturing governance from a place-based perspective. Here we focus on the city's internationally-acclaimed urban forest strategy (UFS), investigating how and to which extent the governance arrangements embedded within the UFS draw strength from diverse perspectives and allow for institutional arrangements that support "situated" reflexive decision making and co-creation. We find that Melbourne's UFS governance process fosters green placemaking by re-focusing climate adaptation solutions from technological strategies to situated socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based decision making. In this sense, this case provides valuable insight for the broader UGI governance field regarding the opportunities and challenges associated with a socio-cultural approach to urban re-naturing and ES delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.

    2009-12-01

    Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil management). To translate incentives into changes in land management and terrestrial carbon stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial carbon pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land management techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term global terrestrial carbon volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial Carbon Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial Carbon: Research Needs for Implementation of Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land management as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information

  18. Urban field guide: applying social forestry observation techniques to the east coast megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Svendsen; V. Marshall; M.F. Ufer

    2006-01-01

    A changing economy and different lifestyles have altered the meaning of the forest in the northeastern United States, prompting scientists to reconsider the spatial form, stewardship and function of the urban forest. The Authors describe how social observation techniques and the employment of a novel, locally based, participatory hand-held monitoring system could aid...

  19. Social Aspects of Urban Forestry: the Role of Arboriculture in a Healthy Social Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances E. Kuo

    2003-01-01

    In urban communities, arboriculture clearly contributes to the health of the biological ecosystem; does it contribute to the health of the social ecosystem as well? Evidence from studies in inner-city Chicago suggests so. In a series of studies involving over 1,300 person-space observations, 400 interviews, housing authority records, and 2 years of police crime reports...

  20. Operational forest management planning methods: proceedings, meeting of steering systems project group, International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Bucharest, Romania, June 18-24, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Navon

    1978-01-01

    These 14 papers were submitted to a conference of Project Group P4.07 Division IV, International Union of Forestry Research Organizations. Topics discussed included the uses of simulations, analytical techniques, and mathematical programming techniques in land management planning, reforestation programs, intensive forestry, timber management and production, tree growth...

  1. A blueprint for strategic urban research: the urban piazza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter; Franklin, Rachel S; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Urban research in many countries has failed to keep up with the pace of rapidly and constantly evolving urban change. The growth of cities, the increasing complexity of their functions and the complex intra- and inter-urban linkages in this 'urban century' demand new approaches to urban analysis, which, from a systemic perspective, supersede the existing fragmentation in urban studies. In this paper we propose the concept of the urban piazza as a framework in order to address some of the inefficiencies associated with current urban analysis. By combining wealth-creating potential with smart urban mobility, ecological resilience and social buzz in this integrated and systemic framework, the aim is to set the basis for a ' New Urban World ' research blueprint, which lays the foundation for a broader and more integrated research programme for strategic urban issues.

  2. Research regarding the reforestation with native forestry species of polders from the Lower Danube Valley and the Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREAVU Manole

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Euro - American poplar and willow plantations have declined recently in the polders of Danube Delta due to the lessened level of underground water. This research was conducted in five precincts during 2005 -2009. Its aim was to observe the development of several native forestry species, such as the White Poplar, Black Poplar, Ash tree, Elm and Oak tree. These species are recommended for future cultivation in the polders of Danube Delta.

  3. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  4. Imagined forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Lund, Jens Friis

    2017-01-01

    of material, financial and politico-economic constraints that have largely determined how control and management have unfolded in practice. Thus, the paper illustrates how principles of scientific forestry have come to follow, rather than precede and guide, practices of forest exploitation, and how......This paper examines efforts at forest conservation and management since colonial times in the ‘High Forest Zone’; the southern part of present day Ghana. It provides a detailed historiology of attempts to apply scientific forestry principles and depicts how these ideals have crumbled in the face...... investments in forest management and silvicultural practices aimed at nurturing the long-term productive value of the forests have been few and far between and rendered ineffective by weaknesses in their theoretical basis and a lack of forest ecological data. Our account of the history of scientific forestry...

  5. Power in urban social-ecological systems: Processes and practices of governance and marginalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell; Nate Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the urban forestry literature, including the workfeatured in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, has focused primarily on either quantitative, positivistic analyses of human-environment dynamics, or applied research to inform the management of natural resources, without sufficiently problematizing the effects of power within these processes (Bentsen et al...

  6. Science in the city: Urban trees, forests, and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The article, intended for professional and manager audiences, is an overview of current research in urban forestry. Topics include tree science, forest risks, forest management and assessment, ecosystem services, and urban socio-ecological systems (including governance and stewardship).

  7. EPA RESEARCH IN URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This state-of-the-art on the Environmental Protection Agency' s research in urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control describes the major elements of the Urban Runoff Pollution Control Program. roblem definition, users assistance tools, management alternative...

  8. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2003-01-01

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  9. Urban metabolism: A review of research methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems. Highlights: •Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by regarding cities as superorganisms. •Urban metabolism methods include accounting, assessment, modeling, and regulation. •Research methodologies have improved greatly since this field began in 1965. •Future research should focus on carbon metabolism and optimal regulation. -- The author reviews research progress in the field of urban metabolism, and based on her literature review, proposes directions for future research

  10. Researching biliteracy in urban schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Holm, Lars

    , leading to a disqualification of the students’ linguistic and literacy resources - and an ethnification of the understanding of school failure (Blommaert, Creve & Willaert; 2005). The study Signs of Language is a longitudional research project located in five urban areas in Denmark. It arises from...... on categorisation and identification of ‘the bilingual students’ as a particular group of underachievers who, in particular, have become symbol of the crisis. Through the monolingual testing practices, literacy is narrowed to specific measurable (reading) skills in a specific language and in a specific script...... as reading skills measured in the majority language - to examinations of children’s interpretations and emergent understanding of literacy – understood as a mode of representation, which is not restricted to one specific language and one specific script system - aims to broaden the understanding of what...

  11. Researching the Urban Dilemma: Urbanization, Poverty and Violence

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    RM

    Slum upgrading and urban safety . .... Its work noted how violence is changing, becoming less structured ... scope of the Safe and Inclusive Cities research initiative. ..... enhanced through purposive changes in the built and social environment.

  12. The future orientation of foresters: An exploratory research among Dutch foresters into the prerequisite for strategic planning in forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.; Schanz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of strategic planning as an instrument to cope with the uncertain future has been long recognized, especially in forestry which is characterized by its relationship with the distant future. Surprisingly, the question to what extent the future is indeed considered in forestry

  13. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorized according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilization of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organization of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilization. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  14. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorised according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilisation of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organisation of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilisation. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  15. Interdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Metabolism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    With its rapid rise as a metaphor to express coupled natural-human systems in cities, the concept of urban metabolism is evolving into a series of relatively distinct research frameworks amongst various disciplines, with varying definitions, theories, models, and emphases. In industrial ecology, housed primarily within the disciplinary domain of engineering, urban metabolism research has focused on quantifying material and energy flows into, within, and out of cities, using methodologies such as material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. In the field of urban ecology, which is strongly influenced by ecology and urban planning, research focus has been placed on understanding and modeling the complex patterns and processes of human-ecological systems within urban areas. Finally, in political ecology, closely aligned with human geography and anthropology, scholars theorize about the interwoven knots of social and natural processes, material flows, and spatial structures that form the urban metabolism. This paper offers three potential interdisciplinary urban metabolism research tracks that might integrate elements of these three "ecologies," thereby bridging engineering and the social and physical sciences. First, it presents the idea of infrastructure ecology, which explores the complex, emergent interdependencies between gray (water and wastewater, transportation, etc) and green (e.g. parks, greenways) infrastructure systems, as nested within a broader socio-economic context. For cities to be sustainable and resilient over time-space, the theory follows, these is a need to understand and redesign these infrastructure linkages. Second, there is the concept of an urban-scale carbon metabolism model which integrates consumption-based material flow analysis (including goods, water, and materials), with the carbon sink and source dynamics of the built environment (e.g. buildings, etc) and urban ecosystems. Finally, there is the political ecology of the material

  16. Partnerships for Urban Forestry and Green Infrastructure Delivering Services to People and the Environment: A Review on What They Are and Aim to Achieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Partnerships are a key mechanism in the planning, delivery and management of urban forestry (UF and green infrastructure (GI. They can facilitate locally rooted co-management and polycentric governance. They can also achieve synergies by combining the resources, commitment and expertise of diverse stakeholder groups in order to generate valuable outcomes and build social capital. Unfortunately, the term “partnerships” is not used consistently in literature and requires clarification. The characteristics which distinguish a partnership approach from other modes of co-operation are identified and described. The diversity of existing UF and GI oriented partnerships is outlined, with reference to their stakeholders, drivers, activities and goals, together with potential advantages of the partnership approach. Considerations to be made in their evaluation are derived from this background analysis and possible success factors are discussed. Materials and Methods: The diversity, aims and defining characteristics of a partnership approach are based on an extensive literature review. Results: Partnerships focus on diverse aspects and delivery phases of UF, ranging from the planning, design and creation of urban forests and GI to their management and use. Benefits delivered by such partnerships include environmental and economic services as well as social and cultural services such as environmental education, health, leisure and tourism. Generating valuable services whilst at the same time nurturing relationships between stakeholders helps to develop social capital and build capacity. In addition to environmental, economic and social benefits, the evaluation of partnerships may also address internal process variables such as social learning, the relationship between partners, and motivational outcomes that can influence future co-operation. Conclusions: Co-operative partnerships offer a promising approach for delivery in UF

  17. Visualizing Conflict: Possibilities for Urban Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Saldarriaga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Spatial Research (CSR is undertaking a multiyear project investigating what we have termed Conflict Urbanism. The term designates not simply the conflicts that take place in cities, but also conflict as a structuring principle of cities intrinsically, as a way of inhabiting and creating urban space. The increasing urbanization of warfare and the policing and surveillance of everyday life are examples of the term (Graham, 2010; Misselwitz & Rieniets, 2006; Weizman, 2014, but conflict is not limited to war and violence. Cities are not only destroyed but also built through conflict. They have long been arenas of friction, difference, and dissidence, and their irreducibly conflictual character manifests itself in everything from neighborhood borders, to differences of opinion and status, to ordinary encounters on the street. One major way in which CSR undertakes research is through interrogating the world of ‘big data.’ This includes analyzing newly accessible troves of ‘urban data,’ working to open up new areas of research and inquiry, as well as focusing on data literacy as an essential part of communicating with these new forms of urban information. In what follows we discuss two projects currently under way at CSR that use mapping and data visualization to explore and analyze Conflict Urbanism in two different contexts: the city of Aleppo, and the nation of Colombia.

  18. Information needs and seeking behaviour of Tanzanian forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined information needs and seeking behaviour of Tanzanian forestry researchers in the growing global electronic environment. A questionnaire based survey was conducted in three forestry research institutions. The findings indicated a wide range of information needs among forestry researchers in the ...

  19. Emotional conflicts in rational forestry: Towards a research agenda for understanding emotions in environmental conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Lawrence, A.

    2013-01-01

    When looking at social conflicts around forests, both foresters and researchers tend to frame conflicts as rational differences related to diverging knowledge, values, and interests. In past centuries, and in areas where the forests are of immediate livelihood importance, this has been a powerful

  20. Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, David; Agarwal, Siddharth Raj; Buckley, Robert M; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Corvalan, Carlos F; Ezeh, Alex Chika; Finkelstein, Ruth; Friel, Sharon; Harpham, Trudy; Hossain, Maharufa; de Faria Leao, Beatriz; Mboup, Gora; Montgomery, Mark R; Netherland, Julie C; Ompad, Danielle C; Prasad, Amit; Quinn, Andrew T; Rothman, Alexander; Satterthwaite, David E; Stansfield, Sally; Watson, Vanessa J

    2011-10-01

    For 18 months in 2009-2010, the Rockefeller Foundation provided support to establish the Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER). Composed of leading experts in population health measurement from a variety of disciplines, sectors, and continents, RULER met for the purpose of reviewing existing methods of measurement for urban health in the context of recent reports from UN agencies on health inequities in urban settings. The audience for this report was identified as international, national, and local governing bodies; civil society; and donor agencies. The goal of the report was to identify gaps in measurement that must be filled in order to assess and evaluate population health in urban settings, especially in informal settlements (or slums) in low- and middle-income countries. Care must be taken to integrate recommendations with existing platforms (e.g., Health Metrics Network, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) that could incorporate, mature, and sustain efforts to address these gaps and promote effective data for healthy urban management. RULER noted that these existing platforms focus primarily on health outcomes and systems, mainly at the national level. Although substantial reviews of health outcomes and health service measures had been conducted elsewhere, such reviews covered these in an aggregate and perhaps misleading way. For example, some spatial aspects of health inequities, such as those pointed to in the 2008 report from the WHO's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, received limited attention. If RULER were to focus on health inequities in the urban environment, access to disaggregated data was a priority. RULER observed that some urban health metrics were already available, if not always appreciated and utilized in ongoing efforts (e.g., census data with granular data on households, water, and sanitation but with little attention paid to the spatial dimensions of these data). Other less obvious elements

  1. Urban Crowns: crown analysis software to assist in quantifying urban tree benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Sang-Mook Lee Bradley; Philip A. Araman

    2010-01-01

    UrbanCrowns is a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer program developed by the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. The software assists urban forestry professionals, arborists, and community volunteers in assessing and monitoring the crown characteristics of urban trees (both deciduous and coniferous) using a single side-view digital photograph. Program output...

  2. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  3. Aspects of economic analysis in forestry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Chik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of economic analysis from the point of view of philosophical sciences and works of domestic and foreign scientists is researched. The analysis of costs and production costs as the most important components of the economic analysis of forestry enterprises are distinguished. The basic tasks of the economic analysis at the enterprises of forestry are determined. The main objects of the study of indicators of the cost price of forestry products are singled out. The calculation of general indicators of expenditures at the State Enterprise «Zolochiv Forestry» is carried out and the corresponding general conclusions are made. The influence of factors on the change in the cost price of harvesting of forestry products in terms of expenditure items at the State Enterprise «Zolochiv Forestry» is calculated and the corresponding general conclusions are indicated. The main sources of reserves for reducing the costs of forestry products at the State Enterprise «Zolochiv Forestry» are proposed.

  4. Reducing Impacts of Forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    come from what would be classified as intensive forestry in the ecoinvent classification. The real challenge is to develop forest management systems that have a neutral or positive biodiversity impact relative to that of plantation forestry. Such truly extensive, biodiversity-managed forestry is very...... challenging and not very common today. Ample options exist for increasing yields in intensive and plantation forests, which can be recommended as having lower biodiversity impact than similar products from other management systems, certified or not....

  5. Forestry biomass for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettenella, D.; Ciccarese, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first analyses the current and potential market in Italy for wood chips and firewood and assesses the potential economic and environmental benefits of the use of forestry biomass. Here, the paper cites the favourable opportunities offered by Italian forestry policies and legislative initiatives for energy saving. The survey of the principal consumers of forestry biomass leads to the identification of three distinct user categories - families living in rural are as requiring wood fuels for space heating, small industrial firms requiring process heat and urban (elite) users with homes furnished with fireplaces in addition to conventional space heating systems. Tabled consumption data going back to the year 1955 and estimated per capita consumption in industrialized countries are used to make comparative market trend analyses. The paper then reviews the current state-of-the-art in wood furnace design by noting the innovative design, performance, operation and maintenance characteristics of key residential and industrial furnace components (feeding systems, combustion chambers, heating boxes, heat exchangers, control systems, deashing systems, etc.). A list of the main Italian wood furnace manufacturers is also included

  6. Modelling Analysis of Forestry Input-Output Elasticity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended economic model and space econometrics, this essay analyzed the spatial distributions and interdependent relationships of the production of forestry in China; also the input-output elasticity of forestry production were calculated. Results figure out there exists significant spatial correlation in forestry production in China. Spatial distribution is mainly manifested as spatial agglomeration. The output elasticity of labor force is equal to 0.6649, and that of capital is equal to 0.8412. The contribution of land is significantly negative. Labor and capital are the main determinants for the province-level forestry production in China. Thus, research on the province-level forestry production should not ignore the spatial effect. The policy-making process should take into consideration the effects between provinces on the production of forestry. This study provides some scientific technical support for forestry production.

  7. Urban foraging: a ubiquitous human practice overlooked by urban planners, policy, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlie Shackleton; Patrick Hurley; Annika Dahlberg; Marla Emery; Harini. Nagendra

    2017-01-01

    Although hardly noticed or formally recognised, urban foraging by humans probably occurs in all urban settings around the world. We draw from research in India, South Africa, Sweden, and the United States to demonstrate the ubiquity and varied nature of urban foraging in different contexts. Across these different contexts, we distil seven themes that characterise and...

  8. Forestry: feminine plural?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veltri A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Authors discuss the results of the surveys submitted to Italian women which are engaged in various activities in the forestry sector. A quantitative analysis comes out from qualitative considerations set out by the interviews. In Italy is well known that women are rarely able to advance in employment and there are few women in managerial positions. The Authors conclude that the forestry sciences are not yet feminine plural.

  9. Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Kremer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing > 50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues.

  10. Research activities related to the role of forests and forestry in climate change mitigation in Austria. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests and forestry play important roles in Austria with its close to 50/ forest cover. This paper provides details about the Austrian forest carbon inventory, discusses briefly the sources and sinks accounted under the land use, land use change and forestry articles of the Kyoto Protocol, and presents an integrated carbon model (Austrian C-Balance Model that was developed to include not only the forest sector, but other sectors that are greenhouse-gas relevant. Improvements in forest management practices are seen as important possibilities of increasing the carbon sink strength of Austrian forests, but also of pursuing other goals such as increased biodiversity and resistance to future climate-change impacts. This paper presents a process model and a carbon accounting model that are applicable for evaluating carbon impacts of changes in forest management.

  11. Urban Change: An Overview of Research and Planning Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Korcelli, P.

    1980-01-01

    Three sets of urban policy issues are identified in this paper. These relate to the growth and contraction of metropolitan areas, their changing role in the settlement systems, and their internal organization. Policy-oriented urban models are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that promising research approaches refer to: (a) innovation diffusion and urban growth cycles, (b) interurban migration and demographic change, and (c) spatial interaction within urban regions. These findings are then tr...

  12. Differences between urban and rural population with respect to demand on forestry aspects, in a case study of the Turkish province of Bal kesir Diferenças entre a população urbana e rural em matéria das suas exigências de silvicultura, estudo de caso da província turca de Bal kesir

    OpenAIRE

    Seçil Yurdakul Erol

    2012-01-01

    Inhabitants of urban and rural areas are important participants in the process of developing and implementing forest policy. Thus, it is essential to determine their demands and attitudes towards forestry issues. In this context, the demands and evaluation of forest functions are investigated in a case study of the Turkish province of Bal kesir. The findings of the case study show that differences in terms of demands among inhabitants of rural and urban areas are related to forest fires fight...

  13. RESEARCH OF SOCIAL FACTORS OF FORMATION OF THE STUDENT’S LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE (BASED ON THE SURVEY OF STUDENTS OF THE FORESTRY SPECIALTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Hrydzhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of formation of the student’s language and communicative competence in the context of clarification of social factors that affect their learning of the Ukrainian Language for Proficiency is revealed. The results of survey conducted in the Ukrainian National Forestry University in 2013–2016 among the students of the first and second years (the specialities “Forestry and Landscaping” and “The Woodworking Technology” are described. Students’ attitude to the Ukrainian language as a means of communication in performing of industrial actions and choosing the language of communication in future professional activities was found out in the analysis. Environmental impact, the factor of a companion, and the peculiarities of speech situation are considered to be among the main social factors that contribute to the student's communication in a certain language. Students’ evaluation of their own level of command of the state language as a means of professional communication is defined. Students’ understanding of appropriateness of development of language knowledge and also communicative abilities and skills for professional communication are researched. A set of knowledge and skills that students consider as those necessary to be improved is revealed. The appropriateness of studentsʹ language training at high school is outlined. The systems of reasons that are crucial for students during their studies of’ the Ukrainian Language for Proficiency are identified. A clear idea of the future profession and understanding what we should know and be able to do, creative development of professional skills and desire to create, increase of social status, and interest in continuing education are highlighted among the values prevailing in attitude to learning in general. Some questions covered the necessity of professional terminology learning in the linguistic aspect. The major reasons that motivate students to learn professional

  14. The Sophia-Antipolis Conference: General presentation and basic documents. [remote sensing for agriculture, forestry, water resources, and environment management in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The procedures and techniques used in NASA's aerospace technology transfer program are reviewed for consideration in establishing priorities and bases for joint action by technicians and users of remotely sensed data in France. Particular emphasis is given to remote sensing in agriculture, forestry, water resources, environment management, and urban research.

  15. An Initial Formulation. Research, Diagnosis and Development in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gappert, Gary

    Described in this report are factors which affect and/or limit urban educational research and dimensions of cities which should be considered in making social and organizational research in urban education more relevant. Some of these considerations are learning, institutional and management deficits, the lack of a total systems perspective on the…

  16. Understanding the health impacts of urbanization in China: A living laboratory for urban biogeochemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population in the world, and by 2011, more than 50% of its population are now living in cities. This ongoing societal change has profound impacts on environmental quality and population health. In addition to intensive discharges of waste, urbanization is not only changing the land use and land cover, but also inducing fundamental changes in biogeochemical processes. Unlike biogeochemistry in non-urban environment, the biological component of urban biogeochemistry is dominated by direct human activities, such as air pollution derived from transport, wastewater treatment, garbage disposal and increase in impervious surface etc. Managing urban biogeochemistry will include source control over waste discharge, eco-infrastructure (such as green space and eco-drainage), resource recovery from urban waste stream, and integration with peri-urban ecosystem, particularly with food production system. The overall goal of managing urban biogeochemistry is for human health and wellbeing, which is a global challenge. In this paper, the current status of urban biogeochemistry research in China will be briefly reviewed, and then it will focus on nutrient recycling and waste management, as these are the major driving forces of environmental quality changes in urban areas. This paper will take a holistic view on waste management, covering urban metabolism analysis, technological innovation and integration for resource recovery from urban waste stream, and risk management related to waste recycling and recovery.

  17. Urbanization as an object of criminological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна Бойко

    2017-03-01

    This article defines the essence and meaning of urbanization and crime. The impact of this factor on people’s lives, social relationships prevailing in cities where different socio-psychological relationships are concentrated.

  18. Management of social forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S

    1983-05-01

    The major constraints in the practice of social forestry and how to overcome them are examined. Emphasis is placed on the two main types of social forestry - one, for the protection of all major watersheds, including Himalayan and other mountain ranges and two, forests protecting major catchment areas protecting agriculture and ecology. The drawbacks in the present feudal system in rural India dominated by a class of wealthy landowners are illustrated. With few exceptions all developmental aid for rural areas has mainly benefitted the rural elite. The most practical way to introduce social forestry on a large scale quickly in India would be to attract good management. Not only would such management make the best use of forestry but it may be expected to deal much more fairly with workers, paying them better wages, introducing health, educational and recreational facilities. Additionally another major constraint to the development of the rural economy lies in the marketing of agricultural produce so as to enable the small producer to get a fair return on his effort. The main task now for the country's best managers is to tackle the country's biggest problem - i.e., rural poverty.

  19. Forestry Canada's perspectives on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.P.; Carlson, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    The impacts of climatic change on Canada's forestry sector are discussed, in the context of major research priorities relating to forecasting climate, forecasting forest responses, monitoring changes, mitigating effects, and understanding the forest carbon balance. There are five major concerns that affect policy decisions: effects of climatic change on forests; adaptation to climate change; impacts of changing crops on forestry; changing forestry values in changing sociological settings; and international implications of the changing climate. A scientific program to respond to climate change issues is required, and should include the following concentrations of research effort. Planning requires projections of likely future climates, and efforts should concern relations between pre-historic climates and forest ecosystems and integrating data into predictive models. Forecasting of response of forests should include tree physiology, factors controlling reforestation, variations in forest trees, effects of pollutants, damage to forests, and forest decline

  20. Urban geomorphological heritage - A new field of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel; Pica, Alessia; Coratza, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major challenges that the world faces. In 2015, 54% of the world population was living in urban areas and in some countries this percentage is close to 100% (Singapore 100%; Qatar 99%; Belgium 98%). In several parts of the world annual urbanization rates exceed 5% (e.g. Oman 8.54%; Rwanda 6.43%; Burkina Faso 5.87%), which means that urban sprawl is a widespread phenomenon. Urbanization and correlated infrastructure building highly impact and sometimes completely destroy natural landforms. Geomorphological heritage research has traditionally focused on rural or natural regions, in particular protected areas (nature parks, geoparks). We consider that urban areas, which have been poorly investigated until now, are particularly interesting in a geomorphological heritage point of view for almost three reasons: (i) The geomorphological context (site) of some cities is part of their "image" and their fame (e.g. the sugarloaf of Rio de Janeiro); (ii) Urban sprawl often interacts with landforms, which addresses the challenge of geoheritage protection in fast urbanizing areas; (iii) Cities are often tourist destinations, which creates a potential for a geotourist promotion of their geomorphological heritage. This study addresses the main challenges research on geomorphological heritage is facing in urban contexts: (i) the complex interrelationships between natural landforms and urban forms; (ii) the partial or total invisibility of landforms and sediments that are covered or destroyed by urban infrastructures; (iii) man-made landforms as part of urban geomorphological heritage; (iv) the suitability of some landforms (valleys, gullies, mounts) for specific urban uses; (v) the geomorphic constraints of landforms on urban development; and (vi) the importance of some landforms for the urban landscape and the image of the cities. To address these challenges a methodological framework is proposed, which combines: (i) the geomorphological analysis of the

  1. Urban Foraging: A Ubiquitous Human Practice Overlooked by Urban Planners, Policy, and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie M. Shackleton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although hardly noticed or formally recognised, urban foraging by humans probably occurs in all urban settings around the world. We draw from research in India, South Africa, Sweden, and the United States to demonstrate the ubiquity and varied nature of urban foraging in different contexts. Across these different contexts, we distil seven themes that characterise and thereby advance thinking about research and the understanding of urban foraging. We show that it is widespread and occurs across a variety of urban spaces and places. The species used and the local practices vary between contexts, and are in constant flux as urban ecological and social settings change. This requires that urban foragers are knowledgeable about diverse species, harvest locations, and rights of access, and that their practices are adaptable to changing contexts. Despite its ubiquity, most cities have some forms of regulations that prohibit or discourage urban foraging. We highlight a few important exceptions that can provide prototypes and lessons for other cities regarding supportive policy frameworks and initiatives. The formulation of dynamic policy, design, and management strategies in support of urban foraging will benefit from understanding the common characteristics of foraging in cities worldwide, but also will require comprehension of the specific and dynamic contexts in which they would be implemented.

  2. Urban Teens in the Library: Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E., Ed.; Hughes-Hassell, Sandra, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Urban Teens in the Library" is the perfect solution for the concerns and uncertainty many librarians face when supporting this group of patrons and students. From a team of experts who have researched the information habits and preferences of urban teens to build better and more effective school and public library programs, this book will show…

  3. MillionTreesNYC, green infrastructure and urban ecology symposium March 5-6, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Jacqueline W.T. Lu

    2010-01-01

    On March 5-6, 2010, over two hundred researchers and practitioners came together at The New School to showcase scientific innovation in the field of urban forestry and greening. The MillionTreesNYC, Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecology Research Symposium engaged professionals from a broad range of disciplines including sociology, planning,...

  4. Does beauty still matter? Experiential and utilitarian values of urban trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert W. Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    A major focus of early research on the social aspects of urban forestry was on how people perceive and value the beauty of trees in cities and towns. Since then, researchers have found that besides aesthetic enjoyment, the presence of urban forest vegetation may provide additional benefits such as stress relief, recovery from mental fatigue, stronger social ties,...

  5. Researching the Urban Dilemma: Urbanization, Poverty and Violence

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... As a first step, IDRC commissioned a baseline study to help inform the design and ... The summary is available in English, French, and Spanish. ... Community Work Programme reduces poverty and violence ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  6. New biotechnologies in Serbian forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in the laboratory for molecular studies of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, in the field of biotechnology, mainly in molecular genetics, genomics and functional genomics. Researches are designed to serve as a breeding tool. The aim was to clarify the processes of classical genetics by applying modern methods and enable a qualitative and rapid progress in understanding the processes that occur at the level of genes in the genome of forest plant species and thus help the processes of conservation of valuable taxa at the time of global climate change. The results are presented within various research fields and by type of forest trees that were given priority by importance in forest ecosystems. Studies have in most cases been of applicative character with the aim of solving the major problems in forestry, but also of fundamental nature when they were necessary to elucidate the response of forest species to the induced stress, which is an inevitable component of the time characterized by tolerance and adaptation as keywords. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemima i br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje i IPA - OXIT

  7. Center for Urban Environmental Research and Education (CUERE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Urban Environmental Research and Education (CUERE) at UMBC was created in 2001 with initial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and...

  8. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and ...

  9. Urban heat island research of Novi Sad (Serbia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of the 20th century, urbanization accelerated and reached enormous magnitude, which results more and more people live in urbanized regions. Nowadays, about half of the human population is affected by the burdens of urban environments and furthermore the modified parameters of the urban atmosphere compared to the natural environment. Novi Sad (45°15’N, 19°50’E is located in the northern part of Serbia, i.e. on the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and it is the second largest city in the country with a population of about 320,000 in a built-up area of approximately 80 km2. The geographical area is plain, from 80 to 86 m a.s.l., with a gentle relief, so its climate is free from orographic effects. According to Köppen-Geiger climate classification, this region is categorised as Cfa climate (temperate warm climate with a rather uniform annual distribution of precipitation. In the last 20 years, a few papers have been published considering urban heat island (UHI investigations of Novi Sad. The first publication in 1994 is theoretically based and presents all parameters, methods and measurements, which have to be used in order to work on UHI research of Novi Sad. The next studies from 1995 and 2006 analyzed various temperature parameters based on 30-40 year long time series and used rural and urban stations in order to get urban-rural temperature differences. Based on meteorological parameters and the structure of urban area, in 2010 the necessity of defining locations of an urban climate network was showed in order to advance further UHI research. In the last two publications from 2011 a new empirical modeling method, adjusted for cities located on plains, has been used in order to determine locations for representative stations of an urban climate network in Novi Sad.

  10. Case Analysis on Application of SPSS Software in Forestry Production and Scientific Research%SPSS在林业生产和科学研究中的应用实例解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琚松苗

    2012-01-01

    SPSS作为统计分析工具,具有数据管理、统计分析、趋势研究、制表绘图、文字处理等功能。本文从科技推广角度出发,结合典型实例介绍SPSS统计软件在林业生产和科学研究中的应用。%SPSS (Statistical Program for Social Sciences), a statistical analysis tool, is used for data management, statistical analysis, trend study, tabulation and drawing, word processing and so on. In this paper the application of the statistical software SPSS in forestry production and scientific research is introduced with typical cases from the perspective of forestry science and technology promotion.

  11. Proceedings of the session on tropical forestry for people of the Pacific, XVII Pacific Science Congress; May 27-28, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene C. Conrad; Leonard A. Newell

    1992-01-01

    The 17 papers in the Proceedings of the Session on Tropical Forestry for People of the Pacific cover the topics of the USDA Forest Service's tropical forestry research, forestry research in Asia and the Pacific, management of tropical forests for products and energy; forest and wildlife management, the South Pacific Forestry Development Programme, tropical...

  12. Urbanization and the Carbon Cycle: Synthesis of Ongoing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Duren, R. M.; Hutyra, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; Huang, J.; Davis, K.; Kort, E. A.; Shepson, P. B.; Turnbull, J. C.; Lauvaux, T.; Rao, P.; Eldering, A.; Miller, C. E.; Wofsy, S.; McKain, K.; Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Given the explosive growth in urbanization and its dominant role in current and future global greenhouse gas emissions, urban areas have received increasing research attention from the carbon cycle science community. The emerging focus is driven by the increasingly dense atmospheric observing capabilities - ground and space-based - in addition to the rising profile of cities within international climate change policymaking. Dominated by anthropogenic emissions, urban carbon cycle research requires a cross-disciplinary perspective with contributions from disciplines such as engineering, economics, social theory, and atmospheric science. We review the recent results from a sample of the active urban carbon research efforts including the INFLUX experiment (Indianapolis), the Megacity carbon project (Los Angeles), Salt Lake City, and Boston. Each of these efforts represent unique approaches in pursuit of different scientific and policy questions and assist in setting priorities for future research. From top-down atmospheric measurement systems to bottom-up estimation, these research efforts offer a view of the challenges and opportunities in urban carbon cycle research.

  13. Forestry certification social aspects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hamman, J

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available will be in the first person. This will allow the person editing and integrating the various documents to "quote" as if part of a personal interview.2 I was contracted as a 'social expert' by SGS Forestry and the SABS. My experience as an auditor is limited to... being when we included an extra person for the SAPPI assessment. The SABS assessment team was new. Although the lead auditor was not a forester, the environmental expert was a forester. I have not worked with non-South African auditors, so I cannot...

  14. Scientific research in urban areas air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, I.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed [it

  15. Land use change and forestry. Sector 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The land use change and forestry considers the following sub-modules in calculating GHG emission by sources or removal by sinks: 1)- Sub-module changes in forestry and other woody biomass stocks. This sub-module has presented considerable difficulties in the data collection activity since no information or records are available at the institutional level. Therefore, the data derived represents a large degree of uncertainty.The stocks of woody biomass, needed to calculate the carbon uptake or storage in Lebanon for 1994, were found to be made of: - 75.000 ha of forest trees (65.000 evergreen and 10.000 deciduous) - 50.280.000 non-forest trees which includes: 49.794.000 farm and village trees (21.980.000 of evergreen fruit and olive trees and 27.814.000 of deciduous fruit trees) 486.000 urban trees (450.000 evergreen urban trees and 36.000 deciduous urban trees). The total carbon uptake increment by these stocks of woody biomass is 169.800475 Kt. The loss of biomass fuelwood consumption and from timber production is 4170298 Kt. As a result the change in woody biomass stocks is considered a source of CO 2 emitting 142.4446 Kt of CO 2 . 2)- Sub-module forest and grassland conversion CO 2 from biomass: Natural and man fires are included in this sub-module. In 1994, around 1300 ha of woodland were affected by fires and the resulting CO)? 2 released was 57.968625 Gg. Forests in 1994 constitute a minor source of CO 2 rather than a sink due to the loss of woody biomass sticks and to forest fires. CO 2 emission from and use change and forestry is 200.413225 Kt

  16. Action Research in Urban Schools: Empowerment, Transformation, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razfar, Aria

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a cohort of seven urban educators who conducted action research over a two-year period. Of the seven participants, six were teacher-researchers ("TRs") and one was a bilingual coordinator. The author provides an analysis of focus group discussions conducted after the completion of the action research…

  17. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  18. Exploration of Forest Garden Construction in Forestry Universities:Taking the Baima Teaching and Research Base of Nanjing Forestry University as an Example%林业高校树木园建设探索——以南京林业大学白马教学科研基地为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宇伟; 蒋瞻; 巨云为; 孙昕; 朱兴洲; 邢雯

    2017-01-01

    Nanjing Forestry University Baima Teaching and Research Base Arboretum constructed in March 2012, construction area of about 725 acres,694 species of woody plants are planned.Among them,there are 9 kinds of national protected tree species.It is a teaching and research base for tree cultivation research,student teaching practice,popular science tourism and providing excellent seedlings.%南京林业大学白马教学科研基地树木园于2012年3月启动建设,建设面积约725亩,规划收集694种木本植物,其中国家级保护树种9种,是集树木栽培研究、学生教学实习、科普旅游观光及提供优良种苗的教学科研基地.

