WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban energy balance

  1. Sustainable Urban Regeneration Based on Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Silvester

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming economical and environmental interests on infrastructure, in relation to the sustainable urban development and regeneration from the perspective of the tripod people, technology and design is elaborated. However, this is at different scales, starting mainly from the perspective of the urban dynamics. This approach includes a renewed look at the ‘urban metabolism’ and the role of environmental technology, urban ecology and environment behavior focus. Second, the potential benefits of strategic and balanced introduction and use of decentralized devices and electric vehicles (EVs, and attached generation based on renewables are investigated in more detail in the case study of the ‘Merwe-Vierhaven’ area (MW4 in the Rotterdam city port in the Netherlands. In order to optimize the energy balance of this urban renewal area, it is found to be impossible to do this by tuning the energy consumption. It is more effective to change the energy mix and related infrastructures. However, the problem in existing urban areas is that often these areas are restricted to a few energy sources due to lack of available space for integration. Besides this, energy consumption in most cases is relatively concentrated in (existing urban areas. This limits the potential of sustainable urban regeneration based on decentralized systems, because there is no balanced choice regarding the energy mix based on renewables and system optimization. Possible solutions to obtain a balanced energy profile can come from either the choice to not provide all energy locally, or by adding different types of storage devices to the systems. The use of energy balance based on renewables as a

  2. Sustainable urban regeneration based on energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Zwetsloot, J.; Brezet, H.; Silvester, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming

  3. Reducing urban heat island effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan; Ochinciuc, Cristina Victoria; Cheval, Sorin; Comşa, Ionuţ; Sîrodoev, Igor; Andone, Radu; Caracaş, Gabriela; Crăciun, Cerasella; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mihaela; Ianoş, Ioan; Merciu, Cristina; Moraru, Dan; Opriş, Ana; Paraschiv, Mirela; Raeţchi, Sonia; Saghin, Irina; Schvab, Andrei; Tătui-Văidianu, Nataşa

    2017-04-01

    technical solutions for mitigating the UHI impacts and sustainable reconfiguration of urban settlements, comprising packages of architectural and urban and landscape planning solutions. This study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  4. Evapotranspiration and surface energy balance across an agricultural-urban landscape gradient in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiflett, S. A.; Anderson, R. G.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization substantially affects energy, surface and air temperature, and hydrology due to extensive modifications in land surface properties such as vegetation, albedo, thermal capacity and soil moisture. The magnitude and direction of these alterations depends heavily on the type of urbanization that occurs. We investigated energy balance variation in a local network of agricultural and urban ecosystems using the eddy covariance method to better understand how vegetation fraction and degree of urbanization affects energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. We deployed eddy flux systems within a well-irrigated, agricultural citrus orchard, a moderately developed urban zone with a substantial amount of local vegetative cover, and an intensely developed urban zone with minimal vegetative cover and increased impervious surfaces relative to the other two sites. Latent energy (LE) fluxes in the agricultural area ranged from 7.9 ± 1.4 W m-2 (nighttime) to 168.7 ± 6.2 W m-2 (daytime) compared to 10.2 ± 3.5 W m-2 and 40.6 ± 4.1 W m-2, respectively, for the moderately developed urban area. Sensible energy (H) fluxes ranged from -9.1 ± 1.0 W m-2 (nighttime) to 119 ± 7.0 W m-2 (daytime) in the agricultural area compared to 9.6 ± 2.6 W m-2 and 134 ± 6.0 W m-2, respectively, for the moderately developed urban zone. Daytime LE is reduced with increasing urbanization; however, daily cycles of LE are less recognizable in urban areas compared to distinct daily cycles obtained above a mature citrus crop. In contrast, both daytime and nighttime H increases with increasing degree of urbanization. Reduction in vegetation and increases in impervious surfaces along an urbanization gradient leads to alterations in energy balance, which are associated with microclimate and water use changes.

  5. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    A great variety of urban energy balance models has been developed. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a slab, through those which model various facets (i.e. road, walls and roof) to more complex urban forms (including street canyons with intersections) and features (such as vegetation cover and anthropogenic heat fluxes). Some schemes also incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed throughout various layers of the urban canopy layer. The models each differ in the parameters they require to describe the site and the in demands they make on computational processing power. Many of these models have been evaluated using observational datasets but to date, no controlled comparisons have been conducted. Urban surface energy balance models provide a means to predict the energy exchange processes which influence factors such as urban temperature, humidity, atmospheric stability and winds. These all need to be modelled accurately to capture features such as the urban heat island effect and to provide key information for dispersion and air quality modelling. A comparison of the various models available will assist in improving current and future models and will assist in formulating research priorities for future observational campaigns within urban areas. In this presentation we will summarise the initial results of this international urban energy balance model comparison. In particular, the relative performance of the models involved will be compared based on their degree of complexity. These results will inform us on ways in which we can improve the modelling of air quality within, and climate impacts of, global megacities. The methodology employed in conducting this comparison followed that used in PILPS (the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes) which is also endorsed by the GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel. In all cases, models were run

  6. The urban energy balance of a lightweight low-rise neighborhood in Andacollo, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ben; Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Cordy, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, the majority of rapidly growing neighborhoods are found in the Global South. They often exhibit different building construction and development patterns than the Global North, and urban climate research in many such neighborhoods has to date been sparse. This study presents local-scale observations of net radiation ( Q * ) and sensible heat flux ( Q H ) from a lightweight low-rise neighborhood in the desert climate of Andacollo, Chile, and compares observations with results from a process-based urban energy-balance model (TUF3D) and a local-scale empirical model (LUMPS) for a 14-day period in autumn 2009. This is a unique neighborhood-climate combination in the urban energy-balance literature, and results show good agreement between observations and models for Q * and Q H . The unmeasured latent heat flux ( Q E ) is modeled with an updated version of TUF3D and two versions of LUMPS (a forward and inverse application). Both LUMPS implementations predict slightly higher Q E than TUF3D, which may indicate a bias in LUMPS parameters towards mid-latitude, non-desert climates. Overall, the energy balance is dominated by sensible and storage heat fluxes with mean daytime Bowen ratios of 2.57 (observed Q H /LUMPS Q E )-3.46 (TUF3D). Storage heat flux ( ΔQ S ) is modeled with TUF3D, the empirical objective hysteresis model (OHM), and the inverse LUMPS implementation. Agreement between models is generally good; the OHM-predicted diurnal cycle deviates somewhat relative to the other two models, likely because OHM coefficients are not specified for the roof and wall construction materials found in this neighborhood. New facet-scale and local-scale OHM coefficients are developed based on modeled ΔQ S and observed Q * . Coefficients in the empirical models OHM and LUMPS are derived from observations in primarily non-desert climates in European/North American neighborhoods and must be updated as measurements in lightweight low-rise (and other) neighborhoods in

  7. Converting Paddy Rice Field to Urban Use Dramatically Altered the Water and Energy Balances in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Qin, M.; Huang, X.; Fang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice wetlands are the main land use type across southern China, which impact the regional environments by affecting evapotranspiration (ET) and other water and energy related processes. Our study focuses on the effects of land-cover change on water and energy processes in the Qinhuai River Basin, a typical subtropical humid region that is under rapid ecological and economical transformations. This study integrates multiple methods and techniques including remote sensing, water and energy balance model (i.e., Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land, SEBAL), ecohydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT), and ground observation (Eddy Covariance measurement, etc.). We found that conversion of paddy rice field to urban use led to rise in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and reduction in ET, and thus resulted in changes in local and regional water and heat balance. The effects of the land-use change on ET and VPD overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. We conclude that the ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions in humid southern China and East Asia will likely exacerbate environmental consequences (e.g., elevated storm-flow volume, aggravated flood risks, and intensified urban heat island and urban dry island effects). The potential role of vegetated land cover in moderating water and energy balances and maintaining a stable climate should be considered in massive urban planning and global change impact assessment in southern China.

  8. Parameter Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis of an Urban Surface Energy Balance Parameterization at a Tropical Suburban Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshan, S.; Roth, M.; Velasco, E.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting of the urban weather and climate is of great importance as our cities become more populated and considering the combined effects of global warming and local land use changes which make urban inhabitants more vulnerable to e.g. heat waves and flash floods. In meso/global scale models, urban parameterization schemes are used to represent the urban effects. However, these schemes require a large set of input parameters related to urban morphological and thermal properties. Obtaining all these parameters through direct measurements are usually not feasible. A number of studies have reported on parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis to adjust and determine the most influential parameters for land surface schemes in non-urban areas. Similar work for urban areas is scarce, in particular studies on urban parameterization schemes in tropical cities have so far not been reported. In order to address above issues, the town energy balance (TEB) urban parameterization scheme (part of the SURFEX land surface modeling system) was subjected to a sensitivity and optimization/parameter estimation experiment at a suburban site in, tropical Singapore. The sensitivity analysis was carried out as a screening test to identify the most sensitive or influential parameters. Thereafter, an optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed to calibrate the input parameter. The sensitivity experiment was based on the "improved Sobol's global variance decomposition method" . The analysis showed that parameters related to road, roof and soil moisture have significant influence on the performance of the model. The optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed using the AMALGM (a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective method) evolutionary algorithm. The experiment showed a remarkable improvement compared to the simulations using the default parameter set. The calibrated parameters from this optimization experiment can be used for further model

  9. Downscaling Satellite Land Surface Temperatures in Urban Regions for Surface Energy Balance Study and Heat Index Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Bah, A.; Prakash, S.; Nouri, N.; Blake, R.

    2017-12-01

    A great percentage of the world's population reside in urban areas that are exposed to the threats of global and regional climate changes and associated extreme weather events. Among them, urban heat islands have significant health and economic impacts due to higher thermal gradients of impermeable surfaces in urban regions compared to their surrounding rural areas. Therefore, accurate characterization of the surface energy balance in urban regions are required to predict these extreme events. High spatial resolution Land surface temperature (LST) in the scale of street level in the cities can provide wealth of information to study surface energy balance and eventually providing a reliable heat index. In this study, we estimate high-resolution LST maps using combination of LandSat 8 and infrared based satellite products such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and newly launched Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R). Landsat 8 provides higher spatial resolution (30 m) estimates of skin temperature every 16 days. However, MODIS and GOES-R have lower spatial resolution (1km and 4km respectively) with much higher temporal resolution. Several statistical downscaling methods were investigated to provide high spatiotemporal LST maps in urban regions. The results reveal that statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can provide reliable estimations of LST downscaling with 2K accuracy. Other methods also were tried including aggregating (up-scaling) the high-resolution data to a coarse one to examine the limitations and to build the model. Additionally, we deployed flux towers over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops in New York City to monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. This

  10. National Energy Balance - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1985 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1974 to 1984 (E.G.) [pt

  11. National Energy Balance - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1984 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the productions to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1973 to 1983. (E.G.) [pt

  12. National Energy Balance-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1987 showns energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1971 to 1986. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Energy balance and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, R.

    1982-01-01

    The energy balance of the outer atmospheres of solarlike stars is discussed. The energy balance of open coronal regions is considered, discussing the construction and characteristics of models of such regions in some detail. In particular, the temperature as a function of height is considered, as are the damping length dependence of the global energy balance in the region between the base of the transition region and the critical point, and the effects of changing the amount of coronal heating, the stellar mass, and the stellar radius. Models of coronal loops are more briefly discussed. The chromosphere is then included in the discussion of the energy balance, and the connection between global energy balance and global thermal stability is addressed. The observed positive correlations between the chromospheric and coronal energy losses and the pressure of the transition region is qualitatively explained

  14. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...... of energy balance....

  15. Associations among measures of energy balance related behaviors and psychosocial determinants in urban upper elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelli, Lorraine N; Gray, Heewon Lee; Paul, Rachel C; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity prevention is a pressing issue. Understanding the relationships among eating and physical activity behaviors and potential psychosocial determinants of behavior will help us design more effective interventions. This study aimed to examine such relationships in a large sample of urban elementary school children. Fifth grade students in 20 recruited New York City public schools completed a validated questionnaire on six "do more" (fruits and vegetables and physical activity) and "do less" (sweetened beverages, processed packaged snacks, fast food and sedentary behavior) energy balance related behaviors (EBRBs) and psychosocial determinants of behavior from social cognitive and self-determination theories. Correlations among behaviors and hierarchical linear model analyses of the relationship between psychosocial determinants and behaviors were conducted for those with complete data (n = 952). The "do more" and the "do less" behaviors were significantly correlated within categories (p food-related behaviors were correlated with physical activity but so were sports drinks, while the "do less" food-related behaviors tended to be correlated to sedentary behavior (p intention. Interventions can address the healthy and less healthy clusters of behaviors together, focusing on strategies to enhance their self-efficacy and habit strength for the "do more" behaviors and outcome expectations to motivate intention to choose fewer "do less" behaviors, along with enhancing self-efficacy and habit. Research can examine these determinants as potential mediators of change in intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy balances 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 2000 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  17. National energy balance - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The national energy balance of 1978 shows some modifications in relation to the last year. New tables were included aiming to show the brazilian energy situation, such as the hydraulic potential and the non-renewable energy resources. (E.G.) [pt

  18. National energy balance - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The national energy balance of the 1976 shows several modifications in relation to the last year. The historical serie is based in more confiable information, from several energy companies. The most greater modifications are on energy source of hard control, such as lignite and charcoal for non-siderurgic uses. (E.G.) [pt

  19. National Energy Balance - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1986 shows energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, since 1970 to 1985. The incorporation of a new brazilian information is done. (E.G.) [pt

  20. National Energy Balance - 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The National Energy Balance - 1981, shows a new metodology and information in level of several economic sectors, as well as a separation of primary and secondary energy sources, its energy fluxes, i.e. production, imports, exports, consumption, etc...(E.G.) [pt

  1. National energy balance - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Based on available data from IBGE, CNP/Petrobras, Eletrobras, Nuclebras and other governmental enterprises the National Energy Balance was done. This publication covers since 1965 to 1975. In conformity to the international rules, the energy resources used for non-energy purposes were excluded. The energy production and consumption for the next ten years were forecasted, considering the actual brazilian energy policy. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Energy balance of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demur Chomakhidze

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that, traditionally, the energy balance of Georgia is in deep deficit. The suggestions for its improvement are provided in the Article. The country imports almost all amount of oil and natural gas. Electricity balance is relatively stable. In the recent years, some amount of electricity is exported to the neighboring countries. Generally, the country satisfies only 30–35% of own energy consumption by local generation, and the rest amount of resources are imported from abroad. The reason of deficit to some extent is irrational and wasteful consumption of energy resources. The article examines the organizational difficulties in drawing up energy balance of Georgia and statistical problems of recording of energy production and consumption at the initial stage of market economy.

  3. Energy balances 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Denmark's energy consumption was 800 PJ in 2005 when corrected for the fuel consumption used for producing electricity for export. The consumption is 0,5 % higher than in 2004. Since 1975, the energy consumption has been on the same level with minor fluctuations which are mainly due to the climate. The energy balances is an account of production, import and export, and consumption of energy. The consumption is accounted as physical amounts as well as gross consumption. Also, accounts are presented of the costs of energy in basis prices and in market prices, including excises on energy, CO 2 , and SO 2 . (LN)

  4. Assessing ecological sustainability in urban planning - EcoBalance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, I., Email: irmeli.wahlgren@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Urban planning solutions and decisions have large-scale significance for ecological sustainability (eco-efficiency) the consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of greenhouse gas and other emissions and the costs caused by urban form. Climate change brings new and growing challenges for urban planning. The EcoBalance model was developed to assess the sustainability of urban form and has been applied at various planning levels: regional plans, local master plans and detailed plans. The EcoBalance model estimates the total consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of emissions and wastes and the costs caused directly and indirectly by urban form on a life cycle basis. The results of the case studies provide information about the ecological impacts of various solutions in urban development. (orig.)

  5. Energy balance in tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The energy balance in tearing modes is described in terms of exact separate energy balance equations. Each of these equations describes identified physical processes, and their sum gives the conservation of total energy. One of the energy balance equations corresponds to Furth's description. (Author)

  6. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    pleasure of eating it. The latter, which is similar to food reward, is determined primarily by the state of emptiness of the gut and food liking related to the food's sensory qualities and macronutrient value and the individual's dietary history. Importantly, energy density adds value because energy dense foods are less satiating kJ for kJ and satiation limits further intake. That is, energy dense foods promote energy intake by virtue (1) of being more attractive and (2) having low satiating capacity kJ for kJ, and (1) is partly a consequence of (2). Energy storage is adapted to feast and famine and that includes unevenness over time of the costs of obtaining and ingesting food compared with engaging in other activities. However, in very low-cost food environments with energy dense foods readily available, risk of obesity is high. This risk can be and is mitigated by dietary restraint, which in its simplest form could mean missing the occasional meal. Another strategy we discuss is the energy dilution achieved by replacing some sugar in the diet with low-calorie sweeteners. Perhaps as or more significant, though, is that belief in short-term energy balancing (the energy depletion model) may undermine attempts to eat less. Therefore, correcting narratives of eating to be consistent with biological reality could also assist with weight control. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy in Italian regions. Energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catoni, P. G.; Perrella, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the syntheses of regional energy balance and the elaboration of the most important energy index from 1990 to 1996 at this scope a specific methodology. Pentec (territorial energy planning ecompatible) is pointed [it

  8. Geothermal energy use in terms of a more balanced & sustainable urban-rural development of Southeast Serbia, with focus on Nis region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The surrounding of Nis has been known for various geothermal manifestations (see Figure 3 and 4. The city itself has direct use of Nis Spa, where a couple of sites have been used for balneology and where heating systems have been installed. However, other local resources in Nis surrounding are little known. Also, Sokobanja has a long history of thermal waters 'use throughout its rich history, from the Antiquity throughout the middle ages and Turkish rule. This is also present in towns of Bela Palanka and Svrljig in South-East Serbian region surrounding Nis. These resources can be used for supplying the cities and villages with heat in the future. More importantly, communities in local towns in the region can be supported by more proficient use of geothermal potentials, as this idea supports the alleviated concentration of inhabitants in the region. It supports local renewable energy sources and a greater ration between potentials and actual use of geothermal sources, which tends to be very low in Serbian cities and rural places. In this paper, these resources are going to be presented, for the community in Serbia to have an insight and to be reminded of its potentials and significance for regional development and local resource utilization. Built heritage and urban-architectural wholes in some of these towns and in the villages, are neglected and geothermal resources in their vicinity underused. A more organized use of geothermal potentials can lead to their regenerations. It can support the idea of a more balanced rural-urban development of the region of Nis. However, geothermal energy can also be beneficial for future regional energy planning and cooperation between towns and villages in South-Eastern Serbian regions like Nis region. And this can be an important strategy in regional planning and energy planning for the future, once the economic crisis would stop to prevail in Serbia. The authors of this paper point out to the long

  9. Energy balances 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 1998 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  10. Energy balances 1997 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The energy balances of the Danish Statistical Office are the designation of the goods balances, which are tabulated for each energy article in both physical entities (quantities) and in base rates (values). The balance concept is connected to the definition supply = use, which is the basis for the construction of the system. The supply is determined as the sum of two items: import and production while the total use is the sum of 138 items: export, waste and transmission loss, stock increase, input in lack of the 130 industries, and private consumption divided into 5 consumption groups. The statistical analysis is performed yearly in both quantities and values for 35 energy articles. Values are computed for base rates, profits, taxes, VAT and market prices (buyer's price), respectively. The energy balances from 1975 to 1998 are presented for comparison. (EHS)

  11. National Energy Balance - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The energy fluxes of several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, are presented. The forecasting of uranium concentrate consumption and production is made for six years - 1980 to 1985. (E.G.) [pt

  12. National energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The energy fluxes of the several primary and secondary energy sources, since the production to the final consumption in the main economic sectors, are presented. A historical series covering ten years - 1973 to 1982, and the information retrieval related to the year of 1970 are also presented. (EG) [pt

  13. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  14. Balancing energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the energy policy statement presented by the Queensland Minister for Minerals and Energy for the 'Great Energy Debate' in Brisbane. The Queensland Government is committed to achieving a responsible balance between protecting the environment and meeting community expectations. A broad and integrated framework is under development for guiding energy policies consistent with the market enhancement approach. Some of the recent initiatives and the expected outcome are highlighted

  15. Balancing the Energy Pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Sharon

    1987-01-01

    The city of Kitchener, Ontario, has installed a heat recovery loop in one indoor pool, all indoor swimming pools use pool covers, and two have solar heating. Energy is saved in two ice arenas by low-emissivity ceilings, and in the largest arena by a heat recovery system. (MLF)

  16. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  17. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...... aggregation aim at balancing flexibilities in production and consumption to reduce the probability of congestions and reduce the complexity of scheduling. We present results of our extensive experiments....