  19. Urbanism PhD Research 2008 - 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Brand, N.; Van der Burg, L.; Çal??kan, O.; Tan, E.R.; Wang, C.Y.; Zhou, J.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure the quality of the Ph.D. research the Department introduced a special procedure for periodic evaluation: after a period of nine months the potential Ph.D. candidates are asked to present their research design, theoretical framework and methodological approach to the members of the

  20. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 5, No 2 (2007) ... Marketing Of Bushmeat In Peri-Urban Areas Of Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, ... Sport Fisheries Potentials Of Agbokim Waterfalls, Cross River State, Nigeria ...

  1. A Review of Urban Planning Research for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified the research focus and development tendency of urban planning and climate change research from 1990 to 2016 using CiteSpace, which is based on the Web of Science database. Through cluster analysis and a document sorting method, the research direction of city planning and climate change were mainly divided into four academic groupings, 15 clusters with homogenous themes representing the current research focus direction at the sub-level. The detailed study on the framework presented three mainstream developing directions: (1 The index assessment and spatial simulation on the impact of urban spatial systems for climate change have become important methods to identify and improve the adaptability of urban space. (2 Adaptive governance as a bottom-up strategy giving priority to institutional adaptation policy and collaborative polices for responding to climate change has become the hot direction in recent years. (3 The policies of urban public health-related urban equity, vulnerability, and environmental sustainability were addressed especially during the period from 2007 to 2009. Dynamic evolution trends of the research field were discussed: (1 The total numbers of papers in this field increased distinctly between 2005 and 2008, research focus shifted from single-dimension to multi-dimension comprehensive studies, and the humanism tendency was obvious. (2 After 2010, research on multi-level governance and spatial adaptation strategies became the key issues, and a bottom-up level adaptation policies were addressed. Finally, the critical influence of the important literature and the forefront issues of the research field were put forward.

  2. Current research trend on urban sewerage system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    The research emphasis has always been on sewerage treatment technology in China, though urban drainage system has gained little attention. In the context of urban drainage system and the problem associated with rain, the focus is still mainly toward the simple “emissions”. While the relationship between conservation and utilization of rainwater resources and urban ecology are popular, the relationship between rainwater discharge and non-point source pollution are often neglected. The reasonable choice of sewerage system is dependent on the collection and discharge of urban sewerage, the applicability and economic benefits, along with the ability to meet the water quality requirements and environmental protection. This paper analyzes and summarizes the development of urban drainage system in china, and introduces different drainage forms. The choice of drainage system should be based on the overall planning of the city, environmental protection requirements, the local natural conditions and water conditions, urban sewerage and water quality, the original drainage facilities, and local climatic conditions. It must be comprehensive to meet the environmental protection requirements, through technical and economic comparison.

  3. Forestry-service entrepreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, A.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of forestry-service enterprise used in this joint study by the TTS-Institute and the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) refers to enterprises and co-operatives (including forest workers operating as entrepreneurs) offering services in the fields of silviculture, basic improvement, planning and wood-harvesting sector. Companies practicing large-scale wood-conversion and traditional forestry-machine and road haulage contractors are not included in this approach. Contact information on the entrepreneurs was collected by turning to the leading wood suppliers, local forest management associations and different registers. A mail questionnaire was launched in the spring of 1998 addressed to 553 persons, and responses were obtained from 376 (68 %). Of these, 320 persons were forestry-service entrepreneurs meeting the definition applied in this study. It can be estimated that there is a total of 450 such entrepreneurs in the country. Those engaged in only a minor degree in providing forestry services are not included in the figure. Almost all forestry-service entrepreneurs provide timber felling as a service. Over half of them do planting, cleaning of young stands, tending of young stands, and forest haulage of timber. Forestry planning is done by nearly a quarter. With the focus of operations as calculated from the enterprise's turnover serving as the basis, it became apparent that the majority of entrepreneurship takes place in the form of logging. The means of transport is mostly an agricultural tractor. The average age of entrepreneurs is 41, but most of them have switched to entrepreneurship only recently. Nearly a third have college level education in forestry, 39 % have switched over from their previous occupation of forest worker. Most entrepreneurs are full-time, private practitioners. Their median turnover in 1997 was FIM 180 000. Nonindustrial private forest owners form the clientele for 82 % of the entrepreneurs, while local forest management

  4. Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linda; Chu, Eric; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Aylett, Alexander; Debats, Jessica; Goh, Kian; Schenk, Todd; Seto, Karen C.; Dodman, David; Roberts, Debra; Roberts, J. Timmons; Vandeveer, Stacy D.

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP21) highlighted the importance of cities to climate action, as well as the unjust burdens borne by the world's most disadvantaged peoples in addressing climate impacts. Few studies have documented the barriers to redressing the drivers of social vulnerability as part of urban local climate change adaptation efforts, or evaluated how emerging adaptation plans impact marginalized groups. Here, we present a roadmap to reorient research on the social dimensions of urban climate adaptation around four issues of equity and justice: (1) broadening participation in adaptation planning; (2) expanding adaptation to rapidly growing cities and those with low financial or institutional capacity; (3) adopting a multilevel and multi-scalar approach to adaptation planning; and (4) integrating justice into infrastructure and urban design processes. Responding to these empirical and theoretical research needs is the first step towards identifying pathways to more transformative adaptation policies.

  5. Urban History in 4 Dimensions - Supporting Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, S.; Friedrichs, K.; Kröber, C.; Bruschke, J.; Henze, F.; Maiwald, F.; Niebling, F.

    2017-08-01

    The new research group on the four-dimensional research and communication of urban history (Urban History 4D) aims to investigate and develop methods and technologies to access extensive repositories of historical media and their contextual information in a spatial model, with an additional temporal component. This will make content accessible to different target groups, researchers and the public, via a 4D browser. A location-dependent augmented-reality representation can be used as an information base, research tool, and means of communicating historical knowledge. The data resources for this research include extensive holdings of historical photographs of Dresden, which have documented the city over the decades, and digitized map collections from the Deutsche Fotothek (German photographic collection) platform. These will lay the foundation for a prototype model which will give users a virtual experience of historic parts of Dresden.

  6. URBAN HISTORY IN 4 DIMENSIONS – SUPPORTING RESEARCH AND EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Münster

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The new research group on the four-dimensional research and communication of urban history (Urban History 4D aims to investigate and develop methods and technologies to access extensive repositories of historical media and their contextual information in a spatial model, with an additional temporal component. This will make content accessible to different target groups, researchers and the public, via a 4D browser. A location-dependent augmented-reality representation can be used as an information base, research tool, and means of communicating historical knowledge. The data resources for this research include extensive holdings of historical photographs of Dresden, which have documented the city over the decades, and digitized map collections from the Deutsche Fotothek (German photographic collection platform. These will lay the foundation for a prototype model which will give users a virtual experience of historic parts of Dresden.

  7. Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both…

  8. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  9. Data quality in citizen science urban tree inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; Bryant C. Scharenbroch; Johan P.A. Ostberg; Lee S. Mueller; Jason G. Henning; Andrew K. Koeser; Jessica R. Sanders; Daniel R. Betz; Rebecca C. Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has been gaining popularity in ecological research and resource management in general and in urban forestry specifically. As municipalities and nonprofits engage volunteers in tree data collection, it is critical to understand data quality. We investigated observation error by comparing street tree data collected by experts to data collected by less...

  10. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  11. Musculoskeletal diseases in forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slađana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.

  12. Working group report on forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIver, D.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss the state of knowledge and information needs concerning potential climate change implications for forestry are presented. The lack of knowledge in some basic processes, for example physiological and genetics, limits ability to evaluate and project the adaptation and responses to climate change. Areas where knowledge is weak include: the potential maximum productivity for a given climate region; the extent to which climate change can be accomodated by genetic adaptation; ways to improve the temporal/spatial distribution of projected precipitation and temperature changes and their magnitudes; the effect of global warming on fire severity and behavior; the current lightning distribution and relationship to fire and the response of this to global warming; socio-economic needs and constraints for management of wilderness areas; carbon dioxide enrichment effects on forest growth and water use efficiency; carbon benefits associated with afforestation and other carbon sequestering programs; impacts of forest practices on the carbon cycle; and the definition of biological diversity on the Great Plains. Recommended research initiatives include improving climate projections, targetted biological process research, monitoring for change and adaptive management, and development of decision support systems

  13. Is woodfuel a strategic issue for the Forestry Commission?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, James

    2000-01-01

    The chapter allows us to answer the question: Is wood fuel a strategic issue for the Forestry Commission? The key points are that: Wood fuel is a strategic issue for the Forestry Commission; Wood fuel is a forest product which can be obtained from both short and long rotation woodlands. Although demand at an industrial scale is relatively low at present there appear to be good prospects for an increase in the near future; The silvicultural systems and forest operations which are employed in the production of wood fuel must be compatible with the UK Forestry Standard and must take account of economic, environmental and social sustainability; The Forestry Commission, as the lead department in GB forestry matters, uses a range of mechanisms in the promotion of sustainable forest management. Many of these are directly applicable to the production of wood fuel; The Forestry Commission's approach to funding research on silvicultural systems and forest operations is based on the identification and removal of barriers which appear to be standing in the way of sustainable forest management. The wood fuel industry could be far more significant to forest management than it is today and this has implications for our research programme. (Author)

  14. UTRaLab – Urban Traffic Research Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Kozempel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Traffic Research Laboratory (UTRaLab is a research and test track for traffic detection methods and sensors. It is located at the Ernst-Ruska-Ufer, in the southeast of the city of Berlin (Germany. The UTRaLab covers 1 km of a highly-frequented urban road and is connected to a motorway. It is equipped with two gantries with distance of 850 m in between and has several outstations for data collection. The gantries contain many different traffic sensors like inductive loops, cameras, lasers or wireless sensors for traffic data acquisition. Additionally a weather station records environmental data. The UTRaLab’s main purposes are the data collection of traffic data on the one hand and testing newly developed sensors on the other hand.

  15. Towards a Community-led Agenda for Urban Sustainability Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eames, Malcolm; Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Adebowale, Maria

    This report describes the findings from the Citizens Science for Sustainability (SuScit) Project. The report provides an overview of the innovative ‘bottom-up' public engagement and foresight process developed through the SuScit Project, before setting out a ten point agenda for urban...... sustainability research developed through our work with the local community in the Mildmay area of Islington, North London....

  16. Exploring the Challenges of Conducting Respectful Research: Seen and Unforeseen Factors within Urban School Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaroo, Julia; Dahya, Negin; Alidina, Shahnaaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of conducting respectful research within urban schools, using the example of one large-scale university-school board partnership in northwestern Toronto. The authors, three research assistants on the project, use their experiences within three of the participating schools to interrogate the research approach…

  17. Bibliometric analysis in the evaluation of journals published by the Forest Research Institute: Forest Research Papers and Folia Forestalia Polonica Series A – Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczykiewicz Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in interest in publishing articles in journals recorded by global databases, in particular the Web of Science ™ Core Collection, which indexes journals found in the Journal Citation Reports. The publication of results in these journals has a significant impact on the assessment of the achievements of researchers and scientific institutions.

  18. Climate Change and Impacts Research Experiences for Urban Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, P.; Carlson, B. E.; Rosenzweig, C.; Austin, S. A.; Peteet, D. M.; Druyan, L.; Fulakeza, M.; Gaffin, S.; Scalzo, F.; Frost, J.; Moshary, F.; Greenbaum, S.; Cheung, T. K.; Howard, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Johnson, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and impacts research for undergraduate urban students is the focus of the Center for Global Climate Research (CGCR). We describe student research and significant results obtained during the Summer 2011. The NSF REU site, is a collaboration between the City University of New York (CUNY) and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). The research teams are mentored by NASA scientists and CUNY faculty. Student projects include: Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin; Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth and Angstrom Exponent Retrieved by AERONET, MISR, and MODIS Measurements; White Roofs to the Rescue: Combating the Urban Heat Island Effect; Tropospheric Ozone Investigations in New York City; Carbon Sequestration with Climate Change in Alaskan Peatlands; Validating Regional Climate Models for Western Sub-Sahara Africa; Bio-Remediation of Toxic Waste Sites: Mineral Characteristics of Cyanide-Treated Mining Waste; Assessment of an Ocean Mixing Parameterization for Climate Studies; Comparative Wind Speed through Doppler Sounding with Pulsed Infrared LIDAR; and Satellite Telemetry and Communications. The CGCR also partners with the New York City Research Initiative (NYCRI) at GISS. The center is supported by NSF ATM-0851932 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA).

  19. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both...... biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone...... is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass...

  20. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...

  1. PLURALITY AND DIVERSITY IN ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the essence of the journal as a truly international platform that covers issues of interest and concern to the global academic and professional community, this issue of Archnet-IJAR, volume 11, issue # 2, July 2017 includes various topics that manifest plurality and diversity as inherent qualities of architectural and urban research published in the journal.  Topics include architectural education and design studio teaching, urban and rural slums, heritage and historic environments in various contexts, participatory planning and the charrette process, assessment of public spaces and plazas, and human perception of the built environment. These topics are debated and analytically discussed within cities, settlements, and urban environments in Bahrain, Bangladesh, California-USA, Libya, Scotland, and Spain. The issue also includes three papers selected from the Fifth Architectural Jordanian International Conference – 1-3 November 2016, which uniquely speak to the context of Jordan and the wider Middle East. The edition ends with a book review that highlights emerging issues related to border landscapes and social ecologies.

  2. Renewable Energy in Urban Areas: Worldwide Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Perea-Moreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the contribution made by different international institutions in the field of urban generation of renewable energy, as a key element to achieve sustainability. This has been possible through the use of the Scopus Elsevier database, and the application of bibliometric techniques through which the articles content published from 1977 to 2017 has been analysed. The results shown by Scopus (e.g., journal articles and conferences proceedings have been taken into account for further analysis by using the following search pattern (TITLE-ABS-KEY ({Renewable energy} AND ({urban} OR ({cit*}. In order to carry out this study, key features of the publications have been taken into consideration, such as type of document, language, thematic area, type of publication, and keywords. As far as keywords are concerned, renewable energy, sustainability, sustainable development, urban areas, city, and energy efficiency, have been the most frequently used. The results found have been broken down both geographically and by institution, showing that China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany and India are the main research countries and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Education China and Tsinghua University the major contributing institutes. With regard to the categories, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Engineering are positioned as the most active categories. The scientific community agrees that the study of the renewable energy generation in cities is of vital importance to achieve more sustainable cities, and for the welfare of a growing urban population. Moreover, this is in line with the energy policies adopted by most of developed countries in order to mitigate climate change effects.

  3. Wind conditions in urban layout - Numerical and experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poćwierz, Marta; Zielonko-Jung, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents research which compares the numerical and the experimental results for different cases of airflow around a few urban layouts. The study is concerned mostly with the analysis of parameters, such as pressure and velocity fields, which are essential in the building industry. Numerical simulations have been performed by the commercial software Fluent, with the use of a few different turbulence models, including popular k-ɛ, k-ɛ realizable or k-ω. A particular attention has been paid to accurate description of the conditions on the inlet and the selection of suitable computing grid. The pressure measurement near buildings and oil visualization were undertaken and described accordingly.

  4. Complexity and agent-based modelling in urban research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    influence on the bigger system. Traditional scientific methods or theories often tried to simplify, not accounting complex relations of actors and decision-making. The introduction of computers in simulation made new approaches in modelling, as for example agent-based modelling (ABM), possible, dealing......Urbanisation processes are results of a broad variety of actors or actor groups and their behaviour and decisions based on different experiences, knowledge, resources, values etc. The decisions done are often on a micro/individual level but resulting in macro/collective behaviour. In urban research...

  5. Developing Research Base Learning in Urban Sociology Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumban Arofah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe an introduction research base learning in the urban sociology class. The idea came after evaluating answer sheet from previous year students. Although the student had an ability to demonstrate their understanding on the subject, but they could not be able to relate and describe the subject into the local urban case. The lecture developed the lesson plan that enable student to do a small research and will be presented in the class. The research report and participation of presentation will be counted in for final score. The project divided into 5 steps; preparation - research – presentation – discussion – summarizing. Reflecting the lesson process, there are several important points as a lesson learned; student have an ability to reflect the theories and perspective in urban sociology, understand the differences of formal migrant and informal migrant, describe the behavior of inhabitant in public sphere, analyzing survival mechanism of informal trader, and understand how urban sub culture maintain their culture and develop their group as a place of fellowships for other sub culture members.Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan digunakannya metode pembelajaran berbasis riset pada mata kuliah Sosiologi Perkotaan. Hal tersebut merupakan hasil dari evaluasi lembar jawaban Mahasiswa pada tes final semester pada tahun sebelumnya. Hasil tes final menunjukkan bahwa Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan materi yang diajarkan dalam pembelajaran namun kesulitan ketika harus mengkaitkannya terhadap permasalahan lokal perkotaan. Pengajar kemudian membuat rencana pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa melakukan penelitian sederhana yang nantinya dipresentasikan di depan kelas. Laporan penelitian dan partisipasi dalam pembelajaran diperhitungkan sebagai komponen penilaian dalam skor akhir. Proyek tersebut dibagi kedalam lima tahapan; persiapan – penelitian lapangan – presentasi – diskusi – simpulan.  Berpijak dari pembelajaran

  6. Ecological forestry: Much more than retention harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2017-01-01

    We read with interest the recent Journal of Forestry article on "Conceptual Ambiguities and Practical Challenges of Ecological Forestry: A Critical Review" (Batavia and Nelson 2016). In it, Batavia and Nelson do a good job of bringing attention to the concept of ecological forestry, and we agree that a clear understanding of what it is...

  7. Robotics in agriculture and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergerman, M.; Billingsley, J.; Reid, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Robotics for agriculture and forestry (A&F) represents the ultimate application of one of our society’s latest and most advanced innovations to its most ancient and important industries. Over the course of history, mechanization and automation increased crop output several orders of magnitude,

  8. Real Forestry for Real Estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jennifer; Fisher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Virginia is poised to see an unprecedented change in forest land ownership. To provide new landowners with information on sustainable forest management, we developed a two-part program, Real Forestry for Real Estate. First, we assembled New Landowner Packets, which contain a variety of sustainable forest management resources. Second, two…

  9. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  10. Economic assessment of use values of near-natural forestry compared with rotational forestry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsalu, Dareskedar Workie; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cost-benefit analysis of converting the current rotational forestry (RF) of Norway spruce stand into near-natural forestry (NNF) of beech, based on two representative soil conditions and visitors popular case areas in Denmark, considering welfare economic values of timber......, recreation provision, and groundwater recharge. The study answers the major research question of how large the welfare economic values of recreation and groundwater benefits of the conversion are as compared with timber benefits. The net present values (NPV) of the benefits were calculated for an infinite...... time horizon at a 3 % discount rate. The results reveal that converting into NNF would result in a NPV of at least 6,832 € ha−1 from use values of recreation and water benefit on a site with good soil and a high visitor frequency, as is typical in the eastern part of Denmark. On a site in the west...

  11. Good practice cases in practical applications of agro and forestry side-streams processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.M.A.; Lambrecht, E.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Gellynck, X.

    2016-01-01

    Valorisation of biomass sidestreams from agriculture and forestry
    AGRIFORVALOR is an EU funded H2020 project with duration from 01.03.2016-31.08.2018. It comprises 16 partners from 6 European countries.
    AGRIFORVALOR aims to close the research and innovation divide on agriculture and forestry

  12. Public response to the urban forest in inner-city business districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2003-01-01

    Revitalization programs are under way in many inner-city business districts. An urban forestry program can be an important element in creating an appealing consumer environment, yet it may not be considered a priority given that there are often many physical improvements needs. This research evaluated the role of trees in consumer/...

  13. Safe and Inclusive Cities: Research to Reduce Urban Violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urbanization brings with it possibilities of improved access to jobs, goods, and services ... base on the connections between urban violence, poverty, and inequalities. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  14. Urban Adolescents Readily Comply with a Complicated Asthma Research Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lovinsky-Desir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Adolescents are often cited as having poor rates of compliance with medical regimens and research protocols. We quantified compliance in a cohort of urban adolescents participating in a complex research protocol in which measures were obtained without direct supervision by research personnel. Methods A total of 54 early adolescents ages 10-13 were asked to wear a vest containing a personal air pollutant exposure monitor for two 24-hour periods and to perform daily peak expiratory flow (PEF for six consecutive days. Compliance with wearing the vest was measured by comparing accelerometer data from a device within the vest to one worn continuously on the child's wrist. Daily PEF data were recorded using an electronic meter. Results A priori definition of compliance was met by 85% of the adolescents by wearing the exposure monitoring vest and 72% by performing PEF. Conclusions These findings suggest that early adolescents can be compliant with complex research protocols that are needed to help bridge gaps in pediatric asthma research.

  15. Proceedings of the 6. Canadian Urban Forest Conference : fires, storms, and pests : crisis in our urban forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    There is an increasing awareness in Canada of the benefits and values of urban forests in environmental, social and economic terms. However, the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia (BC) has infected vast tracts of the province's forest lands over the last several years, and there is evidence that the beetle plague is now causing major devastation in urban areas. Fires are increasing in size and moving from surrounding forest lands into towns and cities in the province and have taken a toll on people and properties in urban areas. Storms and hurricanes have imposed damage on trees in urban areas in the Maritimes, Quebec and Ontario. This conference presented strategies for urban forest managers faced with a variety of disturbances. Issues concerning emergency preparedness and the role of utilities in urban forestry matters were examined and tools for valuing and marketing the urban forest were reviewed. Landscaping for the mitigation of fires was discussed along with tree hazard assessment techniques. The positive financial impact made to communities by their urban forests was emphasized and guidelines and support tools to help municipalities maintain and enhance their urban forests were outlined. The establishment of research priorities for urban forestry was recommended, as well as the identification of unique and threatened habitats both in, and near, large and small municipalities. Twenty-four presentations were given at this conference, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Social Science in Forestry Curricula: A Case Study of Colombia Forestry Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Farleidy Villarraga-Flórez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest management depends greatly on complex social interactions. To understand the underlying human causes of deforestation and to plan forest management, it is of great importance to incorporate social science in the study of forestry. There is insufficient information about the incorporation of social sciences in undergraduate forestry programs. Foresters are well prepared in ecology, silviculture, forest measurements, and operational topics such as logging, but their knowledge of basic elements of social sciences is limited. This study explored the extent to which tertiary forestry education programs in Colombia include social science. It also examined students’ perceptions of social sciences courses in the curriculum. About 10% of course credits are in economics, administration, and foreign language, courses on social science are listed as optional. A high percentage of current sophomore (fifth semester, junior, and senior students do not have clear knowledge of basic social research methods, although a majority have used social science techniques at some point in their academic careers.

  17. Multifunctionality of forestry as basis for creating gross innovational forestry product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Mikhailovich Bolshakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological issues of defining the essence, role and place of multifunctional forest economy (MFFE from the perspective of the scientific rationale of the state forest policy, which contributes to transference of the forest sector to the innovative basis with the emphasis on the regeneration issues. The system-regeneration approach is used as a methodological tool, which is the combination of principles and analysis of the forest sector as a complicated social-economical system based on the methodology of the regeneration process. On the basis of objective economic laws and regulations, a political-economic analysis is carried out to find out the system interrelation of the quality of forest resource use and productivity of social labour in the forest sector. Common features in the circulation of the functions of forestry capable of creating a special form of an innovation, gross innovational forestry product are identified. A model of a multifunctional forestry providing an opportunity to predict the characteristics of innovational products in complex systems is suggested. This model makes the basis for research of the innovative changes potentional for modernization of the innovative forest product.

  18. Reconceptualizing the social contributions of community forestry as citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh

    2015-01-01

    understanding of community forestry's social contributions and role in local development. Looking at citizenship relations available with community forest user groups (CFUG) and local government in Nepal, this research shows that CFUGs offer a democracy refuge to citizens and valued services, yet that local......This study proposes a more complete conceptualization of the social contributions of community forestry by employing the concept of citizenship. This conceptualization situates community forestry processes within the broader local development and institutional landscape, which promises a better...... government is perceived as more important. The comparison responds to debates on institutional pluralism, namely that the presence of multiple institutions appear not to 'fragment' local representation or service provision. The study also discusses how socio-economic characteristics influence citizenship...

  19. Forestry policy and woodfuel markets in Malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewees, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Forestry and energy policies in Malawi place the blame for the country's high rate of deforestation on the demand for woodfuel. The government has been involved in a range of questionable supply-side initiatives, as well as in a number of interventions in woodfuel markets, with the objective of slowing rates of deforestation. It seeks to encourage farmers to grow woodfuel to meet market demands, and has provided subsidies to do so. The Forest Department has kept prices for firewood from its plantations low, both in order to discourage the market for wood from free resources and because of concerns about the impact of high producer prices on the urban poor. In doing so, the government is less able to rely on the market to provide producers with the incentive to plant trees to meet market demands. In any event, the market accounts for a relatively small proportion of total woodfuel demand. Policies do not distinguish between rural household demands and the specific market demands which are having the greatest impact on deforestation: woodfuel for urban markets, for tobacco curring, and for small industries. These, coupled with the expansion of the estate sector, have had a far greater impact on woodland clearance than rural, subsistence woodfuel demands. Rural household energy demands need to be addressed from a much broader perspective which considers the household's larger needs for tree based products or outputs: income, food, fibre, fodder, soil fertility, as well as for fuel. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Plant protective chemicals in forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Freidhager, R.; Hackl, J.

    1993-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine critically the use of pesticides in forestry and the resulting problems. Further, the study points out possibilities for dispensing with chemical treatments altogether. This work is intended to assist those deciding upon suitable forest protection procedures. There are also comments on the particular dangers arising from the use of pesticides (R-Saetze) and safety advice as regards their proper application. The first part of the present study contains both a discussion of the humanotoxicological and ecological consequences of pesticide applications in forestry as well as the legal basis for the sale and use of pesticides in Austria. The following parts (herbicides, insecticides, rodenticides, game deterrents, fungicides) treat the use of pesticides according to their respective area of application. Discussed here are chemical properties, toxicity, and the environmental compatibility of the pesticides in question, including demonstrations of environmentally sound ways to avoid or restrict the use of pesticides. (authors)

  1. Forestry and agriculture in an energy crisis. The flow of energy in Swedish forestry and agriculture in 1956 and 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renborg, U; Uhlin, H E

    1975-01-01

    A report issued by the Energy Committee of the Kungl Skogsoch Landbruksakademi under the chairmanship of U. Renborg (published as Meddelanden Nos. 64 and 65, Institut fur Ekonomi och Statistik, Landburkshogskolan, 1975) is summarized. The flow of resources in both years of comparison is described separately for agriculture and forestry in physical, monetary, and energy terms. Energy input is subdivided into solar energy, direct auxiliary energy (in forestry, chiefly fossil fuel) and indirect auxiliary energy (e.g., fertilizers). Forestry is considered to be still very energy extensive (at 1972 prices, the cost per ha of auxiliary energy was 10% of proceeds vs 18% in agriculture (or 14 vs 384 dr/ha in money terms). Recommendations are made for increasing the input of auxiliary energy (e.g., mechanization and greater use of fertilizers) and for research into its more economic use.

  2. Governance in Ukrainian forestry: trends, impacts and remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnik, M.; Oskam, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we address governance by analysing the relevant institutions and investigating their impact on economic and environmental performance in Ukrainian forestry. The research questions are: how does the transition to a market economy affect the forest institutions and what are the trends,

  3. Southern hardwood forestry group going strong after 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Steve Meadows; Jeff Portwood

    2005-01-01

    On November 15,200 1, the Southern Hardwood Forestry Group (referred to as the Group) met at the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station's Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville, hlississippi to celebrate the Group's 50th anniversary. About 130 members and guests attended to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Group and to honor its charter...

  4. A Living Story of Parks : Urban History Research of Stockholmsskolan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Jiayi

    2016-01-01

    Our thesis started with a continuous discovery of theory and observation. As a group work of landscape architect and architect, during the study of our Urbanism program, we were both curious about the urbanism theories within Europe. Among them, partly in terms of the landscape background, we were particularly interested in the theory of landscape urbanism and its practices in Europe. Spontaneously, this became our original thesis topic.   However, after reading and collecting, we realized la...

  5. Research on Building Urban Sustainability along the Coastal Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Jiaojiao; Fu Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    At present, in China, the research about the urban sustainability construction is still in the exploratory stage. The ecological problems of the coastal area are more sensitive and complicated. In the background of global warming with serious ecological damage, this paper deeply researches on the main characteristics of urban sustainability and measures how to build urban sustainability. Through combining regional environmental with economic ability along the coastal area...

  6. The role of Italian agro-forestry system in controlling the carbon dioxide and methane balance in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, G.; La Mantia, T.

    1992-01-01

    After the EEC decision to stabilize the carbon dioxide emissions by year 2000 at the 1990 level, a study has been financed by the Italian Ministry of Environment in order to define what targets could be set by the year 2005 and what strategies could be implemented in Italy in order to achieve consistent carbon dioxide reductions. The results of the research indicate the possibility for Italy to reduce the CO 2 emissions by 25% compared to the 1990 level. In this paper the options to use biomass in order to increase the sink of carbon in Italy are analyzed. The role of forestry, agricultural wastes and residues, urban wastes, energy crops and organic soil matter has been considered. In a climate stabilization scenario, it could be possible to avoid the emissions (or to capture) a yearly quantity of carbon of 18 millions of tons. The potential reduction of methane emissions from the agro-forestry sector on urban wastes disposal is also presented. (author)

  7. Examining the compatibility between forestry incentive programs in the US and the practice of sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven E Daniels; Michael A Kilgore; Michael G Jacobson; John L Greene; Thomas J Straka

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the intersection between the various federal and state forestry incentive programs and the adoption of sustainable forestry practices on nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) lands in the US. The qualitative research reported here draws upon a series of eight focus groups of NIPF landowners (two each in Minnesota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and South...

  8. International Market Leakage from China’s Forestry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research object. We begin by offering a brief analysis of China’s forestry policy changes, such as the logging quota and Six Key Forestry Programs to determine whether those policies affect timber supply. Second, through the use of three shock variables, carbon leakage is simulated under different scenarios by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model. The results reveal that the magnitude of leakage caused by implementing China’s forestry policies is between 79.7% and 88.8% with carbon leakage mainly displaced to Russia, Southeast Asia, and the EU. Two effective scenarios for reducing market leakage are presented: forest tenure reform and fast growing forest projects to improve domestic timber production, and raising tariffs on timber imports to reduce imports.

  9. REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAMS OF URBAN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Kovalskyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of sustainable development of the territory should be in a state of control and management. The system of urban monitoring of Ukraine does not fully provide information on the level of sustainable development of settlements and regions. Therefore, it is necessary to create systems for monitoring indicators of sustainable development of human settlements and regions. The objective of this study is to analyze the existing programs for stimulating sustainable development in European countries and to develop recommendations on the need to organize such systems in Ukraine and to improve the system of urban monitoring. The article describes such systems and programs: URBACT is a program for sharing best practices between cities by creating thematic networks. URBACT’s mission is to encourage cities to work together and develop integrated solutions to common urban problems, through networking, to learn from each other’s experiences and identify best practices in order to improve urban policies; URBAN AUDIT – a large set of statistical information. The main objective of the system is to provide objective and comparable statistical data on European cities; URBAN ATLAS – provides a pan-European comparison of urban land use data. The information is in the form of open geospatial data. The system is aimed at facilitating work on site planning and site accounting. It is necessary to adopt the best practices of implementing sustainable development technology and apply it in other countries that have chosen a model for their development – a model for sustainable development of the territory. The current system of town-planning monitoring in Ukraine needs to be improved and given a new task – to take into account indicators of sustainable development of the territories. This system is most suitable for this task, since urban monitoring already takes into account certain indicators in the form of spatial data.

  10. Autopsy of forestry ballot initiative: characterizing voter support for Oregon's measure 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Catriona. Armstrong

    2001-01-01

    On November 3,1998, Oregon voters soundly rejected a ballot initiative intended to promote sustainable forestry practices and protect forest ecosystems by restricting clearcut logging and herbicide and pesticide use. We found that initiative support was greater in more urban counties composed of more educated residents earning higher incomes and with higher proportions...

  11. The South Pacific Forestry Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Hon Tat

    1992-01-01

    Only a few countries in the South Pacific are large enough for industrial forestry to be a key component of the national economy, but forests provide benefits to many people. The United Nations FA0 South Pacific Forestry Development Programme was established in April 1988, at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a $385,000 budget, and 14 nations participating. The Programme's...

  12. Fims, forestry information management system: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This geographic information system has been developed as part of Forestry Canada's Eastern Quebec Forestry Program for woodlot owners in eastern Quebec. The goal was to provide private woodlot operators with a management system that uses the most advanced technology available. This booklet provides an overview of this system, explaining how the system can be used.

  13. Community Forestry Incentives and Challenges in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. Sitoe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although communities have been living within forests and dependent on forest resources, in Mozambique, their role was not formally recognized until the late 1990s. The forest law of 1997 was the first to refer to communities as stakeholders in the forest sector, in line with the national Policy and Strategy for the Development of the Forestry and Wildlife Sector. As a new element, several pilot projects were established during the late 1990s and early 2000s to produce lessons that would inform policy and technical aspects. Community forestry received most of the attention until the first decade of this century, however, it seems that while communities have gained a role in the management of the forest sector, there are still challenges to fully implementing and securing community forestry initiatives. In this study, we document the advent and evolution of community forestry in Mozambique, discuss the conditions for success in community forestry, and discuss two cases of community forestry that have survived over beyond the end of external support. We conclude that devolution and training are the basic incentives, but additional incentives, including diversification of sources of revenue from non-destructive forestry activities, are required to maintain the stability of community forestry over time.

  14. Forestry-service entrepreneurs as producers of services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, A.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of forestry-service enterprise used in the joint study (1997-7999) by the TTS-Institute and the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) refers to enterprises and co-operatives (including forest workers operating as entrepreneurs) offering services in the fields of silviculture, basic forest improvement, planning and wood-harvesting sector. Companies practicing large-scale wood-conversion and traditional forestry-machine and road haulage contractors are not included in this approach. It can be estimated that there is a total of 450 such entrepreneurs in the country Those engaged in only a minor degree in providing forestry services are not included in the figure. The nation-wide research material was collected in the form of a mail questionnaire addressed to forestry-service entrepreneurs (n=320) in the spring of 1998. Almost all forestry-service entrepreneurs provide timber felling as a service. More than half of them do planting, cleaning of young stands, tending of young stands, and forest haulage of timber. Forestry planning is done by nearly a quarter. With the focus of operations as calculated from the enterprises turnover serving as the basis, it became apparent that the majority of entrepreneurship takes place in the form of logging. The means of transport is mostly an agricultural tractor. Most of entrepreneurs have switched to entrepreneurship only recently. Nearly a third have college level education in forestry, 39 % have switched over from their previous occupation of forest worker. Most entrepreneurs are full-time, private practitioners. Their median turnover in 1997 was FIM 180 000. Non-industrial private forest owners form the clientele for 82 % of the entrepreneurs, while local forest management associations are sources of employment for 68 % of the entrepreneurs. As to the average breakdown of the sources of their turnover 31 % is earned from jobs done for local forest management associations, 31 % comes from local forest management

  15. Forestry and the aquatic environment: studies in an Irish context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Giller

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the interaction between plantation forestry and aquatic environments is essential to develop environmentally compatible and sustainable management further. Given, in Ireland, the generally low levels of atmospheric pollution, its geology and maritime climate, and the unique fauna and flora due to its island history, such studies are important not only in the regional context, but also internationally, as they provide an opportunity to examine the effect of forestry and forest management practices on aquatic systems per se, without the complications of acidification. Here, some of the major findings of forestry and water research in Ireland have been reviewed and compared with those from the UK and elsewhere. Plantation forests do not exacerbate acidification in the south of Ireland (Munster as a whole so that the influence of forestry on water chemistry is far less important than in other parts of the country (such as Wicklow and Mayo. The main forestry influence on streams in Munster is more likely through physical factors, but their nature is unclear. In a few catchments some negative effects are evident, but in many others apparently positive forest effects occur. In this context, smaller scale catchment-level effects appear to be more important in explaining the various relationships between plantation forests and stream ecology than larger scale regional factors. The management of riparian zones, particularly in forested catchments, is of major importance for the structure and functioning of aquatic communities and further work is needed on best management practices. It is suggested that it is unreasonable to base forest management on national Forest-Fisheries guidelines since regions vary too much and the signal from local conditions is too strong. The approach for environmentally benign, scientifically sound forestry management has to be at the catchment scale. Trees in the right places may be beneficial ecologically but

  16. Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaib Lwasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing

  17. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.