  18. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    important for the implementation of wind energy conversion systems are the macro and micro wind climate, the siting within a micro wind climate and the choice of a wind turbine model most appropriate for the selected site. In the frame of this work, all these important elements are analyzed and a row......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant...

  19. Energy landscape of social balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-11-06

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  20. Urban structure, energy and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    2016-01-01

    Transforming energy use in cities to address the threats of climate change and resource scarcity is a major challenge in urban development. This study takes stock of the state of energy in urban policy and planning and reveals potentials of and constraints to energy-efficient urban development....... The relationship between energy and urban structure provides a framework for discussing the role of urban planning to increase energy efficiency in cities by means of three in-depth case studies of medium-sized cities in Northern Europe: Eskilstuna in Sweden, Turku in Finland and Tartu in Estonia. In some ways...... these cities go ahead when it comes to their national climate and energy policies and aim to establish urban planning as an instrument to regulate and influence the city’s transition in a sustainable way. At the same time, the cities are constantly facing goal conflicts and limitations to their scope of action...

  1. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g −1 to 3631 ng g −1 during the period of 1978–2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. - Highlights: • Introduced a mass balance model for soil PAHs accumulation with urbanization. • Reconstructed the historical data of PAH accumulation in soil of Beijing, China. • The soil PAH concentrations would be doubled in the following 40 years. • The composition of PAH emissions were shifting to light PAH species. - Introduced a regression modeling approach to predict the changes of PAH concentrations in urban soil

  2. Urban energy planning in Turku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Christensen, Emil Maj; Große, Juliane

    prevailing urban sprawl, characterising urban development since the 1950s. The city is densifying and promoting sustainable urban develop-ment, though at a regional scale with several growth centres. Its future development is envisioned in the “Structure model 2035”, focusing on more compact urban...... development along public transport corridors. From the case report three issues arise which might be of considerable interest in a broader context of the PLEEC project: 1. Working with energy efficient regional urban structure (e.g. regarding urban sprawl) in a low density country and on a voluntary...

  3. Energy balance of solid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, V.; Berg, W.; Kaulfuss, P.

    1998-01-01

    The input and output of energy are two important factors used to determine the energetic and ecological usefulness of a fuel or its production technology. In this paper, a number of different methods for the production of five biofuels which can be produced in agriculture and forestry are analysed and energetic balances are presented. The results show that the energetic input is relatively low compared to the output, especially for by-products and residual substances such as cereal straw and forest pruning timber (thinning). Whenever fuel crops are cultivated, the energetic efficiency is critically determined by the quantity of nitrogen applied. Depending on the crop and technology, each gigajoule of energy input can provide 7-30 GJ or with by-products up to 50 GJ of thermally utilizable energy without any additional CO 2 pollution. (author)

  4. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares, P.

    1997-01-01

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  5. National energy balance - 1992 - Based on 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This National Energy Balance covers since 1976 to 1991, showing the supply and demand for each type of energy; the energy consumption by each economic sector; the external market of energy; the resources and reserves and some information about state and regional energy balance. (C.G.C.)

  6. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  7. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicker, Ursula; Monien, Dirk; Duminil, Éric; Nouvel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  8. France's energy balance for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louati, Sami; Ouradou, Frederic; Rouquette, Celine; Cadin, Didier; Korman, Bernard; Lauverjat, Jean; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Rabai, Yacine; Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene; Wong, Florine; Albertini, Jean-Paul; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    in the 13 of July act of Parliament outlining energy programming and policy, which aims for a 2% reduction per year in final energy intensity by 2015. The slighter drop in energy intensity is no doubt the result of the economic stagnation in 2012: in crisis periods industry does not run at full capacity, with adverse consequences for efficiency. According to SOeS' partial and provisional calculations, CO 2 emissions from combustion for energy production, after correction for climate variations, decreased by 3.1%. They have shown a clear fall over 5 years, with an average decrease of 2.2% per year since 2007. In 2012, emission levels were 8.8% lower than those of 1990. They remained stable in 2012 in real data terms. In addition to these data for the energy balance calculated in accordance with international norms, the European directive on renewable energy requires indicators specific to it, and with different calculation methods and scope. According to those indicators, in 2012 France fell slightly short of the final consumption target set by the national renewable energy action plan required by the directive. For 2012, it was 22.9 Mtoe of renewable energy, in comparison with 22.0 Mtoe actually achieved. Over the 2005-2012 period, final consumption of renewable energy grew by 6.2 Mtoe, instead of the expected 7.1 Mtoe. The shortfall observed relates to both the electrical and thermal components: it was 3 points for renewable electricity, as a result of the wind power sector where the target shortfall was 21 points. It was 4 points for thermal renewable energies, as the winter of 2012, more severe than that of 2011, mobilised more fuel-wood and heat pumps. For biofuels, consumption of bio-diesel is very close to the patterns indicated, unlike bio-ethanol where the difference is far greater

  9. Nutrient flows and balances in urban and peri-urban agroecosystems of Kano, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulkadir, A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Agbenin, J.O.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient balances are useful indicators to assess the sustainability of farming systems. This study study investigates inflow and outflow of major nutrients in urban and periurban production systems in Kano, Nigeria. To this end, 16 households representing three different urban and peri-urban (UPA)

  10. Brazilian energy balance 1999: calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1983 to 1998; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  11. Brazilian energy balance 1995: calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1979 to 1994; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  12. Brazilian energy balance 1997: calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1981 to 1996; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  13. Brazilian energy balance 2000: calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  14. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  15. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  16. Provincial energy intensity in China: The role of urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese policymakers have attached great importance to energy intensity reduction. However, the unprecedented urbanization process exercises additional pressure on the realization of energy intensity reduction targets. A better understanding of the impacts of urbanization is necessary for designing effective policies aimed at reaching the next energy intensity reduction targets. This paper empirically investigates the impacts of urbanization on China's aggregate and disaggregated energy intensities using a balanced panel dataset of 30 provinces covering the period from 2000 to 2012 and panel estimation techniques. The results show that urbanization significantly increases aggregate energy intensity, electricity intensity and coal intensity. - Highlights: • This paper investigates the determinants of China's energy intensity. • Urbanization is responsible for the increase in China's energy intensity. • The fluctuation in China's energy intensity is also affected by other key factors.

  17. Brazilian energy balance 2002: calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The Brazilian Energy Balance 2002, based on 2001 data, contains the information related to the supply and consumption of the primary and secondary energy sources, provided by data and information of responsible sectors. This version presents important differences in relation to the previous editions, new technical concepts were introduced for the treatment of calorific powers of energy sources in the composition and consolidation of data, and also in the structure of its contents. The Balance 2002 was structured in the same way of the last edition, divided in 8 chapters, as follows: summary of the relevant indicators of 2001 and consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence on energy, and also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources - period 1970/2001; energy supply and demand by source - 1986/2001; energy consumption by sector - 1986/2001; energy foreign trading - 1986/2001; transformation centers balances - 1986/2001; energy resources and reserves - 1973/2001; energy and socio-economy - 1986/2001; regional parameters and appendices including: installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances - 1970/2001,in the 'kcal' unit, calculated in PCI- Inferior Calorific Power. This new model has the intention to approximate the Brazilian Energy Balance to the international methodologies, mainly to the OECD balances

  18. Energy balance in the transformation centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvim, Carlos Feu; Ferreira, Omar Campos; Eidelman, Frida.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon balance is an important instrument to identify the emission sources of greenhouse effect gases. Since energy use and transformation are fundamental for increasing these gases in the atmosphere, the carbon balance survey can be used to identify sectors and fuels to which priority should be given regarding emissions mitigation. In the case of transformation centers (installations where primary or secondary sources are converted into sub-products or other energy form) the balance indicated some problems regarding the Brazilian inventory calculation. Problems concerning the National Energy Balance data used here were also identified. (author)

  19. Balancing energy strategies in electricity portfolio management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Christoph; Rachev, Svetlozar T.; Fabozzi, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional management of electricity portfolios is focused on the day-ahead market and futures of longer maturity. Within limits, market participants can however also resort to the balancing energy market to close their positions. In this paper, we determine strategic positions in the balancing energy market and identify corresponding economic incentives in an analysis of the German balancing energy demand. We find that those strategies allow an economically optimal starting point for real-time balancing and create a marketplace for flexible capacity that is more open than alternative marketplaces. The strategies we proffer in this paper we believe will contribute to an effective functioning of the electricity market. (author)

  20. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  1. 10. State energy balance - 1978-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The energetic matrix of Minas Gerais State (Brazil) for the year 1991 and historic review of 1978 to 1990 are shown in this 10. State Energy Balance. The global balance and the state structure of energy demand, by energy source and socio-economic sector are presented, and the relations between energy system and the Minas Gerais economic performance are analysed. The consumption evolution by sector is also cited. (C.G.C.)

  2. Energy balances (1970 to 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Annual statistical data on french energy economy are presented for 1990. Consumption evolution of the principal users (industry, residential, transport and agriculture) during the last 21 years is made energy by energy (coal, petroleum, gas, electricity and renewable energy)

  3. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  4. Brazilian energy balance 2004: calendar year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2003. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1970 to 2003; energy supply and demand by source, from 1988 to 2003; energy consumption by sector from 1988 to 2003; energy foreign trading also from 1988 to 2003; transformation centers balances in the same period; energy resources and reserves from 1973 to 2003; energy and socio-economy from 1988 to 2003; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances. It also presents analytical texts on the main energy numbers for 2003 and also energy evolution in Brazil and energy expansion all over the world

  5. 1998 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the tenth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy Statistics

  6. 2000 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the eleventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy

  7. 2002 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the twelfth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for fuels utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analysing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis. Since it began publishing energy balances, the Statistics Division has adopted the matrix type of overall energy balance that shows energy sources in the columns and energy flows in the rows. The format is described in detail in the technical report entitled Concepts and Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special Reference to Energy Accounts and Balances and is also discussed in the publication, Energy Statistics: A Manual for Developing Countries. The level of detail of this matrix structure takes into account the need for disaggregation of the energy sector and final demand, while at the same time, owing to the limitations in the quantity and quality of the currently available energy information, coverage has to be restricted to the main sectors only. Furthermore, it should be recognized that unlike national energy balances designed for individual countries' various specific needs, the energy balance format of the Statistics Division has to accommodate the whole spectrum of national energy data which it receives from national statistical offices and through official national publications. Inasmuch as information on electricity is generally available in greater detail than that for other energy forms, the Statistics Division decided to present special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries and areas, thereby covering at least part of their energy conversion and consumption activities. World energy data is published by the Statistics Division in the Energy

  8. Brazilian energy balance 2010 - year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data - presents energy highlights per source in 2009 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2009; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2009, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - state energy data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  9. Brazilian energy balance 2009 - year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2008 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2008; Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2008, through graphs and tables; Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  10. Urban energy planning in Eskilstuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian

    as a stakeholder of energy initiatives towards the general public. The efficiency of the first is very high, due to an omnipresence of ‘sustainability thinking’. The total effect of the latter is, however, much larger, due to the size of the arena. Principles of urban development are generally acknowledged...... in transport remains the key challenge. At municipal level the consumption of electricity is of special concern. Only about 25% of electricity it is possible to produce by local combined power and district heating plants. Some small additional power may be provided locally by e.g. solar cells...... as an important instrument for sustainability. Urban densification and urban connectivity to transport routes facilitated by public transport are the two main principles. Policies of sustainability are of ‘second-order’ as compared to the economic driven changes of the urban system. A prime ‘first...

  11. Energy and urban innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    This report outlines the energy-related challenges that cities, particularly large and 'mega-cities', will face during the coming decades. It analyses the technical and policy actions that must be taken to meet these challenges and the role the energy industry and business can play in designing and implementing efficient solutions. The report is the result of a bottom-up process in which World Energy Council members carried out case studies on a comprehensive set of large to 'mega' cities, both in the developed and emerging world. It is complemented by an extensive literature study.

  12. Energy and urban innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    This report outlines the energy-related challenges that cities, particularly large and 'mega-cities', will face during the coming decades. It analyses the technical and policy actions that must be taken to meet these challenges and the role the energy industry and business can play in designing and implementing efficient solutions. The report is the result of a bottom-up process in which World Energy Council members carried out case studies on a comprehensive set of large to 'mega' cities, both in the developed and emerging world. It is complemented by an extensive literature study.

  13. Energy and urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    How can spatial planning reduce energy use in our cities? How do different geographical, regional, cultural or political contexts influence our options? How can we measure and monitor its effects? And where do we set the boundaries for the definition of action and goals? Findings from the interna......How can spatial planning reduce energy use in our cities? How do different geographical, regional, cultural or political contexts influence our options? How can we measure and monitor its effects? And where do we set the boundaries for the definition of action and goals? Findings from...... the international EU-FP7 project PLEEC (‘Planning for energy efficient cities’, 2013-2016) and spin-off projects list options and challenges....

  14. Brazilian Energy Balance 2016 - calendar year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2015 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments and total consumption disaggregated per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining. Annex II - Self-production of Electricity - presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex III - World Energy Data - presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source

  15. Energy balance at the soil atmosphere interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M; Hepburn, B.D.P.; Thomas, HR; Vardon, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil atmospheric interactions play an important role within the thermal energy balance and seasonal temperature variations of the ground. This paper presents a formulation for the surface boundary conditions related to interactions between soil and atmosphere. The boundary condition formulated

  16. Thematic report on urban energy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijers, Evert; Romein, Arie; Stead, Dominic

    The report reviews relations between urban structure (spatial structure + institutional structure) and four core themes of urban energy: • Urban planning and energy use in buildings (mainly residential buildings) • Industrial energy use and urban form • Spatial Planning, Urban Form and Transport...... Energy Consumption • Urban energy generation The reports ends with a summary of potential measure and policies of spatial planning in each of the four themes. However, we highlight also that it is crucial to consider the wider perspective and include considerations of potential rebound effects on direct...

  17. France's energy balance in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2012-07-01

    2011 was marked by the continued increase in energy prices, raising the country's energy bill and weighing on the activity of businesses and on household budgets. The effect on households was, however, mitigated by the exceptionally mild weather conditions in 2011, which reduced needs for heating. Corrected for climate variations, primary energy consumption increased slightly, its level remaining below pre-crisis ones. Final energy consumption was stable, resulting from contrasting changes: decrease in industry, construction and agriculture, in spite of higher output, and increase in the service, residential and transport sectors. National primary energy production increased in 2011, reaching a new record close to 139 Mtoe. It benefited from high levels of nuclear and wind generated electricity. Conversely, energy production from several key renewable sources - hydro, fuelwood and biofuels - saw a downward trend. (authors)

  18. Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Seth A.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Kleinberg, Jon M.

    2009-11-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social “balance” allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  19. France's energy balance for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Jean-Paul; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Louati, Sami; Mordant, Guillaume; Rouquette, Celine; Cadin, Didier; Collet, Isabelle; Fratacci, Lisa; Lauverjat, Jean; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Rabai, Yacine; Reynaud, Didier; Wong, Florine; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    As in 2012, activity in France increased slightly (+0.3%), thanks to an upturn in the second half. Fossil energy prices on the international markets took a downward turn in 2013 under the influence of the morose world economic climate, dropping sharply for oil and coal and rising, but at a slowed rate, for gas. Quoted prices nonetheless remained high: the Brent price remained well above US$100/barrel and steam coal above US$ 80/ton. Conversely, the price of natural gas took an upward path three years ago in continental Europe. Electricity prices dropped on the European markets, notably as a result of strong production of renewable energy in Germany and Spain. Energy prices in France continued to increase but at a slowed rate and more slowly than the prices for goods and services as a whole for the first time in 10 years. Prices for oil products saw a downturn, something which had not happened since 2009 but gas and electricity prices rose sharply. French households' average gasoline and diesel oil expenditure was euro 60 less in 2013 than in 2012, due almost entirely to the price drop. Spending on energy for household use increased by euro 100 under the combined effect of price increase and greater heating needs. French people's expenditure for energy represented 6.2% of their effective consumption. 2013 was characterised by a colder first half which induced an additional need for heating of 3.1 Mtoe in 2013 in relation to the previous year. The physical foreign trade gap, structurally biased towards imports, accordingly widened slightly in 2013 to 124 Mtoe, as a result of the refined oil products, and additional purchasing of coal made necessary by greater use of thermal power plants. The effect of decreasing international energy prices outweighed the physical flows: France's energy bill reduced by 4.6% in relation to the record 2012, reaching euro 66 billion. The oil bill was therefore significantly reduced as a result of the dual decrease in volume and price

  20. Energy Balance in an Electrostatic Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotorev, Max S.; McDonald, Kirk T.

    2000-01-01

    The principle of an electrostatic accelerator is that when a charge e escapes from a conducting plane that supports a uniform electric field of strength E_0, then the charge gains energy e E_0 d as it moves distance d from the plane. Where does this energy come from? We that the mechanical energy gain of the electron is balanced by the decrease in the electrostatic field energy of the system.

  1. Energy balance in a coaxial plasma diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.A. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The energy fluxes in a coaxial system with a propagating convective magnetic-field wave are considered in an electron MHD model with inertia-free electrons. In contrast to the previous results obtained by other authors, it is shown that, with allowance for a finite electron pressure after the passage of the wave front, the energy flux at the boundary between the generator and coaxial system is continuous. The balance of energy fluxes in the system is studied. The angular anode point is shown to play an important role in this balance

  2. Energy balance in the ohmically heated FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Brusati, M.; Cilloco, F.

    1981-01-01

    A typical discharge in the FT Tokamak at 60 kG has been studied in detail in order to derive the power balance between the ohmic input and the plasma losses. Impurity and radiation losses together with ion and electron energy balance are discussed. A power transport term for electrons is derived which is ascribed to anomalous thermal conduction. This resulting thermal transport is compared with those derived from different proposed scalings

  3. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During the year 2002 the primary supply of energy reached 629 TWh, which is 7.7 TWh less than 2001. The decrease originates mainly from the reduced electricity production from water power. Also the electricity production in nuclear power plants decreased by 4.5 TWh. If we were to look at the supplied energy for final consumption we will find a slightly rise by 1.8 TWh. The year 2002 was warmer than a 'normal' year and that consequently brings lower energy needs. Compared with 2001, 2002 was not warmer and a net electricity import of 5.4 TWh covered the energy needs. The energy use increased by 3.3 TWh between 2002 and 2001. The industry sector shows the largest rise by 2.9 TWh, nearly 2 per cent. Within that sector, energy from biomass fuel had a rise by 6.7 per cent. The household sector decreases its energy use by 2.7 per cent, and oil and electricity show the largest decrease. The proportionately high electricity price probably had a slowing down effect on the electricity use. The balance sheets of energy sources are showing the total supply and consumption of energy sources expressed in original units, i.e. units recorded in the primary statistics - mainly commercial units. The production of derived energy commodities is recorded on the supply - side of the balance sheets of energy sources, which is not the case in the energy balance sheets. The balance sheets of energy sources also include specifications of input--output and energy consumption in energy conversion industries. The energy balance sheets are based on primary data recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input - output tables for energy conversion industries. The following items are shown in the energy balance sheets. 1.1 Inland supply of primary energy; 1.3 Import; 1.4 Export; 1.5 Changes in

  4. Climatología urbana por modificación antropogénica. Alteración del balance de energía natural / Urban climatology by anthropogenic modification. Alteration of the natural energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Pérez, Carlos Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación valora el análisis climático histórico para establecer la temperatura y humedad relativa media, en contraste con la climatología urbana por modificación antropogénica estudio de caso, y su contribución de consigna fijado para invierno y verano que son las estaciones críticas. El procedimiento metodológico a implementar, apoya a los planificadores urbanos a no tener que participar científicamente para evaluar el emplazamiento térmico de sus proyectos y por lo tanto se puede acelerar el proceso de diseño sin comprometer el énfasis en el contexto urbano sustentable. Con base a los resultados se establecen las islas de calor urbano y su huella térmica en el hábitat. El objetivo de la presente investigación es determinar la climatología urbana por modificación antropogénica y su alteración a la calidad del hábitat en Tampico, México. The research assesses the historical climate analysis to determine the average temperature and relative humidity, in contrast to urban anthropogenic weather modification case study, and their contribution setpoint set for winter and summer are the season’s criticism. The methodology to implement, procedure supports urban planners will not have to participate to scientifically evaluate the thermal construction projects and therefore can accelerate the design process without compromising the emphasis on sustainable urban context. Based on the results of urban heat islands and thermal footprint habitat established. The objective of this research is to determine the urban climate by anthropogenic modification and alteration of habitat quality in Tampico, Mexico.

  5. 1994 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the eighth issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilized in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  6. 1992 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the seventh issue of Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles published by the Statistical Division of the United Nations Secretariat. Like previous issues, this volume presents energy data for selected developing countries and areas in a format which shows the overall picture of energy production, conversion and consumption for each fuel utilised in the country. Such a publication is useful in assessing and analyzing production and consumption patterns in detail on an internationally comparable basis

  7. LAND USE PLANNING AND URBAN PLANS: TERRITORIAL BALANCE AS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Helena Sguizzardi Abascal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests a necessary link between urban planning and territorial organization, in order to, through the synergistic relationship between planning tools and their application to planning, implementing a policy of urban and regional management. By linking the development plan for territorial development plans and categories of land use, this methodology helps to streamline operations at multiple scales. The establishment of this network of instruments and shapes the actions of government action against the rapid and intense increase of only economic forces that shape the territory today, suggesting that it is possible to regulate the action of the housing market through planned interventions, valuing the regional balance, social and environmental - ethical by definition. It is suggested that the possible effects predatory natural and built environment can be reversed or prevented by an action articulating these planning instruments are linked to the development and implementation of plans (and projects at multiple scales, approaching from the regional to the local and metropolitan, from regional policies to sectors, that are incidents in the municipal territory. However, the speed and magnitude of the occupation and transformation of soil occur mainly in periods of heating housing, often jeopardize the balance and environmental quality, natural heritage, urban and landscape. It assumes the argument that the overcoming of undesirable environmental effects, triggered by occupation of the ground guided by the real estate sector fast action can be successful with the articulation of levels of planning and intervention. It is proposed that the complexity of contemporary urban and metropolitan requires the articulation of different scales through the use of innovative urban instruments. By articulating these different scales, at the municipal and other levels supra, contributes to, through a network plan to overcome the undesirable dichotomy

  8. Urban energy planning in Tartu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian

    The Estonian planning system allots the main responsibilities for planning activities to the local level, whereas the regional level (county) is rather weak. That implies a gap of cooperation on the regional level, leading to dispersed urban development in suburban municipalities and ongoing urban...... sprawl in the vicinity of Tartu. This development appears contrary to the concept of “low-density urbanised space” as formulated in the National Spatial Plan “Estonia 2030+” (NSP) as the central spatial development concept for Estonia and also to a compact and intensive city development as formulated...... in the Master Plan of Tartu. Since Tartu has no relevant big industries, the main employers are the municipality and the university, energy related challenges occur from transport and residential (district) heating. The modal split shows big differences between journeys within Tartu and journeys between Tartu...

  9. Offshore wind energy : balancing risk and reward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerland, C.

    2010-01-01

    Offshore wind energy developments are expected to increase as the demand for renewable energy sources grows. This poster presentation described a method of balancing risk and reward in offshore wind energy projects. The method was based on risk assessment strategies used by the oil and gas industry. The dedicated framework considered schedules; budgets; performance; and operating and maintenance costs. A value chain assessment method was used to optimize the balance between risk and reward by evaluating uncertainties and risk related to each project element and its relationship to other elements within an integrated dynamic model designed to determine the net present value of a project. The decision-making criteria included the RISKEX risk expenditure strategy designed to consider the balance between risk exposure, capital expenditures, and operational expenditures in relation to the statistical cost of unplanned repairs, and lost production capacity. A case study of a large offshore wind farm was used to demonstrate the method. tabs., figs.

  10. 1970-1997 energy balance-sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this document is to bring together a consistent and harmonized set of statistical data on energy economics in the French territory. The information is based on the global and structural approach of the different energy balance-sheets published between 1970 and 1997. The first chapter gives a general idea of the energy situation of the passed year and outlines the evolution of the main aggregates (production, primary and final consumption etc..) comparatively to those of the general economy. The second chapter is devoted to the history of energy economics. Time series of indicators and diagrams allow to precise the structural modifications that occurred during the last decades. The main transformations in the national energy production and the development of the different energy sources in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors and in the transportation sector are described too. The third chapter gives numerical data on energy for the last 28 years using the common Mtpe unit (million of tons of petroleum equivalent). These balance sheets are based on new energy keeping methods and use identical equivalence coefficients. The last chapter presents the energy balance sheets for the last three years, using the proper units for coal, petroleum, gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  11. Development of a simplified urban water balance model (WABILA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, M; Langner, J; Uhl, M

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has become more and more accepted. However, there is not any simple tool or option available to evaluate the influence of these measures on the local water balance. To counteract the impact of new settlements, planners focus on mitigating increases in runoff through installation of infiltration systems. This leads to an increasing non-natural groundwater recharge and decreased evapotranspiration. Simple software tools which evaluate or simulate the effect of WSUD on the local water balance are still needed. The authors developed a tool named WABILA (Wasserbilanz) that could support planners for optimal WSUD. WABILA is an easy-to-use planning tool that is based on simplified regression functions for established measures and land covers. Results show that WSUD has to be site-specific, based on climate conditions and the natural water balance.

  12. Thermal storage in a heat pump heated living room floor for urban district power balancing - effects on thermal comfort, energy loss and costs for residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch smart grid demonstration project Meppelenergie, the effects of controlled thermal energy storage within the floor heating structure of a living room by a heat pump are investigated. Storage possibilities are constrained by room operative and floor temperatures. Simulations indicate

  13. Stochastic energy balancing in substation energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shirzeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, a smart grid is considered as a network of distributed interacting nodes represented by renewable energy sources, storage and loads. The source nodes become active or inactive in a stochastic manner due to the intermittent nature of natural resources such as wind and solar irradiance. Prediction and stochastic modelling of electrical energy flow is a critical task in such a network in order to achieve load levelling and/or peak shaving in order to minimise the fluctuation between off-peak and peak energy demand. An effective approach is proposed to model and administer the behaviour of source nodes in this grid through a scheduling strategy control algorithm using the historical data collected from the system. The stochastic model predicts future power consumption/injection to determine the power required for storage components. The stochastic models developed based on the Box-Jenkins method predict the most efficient state of the electrical energy flow between a distribution network and nodes and minimises the peak demand and off-peak consumption of acquiring electrical energy from the main grid. The performance of the models is validated against the autoregressive moving average (ARIMA and the Markov chain models used in previous work. The results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms both the ARIMA and the Markov chain model in terms of forecast accuracy. Results are presented, the strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed, and possible future work is described.

  14. An energy balance concept for habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M

    2007-12-01

    Habitability can be formulated as a balance between the biological demand for energy and the corresponding potential for meeting that demand by transduction of energy from the environment into biological process. The biological demand for energy is manifest in two requirements, analogous to the voltage and power requirements of an electrical device, which must both be met if life is to be supported. These requirements exhibit discrete (non-zero) minima whose magnitude is set by the biochemistry in question, and they are increased in quantifiable fashion by (i) deviations from biochemically optimal physical and chemical conditions and (ii) energy-expending solutions to problems of resource limitation. The possible rate of energy transduction is constrained by (i) the availability of usable free energy sources in the environment, (ii) limitations on transport of those sources into the cell, (iii) upper limits on the rate at which energy can be stored, transported, and subsequently liberated by biochemical mechanisms (e.g., enzyme saturation effects), and (iv) upper limits imposed by an inability to use "power" and "voltage" at levels that cause material breakdown. A system is habitable when the realized rate of energy transduction equals or exceeds the biological demand for energy. For systems in which water availability is considered a key aspect of habitability (e.g., Mars), the energy balance construct imposes additional, quantitative constraints that may help to prioritize targets in search-for-life missions. Because the biological need for energy is universal, the energy balance construct also helps to constrain habitability in systems (e.g., those envisioned to use solvents other than water) for which little constraint currently exists.

  15. Energy balance in processes of transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The authors consider the transition radiation arising when a charged particle crosses an interface between two nonabsorbing media. It is shown that energy balance is observed under these circumstances. The fulfillment of energy balance in transition radiation for nonabsorbing media is rigorously demonstrated. This allows one to find the energy of the transition radiation from the change in the energy of the intrinsic field of the charge and the work of forces for volume waves, which in a number of cases of complicated configurations may prove to be considerably simpler than a direct calculation of the radiation power. For surface waves, a calculation of the work of forces enables one to determine the radiation power directly

  16. Energy balance of ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    ENDF/B-VI through Release 2 has been tested for neutron-photon energy balance using the Heater module of the NJOY nuclear data procesing system. The situation is much improved over ENDF/B-V, but there are still a number of maerials that show problems

  17. Kisspeptin and energy balance in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bond, Julie-Ann P; Smith, Jeremy T

    2014-03-01

    Kisspeptin is vital for the neuroendocrine regulation of GNRH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons are now recognized as a central pathway responsible for conveying key homeostatic information to GNRH neurons. This pathway is likely to mediate the well-established link between energy balance and reproductive function. Thus, in states of severely altered energy balance (either negative or positive), fertility is compromised, as is Kiss1 expression in the arcuate nucleus. A number of metabolic modulators have been proposed as regulators of kisspeptin neurons including leptin, ghrelin, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Whether these regulate kisspeptin neurons directly or indirectly will be discussed. Moreover, whether the stimulatory role of leptin on reproduction is mediated by kisspeptin directly will be questioned. Furthermore, in addition to being expressed in GNRH neurons, the kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r) is also expressed in other areas of the brain, as well as in the periphery, suggesting alternative roles for kisspeptin signaling outside of reproduction. Interestingly, kisspeptin neurons are anatomically linked to, and can directly excite, anorexigenic POMC neurons and indirectly inhibit orexigenic NPY neurons. Thus, kisspeptin may have a direct role in regulating energy balance. Although data from Kiss1r knockout and WT mice found no differences in body weight, recent data indicate that kisspeptin may still play a role in food intake and glucose homeostasis. Thus, in addition to regulating reproduction, and mediating the effect of energy balance on reproductive function, kisspeptin signaling may also be a direct regulator of metabolism.

  18. Balancing the Energy-Water Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Optimizing the complex tradeoffs in the Energy-Water Nexus requires quantification of energy use, carbon emitted and water consumed. Water is consumed in energy production and is often a constraint to operations. More global attention and investment has been made on reducing carbon emissions than on water management. Review of public reporting by the largest 107 global power producers and 50 companies in the oil/gas industry shows broad accounting on carbon emissions but only partial reporting on water consumption metrics. If the Energy-Water Nexus is to be balanced, then water must also be measured to be optimally managed with carbon emissions.

  19. 2004 energy balances and electricity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles 2004 is the thirteenth issue in an internationally series of comparable energy data for selected developing countries. The data are arranged to show energy production, trade, conversion and consumption for each fuel used in the country. This publication is a source of overall consumption statistics of energy commodities in all sectors. Special electricity profiles for an additional group of countries are published to cover, exclusively, detailed information on production, trade and consumption of electricity, net installed capacity and thermal power plant input for selected developing countries

  20. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  1. Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  2. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years, 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%, having main occupation of family as business (55.3%, and highest per capita income group (57.1% with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0% in SC/ST category and least (65.7% in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd′s Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56, not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56, belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh

  3. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    During the year 2004 the supply of primary energy reached 657.6 TWh. That is an increased supply by 16 TWh compared with 2003, The electricity production in hydropower and wind power stations increased by 7 TWh, to 61 TWh during the year 2004. The electricity generated in nuclear power plants was 77.5 TWh, an increase by 10 TWh. During the year 2004 Sweden net exported 2.1 TWh electricity. But in year 2003 we net imported 12.8 TWh electricity. The energy use increased from 406 TWh to 409 TWh between year 2003 and year 2004. The use of coal and coke in manufacturing increased by 22 per cent, and the use of oil products in transport sector increased by 4 per cent. The energy balance sheets are based on data primary recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is here recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input-output tables for energy conversion industries

  4. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  5. Neuropeptides controlling energy balance: orexins and neuromedins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Joshua P.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Billington, Charles J.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we review the feeding and energy expenditure effects of orexin (also known as hypocretin) and neuromedin. Orexins are multifunctional neuropeptides that affect energy balance by participating in regulation of appetite, arousal, and spontaneous physical activity. Central orexin signaling for all functions originates in the lateral hypothalamus–perifornical area, and is likely functionally differentiated based on site of action and on interacting neural influences. The effect of orexin on feeding is likely related to arousal in some ways, but is nonetheless a separate neural process that depends on interactions with other feeding related neuropeptides. In a pattern distinct from other neuropeptides, orexin stimulates both feeding and energy expenditure. Orexin increases in energy expenditure are mainly by increasing spontaneous physical activity, and this energy expenditure effect is more potent than the effect on feeding. Global orexin manipulations, such as in transgenic models, produce energy balance changes consistent with a dominant energy expenditure effect of orexin. Neuromedins are gut-brain peptides that reduce appetite. There are gut sources of neuromedin, but likely the key appetite related neuromedin producing neurons are in hypothalamus and parallel other key anorectic neuropeptide expression in the arcuate to paraventricular hypothalamic projection. As with other hypothalamic feeding related peptides, hindbrain sites are likely also important sources and targets of neuromedin anorectic action. Neuromedin increases physical activity in addition to reducing appetite, thus producing a consistent negative energy balance effect. Together with the various other neuro-peptides, -transmitters, -modulators and –hormones, neuromedin and orexin act in the appetite network to produce changes in food intake and energy expenditure, which ultimately influences the regulation of body weight. PMID:22249811

  6. Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2010 and 2011 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2012). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units.

  7. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  8. Importance of energy balance in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning, man has tried to control nature and the environment, and the use of energy, mainly from non-renewable sources providing the necessary power for that. The consequences of this long fight against nature has reached a critical state of unprecedented worldwide environmental degradation, as evidenced by the increasing erosion of fertile lands, the deforestation processes, the pollution of water, air and land by agrochemicals, the loss of plant and animal species, the progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and signs of global warming. This is exacerbated by the increasing population growth, implying a steady increase in consumption, and consequently, in the use of energy. Unfortunately, all these claims are resulting in serious economic and environmental problems worldwide. Because the economic and environmental future of the countries is interrelated, it becomes necessary to adopt sustainable development models based on the use of renewable and clean energies, the search for alternative resources and the use of productive systems more efficient from an energy standpoint, always with a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the agricultural sector, the question we ask is: how long can we keep the current energy-intensive agricultural techniques in developed countries? To analyze this aspect, energy balance is a very helpful tool because can lead to more efficient, sustainable and environment-friendly production systems for each agro-climatic region. This requires the identification of all the inputs and the outputs involved and their conversion to energy values by means of corresponding energy coefficients or equivalents (International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies). Energy inputs (EI) can be divided in direct (energy directly used in farms as fuel, machines, fertilizers, seeds, herbicides, human labor, etc.) and indirect (energy not consumed in the farm but in the elaboration, manufacturing or manipulation of

  9. Balancing Energy Processes in Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicki Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of balancing energy processes in turbine engines in operation in aeronautic and marine propulsion systems with the aim to analyse and evaluate basic operating parameters. The first part presents the problem of enormous amounts of energy needed for driving fans and compressors of the largest contemporary turbofan engines commonly used in long-distance aviation. The amounts of the transmitted power and the effect of flow parameters and constructional properties of the engines on their performance and real efficiency are evaluated. The second part of the article, devoted to marine applications of turbine engines, presents the energy balance of the kinetic system of torque transmission from main engine turbines to screw propellers in the combined system of COGAG type. The physical model of energy conversion processes executed in this system is presented, along with the physical model of gasodynamic processes taking place in a separate driving turbine of a reversing engine. These models have made the basis for formulating balance equations, which then were used for analysing static and dynamic properties of the analysed type of propulsion, in particular in the aspect of mechanical loss evaluation in its kinematic system.

  10. Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

  11. Energy balance for a dissipative quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Jishad

    2014-01-01

    The role of random force in maintaining equilibrium in a dissipative quantum system is studied here. We compute the instantaneous power supplied by the fluctuating (random) force, which provides information about the work done by the random force on the quantum subsystem of interest. The quantum Langevin equation formalism is used here to verify that, at equilibrium, the work done by the fluctuating force balances the energy lost by the quantum subsystem to the heat bath. The quantum subsystem we choose to couple to the heat bath is the charged oscillator in a magnetic field. We perform the calculations using the Drude regularized spectral density of bath oscillators instead of using a strict ohmic spectral density that gives memoryless damping. We also discuss the energy balance for our dissipative quantum system and in this regard it is to be understood that the physical system is the charged magneto-oscillator coupled to the heat bath, not the uncoupled charged magneto-oscillator. (paper)

  12. Energy-balanced algorithm for RFID estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jumin; Wang, Fangyuan; Li, Dengao; Yan, Lijuan

    2016-10-01

    RFID has been widely used in various commercial applications, ranging from inventory control, supply chain management to object tracking. It is necessary for us to estimate the number of RFID tags deployed in a large area periodically and automatically. Most of the prior works use passive tags to estimate and focus on designing time-efficient algorithms that can estimate tens of thousands of tags in seconds. But for a RFID reader to access tags in a large area, active tags are likely to be used due to their longer operational ranges. But these tags use their own battery as energy supplier. Hence, conserving energy for active tags becomes critical. Some prior works have studied how to reduce energy expenditure of a RFID reader when it reads tags IDs. In this paper, we study how to reduce the amount of energy consumed by active tags during the process of estimating the number of tags in a system and make the energy every tag consumed balanced approximately. We design energy-balanced estimation algorithm that can achieve our goal we mentioned above.