  18. Participatory Climate Research in a Dynamic Urban Context: Activities of the Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Montalto, Franco; Solecki, William

    2016-01-01

    The Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN), one of ten NOAA-RISAs, supports resilience efforts in the urban corridor stretching from Philadelphia to Boston. Challenges and opportunities include the diverse set of needs in broad urban contexts, as well as the integration of interdisciplinary perspectives. CCRUN is addressing these challenges through strategies including: 1) the development of an integrated project framework, 2) stakeholder surveys, 3) leveraging extreme weather events as focusing opportunities, and 4) a seminar series that enables scientists and stakeholders to partner. While recognizing that the most extreme weather events will always lead to surprises (even with sound planning), CCRUN endeavors to remain flexible by facilitating place-based research in an interdisciplinary context.

  19. The urban land debate in the global South : New avenues for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, Griet|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Noorloos, Femke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/342952706; Klaufus, Christien

    2017-01-01

    The global ‘land grab’ debate is going urban and needs a specific conceptual framework to analyze the diverse modalities through which land commodification and speculation are transforming cities across the globe. This article identifies new avenues for research on urban land issues by drawing on an

  20. The urban land debate in the global South : New avenues for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.; van Noorloos, F.; Klaufus, C.

    The global ‘land grab’ debate is going urban and needs a specific conceptual framework to analyze the diverse modalities through which land commodification and speculation are transforming cities across the globe. This article identifies new avenues for research on urban land issues by drawing on an

  1. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  2. Research on the Development and Enlightenment of Urban Environmental Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingjing; Li, Guanglou; Zhang, Lu; Shou, Youping; Li, Yajuan; Ye, Wei; Xu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, under the promotion of reform and opening up, China's economic development has greatly accelerated, urbanization is also gradually accelerated. In the process of urbanization, there are many problems. The development of environmental engineering is one of the most important points. While building our living environment; we should also pay attention to the implementation of sustainable development strategies. First of all, This paper describes basic situation of environmental engineering, and finally provided some measures to promote the strengthening of China's environmental engineering

  3. Research on application of intelligent computation based LUCC model in urbanization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zemin

    2007-06-01

    Global change study is an interdisciplinary and comprehensive research activity with international cooperation, arising in 1980s, with the largest scopes. The interaction between land use and cover change, as a research field with the crossing of natural science and social science, has become one of core subjects of global change study as well as the front edge and hot point of it. It is necessary to develop research on land use and cover change in urbanization process and build an analog model of urbanization to carry out description, simulation and analysis on dynamic behaviors in urban development change as well as to understand basic characteristics and rules of urbanization process. This has positive practical and theoretical significance for formulating urban and regional sustainable development strategy. The effect of urbanization on land use and cover change is mainly embodied in the change of quantity structure and space structure of urban space, and LUCC model in urbanization process has been an important research subject of urban geography and urban planning. In this paper, based upon previous research achievements, the writer systematically analyzes the research on land use/cover change in urbanization process with the theories of complexity science research and intelligent computation; builds a model for simulating and forecasting dynamic evolution of urban land use and cover change, on the basis of cellular automation model of complexity science research method and multi-agent theory; expands Markov model, traditional CA model and Agent model, introduces complexity science research theory and intelligent computation theory into LUCC research model to build intelligent computation-based LUCC model for analog research on land use and cover change in urbanization research, and performs case research. The concrete contents are as follows: 1. Complexity of LUCC research in urbanization process. Analyze urbanization process in combination with the contents

  4. Safe and Inclusive Cities Research to Reduce Urban Violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-08

    TOm mCKeLVey. Date: Tuesday April 8, 2014, 2:00-4:00pm | Location: Medellín, Colombia, Plaza Mayor (Yellow Pavilion, Room 5) ... discuss the challenges of creating safe urban spaces where all residents can ... MULTI FUNDER INITIATIVE.

  5. Integration of Forestry Industrial Chain in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Zhanzhan; Wang, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Smile Curve and Michael E. Porter’ value chain model, this paper points out that China’s forestry industry stays at the low end of the value chain for a long time. Raw materials are imported from foreign countries and also sold in foreign countries. Then, the authors analyze characteristics and existing problems of China’s forestry industrial chain. They put forward the development direction of China’s forestry industrial chain with reference to International Paper Compan...

  6. MillionTreesNYC, Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecology Symposium March 5-6, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika S. Svendsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The MillionTreesNYC Subcommittee on Research and Evaluation was formed shortly following the 2007 launch of MillionTreesNYC, a citywide, public-private initiative with an ambitious goal: to plant and care for one million new trees across New York City’s five boroughs by 2017. Members of this committee are comprised of academics, government researchers and local practitioners with experience in the fields of natural resource management and community development.On March 5-6, 2010, over two hundred researchers and practitioners came together at The New School to showcase scientific innovation in the field of urban forestry and greening. The MillionTreesNYC, Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecology Research Symposium engaged professionals from a broad range of disciplines including sociology, planning, epidemiology, earth sciences, hydrology, forestry, ecology, and design who were uniquely positioned to discuss new ideas.

  7. Identifying common practices and challenges for local urban tree monitoring programs across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; E. Gregory McPherson; Bryant C. Scharenbroch; Julia. Bartens

    2013-01-01

    Urban forest monitoring data are essential to assess the impacts of tree planting campaigns and management programs. Local practitioners have monitoring projects that have not been well documented in the urban forestry literature. To learn more about practitioner-driven monitoring efforts, the authors surveyed 32 local urban forestry organizations across the United...

  8. implementing socially responsive forestry extension programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responsive forestry extension model is outlined. It is contended ... solutions it has been argued that education (formal or informal) is a ... boards and ceo-tourism are also employed to disseminate ..... environmental conservation and sustained.

  9. Application in agriculture, forestry and environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Holmes, J.W.; Williams, B. G.; Winkworth, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This consideration of the applications of the neutron method in forestry, agriculture and environmental science, focusses on the analyses of the data which can be obtained with the neutron method and draws attention to problem situations associated with its use

  10. Sustainable development in Cameroon's forestry sector: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    passed to facilitate the implementation of this law. (Oyono, 2004; Alemagi ... to be responsible for their negative environmental impacts and offers a vision for ... socio-economic sustainability within the forestry sector in. Cameroon, it is important ...

  11. Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy

    1976-01-01

    Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.

  12. 2015 Oregon Department Forestry Lidar: Northwest OR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GeoTerra, Inc. was selected by Oregon Department of Forestry to provide Lidar remote sensing data including LAZ files of the classified Lidar points and surface...

  13. Sustainable development in Cameroon's forestry sector: Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... sector, and proffers a series of policy recommendations for advancing sustainable forest management in ... Since the enactment of Cameroon's comprehensive forestry law (Law N0.

  14. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal is published by the Kenya ... water resource base to meet the challenges of poverty alleviation and food security. ... on maize growth, nitrogen uptake and yield in a semi-arid Kenyan environment ...

  15. Forestry entrepreneurs' environmental know-how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyytiaeinen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The TTS-Institute's Department of Forestry looked into the subject of environmental know-how of forestry entrepreneurs by means of a questionnaire study conducted in Etelae-Karjala, south-eastern Finland. This study is part of a pilot project called (SME Entrepreneurs' Environmental Know-How in the Forestry Sector: Development and Training) financed by the European Social Fund. The implementation of the project is the shared responsibility of Tmi JukkaNet, TTS-Institute and the Finnish Association of Machine Con- tractors. The TTS-Institute's Department of Forestry mailed questionnaire forms to 138 entrepreneurs at the beginning of the year. The objective was to obtain information on the companies' planning of their future, operating culture, quality of operations, learning, their knowledge of the environmental guidelines, and general attitude concerning matters connected to the environment. The response percentage was 50 %. The responses were divided as follows: forestry contracting 22 (32 %), agricultural practitioners 30 (43 %), and others 17 (25 %). Most of all, the entrepreneurs were found to turn to trade journals as sources of information. Environmental training had been obtained by every third person during the previous year. Sixty four percent of all the respondents had not taken part in any environmental training during the previous year. Of those engaged in forestry contracting, 71 % had been exposed to training; the corresponding figure for agricultural entrepreneurs was 27 %. Entrepreneurs co-operate in environmental matters most of all with their customers and landowners. Co-operation with the environmental organisations was most inadequate. Agricultural entrepreneurs cooperated with environmental authorities more than their colleagues engaged in forestry contracting. Quality systems connected to care of the environment were rare. Only two contractors, two practitioners of farm forestry and one value-added converter of wood had a quality system

  16. The potential of grey alder plantation forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    1996-12-31

    A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  18. Factors Influencing Levels of CSR Disclosure by Forestry Companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With the international community’s increasing concern for social and environmental problems, the fulfilment and disclosure of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been advocated and promoted across the world. Forestry companies, which are particularly sensitive to environmental and social issues, are increasingly developing and improving their levels of CSR disclosure. However, information on emerging country contexts is still lacking. To fill this gap, this study focuses on Chinese forestry companies’ CSR disclosure and introduces new disclosure indices through content analysis of annual reports by listed companies between 2011–2015. It then builds a correlation analysis of the factors influencing these companies’ disclosure indices in order to gain a better understanding of the current situation for CSR implementation by forestry companies in emerging economies like China. Although context-specific, our findings can provide a reference for researchers and policy makers, and promote sustainable development via improved CSR disclosure by forestry companies, especially in developing regions.

  19. Prospects for Genomic Research in Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Krutovsky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Conifers are keystone species of boreal forests. Their whole genome sequencing, assembly and annotation will allow us to understand the evolution of the complex ancient giant conifer genomes that are 4 times larger in larch and 7–9 times larger in pines than the human genome. Genomic studies will allow also to obtain important whole genome sequence data and develop highly polymorphic and informative genetic markers, such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that can be efficiently used in timber origin identification, for genetic variation monitoring, to study local and climate change adaptation and in tree improvement and conservation programs.

  20. 78 FR 15928 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... apportionment of funds. Advisory Council Organization The Council will be comprised of not more than 20 members. The members appointed to the Council will be fairly balanced in terms of the points of view... relevancy to a membership category. Geographic balance and a balanced distribution among the categories are...

  1. AHP for indicators of sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls-Donderis, P.; Vallés-Planells, M.; Galiana, F.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To verify and prioritise a set of sustainable forestry indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Area of study: Participants were Spanish; indicators were meant to be applied in forest management units (FMUs) under Mediterranean conditions. Material and methods: An AHP questionnaire was developed and sent to experts. Main Results: the set of indicators aimed to be comprehensive. Indicators were ranked and the ranking allows ascertaining what aspects are more relevant in relation to Mediterranean sustainable forestry. Issues like regeneration or habitats conservation got high values, whereas others like hunting activity were not seen as important by most experts. Research highlights: - Sustainable forest management (SFM) considerations for Mediterranean forests. - Indicators adapt to ecosystem services.

  2. AHP for indicators of sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valls-Donderis, P.; Vallés-Planells, M.; Galiana, F.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To verify and prioritise a set of sustainable forestry indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Area of study: Participants were Spanish; indicators were meant to be applied in forest management units (FMUs) under Mediterranean conditions. Material and methods: An AHP questionnaire was developed and sent to experts. Main Results: the set of indicators aimed to be comprehensive. Indicators were ranked and the ranking allows ascertaining what aspects are more relevant in relation to Mediterranean sustainable forestry. Issues like regeneration or habitats conservation got high values, whereas others like hunting activity were not seen as important by most experts. Research highlights: - Sustainable forest management (SFM) considerations for Mediterranean forests. - Indicators adapt to ecosystem services.

  3. Stocktaking forestry knowledge in Eastern Mediterranean: a glimpse on where do practitioners stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattout, E.; Faour, G.; El Sarraf, N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To identify the lines of research initiatives and programmes on forest ecosystem and trees and shed lights on the need of new insights in forestry sector. Area of Study: Eastern Mediterranean countries (i.e. Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey). Materials and Methods: Online assessment through search on Google, Science Direct, Tandfonline, Forestry related journals, PLOS ONE, FAOSTAT, FAO-Agris, Unasylva, and Research Gate. Direct contacts were made with researchers at universities and professionals from international development organisations. Main results: The highest contribution in research is recorded in Turkey, followed by Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. Forest ecosystem functioning was ranked first in the research thematic areas, followed by forest ecosystem management. Research interest focuses on limited genera of coniferous and broadleaf trees. Emerging needs feature the execution of comprehensive national and regional stocktaking exercises to harmonize research agendas; ensuring synergies between international agreements’ goals (e.g. SDGs) and national policies instruments (e.g. NBSAPs); alignment of research agendas with national and international related frameworks; revisiting governance structure and regulatory measures and laws in the forestry sector. Research highlights: Insights put in the interface a new outlook on the leadership profile and foundation of interdisciplinary communities of practices. Rethink academic forestry related programmes and transform the approaches adopted to aim for more inclusiveness leading to stronger knowledge and coherent and successful practices in forestry.

  4. Stocktaking forestry knowledge in Eastern Mediterranean: a glimpse on where do practitioners stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattout, E.; Faour, G.; El Sarraf, N.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To identify the lines of research initiatives and programmes on forest ecosystem and trees and shed lights on the need of new insights in forestry sector. Area of Study: Eastern Mediterranean countries (i.e. Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey). Materials and Methods: Online assessment through search on Google, Science Direct, Tandfonline, Forestry related journals, PLOS ONE, FAOSTAT, FAO-Agris, Unasylva, and Research Gate. Direct contacts were made with researchers at universities and professionals from international development organisations. Main results: The highest contribution in research is recorded in Turkey, followed by Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. Forest ecosystem functioning was ranked first in the research thematic areas, followed by forest ecosystem management. Research interest focuses on limited genera of coniferous and broadleaf trees. Emerging needs feature the execution of comprehensive national and regional stocktaking exercises to harmonize research agendas; ensuring synergies between international agreements’ goals (e.g. SDGs) and national policies instruments (e.g. NBSAPs); alignment of research agendas with national and international related frameworks; revisiting governance structure and regulatory measures and laws in the forestry sector. Research highlights: Insights put in the interface a new outlook on the leadership profile and foundation of interdisciplinary communities of practices. Rethink academic forestry related programmes and transform the approaches adopted to aim for more inclusiveness leading to stronger knowledge and coherent and successful practices in forestry.

  5. Language, Space, Power: Reflections on Linguistic and Spatial Turns in Urban Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuolteenaho, Jani; Ameel, Lieven; Newby, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    to conceptualise the power-embeddedness of urban spaces, processes and identities. More recently, however, the ramifications of the linguistic turn across urban research have proliferated as a result of approaches in which specific place-bound language practices and language-based representations about cities have......) and thematic interests (from place naming to interactional uses of spoken language) that have been significant channels in re-directing urban scholars’ attention to the concrete workings of language. As regards the spatial turn, we highlight the relevance of the connectivity-, territoriality-, attachment...

  6. Forestry and Environment Legislation in Collision – Case Study Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Nevenić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Conflicts in the Serbian forestry sector have not been very often used as a research topic in our country. This paper presents the results from a case study conducted in the National park 'Fruška gora'. The aim of the study was to explore the collision between forestry and environmental legislation and related institutions and organizations. Material and Methods: Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews. Interviews were conducted with the managers of the National park and the representatives of the scientific communities, private forest owners as well representatives from the relevant Ministry. The theoretical framework is a combination of the main conflict elements embedded in the structure of the main aspects like culture, conflict management and policy development. Results and Conclusion: According to the interviewees` opinions the roots of the conflict can be found in overlapping jurisdictions of the institutions and organizations in the forestry sector as well as in the implementation of the legislative and management plans. Conflict management strategy is based on sustainable management of protected areas and better implementation of laws.

  7. Forestry: from its origins to the XIX century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Valle A, Jorge Ignacio

    1997-01-01

    Secondary information published in periodicals and books about the origin of the silvicultural activity. Which came along and even before the development of agriculture. Was used for this essay emphasis is put on the transformation of such activity into a science. silviculture or even better, forestry which is consolidated since the middle of the 18th- century when it is formally taught in Germany and other Germanic countries, and forestal services like the Prussian are created. The first theoretical concepts of sustainable development come from this time (G.L. Harting, H, Von Cotta) although since the 13th century forests organized with this philosophy already existed in central Europe. This is where sustainability, so much in fashion nowadays in ecology and economics. has its most remote antecedent. France also played an important role in the development of forestry specially for having included watershed management within forest sciences whereas German contributions were regarding economics and forest measurement. The origin of the profession seems to be in the English forest keepers and the French water and forest masters, from the beginning of the 12th and 13th century respectively. During the period of time studied, forest sciences had close relations with biological. Mathematical and economical sciences but not with the agricultural with which they seemed lo associate only towards the beginning of this century for circumstantial reasons tropical silviculture was born in India in the 19th century where the first teachers and researchers were German foresters hired by the English crown. In America it was also German foresters who founded the first forestry school in the United States and contributed to the creation of the forestry service in this country

  8. Recommendations to bridge rural/urban drug-use(r) research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, C G; Edwards, R W

    1999-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed by a group of United States drug-use(r) researchers interested in rural and urban research and practice who met in Lexington, Kentucky, in October 1996. Overall, there was consensus about the importance of better understanding the urban/rural drug and alcohol use/dependency continuum. It was emphasized that drug and alcohol use/dependency are chronic and relapsing disorders. Definitions of rural and urban are most important, and different definitions may be associated with factors that are masked by population density. Specific recommendations are presented in the following areas: Rural Factors, Epidemiology, HIV/AIDS, Treatment and Other Services, Migration, Youth, Protective Factors, Systems Perspective, Measurement, Confidentiality, Criminal Justice, Research, Policy Research, Economic Factors, Service Providers, and Managed Care.

  9. MillionTreesNYC, Green infrastructure, and urban ecology: building a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline W.T. Lu; Megan Shane; Erika Svendsen; Lindsay Campbell; Cristiana Fragola; Marianne Krasny; Gina Lovasl; David Maddox; Simon McDonnell; P. Timon McPhearson; Franco Montalto; Andrew Newman; Ellen Pehek; Ruth A. Rae; Richard Stedman; Keith G. Tidball; Lynne Westphal; Tom Whitlow

    2009-01-01

    MillionTreesNYC is a citywide, public-private initiative with an ambitious goal: to plant and care for one million new trees across New York City's five boroughs by 2017. The Spring 2009 workshop MillionTreesNYC, Green Infrastructure, and Urban Ecology: Building a Research Agenda brought together more than 100 researchers, practitioners and New York City...

  10. Emerging Information Literacy and Research-Method Competencies in Urban Community College Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    This article details an assignment developed to teach students at urban community colleges information-literacy skills. This annotated bibliography assignment introduces students to library research skills, helps increase information literacy in beginning college students, and helps psychology students learn research methodology crucial in…

  11. Using Remote Sensing Data and Research Results for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Maury; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides information on the characteristics of the urban heat island, research designed to provide the data needed to develop effective urban heat island reduction strategies, and the development of local working groups to develop implementation plans. As background, an overview of research results on the urban heat island phenomenon and the resultant effect on energy usage and air quality will be explored. The use of more reflective roofing materials, paving materials, tree planting, and other initiatives will be explored as a basis for strategies to mitigate urban heat islands and improve the urban environment. Current efforts to use aircraft remote sensing data in Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City and our work with non-profit organizations designated to lead public education and strategic development efforts will be presented. Efforts to organize working groups comprised of key stakeholders, the process followed in communicating research results, and methodology for soliciting feedback and incorporating ideas into local plans, policies and decision-making will be discussed. Challenges in developing and transferring data products and research results to stakeholders will be presented. It is our ultimate goal that such efforts be integrated into plans and/or decision models that encourage sustainable development.

  12. Traversing Urban Social Spaces: How Online Research Helps Unveil Offline Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Julie-Anne; Foth, Marcus; Adkins, Barbara

    This article presents a discussion of methodological considerations in urban informatics research. As an exemplar, we examine a health communication research blog set up to produce insights into the choices made by residents of a master-planned development affecting their health and well-being. It served both as a repository for collection and a tool for the strategic selection and analysis of internet research data. We reflect on the nature of the online data contributed by an urban demographic about their physical activity practices within this particular neighbourhood. The blog provided a forum for detailed responses which allowed participants to reflect on their answers over a period of time, and write with the privacy and protection effects provided by the anonymity of contributions, coupled with the advantage of being able to view the contributions made by other residents. Opinions, stories and discussions were instigated by questions and photographs posted on the blog about residents' levels of engagement with the neighbourhood for staying active and healthy. Residents reported on the social and physical aspects of the new urban environment that either encouraged or inhibited them from leading active and healthy lifestyles. In this context the blog provided insights into the role of both the planning rhetoric associated with a new urban village and the meanings attached to the lifeworld of the residents in their health practices. A total of 214 contributions to the blog were made by the residents, with the analysis and findings highlighting implications for urban design and health promotion research and practice.

  13. Achieving Sustainability Goals for Urban Coasts in the US Northeast: Research Needs and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Sarah L.; Montalto, Franco; Orton, Philip; Antoine, Adrienne; Peters, Danielle; Jones, Hunter; Parris, Adam; Blumberg, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Sandy and other recent extreme events, urban coastal communities in the northeast region of the United States are beginning or stepping up efforts to integrate climate adaptation and resilience into long-term coastal planning. Natural and nature-based shoreline strategies have emerged as essential components of coastal resilience and are frequently cited by practitioners, scientists, and the public for the wide range of ecosystem services they can provide. However, there is limited quantitative information associating particular urban shoreline design strategies with specific levels of ecosystem service provision, and research on this issue is not always aligned with decision context and decision-maker needs. Engagement between the research community, local government officials and sustainability practitioners, and the non-profit and private sectors can help bridge these gaps. A workshop to bring together these groups discussed research gaps and challenges in integrating ecosystem services into urban sustainability planning in the urban northeast corridor. Many themes surfaced repeatedly throughout workshop deliberations, including the challenges associated with ecosystem service valuation, the transferability of research and case studies within and outside the region, and the opportunity for urban coastal areas to be a focal point for education and outreach efforts related to ecosystem services.

  14. Differences between urban and rural population with respect to demand on forestry aspects, in a case study of the Turkish province of Bal kesir Diferenças entre a população urbana e rural em matéria das suas exigências de silvicultura, estudo de caso da província turca de Bal kesir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Yurdakul Erol

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of urban and rural areas are important participants in the process of developing and implementing forest policy. Thus, it is essential to determine their demands and attitudes towards forestry issues. In this context, the demands and evaluation of forest functions are investigated in a case study of the Turkish province of Bal kesir. The findings of the case study show that differences in terms of demands among inhabitants of rural and urban areas are related to forest fires fighting, crimes fighting, forestry-tourism integration, forestation and regeneration activities, and the enlargement of forest areas. The main differences among their assessments of forest functions are related to fire wood production, and the provision of flood and erosion control, nature protection, and recreational opportunities. The findings are important for conflict management and for local decision making. By using the findings of similar studies, the provincial organizations should harmonize their priorities with the expectations of relevant interest groups.A política de silvicultura da população urbana e rural é uma participante fundamental no processo de formação e execução das florestas. Portanto, é importante determinar as exigências e as aproximações em matéria da silvicultura. A determinação das exigências da população urbana e rural no âmbito desse processo e a interpretação destinada aos assuntos das funções da floresta foram pesquisadas tendo como base a província turca de Bal kesir. As constatações resultantes do estudo na região demonstraram que as diferenças entre as exigências da população urbana e rural em matéria da silvicultura são a luta contra os incêndios florestais, a luta contra os delitos florestais, a integração de silvicultura-turismo, as atividades de reflorestamento e rejuvenescimento da floresta e a ampliação dos campos florestais. Por outro lado, as diferenças fundamentais entre as

  15. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  16. Brief introductory guide to agent-based modeling and an illustration from urban health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Auchincloss

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation.

  17. Brief introductory guide to agent-based modeling and an illustration from urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation.

  18. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  19. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  20. Urban growth and water access in sub-Saharan Africa: Progress, challenges, and emerging research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, S; Adams, E A; Neville, G; Wada, Y; de Sherbinin, A; Mullin Bernhardt, E; Adamo, S B

    2017-12-31

    For the next decade, the global water crisis remains the risk of highest concern, and ranks ahead of climate change, extreme weather events, food crises and social instability. Across the globe, nearly one in ten people is without access to an improved drinking water source. Least Developed Countries (LDCs) especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are the most affected, having disproportionately more of the global population without access to clean water than other major regions. Population growth, changing lifestyles, increasing pollution and accelerating urbanization will continue to widen the gap between the demand for water and available supply especially in urban areas, and disproportionately affect informal settlements, where the majority of SSA's urban population resides. Distribution and allocation of water will be affected by climate-induced water stresses, poor institutions, ineffective governance, and weak political will to address scarcity and mediate uncertainties in future supply. While attempts have been made by many scientists to examine different dimensions of water scarcity and urban population dynamics, there are few comprehensive reviews, especially focused on the particular situation in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper contributes to interdisciplinary understanding of urban water supply by distilling and integrating relevant empirical knowledge on urban dynamics and water issues in SSA, focusing on progress made and associated challenges. It then points out future research directions including the need to understand how alternatives to centralized water policies may help deliver sustainable water supply to cities and informal settlements in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Research on the Method of Urban Waterlogging Flood Routing Based on Hexagonal Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI Guangling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An evolution of the urban waterlogging flood routing was studied in this paper based on the method of hexagonal grid modeling. Using the method of discrete grid, established an urban geometry model on account of the regular multi-scale discrete grid. With the fusion of 3D topographic survey data and 2D building vector data, formed a regular network model of surface. This model took multi special block into account, such as urban terrain and buildings. On this basis, a method of reverse flow deduction was proposed, which was an inverse computation from the state of flood to the evolution process. That is, based on the water depth of flood, made use of the connectivity with the outfall to calculate the range of water logging, and then implemented the urban waterlogging flood simulation deduction. The test indicated that, this method can implement the evolution of urban waterlogging scenario deduction effectively. And the correlational research could provide scientific basis for urban disaster prevention and emergency decision-making.

  2. Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. rethinking forestry and natural resources higher Education in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is agreed that higher education relating to forestry and natural resources in Ethiopia ...... Forestry education and training for non-traditional target groups; ... in modern spatial information science and survey techniques; (f) contributing to the.

  5. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Battad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2 prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE. The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA’s plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA’s plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI’s ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS Server

  6. Activities of the work efficiency institute`s department of forestry; Tyoetehoseuran metsaeosaston toiminta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, J

    1997-12-31

    In accordance with the demarcation of tasks among Finnish forest-engineering research institutions, the Work Efficiency Institute`s Department of Forestry is the only one specialising in research and development focusing on forestry work involving low capital investments and done by landowners on their own estate or on a part-time basis outside their estates. This activity also includes the small-scale utilisation of wood and peat in heating. This bulletin presents a review of our recent research and development work. A significant stepping up of the utilisation of bioenerqy is one of the objectives of the Finnish Government. This has been noted in the Work Efficiency Institute`s Department of Forestry`s work programme in recent years by increasing the role of research and development promoting the consumption of bioenergy. As one of the participants in the National Bioenergy research programme (1993-1998), we are looking into the harvesting of small-diameter wood and wood residues, technology employed in the production of wood chips and fuelwood, cost calculations in fuelwood harvesting, energy entrepreneurship, and the development of fireplaces. Other recent topics of research engaged in by the Department of Forestry include possibilities in the mechanisation of tending of young stands, excavator-loaders in timber harvesting, and promoting self-reliance among landowners in carrying out of forestry work. On-going studies include comparison of pruning methods, a survey of co-operation among landowners at the local community level, and a study looking into the quality of wood produced for delivery sales. (orig.)

  7. Forestry in the Ukraine : The road ahead?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnik, M.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2000-01-01

    The economy of the Ukraine is in transition from a communist command-and-control to a capitalist system. In this paper, we describe the current state of its forest resources, the structure of its forestry and wood processing sectors, and the problems facing policy makers. While the forest sector

  8. A guide to forestry investment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmar W. Rose; Charles R. Blinn; Gary J. Brand

    1988-01-01

    It is often necessary to choose between several forestry projects. This paper provides the background needed to evaluate projects from a financial perspective. The basic steps for preparing a project analysis, suggestions for dealing with uncertainty, and techniques for monitoring a projects are presented.

  9. Emissions from land use change and forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochanda, N.

    1998-01-01

    This inventory focuses on net input of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as a result of land use change and forestry. The report shows the importance of dynamics of the afforestation and defforestation processes in determining the presence of carbon dioxide in the air

  10. Forestry BMP Implementation Costs for Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Shaffer; H.L. Haney; E.G. Worrell; W.M. Aust

    1998-01-01

    Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) are operational techniques used to protect water quality during timber harvesting operations. The implementation cost of BMPs is important to loggers, forest landowners, and the forest industry. This study provides an estimate of BMP implementation cost on a per harvested acre basis for the coastal plain, Piedmont, and...

  11. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Maohua; Haapanen, Toni; Singh, Ram Babu; Hietala, Reija

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  12. Undergraduate Student Research Opportunities and Economic Revitalization through Urban Agriculture Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläppi, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Through interactions with the recently formed Cooperative of the Institute of Urban Agriculture and Nutrition (CIUAN), a catalyst initiative co-governed by community organizations and academia to engage in mutually beneficial research and teaching projects, Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is supporting community efforts to bring…

  13. Proceedings of the Conference on Industry and Day Care (Urban Research Corporation, Chicago, 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban Research Corp., Chicago, IL.

    This booklet of conference proceedings reflects the efforts of the Urban Research Corporation to continue conversation between industry and day care specialists. A group of 175 industry representatives, early childhood specialists, community agency representatives, and day care operators and franchisers convened to discuss their mutual concerns.…

  14. Social-ecological research in urban natural areas: an emergent process for integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle L. Johnson; D. S. Novem Auyeung; Nancy F. Sonti; Clara C. Pregitzer; Heather L. McMillen; Richard Hallett; Lindsay K. Campbell; Helen M. Forgione; Mina Kim; Sarah Charlop-Powers; Erika S. Svendsen

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of urban landscapes requires integrating social and ecological research. Here, we integrate parallel social and ecological assessments of natural areas within New York City. We examined social data (from a rapid assessment of park use and meaning, collected at a park zone level) alongside ecological data (froma plot-based...

  15. Place visitation, place avoidance, and attitudinal ambivalence: new concepts for place research in urban recreation settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Klenosky; Christine A. Vogt; Herbert W. Schroeder; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on recent developments in research on consumer behavior and attitudes to better understand the range of behaviors and attitudes inherent in a diverse urban area. Using a mail survey of Chicago-area residents, we collected data (1) to examine residents' past visitation behavior and recommendations of places to visit and to avoid for a range of...

  16. Urban heat island research from 1991 to 2015: a bibliometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qunfang; Lu, Yuqi

    2018-02-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) database from the Web of Science was performed to review urban heat island (UHI) research from 1991 to 2015 and statistically assess its developments, trends, and directions. In total, 1822 papers published in 352 journals over the past 25 years were analyzed for scientific output; citations; subject categories; major journals; outstanding keywords; and leading countries, institutions, authors, and research collaborations. The number of UHI-related publications has continuously increased since 1991. Meteorology atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences, and construction building technology were the three most frequent subject categories. Building and Environment, International Journal of Climatology, and Theoretical and Applied Climatology were the three most popular publishing journals. The USA and China were the two leading countries in UHI research, contributing 49.56% of the total articles. Chinese Academy of Science, Arizona State University, and China Meteorological Administration published the most UHI articles. Weng QH and Santamouris M were the two most prolific authors. Author keywords were classified into four major groups: (1) research methods and indicators, e.g., remote sensing, field measurement, and models; (2) generation factors, e.g., impervious urban surfaces, urban geometry, waste heat, vegetation, and pollutants; (3) environmental effects, e.g., urban climate, heat wave, ecology, and pollution; and (4) mitigation and adaption strategies, e.g., roof technology cooling, reflective cooling, vegetation cooling, and urban geometry cooling. A comparative analysis of popular issues revealed that UHI determination (intensity, heat source, supporting techniques) remains the central topic, whereas UHI impacts and mitigation strategies are becoming the popular issues that will receive increasing scientific attention in the future. Modeling will continue to be the

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes: state-of-the-art review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Leichang; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Huihui; Tsang, Daniel C W; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction has been widely applied to obtain bioenergy and high-value chemicals from biomass in the presence of a solvent at moderate to high temperature (200-550°C) and pressure (5-25MPa). This article summarizes and discusses the conversion of agricultural and forestry wastes by hydrothermal liquefaction. The history and development of hydrothermal liquefaction technology for lignocellulosic biomass are briefly introduced. The research status in hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes is critically reviewed, particularly for the effects of liquefaction conditions on bio-oil yield and the decomposition mechanisms of main components in biomass. The limitations of hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes are discussed, and future research priorities are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe) [de

  19. Research project on “A Study in Urban Air Pollution Improvement in Asia”

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    This final report of the joint research project “A study in urban air pollution improvement in Asia” is submitted by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) on behalf of the project team following the contract between AIT and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for the project period of March 2015 - December 2017. Technical support is provided by the Asia Center for Air Pollution Research (ACAP) Japan and the operational support is provided by the Pollution Control Department (P...

  20. Toward time-based design: Creating an applied time evaluation checklist for urban design research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shakibamanesh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The perception of a 3D space, in which movement takes place, is subjectively based on experience. The pedestrians’ perception of subjective duration is one of the related issues that receive little attention in urban design literature. Pedestrians often misperceive the required time to pass a certain distance. A wide range of factors affects one׳s perception of time in urban environments. These factors include individual factors (e.g., gender, age, and psychological state, social and cultural contexts, purpose and motivation for being in the space, and knowledge of the given area. This study aims to create an applied checklist that can be used by urban designers in analyzing the effects of individual experience on subjective duration. This checklist will enable urban designers to perform a phenomenological assessment of time perception and compare this perception in different urban spaces, thereby improving pedestrians’ experiences of time through a purposeful design. A combination of exploratory and descriptive analytical research is used as methodology due to the complexity of time perception.

  1. D Visibility Analysis in Urban Environment - Cognition Research Based on Vge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. P.; Lin, H.; Hu, M. Y.