  13. Energy balance of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.; Staudenmaier, G.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that a discrepancy and incompatibility persist between basic physics and fusion-literature regarding the radiation losses from a thermonuclear plasma. Whereas the fusion-literature neglects the excitation or line radiation completely, according to basic physics it depends upon the prevailing conditions and cannot be neglected in general. Moreover, for a magnetized plasma, while the fusion-literature assumes a self-absorption or reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation emitted by the electrons spiraling along the magnetic field, the basic physics does not allow any effective reabsorption of cyclotron or synchrotron radiation. As is demonstrated, fallacious assumptions and notions, which somehow or other crept into the fusion-literature, are responsible for this discrepancy. In the present work, the theory is corrected. On the grounds of basic physics, a complete energy balance of magnetized and non-magnetized plasmas is presented for pulsed, stationary and self-sustaining operations by taking into account the energy release by reactions of light nuclei as well as different kinds of diffusive (conduction) and radiative (bremsstrahlung, cyclotron or synchrotron radiation and excitation radiation) energy losses. Already the energy losses by radiation make the energy balance negative. Hence, a fusion reactor-an energy producing device-seems to be beyond the realms of realization. (orig.)

  14. Tracer Flux Balance at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.

    2010-05-01

    Despite their importance for pollutant dispersion in urban areas, the special features of dispersion at street intersections are rarely taken into account by operational air quality models. Several previous studies have demonstrated the complex flow patterns that occur at street intersections, even with simple geometry. This study presents results from wind-tunnel experiments on a reduced scale model of a complex but realistic urban intersection, located in central London. Tracer concentration measurements were used to derive three-dimensional maps of the concentration field within the intersection. In combination with a previous study (Carpentieri et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorol 133:277-296, 2009) where the velocity field was measured in the same model, a methodology for the calculation of the mean tracer flux balance at the intersection was developed and applied. The calculation highlighted several limitations of current state-of-the-art canyon dispersion models, arising mainly from the complex geometry of the intersection. Despite its limitations, the proposed methodology could be further developed in order to derive, assess and implement street intersection dispersion models for complex urban areas.

  15. Power and energy balances. Forecast 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Both the energy and power balance in 2008 is slightly better than the former Nordel estimate for 2007. This is due to additional investments in new generation capacity, new interconnections of total 1 000 MW to outside Nordel and reduced demand forecast in Sweden. The Nordic electricity system is able to meet the estimated consumption and the corresponding typical power demand pattern in average conditions. In long term the market is expected to maintain a reasonable balance between supply, imports and demand. Lower precipitation or colder temperature result in higher market prices that give incentives for increased imports, demand response and investments. This is expected to maintain the balance between supply and demand in the short and long term even in extreme situations. Allocation between imports and demand response in reality depends on the prevailing market prices and available generation resources outside Nordel. The interconnection capacities are expected to enable import volumes that can meet the increased peak demand. Some Nordic areas can be exposed to a risk for rationing or other measures because of extremely low precipitation. Nordic transmission capacities may prevent full utilization of Nordic thermal power in certain areas. The planned reinforcements in the 'five prioritised cross-sections' will improve the situation. The power balance and the internal bottlenecks in the continental Europe can have an effect on the import possibilities to the Nordic countries. The annual energy consumption in the Nordic market is estimated to grow by 20 TWh by year 2008 (1.2%la) from 395 TWh in 2004 (temperature corrected). In the three year period investments in power generation is expected to increase the available generation capacity and capability by 1500 MW and 10 TWhla in average conditions. Iceland is not included in the figures. The annual energy consumption in Iceland is estimated to grow by about 6.8 TWh by year 2008 (15 %la) due to two new aluminium

  16. Yearly energy balance sheets 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and consumption 1998-1999. Compared to the regularly published energy balance sheets based on short periodic statistics, this publication is more disaggregated in the field of final energy consumption. The data are mainly based on yearly statistics on energy consumption in different sectors. The broad statistical base has made it possible to compile data for consumer categories on a fairly detailed level. In cases where direct statistical information is lacking or is insufficient, indirect calculation methods have been used for estimations or recalculations of basic statistics. Revisions and improvements of statistical sources as well as calculation methods will be performed successively. As a consequence of this, the statistics presented here could be revised in future publications

  17. Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2012 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2009 and 2010 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2011). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units. More detailed data in original units are published in the 2012 edition of Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.

  18. Yearly energy balance sheets 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and consumption 1996-1998. Compared to the regularly published energy balance sheets based on short periodic statistics, this publication is more disaggregated in the field of final energy consumption. The data are mainly based on yearly statistics on energy consumption in different sectors. The broad statistical base has made it possible to compile data for consumer categories on a fairly detailed level. In cases where direct statistical information is lacking or is insufficient, indirect calculation methods have been used for estimations or recalculations of basic statistics. Revisions and improvements of statistical sources as well as calculation methods will be performed successively. As a consequence of this, the statistics presented here could be revised in future publications

  19. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  20. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  1. Energy Balance over One Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B

    2017-08-01

    Magnitude and variation in energy balance (EB) components over an athletic season are largely unknown. We investigated the longitudinal changes in EB over one season and explored the association between EB variation and change in the main fat-free mass (FFM) components in highly trained athletes. Eighty athletes (54 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlete, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning of the season to the main competition stage. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, respectively. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated as TEE - 0.1 TEE - REE. Fat mass (FM), FFM, and bone mineral were evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; changed body energy stores were calculated as 1.0(ΔFFM/Δtime) + 9.5(ΔFM/Δtime). Total-body water (TBW) and its compartments were assessed through dilution techniques, and total-body protein was calculated from a four-compartment model, with body volume assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Although a negative EB of -17.4 ± 72.7 kcal·d was observed (P sports and across sex groups resulting in a net weight increase (0.7 ± 2.3 kg) that is attributable to significant changes in FFM (1.2 ± 1.6 kg) and FM (-0.7 ± 1.5 kg) (P sports, and age. The mean negative EB observed over the season resulted from the rate of FM use and FFM accretion, but with a large variation by sex and sports. TBW, but not total-body protein or mineral balance, explained the magnitude of EB, which means that athletes under a positive or a negative EB showed a TBW expansion or shrinkage, respectively, specifically within the cells, over one athletic season.

  2. Energy-urban transition: The Mexican case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I present a study regarding the institutional conditions of Mexican cities based on a post-petroleum urban model that considers transport, architecture, urban planning and land use, renewable energy sources, energy saving and efficiency, and urban metabolism issues. The model was constructed with recommendations of authors and organizations that have analysed the energy dimension of cities under an energy-availability, environmental or petroleum-independent view. To make the study I sent a questionnaire to some local governments of all the country. The information indicates that Mexican cities do not have institutional conditions to manage the urban-energy transition that signify the end of cheap oil and the peak of world oil production.

  3. Generalized Scaling of Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Applications for Energy Consumption and Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work from this laboratory, it has been found that the urban heat island intensity (UHI can be scaled with the urban length scale and the wind speed, through the time-dependent energy balance. The heating of the urban surfaces during the daytime sets the initial temperature, and this overheating is dissipated during the night-time through mean convection motion over the urban surface. This may appear to be in contrast to the classical work by Oke (1973. However, in this work, we show that if the population density is used in converting the population data into urbanized area, then a good agreement with the current theory is found. An additional parameter is the “urban flow parameter,” which depends on the urban building characteristics and affects the horizontal convection of heat due to wind. This scaling can be used to estimate the UHI intensity in any cities and therefore predict the required energy consumption during summer months. In addition, all urbanized surfaces are expected to exhibit this scaling, so that increase in the surface temperature in large energy-consumption or energy-producing facilities (e.g., solar electric or thermal power plants can be estimated.

  4. Implementation of multi-regional energy balances for Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorov, B.; Schechtner, O.; Zelle, K.; Andjelic, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The system used for preparing energy balances for Styria and 17 Styrian districts, which was developed by ADIP-GRAZ in accordance with the federal energy balance of Austria, is being applied to Slovenia. Energy balances are a necessary tool for monitoring the impact of measures initiated by the energy policy. Therefore balances are of a basic mutual interest, also in connection with balances of air pollutants that can be calculated from energy balances. The official Slovenian energy balance for the year 1990 is the basis for implementation of regional balances for five chosen regions (Maribor region, Celje region, Ljubljana region, Littoral region, and Upper-Slovenia region). Results are presented according to defined concepts and structures which are closely related to the MEDEE-RS methodology. (Author)

  5. Energy Balance of the Santa Catarina State - Series 1980 -1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This energy balance of the Santa Catarina State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: economic aspects; supply and demand of energy by source 1980-1996; energy consumption by sector 1980/1996; energy interchange; and balance of the transformation centers 1980/1996

  6. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  7. Energy balance of a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the energy balance of a pine forest were initiated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to gain information on the exchange of gaseous materials between the atmosphere and the forest ecosystem. This information allows better estimates of the deposition velocities of gaseous pollutants necessary for plume calculations and ecosystem modeling studies. Studies to date show that the exchange of water vapor is influenced most by diffusion resistances associated with the vegetative canopy. Vegetative and atmospheric diffusion resistance vary diurnally, with high values occurring at night and low values observed during the day. Thus, water vapor exchange is greatest during the daylight hours. Future plans include measurements of exchange of other gases such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

  8. Balance: Hydroelectricity impacts on energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, V.; Baia, L.; Azevedo, H.

    1997-01-01

    The VALORAGUA (Value of Water in Portuguese) computer model was developed by Electricidade de Portugal (EDP) in order to determine the optimal operation strategy of a mixed hydro-thermal power system with an important share of hydroelectricity generation such as the one of Portugal. The model has become the main tool used by EDP for planning the development and operation of its power system. In recent years, EDP has acquired the ENPEP package and has become acquainted with its use for integrated energy and electricity planning. The main goal of this effort has been to incorporate in EDP's planning procedure an integrated approach for determining the possible role of electricity in meeting the overall requirements for energy of the country, with due account to the impacts (resource requirements and environmental emissions) of alternative energy and electricity systems. This paper concentrates on a comparison of the results of the BALANCE module of ENPEP for the electricity sector against the simulation results provided by VALORAGUA. Suggested improvements to the methodologies in order to overcome the divergences in results from these two models are also advanced in the paper. (author). 15 figs

  9. Balance Function in High-Energy Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, A.; Shalaby, Asmaa G.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects and implications of the balance functions (BF) in high-energy physics are reviewed. The various calculations and measurements depending on different quantities, for example, system size, collisions centrality, and beam energy, are discussed. First, the different definitions including advantages and even short-comings are highlighted. It is found that BF, which are mainly presented in terms of relative rapidity, and relative azimuthal and invariant relative momentum, are sensitive to the interaction centrality but not to the beam energy and can be used in estimating the hadronization time and the hadron-quark phase transition. Furthermore, the quark chemistry can be determined. The chemical evolution of the new-state-of-matter, the quark-gluon plasma, and its temporal-spatial evolution, femtoscopy of two-particle correlations, are accessible. The production time of positive-negative pair of charges can be determined from the widths of BF. Due to the reduction in the diffusion time, narrowed widths refer to delayed hadronization. It is concluded that BF are powerful tools characterizing hadron-quark phase transition and estimating some essential properties

  10. Balance: Hydroelectricity impacts on energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, V; Baia, L; Azevedo, H [Electricidade de Portugal, Porto (Portugal)

    1997-09-01

    The VALORAGUA (Value of Water in Portuguese) computer model was developed by Electricidade de Portugal (EDP) in order to determine the optimal operation strategy of a mixed hydro-thermal power system with an important share of hydroelectricity generation such as the one of Portugal. The model has become the main tool used by EDP for planning the development and operation of its power system. In recent years, EDP has acquired the ENPEP package and has become acquainted with its use for integrated energy and electricity planning. The main goal of this effort has been to incorporate in EDP`s planning procedure an integrated approach for determining the possible role of electricity in meeting the overall requirements for energy of the country, with due account to the impacts (resource requirements and environmental emissions) of alternative energy and electricity systems. This paper concentrates on a comparison of the results of the BALANCE module of ENPEP for the electricity sector against the simulation results provided by VALORAGUA. Suggested improvements to the methodologies in order to overcome the divergences in results from these two models are also advanced in the paper. (author). 15 figs.

  11. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance

  12. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance.

  13. Benchmarking urban energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    This study asks what is the ‘best’ way to measure urban energy efficiency. There has been recent interest in identifying efficient cities so that best practices can be shared, a process known as benchmarking. Previous studies have used relatively simple metrics that provide limited insight on the complexity of urban energy efficiency and arguably fail to provide a ‘fair’ measure of urban performance. Using a data set of 198 urban UK local administrative units, three methods are compared: ratio measures, regression residuals, and data envelopment analysis. The results show that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses regarding the ease of interpretation, ability to identify outliers and provide consistent rankings. Efficient areas are diverse but are notably found in low income areas of large conurbations such as London, whereas industrial areas are consistently ranked as inefficient. The results highlight the shortcomings of the underlying production-based energy accounts. Ideally urban energy efficiency benchmarks would be built on consumption-based accounts, but interim recommendations are made regarding the use of efficiency measures that improve upon current practice and facilitate wider conversations about what it means for a specific city to be energy-efficient within an interconnected economy. - Highlights: • Benchmarking is a potentially valuable method for improving urban energy performance. • Three different measures of urban energy efficiency are presented for UK cities. • Most efficient areas are diverse but include low-income areas of large conurbations. • Least efficient areas perform industrial activities of national importance. • Improve current practice with grouped per capita metrics or regression residuals

  14. 6. State energy balance - 1978/1987 - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The energetic plan of Minas Gerais state and the steps such as energy balance, state potential energy identification, social and economic analysis, energetic flux, energy consumption is presented. (L.J.C.)

  15. Alleviating Urban Energy Poverty in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.

  16. Investigations of a Cost-Optimal Zero Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Nørgaard, Jesper; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) concept is worldwide recognised as a promising solution for decreasing buildings’ energy use. Nevertheless, a consistent definition of the Net ZEB concept is constantly under discussion. One of the points on the Net ZEB agenda is the zero energy balance...... and taken a view point of private building owner to investigate what types of energy uses should be included in the cost-optimal zero energy balance. The analysis is conducted for five renewable energy supply systems and five user profiles with a study case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB. The results...... have indicated that with current energy prices and technology, a cost-optimal Net ZEB zero energy balance accounts for only the building related energy use. Moreover, with high user related energy use is even more in favour of excluding appliances from the zero energy balance....

  17. Weekly patterns, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Sinéad

    2014-07-01

    Human behaviour is made up of many repeated patterns and habitual behaviours. Our day to day lives are punctuated by work, education, domestic chores, sleep and food. Changes in daily patterns such as not working in paid employment or attending school on the weekend contribute significantly to changes in dietary patterns of food consumption, patterns of physical activity and ultimately energy balance. The aim of this paper is to adopt a life-course perspective and explore the changes in dietary quality and physical activity patterns across the week from young children to elderly adults with a focus on Western cultures. Research literature indicates that the dietary quality is somewhat poorer on the weekends, characterised by higher fat intakes, higher alcohol intakes and consequently higher energy intakes. This increase in energy intake is not necessarily offset by an increase in activity, rather an increase in sedentary behaviours. Some research has observed an increase of more than 100 cal per day over the weekend in American adults. Over the course of one year, this can result in a significant increase in body mass. Some of the interventions in tackling obesity and diet related behaviours must focus on the changes in the weekend behaviour of consumers in terms of both food and activity. These efforts should also focus on increasing consumer awareness of the long term consequences of the short lived weekend excess as well as putting in place practical measures and interventions that are evidence based and targeted to consumer needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  19. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schoetter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP, such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB, parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  20. Urbanism and energy in developing regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R.L.; Berman, S.; Dowell, D.

    1978-03-01

    The pace of urbanization must continue, because in most parts of the world the surplus population in the countryside has nowhere else to go. The world is about 40% urban now and apparently headed for the 80 to 90% share of the total population presently exhibited by the developed countries. Thus, the 1.6 billion urban dwellers in 1978 would become about 3 billion in 1995--if major catastrophes can be avoided. Feasibility assessments for Sao Paulo-Rio de Janeiro, Calcutta, Cairo-Alexandria, Mexico City, and Seoul are presented in the appendices. This analysis-from-a-distance is insufficient to judge how much extra installed electrical generating capacity is required before 1995, the added refining capability for liquid fuels, or the uses for new LNG and coal imports due to be arranged. It is evident that energy (and perhaps also water in most regions) planning is the major determinant of the manner in which these urban areas will adapt to the extraordinary pressures for new settlement. The current round of planning in such metropolitan areas has been addressed to solving traffic-congestion problems, and reorganizing land use in central districts, as the most-pressing issues. Since energy sources and distribution systems now affect the largest and most crucial investments in urban growth it is to be expected that future metropolitan planning may concentrate upon energy efficiency. Energy supplies must be planned to meet requirements set by locally dominant values regarding human services and the environment.

  1. Brazilian energy balance 1996: 1980 to 1995 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1980 to 1995 period. It`s divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy sources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances 1 fig., 68 graphs., 145 tabs.

  2. Open innovation in urban energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM School of Management, Freising (Germany); Barth, V. [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Ecological Economics, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Despite recent efforts, existing urban energy systems still hardly meet the demands of sustainable development or climate change. Meeting these targets thus will require innovations that use energy much more efficiently and emit far less greenhouse gases. These innovations need to be made on the production as well as the consumption side, on all levels, and need to cover not only technical aspects, but even more service solutions. While many of these solutions still need to be developed, some are already invented but only exist in limited market segments. Opening closed urban planning processes and using open innovation tools can foster bottom-up urban energy system transformation by addressing the interactive ways of decision-making integrating company representatives and citizens. While open innovation tools like (open) innovation workshops or ideas competitions are already used by several companies to find and develop new designs and products, there is yet little experience with energy efficiency ideas and bottom-up changes. Therefore, we analyse energy-efficient ideas generated in three different ideas competitions. We discuss the findings for theory and research on open innovation approaches and bottom-up urban changes. Our results show that there are a vast number of ideas available in the public. Open innovation tools offer advanced possibilities to generate energy-efficient solutions.

  3. Urban Planners with Renewable Energy Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Emerik Nuorkivi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no much tradition to combine urban and energy planning together to fight Climate Change even though energy production with fossil fuels is the main cause to the Change. Pilot training of urban planners in five EU countries such Finland, Germany, Hungary, Spain and the United Kingdom to understand the basics of renewable energy sources (RES and energy efficiency (EE has been carried out during 2011-2012 under co-financing of Intelligent Energy Europe. Organizing such pilot training was challenging for many reasons, but the outcome can be consdered highly statisfactory, based on the recorded feedback of trainees and other stakeholders. The project encourages other planning schools in Europe to learn from the experience and to use the published training materials available in ten languages in their curricula.

  4. Measure for Measure: Urban Water and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, C.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban environments in the United States account for a majority of the population and, as such, require large volumes of treated drinking water supply and wastewater removal, both of which need energy. Despite the large share of water that urban environments demand, there is limited accounting of these water resources outside of the city itself. In this study, we provide and analyze a database of drinking water and wastewater utility flows and energy that comprise anthropogenic fluxes of water through the urban environment. We present statistical analyses of the database at an annual, spatial, and intra-annual scale. The average daily per person water flux is estimated as 563 liters of drinking water and 496 liters of wastewater, requiring 340 kWh/1000 m3 and 430 kWh/1000 m3 of energy, respectively, to treat these resources. This energy demand accounts for 1% of the total annual electricity production of the United States. Additionally, the water and embedded energy loss associated with non-revenue water (estimated at 15.8% annually) accounts for 9.1 km3of water and 3600 GWh, enough electricity to power 300,000 U.S. households annually. Through the analysis and benchmarking of the current state of urban water fluxes, we propose the term `blue city,' which promotes urban sustainability and conservation policy focusing on water resources. As the nation's water resources become scarcer and more unpredictable, it is essential to include water resources in urban sustainability planning and continue data collection of these vital resources.