    2013-09-01

    The author in this research attempts to illustrate a measurable relationship between the physical environment and human's visual perception, including the distance, visual angle impact and visual field (a 3D isovist conception) against human's cognition way, by using a 3D visibility analysis method based on the platform of Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE). The whole project carries out in the CUHK campus (the Chinese University of Hong Kong), by adopting a virtual 3D model of the whole campus and survey in real world. A possible model for the simulation of human cognition in urban spaces is expected to be the output of this research, such as what the human perceive from the environment, how their feelings and behaviours are and how they affect the surrounding world. Kevin Lynch raised 5 elements of urban design in 1960s, which are "vitality, sense, fit, access and control". As the development of urban design, several problems around the human's cognitive and behaviour have come out. Due to the restriction of sensing knowledge in urban spaces, the research among the "sense" and the "fit" of urban design were not quite concerned in recent decades. The geo-spatial cognition field comes into being in 1997 and developed in recent 15 years, which made great effort in way-finding and urban behaviour simulation based on the platform of GIS (geographic information system) or VGE. The platform of VGE is recognized as a proper tool for the analysis of human's perception in urban places, because of its efficient 3D spatial data management and excellent 3D visualization for output result. This article will generally describe the visibility analysis method based on the 3D VGE platform. According to the uncertainty and variety of human perception existed in this research, the author attempts to arrange a survey of observer investigation and validation for the analysis results. Four figures related with space and human's perception will be mainly concerned in this proposal

  2. Urban Is Floating Face down in the Mainstream: Using Hip-Hop-Based Education Research to Resurrect "The Urban" in Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau J.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout this article, I argue that within the mainstream field of urban education, "the urban" is floating face down, lifeless, and devoid of significant meaning. "City" and "urban" function as taken-for-granted variables that stand in the rightful place of rich explanations, based in theory and evidence, of the…

  3. How effective is the Forestry Commission Scotland's woodland improvement programme--'Woods In and Around Towns' (WIAT)--at improving psychological well-being in deprived urban communities? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha de Oliveira, Eva; Aspinall, Peter; Briggs, Andrew; Cummins, Steven; Leyland, Alastair H; Mitchell, Richard; Roe, Jenny; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that green spaces may positively influence psychological well-being. This project is designed to take advantage of a natural experiment where planned physical and social interventions to enhance access to natural environments in deprived communities provide an opportunity to prospectively assess impacts on perceived stress and mental well-being. A controlled, prospective study comprising a repeat cross-sectional survey of residents living within 1.5 km of intervention and comparison sites. Three waves of data will be collected: prephysical environment intervention (2013); postphysical environment intervention (2014) and postwoodland promotion social intervention (2015). The primary outcome will be a measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) preintervention and postintervention. Secondary, self-report outcomes include: mental well-being (Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), changes in physical activity (IPAQ-short form), health (EuroQoL EQ-5D), perception and use of the woodlands, connectedness to nature (Inclusion of Nature in Self Scale), social cohesion and social capital. An environmental audit will complement the study by evaluating the physical changes in the environment over time and recording any other contextual changes over time. A process evaluation will assess the implementation of the programme. A health economics analysis will assess the cost consequences of each stage of the intervention in relation to the primary and secondary outcomes of the study. Ethical approval has been given by the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art Research, Ethics and Knowledge Exchange Committee (ref. 19/06/2012). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, national and international conferences and, at the final stage of the project, through a workshop for those interested in implementing environmental interventions.

  4. Association between forestry ecological engineering and dust weather in Inner Mongolia: A panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jixia, Huang; Qibin, Zhang; Jing, Tan; Depeng, Yue; Quansheng, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Forestry ecological engineering projects in Western China include the Three-North Shelter Forest Project (TNSFP), the Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP), the Grain for Green Project (GGP) and the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Project (BTSSP). Such projects play an important role in the control of dust weather in Western China. In this research, data on the frequency of sandstorms, sand-blowing and dust-floating weather, the area of four forestry ecological engineering projects, wind, rainfall and vegetation coverage from 2000 to 2010 were collected based on the unit of prefecture-level cities in Inner Mongolia. The panel-data model was used to analyze the quantitative association between forestry ecological engineering and dust weather. The results indicate that wind has a strong promotional effect on dust weather, while forestry ecological engineering and rainfall have a containment effect. In addition, the impacts of the four studied forestry ecological engineering projects on dust weather differ. For every increase of 1000 km2 in the Three-North Shelter Forest Project, the annual number of days of sandstorm weather decreased by 4 days. Similarly, for every increase of 1000 km2 in the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Project, the sand-blowing weather decreased by 4.4 days annually. In addition, NFPP and GGP have a more obvious inhibitory effect on the dust-floating weather.

  5. Forestry best management practices relationships with aquatic and riparian fauna: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Brooke M.; Aust, W. Michael; Barrett, Scott M.; Ford, W. Mark; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Schilling, Erik B.; Wigley, T. Bently; Bolding, M. Chad

    2017-01-01

    Forestry best management practices (BMPs) were developed to minimize water pollution from forestry operations by primarily addressing sediment and sediment transport, which is the leading source of pollution from silviculture. Implementation of water quality BMPs may also benefit riparian and aquatic wildlife, although wildlife benefits were not driving forces for BMP development. Therefore, we reviewed literature regarding potential contributions of sediment-reducing BMPs to conservation of riparian and aquatic wildlife, while realizing that BMPs also minimize thermal, nutrient, and chemical pollution. We reached five important conclusions: (1) a significant body of research confirms that forestry BMPs contribute to the protection of water quality and riparian forest structure; (2) data-specific relationships between forestry BMPs and reviewed species are limited; (3) forestry BMPs for forest road construction and maintenance, skid trails, stream crossings, and streamside management zones (SMZs) are important particularly for protection of water quality and aquatic species; (4) stream crossings should be carefully selected and installed to minimize sediment inputs and stream channel alterations; and (5) SMZs promote retention of older-age riparian habitat with benefits extending from water bodies to surrounding uplands. Overall, BMPs developed for protection of water quality should benefit a variety of riparian and aquatic species that are sensitive to changes in water quality or forest structure.

  6. Forestry Best Management Practices Relationships with Aquatic and Riparian Fauna: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke M. Warrington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs were developed to minimize water pollution from forestry operations by primarily addressing sediment and sediment transport, which is the leading source of pollution from silviculture. Implementation of water quality BMPs may also benefit riparian and aquatic wildlife, although wildlife benefits were not driving forces for BMP development. Therefore, we reviewed literature regarding potential contributions of sediment-reducing BMPs to conservation of riparian and aquatic wildlife, while realizing that BMPs also minimize thermal, nutrient, and chemical pollution. We reached five important conclusions: (1 a significant body of research confirms that forestry BMPs contribute to the protection of water quality and riparian forest structure; (2 data-specific relationships between forestry BMPs and reviewed species are limited; (3 forestry BMPs for forest road construction and maintenance, skid trails, stream crossings, and streamside management zones (SMZs are important particularly for protection of water quality and aquatic species; (4 stream crossings should be carefully selected and installed to minimize sediment inputs and stream channel alterations; and (5 SMZs promote retention of older-age riparian habitat with benefits extending from water bodies to surrounding uplands. Overall, BMPs developed for protection of water quality should benefit a variety of riparian and aquatic species that are sensitive to changes in water quality or forest structure.

  7. Forest ecosystem services in the context of climate change: A new concept for forestry in the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Trudić, Branislav; Orlović, Saša; Stojnić, Srđan; Pilipović, Andrej; Matović, Bratislav; Novčić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services are a relatively new concept in forestry. While the current forestry practice still describes non-timber forest products as secondary, the concept of ecosystem services originating from FAO and researchers of ecosystem services equally emphasises the economic significance of non-timber products and services forest ecosystems provide as of those primary products - timber biomass. Forest ecosystem services are only a segment of the overall context of ecosystem services in whi...

  8. Financial and non-financial reporting in Romanian entities operating in agriculture, forestry, and fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MOCANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increased interest for sustainability issues, entities that operate in the areas agriculture, forestry and fishery are exposed to a variety of ecological challenges. Moreover, such fields are generally of strategic importance for a country’s economy, which also increases their exposure to public debate. The present study aims to provide a detailed and accurate description of the financial and non-financial information made available by listed Romanian entities operating in agriculture, forestry and fishery. The research goes beyond the mere description of the content of shareholders’ reports. Its purpose is to assess the financial performance and stability of selected companies and to investigate the relationships between the financial well-being of such companies and the extent to which they disclose non-financial information. The sample consists of companies which operate in the business of fields agriculture, forestry or fishery and are listed at the Bucharest Stock Exchange in Romania.

  9. Restoring State Control Over Forest Resources Through Administrative Procedures: Evidence From a Community Forestry Programme in Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maryudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, community forestry has emerged as a means to reform power constellations with regard to forest governance. Through community forestry, the central state promised to devolve several forest rights to local communities and encouraged them to get involved in decision making processes and the implementation of forest activities. However, experience in some countries indicates that the implementation of community forestry programmes is rarely followed by genuine power devolution to local forest users. Instead, these programmes may even serve as a means to retain or restore the central state’s control over forests. Using a case study of a community forestry programme implemented in Java, Indonesia, by a state forest company, this paper argues that the implementation of community forestry is also driven by the state’s interests to regain control over the forests. Research in eight villages in Central Java province reveals that the community forestry programmes are carefully structured according to numerous administrative procedures and estab- lish a mode of control through a bureaucratic design. ----- In den letzten Jahren hat sich community forestry als Mittel zur Reform von Machtkonstellationen in Bezug auf die Verwaltung von Wäldern herausgebildet. Der Zentralstaat versprach durch community forestry bestimmte Waldrechte an lokale Communities abzugeben und ermutigte sie, sich an Entscheidungsprozessen und der Implementierung von Forstaktivitäten zu beteiligen. Erfahrungen in einigen Ländern zeigen jedoch, dass die Implementierung von community forestry-Programmen selten mit einem tatsächlichen Machttransfer an lokale ForstnutzerInnen einhergeht, sondern diese Programme sogar als Mittel zur Rückgewinnung von zentralstaatlicher Kontrolle über Wälder dienen können. Anhand eines Fallbeispiels eines community forestry-Programms, das in Java, Indonesien, von einem staatlichen Forstunternehmen implementiert wird, argumentiere ich

  10. Systems security management in forestry work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Safety and health at work is a relevant ethical good. National Government and other international and national institutions have adopted measures to against this social evil, in the forestry sector too. In Italy, for the period 2003-2005 the domestic forest sector registered just less than 1 fatal accident for millions of cubic meter, nevertheless a more consistent data should be need for comparing this data at international level. After explaining the wide range of works in the forest, the contribution analyzes the discipline introduced by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. This has introduced new professionalism, new procedures, new tools and new type of cost in the budgets of forestry activities. In the conclusion the Author suggests that the inclusion of these type of expenditures on forest management accounting are very significant from many points of view. Safety and health costs must be included sistematically and not occasionally on volontary basis of the forester consultant.

  11. Implementing mobile information bussiness solutions in forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Bajželj, Primož

    2013-01-01

    Information technology plays an important role in constant improvement of business processes. Especially with development of mobile devices and corresponding technology it is possible to use technology in contexts where this was impossible before. This diploma work describes a development of a mobile application from its idea to a prototype. It is intended to be used in forestry where it should enable optimization and improvement of business processes. First, requirements, development environ...

  12. 78 FR 42487 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... submit electronic nomination(s) to: [email protected] . The subject line should read: 2014... deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8:00 a.m...

  13. The Role Of Urban Forestry In Mitigating Climate Change And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of global climate change, due to increasing levels of CO2 concentrations is one of the key environmental concerns today, and the role of terrestrial vegetation management has received attention as a means of mitigating carbon emissions and climate change. In this study tree dimensions and assessment of ...

  14. From management to mediation: local forestry management and the forestry crisis in post-socialist Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeland, Sveinung; Eythorsson, Einar; Ivanova, Lyudmila

    2004-03-01

    The local branches of the Russian Forestry Service, the leskhozy, were known for their efficiency and management skills in the Soviet era and were one of the very few community-based "Soviet-type" institutions to survive the transition. This article examines the role of the leskhozy in the new market economy. Our analysis is based on data from interviews with informants attached to the forestry sector in the Murmansk area. In some cases their knowledge of the leskhozy stretches back to the emergence of the system in 1947. Our principal finding is that the struggle to survive as a federal body in the current legal and economic climate is forcing the leskhozy to relegate sustainable forestry management, presumably their primary raison d'être, to the lower portions of their list of priorities. Several consequences result. There is a heightened incidence of illegal logging, and corruption informs the allocation of forest areas to private interests. Stumpage prices have plummeted as timber from subsidized commercial cutting (ostensibly sanitary cutting or thinning) has flooded the markets. The root cause of these tribulations lies with the market-based harvesting permit system. Its introduction in the 1990s did little to eliminate the self-seeking practices of the old Soviet forestry management hierarchies. In the free market, local forestry managers can turn their dual responsibilities to their own advantage inasmuch as they control the allocation of harvesting permits while at the same time controlling logging practices.

  15. Update on markets for forestry offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeff, T.; Eichler, L.; Deecke, I.; Fehse, J.

    2007-01-01

    This guide is an update of the book 'Guidebook to Markets and Commercialization of CDM forestry projects'. The document provides information on the development of CMD methodologies, projects registered and markets since the publication of the first version. In addition it introduces the emerging non-Kyoto markets, it presents a classification of the existing developments, it describes each market including the buyer's preferences and it discusses the use of standards and quality criteria and transaction costs. We focus on markets for offsets from developing countries, rather than domestic offsets in developed countries. Section 1 is an introduction to the topic and an overview of the most recent developments. Sections 2 and 3 look at recent experiences and market developments for CDM reforestation projects. These sections are meant to be an update of the above mentioned guidebook and thus refrain from an exhaustive description. Section 4 assesses non-Kyoto markets for carbon offsets from forestry projects. It includes a description of the various market schemes and types of buyers. The section attempts to provide the project developer with useful information for developing a project following buyer' requirements. Finally, section 5 puts the assessment of opportunities for forestry in the broader context of the larger carbon markets. The report then concludes with a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the CDM and non-Kyoto schemes from the project developer's point of view

  16. Forestry: Prospective Scenarios for Generating Eletricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Dias Blois

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forestry generates in all production segments a lot of waste which is a potential power source and an opportunity for electricity generation by the use of this material. Therefore, this study represents the construction of future scenarios for the power generation sector from alternative and renewable sources in the region of Vale do Taquari and Alto da Serra do Botucaraí, in the Northern-Central region of the Stat of Rio Grande do Sul, aiming for the application of waste and by-products from forestry present in a intensive and tendentious way in economic activities within the region. By way of prospective scenarios, one will be able to observe which events are impactful on the viability of an environmental project for recovery of forestry waste to generate electricity in the region. Thereby, we used the method described by Grumbach (2000, a methodology that prospects scenarios from the participation of experts, who collaborated analyzing and proposing events that impact as strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats and their interrelationships. Also, it was evident the degree of influence and dependence between the events, which create a matrix of cross impacts. Moreover, possible future scenarios have been constructed and analyzed for demonstrating that the study area has potential events that could serve as alternatives to the sector. However, no ideal scenario has been identified for the next five years, a fact that is due to the large amount of adverse events in six out of the ten final events.

  17. A Review of Water Reclamation Research in China Urban Landscape Design and Planning Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wei; Zeng, Tianran

    2018-04-01

    With the continuously growing demand for better living environment, more and more attention and efforts have been paid to the improvement of urban landscape. However, the expansion of green area and water features are at the cost of high consumption of water resources, which has become prominent problems in cities that suffer from water shortage. At the same time, with the water shortage and water environment deterioration problems that shared globally, water conservation has become an inevitable choice to achieve sustainable social development. Urban landscape is not simply a consuming body of water resources, but also are of water-saving potential and able to perform the function of water storage. Thus, recycling the limited water resources becomes a challenge for every landscape designer. This paper is intended to overview the existing effort of reclaimed water recycle research in China landscape designing fields, and raise recommendations for future research and development.

  18. Research on the network structure of the urban economic ties in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Wenyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the network structure of the urban economic ties (NSUET of a city can help us understand its development level.Using the gravity model,the social network analysis method and the Arcgis tool,this paper has done some researches about the NSUET in Shanghai.The research results show that the NSUET in Shanghai was improved gradually from 2000 to 2010 and is in a stable status now.In the future,the NSUET in Shanghai should be adjusted to meet the need of urban development;the more focuses should be placed on the districts with better infrastructure,while the other areas are also considered to develop the NSUET.

  19. Private sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – Lambazi case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sisitka, L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available research project referred to as ‘Instruments for Sustainable Private Sector Forestry in South Africa.’ This national investigation is co-ordinated by the CSIR, in collaboration with DFID and IIED. Its aim is to understand how the private sector is involved...

  20. The research of urban spatial polarization based on the space of flows theory——a case study of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chaoqing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the elite space and the relation model between the space of flows and the urban space,the paper analyzed the mechanism and consequence of the new urban spatial polarization.Using the Shanghai sixth census data and the sample data,the paper discussed the new phenomenon of urban spatial polarization in the information age by the location quotient analysis and GIS spatial analysis.The research result showed that the space of flows influencing urban spatial polarization through the elite space is a higher level agglomeration,including the spatial concentration of the human capital,the concentration of wealth and knowledge of science and technology.

  1. Environmental impact analysis (EIA) concerning lodgepole pine forestry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Bengt; Rosvall, Ola; Engelmark, Ola; Sjoeberg, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the ecological consequences of forestry with Canadian lodgepole pine introduced into Sweden. The report includes a compilation of present knowledge in the area, research priorities, and proposed measures for dealing with the negative environmental consequences that could arise. The point of departure of the analysis is a description of the properties of lodgepole pine, including species-specific characteristics of the tree, and changes in stand environment and silvicultural management practices that can be expected. The report describes the dispersal capacity of lodgepole pine in its new Swedish environment and the effects of host-parasite interactions. Thereafter, ecological effects on the capacity of the soil for sustainable production and on biological diversity at various scales (tree, stand, landscape) are analysed. Lodgepole pine forestry is also considered in relation to current laws and regulations as well as national and international environmental goals. At the end of the report, a strategy is proposed for handling the inevitable uncertainties associated with the introduction of exotic species 111 refs, 14 figs

  2. The loading of waters from forestry, final report of the MESUVE -project; Metsaetalouden vesistoekuormitus. MESUVE{sub p}rojektin loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenttaemies, K.; Mattsson, T. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The joint research project entitled 'Developing the integrated forestry planning with water protection using GIS-oriented erosion sensitivity modeling' (MESUVE) which was funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of the Environment in 2003-2005. The partners in the project were the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), the Forest Research Institute, the Forestry Development Centre Tapio, the National Board of Forestry and the Geological Survey of Finland. The project was headed by Kaarle Kenttaemies, limnologist (SYKE), and the steering group was chaired by Marja Hilska-Aaltonen, Senior Adviser, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. In addition to several articles on proper forestry planning (establishing the research catchments, developing a soil survey for forestry and using geological soil maps, adapting a processoriented SWAT model for erosion studies in forestry), this final report includes papers on subprojects dealing with calculation methods and restriction strategies of forestry loading, the issues of the importance of implementing the water protection framework programme in EU-countries. These reports include the river basin scale calculations of nutrient loads from forestry and scenarios for the future, new reports on nutrient loads from clear cutting and mitigation drainage of forests that include data from seven new forest catchments, the long term monitoring results of clear cutting and forest drainage and results of comprehensive data from nutrient loads from mitigation drainage. The effectiveness of organic soils in adsorbing phosphates on buffer zones and the use of phosphates from forested catchments for algae growth are also presented in this final report. (orig.)

  3. Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Urbanization ideally should also imply an enhancement of housing quality and other components of human settlements such as power supply, portable water, good roads, proper refuse and sewage ...

  4. A research agenda for a people-centred approach to energy access in the urbanizing global south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broto, Vanesa Castán; Stevens, Lucy; Ackom, Emmanuel; Tomei, Julia; Parikh, Priti; Bisaga, Iwona; To, Long Seng; Kirshner, Joshua; Mulugetta, Yacob

    2017-10-01

    Energy access is typically viewed as a problem for rural areas, but people living in urban settings also face energy challenges that have not received sufficient attention. A revised agenda in research and practice that puts the user and local planning complexities centre stage is needed to change the way we look at energy access in urban areas, to understand the implications of the concentration of vulnerable people in slums and to identify opportunities for planned management and innovation that can deliver urban energy transitions while leaving no one behind. Here, we propose a research agenda focused on three key issues: understanding the needs of urban energy users; enabling the use of context-specific, disaggregated data; and engaging with effective modes of energy and urban governance. This agenda requires interdisciplinary scholarship across the social and physical sciences to support local action and deliver large-scale, inclusive transformations.

  5. RESEARCH ON THE INTENSITY ANALYSIS AND RESULT VISUALIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION LAND IN URBAN PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental work of urban planning, the intensity analysis of construction land involves many repetitive data processing works that are prone to cause errors or data precision loss, and the lack of efficient methods and tools to visualizing the analysis results in current urban planning. In the research a portable tool is developed by using the Model Builder technique embedded in ArcGIS to provide automatic data processing and rapid result visualization for the works. A series of basic modules provided by ArcGIS are linked together to shape a whole data processing chain in the tool. Once the required data is imported, the analysis results and related maps and graphs including the intensity values and zoning map, the skyline analysis map etc. are produced automatically. Finally the tool is installation-free and can be dispatched quickly between planning teams.

  6. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  7. Urban research in a hostile setting: Godfrey Wilson in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia, 1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Tranberg Hansen

    Full Text Available Acknowledged for his pioneering urban anthropological research in Broken Hill through the publication of An Essay on the Economics of Detribalization in Northern Rhodesia (Parts I and II, 1940 and 1941, Godfrey Wilson's professional career was cut short by his death during World War II. The late 1990s transfer and cataloguing at the University of Cape Town of the Monica and Godfrey Wilson papers has made an enormously rich research archive accessible to the public. For the first time, Godfrey Wilson's notes from his fieldwork in Broken Hill enable us to examine his research project through his own observations. Based on a preliminary overview of these records and a tentative analysis of some of their contents, this article revisits the Broken Hill research project against the background of the published essay on the economics of detribalisation. Wilson's argument about temporary urbanisation is demonstrated through migration histories, information about length of stay in towns, and an analysis of the economics of urban livelihoods that focuses on wages including rations, household expenditures, and urban-rural transfers. But the published essay barely explains how in fact he conducted his field research. Although there are very few direct indications, we can infer some of his fieldwork practices and field methodology from notes that occasionally evoke an immediate sense of the trials and tribulations of everyday African life in Broken Hill in the early World War II years. How might experiences in the field have influenced Wilson's analysis? Overall, I discuss his work from two angles, first in the context of a time and place characterised by conflicting agendas, and secondly, in retrospect as the conceptual space and time of early World War II colonial Northern Rhodesia have yielded to different explanatory perspectives.

  8. The optimization model of the logging machinery usage in forestry practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Janová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision support systems commonly used in industry and economy managerial practice for optimizing the processes are based on algoritmization of the typical decision problems. In Czech forestry business, there is a lack of developed decision support systems, which could be easily used in daily practice. This stems from the fact, that the application of optimization methods is less successful in forestry decision making than in industry or economy due to inherent complexity of the forestry decision problems. There is worldwide ongoing research on optimization models applicable in forestry decision making, but the results are not globally applicable and moreover the cost of possibly arising software tools are indispensable. Especially small and medium forestry companies in Czech Republic can not afford such additional costs, although the results of optimization could positively in­fluen­ce not only the business itself but also the impact of forestry business on the environment. Hence there is a need for user friendly optimization models for forestry decision making in the area of Czech Republic, which could be easily solved in commonly available software, and whose results would be both, realistic and easily applicable in the daily decision making.The aim of this paper is to develop the optimization model for the machinery use planning in Czech logging firm in such a way, that the results can be obtained using MS EXCEL. The goal is to identify the integer number of particular machines which should be outsourced for the next period, when the total cost minimization is required. The linear programming model is designed covering the typical restrictions on available machinery and total volume of trees to be cut and transported. The model offers additional result in the form of optimal employment of particular machines. The solution procedure is described in detail and the results obtained are discussed with respect to its applicability in

  9. Unpacking the impacts of 'participatory' forestry policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutune, Jane Mutheu; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the livelihoods of member and non-members of Community Forestry Associations under Kenya's participatory forest management (PFM) programme. We use propensity score matching of households based on recall based data from before implementation of PFM from 286 households and comparison...... of current incomes (2012), as well as review of records and interviews. Results reveal that members have higher total and forest-related incomes than non-members and indicate that impacts derive from labour and market opportunities supported by donor institutions, more than from differential access to forest...

  10. Obesity, physical activity, and the urban environment: public health research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Russell P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent trends in overweight and obesity have resulted in a rapid research effort focused on built environment, physical activity, and overweight. Much of the focus of this research has been on the design and form of suburbs. It suggests that several features of the suburban built environment such as low densities, poor street connectivity and the lack of sidewalks are associated with decreased physical activity and an increased risk of being overweight. But compared to suburban residents, inner city populations have higher rates of obesity and inactivity despite living in neighborhoods that are dense, have excellent street connectivity and who's streets are almost universally lined with sidewalks. We suggest that the reasons for this apparent paradox are rooted in the complex interaction of land use, infrastructure and social factors affecting inner city populations. Sometimes seemingly similar features are the result of very different processes, necessitating different policy responses to meet these challenges. For example, in suburbs, lower densities can result from government decision making that leads to restrictive zoning and land use issues. In the inner city, densities may be lowered because of abandonment and disinvestment. In the suburbs, changes in land use regulations could result in a healthier built environment. In inner cities, increasing densities will depend on reversing economic trends and investment decisions that have systematically resulted in distressed housing, abandoned buildings and vacant lots. These varying issues need to be further studied in the context of the totality of urban environments, incorporating what has been learned from other disciplines, such as economics and sociology, as well as highlighting some of the more successful inner city policy interventions, which may provide examples for communities working to improve their health. Certain disparities among urban and suburban populations in

  11. Urban physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Physics is the multiscale and interdisciplinary research area dealing with physical processes in urban environments that influence our everyday health, comfort and productivity. It involves disciplines ranging from mesoscale meteorology to human thermophysiology. The introductory lecture

  12. Lessons Learned Recruiting Minority Participants for Research in Urban Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Elizabeth; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2018-02-01

    To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey. Using a series of immersion-crystallization cycles, fieldnotes and research reflections written by recruiters, along with notes from team meetings during the study, were qualitatively analyzed. Clinic level barriers included: physical layout of clinic, very low or high patient census, limited private space, and long wait times for patients. Staff level barriers included: unengaged staff, overburdened staff, and provider and staff turnover. Patient level barriers included: disinterested patients, patient mistrust and concerns over confidentiality, no-shows or lack of patient time, and language barrier. We describe strategies used to overcome these barriers and provide recommendations for in-person recruitment of underserved populations into research studies. To help mitigate health disparities, disseminating recruiters' experiences, challenges, and effective strategies used will allow other researchers to build upon these experience in order to increase recruitment success of underserved and underrepresented minority populations into research studies. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Atlantic Forest scenarios under the parameters of forestry laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Remote sensing allows for identification of regularities and irregularities in land use and land coverage (LULC change in relation to environmental legislation. The aim of this study was to delimit scenarios in the permanent preservation areas (PPAs according to the Brazilian forestry law, with or without consolidated uses in the basin of Capivari River and the State of Rio de Janeiro in the Atlantic Forest biome. Mapping and analysis were performed on LULC in areas of permanent preservation using the following data: RapidEye-REIS satellite scenes acquired in 2012 and Bhattacharyya distance classifier and hydrography of the basin and digital elevation model (1:25.000 using Spring and ArcGIS software. The legal scenarios adopted were as follows: I Federal Law N°. 4,771/1965 and the National Council for the Environment (CONAMA N°. 303/2002; II Federal Law N°. 12,651/2012; and III Federal Law N°. 12,651/2012 and N°. 12,727/2012. The classification presented an excellent overall accuracy of 91.15% and a Kappa Index of 0.86 in relation to the samples of the six multipurpose classes having the anthropic uses of agriculture, burned pasture, exposed soil and urbanization, which were present with conflicting uses for Scenarios I, II and III. The new forest legislation for the PPAs of Scenario III impacted the reduction of 68% compared to Scenario I, which corroborates with the concerns on the conservation of water and soil resources.

  14. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  15. Social conditions and urban health inequities: realities, challenges and opportunities to transform the urban landscape through research and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Snyder, V Nelly Salgado; Friel, Sharon; Fotso, Jean Christophe; Khadr, Zeinab; Meresman, Sergio; Monge, Patricia; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita

    2011-12-01

    The process of urbanization entails social improvements with the consequential better quality-of-life for urban residents. However, in many low-income and some middle-income countries, urbanization conveys inequality and exclusion, creating cities and dwellings characterized by poverty, overcrowded conditions, poor housing, severe pollution, and absence of basic services such as water and sanitation. Slums in large cities often have an absence of schools, transportation, health centers, recreational facilities, and other such amenities. Additionally, the persistence of certain conditions, such as poverty, ethnic heterogeneity, and high population turnover, contributes to a lowered ability of individuals and communities to control crime, vandalism, and violence. The social vulnerability in health is not a "natural" or predefined condition but occurs because of the unequal social context that surrounds the daily life of the disadvantaged, and often, socially excluded groups. Social exclusion of individuals and groups is a major threat to development, whether to the community social cohesion and economic prosperity or to the individual self-realization through lack of recognition and acceptance, powerlessness, economic vulnerability, ill health, diminished life experiences, and limited life prospects. In contrast, social inclusion is seen to be vital to the material, psychosocial, and political aspects of empowerment that underpin social well-being and equitable health. Successful experiences of cooperation and networking between slum-based organizations, grassroots groups, local and international NGOs, and city government are important mechanisms that can be replicated in urban settings of different low- and middle-income countries. With increasing urbanization, it is imperative to design health programs for the urban poor that take full advantage of the social resources and resourcefulness of their own communities.

  16. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing a conceptual framework of urban health observatories toward integrating research and evidence into urban policy for health and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiaffa, W T; Friche, A A L; Dias, M A S; Meireles, A L; Ignacio, C F; Prasad, A; Kano, M

    2014-02-01

    Detailed information on health linked to geographic, sociodemographic, and environmental data are required by city governments to monitor health and the determinants of health. These data are critical for guiding local interventions, resource allocation, and planning decisions, yet they are too often non-existent or scattered. This study aimed to develop a conceptual framework of Urban Health Observatories (UHOs) as an institutional mechanism which can help synthesize evidence and incorporate it into urban policy-making for health and health equity. A survey of a select group of existent UHOs was conducted using an instrument based on an a priori conceptual framework of key structural and functional characteristics of UHOs. A purposive sample of seven UHOs was surveyed, including four governmental, two non-governmental, and one university-based observatory, each from a different country. Descriptive and framework analysis methods were used to analyze the data and to refine the conceptual framework in light of the empirical data. The UHOs were often a product of unique historical circumstances. They were relatively autonomous and capable of developing their own locally sensitive agenda. They often had strong networks for accessing data and were able to synthesize them at the urban level as well as disaggregate them into smaller units. Some UHOs were identified as not only assessing but also responding to local needs. The findings from this study were integrated into a conceptual framework which illustrates how UHOs can play a vital role in monitoring trends in health determinants, outcomes, and equity; optimizing an intersectoral urban information system; incorporating research on health into urban policies and systems; and providing technical guidance on research and evidence-based policy making. In order to be most effective, UHOs should be an integral part of the urban governance system, where multiple sectors of government, the civil society, and businesses can

  18. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russell; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, Benjamin; McFarland, James; Strzepek, Kenneth; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from $32.7 billion to $54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  19. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russell; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, Benjamin; McFarland, James; Strzepek, Kenneth; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from 32.7 billion to 54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  20. Status of biological control in vegetation management in forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    George P. Markin; Donald E. Gardner

    1993-01-01

    Biological control traditionally depends upon importing the natural enemies of introduced weeds. Since vegetation management in forestry has primarily been aimed at protecting economic species of trees from competition from other native plants, biological control has been of little use in forestry. An alternative approach to controlling unwanted native plants,...

  1. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences generally aims to foster progressive partnerships between different stake holders towards sustainable Agriculture. Papers in Animal husbandry, Fisheries, wild life, crop and Soil Science, agricultural economics, Extension, Forestry, environment and papers with a ...

  2. Should commercial forestry in South Africa pay for water? Valuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water-stressed country, South Africa has opted for demand management strategies which suggest pricing of water as a commodity. Since commercial forestry is one of the big users of the country's water ...

  3. Forestry education in a changing landscape: emerging lessons from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical changes in forestry include: the conceptualisation of forests and forestry as complex soft systems; the changing roles of public and private sectors, and of civil society; the changing social, economic and environmental values of different sorts of forests; and the globalisation and commoditisation of many forest ...

  4. Forestry and deer in the pine region of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; G. R. Moorhead; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    Forestry and deer affect each other's welfare. Forestry and other land-use practices, particularly farming, affect deer chiefly by modifying the supplies of available food and protective cover. On the other side, an overabundance of deer can overbrowse and eliminate the most palatable and nutritious food species. If these are trees that could be valuable for...

  5. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabisch, Nadja; Qureshi, Salman; Haase, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap

  6. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — A systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabisch, Nadja, E-mail: nadja.kabisch@geo.hu-berlin.de [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Qureshi, Salman [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); School of Architecture, Birmingham Institute of Art and Design, Birmingham City University, The Parkside Building, 5 Cardigan Street, Birmingham B4 7BD (United Kingdom); Haase, Dagmar [Institute of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Department of Computational Landscape Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Scientific papers on landscape planning underline the importance of maintaining and developing green spaces because of their multiple environmental and social benefits for city residents. However, a general understanding of contemporary human–environment interaction issues in urban green space is still incomplete and lacks orientation for urban planners. This review examines 219 publications to (1) provide an overview of the current state of research on the relationship between humans and urban green space, (2) group the different research approaches by identifying the main research areas, methods, and target groups, and (3) highlight important future prospects in urban green space research. - Highlights: • Reviewed literature on urban green pins down a dearth of comparative studies. • Case studies in Africa and Russia are marginalized – the Europe and US dominate. • Questionnaires are used as major tool followed by GIS and quantitative approaches. • Developing countries should contribute in building an urban green space agenda. • Interdisciplinary, adaptable and pluralistic approaches can satiate a knowledge gap.

  7. Compliance with Environmental and Social Legislation in Certified Forestry Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Santana Leite

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the FSC forestry certification system to improve the forestry sector, in terms of compliance to environmental and social laws and improvements in working conditions resulting from the certification process. Thirty-seven auditing reports from five Brazilian forestry companies were evaluated, throughout the 2006-2013 period. Non-compliance and observations were analyzed and organized into categories, which identified the main performance issues found in certified forestry organizations. 301 instances of non-compliance and 138 observations of audit reports were verified, where 48 and 57% respectively, were linked to the two principles studied. For obtaining and/or maintaining the certificate it is necessary for all violations to be resolved. Therefore, it was concluded that forest certification contributes to the advancement of the forestry sector in Brazil, in relation to compliance with legal, social and labor issues.

  8. Effects of heritage taxation in Danish forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of heritage taxation rules on the economic performance of forestry and, more importantly, on decision making at the forest property level. In Denmark, when a property is handed over from one generation to the next, a heritage tax has to be paid. Apart from...... this, there is also a tax on the revenue caused by increase in property value during the ownership period. We analyse how the rotation age in model forest properties with given species composition and initial age structure is affected by these two taxes for a planned generational change every 30 years......, compared to an unplanned change and a reference model with no tax on heritage or property value increase (or no change of ownership). As the point of departure we apply model properties including 1000 ha of forest and with species compositions representative for different regions in Denmark. This allows us...

  9. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  10. STUDY UPON THE SPECIES IPS TYPOGRAPHUS L. (COLEOPTERA, CURCULIONIDAE IN THE RAŞINARI FORESTRY ECOSYSTEM, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana ANTONIE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The disturbance of the equilibrium between the endogenous and exogenous command factors of human origin leads to massive perturbations in the forestry ecosystems affecting all the living beings within the biocenosis and especially the forestry entomologic fauna. Under some circumstances the pest insects from the forestry ecosystem can produce big damages to the trees in the case of maintaining high effectives of these and for many years, too. Our study aimed the monitoring the species Ips typographus L., a forestry pest, which by its action produces important damages to the spruce fir. The research work ran for two years, during 2012-2013, in the area of Raşinari Forestry District, Sibiu County. The work method was to install at the skirt of the forest the traps with pheromones bait in the researched area. There were collected a number of 4,146 samples of which in 2012 were captured 1,973 individuals and in 2013 were captured 2,173 individuals. There was established a growth of the pest population in the studied biotope, this being the same as at the national level. As a consequence there are imposed further studies in order to find the most proper solutions regarding stopping the dissemination of the insect into new territories and maintaining the density of the population of the pest beyond the economic level of damage.

  11. Human-resources strategies for managing HIV/AIDS: the case of the South African forestry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Jeff; Grant, Bligh

    2010-09-01

    Previous work has focused on HIV prevalence among forestry workers and the impact of HIV/AIDS on the sustainability of forest resources. Following a review of work examining the impacts of HIV/AIDS on the South African economy, this article presents original qualitative research examining the responses of company management to the HIV epidemic across a range of enterprises in the South African forestry industry, including large companies, contractors and cooperatives. At the level of the enterprise, management occupies a critical nexus, at which the intersecting requirements of complex government legislation, the wellbeing of workers and the demands of the business must be met. The research demonstrates that large forestry companies tend to provide only a small fraction of their workforces with HIV/AIDS education, prevention or treatment services, as they have essentially outsourced the requirement through the use of labour-supply contractors who, by and large, provide workers with scant HIV/AIDS-related programmes or benefits. Moreover, the extent to which the different types of forestry enterprises incorporate the management of HIV/AIDS in the workforce with the management of the business is highly variable, and in most instances falls short of legislative requirements that have been in place for over a decade. The implications of this for the forestry industry in South Africa are acute.

  12. Strategic and legal framework in forestry and related sectors: Climate change mitigation in European Union and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important role of forests in mitigating and adapting to climate changes is recognized and widely accepted. Therefore, it becomes a subject of universal interest and support. However, in the national strategies relating to climate change, the importance of the forestry sector in mitigating these changes is quite often not discussed in detail. In addition, the problem of climate change is not fully represented and included in national forestry policies. The aim of this research was to determine the compliance and differences of strategic and legislative frameworks in forestry and related sectors, relating to climate change mitigation in the EU and Serbia. At the EU level, there are two strategies and a policy framework, and in Serbia, eight sectoral strategies, referring and discussing the climate change mitigation through forestry. At the same time, these issues are highlighted as the primary objective, only in the Climate and Energy Package of the EU and the Forestry Development Strategy in Serbia. In terms of legislative framework in Serbia, two laws have climate change mitigation through forestry as the primary objective, while for the analyzed relevant EU legislation, this is a secondary objective. In Serbia, only the Forest law has a direct impact on climate change mitigation through forestry, while at EU level, there is no regulation, directive or communication, with the same direct influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studies of climate changes and their impact on the environment-monitoring impacts, adaptation and mitigation, podprojekat, 43007/16-III: Socio-economic development, mitigation and adaptation to climate change

  13. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikurainen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m 3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m 3 . On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m 3 /a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  14. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FTA Low-speed urban maglev research program lessons learned : March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In 1999, the Federal Transit Administration initiated the Low-Speed Urban Magnetic Levitation (UML) Program to develop magnetic levitation technology that offers a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass tran...

  16. FTA low-speed urban Maglev research program : updated lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    In 1999, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) initiated the Low-Speed Urban Magnetic Levitation (Urban Maglev) Program to develop magnetic levitation technology that offers a cost-effective, reliable, and environmentally-sound transit option for ...

  17. Engaging Students in the Research Process: Comparing Approaches Used with Diverse Learners in Two Urban High School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Salika A.; Jefferson, Tiffany; Osborn, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes instructional choices used by two high school teachers to engage students in the research process. Working with diverse learners in large urban high schools, the teachers used different approaches to support students' through the research process. The teachers' intentional teaching helped to engage students through structured…

  18. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  19. Research on the spatial agglomeration of urban tourism in Yangtze River delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jinwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article on the basis of spatial autocorrelation theory analyzed the interaction spatial relationship and pattern, utilizing Geo da software made quantitative research on the tourism spatial autocorrelation level of 16 cities in Yangtze River delta The results indicate that Domestic tourism and the inbound tourism had a low Moran′s value and field to get through the statistic significant test, showing the non-significant global spatial autocorrelation The progress of tourism without notable gather and differentiation trait The level of tourism emerging random distribution pattern due to the standard of city The cities quadrant chart reflect the congruent relationship between urban hierarchy and tourism performance, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing and Suzhou are the high value center, along with surrounding cities which obtain low value make up the random spatial situation, the towns encircle the high-value urban are the service and radiation zone of the upper city; the level of the spatial autocorrelation among cities decline from 2005 to 2010, tourism entering the network integration developing stage.

  20. Fiscal Policy in Urban Education. A Volume in Research in Education Fiscal Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellke, Christopher, Ed.; Rice, Jennifer King, Ed.

    This volume focuses on school finance challenges in large urban school districts, fiscal accountability in these schools, and the fiscal dimensions of urban school reform. The 12 papers are (1) "School Finance and Urban Education Reform" (Christopher Roellke and Jennifer King Rice); (2) "Can Whole-School Reform Improve the…

  1. Research on Relationship Among Internet-Addiction, Personality Traits and Mental Health of Urban Left-Behind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Se, Jun; Zhang, Jingfu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this research, we attempted at exploring the relationships among urban left-behind children’s internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. Methods: In the form of three relevant questionnaires (Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Children’s Edition in Chinese and Mental Health Test), 796 urban left-behind children in China were investigated, concerning internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. Results: (1) The internet-addiction rate of urban left-behind children in China reached10.8%—a relatively high figure, with the rate among males higher than that among females. In terms of internet-addition salience, the figure of urban left-behind children was obviously higher than that of non-left-behind children. (2) In China, the personality deviation rate of the overall left-behind children was 15.36%; while the personality deviation rate of the internet-addicted urban left-behind children was 38.88%, a figure prominently higher than that of the non-addicted urban left-behind children group, with the rate among females higher than that among males. (3) The mental health problem rate of the overall urban left-behind children in China was 8.43%; while the rate of the internet-addicted urban left-behind children was 27.77%, a figure significantly higher than that of the non-addicted urban left-behind children. (4) There were significant relationships among internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. The total score of internet-addiction and its related dimensions can serve as indicators of personality neuroticism, psychoticism and the total scores of mental health. PMID:25946911

  2. Suicide among agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman

    2018-01-01

    In their meta-analysis, Klingelschmidt and her associates (1) found that agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers are at 48% higher risk of suicide than the working-age population. Moreover, they found that the excess risk is even greater among Japanese agricultural workers than workers from other high-income countries. There are several concerns regarding this meta-analysis. It appears that the excess risk has been overestimated for these workers. Furthermore, the excess risk in Japan is not different than other high-income countries. First, in a systematic review, a literature search is comprehensive. A search of a single database is unlikely to identify most of relevant studies, and these types of reviews are not therefore considered as systematic reviews (2). In this review, a specialized database (-PsycINFO) or a European database (EMBASE or -Scopus) was not searched. Second, following the PRISMA guidelines, the critical appraisal of included studies (quality assessment) is a requirement for a systematic review. In a meta-analysis of observational studies, selection bias and confounding should be ruled out. Third, the reviewers did not correctly extract confidence intervals (CI) for the estimates of several studies such as Hassler 2004, Fleming 1999, and Fragar 2011. Moreover, some studies reported both the least- and maximally adjusted risk estimates. The reviewers, however, extracted age- or the least-adjusted risk estimate. A confounder-adjusted estimate is a more appropriate estimate of the true association. In some studies [eg, Kposowa (3) Agerbo (4)], the excess risk dropped by 52-71% after adjustment for confounders. As a sensitivity analysis, the reviewers could limit their meta-analysis to a subgroup of studies controlled for confounders. Fourth, the reviewers did not estimate an overall risk estimate for each study. They included the estimates of 2-6 subgroups for 22 studies in forest and funnel plots. A fixed-effect meta-analysis is a more

  3. Impact Assessment of Climate Change on Forestry Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Forestry and forest ecosystem are highly sensitive to climate change.At present,studies about the responses of forests to climate change in China are more focused on physical influences of climate change.This paper firstly divided the key impact factors of climate change on forest and forestry developing into direct factors and indirect factors,and then made an assessment on climate change affecting future forestry development from the aspect of forest products and ecological services.On this basis,the adap...

  4. Changing Forestry Policy by Integrating Water Aspects into Forest/Vegetation Restoration in Dryland Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhui; Mike Bonell; Karl-Heinz Feger; YU Pengtao; XIONG Wei; XU Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Restoration forestry (forest rehabilitation) or re-vegetation is one effective measure to solve environmental problems, notably soil erosion. It may be further stimulated by the Clean Development Mechanism for carbon sequestration. However, there is an intensive and on-going debate about the adverse effects arising from afforestation in dryland areas, such as soil drying up which may cause further damage to the success of forest restoration, and the water yield reduction from watershed which may harm the regional development. On other hand, some preliminary studies showed a possibility that these adverse effects may be diminished more or less by properly designing the system structure and spatial distribution of forest/vegetation in a watershed. However, it is urgent to develop an evidence-based and sustainable new forestry policy for harmonizing forest-water interrelation. As a leading country in afforestation, China is beginning to develop a more trans-disciplinary and cross-sectoral forestry policy for harmonizing forestry development with water management. The main points of the changing new forestry policy should include: (1) Establishing a regional development strategy focusing on harmonized forest-water relations; (2) Taking forest-water interactions as an important part of evaluation; (3) Reducing the 'eco-water' quota of forests through technical advancement; (4) Developing and extending water-adaptive forest management practices; (S) Strengthening forest ecohydrological research and decision support ability.

  5. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: a review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Rock, Melanie; Toohey, Ann M; Hignell, Danica

    2010-07-01

    Given that recent literature reviews on physical activity in urban parks deliberately excluded qualitative findings, we reviewed qualitative research on this topic informed by a published classification scheme based on quantitative research. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies relied mainly on semi-structured interviews with individuals or in focus groups; only five studies involved in situ observation. Our synthesis aligns with previous quantitative research showing that attributes including safety, aesthetics, amenities, maintenance, and proximity are important for encouraging park use. Furthermore, our synthesis of qualitative research suggests that perceptions of the social environment entwine inextricably with perceptions of the physical environment. If so, physical attributes of parks as well as perceptions of these attributes (formed in relation to broader social contexts) may influence physical activity patterns. Both qualitative and quantitative methods provide useful information for interpreting such patterns, and in particular, when designing and assessing interventions intended to improve the amount and intensity of physical activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation Research as a Mechanism for Critical Inquiry and Knowledge Construction in Architectural and Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to the misconceptions that continue to characterize the delivery of knowledge content in architectural courses. Based on reviewing the literature on pedagogy the paper explores the value and benefits of introducing evaluation research as a mechanism for critical inquiry and knowledge construction in theory courses in architecture and urbanism. A framework is developed and employed to demonstrate the way in which this type of learning can be incorporated.   The development and implementation of a series of in-class and off campus exercises in two different contexts reveal that structured actions and experiences help students to be in control over their learning while invigorating their understanding of the body of knowledge delivered in a typical lecture format. It firmly believed that this would offer students multiple learning opportunities while fostering their capabilities to shift from passive listeners to active learners and from knowledge consumers to knowledge producers.

  7. Ensuring VGI Credibility in Urban-Community Data Generation: A Methodological Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the methodological development of current research into urban community formations based on combinations of qualitative (volunteered and quantitative (spatial analytical and geo-statistical data. We outline a research design that addresses problems of data quality relating to credibility in volunteered geographic information (VGI intended for Web-enabled participatory planning. Here we have drawn on a dual notion of credibility in VGI data, and propose a methodological workflow to address its criteria. We propose a ‘super-positional’ model of urban community formations, and report on the combination of quantitative and participatory methods employed to underpin its integration. The objective of this methodological phase of study is to enhance confidence in the quality of data for Web-enabled participatory planning. Our participatory method has been supported by rigorous quantification of area characteristics, including participant communities’ demographic and socio-economic contexts. This participatory method provided participants with a ready and accessible format for observing and mark-making, which allowed the investigators to iterate rapidly a system design based on participants’ responses to the workshop tasks. Participatory workshops have involved secondary school-age children in socio-economically contrasting areas of Liverpool (Merseyside, UK, which offers a test-bed for comparing communities’ formations in comparative contexts, while bringing an under-represented section of the population into a planning domain, whose experience may stem from public and non-motorised transport modalities. Data has been gathered through one-day participatory workshops, featuring questionnaire surveys, local site analysis, perception mapping and brief, textual descriptions. This innovative approach will support Web-based participation among stakeholding planners, who may benefit from well-structured, community

  8. Study on Construction of Forestry Socialized Service Systems Based on Barnard's Organizational Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Can-fu; CHENG Xiao-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Construction of forestry socialized service systems is the important content for reform of collective forestry tenure systems.Based on the necessity, possibility and problem of construction of forestry socialized service system, according to Barnard's Organizational Structure theory, the path and countermeasure of forestry socialized service system in China are discussed.

  9. Prevalence of Lyme disease among forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Paweł Kocbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of Lyme disease, established diagnosis based on medical history and clinical symptoms, serology, duration of exposure in the workplace and occupational disease certification among forestry workers in selected districts of the Warmia and Mazury region. Material and Methods: The study consisted of annual screening of 332 employees in 6 forest districts under the supervision of the Health Center Medica in Ostróda. Serological tests were performed in all serum samples and IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by ELISA test. Positive results were confirmed by Western-blot test. Diagnosis was made based on medical history and clinical symptoms. Results were presented by the division of selected forest districts, gender, duration of exposure in the workplace and genospecies of spirochete Borrelia responsible for the disease development. Results: Lyme disease incidence was found in all selected forest districts. Positive results in Western-blot test were determined in 120 people (63.1% of all the surveyed. However, after taking a detailed medical history of the patients Lyme disease was diagnosed in 91 people which makes 27.4% of all the examined. Among patients with diagnosed disease, IgG antibodies were found in 76 people, IgM in 25 people, while both IgM and IgG in 10 people. There was also variation in the involvement of genospecies generating the disease; spirochete B. afzeli – 46% for IgG antibodies, whereas spirochete B. burgdorferi – 50% of all cases for IgM antibodies. At the same time the relationship between the extended duration of occupational exposure to tick bites and the increased incidence of Lyme disease was confirmed, indicating the group of workers employed for at least 25 years. Conclusions: Forestry districts of the Warmia and Mazury region, creates extremely dangerous occupational conditions because of exposure to tick bites. At the same time the duration of

  10. Secondary School Students' Perception of Forestry and Wildlife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIVERSITY OF PORT-HARCOURT

    to ascertain the reasons for low enrolment in Forestry and Wildlife Management. MATERIALS ... broadcasts.With an average temperature of 27. 0 ..... is urgent need to create awareness and change the negative perception of the public about.

  11. 2015 Oregon Department Forestry Lidar DEM: Northwest OR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GeoTerra, Inc. was selected by Oregon Department of Forestry to provide Lidar remote sensing data including LAZ files of the classified Lidar points and surface...

  12. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report helps forest owners protect lakes and streams from polluted runoff that can result from forestry activities. The report will also help states to implement their nonpoint source control programs.

  13. Comparing the effectiveness of virtual and traditional forestry field tours

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, Elissa C.; Fletcher, Richard A.; Jensen, Edward C.; Rickenbach, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Virtual tours are among the many new Internet-based tools with potential applications in natural resource education. While technology exists to create virtual tour Web sites, little is understood about how they meet educational objectives and whether they can be complementary alternatives for traditional field tours. The Sustainable Forestry Partnership and the Forestry Media Center at Oregon State University created parallel virtual and field tours to compare these teaching techniques. Both ...

  14. Toward a research and action agenda on urban planning/design and health equity in cities in low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Warren; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresen, Jacob; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Sánchez-Kobashi Meneses, Raúl; Friel, Sharon

    2011-10-01

    The importance of reestablishing the link between urban planning and public health has been recognized in recent decades; this paper focuses on the relationship between urban planning/design and health equity, especially in cities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The physical urban environment can be shaped through various planning and design processes including urban planning, urban design, landscape architecture, infrastructure design, architecture, and transport planning. The resultant urban environment has important impacts on the health of the people who live and work there. Urban planning and design processes can also affect health equity through shaping the extent to which the physical urban environments of different parts of cities facilitate the availability of adequate housing and basic infrastructure, equitable access to the other benefits of urban life, a safe living environment, a healthy natural environment, food security and healthy nutrition, and an urban environment conducive to outdoor physical activity. A new research and action agenda for the urban environment and health equity in LMICs should consist of four main components. We need to better understand intra-urban health inequities in LMICs; we need to better understand how changes in the built environment in LMICs affect health equity; we need to explore ways of successfully planning, designing, and implementing improved health/health equity; and we need to develop evidence-based recommendations for healthy urban planning/design in LMICs.

  15. The forestry reclamation approach in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, P.N.; Burger, J.A.; Skousen, J.; Barton, C.D.

    2009-04-01

    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) was formed in 2005 to promote the planting of high-value hardwood trees on reclaimed coal mined lands and abandoned mine lands in Appalachia. In addition to planting more trees, ARRI's vision is to increase the survival rate of the planted trees and build a productive forest ecosystem that encourage natural succession of native forest plants by promoting the use of Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA). This article described the 5 steps of the FRA, which include (1) creating a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and comprised of topsoil, weathered sandstone, and/or the best available material, (2) loosely grading the topsoil or topsoil substitutes established in step one to create a non-compacted growth medium, (3) using ground covers that are compatible with growing trees, (4) planting two types of trees, an early succession species for wildlife and soil stability as well as commercially valuable crop trees, and (5) using proper tree planting techniques. The ARRI has been most successful in spreading the FRA by building partnerships with groups and individuals that share the common goal of science-base surface mine reforestation. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Accidents in family forestry's firewood production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Ola; Aspman, Emma Wilhelmson; Lidestav, Gun; Neely, Gregory

    2008-05-01

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50-69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures.

  17. [Research progress and development trend of quantitative assessment techniques for urban thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tie Gang; Xiao, Rong Bo; Cai, Yun Nan; Wang, Yao Wu; Wu, Chang Guang

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative assessment of urban thermal environment has become a focus for urban climate and environmental science since the concept of urban heat island has been proposed. With the continual development of space information and computer simulation technology, substantial progresses have been made on quantitative assessment techniques and methods of urban thermal environment. The quantitative assessment techniques have been developed to dynamics simulation and forecast of thermal environment at various scales based on statistical analysis of thermal environment on urban-scale using the historical data of weather stations. This study reviewed the development progress of ground meteorological observation, thermal infrared remote sensing and numerical simulation. Moreover, the potential advantages and disadvantages, applicability and the development trends of these techniques were also summarized, aiming to add fundamental knowledge of understanding the urban thermal environment assessment and optimization.

  18. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  19. Application of case teaching in genetics courses to students majoring in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin-Mei; Cui, Jian-Guo; Yu, Chang-Zhi; Zhang, Zhi; Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lin, Mei

    2017-10-20

    Undergraduate students majoring in forestry generally reflect that genetics is one of the most difficult compul-sory courses, because the traditional teaching method is difficult to satisfy their needs. According to the theoretical charac-teristics of forestry and actual demands of the students, in the light of teaching and research experience in recent years, we adopted a series of typical genetic cases such as 'opening coffin to identify relatives', stem-throne of Lycium ruthenicum Murr, and magic powers in Harry Potter. Our practices revealed that the case teaching in genetics could train good personality traits, learning abilities and creativity of the students, stimulate their interests and initiatives in learning, and increase systematic learning.

  20. Action Research Using Entomological Research to Promote Hands-On Science Inquiry in a High-Poverty, Midwest Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, Dustin

    The purpose of this mixed-methods action research study was to examine to what extent entomological research can promote students' hands-on learning in a high-poverty, urban, secondary setting. In reviewing the literature, the researcher was not able to find a specific study that investigated how entomological research could promote the hands-on learning of students. The researcher did find evidence that research on learning in a secondary setting was important to student growth. It should also be noted that support was established for the implementation of hands-on science inquiry in the classroom setting. The study's purpose was to aid educators in their instruction by combining research-based strategies and hands-on science inquiry. The surveys asked 30 students to rate their understanding of three basic ideas. These core ideas were entomological research, hands-on science inquiry, and urban studies. These core ideas provided the foundation for the study. The questionnaires were based on follow-up ideas from the surveys. Two interview sessions were used to facilitate this one-on-one focus. Because the study included only 30 student participants, its findings may not be totally replicable. Further study investigating the links between entomological research and hands-on science learning in an urban environment is needed.

  1. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1995. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In promoting ecology research, the federal ministry of science and technology (BMBF) pursues the aim to enhance understanding of the natural resources indispensable to the life of man, animals and plant societies and their interrelations, and to point out existing scope for action to preserve or replenish them. Consequently, ecology research makes an essential contribution towards effective nature conservancy and environmental protection. The interactions between climate and ecosystems also form an important part of this. With regard to topical environmental issues concerning agricultural landscapes, rivers and lakes, forests and urban-industrial agglomerations, system interrelations in representative ecosystems are investigated. The results are to be embodied in directives for the protection or appropriate use of these ecosystems in order to contribute towards a sustainable development of these types of landscapes. The book also evaluates and assesses which types of nuisances, interventions and modes of use represent hazards for the respective systems. (orig./VHE) [de

  2. Creating and validating GIS measures of urban design for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purciel, Marnie; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Gina S; Quinn, James W; Weiss, Christopher; Bader, Michael D M; Ewing, Reid; Rundle, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Studies relating urban design to health have been impeded by the unfeasibility of conducting field observations across large areas and the lack of validated objective measures of urban design. This study describes measures for five dimensions of urban design - imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity - created using public geographic information systems (GIS) data from the US Census and city and state government. GIS measures were validated for a sample of 588 New York City block faces using a well-documented field observation protocol. Correlations between GIS and observed measures ranged from 0.28 to 0.89. Results show valid urban design measures can be constructed from digital sources.

  3. Utilizing Participatory Action Research to Foster Effective Family/School Collaboration at an Urban PreK-8 Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David; Schumacher, Ruth; McMahon, Kara C.; Flores, Sofia; Moy, Gregory E.; Swidzinski, Joanna; Tompkins, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study focused on promoting culturally responsive collaboration practices at an urban preK-8 Catholic school. Using participatory action research (PAR) as its framework, a team of school stakeholders and university faculty and students from the psychology department partnered to create a participant-driven data collection and…

  4. Predicting High School Outcomes in the Baltimore City Public Schools. The Senior Urban Education Research Fellowship Series. Volume VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study of high school outcomes in the Baltimore City Public Schools builds on substantial prior research on the early warning indicators of dropping out. It sought to investigate whether the same variables that predicted a non-graduation outcome in other urban districts--attendance, behavior problems, and course failure--were also significant…

  5. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium - a protocol for building a national environmental exposure data platform for integrated analyses of urban form and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Jeffrey R; Setton, Eleanor M; Seed, Evan; Shooshtari, Mahdi; Doiron, Dany

    2018-01-08

    Multiple external environmental exposures related to residential location and urban form including, air pollutants, noise, greenness, and walkability have been linked to health impacts or benefits. The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium (CANUE) was established to facilitate the linkage of extensive geospatial exposure data to existing Canadian cohorts and administrative health data holdings. We hypothesize that this linkage will enable investigators to test a variety of their own hypotheses related to the interdependent associations of built environment features with diverse health outcomes encompassed by the cohorts and administrative data. We developed a protocol for compiling measures of built environment features that quantify exposure; vary spatially on the urban and suburban scale; and can be modified through changes in policy or individual behaviour to benefit health. These measures fall into six domains: air quality, noise, greenness, weather/climate, and transportation and neighbourhood factors; and will be indexed to six-digit postal codes to facilitate merging with health databases. Initial efforts focus on existing data and include estimates of air pollutants, greenness, temperature extremes, and neighbourhood walkability and socioeconomic characteristics. Key gaps will be addressed for noise exposure, with a new national model being developed, and for transportation-related exposures, with detailed estimates of truck volumes and diesel emissions now underway in selected cities. Improvements to existing exposure estimates are planned, primarily by increasing temporal and/or spatial resolution given new satellite-based sensors and more detailed national air quality modelling. Novel metrics are also planned for walkability and food environments, green space access and function and life-long climate-related exposures based on local climate zones. Critical challenges exist, for example, the quantity and quality of input data to many of

  6. Priorities and needs for research on urban interventions targeting vector-borne diseases: rapid review of scoping and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Mukamana, Olive; Carabali, Mabel; Osorio, Lyda; Fournet, Florence; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Turchi Marteli, Celina; Contreras, Adolfo; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-12-01

    This paper highlights the critical importance of evidence on vector-borne diseases (VBD) prevention and control interventions in urban settings when assessing current and future needs, with a view to setting policy priorities that promote inclusive and equitable urban health services. Research should produce knowledge about policies and interventions that are intended to control and prevent VBDs at the population level and to reduce inequities. Such interventions include policy, program, and resource distribution approaches that address the social determinants of health and exert influence at organizational and system levels.

  7. Research on assessment methods for urban public transport development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linghong; Dai, Hongna; Yao, Enjian; Jiang, Tian; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase in urban population, the urban travel demands in Chinese cities have been increasing dramatically. As a result, developing comprehensive urban transport systems becomes an inevitable choice to meet the growing urban travel demands. In urban transport systems, public transport plays the leading role to promote sustainable urban development. This paper aims to establish an assessment index system for the development level of urban public transport consisting of a target layer, a criterion layer, and an index layer. Review on existing literature shows that methods used in evaluating urban public transport structure are dominantly qualitative. To overcome this shortcoming, fuzzy mathematics method is used for describing qualitative issues quantitatively, and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used to quantify expert's subjective judgment. The assessment model is established based on the fuzzy AHP. The weight of each index is determined through the AHP and the degree of membership of each index through the fuzzy assessment method to obtain the fuzzy synthetic assessment matrix. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the rationality and practicability of the assessment system and the proposed assessment method.

  8. Research into Factors Contributing to Discipline Use and Disproportionality in Major Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Noltemeyer, Amity L.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to other school typologies, major urban high poverty schools more frequently use exclusionary discipline and apply these techniques disproportionately to African American students. We explored school demographic variables predicting these two outcomes using data from 440 major urban, high poverty schools. Results suggest a different set…

  9. Embarking on College and Career: Interim Evaluation of Urban Alliance. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodos, Brett; Pergamit, Michael R.; Hanson, Devlin; Edelstein, Sara; Daniels, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Urban Alliance serves at-risk youth through its high school internship program, which provides training, mentoring, and work experience to high school seniors from distressed communities. The program aims to help youth move on to higher education or employment after graduation. The Urban Institute is conducting a six-year, randomized controlled…

  10. An Action Research Study: Engaging Urban Families as Partners to Enhance Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurley, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Although family engagement has long been associated with positive outcomes, it is not easy to establish, particularly in urban classrooms. Teachers whose ethnic and social-economic statuses differ from that of the typical urban family may be unaware of how to build and sustain those relationships. When teachers do attempt to involve families, it…

  11. The Relationship of Financial Development, Urbanization and Urban-Rural Income Gap: An Empirical Research Based on Provincial Panel Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial development and the urbanization are important influence factors of the urban-rural income gap, and financial development can be measured by three main indexes which are financial scale, financial activities and financial efficiency. The financial development scale of China has obviously widened the urban-rural income gap. But rural financial activities have obvious effect on increasing farmers’ income, and the improvement of financial efficiency is helpful for narrowing the urban-rural income gap. The Kuznets effect between economic development and the urban-rural income gap has regional diversity. Besides that, the improvement of urbanization is also helpful for shorting the urban-rural income gap.

  12. Forestry applications of ground-penetrating radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, H.; Perez-Gracia, V.; Novo, A.; Armesto, J.

    2010-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical and close-range remote sensing technique based on the use of radar pulses to obtain cross-section images of underground features. This method is characterized by the transmission of an electromagnetic short length pulse (1-2 ns), presenting a centre frequency ranging from 10 MHz to 2.5 GHz. The principles of GPR operation are based on the ability of low frequency radar waves to penetrate into a non-conductive medium, usually subsoil, but also walls, concrete or wood. Those waves are detected after suffering a reflection in electromagnetic discontinuities of the propagation medium. Therefore, this is a suitable method to study changes in those physical properties, and also to characterize different mediums and the reflective targets providing information about their physical properties. The aim of this work is to describe and demonstrate different applications of GPR in forestry, showing the obtained results together with their interpretation. Firstly, in this paper, it is illustrated how GPR is able to map shallow bedrock, subsoil stratigraphy and also to estimate shallow water table depth. Secondly, different tree trunks as well as dry timber are analyzed, evaluating the different radar data obtained in each particular case, and observing differences in their electromagnetic properties related to the GPR response. Finally, several measurements were taken in order to analyze the use of GPR to detect tree root systems using polarimetric techniques, being possible to detect medium and big size roots, together with groups of small roots. (Author) 39 refs.

  13. Systematic review of research on railway and urban transit system suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile

    2016-03-15

    We critically review research on railway suicides to inform suicide prevention initiatives and future studies, including who is at risk and why, and behaviours at track locations. Literature was identified from Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and our documentation centre, and contacting 71 railway companies, resulting in 716 articles and eight unpublished reports, with 94 having empirical data on 55 unique studies. Research quality was critically assessed. The quality of studies varies greatly with frequent shortcomings: no justification of sample size, lacking information on the reliability and validity of measures, no explanation nor theoretical understanding of findings. Railway suicides resemble closely people who use other methods, although they tend to be younger. As with other suicide methods, mental health problems are likely to be present. Railway suicide attempters usually die, but most urban transportation systems attempters survive. Railway suicides are rarely impulsive; people usually go to the railway for the purpose of killing themselves. Hotspots have been the focus of some prevention measures. We know little about why people choose railway suicide, but studies of survivors suggest they often thought they would have an immediate, certain and painless death. Media reports on railway suicides can increase their incidence. Most research focuses on the incidence and characteristics of events and attempters. Research has not shown that railway suicides are different from suicides by other means. Better quality research is needed, particularly studies that investigate why people use railways to kill themselves and how railway suicides can be effectively prevented, as well as more evaluations of prevention programmes. Because of significant variations by country and region in characteristics of railway suicides, prevention programmes should conduct a local assessment of the characteristics of attempters and incidents. We need more research on

  14. Socio-Cultural Impacts in the Formation of Urban Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Indonesia, a group of village people tends to move from one place to another and develops a living space to create a settlement. This research is conducted by taking an example of a particular ethnic group that leaves the forestry area to a new place in the city. After some time, this group of people creates a similar or adapted socio-cultural system adapted from their origin place. The purpose of this research is to examine the socio-cultural aspects that significantly influence the emergence of urban village. This influence is interpreted as social and cultural relations with the establishment of space and significance of urban village. By focusing on this issue, this research will trace the process of how a new and unplanned settlement could emerge. The process and elements are indispensable from social and cultural factors. Essentially, the shape of bulit space is a non-physical manifestation of local people, which is established from time to time. In this case, the research’s challenge lies on the circumstance in Indonesia where society and culture influence the emergence of urban village. Physical appearance can be identified as a tipology of settlement and morphology of urban village.

  15. Is sustainable development attainable? Challenges facing forestry and the forest products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrist, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The challenges that face the forest industry in achieving sustainable development are reviewed. Sustainable development is not the same as sustained yield forest management. While sustained yield limits harvesting to an estimate of a forest's incremental annual growth, it is a policy which neither takes into account how improved forest management practices can increase future growth rates nor gives guidance on how multiple uses for the forest resource can be made compatible with periodic harvesting of that resource. Forests, in addition to meeting demands for timber production, must also meet demands for watershed management, recreation, preservation of wildlife and genetic diversity, moderation of climates, carbon sequestration, and land reclamation. Information is lacking from which to develop improved forest management programs that take these demands into account. Questions remain about such matters as the role of plantations in sustainable forestry and the maintenance of natural diversity. Some recent research being undertaken to generate better information for future forestry decision making is outlined, including work on gene pool maintenance, the interdependence of forest ecology and climate, the symbiotic role of mycorrhiza, forest fertilization, and the interdependence of sustainable forestry and sustainable fisheries. In the forest products industry, engineered wood products have been developed that meet tight specifications and require less raw material, and process changes have been introduced that greatly reduce pollutants from pulp manufacture

  16. Outlook for the Next Generation’s Precision Forestry in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Holopainen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade in forest mapping and monitoring applications, the ability to acquire spatially accurate, 3D remote-sensing information by means of laser scanning, digital stereo imagery and radar imagery has been a major turning point. These 3D data sets that use single- or multi-temporal point clouds enable a wide range of applications when combined with other geoinformation and logging machine-measured data. New technologies enable precision forestry, which can be defined as a method to accurately determine characteristics of forests and treatments at stand, sub-stand or individual tree level. In precision forestry, even individual tree-level assessments can be used for simulation and optimization models of the forest management decision support system. At the moment, the forest industry in Finland is looking forward to next generation’s forest inventory techniques to improve the current wood procurement practices. Our vision is that in the future, the data solution for detailed forest management and wood procurement will be to use multi-source and -sensor information. In this communication, we review our recent findings and describe our future vision in precision forestry research in Finland.

  17. Economic Analysis in the System of Financial Planning of Forestry Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievdokymov Viktor V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop organizational and methodological provisions of economic analysis of forestry enterprises’ financial plans as a result of financial planning. The importance of financial planning as a basis for developing managerial decisions regarding the financial potential is substantiated. The characteristic of the development stages and the importance of financial potential in countries of the world is given. The stages of forecasting as the basis of enterprises’ financial plans are considered. The composition of the subsystems, methods and functions of financial planning highlighted in the scientific literature is investigated. The place of economic analysis in financial planning and in the system of financial planning of an enterprise’s economic activity is determined. There identified the directions of information disclosure in a financial plan: formation of financial results, budget settlements, cash flow, capital investments, ratio analysis, financial status, breakdown of individual items. The prospect for further research is to determine the order of applying the analytical procedures for each of these directions of economic analysis to justify the application of the analytical procedures for assessing financial potential on the basis of financial plans of forestry enterprises. This will allow to create information space for managing the financial potential of a forestry enterprise to achieve its tactical and strategic goals.