  5. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to changes in basal energy sources with urbanization, overview of terrestrial leaf litter dynamics in urban streams, overview of how urbanization can affect primary production, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality.

  6. 7. State energy balance - 1978/1988 - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The Minas Gerais energetic system is presented, including the energy sources by economic social aspects as well as statistical data. This balance is a data base for prospective studies of consumption and energy availability. (L.J.C.)

  7. Energy balance of the Sao Paulo State - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document informs the energetic balance for Sao Paulo State - 1990, with information referring to the year 1989, containing the energy fluxes from primary and secondary energy sources in the main sectors of Sao Paulo economy. 32 figs., 99 tabs

  8. The energy cost for balance control during upright standing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Fickert, R.; van Velzen, J.; van Bennekom, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether balance control during a static upright standing task with and without balance perturbations elicits a significant and meaningful metabolic energy demand and to test whether this energy demand correlates with conventional posturography measures for

  9. Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviours : measurement issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The burden of disease as a result of overweight and obesity calls for in-depth examination of the main causes of behavioural actions responsible for weight gain. Since weight gain is the result of a positive energy balance, these behavioural actions are referred to as 'energy balance-related

  10. Stomach regulates energy balance via acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Asakawa, A; Inui, A; Fujimiya, M; Sakamaki, R; Shinfuku, N; Ueta, Y; Meguid, M M; Kasuga, M

    2005-01-01

    Background/Aims: The gastric peptide ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth-hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major molecular forms: acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin. Acylated ghrelin induces a positive energy balance, while desacyl ghrelin has been reported to be devoid of any endocrine activities. The authors examined the effects of desacyl ghrelin on energy balance.

  11. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  12. Visions of sustainable urban energy systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Ursula [HFT Stuttgart (Germany). zafh.net - Centre of Applied Research - Sustainable Energy Technology; Mikosch, Milena [Steinbeis-Zentrum, Stuttgart (Germany). Europaeischer Technologietransfer; Liesner, Lisa (eds.)

    2010-09-15

    Within the polycity final conference from 15th to 17th September, 2010, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Visions of sustainable urban energy system (Ursula Eicker); (2) Words of welcome (Tanja Goenner); (3) Zero-energy Europe - We are on our way (Jean-Marie Bemtgen); (4) Polycity - Energy networks in sustainable cities An introduction (Ursula Pietzsch); (5) Energy efficient city - Successful examples in the European concerto initiative (Brigitte Bach); (6) Sustainable building and urban concepts in the Catalonian polycity project contributions to the polycity final conference 2010 (Nuria Pedrals); (7) Energy efficient buildings and renewable supply within the German polycity project (Ursula Eicker); (8) Energy efficient buildings and cities in the US (Thomas Spiegehalter); (9) Energy efficient communities - First results from an IEA collaboration project (Reinhard Jank); (10) The European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD) - Lessons learned (Eduardo Maldonado); (11) Passive house standard in Europe - State-of-the-art and challenges (Wolfgang Feist); (12) High efficiency non-residential buildings: Concepts, implementations and experiences from the UK (Levin Lomas); (13) This is how we can save our world (Franz Alt); (14) Green buildings and renewable heating and cooling concepts in China (Yanjun Dai); (15) Sustainable urban energy solutions for Asia (Brahmanand Mohanty); (16) Description of ''Parc de l'Alba'' polygeneration system: A large-scale trigeneration system with district heating within the Spanish polycity project (Francesc Figueras Bellot); (17) Improved building automation and control systems with hardware-in-the loop solutions (Martin Becker); (18) The Italian polycity project area: Arquata (Luigi Fazari); (19) Photovoltaic system integration: In rehabilitated urban structures: Experiences and performance results from the Italian polycity project in Turin (Franco

  13. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  14. Managing the urban water-energy nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lund, Jay R.

    2016-04-01

    Water use directly causes a significant amount of energy use in cities. In this paper we assess energy and greenhouse emissions related with each part of the urban water cycle and the consequences of several changes in residential water use for customers, water and energy utilities, and the environment. First, we develop an hourly model of urban water uses by customer category including water-related energy consumption. Next, using real data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, we calibrate a model of the energy used in water supply, treatment, pumping and wastewater treatment by the utility. Then, using data from the California Independent System Operator, we obtain hourly costs of energy for the energy utility. Finally, and using emission factors reported by the energy utilities we estimate greenhouse gas emissions for the entire urban water cycle. Results of the business-as-usual scenario show that water end uses account for almost 95% of all water-related energy use, but the 5% managed by the utility is still worth over 12 million annually. Several simulations analyze the potential benefits for water demand management actions showing that moving some water end-uses from peak to off-peak hours such as outdoor use, dishwasher or clothes washer use have large benefits for water and energy utilities, especially for locations with a high proportion of electric water heaters. Other interesting result is that under the current energy rate structures with low or no fixed charges, energy utilities burden most of the cost of the conservation actions.

  15. Modeling the Surface Energy Balance of the Core of an Old Mediterranean City: Marseille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonsu, A.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Masson, V.

    2004-02-01

    The Town Energy Balance (TEB) model, which parameterizes the local-scale energy and water exchanges between urban surfaces and the atmosphere by treating the urban area as a series of urban canyons, coupled to the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) scheme, was run in offline mode for Marseille, France. TEB's performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperatures and surface energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE) urban boundary layer (UBL) campaign. Particular attention was directed to the influence of different surface databases, used for input parameters, on model predictions. Comparison of simulated canyon temperatures with observations resulted in improvements to TEB parameterizations by increasing the ventilation. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model succeeds in simulating a sensible heat flux larger than heat storage, as observed. A sensitivity comparison using generic dense city parameters, derived from the Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE) land cover database, and those from a surface database developed specifically for the Marseille city center shows the importance of correctly documenting the urban surface. Overall, the TEB scheme is shown to be fairly robust, consistent with results from previous studies.

  16. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt

    2006-02-01

    In Sweden, recycling of stabilised wood-ashes to forests is considered to compensate for nutrient removals from whole-tree harvesting (i.e. use of harvest residues - slash - for energy purposes). This study has analysed nutrient fluxes through the complete forest energy cycle and estimated mass balances of nutrients in harvested biomass with those in ashes, to investigate the realism in large-scale nutrient compensation with wood-ash. Expected nutrient fluxes from forests through energy plants were calculated based on nutrient and biomass data of forest stands in the Nordic countries, and from data on nutrient fluxes through CFB-plants. The expected stoichiometric composition of wood-ashes was compared with the composition of CFB-fly ashes from various Swedish energy plants. Nutrient contents for different tree fractions were calculated to express the average nutrient concentrations in slash and stems with bark, respectively. A nutrient budget synthesis of the effects of whole-tree harvesting on base cation turnover in the following stand was presented for two experimental sites. Major conclusions from the study are: In the CFB-scenario, where the bottom ash is deposited and only the fly ash can be applied to forests, the fly ash from the slash do not meet the demands for nutrient compensation for slash harvesting. Stem material (50% wood, 50% bark) must be added at equivalent amounts, as the slash to produce the amounts of fly ash needed for compensation of slash harvesting. In the scenario where more stem material was added (75% of total fuel load), the amounts of fly ashes produced hardly compensated for nutrient removals with both stem and slash harvesting. The level of nutrient compensation was lowest for potassium. The stoichiometric nutrient composition of CFB-fly ashes from Swedish energy plants is not similar with the nutrient composition of tree biomass. The higher Ca/P ratio in ashes is only partly explained by the mixture of fuels (e.g. increasing bark

  17. Energy balance in MeV neutron induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, A.; Maerten, H.; Deeliger, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, general trends of energy balance changes with increasing incidence energy are described in the framework of a simple scission point model including semi-empirical temperature-dependent shell correction energies. In particular, the different behavior of the total kinetic energy (TKE) dependence for several fissioning nuclei (Th, U, Pu) is explained

  18. Plant factories; crop transpiration and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graamans, Luuk; Dobbelsteen, van den Andy; Meinen, Esther; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanisation may result in a shortage of food supplies for cities in the foreseeable future. Research on closed plant production systems, such as plant factories, has attempted to offer perspectives for robust (urban) agricultural systems. Insight into the explicit role

  19. The Philippines: integrated planning for balanced urban growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    During the past 80 years, the proportion of the Philippine population living in urban areas has nearly tripled, from 13% at the beginning of the 20th century to 36% in 1980. The number of people living in urban areas multipled 17-fold over this period. Currently, an estimated 17 million people live in urban areas, and this number is expected to reach 30 million by the year 2000. Migration from rural areas has been an important component of urban growth, but it has not been the principal one. Natural increase accounted for 54% of total urban growth in the 1960s and 1970s. A combination of reclassification and migration accounted for the rest. Big cities did not grow as rapidly as small cities, since their growth was generated largely by urban inmigration. Small cities tended to grow faster due to more natural increase than to inmigration. Philippine urbanization has been marked by increasing primacy. Metropolitan Manila, the largest city, has more than quadrupled in size since 1950. The phenomenon of primacy has been the cumulative consequence of historical, demographic, political, and socioeconomic factors. It may also have resulted from growth policies which unintentionally and indirectly favored the premier city. For national planners, the issue of urbanization in the Philippines is closely intertwined with the country's development objectives, particularly those of reducing poverty and attaining a more equitable distribution of income and wealth. The integration of population growth and distribution trends into the planning process is very important. Efforts to actively advocate this approach at various planning levels have been initiated. More must be learned about population and development dynamics, and planning capabilities at all levels must be improved.

  20. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage for Seasonal Thermal Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Vahab; Bloemendal, Martin; Keviczky, Tamas

    2017-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems allow storing large quantities of thermal energy in subsurface aquifers enabling significant energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions. This is achieved by injection and extraction of water into and from saturated underground aquifers, simultaneously. An ATES system consists of two wells and operates in a seasonal mode. One well is used for the storage of cold water, the other one for the storage of heat. In warm seasons, cold water is extracted from the cold well to provide cooling to a building. The temperature of the extracted cold water increases as it passes through the building climate control systems and then gets simultaneously, injected back into the warm well. This procedure is reversed during cold seasons where the flow direction is reversed such that the warmer water is extracted from the warm well to provide heating to a building. From the perspective of building climate comfort systems, an ATES system is considered as a seasonal storage system that can be a heat source or sink, or as a storage for thermal energy. This leads to an interesting and challenging optimal control problem of the building climate comfort system that can be used to develop a seasonal-based energy management strategy. In [1] we develop a control-oriented model to predict thermal energy balance in a building climate control system integrated with ATES. Such a model however cannot cope with off-nominal but realistic situations such as when the wells are completely depleted, or the start-up phase of newly installed wells, etc., leading to direct usage of aquifer ambient temperature. Building upon our previous work in [1], we here extend the mathematical model for ATES system to handle the above mentioned more realistic situations. Using our improved models, one can more precisely predict system behavior and apply optimal control strategies to manage the building climate comfort along with energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions

  1. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  2. Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Bae; Horton, W.

    1990-05-01

    Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. 16 refs., 1 tab

  3. Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changbae Kim; Horton, W.

    1991-01-01

    Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. (author)

  4. Brazilian energy balance 2013 - calendar year 2012: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- Energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2012; Chapter 2- Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3- Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4- Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5- Balance of transformation centers- presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6- Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics- contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4- Useful

  5. Brazilian energy balance 2012 - calendar year 2011: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2011; Chapter 2 - Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining.; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4

  6. Brazilian energy balance 2014 - calendar year 2013: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1- Energy analysis and aggregated data- presents energy highlights per source in 2012 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth in 2013; Chapter 2- Energy supply and demand by source- has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3- Energy consumption by sector- presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4- Energy imports and exports- presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5- Balance of transformation centers- presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6- Energy resources and reserves- has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources; Chapter 7- Energy and socioeconomics- contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8- State energy data- presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential; Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex 1- Installed capacity- shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining.; Annex 2- Self-production of electricity- presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex 3- World energy data- presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source and region; Annex 4- Useful

  7. Energy transition and urban ecological inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamman, Philippe; Christen, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with social inequalities in the relationship to the environment, by looking at the capacity of actors to mobilize around renewable energy initiatives in the context of the energy transition. It is based on field surveys (qualitative and quantitative) on an urban scale, conducted between 2012 and 2015 in the metropolitan area of Strasbourg. We show that the emphasis on resident involvement masks the reality of rather prescriptive 'eco-innovations'; and that the differentiated relations of the inhabitants to the technical tools meant to materialize renewable energy reveal ecological inequalities that reinforce socio-economic division in the city

  8. Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Tian Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Chappelka, Arthur; Xu Xiaofeng; Ren Wei; Hui Dafeng; Liu Mingliang; Lu Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Lockaby, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Using a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, we assessed carbon dynamics of urbanized/developed lands in the Southern United States during 1945–2007. The results indicated that approximately 1.72 (1.69–1.77) Pg (1P = 10 15 ) carbon was stored in urban/developed lands, comparable to the storage of shrubland or cropland in the region. Urbanization resulted in a release of 0.21 Pg carbon to the atmosphere during 1945–2007. Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. After a rapid decline of carbon storage during land conversion, an urban ecosystem gradually accumulates carbon and may compensate for the initial carbon loss in 70–100 years. The carbon sequestration rate of urban ecosystem diminishes with time, nearly disappearing in two centuries after land conversion. This study implied that it is important to take urbanization effect into account for assessing regional carbon balance. - Highlights: ► A series of spatial and temporal urban/developed land maps were generated. ► Urbanization effects on regional carbon dynamics were studied with a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). ► Carbon storage of urban/developed land was comparable to that stored in cropland and shrubland in the Southern United States. ► Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. ► Urbanization resulted in carbon emission, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time. - Urbanization has resulted in carbon release to the atmosphere, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time.

  9. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  10. Energy balance of the lavender oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÖKDOĞAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the energy input-output analysis of lavender oil production. Data from agricultural farms in Isparta province was used. Energy input was calculated as 1993.89 MJ and energy output was calculated as 2925.51 MJ. Wood energy, fresh stalked lavender flower energy, equipment energy, human labour energy, electricity energy, and water energy inputs were 54.22 %, 41.86 %, 3.40 %, 0.23 %, 0.18 %, and 0.10 % of energy inputs, respectively. In this production, it is noteworthy that wood was used as fuel in the lavender oil production distillation process as the highest input. In the energy outputs, an average of 3.10 kg lavender oil and 130 kg lavender water were extracted by processing 234 kg fresh stalked lavender flower. Energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, and net energy for lavender oil production were calculated as 1.47, 643.19 MJ kg-1, 0.002 kg MJ-1 and 931.62 MJ, respectively.

  11. An energy balance model for the Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R.S.W. van de; Oerlemans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is studied by means of an energy balance model. The model calculates the shortwave and longwave radiation and the turbulent fluxes on a grid with a grid point spacing of 20 km. Special attention is given to the parameterization of the

  12. BALANCE 4P : Balancing decisions for urban brownfield regeneration – people, planet, profit and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, L.; Hooimeijer, F.L.; Tummers, L.

    2016-01-01

    Urban designers are not used to taking the subsurface into a holistic perspective on spatial development. Nevertheless, the subsurface accommodates numerous functions crucial to urban life, such as infrastructure, carry capacity, heat, water, etc.. Moreover, it also carries the natural system

  13. Balancing urban and peri-urban exchange: water geography of rural livelihoods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Caravantes, Rolando E

    2012-01-01

    The peri-urban area is the region where there is a more dynamic interaction between the urban and rural. The peri-urban area supplies natural resources, such as land for urban expansion and agricultural products to feed the urban population. In arid and semi-arid lands, such as northern Mexico, these areas may also be the source of water for the city's domestic demand. In addition, scholars argue that peri-urban residents may have a more advantageous geographical position for selling their labour and agricultural products in cities and, by doing so, sustaining their livelihoods. A considerable number of studies have examined the peri-urban to urban natural resources transfer in terms of land annexation, housing construction, and infrastructure issues; however, the study of the effects of the reallocation of peri-urban water resources to serve urban needs is critical as well because the livelihoods of peri-urban residents, such as those based on agriculture and livestock, depend on water availability. In the case of Hermosillo there is a tremendous pressure on the water resources of peri-urban small farm communities or ejidos because of urban demand. Based on interviews and structured surveys with producers and water managers, this paper examines how peri-urban livelihoods have been reshaped by the reallocation of the city's natural resources in many cases caused some ejido members or ejidatarios to lose livelihoods.

  14. Energy and carbon balances of wood cascade chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 OEstersund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    In this study we analyze the energy and carbon balances of various cascade chains for recovered wood lumber. Post-recovery options include reuse as lumber, reprocessing as particleboard, pulping to form paper products, and burning for energy recovery. We compare energy and carbon balances of chains of cascaded products to the balances of products obtained from virgin wood fiber or from non-wood material. We describe and quantify several mechanisms through which cascading can affect the energy and carbon balances: direct cascade effects due to different properties and logistics of virgin and recovered materials, substitution effects due to the reduced demand for non-wood materials when wood is cascaded, and land use effects due to alternative possible land uses when less timber harvest is needed because of wood cascading. In some analyses we assume the forest is a limiting resource, and in others we include a fixed amount of forest land from which biomass can be harvested for use as material or biofuel. Energy and carbon balances take into account manufacturing processes, recovery and transportation energy, material recovery losses, and forest processes. We find that land use effects have the greatest impact on energy and carbon balances, followed by substitution effects, while direct cascade effects are relatively minor. (author)

  15. Complex assessment of urban housing energy sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Glebova, Julia; Karakozova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of a complex experimental-analytical research of residential development energy parameters - survey of construction sites and determination of calculated energy parameters (resistance to heat transfer) considering their technical condition. The authors suggest a methodology for assessing residential development energy parameters on the basis of construction project's structural analysis with the use of advanced intelligent collection systems, processing (self-organizing maps - SOM) and data visualization (geo-informational systems - GIS). SOM clustering permitted to divide the housing stock (on the example of Arkhangelsk city) into groups with similar technical-operational and energy parameters. It is also possible to measure energy parameters of construction project of each cluster by comparing them with reference (normative) measures and also with each other. The authors propose mechanisms for increasing the area's energy stability level by implementing a set of reproduction activities for residential development of various groups. The analysis showed that modern multilevel and high-rise construction buildings have the least heat losses. At present, however, ow-rise wood buildings is the dominant styles of buildings of Arkhangelsk city. Data visualisation on the created heat map showed that such housing stock covers the largest urban area. The development strategies for depressed areas is in a high-rise building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city. An urban regeneration programme for severely rundown urban housing estates is in a high-rise construction building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city.

  16. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Robin P.; Hand, Gregory A.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is the result of a mismatch between the amount of calories consumed and the amount of calories expended during an extended period of time. This relationship is described by the energy balance equation, which states the rate of change in energy storage depots in the body are equal to the rate of energy intake minus the rate of energy…

  17. Energy balance of the Parana State - 1980-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the energetic balance of Parana State - 1980/1994, including the energy fluxes from primary and secondary energy sources in the main sectors of Parana economy. It informs consumption, production and energy external dependence. 26 figs., 88 tabs

  18. The energy balance of the earth's surface : a practical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de H.A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This study is devoted to the energy balance of the earth's surface with a special emphasis on practical applications. A simple picture of the energy exchange processes that take place at the ground is the following. Per unit time and area an amount of radiant energy is supplied to the surface. This

  19. Energy balance in TM-1-MH Tokamak (ohmical heating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, J.; Koerbel, S.; Kryska, L.; Kopecky, V.; Dadalec, V.; Datlov, J.; Jakubka, K.; Magula, P.; Zacek, F.; Pereverzev, G. V.

    1981-10-01

    Plasma in the TM-1-MH Tokamak was experimentally studied in the parameter range: tor. mg. field B = 1,3 T, plasma current I sub p = 14 kA, electron density N sub E 3.10 to the 19th power cubic meters. The two numerical codes are available for the comparison with experimental data. TOKATA-code solves simplified energy balance equations for electron and ion components. TOKSAS-code solves the detailed energy balance of the ion component.

  20. Windows with an improved energy balance of 30%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    means that both energy losses and transmittance of solar radiation is considered.The final goal of the project was to improve the energy balance of a window with at least 30%. As reference is chosen a common low energy glazing mounted in a wooden frame construction measuring 1188 × 1188 mm2...... the main emphasis has been put on improvement of the frame construction and the interaction between frame and glazing. Several theoretical analyses have been carried out and a prototype construction has been made, that meets the goal of a 30% improvement of the energy balance.The prototype has been tested....... A 30% improvement of the energy balance then corresponds to an reduction in net energy loss of 17 kWh/m2 window area.The frame costruction and the joint between glazing and frame is the thermally weak part of modern windows compared to centre values of the new super insulating glazings. As a result...

  1. Energy balance from Bahia state 2011 - series: 1994-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The present Energy Balance is constituted of six chapters, as follows: the chapter 1 approaches the profile of the energy system, showing the structure of the Bahia state energy matrix i n the year of 2010, and the modifications occurred during the period of 1994-2010; the chapter 2 analyses the evolution during the period of 1994-2010 of the energy offer with aspects of production, exports, imports and consumption; the chapter 3 comprised the evolution of energy consumption by sources and social-economic sectors; chapter 4 focus the evolution of state energy self-sufficiency, confronting the primary energy production with the energy total demand; the chapter 5 contains the balance of the energy transformation centers of the Bahia state; and the chapter 6 contains the consolidated matrixes expressed in the period of 1980, 1985 and 1990-2010

  2. Toward buildings with a positive energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visier, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    As the results of the recent 'Grenelle of the Environment', which assembled French officials and organizations for a wide-ranging discussion of ecological issues, enter into application, buildings should gradually switch from being the foremost consumers of energy to becoming producers of energy. The stakes, technically, economically and socially, are enormous

  3. Energy balances of OECD countries 1970/1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The present volume provides standardized energy balance sheets expressed in a common unit of tons of oil equivalent for all OECD Countries. It covers the years 1970 to 1982 year by year and includes many revisions and additions to data previously published. The balances in the present volume are based on data published in OECD Energy Statistics 1971-1981 and OECD Energy Statistics 1981-1982. Tables for each OECD Country include production, import, export, consumption by the different industries, transportation, agriculture, residential sector of the different energies: solid fuels, petroleum, gas, nuclear power and hydroelectricity [fr

  4. Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.; Lindner, H. [The University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution and purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)

  5. France's 2014 energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadin, Didier; Collet, Isabelle; Delamare, Karine; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Gong, Zheng; Hagege, Claire; Lauverjat, Jean; Lepoittevin, Daniel; Louati, Sami; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Misak, Evelyne; Reynaud, Didier; Rouquette, Celine; Wong, Florine; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Mordant, Guillaume; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    2014 was the warmest year since 1900 in France and in the rest of the world. In particular, the mild winter led to heating needs 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) lower than the needs in an average year. Real primary energy consumption fell below the symbolic 250 Mtoe level, a low it had not reached since 1995. Although energy demand decreased, national primary energy production increased for the second year running, reaching 139 Mtoe, a little over 1 Mtoe higher than in 2013. This rise in production is explained by nuclear generated electricity. The 2014 physical trade deficit for energy therefore decreased significantly, by 10 Mtoe, to below 114 Mtoe. Such a low level had not been observed since 1988. The level of energy self-sufficiency rose sharply in 2014, to 55.8%, a level not hitherto reached. The decrease in net energy imports was accompanied by a drop in quoted prices for energy products on the European and international markets. As a result, France's energy bill was 17% lower than in 2013. At around euro 55 billion, it fell to a level close to that of the early 1980s. Even excluding the effects of the higher temperatures in 2014, thereby adjusting for climate variations, primary energy went from 275 Mtoe - its maximum, reached in 2005 - to 257 Mtoe, with an average annual decrease of -2 Mtoe, confirming the downward trend initiated in the mid-2000's. Final energy consumption was 150 Mtoe in 2014, the lowest level since 1996. It decreased by a little more than 1% in relation to 2013, with reductions in all sectors except for transport, where consumption remained stable

  6. The role of urban form as an energy management parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futcher, Julie Ann; Mills, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Urban areas are recognised to be significant global energy consumers, and therefore high CO 2 emitters, making energy management at urban scales a relevant research focus. However, one of the main obstacles faced with upgrading existing urban systems to meet target energy reductions is the current rate of refurbishment and new build, where it is estimated that 75% of existing buildings will still be in place by 2050. Moreover limited renewable resources and predicted warming trends place further limitations on policies aimed at carbon management. This paper examines current thinking around energy management associated with building operational and regulated loads and the role of urban form. Its focus is on cooling loads for office buildings in central London and offers a new perspective on energy management at an urban scale by demonstrating (within the 25% redevelopment rate) that when building energy management is considered within an urban context, the overall performance of an urban system can be significantly improved. The work highlights the often overlooked role of urban form on building energy performance (both individually and in combination) and demonstrates that as we move towards a low energy future; the role of urban form becomes increasing significant. - Highlight: ► The work reports on the energy performance patterns of modern office building groups. ► Mutual shading from adjacent buildings significantly lowers cooling loads. ► Demonstrates the role of urban form as an urban energy management parameter.

  7. Urban and energy planning in Santiago de Compostela : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Maldonado, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of Deliverable 4.2 is to give an overview of urban energy planning in the six PLEEC partner cities. The six reports illustrate how cities deal with different challenges of the urban energy transformation from a structural perspective including issues of urban governance and spatial

  8. Biomass energy and the global carbon balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.O.; House, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Studies on climate change and energy production increasingly recognise the crucial role of biological systems. Carbon sinks in forests (above and below ground), CO 2 emissions from deforestation, planting trees for carbon storage, and biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels are some of the key issues which arise. Halting deforestation is of paramount importance, but there is also great potential for reforestation of degraded lands, agroforestry and improved forest management. It is concluded that biomass energy plantations and other types of energy cropping could be a more effective strategy for carbon mitigation than simply growing trees as a carbon store, particularly on higher productivity lands. Use of the biomass produced as an energy source has the added advantage of a wide range of other environmental, social and economic benefits. (author)

  9. The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn; Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2011-01-01

    .It was found that the geometry of urban canyons has an impact on total energy consumption in the range of up to +30% for offices and +19% for housing, which shows that the geometry of urban canyons is a key factor in energy use in buildings. It was demonstrated how the reflectivity of urban canyons plays...

  10. National energy balance - 1977-1996 - Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present document summarizes the historic document related to energy production, transformation and consumption in the country between 1977 and 1996. The manner the figures are presented allows their usage for diverse analyses. Certain modifications have been added to this introduction according to the suggestions received due to the publication of the 1975-1994 statement. This work will be periodically updated, including possible new energy sources as well as new consumption sectors. (author)

  11. National energy balance 1979-1998 Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present document summarizes the historic document related to energy production, transformation and consumption in the country between 1979 and 1998. The manner the figures are presented allows their usage for diverse analyses. Certain modifications have been added to this introduction according to the suggestions received due to the publication of the 1977-1996 statement. This work will be periodically updated, including possible new energy sources as well as new consumption sectors

  12. National energy balance - 1977-1996 - Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present document summarizes the historic document related to energy production, transformation and consumption in the country between 1977 and 1996. The manner the figures are presented allows their usage for diverse analyses. Certain modifications have been added to this introduction according to the suggestions received due to the publication of the 1975-1994 statement. This work will be periodically updated, including possible new energy sources as well as new consumption sectors

  13. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production; Introduccion al calculo del balance energetico de la produccion de Biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.

    1997-11-01

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. Lombardy (Italy) regional energy balance: 1984-1990 statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, P.; Di Marzio, T.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief explanation of the scope and key econometric elements of the energy balance analysis, this paper tables energy supply and demand data for Italy's Lombardy Region. The primary and secondary energy data are expressed in metric quantities and in equivalent calorific values and are sub-divided according to type of energy source and consuming sector. Assessments are made of the degree of reliability of the information and sources of information

  15. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1996-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol form corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large non-linearities in carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  16. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues

  17. Brazilian energy balance 2015: year 2014 - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Balance (BEB) contains the accounting relative to energy supply and consumption, as well the conversion processes and foreign trade. It presents in a single document the historical series of these operations and information about reserves, installed capacities and Federal States data. The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapters' content can be described as follows: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2014 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socio economics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed

  18. Nuclear energy: A balance of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Forum was attended by public information officers of the Member States' atomic energy commissions and agencies; public relations and information representatives of the international nuclear industry, including vendors, utilities and information dispersal groups; scientific societies; and trade associations. The Forum provided an international opportunity for those working in nuclear energy public information programmes to learn from one another, and to exchange ideas and methods on how best to demystify this form of energy and reach the public for better general understanding of the issues involved. The described report of the Forum consists of two parts. One is designed to represent the conclusions, recommendations and specific activities from the strategy sessions. It is followed by examples provided by the participants. An individual section is intended as a ready resources for up-to-date information on non-proliferation and radiation and health. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presentations

  19. Energy for our future: Balancing regional interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, S.

    1993-01-01

    An emerging global governance is suggested in which the environment is the central organizing principle of civilization. A shift is noted in which transnational, regional, nation-state, local, and tribal structures exist and compete. Nations with strong environmental regulations are more able to meet international competition in such a scenario. It has also been observed in many instances that for managing common resources such as forests and fish stocks, there have been traditional institutions resembling neither state or market but based on such principles as clearly defined boundaries, monitoring of compliance, graduated sanctions, and collective choice arrangements. Examples of a certain kind of well-managed common resource are provided by certain energy utilities which make profits from energy conservation. One such example is the Tennessee Valley Authority, which helps customers install and finance energy-efficient windows for mutual benefit of both parties

  20. Energy balance of the Norrbotten county; Energilaeget i Norrbotten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Maria [NENET, Boden (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    The energy balance of Norrbotten county, in the extreme North of Sweden, is reviewed, both on the county level and for each local community. A broad estimate of the environmental effects of the energy use is given. Population statistics and industrial activities are also described.

  1. Energy balance of the Sao Paulo State - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work informs the energetic balance of Sao Paulo State - 1995, with information referring to the year 1994, containing the energy fluxes from primary and secondary energy sources in the main sectors of Sao Paulo economy. An electronic version for windows environment is also available. 81 figs., 179 tabs

  2. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux; surface energy balance; Bowen's ratio; sensible and latent ... The energy storage term for the soil layer 0–0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat ... When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil ...

  3. Yearly energy balance sheets 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The total supply of energy during the year 2001 rose by 7 per cent compared with the year 2000, from 588 TWh to 630 TWh. The supply of nuclear power increased by 27 per cent, whereas electricity from waterpower has remained still at approximately 80 TWh. During the year 2001 Sweden exported 18,5 TWh electricity and the import was 11,1 TWh. The use of petroleum products for electricity production was nearly the same, 3,5 TWh during 2001 compared with 3,6 TWh during 2000. The production of heat from petroleum products increased from 3,2 TWh 2000 to 4,3 TWh 2001. The explanation to that is mainly the large increasing of heavy fuel oil in district heating plants. The use of energy during the year 2001 increased by nearly 1 per cent compared with the year 2000, from 391 TWh to 394 TWh. The use of coal, coke, biomass fuels and petroleum products decreased a little between the years, whereas the use of gases, district heating and electricity rises. The industrial sectors energy use decreases a bit from 156 TWh for the year 2000 to 152 TWh the year 2001. An increasing use of gases and district heating can nevertheless be seen. The energy use within transport sector rises from 87 TWh to 88 TWh. Within the household sector there is an increasing use of energy between the years with a total of 3 TWh, from 91 TWh to 94 TWh. The households continue to reduce their use of petroleum products. The use of electricity and district heating increases, by 6 per cent and 15 per cent respectively, between year 2000 and 2001

  4. Energy and heat balance in wet DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Viren; Moser, Alexander; Schaefer, Michael; Ritschel, Michael [BorgWarner Drivetrain Engineering GmbH, Ketsch (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Wet clutch systems are well known for their thermal robustness and versatility in a wide range of automotive applications. Conventional automatics have used them for a long time as torque converter lock-up clutches, shift elements and launch clutches. With the development of DCTs, wet clutch technology has evolved in terms of launch and shift performance, controllability, robustness and efficiency. This paper discusses improvements in the wet clutch and their impact on today's vehicle applications in terms of heat and energy management. Thermal robustness is a crucial aspect for an automatic transmission. In addition to the clutch thermal performance, the influence of transmission oil cooler and oil sump warm-up behavior are discussed. Based on our latest development activities, test results and simulations, we shall discuss the latest friction material enhancement and its impact on DCTs in terms of efficiency and performance. Drag loss is a much-discussed topic during the development of wet clutch systems. This paper discusses in detail the cause and break-up of various energy losses in a wet DCT. Efficient energy management strategies for actuation systems, cooling, and lubrication, clutch apply, and pre-selection in modern power trains with engine start / stop are evaluated based on the latest test and simulation results. Finally, the paper summarizes the performance and efficiency optimized moist clutch system. (orig.)

  5. National energy balance - 1995 of Brazil. Based on 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence of energy are presented, as also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources. For each primary and secondary source the production, import, export, variations in inventories, losses, adjustments and total consumption are analyzed. Balances of transformation centers, characterizing the energy the energy processed, the energy produced and the respective losses in transformation are shown. Finally energy resources and reserves of primary sources are described with respective methodologies for estimating them. 60 figs., 107 tabs.

  6. National energy balance - 1995 of Brazil. Based on 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence of energy are presented, as also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources. For each primary and secondary source the production, import, export, variations in inventories, losses, adjustments and total consumption are analyzed. Balances of transformation centers, characterizing the energy the energy processed, the energy produced and the respective losses in transformation are shown. Finally energy resources and reserves of primary sources are described with respective methodologies for estimating them. 60 figs., 107 tabs.

  7. National energy balance - 1995 of Brazil. Based on 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence of energy are presented, as also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources. For each primary and secondary source the production, import, export, variations in inventories, losses, adjustments and total consumption are analyzed. Balances of transformation centers, characterizing the energy the energy processed, the energy produced and the respective losses in transformation are shown. Finally energy resources and reserves of primary sources are described with respective methodologies for estimating them. 60 figs., 107 tabs

  8. Correlation of energy balance method to dynamic pipe rupture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, H.H.; Durkee, M.

    1983-01-01

    When using an energy balance approach in the design of pipe rupture restraints for nuclear power plants, the NRC specifies in its Standard Review Plan 3.6.2 that the input energy to the system must be multiplied by a factor of 1.1 unless a lower value can be justified. Since the energy balance method is already quite conservative, an across-the-board use of 1.1 to amplify the energy input appears unneccessary. The paper's purpose is to show that this 'correlation factor' could be substantially less than unity if certain design parameters are met. In this paper, result of nonlinear dynamic analyses were compared to the results of the corresponding analyses based on the energy balance method which assumes constant blowdown forces and rigid plastic material properties. The appropriate correlation factors required to match the energy balance results with the dynamic analyses results were correlated to design parameters such as restraint location from the break, yield strength of the energy absorbing component, and the restraint gap. It is shown that the correlation factor is related to a single nondimensional design parameter and can be limited to a value below unity if appropriate design parameters are chosen. It is also shown that the deformation of the restraints can be related to dimensionless system parameters. This, therefore, allows the maximum restraint deformation to be evaluated directly for design purposes. (orig.)

  9. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  10. The energy balance within a bubble column evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Shahid, Muhammad; Pashley, Richard M.

    2018-05-01

    Bubble column evaporator (BCE) systems have been studied and developed for many applications, such as thermal desalination, sterilization, evaporative cooling and controlled precipitation. The heat supplied from warm/hot dry bubbles is to vaporize the water in various salt solutions until the solution temperature reaches steady state, which was derived into the energy balance of the BCE. The energy balance and utilization involved in each BCE process form the fundamental theory of these applications. More importantly, it opened a new field for the thermodynamics study in the form of heat and vapor transfer in the bubbles. In this paper, the originally derived energy balance was reviewed on the basis of its physics in the BCE process and compared with new proposed energy balance equations in terms of obtained the enthalpy of vaporization (Δ H vap) values of salt solutions from BCE experiments. Based on the analysis of derivation and Δ H vap values comparison, it is demonstrated that the original balance equation has high accuracy and precision, within 2% over 19-55 °C using improved systems. Also, the experimental and theoretical techniques used for determining Δ H vap values of salt solutions were reviewed for the operation conditions and their accuracies compared to the literature data. The BCE method, as one of the most simple and accurate techniques, offers a novel way to determine Δ H vap values of salt solutions based on its energy balance equation, which had error less than 3%. The thermal energy required to heat the inlet gas, the energy used for water evaporation in the BCE and the energy conserved from water vapor condensation were estimated in an overall energy balance analysis. The good agreement observed between input and potential vapor condensation energy illustrates the efficiency of the BCE system. Typical energy consumption levels for thermal desalination for producing pure water using the BCE process was also analyzed for different inlet air

  11. Measurement of the energy balance in ATC Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsuan, H.; Bol, K.; Ellis, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Gross properties of the energy balance in the ATC tokamak have been investigated. During the quasi-steady state phase of a normal discharge, the major part of the energy loss was found to be the limiters. Radiation and charge-exchange play minor roles during this quasi-steady state phase, but are nevertheless the dominant loss mechanisms at the termination of a discharge; and account for a substantial portion of the stored poloidal magnetic energy associated with the plasma current. (auth)

  12. Energy balance in solar and stellar chromospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrett, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    Net radiative cooling rates for quiet and active regions of the solar chromosphere and for two stellar chromospheres are calculated from corresponding atmospheric models. Models of chromospheric temperature and microvelocity distributions are derived from observed spectra of a dark point within a cell, the average sun and a very bright network element on the quiet sun, a solar plage and flare, and the stars Alpha Boo and Lambda And. Net radiative cooling rates due to the transitions of various atoms and ions are then calculated from the models as a function of depth. Large values of the net radiative cooling rate are found at the base of the chromosphere-corona transition region which are due primarily to Lyman alpha emission, and a temperature plateau is obtained in the transition region itself. In the chromospheric regions, the calculated cooling rate is equal to the mechanical energy input as a function of height and thus provides a direct constraint on theories of chromospheric heating.