  18. Study of Tree and Shrub Species Diversity in Forestry Plans with Different Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nooreddin noorian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the diversity of tree and shrub species in forestry plan in a watershed and in almost the same ecological conditions but different in forest management plan in the part of Golestan province forest. To this end, the 6675 hectares of the watershed number of 85 in 5 different plans in series one (30-year forestry plan with University Scientific Management, series two Doctor Bahramnia (without implementation and protection, series four Shamoshak, Naharkhoran plan and Sad Abad plan were selected. Inventory grid was designed by a systematic cluster sampling method with 239 circle plots in the study area. In each sample, species composition and diameter at breast height of trees and shrubs were measured. Species diversity in different series, were performed by calculating the heterogeneity indices, species richness and evenness. Statistical analysis of significant differences between the values of biodiversity of woody species among different series was performed by Duncan’s test. The results showed that biodiversity of woody species in the one and two series of Shastkalateh forest under academic management was better than other plans and forestry plan of Naharkhoran is in an unfavorable situation in terms of diversity indices.

  19. Modern principles used in conformity assessment of machinery from forestry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Anca Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aiming to implement the general principles of risk prevention at employer’s level, with respect to occupational risks evaluation, the elimination of risk and accident factors, and information of workers which are using the machinery in the forestry sector. For the use of machinery in the forestry sector in terms of economic performance and a level of maximum safety, it is necessary to ensure the user guides set by the manufacturer in terms of commissioning, use and to provide appropriate safe working operations and interventions and to guarantee the technical and environmental requirements, including appropriate measures and means of protection against accidents and occupational disease. The impact of occupational risks for machinery used in this sector can be reduced through the application of modern principles in conformity assessment and certification and, where appropriate, through technical diagnostics and inspection, taking into account the provisions of the new Machinery Directive 2006/42 / EC which is imposing the obligation of manufacturer to implement conformity assessment procedures in accordance with the methods of assessment and verification of safety at the certification bodies, notified at the European Commission. The paper aims to develop modern technical tools for conformity assessment and verification of this category of machines used in the forestry sector that would provide prerequisite for increasing competitiveness of employers in the market economy. Applying these tools of modern technology for manufacturers and users of this category of machinery provides the necessary conditions for placing on the market of safe products with a appropriate safety level, in the intended using conditions, in order to guarantee the essential requirements for safety and health, technical and environmental conditions, including measures and means of protection. The result of this research is to develop technical tools needed to

  20. Research on the Design of Visually Impaired Interactive Accessibility in Large Urban Public Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiru

    2017-12-01

    In medieval times, due to people’s reliance on belief, public space of Christianity came into being. With the rise of secularization, religion gradually turned into private belief, and accordingly public space returned to private space. In the 21st century, due to people’s reliance on intelligent devices, information-interactive public space emerges, and as information interaction is constantly constraining the visually impaired, public space regressed to the exclusive space of limited people[1]. Modernity is marked by technical rationality, but an ensuing basic problem lies in the separation between human action, ethics and public space. When technology fails to overcome obstacles for a particular group, the gap between the burgeoning intelligent phenomena and the increasing ratio of visually impaired is also expanding, ultimately resulting in a growing number of “blind spots” in information-interactive space. Technological innovation not only promotes the development of the information industry, but also promotes the rapid development of the transportation industry. Traffic patterns are diversifying and diverging nowadays, but it’s a fatal blow for people with visually disabilities, Because they still can only experience the most traditional mode of transportation, sometimes even not go out. How to guarantee their interactive accessibility in large urban public transport system right, currently, is a very important research direction.

  1. Evidence-based research on the value of school nurses in an urban school system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, Mary J; Lundeen, Sally P; Murphy, M Kathleen

    2011-02-01

    With the increasing acuity of student health problems, growing rates of poverty among urban families, and widening racial/ethnic health disparities in child and adolescent health indicators, the contributions of school nurses are of increasing interest to policymakers. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of school nurses on promoting a healthy school environment and healthy, resilient learners. A mixed-methods approach was used for this study. Using a cross-sectional design, surveys captured the level of satisfaction that school staff had with the nurse in their school, as well as their perceptions of the impact of the nurse on the efficient management of student health concerns. Using a quasi-experimental design, data from electronic school records were used to compare rates of immunization and completeness of health records in schools with nurses. This study provides evidence that school nurses positively influenced immunization rates, the accuracy of student health records, and management of student health concerns. This research demonstrates that teachers and other staff consider nurse interventions vital to eliminating barriers to student learning and improving overall school health. A cost analysis revealed the estimated annual cost per school for the time staff spent managing health concerns. In an environment of scarce resources, school boards need quality evaluation data to justify hiring and retaining school nurses to support improved school health environments. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  2. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  3. The Swiss carbon balance: methods, state of reporting and research perspectives. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugmann H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the 1990-1998 period, Switzerland reported an annual sink strength of Swiss forests of 4500-6000 Gg CO2. In its latest submission in 2000, newly available national forest inventory (NFI data were used to refine earlier estimates. The same NFI data can also be used to provide extrapolations for the near future. No carbon sequestration values have been reported to date for forest soils. The Swiss government will provide funding for a number of research activities under the umbrella of COST E21, ranging from modeling studies of carbon storage in Swiss forests to an evaluation of joint implementation methods.

  4. Improving Science and IT Literacy by Providing Urban-Based Environmental Science Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.; Liang, J.

    2007-12-01

    A U.C. Berkeley-based outreach program known as Environmental Science Information Technology Activities has been in operation over the past four years. The primary aim of the program is to provide opportunities for grades 9 and 10 students in diverse East San Francisco Bay Area communities to develop deeper understandings of the nature and conduct of science, which will increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future. Design of the program has been informed by recent research that indicates a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Accordingly, ESITA includes an important student-led environmental science research project component, which provides participants with opportunities to engage in research investigations that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews with participants and specific assessment/evaluation instruments indicates that ESITA program activities, including after-school meetings, summer and school year research projects, and conference preparations and presentations has provided students with high-quality inquiry science experiences that increased their knowledge of STEM and IT concepts, as well as their understanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise. In addition, the program has achieved a high degree of success in that it has: enhanced participants' intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. Overall

  5. TOURISM AND FORESTRY COLLABORATION IN BALI-INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The declining interest of the younger generation in forestry education has become a global issue while forestry continues to play an immense role for human lives throughout the world. This decline should be anticipated by higher education institutions by forming a collaboration between forestry education and another, more appealing, education program. For Bali, which has relied on the tourism sector as the main driver of its local economy, collaboration between the tourism sector and forestry sector seems natural. Based on case studies in Bali,the idea of utilizing forest areas for tourism have entered a new phase that is as one of the drivers for foreign domestic tourists to travel to Bali. Several forest areas that have been for tourism include the mangrove forests of Badung regency, Tabanan’s botanical gardens, and West Bali National Park in Jembrana and Buleleng regencies. Collaboration between forestry and tourism is aimed at attracting tourists, absorbing more labor force, and preserving natural resources.

  6. Opportunities and Challenges for Terrestrial Carbon Offsetting and Marketing, with Some Implications for Forestry in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nijnik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Climate change and its mitigation have become increasingly high profile issues since the late 1990s, with the potential of forestry in carbon sequestration a particular focus. The purpose of this paper is to outline the importance of socio-economic considerations in this area. Opportunities for forestry to sequester carbon and the role of terrestrial carbon uptake credits in climate change negotiations are addressed, together with the feasibility of bringing terrestrial carbon offsets into the regulatory emission trading scheme. The paper discusses whether or not significant carbon offsetting and trading will occur on a large scale in the UK or internationally. Material and Methods: The paper reviews the literature on the socio-economic aspects of climate change mitigation via forestry (including the authors’ research on this topic to assess the potential for carbon offsetting and trading, and the likely scale of action. Results and Conclusion: We conclude that the development of appropriate socio-economic framework conditions (e.g. policies, tenure rights, including forest carbon ownership, and markets and incentives for creating and trading terrestrial carbon credits are important in mitigating climate change through forestry projects, and we make suggestions for future research that would be required to support such developments.

  7. Urban heat stress: novel survey suggests health and fitness as future avenue for research and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christian; Honold, Jasmin; Lauf, Steffen; Lakes, Tobia

    2017-04-01

    Extreme heat has tremendous adverse effects on human health. Heat stress is expected to further increase due to urbanization, an aging population, and global warming. Previous research has identified correlations between extreme heat and mortality. However, the underlying physical, behavioral, environmental, and social risk factors remain largely unknown and comprehensive quantitative investigation on an individual level is lacking. We conducted a new cross-sectional household questionnaire survey to analyze individual heat impairment (self-assessed and reported symptoms) and a large set of potential risk factors in the city of Berlin, Germany. This unique dataset (n = 474) allows for the investigation of new relationships, especially between health/fitness and urban heat stress. Our analysis found previously undocumented associations, leading us to generate new hypotheses for future research: various health/fitness variables returned the strongest associations with individual heat stress. Our primary hypothesis is that age, the most commonly used risk factor, is outperformed by health/fitness as a dominant risk factor. Related variables seem to more accurately represent humans’ cardiovascular capacity to handle elevated temperature. Among them, active travel was associated with reduced heat stress. We observed statistical associations for heat exposure regarding the individual living space but not for the neighborhood environment. Heat stress research should further investigate individual risk factors of heat stress using quantitative methodologies. It should focus more on health and fitness and systematically explore their role in adaptation strategies. The potential of health and fitness to reduce urban heat stress risk means that encouraging active travel could be an effective adaptation strategy. Through reduced CO2 emissions from urban transport, societies could reap double rewards by addressing two root causes of urban heat stress: population health and

  8. Future tendencies of climate indicators important for adaptation and mitigation strategies in forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, Borbala; Hänsler, Andreas; Gulyas, Krisztina; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel

    2014-05-01

    impact analyses and build an important basis of the future adaptation strategies in forestry, agriculture and water management. Funding: The research is supported by the TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0013 and TÁMOP-4.1.1.C-12/1/KONV-2012-0012 (ZENFE) joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate indices, climate change impacts, forestry, regional climate modelling

  9. Subjective Identity of Kaunas Cityscape: Research Results and Their Relation with Objective Indicators of Urban Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribelytė-Knistautienė, Rūta; Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė, Jūratė

    2017-01-01

    Kaunas city identity formants were recently identified preparing Kaunas City Master Plan in 2013. They are divided into four groups: natural, functional, iconic, and conventional symbols. Designation of symbols depicting urban identity is inseparable from the city's history, its culture, and urban development. Due to associativity characteristic to human thinking, history of the specific locality is understood through its inherent natural environment, objects created by human, and culture or ...

  10. Evaluation of economic impact of climatic change on agro-forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Gallerani

    Full Text Available Climate change has a strong influence on agro-forestry systems. Present estimations evisage that changes in climate patterns and extreme events connected to climate change will have greater impacts in the future. This paper seeks to illustrate the articulation of the problems concerning the economic evaluation of climate change, with particularly attention to open problems and future lines of research. Research on this topic, though using methods and approaches consolidated in the disciplines of resource economics and evaluation, still have several open problems, particularly in the field of multidisciplinary studies of the man-environmental relations, policy evaluation and development of decision support systems for decision makers.

  11. Designing forestry projects for climate action plan implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, R.N. [American Forests, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Forests play an important role in sequestering and storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, so countries considering ways to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are looking at forestry projects as one option. Designing forestry projects that accomplish desired goals is no simple task however, as many past failures attest. This paper proposes that, to be successful, climate change mitigation forestry projects need to: (a) feature other socially, economically and environmentally desirable goals as primary motivators; (b) be designed in cooperation with, and in the interests of, local populations, and (c), feature cooperative efforts between government, industry, and volunteer associations. Volunteer associations can often be assisted in being a more capable partner through an organizational training and support process, and this is one of the services offered to cooperating countries through American Forests. 21 refs.

  12. Approaches to economic analysis of profitability of forestry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Dzyubenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the directions of adaptation of existing analytical procedures for assessing the profitability to specific activities of forestry enterprises, which is an integral part of evaluating financial potential of enterprises of the investigated branch. In particular, the author identifies the following analytical procedures that make it possible to assess the performance of forestry enterprises and determine its financial potential: the return on equity (assets on net profit, the return on equity, the return on assets, the return on sales of profits from operating activities, the profitability of sold products at net profit, reinvestment factor, the economic growth sustainability ratio, the period of payback capital, the payback period of equity capital. On the basis of these indicators, the current state of profitability of forestry enterprises was substantiated and their critical points were determined.

  13. MELLIPHEROUS TREES MONITORING FROM ANA LUGOJANA FORESTRY DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PĂTRUICĂ

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study made by the purpose of seeing in whatmanner the mellipherous trees belonging to Ana Lugojana Departments ensuremaintenance and production harvesting for bee families from this area. The study wasmade during the period of May 2006 and April 2007, on a 12301 hectares area, inwhich we recorded: forestry mellipherous trees identification, the surface occupied byeach specie and the blooming period, data that we used to calculate the amount ofhoney that can be obtained and the number of bee families that can be kept in thearea, respectively. Analyzing the data, we concluded that forestry mellipherous treesfrom Ana Lugojana Forestry Departments can ensure in normal conditions,maintenance and production harvesting for 3239 bee families.

  14. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's urban research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundquist, J K; Sugiyama, G A; Nasstrom, J

    2007-01-01

    Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations

  15. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's Urban Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Sugiyama, G.; Nasstrom, J.

    2007-12-01

    Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. The Department of Homeland Security sponsored the production of this material under the Department of Energy contract for the management and operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL-PROC-234355

  16. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  17. Application of the asthma phenotype algorithm from the Severe Asthma Research Program to an urban population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paru Patrawalla

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of asthma phenotypes are challenging due to disease complexity and heterogeneity. The Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP used unsupervised cluster analysis to define 5 phenotypically distinct asthma clusters that they replicated using 3 variables in a simplified algorithm. We evaluated whether this simplified SARP algorithm could be used in a separate and diverse urban asthma population to recreate these 5 phenotypic clusters.The SARP simplified algorithm was applied to adults with asthma recruited to the New York University/Bellevue Asthma Registry (NYUBAR to classify patients into five groups. The clinical phenotypes were summarized and compared.Asthma subjects in NYUBAR (n = 471 were predominantly women (70% and Hispanic (57%, which were demographically different from the SARP population. The clinical phenotypes of the five groups generated by the simplified SARP algorithm were distinct across groups and distributed similarly to those described for the SARP population. Groups 1 and 2 (6 and 63%, respectively had predominantly childhood onset atopic asthma. Groups 4 and 5 (20% were older, with the longest duration of asthma, increased symptoms and exacerbations. Group 4 subjects were the most atopic and had the highest peripheral eosinophils. Group 3 (10% had the least atopy, but included older obese women with adult-onset asthma, and increased exacerbations.Application of the simplified SARP algorithm to the NYUBAR yielded groups that were phenotypically distinct and useful to characterize disease heterogeneity. Differences across NYUBAR groups support phenotypic variation and support the use of the simplified SARP algorithm for classification of asthma phenotypes in future prospective studies to investigate treatment and outcome differences between these distinct groups.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00212537.

  18. Urbanism & urban qualities New data and methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The interest in urban spaces and their qualities has become stronger in recent years. A substantial volume of projects aims to create attractive urban spaces reasons of Sustainability, Quality of Life and urban vitality. But who actually uses the urban spaces, which urban spaces are used? How do...... they use them? What characterizes the good urban space? And how and by who is it evaluated? How is a better co-operation between urban space researchers, decision makers and users established? Is it the right urban spaces which receive investments? How can research optimize the basis for decisions......?   Proceedings from the conference "Urbanism & urban qualities - new data & methodologies" held 24th of June 2009 at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen....

  19. Comparison of Fuzzy AHP Buckley and ANP Models in Forestry Capability Evaluation (Case Study: Behbahan City Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The area of Zagros forests is continuously in danger of destruction. Therefore, the remaining forests should be carefully managed based on ecological capability evaluation. In fact, land evaluation includes prediction or assessment of land quality for a special land use with regard to production, vulnerability and management requirements. In this research, we studied the ecological capability of Behbahan city fringe for forestry land use. After the basic studies were completed and the thematic maps such as soil criteria, climate, physiography, vegetation and bedrock were prepared, the fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making methods of Fuzzy AHP Buckley and ANP were used to standardize and determine the weights of criteria. Finally, the ecological model of the region’s capability was generated to prioritize forestry land use and prepare the final map of evaluation using WLC model in seven classes. The results showed that in ANP method, 55.58% of the area is suitable for forestry land use which is more consistent with the reality, while in the Fuzzy AHP method, 95.23% of the area was found suitable. Finally, it was concluded that the ANP method shows more flexibility and ability to determine suitable areas for forestry land use in the study area.

  20. PERCEPTION OF MODES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT COMPARED TO TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR OF URBAN INHABITANTS IN LIGHT OF MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna HEBEL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study introduces the notion of “travel behaviour” among urban inhabitants, as well as highlighting its most common determinants, one of which is the perception of public transport. The study includes a comparative analysis of the link between passenger perceptions of the main modes of public transport in relation to the actual mode of transport chosen to complete a certain journey, based on market research results collected within a given city.

  1. Urbane Projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Juel

    2013-01-01

    of Chapter 1 ’problem and research questions’, Chapter 2 ’place, discourse and planning as a theoretical framework’ and Chapter 3 ’research design’. Part 2 ’urban practice locally, nationally and globally’ consisting of Chapter 4 ’background and context, urban trans- formations in Aalborg from 1950 to 2013...... of Chapter 9 with the same name. The analysis results and thus the conclusions are at 3 levels of knowledge: Historically specific development in terms of urban planning practices respectively in Aalborg and natio- nally/internationally The tools here have been a focus on different rationales or urban...... projects as a strategic tool in urban policy, development of place perceptions, the use of narratives in the planning processes, the functions of representations as discursive devised imagined realities, power structures and planning approaches - knowledge that can be used in the future practice of other...

  2. Using formative research to develop MNCH programme in urban slums in Bangladesh: experiences from MANOSHI, BRAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Tamanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MANOSHI, an integrated community-based package of essential Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH services is being implemented by BRAC in the urban slums of Bangladesh since 2007. The objective of the formative research done during the inception phase was to understand the context and existing resources available in the slums, to reduce uncertainty about anticipated effects, and develop and refine the intervention components. Methods Data were collected during Jan-Sept 2007 in one of the earliest sites of programme intervention in the Dhaka metropolitan area. A conceptual framework guided data collection at different stages. Besides exploring slum characteristics, studies were done to map existing MNCH service providing facilities and providers, explore existing MNCH-related practices, and make an inventory of community networks/groups with a stake in MNCH service provision. Also, initial perception and expectations regarding the community delivery centres launched by the programme was explored. Transect walk, observation, pile sorting, informal and focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, case studies, network analysis and small quantitative surveys were done to collect data. Results Findings reveal that though there are various MNCH services and providers available in the slums, their capacity to provide rational and quality services is questionable. Community has superficial knowledge of MNCH care and services, but this is inadequate to facilitate the optimal survival of mothers and neonates. Due to economic hardships, the slum community mainly relies on cheap informal sector for health care. Cultural beliefs and practices also reinforce this behaviour including home delivery without skilled assistance. Men and women differed in their perception of pregnancy and delivery: men were more concerned with expenses while women expressed fear of the whole process, including delivering at hospitals. People expected 'one

  3. Research on the Model of E-commerce of China’s Urban Informatization Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban informatization e-commerce is a business model of the combination of e-commerce operators and organizational forms of community property management, and the import of people management and property management into e-commerce. This paper analyzes the current situation of Chinese urban community e-commerce and informatization community building. It puts forward the model of community e-commerce based on informatization, and its feasibility was verified by PIECE method. Finally, focusing on the application, the model of community e-commerce based on informatization community is analyzed in detail from the perspective of the role and value, supply chain and collaborative management works. Information services are most likely to succeed in the entry point of e-commerce. The study has shown that the establishment of community e-commerce on the basis of urban informatization community can be regarded as a solution of e-commerce development.

  4. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Toxicity of Glyphosate on Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. RG Okayi, PA Annune, MU Tachia, OJ Oshoke, 150-155 ...

  5. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of tortoise (Chelonoides Nigra, Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) in five selected communities in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HM Ijeomah, A Pudie, 1-13 ...

  6. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for water supply and demand under climate change and its variability in Abuja, Nigeria ... Effects of habitat and beehive type on the yield of honey in Hong local ... Potentials of flora species on the yield of honey in Dakka Forest reserve, Bali ...

  7. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic contribution of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) toward sustainable livelihood in eastern, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O.B. Uluocha, A.U. Udeagha, S.I. Udofia, C.I. Duruigbo, 40-57 ...

  8. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local Perception and Proximate Analysis of some Edible Forest Plants Around University of Agriculture Wildlife Park, Benue State, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OJ Agbo, SA Shomkegh, R Mbakwe, 10-22 ...

  9. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost and return structure in sawmill industry in Ijebu Ode, Ogun state, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T.O. Babatunde, O.O. Babatunde, A.A. Adejumo, S.O. Okeleke, 12-18 ...

  10. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived effect of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak on wild animal extraction from Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary (AMWS), Cross River State, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J.O. Bukie, R Malik, O.P. Olapade, 56-62 ...

  11. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of tourists satisfaction and perception in Makurdi zoological garden, Benue state, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Physicochemical properties of soil under two different depths in a tropical forest of international institute of tropical agriculture, Abeokuta, Ibadan , Nigeria.

  12. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamensdae and Pouteria Altissima) in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, a Montane Forest Ecosystem in Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Impact of Makurdi Zoological Garden and Manaterium on Conservation Education in Benue State · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Why rehabilitation, restoration and protection of watershed forests in Nigeria should be given a priority attention · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P.C. Aju, 36-43 ...

  14. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of spent engine oil on germination and growth parameters of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K.C. Onwusiri, C.U. Aguoru, G.F. Akomolafe, 1-8 ...

  15. Research on Urban Road Traffic Congestion Charging Based on Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sun

    Traffic congestion is a major problem which bothers our urban traffic sustainable development at present. Congestion charging is an effective measure to alleviate urban traffic congestion. The paper first probes into several key issues such as the goal, the pricing, the scope, the method and the redistribution of congestion charging from theoretical angle. Then it introduces congestion charging practice in Singapore and London and draws conclusion and suggestion that traffic congestion charging should take scientific plan, support of public, public transportation development as the premise.

  16. Effects of Patagonian pine forestry on native breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Pescador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective is to assess the influences of the tree stand age and other forestry management practices on species richness, composition, and distribution of the Patagonian pine plantation bird assemblages. Area of Study: The work was carried out in forested plots of Ponderosa pine located at the Lanín National Park (Patagonia, Argentina.Material and Methods: Birds were sampled using 25 m fixed radius point counts, at four plots varying in age, management, and forest structure. Main Results: A total of 2090 individuals belonging to 34 bird species were observed, their numbers vary significantly depending on the different modes of plantation management. The population density of the 14 most abundant bird species was compared among the four plantation plots and ten species don’t show statistically significant differences in their population density among the different forest plots. The California Quail, the White-Crested Elaenia and the Southern House Wren showed higher densities in pine plantations with lower tree densities and fewer cutting treatments. The Diuca Finch had high densities in the younger plantations not subjected to any treatment. Research highlights: Most of these bird species are opportunistic and a few are found more regularly in these non-native woods than in other native forested or afforested areas. Our data suggest that a mixed scenario based on a mosaic of plantation with patches of native deciduous forest may help maximize the bird diversity in the management of northwestern Patagonian plantation landscapes.Keywords: Bird population; diversity; exotic plantations; Patagonia; tree-age.

  17. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribot, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  18. Characterizing the sustainable forestry issue network in thc United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Thomas P. Holmes; Elizabethann O' Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Issue network analysis techniques were applied to the issue sustainable forestry in the United States to identify potential public and private outcomes for the issue. A quantitative approach based on work by Laumann and Knoke [(The Organizational State (1987)] was utilized in conjunction with the Delphi method. Results suggest that the parity in the distribution of...

  19. Participatory forestry in Bangladesh: has it helped to increase the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The government of Bangladesh has placed the utmost priority on participatory forestry (PF) since the 1980s, and this approach was commenced in the degraded Sal forest areas through a donor-funded project in 1989. These forest reforms aim to eliminate the main causes of forest depletion as well as alleviate poverty ...

  20. Exploring the origins of ecological forestry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony W. ​D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Jerry F. Franklin; David R. Foster

    2016-01-01

    The use of ecological forestry to achieve management objectives, such as the maintenance of native biodiversity, has become increasingly common on public and private ownerships in North America. These approaches generally use natural disturbance processes and their structural and compositional outcomes as models for designing silvicultural prescriptions that restore or...

  1. Considerations for sound policy on investment in the forestry sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the amount of real capital produced in terms of standing trees during some periods in the forestry sector of Osun and Oyo states with a view to considering sound policy on investment. Information were gathered through the use of primary and secondary data. The information obtained were analyzed ...

  2. Assessment of Participation of Churches in Social Forestry in Uyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These reasons, individually had significant (p<0.05) influence on respondents' unwillingness to plant trees on vacant lands. There is need for enlightenment campaigns in churches in Uyo LGA of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, to deflate wrong beliefs that trees host evil spirits. Keywords: Participation, churches, social forestry, Uyo ...

  3. Decision support for sustainable forestry: enhancing the basic rational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.R. Ekbia; K.M. Reynolds

    2007-01-01

    Decision-support systems (DSS) have been extensively used in the management of natural resources for nearly two decades. However, practical difficulties with the application of DSS in real-world situations have become increasingly apparent. Complexities of decisionmaking, encountered in the context of ecosystem management, are equally present in sustainable forestry....

  4. Is woody residue part of your plan for sustainable forestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    The answer to the title question should be "yes"! Currently, there is a lot of chatter about sustainable forestry and alternative fuels, including conversion of wood to bioenergy. At first glance it may seem like there is a conflict - how can removal of woody biomass be sustainable? Whether you are a small woodlot owner doing sustainable harvesting, looking...

  5. Applications of an automated stem measurer for precision forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Accurate stem measurements are required for the determination of many silvicultural prescriptions, i.e., what are we going to do with a stand of trees. This would only be amplified in a precision forestry context. Many methods have been proposed for optimal ways to evaluate stems for a variety of characteristics. These methods usually involve the acquisition of total...

  6. Natural disturbance and stand development principles for ecological forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik

    2007-01-01

    Foresters use natural disturbances and stand development processes as models for silvicultural practices in broad conceptual ways. Incorporating an understanding of natural disturbance and stand development processes more fully into silvicultural practice is the basis for an ecological forestry approach. Such an approach must include 1) understanding the importance of...

  7. Forestry and the carbon market response to stabilize climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavoni, Massimo; Sohngen, Brent; Bosetti, Valentina

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential contribution of forestry management in meeting a CO 2 stabilization policy of 550 ppmv by 2100. In order to assess the optimal response of the carbon market to forest sequestration, we couple two global models. An energy-economy-climate model for the study of climate policies is linked with a detailed forestry model through an iterative procedure to provide the optimal abatement strategy. Results show that forestry is a determinant abatement option and could lead to significantly lower policy costs if included. Linking forestry management to the carbon market has the potential to alleviate the policy burden of 50 ppmv or equivalently of 1/4 deg. C, and to significantly decrease the price of carbon. Biological sequestration will mostly come from avoided deforestation in tropical-forest-rich countries. The inclusion of this mitigation option is demonstrated to crowd out some of the traditional abatement in the energy sector and to lessen induced technological change in clean technologies

  8. Ensuring people's participation in social forestry | Idumah | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are however factors militating against this concepts; these include poverty, and hunger, land tenure system and food production without a corresponding appreciation of the full prospects of tree growing. To be able to reap the full benefits of social forestry, there is need to streamline and strengthen the information link ...

  9. Measuring total economic benefits from water in plantation forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quasi input-output framework was applied to measuring direct and indirect economic benefits from water use in plantation forestry in the Crocodile river catchment of South Africa. The study accounted for indirect economic benefits generated in downstream timber processing activities and input supply sectors linked with ...

  10. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use Roman font 12 for the text as well as the main text. ... Use size A4, white bond, 80 mg paper. ... Modern approaches and Innovations in Soil Management. ... without prior permission from the College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism, SUA.

  11. Property Rights Effects on Farmers’ Management Investment in Forestry Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Bluemling, Bettina; Dries, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    China’s central government has carried out a series of collectivization and de-collectivization attempts of forest tenure over time, which have led to multiple forest tenure arrangements within provinces. This paper investigates the motivation of farmers to maintain forestry under various forest

  12. Improving working conditions and increasing profits in forestry.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson K; Strehlke B

    1996-01-01

    Briefly looks at the links between work organization, productivity and working conditions. Discusses the advantages which can be gained by using appropriate tools and techniques and improving working conditions and safety. Based on 24 case studies which cover a broad range of forestry activities.

  13. Green gold : on variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it

  14. Constraints to feedback provision on forestry-related technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper ascertained the constraints to feedback provision on forestry-related technologies. Interview schedule was used to elicit information from 163 randomly selected respondents. Descriptive (frequencies, percentages) and inferential (Chi square and Ordinary Least square regression) statistics were used to analyse ...

  15. Training Needs of Vocational Forestry Staff in Ogun State Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These concerns gave rise to this study with specific objectives to level of knowledge and level of skills of vocational staff in forestry activities. Data were collected using a simple random sampling technique in the selection of 50% of vocational staff totaling 143 respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were ...

  16. 29 CFR 788.18 - Preparing other forestry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING... substances of such plants and trees. Included among these are decorative greens such as holly, ferns, roots, stems, leaves, Spanish moss, wild fruit, and brush. Christmas trees are only included where they are...

  17. Research on urban road congestion pricing strategy considering carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Peng, Z.; Wang, K.; Song, X.; Yao, B.; Feng, T.

    2015-01-01

    Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide

  18. "Knowing the Ledge": Participatory Action Research as Legal Studies for Urban High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, David; Delgado, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Zero-tolerance discipline policies, harsh sentencing laws, and the gentrification of communities of color have devastating effects for the lives of young people. Coupled with the fact that urban schools can devalue their views, values, and understandings of the world, this article examines an effort to challenge deficit theories that permeate…

  19. A Social-ecological framework for urban stewardship network research to promote sustainable and resilient cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Romolini; R. Patrick Bixler; Morgan Grove

    2016-01-01

    To realize more sustainable and resilient urban social-ecological systems, there is great need for active engagement from diverse public agencies, non-profit organizations, businesses, natural resource managers, scientists, and other actors. Cities present unique challenges and opportunities for sustainability and resilience, as issues and organizations are frequently...

  20. Urban children and nature: a summary of research on camping and outdoor education

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R., Jr. Burch

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of an extensive bibliographic search that identified studies or urban children in camp and outdoor education programs. These studies were systematically abstracted and classified qualitative or quantitative. Twenty-five percent of the abstracted studies were quantitative. The major findings, techniques of study, and policy...

  1. MINDMAP: establishing an integrated database infrastructure for research in ageing, mental well-being, and the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Doiron, Dany; Fortier, Isabel; Noordzij, J Mark; Reinhard, Erica; Courtin, Emilie; Bobak, Martin; Chaix, Basile; Costa, Giuseppe; Dapp, Ulrike; Diez Roux, Ana V; Huisman, Martijn; Grundy, Emily M; Krokstad, Steinar; Martikainen, Pekka; Raina, Parminder; Avendano, Mauricio; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2018-01-19

    Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals. MINDMAP aims to achieve its research objectives by bringing together longitudinal studies from 11 countries covering over 35 cities linked to databases of area-level environmental exposures and social and urban policy indicators. The infrastructure supporting integration of this data will allow multiple MINDMAP investigators to safely and remotely co-analyse individual-level and area-level data. Individual-level data is derived from baseline and follow-up measurements of ten participating cohort studies and provides information on mental well-being outcomes, sociodemographic variables, health behaviour characteristics, social factors, measures of frailty, physical function indicators, and chronic conditions, as well as blood derived clinical biochemistry-based biomarkers and genetic biomarkers. Area-level information on physical environment characteristics (e.g. green spaces, transportation), socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. neighbourhood income, residential segregation, residential density), and social environment characteristics (e.g. social cohesion, criminality) and national and urban social policies is derived from publically available sources such as geoportals and administrative databases. The linkage, harmonization, and analysis of data from different sources are being carried out using piloted tools to optimize the validity of the research results and transparency of the methodology. MINDMAP is a novel research collaboration that is

  2. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  3. Informational Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang G. Stock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary and future cities are often labeled as "smart cities," "ubiquitous cities," "knowledge cities" and "creative cities." Informational urbanism includes all aspects of information and knowledge with regard to urban regions. "Informational city" is an umbrella term uniting the divergent trends of information-related city research. Informational urbanism is an interdisciplinary endeavor incorporating on the one side computer science and information science and on the other side urbanism, architecture, (city economics, and (city sociology. In our research project on informational cities, we visited more than 40 metropolises and smaller towns all over the world. In this paper, we sketch the theoretical background on a journey from Max Weber to the Internet of Things, introduce our research methods, and describe main results on characteristics of informational cities as prototypical cities of the emerging knowledge society.

  4. Geospatial Technologies and i-Tree Echo Inventory for Predicting Climate Change on Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, S.; Robinson, L.; Ghariban, N.; Comar, M.; Pope, B.; Frey, G.

    2015-12-01

    Urban forests can be useful both in mitigating climate change and in helping cities adapt to higher temperatures and other impacts of climate change. Understanding and managing the impacts of climate change on the urban forest trees and natural communities will help us maintain their environmental, cultural, and economic benefits. Tree Inventory can provide important information on tree species, height, crown width, overall condition, health and maintenance needs. This presentation will demonstrate that a trees database system is necessary for developing a sustainable urban tree program. Virginia State University (VSU) campus benefits from large number and diversity of trees that are helping us by cleaning the air, retaining water, and providing shade on the buildings to reduce energy cost. The objectives of this study were to develop campus inventory of the trees, identify the tree species, map the locations of the trees with user-friendly tools such as i-Tree Eco and geospatial technologies by assessing the cost/benefit of employing student labor for training and ground validation of the results, and help campus landscape managers implement adaptive responses to climate change impacts. Data was collected on the location, species, and size of trees by using i-Tree urban forestry analysis software. This data was transferred to i-Tree inventory system for demonstrating types of trees, diameter of the trees, height of the trees, and vintage of the trees. The study site was mapped by collecting waypoints with GPS (Global Positioning System) at the trees and uploading these waypoints in ArcMap. The results of this study showed that: (i) students make good field crews, (ii) if more trees were placed in the proper area, the heating and cooling costs will reduce, and (iii) trees database system is necessary for planning, designing, planting, and maintenance, and removal of campus trees Research sponsored by the NIFA Grant, "Urban Forestry Management" (2012-38821-20153).

  5. Modeling the Warming Impact of Urban Land Expansion on Hot Weather Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Tian, Guangjin; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Bingran; Wang, Jun; Kong, Lingqiang

    2018-06-01

    The impacts of three periods of urban land expansion during 1990-2010 on near-surface air temperature in summer in Beijing were simulated in this study, and then the interrelation between heat waves and urban warming was assessed. We ran the sensitivity tests using the mesoscaleWeather Research and Forecasting model coupled with a single urban canopy model, as well as high-resolution land cover data. The warming area expanded approximately at the same scale as the urban land expansion. The average regional warming induced by urban expansion increased but the warming speed declined slightly during 2000-2010. The smallest warming occurred at noon and then increased gradually in the afternoon before peaking at around 2000 LST—the time of sunset. In the daytime, urban warming was primarily caused by the decrease in latent heat flux at the urban surface. Urbanization led to more ground heat flux during the day and then more release at night, which resulted in nocturnal warming. Urban warming at night was higher than that in the day, although the nighttime increment in sensible heat flux was smaller. This was because the shallower planetary boundary layer at night reduced the release efficiency of near-surface heat. The simulated results also suggested that heat waves or high temperature weather enhanced urban warming intensity at night. Heat waves caused more heat to be stored in the surface during the day, greater heat released at night, and thus higher nighttime warming. Our results demonstrate a positive feedback effect between urban warming and heat waves in urban areas.

  6. Home Environment, Self-Concept and Urban Student Achievement: A Bibliography and Review of Research. NJ Urban Education Research Reports No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Carol; Bloom, Joel S.

    This review analyzes recent research on student personality, social and home environment, and the influence of these factors on academic achievement, particularly among minority and disadvantaged students. Several factors which purportedly affect student achievement and which are examined in the review include: (1) socioeconomic status and its…

  7. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 11, July 2015. Urban planning and climate change: intertwined issues and practices we should reconsider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    This Research Newsletter, the first in a series of three dedicated to climate change, focuses on the climate change research undertaken with ADEME's support and its relation to urban management, and the results obtained. Content: - urban planning and climate change: intertwined issues and practices we should reconsider; - significant results: climate change adaptation and urban planning: what sorts of challenges should this obligation meet? - meeting: Jacques Comby, climatologist and president of the university Jean Moulin Lyon III, and Emmanuel Acchiardi, deputy director of Ademe's sustainable cities and regions department

  8. Teachers Supporting Teachers in Urban Schools: What Iterative Research Designs Can Teach Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shernoff, Elisa S; Maríñez-Lora, Ane M; Frazier, Stacy L; Jakobsons, Lara J; Atkins, Marc S; Bonner, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Despite alarming rates and negative consequences associated with urban teacher attrition, mentoring programs often fail to target the strongest predictors of attrition: effectiveness around classroom management and engaging learners; and connectedness to colleagues. Using a mixed-method iterative development framework, we highlight the process of developing and evaluating the feasibility of a multi-component professional development model for urban early career teachers. The model includes linking novices with peer-nominated key opinion leader teachers and an external coach who work together to (1) provide intensive support in evidence-based practices for classroom management and engaging learners, and (2) connect new teachers with their larger network of colleagues. Fidelity measures and focus group data illustrated varying attendance rates throughout the school year and that although seminars and professional learning communities were delivered as intended, adaptations to enhance the relevance, authenticity, level, and type of instrumental support were needed. Implications for science and practice are discussed.

  9. Research on Energy-Saving Operation Strategy for Multiple Trains on the Urban Subway Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption for multiple trains on the urban subway line is predominantly affected by the operation strategy. This paper proposed an energy-saving operation strategy for multiple trains, which is suitable for various line conditions and complex train schedules. The model and operation modes of the strategy are illustrated in detail, aiming to take full use of regenerative braking energy in complex multi-train systems with different departure intervals and dwell times. The computing method is proposed by means of the heuristic algorithm to obtain the optimum operation curve for each train. The simulation result based on a real urban subway line is provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving operation strategy.

  10. Agricultural and forestry residues for decentralized energy generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missagia, Bruna

    2011-10-11

    Regular electricity access is a key element for the economic development and social welfare of rural areas. Decentralized energy generation has the advantage of using local resources, increasing employment and reducing transmission and distribution losses. Brazil is a tropical country, endowed with vast arable land, plentiful precipitation levels, and a large supply of human labour. Furthermore, it has strong regional distinctions with geographical, cultural and economical differences. Forestry and agriculture, important activities in the Brazilian economy, are dependent on local people and are deeply connected to traditions, nature and culture. Furthermore, these activities generate a significant amount of residues that could be used in conversion technologies for biomass, based on type, availability and market demand. When biomass were used to generate energy locally, community members could have business opportunities, improving local economy and life quality of individuals while diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix, which is mostly based on hydropower. Alternatives for implementing small-scale decentralized biomass schemes are dependent on the screening of the existing biomass supply chains, the implementation of adapted technologies for local conditions and the exploration of local resources. The present research carried out a detailed field work in order to evaluate the potential of Brazilian biomass in different regions. The author identified crucial needs, usual constraints and possible challenges of rural electrification and economic development in Brazil. Several case studies and social groups were investigated in the Federal States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Para to identify different resource management strategies, which biomass technology was applied and the needs of the local population. It was concluded that the compaction of biomass to generate solid biofuels with uniform properties could be a cost-effective alternative for communities

  11. Policy Research Using Agent-Based Modeling to Assess Future Impacts of Urban Expansion into Farmlands and Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Guzy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of urban land uses into farmlands and forests requires an assessment of future ecological impacts. Spatially explicit agent-based models can represent the changes in resilience and ecological services that result from different land-use policies. When modeling complex adaptive systems, both the methods used to interpret results and the standards of rigor used to judge adequacy are complicated and require additional research. Recent studies suggest that it would be appropriate to use these models as an extension of exploratory analysis. This type of analysis generates ensembles of alternate plausible representations of future system conditions. User expertise steers interactive, stepwise system exploration toward inductive reasoning about potential changes to the system. In this study, we develop understanding of the potential alternative futures for a social-ecological system by way of successive simulations that test variations in the types and numbers of policies. The model addresses the agricultural-urban interface and the preservation of ecosystem services. The landscape analyzed is at the junction of the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers adjacent to the cities of Eugene and Springfield in Lane County, Oregon. Our exploration of alternative future scenarios suggests that policies that constrain urban growth and create incentives for farming and forest enterprises to preserve and enhance habitat can protect ecosystem resilience and services.

  12. Prescribed fire research in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Brose

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed fire in Pennsylvania is a relatively new forestry practice because of the State's adverse experience with highly destructive wildfires in the early 1900s. The recent introduction of prescribed fire raises a myriad of questions regarding its correct and safe use. This poster briefly describes the prescribed fire research projects of the Forestry Sciences...

  13. Nutritional psychiatry research: an emerging discipline and its intersection with global urbanization, environmental challenges and the evolutionary mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Alan C; Jacka, Felice N

    2014-07-24

    In 21st-century public health, rapid urbanization and mental health disorders are a growing global concern. The relationship between diet, brain function and the risk of mental disorders has been the subject of intense research in recent years. In this review, we examine some of the potential socioeconomic and environmental challenges detracting from the traditional dietary patterns that might otherwise support positive mental health. In the context of urban expansion, climate change, cultural and technological changes and the global industrialization and ultraprocessing of food, findings related to nutrition and mental health are connected to some of the most pressing issues of our time. The research is also of relevance to matters of biophysiological anthropology. We explore some aspects of a potential evolutionary mismatch between our ancestral past (Paleolithic, Neolithic) and the contemporary nutritional environment. Changes related to dietary acid load, advanced glycation end products and microbiota (via dietary choices and cooking practices) may be of relevance to depression, anxiety and other mental disorders. In particular, the results of emerging studies demonstrate the importance of prenatal and early childhood dietary practices within the developmental origins of health and disease concept. There is still much work to be done before these population studies and their mirrored advances in bench research can provide translation to clinical medicine and public health policy. However, the clear message is that in the midst of a looming global epidemic, we ignore nutrition at our peril.

  14. Increasing Pap smear rates at an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service through translational research and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Melanie S; Herceg, Ana; Douglas, Kirsty; Tongs, Julie; Bookallil, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes translational research (TR) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes used to identify and address barriers and facilitators to Pap smear screening within an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted, informed by client surveys, a data collection tool, focus groups and internal research. There was a statistically significant increase in Pap smear numbers during PDSA cycles, continuing at 10 months follow up. The use of TR with CQI appears to be an effective and acceptable way to affect Pap smear screening. Community and service collaboration should be at the core of research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings. This model is transferrable to other settings and other health issues.

  15. BUILDING A GEOGRAPHIC DATA REPOSITORY FOR URBAN RESEARCH WITH FREE SOFTWARE – LEARNING FROM Observatorio.CEDEUS.cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Steiniger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend towards open data and open science as well as a demand for holistic and interdisciplinary research requires platforms that allow the distribution and exchange of research data, including geographic information. While the requirements and benefits of data exchange are widely discussed, there are few proposals on how to implement data platforms that not only permit the exchange of research data among researchers, but also permit to distribute research results and data to the interest public. We elaborate what points are important for implementing a (geographic data repository and propose then to adopt the concept of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI as a solution for the implementation of research data repositories. We present as a case study the geographic data and document repository of the Chilean research Centre on Sustainable Urban Development (CEDEUS, the CEDEUS Observatory. Besides the infrastructure to host and distribute data, communication tools are an important component of such a data repository service. For this case study we analyse which things have worked well and which things have not worked well based on the experiences collected during three years of operation. We close with some recommendations for the implementation of data repositories for research.

  16. Ecology in a walled city: researching urban wildlife in post-war Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmund, Jens

    2007-06-01

    The division of Berlin in the aftermath of World War II and the erection of the Wall in 1961 were not only of tremendous political, social and cultural significance, but also had implications for the way in which science was undertaken in this city. For ecologists living and working in the enclosed city part of West Berlin, the lack of accessible countryside motivated them to focus their fieldwork increasingly on urban sites and, thereby, to engage themselves in one of the most significant attempts to develop an ecology of the city.

  17. Impacts of climate Change on forestry in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.G.; Omenda, T.O.

    1998-01-01

    Forests are sources of CO 2 after deforestation occurs, and they serve as carbon sinks when maintained. forests cover 2.4% of the total land i.e. (closed canopy 2.1%, plantations 0.3%), which is very small proportion of vegetation cover in Kenya. They are mostly found in the moist Central highlands, in the midst of intense human settlement and agriculture. Others are found in isolated hilltops, and in discontinuous narrow bands along permanent and seasonal rivers. Forests have been progressively reduced since the turn of the century, with current rates of deforestation being 5000 ha per year. this loss is primarily to agriculture, grazing and excision for settlements. forests products are valued at Ksh. 12 billion per year (i.e. 10% of the country's agricultural GPD). The forestry sector employs 70,000 people in the forestry, wood industries etc. Forests also perform environmental services like soil and water conservation, water flow regulation, and biodiversity conservation

  18. Airborne Laser Scanning - the Status and Perspectives for the Application in the South-East European Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Balenović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Over the last twenty years airborne laser scanning (ALS technology, also referred to as LiDAR, has been established in a many disciplines as a fully automated and highly efficient method of collecting spatial data. In Croatia, as well as in most countries of the South-East Europe (SEE with the exception of Slovenia, the research on the application of ALS in forestry has not yet been conducted. Also, regional scientific and professional literature dealing with ALS application is scarce. Therefore, the main goal of this review paper is to present the ALS technology to the forestry community of SEE and to provide an overview of its potential application in forest inventory. The primary focus is given to discrete return ALS systems. Conclusions and Future Research Streams: Results presented in this paper show that the ALS technology has a significant potential for application in forest inventory. Moreover, the two-phase forest inventory based on the combination of ALS and field measurements has become a quite common operational method. Due to the expected advancement of the ALS technology, it may be presumed that ALS will have an even more important role in forestry in the future. Therefore, researches on application of ALS technology in SEE forestry are needed, primarily focusing to question of “if” and “to what extent” the ALS technology can improve the existing terrestrial method of forest inventory. Besides the application in the classical forest inventory, the option to apply it for estimation of the biomass, carbon stock, combustible matter, etc, should also be further investigated.

  19. Context-sensitive extraction of tree crown objects in urban areas using VHR satellite images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardila, Juan Pablo; Bijker, W.; Tolpekin, V.A.; Stein, A.

    2012-01-01

    Municipalities need accurate and updated inventories of urban vegetation in order to manage green resources and estimate their return on investment in urban forestry activities. Earlier studies have shown that semi-automatic tree detection using remote sensing is a challenging task. This study aims

  20. Urban and community forests of the Pacific region: California, Oregon, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of California, Oregon, and Washington by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in...

  1. Urban and community forests of the South Central East region: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  2. Urban and community forests of the South Central West region: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes...

  3. Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  4. How many trees are enough? Tree death and the urban canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman

    2014-01-01

    Massive city tree planting campaigns have invigorated the urban forestry movement, and engaged politicians, planners, and the public in urban greening. Million tree initiatives have been launched in Los Angeles, CA; Denver, CO; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA, and other cities. Sacramento, CA even has a five million tree program. These...

  5. Urban and community forests of the Mid-Atlantic region: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in...

  6. Forestry Tire Tractive Performance: New, Worn, and with Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Vechinski; C.R. Johnson; R.L. Raper; T.P. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The tractive perfomance of a new tire, a worn tire, and a worn tire with forestry tire chains was measured in four soil types. Two of the soil types simulated forest-floor conditions with one soil type having a sulfate cover of pine straw and the other having a surface cover of sod. The two remaining soil types were bare. The worn tire with and without chains had...

  7. Appraisal of Farm Forestry Department around Tinderet Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambati, R.O; Koech, C.K; Muok, G

    2007-01-01

    Tinderet forest is one of the most important catchment areas of lake victoria. It is the main source of numerous springs, streams, and rivers that flow into the lake. The forest is also an important habitat for wide variety of water plants and animal species. Although the forest is gazetted as a forest reserve, it has undergone different levels of degradation due to over exploitation of timber, posts, firewood, charcoal and honey by the community living next to the forest. Resource from the forest supplement the communities' meagre income from subsistence farming. A survey was conducted in four Divisions (Chichila, Kipkelion, Fort-Tanan and Tinderet) around the forest to evaluate the status of farm forestry development and underlying reasons for encroachment in the forest. The results showed that, 61% of the people around Tinderet forest were settlers, whose duration of settlement is between 30-40 years. Most farmers were involved in various forms of farming (livestock or crop production) but forestry was not reported as a major activity. Clearing for livestock and crop production, timber for construction and firewood are the main causes of vegetation depletion on farms. Upto 60% of the households were not self reliant on wood products mainly timber and firewood and Fort-Tana (78%) and Kipkelion (70%) were the most affected. Forestry extension services were mainly provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and East African Wildlife Society (EAWS) and were found to be poor on the ground. Other issues that hampered forest development are inadequate provision of germplasm (seed and seedlings). There is therefore a need to build the capacity of the community in the farm forestry through establishment of nurseries and provision of adequate extension services. This would contribute to enhancement of self-reliance in wood products and increased income reducing encroachment into the gazetted forest

  8. The Kyoto Protocol and forestry practices in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bov B. Eav; Richard A. Birdsey; Linda S. Heath

    2000-01-01

    Forestry may play an important if not critical role in the ability of the U.S. to meet its greenhouse gas emissions target under the terms of the Kyoto Protocol. Given the low rate of change in the U.S. forest land area, the major anthropogenic influences on the current net forest carbon flux are forest management and protection activities that have resulted in...

  9. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indic...

  10. Integration of Forest Fuel Handling in the Ordinary Forestry. Studies on Forestry, Technology and Economy of Forest Fuel Production in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars [Regional Forestry Board of Vaermland-Oerebro, Karlstad (Sweden); Budrys, Renatas [Lithuanian Forest Research Inst. (Lithuania)

    2002-07-01

    During the year 2000, The Swedish Forest Administration and Forest Department, Ministry of Environment in Lithuania, started a bilateral co-operation project, named: 'Swedish Lithuanian Wood Fuel Development Project', financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. The project was divided into 2 phases. The first phase objectives were to make a feasibility study in the eastern part of Lithuania and to identify the present conditions for the utilization of wood fuel within seven state forest enterprises and to define a demonstration and experimental area for the phase 2. The purpose of this work was to find solutions for creating horizontal and vertical integration in the handling of forest fuels in ordinary forestry and supply systems. The aim would be to give specific recommendations on which methods are the most suitable and profitable and on what type of equipment to use for various conditions and by the means of demonstrations to show how to integrate the positive results into the ordinary forestry activities. Different kinds of activities have been carried out to ensure capacity building and development on other levels within the system. 3 activity groups were established and have been working side by side with the appointed team leaders for each activity group from the institutions leading in the specific area within the forest sector in Lithuania. Swedish specialists from the Swedish Forest Administration were involved into the project and the activity groups as well. Lithuanian Forest Research Institute was involved into the project with research support. Additional to the project a mobile drum wood chipper was purchased from Sweden. 3 separate investigations have been conducted, one by Kaunas Univ. of Tech. on the analysis and estimation of material balance in Lithuania saw milling industry, another by Forest Economy Centre on wood fuel produced in industry in Lithuania and the third one by Lithuanian Energy Institute and AF international on Bio fuel

  11. Hand-arm vibration in tropical rain forestry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futatsuka, M; Inaoka, T; Ohtsuka, R; Sakurai, T; Moji, K; Igarashi, T

    1995-01-01

    Working conditions and health hazards including vibration syndrome related to forestry work using chain-saws were studied in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. The subjects comprised 291 workers including 97 chain-saw operators. The health examination consisted of peripheral circulatory and sensory tests in the upper extremities. The vibration spectrum measured at the handle of the chain-saw indicated that these acceleration levels would lead to a moderately high risk of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The peripheral circulatory function tests revealed dysfunction after more than five years vibration exposure. However, in general, the results of the function tests and subjective complaints showed fewer health problems compared to those of Japanese forestry workers. The reason of such differences of vibration effects seem to be the following: (1) warmer climate (more than 25 degrees C throughout the year), (2) young workers and short work experience. (3) short time vibration exposures on working days in the natural forests, (4) seasonal changes in logging work (5) healthy workers effects. Thus, we found no clear evidence that the workers of our study suffered from HAVS. A principal component analysis was applied. The factor score of the components of the reactive dynamics of peripheral circulation differed significantly after more than five years' exposure. On the other hand, we cannot deny the possibility that subclinical dysfunction of peripheral circulation may be caused by chain-saw operation in the tropics in future. Further investigations on the HAVS among forestry workers in the tropic environment are needed.

  12. Characterization of Woodchips for Energy from Forestry and Agroforestry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Picchio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the particle-size distribution, the fiber, the bark and the leaves content, the heating value, the CNH and the ash content of a wide sample of wood chips, collected from 10 forestry and 10 agroforestry production sources. This sampling focused on two main production types: forestry (Full Tree System—FTS—and logging residues—LR and agroforestry (Short Rotation Coppice—SRC. For the forestry production wood chips from coniferous and broadleaf species were considered. For the agroforestry production wood chips from poplar plantations were examined (different clones with two different harvesting intervals. Overall, we collected 400 samples. Particle size distribution was determined with an automatic screening device on 200 samples. The higher heating value was determined on 200 subsamples using an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The CNH and the ash content was ascertained on another 200 subsamples. FTS and SRC (with three year old sprouts offered the best quality, with high fiber content (71%–80%, favorable particle-size distribution and good energetic parameters. On the contrary, both logging residues and SRC (with two year old sprouts presented a high bark content (18%–27% and occasionally a mediocre particle-size distribution, being often too rich in fines (6%–12%, but the energetic parameters are in the normal range.

  13. The research on regional conservation planning of urban historical and cultural areas based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangli; Xu, Jian; Li, Qian

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid economic development and the growth of population happening in the urban historical and cultural areas, heritage and historical buildings along with their natural and artificial surrounding environments are suffering constructive destruction. Due to the lack of precise partition of protection region and construction control region in the local cultural relics protection law, traditional regional conservation planning cannot engaged with the urban controllability detailed planning very well. According to the several protection regulations about heritage and historical buildings from latest laws, we choose Baxian Temple area to study on the improvments of traditional regional conservation planning. The technical methods of this study mainly rely on GIS, which can complete the fundamental work of each stage. With the analytic hierarchy process(AHP), the comprehensive architectural value assessments can be calculated according to the investigation results. Based on the calculation results and visual corridor analysis, the precise range of protection region and construction control region can be decided and the specific protection measures can be formulated.

  14. A quantitative flood risk analysis methodology for urban areas with integration of social research data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Escuder-Bueno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis has become a top priority for authorities and stakeholders in many European countries, with the aim of reducing flooding risk, considering the population's needs and improving risk awareness. Within this context, two methodological pieces have been developed in the period 2009–2011 within the SUFRI project (Sustainable Strategies of Urban Flood Risk Management with non-structural measures to cope with the residual risk, 2nd ERA-Net CRUE Funding Initiative. First, the "SUFRI Methodology for pluvial and river flooding risk assessment in urban areas to inform decision-making" provides a comprehensive and quantitative tool for flood risk analysis. Second, the "Methodology for investigation of risk awareness of the population concerned" presents the basis to estimate current risk from a social perspective and identify tendencies in the way floods are understood by citizens. Outcomes of both methods are integrated in this paper with the aim of informing decision making on non-structural protection measures. The results of two case studies are shown to illustrate practical applications of this developed approach. The main advantage of applying the methodology herein presented consists in providing a quantitative estimation of flooding risk before and after investing in non-structural risk mitigation measures. It can be of great interest for decision makers as it provides rational and solid information.

  15. A quantitative flood risk analysis methodology for urban areas with integration of social research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Bueno, I.; Castillo-Rodríguez, J. T.; Zechner, S.; Jöbstl, C.; Perales-Momparler, S.; Petaccia, G.

    2012-09-01

    Risk analysis has become a top priority for authorities and stakeholders in many European countries, with the aim of reducing flooding risk, considering the population's needs and improving risk awareness. Within this context, two methodological pieces have been developed in the period 2009-2011 within the SUFRI project (Sustainable Strategies of Urban Flood Risk Management with non-structural measures to cope with the residual risk, 2nd ERA-Net CRUE Funding Initiative). First, the "SUFRI Methodology for pluvial and river flooding risk assessment in urban areas to inform decision-making" provides a comprehensive and quantitative tool for flood risk analysis. Second, the "Methodology for investigation of risk awareness of the population concerned" presents the basis to estimate current risk from a social perspective and identify tendencies in the way floods are understood by citizens. Outcomes of both methods are integrated in this paper with the aim of informing decision making on non-structural protection measures. The results of two case studies are shown to illustrate practical applications of this developed approach. The main advantage of applying the methodology herein presented consists in providing a quantitative estimation of flooding risk before and after investing in non-structural risk mitigation measures. It can be of great interest for decision makers as it provides rational and solid information.

  16. Integration of Local Ecological Knowledge and Conventional Science: a Study of Seven Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management decisions can be based on incomplete knowledge when they lack scientific research, monitoring, and assessment and/or simultaneously fail to draw on local ecological knowledge. Many community-based forestry organizations in the United States attempt to address these knowledge gaps with an integrated ecological stewardship approach that balances ecological, social, and economic goals. This paper examines the use and integration of local knowledge and conventional science in ecological stewardship and monitoring by seven community-based forestry demonstration projects. Through document reviews and interviews with both participants and partners of all of these community-based organizations, we found that all the community-based forestry groups incorporated local ecological knowledge into many aspects of their management or monitoring activities, such as collaboratively designing monitoring programs with local ranchers, forest workers, and residents; involving local people in collecting data and interpreting results; and documenting the local ecological knowledge of private forest landowners, long-time residents, and harvesters of nontimber forest products. We found that all the groups also used conventional science to design or conduct ecological assessments, monitoring, or research. We also found evidence, in the form of changes in attitudes on the part of local people and conventional scientists and jointly produced reports, that the two types of knowledge were integrated by all groups. These findings imply that community-based forestry groups are redistributing the power of conventional science through the use of diverse knowledge sources. Still, several obstacles prevented some local, traditionally under-represented groups from being significantly involved in monitoring and management decisions, and their knowledge has not yet been consistently incorporated.

  17. Participation in social forestry re-examined: a case-study from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A; Begum, S A

    1997-08-01

    Bangladesh has enthusiastically launched social forestry projects that make grandiose promises of seeking local community involvement and participation in the management of forest resources. This study examines the functioning of the Chandra Agroforestry Research and Demonstration Project to evaluate the actual extent and nature of popular participation it entails. After discussing the project and its locale, the methodology of the study is described as an analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected in the period February-August 1994. The theoretical framework was based on a modified version of Zaman's framework that uses prevalence and opportunity as the indicators of participation. Analysis of prevalence indicators reveals that professional foresters make all major decisions for the project without consulting the farmers involved. The government also has sole responsibility for monitoring and evaluating the project, and the farmers are skeptical that the government will allow them to profit from the benefits arising from the project. Analysis of opportunity indicators shows that the project is not decentralized, cooperative and collaborative linkages have not been made, project flexibility has been sacrificed to bureaucracy, and the incentives promised to the farmers have not materialized. It is concluded that the participation of local residents in the Chandra project has been insignificant but that the project has succeeded in reducing 1) the historical distrust and conflict between forestry officials and local farmers, 2) encroachment on government lands, and 3) the rate of deforestation. In addition, the project has given participating farmers a sense of security.

  18. Give trees a chance : opportunity awaits if Canada's forestry sector fully embraces sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Mirbach, M.; Johnson, L.

    2009-01-01

    A series of negative trends over the last 10 years has challenged the viability of Canada's forest products industry as a whole. However, the industry is well positioned to take advantage of a global shift towards sustainable economic development. Global demand for biofuels derived from logging residues and industrial manufacturing wastes is expected to expand in the future. Research into new bioproducts incorporating nanocrystalline cellulose will offer the forestry industry new markets. Transportation costs will benefit Canadian exporters to the United States. Improvements in forest management will ensure Canada's position as a leading supplier of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified forest products. The longer growing seasons anticipated as a result of climatic change will expand forest ranges while also bringing increased disturbances. The authors cautioned that the forestry sector must resist the temptation to divert wood fibre to the biofuels market, as bioenergy generates only a thirteenth of the employment per volume of wood that the production of pulp and paper does. It was concluded that new higher-value end products are needed to stimulate growth within the industry. 1 fig.

  19. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  20. Environmental impact analysis (EIA) concerning lodgepole-pine forestry in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bengt; Rosvall, O. [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Engelmark, O. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Ecology

    1999-07-01

    This report presents an analysis of the ecological consequences of forestry with Canadian lodgepole pine introduced into Sweden. The report includes a compilation of present knowledge in the area, research priorities, and proposed measures for dealing with the negative environmental consequences that could arise. The point of departure of the analysis is a description of the properties of lodgepole pine, including species-specific characteristics of the tree, and changes in stand environment and silvicultural management practices that can be expected. The report describes the dispersal capacity of lodgepole pine in its new Swedish environment and the effects of host-parasite interactions. Thereafter, ecological effects on the capacity of the soil for sustainable production and on biological diversity at various scales (tree, stand, landscape) are analysed. Lodgepole pine forestry is also considered in relation to current laws and regulations as well as national and international environmental goals. At the end of the report, a strategy is proposed for handling the inevitable uncertainties associated with the introduction of exotic species.

  1. A research into evolution attitudes affecting urban landscape design principles in 20. century and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faryadi, Sh.

    2001-01-01

    Man's interference with environment has generally followed two main and distinct attitudes, which has led to creation of different urban landscapes. The first attitude is called m an compatible with the nature w hich has generally shaped landscapes till industrial age. The second is m an dominant over the nature a ffecting landscapes since industrial age. After revealing of environmental crises - which are the impacts of the latter - a new way of thinking is being formed, which includes some aspects of both past attitudes. The main idea of this new way is to go along with the nature's powers instead of confronting them and to respect the soul and laws of the nature. This way of thinking insists on the creation of small sizes of settlements. In this new approach in addition to the acceptance of the role of science, emphasis has been put on the ecological characteristics, individual consciousness, art and creativity in landscape design

  2. Research on Urban Road Congestion Pricing Strategy Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitian Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The objective function of the upper level model is to minimize the sum of travel costs and the carbon dioxide emissions costs. The lower level is a multi-modal transportation network equilibrium model. To solve the model, the method of successive averages (MSA and the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA are introduced. The proposed method and algorithm are tested through the numerical example. The results show that the proposed congestion pricing strategy can mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon emissions effectively.

  3. Global cities rankings. A research agenda or a neoliberal urban planning tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándida Gago García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a theoretical reflection about the methodology and meaning given to the global city rankings. There is a very large academic production about the role that some cities have in global territorial processes, which has been related to the concept of global city. Many recent contributions from the mass media, advertising and consulting services must be considered also in the analysis. All of them have included new indicators in order to show the main role that cultural services have acquired in the urban economy. Also the city rankings are being used as a tool in neoliberal policies. These policies stress the position that cities have in the rankings, which are used in practices of city-branding and to justify the neoliberal decisions that are being taken. In fact, we think that rankings are used inappropriately and that it is necessary a deep and new reflection about them.

  4. Research on Methods of High Coherent Target Extraction in Urban Area Based on Psinsar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Wu, J.

    2018-04-01

    PSInSAR technology has been widely applied in ground deformation monitoring. Accurate identification of Persistent Scatterers (PS) is key to the success of PSInSAR data processing. In this paper, the theoretic models and specific algorithms of PS point extraction methods are summarized and the characteristics and applicable conditions of each method, such as Coherence Coefficient Threshold method, Amplitude Threshold method, Dispersion of Amplitude method, Dispersion of Intensity method, are analyzed. Based on the merits and demerits of different methods, an improved method for PS point extraction in urban area is proposed, that uses simultaneously backscattering characteristic, amplitude and phase stability to find PS point in all pixels. Shanghai city is chosen as an example area for checking the improvements of the new method. The results show that the PS points extracted by the new method have high quality, high stability and meet the strong scattering characteristics. Based on these high quality PS points, the deformation rate along the line-of-sight (LOS) in the central urban area of Shanghai is obtained by using 35 COSMO-SkyMed X-band SAR images acquired from 2008 to 2010 and it varies from -14.6 mm/year to 4.9 mm/year. There is a large sedimentation funnel in the cross boundary of Hongkou and Yangpu district with a maximum sedimentation rate of more than 14 mm per year. The obtained ground subsidence rates are also compared with the result of spirit leveling and show good consistent. Our new method for PS point extraction is more reasonable, and can improve the accuracy of the obtained deformation results.

  5. Factor Economic Analysis at Forestry Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Chik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the importance of economic analysis according to the results of research of scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists. The calculation of the influence of factors on the change in the cost of harvesting timber products by cost items has been performed. The results of the calculation of the influence of factors on the change of costs on 1 UAH are determined using the full cost of sold products. The variable and fixed costs and their distribution are allocated that influences the calculation of the impact of factors on cost changes on 1 UAH of sold products. The paper singles out the general results of calculating the influence of factors on cost changes on 1 UAH of sold products. According to the results of the analysis, the list of reserves for reducing the cost of production at forest enterprises was proposed. The main sources of reserves for reducing the prime cost of forest products at forest enterprises are investigated based on the conducted factor analysis.

  6. Considering New Paths for Success: An Examination of the Research and Methods on Urban School-University Partnerships Post-No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph E.; Hunt, Rebecca D.; Johnson, Laura Ruth; Wickman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines urban school-university partnership research after No Child Left Behind. Central to the review is an analysis in the trend of research methods utilized across studies. It was found that many studies are single-case studies or anecdotal. There are few quantitative, sustained qualitative, or mixed-methods studies represented in…

  7. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT OF SETTLEMENTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Alekseevich Sumerkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many millenia have passed since the appearance of cities, and, as cities form a specific type of social-spatial organization of population, they feature a great number of environmental problems. Only a few of those problems were solved successfully: centralized water supply and drainage system; centralized disposal of liquid and solid household waste. Mass production of automotive transportation solved the problem of pollution of the city streets with draft, package, and mount animals, while introducing other hazardous factors. This article features a summary of scientific research on environmental safety of urban environment in the largest settlements of the Russian Federation under conditions of declared stable development of society (self reproduction of natural environment in the last 15 years. It stresses the necessity for more integrated approach to assessment of environmental safety not only in the Russian Federation, but in all countries due to the fact that influence of human activities on natural environment is increasing, and more active measures should be taken in order to create comfortable living environment in the urban areas.

  8. Research on Value Assessment and Compensation for Health Hazards of Urban Air Pollution-A Case Study of Urumqi

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chen; Hui, Sun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution has become a serious threat to the health of urban residents. In this study, to investigate health hazards caused by air pollution for urban residents, concentrations of main air pollutants and annual coal consumption amounts during the period from 2000 to 2013 were analyzed. Our results showed that economic losses of Urumqi caused by air pollution amounted to 63.155 million yuan in 2013, accounting for ...

  9. Marker-assisted selection in forestry species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, P.; Southerton, S.

    2007-01-01

    The primary goal of tree breeding is to increase the quantity and quality of wood products from plantations. Major gains have been achieved using recurrent selection in genetically diverse breeding populations to capture additive variation. However, the long generation times of trees, together with poor juvenile-mature trait correlations, have promoted interest in marker-assisted selection (MAS) to accelerate breeding through early selection. MAS relies on identifying DNA markers, which explain a high proportion of variation in phenotypic traits. Genetic linkage maps have been developed for most commercial tree species and these can be used to locate chromosomal regions where DNA markers co-segregate with quantitative traits (quantitative trait loci, QTL). MAS based on QTL is most likely to be used for within-family selection in a limited number of elite families that can be clonally propagated. Limitations of the approach include the low resolution of marker-trait associations, the small proportion of phenotypic variation explained by QTL and the low success rate in validating QTL in different genetic backgrounds and environments. This has led to a change in research focus towards association mapping to identify variation in the DNA sequence of genes directly controlling phenotypic variation (gene-assisted selection, GAS). The main advantages of GAS are the high resolution of marker-trait associations and the ability to transfer markers across families and even species. Association studies are being used to examine the adaptive significance of variation in genes controlling wood formation and quality, pathogen resistance, cold tolerance and drought tolerance. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these gene sequences that are significantly associated with trait variation can then be used for early selection. Markers for SNPs can be transferred among individuals regardless of pedigree or family relationship, increasing opportunities for their application in

  10. U.S. Forest Service and partners deliver urban wildlife research in support of conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Nancy F. Sonti

    2015-01-01

    Urban wildlife contributes to the vibrancy of our cities, adds value to the places we live and allows urban residents to connect with nature without driving hours to a protected reserve. Land and water conservation projects have the potential to serve as a refuge for species impacted by urbanization, and in so doing, strengthening the connection between the growing...

  11. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS ON FORESTRY SPECIAL FUNDS AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hada Teodor; Mărginean Radu

    2013-01-01

    This study, theoretically and practically, presents the accounting system for forestry special purpose funds in Romania. In addition, the main problems Romanian forestry faces nowadays are highlighted in the content, given the legislative changes expected in the near future. Accounting treatments specific to Romanian forestry regarding special funds, namely the conservation and regeneration fund, the accessibility fund, the environmental fund and the improvement fund are governed in the curre...

  12. Financial Support of the Forestry Complex Development Priorities: Diversification of Forms and Means

    OpenAIRE

    Golyan Vasyl A.; Holub Oleh A.

    2016-01-01

    It is found that at the present stage the funding of the forestry complex development priorities occurs in the following forms: 1) the budget financing of reforestation; 2) financial support of forestry and forest protection projects with the use of funds raised by public and private entities of forest entrepreneurship on the basis of self-financing activities; 3) the receiving of financial resources by forestry entrepreneurship entities as a result of compensation of losses...