  13. An urban energy performance evaluation system and its computer implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yuan, Guan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2017-12-15

    To improve the urban environment and effectively reflect and promote urban energy performance, an urban energy performance evaluation system was constructed, thereby strengthening urban environmental management capabilities. From the perspectives of internalization and externalization, a framework of evaluation indicators and key factors that determine urban energy performance and explore the reasons for differences in performance was proposed according to established theory and previous studies. Using the improved stochastic frontier analysis method, an urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model was built that brings performance evaluation and factor analysis into the same stage for study. According to data obtained for the Chinese provincial capitals from 2004 to 2013, the coefficients of the evaluation indicators and key factors were calculated by the urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model. These coefficients were then used to compile the program file. The urban energy performance evaluation system developed in this study was designed in three parts: a database, a distributed component server, and a human-machine interface. Its functions were designed as login, addition, edit, input, calculation, analysis, comparison, inquiry, and export. On the basis of these contents, an urban energy performance evaluation system was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2015. The system can effectively reflect the status of and any changes in urban energy performance. Beijing was considered as an example to conduct an empirical study, which further verified the applicability and convenience of this evaluation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy balance at a crossroads: translating the science into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Brown, Katie; Houtkooper, Linda; Jakicic, John; Peters, John C; Smith Edge, Marianne; Steiber, Alison; Going, Scott; Gable, Lisa Guillermin; Krautheim, Ann Marie

    2014-07-01

    One of the major challenges facing the United States is the high number of overweight and obese adults and the growing number of overweight and unfit children and youth. To improve the nation's health, young people must move into adulthood without the burden of obesity and its associated chronic diseases. To address these issues, the American College of Sports Medicine, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and the US Department of Agriculture/Agriculture Research Service convened an expert panel meeting in October 2012 titled "Energy Balance at a Crossroads: Translating the Science into Action." Experts in the fields of nutrition and exercise science came together to identify the biological, lifestyle, and environmental changes that will most successfully help children and families attain and manage energy balance and tip the scale toward healthier weights. Two goals were addressed: 1) professional training and 2) consumer/community education. The training goal focused on developing a comprehensive strategy to facilitate the integration of nutrition and physical activity (PA) using a dynamic energy balance approach for regulating weight into the training of undergraduate and graduate students in dietetics/nutrition science, exercise science/PA, and pre-K-12 teacher preparation programs and in training existing cooperative extension faculty. The education goal focused on developing strategies for integrating dynamic energy balance into nutrition and PA educational programs for the public, especially programs funded by federal/state agencies. The meeting expert presenters and participants addressed three key areas: 1) biological and lifestyle factors that affect energy balance, 2) undergraduate/graduate educational and training issues, and 3) best practices associated with educating the public about dynamic energy balance. Specific consensus recommendations were developed for each goal.

  15. Energy balances for Europe and North America 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This publication is based on the ECE Energy Data Bank collected by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy, supplemented by other official data available to the secretariat. The Energy Data Base contains energy balances from 1960 to 1985 for the market economy countries of western Europe and North America and from 1965 to 1985 for the centrally planned economy countries of eastern Europe. During the first session of the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy held in 1979, countries decided to circulate a questionnaire on Selected Energy Issues covering the years 1973, 1978, 1980, 1985, 1990 and 2000 (ECE/ENERGY/2, para. 29). While the methodology for establishing the balances has been mutually agreed, the assumptions underlying each country's forecast are not necessarily comparable. At their fifth session held from 23 to 27 September 1985, the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy agreed to issue a second questionnaire to collect revised projections for the years 1990 and 2000 (ECE/ENERGY/11, para. 50(b)). Information received served as benchmarks to construct a time series from 1970 to 1985. Commodities listed include solid fossil fuels, petroleum fuels, gaseous fuels both natural and derived, nuclear energy, hydro- and geothermal energy, electricity, steam and hot water, energy derived from non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, wave, tidal, etc.)

  16. Effects of Genotype by Environment Interactions on Milk Yield, Energy Balance, and Protein Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerda, B.; Ouweltjes, W.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in genetic merit for milk yield are associated with increases in mobilization of body reserves. This study assessed the effects of genotype by environment (GxE) interactions on milk yield and energy and protein balances. Heifers (n = 100) with high or low genetic merit for milk yield were

  17. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  18. The Spanish Wind Energy Market. Balance and Outlooks; El Mercado Eolico Espanol. Balance y Perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    The present work accomplishes a revision to the situation of the wind market in Spain, its recent evolution, its regional distribution, the principal actors of the market (manufacturers, promoters). The balance includes a review of the programs of institutional support to wind energy, an analysis of the current installation costs and electricity production costs. Finally, other variables related the integration of wind energy are analysed, as the potential of employment generation or the associated environmental factors. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Energy balance and deformation mechanisms of duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Gautam; Boyer, Steven E.

    A duplex consists of a series of imbricate faults that are asymptotic to a roof thrust and a floor thrust. Depending on the final orientations of the imbricate faults and the final position of the branch lines, a duplex may be hinterland-dipping, foreland-dipping, or an antiformal stack. The exact geometry depends on various factors such as the initial dimensions of the individual slices (horses), their lithology, the amount of displacement (normalized to size of horse) on each fault, and the mechanics of movement along each fault. The energy required in duplex formation can be determined by calculating the total work involved in emplacing each horse: this is given by where W t=W p+W b+W g+W iWp is the work involved in initiating and propagating a fracture. Wb is the work involved in basal sliding, which may be frictional or some form of ductile flow, Wg is the work done against gravity during the emplacement of the horse, and Wi is the work involved in the internal deformation of the horse. By calculating and comparing these work terms it is possible to predict the conditions under which the different types of duplexes will form. Normally, the development of a hinterland-dipping duplex is most likely. However, if deformation conditions are favorable, displacements on individual imbricate faults may be very large compared to the size of the horses, leading to the formation of either antiformal stacks or foreland-dipping duplexes.

  20. Energy balance Flanders 1994: disparity method; Energiebalans Vlaanderen 1994: verschilmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smekens, K.; Vanhoof, B.

    1997-07-01

    In this report the energy balance of Flanders for 1994 is presented, together with an estimate of the CO2-emissions. Apart from data about 1994, comparable data about the 1990-1994 period are presented in order to give a picture of the evolution of both the energy consumption and the CO2-emissions in Flanders. The energy balance was calculated by subtracting the energy balances of the Walloon and Brussels region from the Belgian one. Afterwards, these results were corrected as far as specific Flemish energy data were available. For the calculation of the CO2-emissions the IPCC guidelines for greenhouse inventories were used. In 1991, the primary energy consumption in Flanders was 1489.9 PJ, the gross inland consumption was 1309.8 PJ. The final energy consumption amounted 971.7 PJ. The total CO2-emission was 73,086 kton (excluding emissions from international aviation and marine bunkering). Compared to 1990, the gross inland consumption had increased some 7.3 per cent by 1994, the final energy consumption 12.3 per cent and the CO2-emissions 8.3 per cent. In view of the planned CO2-emission reduction of 10 per cent by the year 2010, the figures quoted above show that there is still a long way to go to reach this objective.

  1. Balancing the supply mix to meet tomorrow's energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation emphasized the need to balance the power supply mix to ensure future energy needs. A balanced supply includes generation supply options that include renewable energy sources, natural gas, oil or coal. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) and district energy in this supply mix is considered to be a potential generation solution. The challenge facing Ontario's Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) is to balance supply and demand, phase out coal, promote renewables, diminish demand and determine the new role for natural gas. A graph by the National Energy Board depicting Canada's energy future and scenarios for supply and demand to 2025 indicates that gas yields from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin are declining. It is expected that with growing demands for natural gas, prices will remain high and there will be a need for new generation capacity. The viable options for energy supply include a re-examination of the district energy advantage through industrial waste heat, biomass and other renewables, and the integration of industrial and community energy systems. Other options include the continued recognition of distributed generation in the form of combined heat and power. 4 figs

  2. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  3. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  4. Power and energy balances, today and three years ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Trygve; Maula, H.; Pedersen, Jens; Soendergren, C.; Waegelund, G.; Granlund, K.

    2003-06-01

    Energy scenario 2006: In normal conditions the Nordel system is balancing well. It is expected that the Nordel system will cope with a single dry year situation. if a year with extreme low hydropower production or a combination of two dry years in succession occurs, the result may be a very serious balance deficit. For part of the Nordel system it is possible that market cannot solve the problem and the situation will demand various forms of rationing or other measures. Power balance winter peak demand 2006/07: During a normal winter, peak demand will be handled without difficulties. If a ten years winter occurs the power balance is expected to come under strain and the Nordic power system is dependent on import from Europe via strong interconnections. The forecast shows that there probably is enough production capacity and import possibilities from countries outside Nordel. (BA)

  5. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  6. Conceptualizing urban household energy use: Climbing the 'Energy Services Ladder'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins by defining energy services and identifying how they differ according to sector, urban and rural areas, and direct and indirect uses. It then investigates household energy services divided into three classes: lower income, middle income, and upper income. It finds that the primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items). The study highlights how focusing on energy services reorients the direction of energy policy interventions, that energy services are neither uniform nor innate, and by noting exciting areas of potential research. - Research highlights: → The primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. → Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. → The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items).

  7. Urban impacts on oxidative balance and their implications for animal signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce eHutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Though many animal ornaments and signals are sensitive to and encode information about the oxidative balance (OB of individuals (e.g. antioxidant supplies/activity, reactive oxygen species, cellular oxidative damage/repair, often the environmental and/or physiological sources of such OB are unknown. Here we review the mechanistic underpinnings and functional consequences of how human urbanization drives antioxidant/oxidative status in animals and how this affects signal expression and use. Urban development is among the most recent, pervasive, and persistent human stressors on the planet and impacts many environmental and physiological parameters of animals. Here, we review literature on the potential effects of urbanization on OB and its linkage to signal expression and honesty in animals. Although we find that urbanization has strong negative effects on signal quality (e.g., visual, auditory, chemical and OB across a range of taxa, few urban ecophysiological studies address signals and oxidative stress in unison, and even fewer in a fitness context. We also highlight particular signal types, taxa, life-histories, and anthropogenic environmental modifications on which future work integrating OB, signals, and urbanization could be centered. Last, we examine the conceptual and empirical framework behind the idea that urban conditions may disentangle signal expression from honesty and affect plasticity and adaptedness of sexually selected traits and preferences in the city.

  8. Surface Energy Balance in Jakarta and Neighboring Regions As Simulated Using Fifth Mesoscale Model (MM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yopi Ilhamsyah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to assess the surface energy balance particularly in terms of the computed surface energy and radiation balance and the development of boundary layer over Jakarta and Neighboring Regions (JNR by means of numerical model of fifth generation of Mesoscale Model (MM5. The MM5 with four domains of 9 kilometers in spatial resolution presenting the outermost and the innermost of JNR is utilized. The research focuses on the third and fourth domains covering the entire JNR. The description between radiation and energy balance at the surface is obtained from the model. The result showed that energy balance is higher in the city area during daytime. Meanwhile, energy components, e.g., surface sensible and latent heat flux showed that at the sea and in the city areas were higher than other areas. Moreover, ground flux showed eastern region was higher than others. In general, radiation and energy balance was higher in the daytime and lower in the nighttime for all regions. The calculation of Bowen Ratio, the ratio of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, was also higher in the city area, reflecting the dominations of urban and built-up land in the region. Meanwhile, Bowen Ratio in the rural area dominated by irrigated cropland was lower. It is consistent with changes of land cover properties, e.g. albedo, soil moisture, and thermal characteristics. In addition, the boundary layer is also higher in the city. Meanwhile western region dominated by suburban showed higher boundary layer instead of eastern region.

  9. An investigation of energy balances in palladium cathode electrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G. R.; Dolan, T. J.; Henriksen, G. L.

    1990-09-01

    A series of experiments was performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate mechanisms that may contribute to energy flows in electrolysis cells like those of Fleischmann and Pons. Ordinary water (H2O), heavy water (D2O), and a mixture of the two were used in the INEL experiments. Cathodes used include a 51-μm Pd foil and 1-mm diameter extruded wire Pd rods in straight and coiled configurations. Energy balances in these experiments revealed no significant net gain or net loss of energy. Cell overpotential curves were fit well with a Tafel equation, with parameters dependent on electrode configuration, electrolyte composition, and temperature. Water evaporation and interactions of hydrogen isotopes with the Pd cathode were evaluated and found not to be significant to energy balances. No ionizing radiation, tritium production, or other evidence of fusion reactions was observed in the INEL experiments.

  10. Solar energy and global heat balance of a city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, Claude-Alain [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The global energy balance of a city involves numerous energy flows and is rather complex. It includes, among others, the absorbed solar radiation and the energy fuels on one hand, and the heat loss to the environment --- by radiation, convection and evaporation --- on the other hand. This balance generally results in a temperature in the town that is slightly higher than in the surrounding country. Using solar energy saves imported fuels on one hand, but increases the absorption of solar radiation on the other hand. Simple, steady state models are used to assess the change of heat released to the environment when replacing the use of classical fuels by solar powered plants, on both the global and city scale. The conclusion is that, in most cases, this will reduce the heat released to the environment. The exception is cooling, for which a good solar alternative does not exist today. (Author)

  11. Energy balance of hydro-aggregate with Pelton water turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major tasks in the field of hydraulic power engineering refers to machines and equipment modernization in the hydropower plants and pumped storage power plants commissioned more than 20 years ago. The increase of hydraulic units operation efficiency will allow in a number of cases to substantially reduce the specific water consumption and to drive the output of electric energy up. In these cases it is crucial to find out the operational efficiency of individual system elements and to precisely focus the modernization endeavours on such elements where the energy losses go beyond all admissible limits. Besides, the determination of the energy losses in the hydro energy turbo system will allow valid defining of hydraulic units operational scope. This work treats the methods of balance study of a hydraulic unit with Peiton water turbine. The experimental results of the balance study of Belmeken pumped storage power plant hydraulic unit No 5 under turbine operational mode are presented

  12. Energy Balance Education in Schools: The Role of Student Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Nam, Yoon Ho

    2017-01-01

    Obesity prevention and control have been identified as top public health priorities in modern societies. Sport and exercise science researchers from multiple perspectives (e.g. behavioral, pedagogical, psychological, and physiological) have been active contributors addressing this topic. This paper examines the importance of energy balance (EB)…

  13. Energy balance from Bahia state 2013 - series 1996-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Energy Balance from Bahia, Brazil, presents six chapters, as follows: the chapter 1 approaches the profile of the energy system, showing the structure of the Bahia state energy matrix in the year of 2012, and the modifications occurred during the period of 1996-2012. Then the consolidated information are presented, from production to final consumption, for the set of primary and secondary sources, as well as comparative tables of states x national production of major energy production; the chapter 2 analyses the development, during the period of 1996-2012, in energy supply according to the Primary and Secondary sources; the chapter 3 comprised the evolution of energy consumption by sources and according the social-economic sectors; chapter 4 focus, within a broader view, the evolution of self-sufficiency energy state, confronting the production of primary energy to the total energy demand; in chapter 5 is given the status of the Energy Transformation Centers of the state, highlighting the balances of the Refinery Landulpho Alves (RLAM) and the Power Plants of Public Service and Self-Producer and the chapter 6 contains the consolidated matrixes expressed in the years of 1980, 1985 and 1990-2012

  14. Energy and entropy balance for a black piecewise homogeneous planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollarolo, G.; Sertorio, L.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper a crude model for a planet interacting with the solar radiation is presented, the aim being the discussion of the global energy balance and corresponding entropy production. It is found that the power of the surface energy circulation and the temperature excursion have a peculiar nonlinear behaviour as a function of the parameters representing the specific heat of each piece and the thermal conductivity of their boundaries. (author)

  15. The energy and pressure balance in the corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, R.W.P.; Wilson, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews theoretical models for the solar corona based on energy and pressure calculations. Processes included in these calculations are: (a) heating of the outer corona by mechanical waves; (b) convective out-flow of gas giving rise to the solar wind; (c) thermal conductions; (d) radiated power loss. Possible observations to help answer some of the outstanding questions about the energy balance are suggested. (author)

  16. Energy balance of Lower Saxony 1994; Niedersaechsische Energiebilanz 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The energy balance of Lower Saxony is presented in physical units, in terrajoule and in coal equivalent to show supply, conversion, and consumption of primary and secondary energy sources in the year under report. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Energiebilanz des Landes Niedersachsen in physikalischen Einheiten, in Terrajoule und in Steinkohleeinheiten stellt das Energieaufkommen, die Energieumwandlung und den Energieverbrauch fuer Primaer- und Sekundaerenergietraeger im Berichtsjahr dar. (orig.)

  17. The Spanish Wind Energy Market. Balance and Outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work accomplishes a revision to the situation of the wind market in Spain, its recent evolution, its regional distribution, the principal actors of the market (manufacturers, promoters). The balance includes a review of the programs of institutional support to wind energy, an analysis of the current installation costs and electricity production costs. Finally, other variables related the integration of wind energy are analysed, as the potential of employment generation or the associated environmental factors. (Author) 5 refs

  18. Scenarios for a urban energy transition. Actors, regulations, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debizet, Gilles; Blanco, Sylvie; Buclet, Nicolas; Forest, Fabrice; Gauthier, Caroline; La Branche, Stephane; Menanteau, Philippe; Schneuwly, Patrice; Tabourdeau, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Cities concentrate populations, consumptions, levers of actions, and are places of various experiments for energy transition. This book aims at giving an overview of possible scenarios of development of renewable energies in urban context. It is based on interviews of actors of the energy, building and urban planning sectors by researchers in town planning, management, technology, political and economic sciences. The authors examine what would occur if large companies would manage entire quarters, if local authorities would supervise production and supply, if the State would take control of all fields of action again, or if consumer cooperatives would exchange energy and pool productions. In its different chapters, the book presents four scenarios of energy coordination in urban context by 2040, discuss energy transition in urban spaces, discuss the perspectives of evolution towards more autonomous cities and quarters from an energetic point of view, and discuss business models and urban energetic innovations

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  20. Issues - I. Renewable energies and urban planning law - Urban planning law and renewable energies: I love you, neither I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory Kalfleche

    2012-01-01

    After having noticed that fossil energies must still be used beside renewable energies, and that renewable energies have some negative impacts on landscape and on the environment, the author highlights the fact that the French urban planning law gives a strong support to small renewable energy production units. In a second part, he shows that despite a commitment for the development of renewable energies, urban planning law mostly remains a constraint as far as the development of large units is concerned

  1. The relevance of rooftops: Analyzing the microscale surface energy balance in the Chicago region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Radhika

    Spatial structure in climate variables often exist over very short length scales within an urban area, and this structure is a result of various site-specific features. In order to analyze the seasonal and diurnal energy flows that take place at a microclimatic surface, this work develops a semi-empirical energy balance model. For this, radiation fluxes and meteorological measurements are determined by direct observation; sensible heat and latent heat fluxes by parameterizations; and the heat storage flux by a 1-D mechanistic model that allows analysis of the temperature profile and heat storage within an underlying slab. Two sites receive detailed study: an anthropogenic site, being a University of Chicago building rooftop, and a natural site, outside Chicago in the open country. Two identical sets of instruments record measurements contemporaneously from these locations during June-November 2007, the entire period for which analyses are carried out. The study yields seasonal trends in surface temperature, surface-to-air temperature contrast and net radiation. At both sites, a temporal hysteresis between net radiation and heat storage flux indicates that surplus energy absorbed during daylight is released to the atmosphere later in the evening. The surface energy balance model responds well to site specific features for both locations. An analysis of the surface energy balance shows that the flux of sensible heat is the largest non-radiative contributor to the roof's surface cooling, while the flux of latent heat (also referred to as evaporative cooling) is the largest heat sink for the soil layer. In the latter part of the study, the surface energy balance model is upgraded by adding the capability to compute changes in surface temperature and non-radiative fluxes for any specified set of thermal and reflective roof properties. The results of this analysis allow an examination of the relationship between the roof temperature, the heat flux entering the building

  2. Urban Wind Energy - State of the Art 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    Wind energy in urban areas is a new area and a rather blank page concerning design criteria, aesthetics, concepts, minimizing costs etc. Even though the potential energy in the flow is much higher on the country side or off-shore, the erection of wind turbines in urban areas is carried out and also...