  13. Financial Support of the Forestry Complex Development Priorities: Diversification of Forms and Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyan Vasyl A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is found that at the present stage the funding of the forestry complex development priorities occurs in the following forms: 1 the budget financing of reforestation; 2 financial support of forestry and forest protection projects with the use of funds raised by public and private entities of forest entrepreneurship on the basis of self-financing activities; 3 the receiving of financial resources by forestry entrepreneurship entities as a result of compensation of losses in forestry production; 4 the financing of environmental protection measures relating to reproduction of the forest resource potential due to the environmental tax and the rent. There identified main negative factors affecting financial activities of permanent forest users — state forestry enterprises, which include: the lack of a mechanism of rational use of the forest resources export potential caused by the insignificant proportion of products with a high share of added value; a latent character of the mechanism for stimulating deep timber processing; underdeveloped mechanisms of regulating the flow of forest rents from the forestry to the timber processing segment of the forest-based sector. There improved theoretical and methodological approaches to diversification of forms and means of funding the development priorities of the forest-based sector, which involve raising the level of concentration of the investmentpotential of forestry and timber processing subdivisions of the territorial and forestry complex through forming integrated business associations of the holding and cluster type; separating the timber processing from forestry, which will ensure the equal level of access for timber processing businesses of different forms of ownership to unprocessed timber and will contribute to increasing the level of capitalization of forest and forestry assets; extension of the specification of forestry and forest protection activities, which will improve the efficiency of

  14. Ergonomic analysis for the assessment of the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorder in forestry operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondo Gallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk to run into a Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD is very high when operating in the primary sector. As a matter of fact the professional illnesses related to the WMSD in Italy are increasing. Nowadays the assessment of the WMSD in the primary sector is performed mainly in the agricultural sector, considering different agronomical activities; for the forestry sector, only few documents reported an ergonomic evaluation. The lack of available information on this topic in the forestry sector, as well as the similarity with the agricultural sector, drives the interest to the assessment of the conditions that expose workers to WMSD risks in forestry operations. Four different assessment approaches were applied in this study. These tools permitted to classify which are the exposures and if there is the presence of WMSD risk for forest operators. The approaches are respectively the OCRA checklist and the RNLE equation, both recognized as ISO standards, as well as OWAS and REBA, recommended by ISO standards. The first approach focusses on the risk due to repetitive and stressed movements, while the second evaluates the risk of injures due to the manual movement of loads. Meanwhile OWAS and REBA detect the possibility of injures due to wrong postures during the work. These approaches were applied for the cutting operations with chainsaw. Since the evaluation requires high levels of attention and also because it was necessary to gain a good level of safety for the surveyor, a digital camera was used to film the operative activities. Then, the movies were analysed in office. Aim of the research is to analyse if it is possible to apply the approaches suggested by ISO standards in order to assess the most dangerous activities that, when not properly carried out, could be the cause of WMSD in forestry operations. The study showed that during the use of the chainsaw the index of risk of professional injures was overpassed several times

  15. Conflicts Between Forestry and Wood-Processing Industry in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Reasons, Actors and Possible Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Caused by appearance of new stakeholders and diversification of their interests towards forests, different forest-related conflicts emerged worldwide. As a country with economy in transition and relatively young democracy, Bosnia-Herzegovina might be suitable for understanding the roots, actors and varieties of these conflicts. This paper deals with the most frequent forest-related conflicts, main actors involved as well as undertaken actions in order to manage them in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Material and Methods: The theoretical framework is based on the Conflict Management Progress Triangle consisting of three dimensions of conflict: substance, process and relations. As particular focus in this paper is given to conflicts between forestry and wood-processing industry, the primary parties in this study were public forestry companies and wood processing companies. For the purpose of this survey a special questionnaire has been designed. The survey population included the most important actors of forest and wood-processing industry as follows: ministries of forestry, nature protection and physical planning at all levels, managers/owners of wood-processing companies, managers of public forest companies and public forest administration, representatives of the most important environmental NGOs and professional associations, managers of protected areas and water management authorities, heads of forest research institutions, economy of chambers and international institutions. In total 136 questionnaires were collected, out of which 68 respondents identified conflicts between forestry and wood-processing industry as the most important ones. Results and Conclusion: The numerical (tabulated yield table of normative nature presents data given to six yield classes (base age: 25 years including the most important stand structural and yield features expressing in terms of main stand, removing stand (which can be removed in tending

  16. Urban Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built environment characteristics. It then explores how the built environment defines the affordances of urban areas for travelling by particular modes of transport, i.e. its walk-ability, cycleability, drive-ability and transit-ability, by developing a typology of what I call their ‘urban modality’. And finally the work combines this typology with the socio-economic characteristics of urban areas to determine their sustainable mobility potential and performance. It focuses on the case of the Randstad region of the Netherlands and its VINEX neighbourhoods, which are an emblematic example of new urban areas created under a policy programme with sustainable mobility objectives. A key stance in this work is the understanding that the location of an urban area in the region can be indicative of its population’s travel patterns, because the built environment (infrastructural and socio-economic characteristics are interrelated and present strong regional spatial patterns. What types of urban areas support sustainable travel patterns, and what are their spatial characteristics? How do new neighbourhoods compare to the best performing urban areas, and to other areas of the same ‘modality’ type? These are some of the questions addressed in this study. There are two main contributions of this research: the methods for building and analysing integrated multimodal network models, and the framework for contextual performance evaluation using urban area typologies. The

  17. Modelling the deposition of airborne radionuclides into the urban environment. First report of the VAMP Urban Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on the validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A co-ordinated research programme was begun at the IAEA in 1988 with the short title of Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The VAMP Urban Working Group aims to examine, by means of expert review combined with formal validation exercises, modelling for the assessment of the radiation exposure of urban populations through the external irradiation and inhalation pathways. An aim of the studies is to evaluate the lessons learned and to document the improvements in modelling capability as a result of experience gained following the Chernobyl accident. This Technical Document, the first report of the Group, addresses the subject of the deposition of airborne radionuclides into the urban environment. It summarizes not only the present status of modelling in this field, but also the results of a limited validation exercise that was performed under the auspices of VAMP. 42 refs, figs and tabs

  18. Studies and researches regarding the urban policies impact on land valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Barbu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors develop a concept paper on the economic valuation of land. They detail the basic principles corroborated with the direct factors that modify the mathematical parameters and also the impact of construction on the land. Starting from the principles of Darin Drabkin, the authors develop, within the concept of a market economy, an urban land sale procedure by optimizing the control of land instruments. This study asks about the expected consequences of increasing the tax rate on the land component of real estate while reducing the rate at which the improvement is taxed. The first part briefly presents the consequences that land taxes are expected to produce given our theoretical understanding of land markets. These conclusions are blind to the planning and the institutional context of the development process. The consequences of moving from a general property tax to a land value tax in the Toronto and Ottawa regions are assessed by interviewing developers, planners and municipal finance officers. The conclusions summarise the main concerns that would be raised by moving toward land value taxation in the context of a growth management strategy that would make cities more compact.

  19. [The Ineq-Cities research project on urban health inequalities: knowledge dissemination and transfer in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lluís; Díez, Èlia; Morrison, Joana; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    The Ineq-Cities project analyzed inequalities in mortality in small areas and described interventions to reduce inequalities in health in 16 European cities. This field note describes the dissemination of the project in Spain. In accordance with the recommendations of the project, the objective was to translate relevant results to key stakeholders - mainly technical staff, municipal officers and local social agents - and to provide an introduction to urban inequalities in health and strategies to address them. Twenty-four workshops were given, attended by more than 350 professionals from 92 municipalities. Knowledge dissemination consisted of the publication of a short book on inequalities in health and the approach to this problem in cities and three articles in nonspecialized media, a proposal for a municipal motion, and knowledge dissemination activities in social networks. Users rated these activities highly and stressed the need to systematize these products. This process may have contributed to the inclusion of health inequalities in the political agenda and to the training of officers to correct them. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Green report. Report on the status of forestry in the Slovak Republic 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravcik, M [National Forest Center. Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia)

    2006-11-15

    Report on Forestry in the Slovak Republic, better known as Green Report has been already the 14{sup th} one. The Ministry of Agriculture of SR in collaboration with the National Forest Centre in Zvolen presents in the Green Report the situation in forestry in Slovakia as well as forecasts its development for the future. Within international collaboration the Green Report is provided to international organizations, experts and institutions of the European Union. The publication has found its place also at international forestry conferences as it presents in a complex and standard way the analysis of the situation and development of forestry in Slovakia.

  1. A review of post-modern management techniques as currently applied to Turkish forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölarslan, Emre Sahin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of six post-modern management concepts as applied to Turkish forestry. Up to now, Turkish forestry has been constrained, both in terms of its operations and internal organization, by a highly bureaucratic system. The application of new thinking in forestry management, however, has recently resulted in new organizational and production concepts that promise to address problems specific to this Turkish industry and bring about positive changes. This paper will elucidate these specific issues and demonstrate how post-modern management thinking is influencing the administration and operational capacity of Turkish forestry within its current structure.

  2. Field trap. Energy forestry is no solution. Aakerfaellan. Energiskog ingen loesning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolin, O; Rabinowicz, E; von Zweigbergk, N

    1988-01-01

    Swedish agriculture is looking towards energy forestry as a substitutional crop to reduce the uneconomic overproduction of cereals. The economy of using farmland for short rotation forestry are studied in this report. It is argued that much of the motivation for finding alternative crops is due to the desire to keep farmland prices high, and that energy forestry will not give a reasonable economic return, but rather create a new dependence on agricultural subsidies, since energy wood can not compete with coal or gas for power production. Massive introduction of energy forestry on farmland is seen as vehicle for prolonging the problems of agricultural politics into the energy sector and is strongly discouraged.

  3. Green report. Report on the status of forestry in the Slovak Republic 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravcik, M.

    2006-11-01

    Report on Forestry in the Slovak Republic, better known as Green Report has been already the 14 th one. The Ministry of Agriculture of SR in collaboration with the National Forest Centre in Zvolen presents in the Green Report the situation in forestry in Slovakia as well as forecasts its development for the future. Within international collaboration the Green Report is provided to international organizations, experts and institutions of the European Union. The publication has found its place also at international forestry conferences as it presents in a complex and standard way the analysis of the situation and development of forestry in Slovakia

  4. Urbanization alters communities of flying arthropods in parks and gardens of a medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagucki, Edward; Burdine, Justin D; McCluney, Kevin E

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization. Flying arthropods were sampled from 30 gardens and parks along an urbanization gradient in Toledo, Ohio, during July and August 2016, using elevated pan traps. A variety of potential predictor variables were also recorded at each site. We collected a total of 2,369 individuals representing nine orders. We found that flying arthropod community composition was associated with percent impervious surface and canopy cover. Overall flying arthropod abundance was negatively associated with percent impervious surface and positively associated with distance to city center. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants), Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies), and Araneae (spiders) were positively associated with distance to city center. Hemiptera (true bugs), Diptera (flies), and Araneae were negatively associated with percent impervious surface. Both distance to city center and percent impervious surface are metrics of urbanization, and this study shows how these factors influence flying arthropod communities in urban gardens and city parks, including significant reductions in taxa that contain pollinators and predators important to urban agriculture and forestry. A variety of environmental factors also showed significant associations with responses (e.g. canopy cover and soil moisture), suggesting these factors may underlie or modulate the urbanization

  5. Mobile computerized tomography applied in forestry and arboriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermehl, A.; Ridder, H.W.; Huettermann, A.; Schwartz, V.

    1988-01-01

    Not only in forestry and arboriculture is there an interest in applying CT for in-vivo proof of rot in trees, but also for estimating the state of health of trees in cities and parks, trees along traffic routes, near motorways, around parking places and playgrounds in the city area. In these cases, the question often is either to preserve the tree or to cut it down. There is a common interest in preserving especially old trees in the city area and in the country. In many cases, false decisions have been taken because objective information about the conditions inside the tree was missing. (orig./DE) [de

  6. Inovation Fostering – Key Factor of Development in Croatian Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Posavec, Stjepan; Šporčić, Mario; Antonić, Davor; Beljan, Karlo

    2011-01-01

    By Croatia’s approaching to the EU a new and large market is opening, which is full of large potential, but also of great challenges. Modern business in such conditions demands from managers of state and other orga­nizations constant changes and adaptation to the demands of the market, as well as activation of its full capacities and potentials. Forestry is not an excep­tion, and it must, with its own innovations, become competitive and profitable on a global level. Rural development is one o...

  7. Determinants of participation in community forestry in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath; Treue, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    model as well as through the marginal effects of socio-economic factors on the probability of households' participation. Of the 12 variables considered in this study, only gender, caste, household size, livestock holding, network, and amount of firewood extraction proved statistically significant....... In all household wealth categories, a moderate level of participation was by far the most common. Further, the results indicate that users participating more in community forestry activities have extracted higher amounts of firewood, fodder and timber although this relation was not statistically...

  8. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  9. Assessing the impact of plantation forestry on plant biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ch. Braun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of plantation forestry on biodiversity are controversially discussed in literature. While some authors stress positive effects, others tend to attribute a largely negative influence to plantations. One important factor steering the influence on biodiversity are management practices. A second important factor is the environmental matrix. Chile offers the option to analyse both factors jointly. The coastal range of central Chile has experienced rapid and widespread replacement of native Nothofagus spp. forests in favour of Pinus radiata plantations. Here, native forests remain limited to small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of plantations. Management is rather intensive and not designed to maintain biodiversity. While in the coastal range of central Chile the transformation from native forests to non-native tree plantations has almost come to an end, spatial extension of P. contorta and P. ponderosa plantations has just recently begun in Chilean Patagonia. While the management is similar to central Chile, plantations rather exist as small patches surrounded by an environmental matrix of native plant formations (e.g. Nothofagus spp. forests and Nothofagus spp. scrublands. In the framework of this work, effects of the two diametric land usages on biodiversity are assessed and compared. Biodiversity is assessed at the α-, β- and γ-scale. At the α-scale, biodiversity impacts are inferred statistically, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s PostHoc test. Biodiversity of plants at both sites is significantly reduced in plantations when compared to native forests or scrublands. Plantation forestry lowers α-biodiversity and does not provide additional habitats for specialists. At the β-scale, weak edge effects due to the presence of native forests are observed. In total, plantation forestry tends to promote plant invasions and impairs the survival of endemics. At the γ-scale, plant species communities where predominantly native

  10. Schools as Radical Sanctuaries: Decolonizing Urban Education through the Eyes of Youth of Color. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Large, comprehensive urban high schools were designed and constructed with the belief that they could meet the needs of all its students, academic and otherwise. By and large, however, these schools have only done a good job of sorting students for specific jobs in a society based on capitalism and White supremacy. Consequently, students schooled…

  11. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  12. A Systems Engineering Methodology for Designing and Planning the Built Environment—Results from the Urban Research Laboratory Nuremberg and Their Integration in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Geyer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban development requires a long-term sector-integrative approach. This paper proposes a method of system analysis and partial simulation for urban structures for this purpose. It couples a discussion-based holistic approach for systems analysis and modelling of urban structures with quantitative modelling and simulation of partial scenarios that serve to examine specific questions regarding the long-term development of urban structures. In the first part, the application in the City Lab Nuremberg West, a multidisciplinary urban research laboratory, serves to develop the methodology and its illustration. The main objective is to examine the transition of the existing underperforming quarter to a sustainable and livable urban environment. Scenario-based experiments with respect to development paths determine robustness and risks of different configurations. The second part of the paper describes the transfer of the methodology to education. The approach serves to teach students in the Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Building master course program an integrative way of planning a sustainable built environment. The definition of educational objectives concerning the students’ understanding and management of systemic interdependencies of sustainability help assess the use of the method in the classroom. The aim is to provide them with the competence to develop strategies for complex situations while planning a sustainable built environment.

  13. "Bounded" empowerment: analyzing tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research in urban public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Newlan, Sami; Douglas, Laura; Hubbard, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    This multi-method study examines tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research (YPAR) in urban high schools among 15 semester-cohorts. Student participants in the present study were 77 ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in a major metropolitan school district. Data were gathered using systematic classroom observations, interviews with teachers and students involved in the projects, and participant observation. The two most commonly-constrained phases of the YPAR project were issue selection and action steps. A central tension in the issue selection phase for projects enacted across multiple semester cohorts was the tension between original inquiry and "traction:" Sticking with the same topic enabled sustained building of strategic alliances and expertise for making change, but limited the incoming cohort's power to define the problem to be addressed. In further analyses, we identified processes that promoted student power despite continuity-related constraints-teachers' framing and buy-in strategies, "micro-power" compensation, and alignment of students' interests with the prior cohort-as well as constraints in other phases of the projects. This study's findings regarding the promotion of youth power in the face of constraints advance the integration of theory and practice in youth-led research and have implications for participatory research more broadly.

  14. Macro-economic analysis of forestry options on carbon sequestration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadekodi, Gopal K.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    There is a need to evaluate the additional spending on forestry by analysing the environmental (particularly carbon abatement), social and economic benefits. The biomass needs for India are expected to increase by two to three times by 2020. Depending upon the forest types, ownership patterns and land use patterns, feasible forestry options are identified. It is found among many supply options to be feasible to meet the 'demand based needs' with a mix of management options, species choices and organisational set up. A comparative static framework is used to analyze the macro-economic impacts. Forestry accounts for 1.84% of GNP in India. It is characterized by significant forward industrial linkages and least backward linkage. Forestry generates about 36 million person years of employment annually. India imports Rs. 15 billion worth of forest based materials annually. Implementation of the demand based forestry options can lead to a number of ecological, economic and institutional changes. The notable ones are: enhancement of C stock from 9578 to 17094 Mt and a net annual C-sequestration from 73 to 149 Mt after accounting for all emissions; a trebling of the output of forestry sector from Rs. 49 billion to Rs. 146 billion annually; an increase in GDP contribution of forestry from Rs. 32 billion to Rs. 105 billion over a period of 35 years; an increase in annual employment level by 23 million person years; emergence of forestry as a net contributor of foreign exchange through trading of forestry products; and an increase in economic value of forest capital stock by Rs. 7260 billion with a cost benefit analysis showing forestry as a profitable option. Implementation of forestry options calls for an understanding of current forest policies and barriers which are analyzed and a number of policy options are suggested

  15. [Research of aeration with bio-film technology to treat urban landscape water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying-Wei; Nie, Zhi-Dan; Nian, Yue-Gang; Huang, Min-Sheng; Huang, Jian-Jun; Yan, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Research of the aeration with bio-film technology was carried out to treat scenic water of a sanatorium in Beijing. The aim of the research was improving the water habitat by increasing the transparency and reducing the concentration of N and P. The equipments were set in a 5,000 m2 water area, which combined the plug flow jet aerator with the elastic biological filler. The research indicated that the transparency increased from 25 cm to 120 cm by the technology. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N and TP were 86.6% , 90% and 73.3%, but there was only 22.4% for TN. The concentration of DO increased from 4.3 mg/L to 7 mg/L. In a word, the aeration with bio-film technology was an effective measure to improve the water habitat by increasing the transparency.

  16. Urbanization in contemporary Arab Gulf states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, I Y

    1983-01-01

    Urbanization in the Arab Gulf states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates is analyzed. Topics discussed include the historical background to urbanization; current demographic trends in the region; urban characteristics and growth; socioeconomic factors influencing urbanization, with an emphasis on labor force structure; future urban strategy; and the need for urban research.

  17. The evolution of Wisconsin's urban FIA program—yesterday today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Stoltman; Richard B. Rideout

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, Wisconsin was part of two pilot projects in cooperation with the US Forest Service. The first was a street tree assessment, and the second was an urban FIA project. The data generated by these pilots changed the way that Wisconsin DNRs’ Urban Forestry Program conducts its business. Although there have been several urban FIA pilot projects throughout the U.S.,...

  18. A bio-indicator for the evaluation of quality forestry and landscape fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappers EF

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A bio-indicator for the evaluation of quality forestry and landscape fragmentation. Intensive agricultural practices, as well as tourism development, summer fires, urbanization and air pollution represent a serious threat for many woodlands in Mediterranean Europe. Tawny owls, Strix aluco, is a valuable indicator of habitat quality and shows high sensitivity to wood fragmentation. Assessing the association between Tawny owls and their habitat may provide useful tools for conservation and management of forested habitats. Populations of woodland birds are influenced by forest characteristics, wood proportion being a key factor explaining breeding density and regularity in nest spacing. Populations of the Tawny Owl reach their highest densities in old deciduous forests. The distribution of territories remains almost constant for many years, and the period during which any particular wood maintains suitable conditions for nesting depends on factors like tree species and management, especially on the timing and extent of thinning. To assure the maintenance of good habitat quality in most woodlands, regulation of water diversion, prevention of summer fires, and a general reduction of human activities inside forests seem to be useful conservation tools.

  19. Parametrics in Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The design of urban space has always been contested. Whether imposed by autocratic rulers, emerged as a result of market forces, or implemented as a result of democratic planning processes, urban space design shapes the lives of urban dwellers. Yet rarely does the average urban dweller have any r...... implementation by means of CityEngine is given and discussed with respect to it pros and cons. And finally, the potential implications of this approach are touched as an outline for further research....

  20. The Urbanism of Material

    OpenAIRE

    LAURA MARY HARPER

    2018-01-01

    This thesis investigates how the urban environment is constructed over time. The aim of this research is to understand the relationship between the decisions, logic and methods used at the scale of an individual site to the wider organisation and form of the urban environment. The thesis draws on the concept of bottom up systems to investigate ideas of collective organisation and characteristics in the urban environment. Using a series of architectural and urban case studies in Melbourne and ...

  1. Short-rotation forestry for energy production in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, V.C.; Liu, W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Merriam, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    In Hawaii, imports of fossil fuels continue to accelerate and now provide over 90% of the total energy supply at a cost exceeding $1 {times} 10{sup 9} annually exported from the local economy. Concurrently, sugarcane and pineapple crops, the traditional mainstays of the state`s economy, have declined such that as much as 80,000 hectares of agricultural land are now available for alternative land uses. The feasibility of short-rotation forestry for sustainable energy production on these former sugarcane and pineapple plantation lands is being evaluated using species- and site-specific empirical models to predict yields of Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, and Leucaena leucocephala, a system model to estimate delivered costs, and a geographic information system to extend the analysis to areas where no field trials exist and to present results in map form. The island of Hawaii is showcased as an application of the methodology. Modeling results of methanol, ethanol, and electricity production from tropical hardwoods are presented. Short-rotation forestry appears to hold promise for the greening of Hawaii`s energy system and agricultural lands for the benefit of the state`s citizens and visitors. The methodology is readily transferable to other regions of the United States and rest of the world.

  2. Land Use, Conservation, Forestry, and Agriculture in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Gould

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global food security concerns emphasize the need for sustainable agriculture and local food production. In Puerto Rico, over 80 percent of food is imported, and local production levels have reached historical lows. Efforts to increase local food production are driven by government agencies, non-government organizations, farmers, and consumers. Integration of geographic information helps plan and balance the reinvention and invigoration of the agriculture sector while maintaining ecological services. We used simple criteria that included currently protected lands and the importance of slope and forest cover in protection from erosion to identify land well-suited for conservation, agriculture and forestry in Puerto Rico. Within these categories we assessed U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA farmland soils classification data, lands currently in agricultural production, current land cover, and current land use planning designations. We found that developed lands occupy 13 percent of Puerto Rico; lands well-suited for conservation that include protected areas, riparian buffers, lands surrounding reservoirs, wetlands, beaches, and salt flats, occupy 45 percent of Puerto Rico; potential working lands encompass 42 percent of Puerto Rico. These include lands well-suited for mechanized and non-mechanized agriculture, such as row and specialty crops, livestock, dairy, hay, pasture, and fruits, which occupy 23 percent of Puerto Rico; and areas suitable for forestry production, such as timber and non-timber products, agroforestry, and shade coffee, which occupy 19 percent of Puerto Rico.

  3. Public perception on forestry issues in the Region of Valencia (Eastern Spain): diverging from policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra-Crespo, M.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Gritten, D.; Rojas-Briales, E.

    2012-11-01

    Are the policies designed by decision-makers differing from society's wishes and preferences. The present paper analyzes the divergences between forest policy and public opinion in the Region of Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana) in Eastern Spain. The data is based on an extensive telephone survey of the general public on their perception of forestry issues. The issues studied include attitudes regarding forest fires, silvicultural treatments, the externalise produced by forest owners, and the state forest services role related to these issues. In total, the answers of 823 respondents were analyzed using classification trees. The results of the analysis showed a large divergence between the desires, preferences and priorities of society, on the one hand, and the policies implemented by the regional government, on the other. The study concludes that communication strategies concerning sustainable forest management need to be further developed by the responsible authorities, with the input of the research community. (Author) 53 refs.

  4. On Food, Farming and Land Management: Towards a Research Agenda to Reconnect Urban and Rural Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Justin; Rickinson, Mark; Sanders, Dawn; Teamey, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Science education has a key role to play in helping people to develop their understanding of the local and global dimensions of food, farming and land management. Based on a review of the literature on what is known about young people's (3-19) views towards and learning about these topics, a research agenda is outlined for consideration by the…

  5. Can Strategic Spatial Planning Contribute to Land Degradation Reduction in Urban Regions? State of the Art and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is becoming a serious environmental issue threatening fertile agricultural soils and other natural resources. There are many driving forces behind land degradation. The expansion of artificial surfaces due to various economic activities, such as housing, industry, and transport infrastructure, known as soil sealing, constitutes one of the most intensive forms of land degradation in urban regions. Measures to halt and reverse land degradation require both strong land-use management policies, as well as effective spatial planning mechanisms. In this regard, strategic spatial planning has been increasingly practised in many urban regions worldwide, as a means to achieve sustainable land-use patterns and to guide the location of development and physical infrastructures. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that strategic spatial planning can counteract the outlined undesired land degradation effects, specifically those resulting from soil sealing. In this paper, we review strategic spatial planning literature published between 1992 and 2017. The focus is on the phenomena causing land degradation that are addressed by strategic spatial planning literature, as well as on the mechanisms describing the role of strategic spatial planning in land degradation reduction. Results show that sustainable development and environmental concerns have become core objectives of strategic planning in recent years, yet references to the drivers of land degradation are rare. The mechanisms that exist are mainly intended to address environmental issues in general, and are not aimed at reducing particular forms of land degradation. The paper concludes by sketching future research directions, intended to support strategic spatial planning and land-use policymaking related to coping with the global phenomenon of land degradation.

  6. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Explore Backyard Gardening Practices and Soil Lead Concentrations in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri; Cardona, Dalila; Davis, Jeremy; Gramling, Benjamin; Hamilton, Chelsea; Hoffmann, Ray; Ruis, Sabrina; Soldat, Doug; Ventura, Steve; Yan, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is a serious health threat for children. Soil is an important exposure pathway, primarily through ingestion and inhalation. Urban agriculture is increasing. Potential environmental health risks associated with residential gardening may not be well known to community residents. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was implemented to explore the relationship between urban residential vegetable gardening and lead exposure in children. The primary objectives were to characterize local backyard vegetable gardening practices, measure residential and commercial soil lead concentrations and spatial distributions, and identify priorities for individual and collective action. Participants were recruited in two stages. In phase 1, adult gardeners participated in structured interviews. In phase 2, a multistage representative sampling approach was implemented to recruit adult gardeners for interviews and soil testing. Twenty adults participated in gardening practice interviews. Adults perceive many benefits from backyard gardening and initially expressed few concerns about lead exposure risk. Results indicate that children are actively involved in backyard gardening. Total soil lead concentrations from 17 residential properties ranged from 7 to 3,234 mg kg-1(median, 187; mean, 432). Commercial soils had lead concentrations that ranged from 6 to 13 mg kg(-1) (median, 6.5; mean, 7.6). Nonparametric Mann-Whitney comparisons indicated a significant difference in lead concentration between commercial soil and residential soil (p<0.0001). Advocacy for resources needed to eliminate dangerous levels of lead from the environment, especially in communities where divestment has occurred, is enhanced through CBPR. Increasing access to soil testing is an important action step.

  7. Integrative assessment of climate change for fast-growing urban areas: Measurement and recommendations for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, Sebastian; Haase, Dagmar; Volk, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Over the 20th century, urbanization has substantially shaped the surface of Earth. With population rapidly shifting from rural locations towards the cities, urban areas have dramatically expanded on a global scale and represent crystallization points of social, cultural and economic assets and activities. This trend is estimated to persist for the next decades, and particularly the developing countries are expected to face rapid urban growth. The management of this growth will require good go...

  8. ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders Climate Change and Cities: Second Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Mehrotra, S.; Dhakal, S.; Bowman, T.; Ibrahim, S. Ali

    2015-01-01

    ARC3.2 presents a broad synthesis of the latest scientific research on climate change and cities. Mitigation and adaptation climate actions of 100 cities are documented throughout the 16 chapters, as well as online through the ARC3.2 Case Study Docking Station. Pathways to Urban Transformation, Major Findings, and Key Messages are highlighted here in the ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders. These sections lay out what cities need to do achieve their potential as leaders of climate change solutions. UCCRN Regional Hubs in Europe, Latin America, Africa, Australia and Asia will share ARC3.2 findings with local city leaders and researchers. The ARC3.2 Summary for City Leaders synthesizes Major Findings and Key Messages on urban climate science, disasters and risks, urban planning and design, mitigation and adaptation, equity and environmental justice, economics and finance, the private sector, urban ecosystems, urban coastal zones, public health, housing and informal settlements, energy, water, transportation, solid waste, and governance. These were based on climate trends and future projections for 100 cities around the world.

  9. THE PERCEPTION ON ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTS – A RESEARCH ON THE URBAN CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Laura Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the consumers of organic products. The work is important because in Romania, although consumption data show a small percentage consumption of organic products, in words it is still high. The difference consists between the definition and the perception of the concept of ecological products in respondents’ eye. This work aims to study the consumer perception of such niche products from a narrow perspective and that of products certified or not. Trying to prove that there are differences in behaviour between the two groups. Problem arising in this field is that there are many concepts of period of environmentally-friendly. Marketing and criterion by which to do all the market report shows green products from the point of view as they are legal certificates. Only that in Romania, there are two different segments of shoppers. Those who buy green products certified and those who buy green products certified. These latter, which many call the peasant market supplies, are an interesting group of future investigation for this type of sale. This paper comes as a complete research done in this market and brings attention to a new variable of analysis for motivational research. This research is an exploratory research that proposed method is very common in research of this kind. We held three focus group meetings divided by a selection questionnaire. The first group of 7 persons included only persons who have declared that they have bought certified products and the second group of 9 persons included only people who bought uncertified products. The third group also of 9 persons included people in both categories. So we could identify what some say about others when they are face to face and also when they are not. The results are as expected. We can say says there difference between the two groups in terms of motivation choosing those types of products, the same reasons are for buyers and their family, taste and the appearance of

  10. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  11. Research of the influence of air chemical pollutions on the health of urban population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, T; Smirnov, M; Amvrosiev, P; Kurganskaya, G; Gritsenko, T [The Byelorussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The main problem of environmental hygiene in the Republic of Belarus is ecological situation health effects extent determination and risk assessment. The different epidemiological studies of ecological risk for public health due to atmosphere industry emissions, directed to hygiene standards correction and epidemiological and ecological situation management were conducted by the Belarussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Institute. Atmosphere pollution of heavy industry enterprises, pharmaceutical production, the electric power stations and its impact on people morbidity in adjacent and sanitary protection areas was studied. The objective of the research is hygienic assessment and determination of public health changes, caused by atmosphere pollution, and preventive measures programs elaboration in such industrial cities as Brest, Gomel, Minsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Novopolotsk. (author)

  12. Research of the influence of air chemical pollutions on the health of urban population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, T.; Smirnov, M.; Amvrosiev, P.; Kurganskaya, G.; Gritsenko, T. [The Byelorussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The main problem of environmental hygiene in the Republic of Belarus is ecological situation health effects extent determination and risk assessment. The different epidemiological studies of ecological risk for public health due to atmosphere industry emissions, directed to hygiene standards correction and epidemiological and ecological situation management were conducted by the Belarussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Institute. Atmosphere pollution of heavy industry enterprises, pharmaceutical production, the electric power stations and its impact on people morbidity in adjacent and sanitary protection areas was studied. The objective of the research is hygienic assessment and determination of public health changes, caused by atmosphere pollution, and preventive measures programs elaboration in such industrial cities as Brest, Gomel, Minsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Novopolotsk. (author)

  13. Household Role in Coping with Precarious Work. Evidence from Qualitative Research in Urban Romania and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preoteasa Ana Maria D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative comparative study that looked at the meaning of ‘precarious work’ in households situated in the position of ‘precarious prosperity’ in Switzerland and Romania in 2013. The aim of this research is to explore the experiences of individuals with precarious work and to embed them into their household and national structural contexts. Employment patterns in the two countries are similar in terms of uncertainty and instability, yet vary in many other aspects. While in Romania insecurity is due mainly to the very low incomes, in Switzerland it stems from nonstandard contracts. The research shows that for households of precarious prosperity, precarious work is both a strategy to cope with uncertainty and instability and a circumstance leading to precariousness. The analysis explores qualitatively the meaning that individuals living in households of precarious prosperity attribute to their employment situation as contextualized by the interplay between household and individual situation.

  14. Forestry implications of agricultural short-rotation woody crops in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Alexander N. Moiseyev

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss forestry implications of SRWC based on an economic analysis. As with the development of paper recycling, anticipating forestry implications of agricultural SRWC will depend in part on anticipating market conditions and economic impacts of technological developments. This chapter presents an analytic framework and market outlook...

  15. The influence of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry on the nation's family forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; John L. Greene; Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; Steven E. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    Financial incentive programs were evaluated to assess their contribution to promoting sustainable forestry practices on the nation’s family forests. The evaluation consisted of an extensive review of the literature on financial incentive programs, a mail survey of the lead administrator of financial incentive programs in each state forestry agency, and focus groups...

  16. Bioenergy potentials from forestry in 2050 : An assessment of the drivers that determine the potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the global energy production potential of woody biomass from forestry for the year 2050 using a bottom-up analysis of key factors. Woody biomass from forestry was defined as all of the aboveground woody biomass of trees, including all products made from

  17. Forestry-based biomass economic and financial information and tools: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Jason Brandt; Todd Morgan; Greg Jones

    2010-01-01

    This annotated bibliography is a synthesis of information products available to land managers in the western United States regarding economic and financial aspects of forestry-based woody biomass removal, a component of fire hazard and/or fuel reduction treatments. This publication contains over 200 forestry-based biomass papers, financial models, sources of biomass...

  18. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  19. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act: Forestry contractors' model operating plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Bremer

    2007-01-01

    The Model Operating Plan for forestry contractors is a voluntary plan for compliance with the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) of 1983, with amendments passed in 1996 and 1997. This plan is designed as a guide for forestry contractors who wish to comply with all federal, state, and local rules and regulations that govern their employer/...

  20. EXPLORING THE ROLE OF FORESTRY SECTOR ON ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF GUNUNGKIDUL DISTRICT IN 1993 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat Rahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the role of forestry sector in the economic system of Gunungkidul district. The Location Quotient (LQ Analysis, Income Multiplier Effect Value, and Klassen Typology Analysis were employed to analyze the role of the forestry sector. The data were regional income of Gunungkidul district and Yogyakarta Province from 1993 to 2008, including the economic crisis period from 1997 to 1998. The result showed that forestry sector was an important sector in economic development of Gunungkidul district. LQ analysis indicated that forestry became a basic sector since pre-economic crisis period until post-economic crisis (1993 - 2008. Prior to the economic crisis, forestry sector generated the highest income multiplier effect value. However, the value dropped during and after the economic crisis. The economic crisis had an influence on the development pattern classification of forestry sector. Before economic crisis, forestry sector was classified as a developed sector (quadrant I with the growth and shared to GDRP in Gunungkidul were higher than that in Yogyakarta Province. Meanwhile, since the economic crisis, forestry sector fell into the lower class as a stagnant sector.