  3. Energy balance framework for Net Zero Energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approaching a Net Zero Energy (NZE) building goal based on current definitions is flawed for two principal reasons - they only deal with energy quantities required for operations, and they do not establish a threshold, which ensures that buildings are optimized for reduced consum...

  4. Net energy balance of tokamak fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1981-10-01

    The net energy balance for a tokamak fusion power plant was determined by using a PWR power plant as reference system, replacing the fission-specific components by fusion-specific components and adjusting the non-reactor-specific components to altered conditions. For determining the energy input to the fusion plant a method was developed that combines the advantages of the energetic input-output method with those of process chain analysis. A comparison with PWR, HTR, FBR, and coal-fired power plants is made. As a result the net energy balance of the fusion power plant turns out to be more advantageous than that of an LWR, HTR or coal-fired power plant and nearly in the same range as FBR power plants. (orig.)

  5. Infrared radiation in the energy balance of the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordiets, B.F.; Markov, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution of the infrared radiation to the energy balance of the Earth's upper atmosphere is discussed. The theoretical analysis has been carried out of the mechanisms of the transformation of the energy of outgoing particles and the ultraviolet-radiation of the Sun absorbed at the heights of Z >= 90 km into the infrared radiation. It is found out the the infrared radiation within the wave length range of 1.2-20 μ is more intensive that the 63 μ radiation of atomic oxygen and plays an important role in the general energy balance and the thermal regime of the thermosphere. It has been found out too that in the area of Z >= 120 km heights the radiation in the 5.3 μ NO band is the most intensive. This radiation is to be considered for the more accurate description of parameters of the atmosphere (temperature, density) conditioning the nature of the translocation of ionospheric sounds (ISS)

  6. Energy Efficiency and Urban Renewal in the Economies in Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Paper notes the importance of energy consumption in agglomerations (65-70% in the economies in transition) and of related emissions. It assesses the technical and cost-effective potential for a 40% and more decrease in urban energy intensities and SO 2 /NO x emissions by 2020, resulting from a systematic approach to urban as well as energy planning. Compared to approaches worldwide, urban energy renewal in the economies in transition appears, as its beginning, characterized by a traditional focus on existing technological supply sub-systems such as district heating and co-generation. The obstacles to a more systematic approach, including demand side management, are slow progress in urban and energy reforms and a lack of acquaintance with modern planning tools. International cooperation is incommensurate with the long-term challenge of s ustainable urban development . (author)

  7. Balancing Urban Biodiversity Needs and Resident Preferences for Vacant Lot Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C. Rega-Brodsky

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban vacant lots are often a contentious feature in cities, seen as overgrown, messy eyesores that plague neighborhoods. We propose a shift in this perception to locations of urban potential, because vacant lots may serve as informal greenspaces that maximize urban biodiversity while satisfying residents’ preferences for their design and use. Our goal was to assess what kind of vacant lots are ecologically valuable by assessing their biotic contents and residents’ preferences within a variety of settings. We surveyed 150 vacant lots throughout Baltimore, Maryland for their plant and bird communities, classified the lot’s setting within the urban matrix, and surveyed residents. Remnant vacant lots had greater vegetative structure and bird species richness as compared to other lot origins, while vacant lot settings had limited effects on their contents. Residents preferred well-maintained lots with more trees and less artificial cover, support of which may increase local biodiversity in vacant lots. Collectively, we propose that vacant lots with a mixture of remnant and planted vegetation can act as sustainable urban greenspaces with the potential for some locations to enhance urban tree cover and bird habitat, while balancing the needs and preferences of city residents.

  8. Heat fluxes and energy balance in the FTU machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotti, M.; Ferro, C.; Franzoni, G.; Maddaluno, G.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loads on the FTU limiter are routinely measured and energy losses via conduction/convection are inferred. A quite small fraction of the input power (4 to 8%) has been measured from mushrooms temperature increase. Numerical evaluation and comparison with thermocouples located at different radial positions in the S.O.L. suggest a long energy decay length λ e . The power loads inferred from the estimated λE in the actual geometry of the limiter and first wall lead to a global energy balance close to be satisfied. (author)

  9. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peng; Meng Yuedong; Yu Xinyao; Chen Longwei; Jiang Yiman; Nie Guohua; Chen Mingzhou

    2009-01-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency. (plasma technology)

  10. Dissipation and energy balance in electronic dynamics of Na clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, Marc; Suraud, Eric; Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the impact of dissipation on the energy balance in the electron dynamics of metal clusters excited by strong electro-magnetic pulses. The dynamics is described theoretically by Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) at the level of Local Density Approximation (LDA) augmented by a self interaction correction term and a quantum collision term in Relaxation-Time Approximation (RTA). We evaluate the separate contributions to the total excitation energy, namely energy exported by electron emission, potential energy due to changing charge state, intrinsic kinetic and potential energy, and collective flow energy. The balance of these energies is studied as function of the laser parameters (frequency, intensity, pulse length) and as function of system size and charge. We also look at collisions with a highly charged ion and here at the dependence on the impact parameter (close versus distant collisions). Dissipation turns out to be small where direct electron emission prevails namely for laser frequencies above any ionization threshold and for slow electron extraction in distant collisions. Dissipation is large for fast collisions and at low laser frequencies, particularly at resonances. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Dynamics of Systems at the Nanoscale", edited by Andrey Solov'yov and Andrei Korol.

  11. Insulin controls food intake and energy balance via NPY neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Loh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Insulin signaling in the brain has been implicated in the control of satiety, glucose homeostasis and energy balance. However, insulin signaling is dispensable in energy homeostasis controlling AgRP or POMC neurons and it is unclear which other neurons regulate these effects. Here we describe an ancient insulin/NPY neuronal network that governs energy homeostasis across phyla. Methods: To address the role of insulin action specifically in NPY neurons, we generated a variety of models by selectively removing insulin signaling in NPY neurons in flies and mice and testing the consequences on energy homeostasis. Results: By specifically targeting the insulin receptor in both fly and mouse NPY expressing neurons, we found NPY-specific insulin signaling controls food intake and energy expenditure, and lack of insulin signaling in NPY neurons leads to increased energy stores and an obese phenotype. Additionally, the lack of insulin signaling in NPY neurons leads to a dysregulation of GH/IGF-1 axis and to altered insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that insulin actions in NPY neurons is critical for maintaining energy balance and an impairment of this pathway may be causally linked to the development of metabolic diseases. Keywords: Hypothalamus, NPY, Insulin, Obesity

  12. Brain Ceramide Metabolism in the Control of Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of energy balance by the central nervous system (CNS is a key actor of energy homeostasis in mammals, and deregulations of the fine mechanisms of nutrient sensing in the brain could lead to several metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Indeed, while neuronal activity primarily relies on glucose (lactate, pyruvate, the brain expresses at high level enzymes responsible for the transport, utilization and storage of lipids. It has been demonstrated that discrete neuronal networks in the hypothalamus have the ability to detect variation of circulating long chain fatty acids (FA to regulate food intake and peripheral glucose metabolism. During a chronic lipid excess situation, this physiological lipid sensing is impaired contributing to type 2 diabetes in predisposed subjects. Recently, different studies suggested that ceramides levels could be involved in the regulation of energy balance in both hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic areas. Moreover, under lipotoxic conditions, these ceramides could play a role in the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. In this review we aimed at describing the potential role of ceramides metabolism in the brain in the physiological and pathophysiological control of energy balance.

  13. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  14. Resiliency and medicine: how to create a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John D

    2011-01-01

    A career in orthopaedics is a race-a marathon. Many outside forces converge to increase stressors to high levels. Resiliency, or the ability to bounce back from difficulty, can be learned and nurtured. The management of energy, rather than time, holds the key to avoiding burnout. Orthopaedic surgeons must minimize "energy drain" by first recognizing their ability to become proactive and control their lives. Surgeons must learn how to say "no" and delegate work and responsibilities. A positive energy balance can be attained when relationships, not things, are given priority. A focus on passions and inspiration helps to maintain energy, while a connection to a "source" and living a morally just, service-oriented life will yield endless energy.

  15. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  16. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  17. Energy Balance, Climate, and Life \\-- Work of M. Budyko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, R. F.

    2003-12-01

    This talk will review the work of Mikhail I. Budyko, author of "Climate and Life" and many other works, who died recently at the age of 81 in St. Petersburg, Russia. He directed the Division for Climate Change Research at the State Hydrological Institute. We will explore Budyko's work in clarifying the role of energy balance in determining planetary climate, and the role of climate in regulating Earth's biosphere.

  18. Energy Balance, Climate, and Life - Work of M. Budyko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This talk will review the work of Mikhail I. Budyko, author of "Climate and Life" and many other works, who died recently at age 81, in St Petersburg, Russia. He directed the Division for Climate Change Research at the State Hydrological Institute. We will explore Budyko's work in clarifying the role of energy balance in determining planetary climate, and the role of climate in regulating Earth s biosphere.

  19. Energy balance in turbulent weakly ionized ionospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyatko, N.A.; Mishin, E.V.; Telegin, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    On the base of numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation are determined the electron distribution function and energy balance in the case if the longitudinal current exceeds the critical one and the resistance becames anomalously high one. In the equation are accounted for both electron scattering by plasma density fluctuations and electron elastic and inelastic collisions with atoms and molecules and electron-electron collisions

  20. Impact of the daily meal pattern on energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bellisle, France

    2008-01-01

    The daily distribution of food intake can influence the regulation of energy balance and, in consequence, the control of body weight. Two aspects of this question must be considered: the daily number of eating occasions and their temporal distribution. Since the 1960s, epidemiological studies have reported an inverse relationship between frequency of eating and body weight, suggesting that a ‘‘nibbling’’ pattern could help to prevent obesity. This notion has later been...

  1. Using a biocultural approach to examine migration/globalization, diet quality, and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelgreen, David A; Cantor, Allison; Arias, Sara; Romero Daza, Nancy

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact that globalization and migration (e.g., intra-/intercontinental, urban/rural, and circular) have had on diet patterns, diet quality, and energy balance as reported on in the literature during the last 20 years. Published literature from the fields of anthropology, public health, nutrition, and other disciplines (e.g., economics) was collected and reviewed. In addition, case studies from the authors' own research are presented in order to elaborate on key points and dietary trends identified in the literature. While this review is not intended to be comprehensive, the findings suggest that the effects of migration and globalization on diet quality and energy balance are neither lineal nor direct, and that the role of social and physical environments, culture, social organization, and technology must be taken into account to better understand this relationship. Moreover, concepts such as acculturation and the nutrition transition do not necessarily explain or adequately describe all of the global processes that shape diet quality and energy balance. Theories from nutritional anthropology and critical bio-cultural medical anthropology are used to tease out some of these complex interrelationships. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Energy assessment of peri-urban horticulture and its uncertainty: Case study for Bogota, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojaca, C.R. [Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorias Agroindustriales, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, P.O. Box: 140196, Chia (Colombia); Schrevens, E. [Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Applied Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Geo-Institute, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Scarce information is available about the energy use pattern of horticultural commodities in general and more specifically for peri-urban horticulture. Peri-urban horticulture in the outskirts of Bogota is an important source of vegetables for Colombia's capital city. Based on detailed follow-ups and periodic field measurements an output-input energy balance was performed with the main objective to study the energy use efficiency of those systems. An uncertainty analysis on the input factors and on the energy equivalents was then applied. Over a measurement period of 18-month, the energy use for coriander, lettuce, radish and spinach was investigated, respectively 12.1, 18.8, 6.6 and 10.7 GJ ha{sup -1} were consumed in these cropping systems. Negative balances were observed for all species exception made for spinach where an output:input ratio of 1.16 was found. The two-way uncertainty analysis showed the highest uncertainty for N-based fertilization while no significant effect was observed for seeds in direct sowing crops. Sustainability of peri-urban horticulture around Bogota is compromised not only because of the city expansion but also due to its inefficient energy use. Technical improvements are required to ensure the environmental subsistence of this important sector for the metropolitan area of the city. (author)

  3. Energy balances of OECD countries 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work contains a compilation of data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewable combustible and waste presented in energy balances. The figures are expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Historical tables summarize key energy and economic indicators as well as production, trade and final consumption data. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data as well as conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. (authors). figs., tabs

  4. Quantifying Water and Energy Fluxes Over Different Urban Land Covers in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Nicole P.; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Schreiner-McGraw, Adam P.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of urbanization on water and energy fluxes varies according to the characteristics of the urban patch type. Nevertheless, urban flux observations are limited, particularly in arid climates, given the wide variety of land cover present in cities. To help address this need, a mobile eddy covariance tower was deployed at three locations in Phoenix, Arizona, to sample the surface energy balance at a parking lot, a xeric landscaping (irrigated trees with gravel) and a mesic landscaping (irrigated turf grass). These deployments were compared to a stationary eddy covariance tower in a suburban neighborhood. A comparison of the observations revealed key differences between the mobile and reference sites tied to the urban land cover within the measurement footprints. For instance, the net radiation varied substantially among the sites in manners consistent with albedo and shallow soil temperature differences. The partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes was modulated strongly by the presence of outdoor water use, with the irrigated turf grass exhibiting the highest evaporative fraction. At this site, we identified a lack of sensitivity of turbulent flux partitioning to precipitation events, which suggests that frequent outdoor water use removes water limitations in an arid climate, thus leading to mesic conditions. Other urban land covers with less irrigation, however, exhibited sensitivity to the occurrence of precipitation, as expected for an arid climate. As a result, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of outdoor water use is critical for understanding evapotranspiration losses in arid urban areas.

  5. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  6. Urban Greening as part ofDistrict Energy Services

    OpenAIRE

    MELIN, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Work carried out during this master’s thesis is about urban greening and its close integration with district energy systems. Urban greening is the fact to develop green infrastructures (parks, street trees, ...) instead of grey infrastructures (buildings, roads, ...) in cities. Despite that the actual economic value of green infrastructure is less appreciated at first glance and very difficult to valorize, urban greening has many undeniable advantages such as reducing pollution and heat islan...

  7. Japanese energy balances after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuhiro; Moriyama, Ryo; Ishimoto, Yuki; Tomikatsu, Koji; Hagiwara, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake, disaster response and risk of nuclear accident became a new issue and the public against nuclear power was increasing with knowing a long-term period required for restoration from Fukushima accident. This article described effects of 'de-nuclear power' policy with no additional plants on energy balances in 2030 and 2050 with simulated energy model based on government's long-term energy supply-demand outlook issued in 2009. Main assumed conditions were as follows; (1) nuclear power of case B) 40 years operation and C) 60 years operation, (2) share of photovoltaic and wind power was assumed to be 9% of total power generation and the same as planned before the earthquake disaster, which could not replace nuclear power and (3) final consumption of case 2) 8% saving and 3) 20% saving. Effects of 'de-nuclear power' in 2030 were (1) CO 2 emission difference between B) and C) was 50 Mt and (2) estimated cost increase between B) and C) was 0.1 T yen/year for CO 2 emission, 1 T yen/year for LNG procurement and 2.4 T yen for thermal power construction. Energy balances in 2050 were much influenced by trend of renewable energy technology development and fossil energy procurement and use. Sophisticated power change measures using storage battery for renewable energy should be developed, otherwise if power change were dealt with thermal power, share would be limited to 15-20% of total power generation. If CO 2 emission in 2050 was limited to 50% instead of formally announced 80% of CO 2 emission in 1990, share of non-fossil power (nuclear power + renewable energy) became almost 100% for case 3). Base technology of nuclear power should remain as option for the case where fossil energy procurement and CO 2 emission limit became restrictive in 2050. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Summertime influences of tidal energy advection on the surface energy balance in a mangrove forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Barr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are ecosystems susceptible to changing water levels and temperatures due to climate change as well as perturbations resulting from tropical storms. Numerical models can be used to project mangrove forest responses to regional and global environmental changes, and the reliability of these models depends on surface energy balance closure. However, for tidal ecosystems, the surface energy balance is complex because the energy transport associated with tidal activity remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify impacts of tidal flows on energy dynamics within a mangrove ecosystem. To address the research objective, an intensive 10-day study was conducted in a mangrove forest located along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park, FL, USA. Forest–atmosphere turbulent exchanges of energy were quantified with an eddy covariance system installed on a 30-m-tall flux tower. Energy transport associated with tidal activity was calculated based on a coupled mass and energy balance approach. The mass balance included tidal flows and accumulation of water on the forest floor. The energy balance included temporal changes in enthalpy, resulting from tidal flows and temperature changes in the water column. By serving as a net sink or a source of available energy, flood waters reduced the impact of high radiational loads on the mangrove forest. Also, the regression slope of available energy versus sink terms increased from 0.730 to 0.754 and from 0.798 to 0.857, including total enthalpy change in the water column in the surface energy balance for 30-min periods and daily daytime sums, respectively. Results indicated that tidal inundation provides an important mechanism for heat removal and that tidal exchange should be considered in surface energy budgets of coastal ecosystems. Results also demonstrated the importance of including tidal energy advection in mangrove biophysical models that are used for predicting ecosystem

  9. Energy saving in greenhouses can be obtained by energy balance-controlled screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, N. E. (Univ. of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Horticulture, Aarslev (Denmark)), e-mail: niels.andersson@agrsci.dk

    2011-03-15

    The energy screens in two greenhouses, one clad with double acrylic and one with single glass, were controlled by an energy balance model. The parameters in the model were heat transmission coefficients, air temperature in the greenhouse and outdoors, irradiance and a single constant for the solar energy efficiency. The energy consumption, screen movements and daily light integral were compared with a glass greenhouse in which the energy screens were controlled by irradiance. In the greenhouse with light-controlled screens the set point for opening and closing of the screens was 5 Wm-2. The energy-saving screens controlled by the energy balance model opened later and closed earlier than in the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. When using the energy balance model the energy saving was 14% for the glass greenhouse and 41% for the double acrylic greenhouse compared with the glass greenhouse with light-controlled screens. The air temperature was on average similar in the three greenhouses, but when the screens were controlled by energy balance the daily light integral was approximately 10% lower and the number of hours the screens were closed was prolonged with 35% for the glass-covered greenhouse and 25% for the double acrylic-covered greenhouse compared with the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. Energy peaks in connection with operation of the screens were not reduced. During the experiment Begonia elatior, Dendranthema grandiflora (Chrysanthemum), Hedera helix, Helianthus annuus, Gerbera jamesonii and Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were grown in the greenhouses. There was a trend in prolongation of the production time when the plants were grown in the glass greenhouse with energy balance control of the screens. A lower number of flowers or inflorescences were observed for some of the plant species produced in the greenhouses with energy balance-controlled screens

  10. Balancing multiple roles among a group of urban midlife American Indian working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, L

    2000-06-01

    Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.

  11. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Work-Family Balance Scale in an Urban Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chi, Peilian; Chan, Kinsun; Cheung, Yee Tak; Zhang, Xiulan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Work-Family Balance Scale (WFBS) and examine its reliability and validity in use in the urban Chinese population. The scale was validated using a sample of 605 urban Chinese residents from 7 cities. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: work-family conflict and…

  12. Decomposing energy balance contributions for quenched jets with CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, Olga

    2016-12-15

    Modification of energy balance in dijet events from heavy ion collisions, measured by CMS, was among the first jet quenching observations in the LHC energy domain. Here we further study the spatial extent of medium-induced modifications for such dijets, as well as potential medium response to propagating partons, using two-dimensional angular correlations of charged hadrons measured with respect to jets. New differential measurements of charged particle energy flow about the jet direction as a function of relative azimuth and relative pseudorapidity from 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions are compared with the reference pp data recorded by the CMS at the same energy. Modifications of correlated charged hadron distributions for both the leading and the subleading sides of the dijet are reported, together with comparisons of the long-range asymmetry of the underlying event in PbPb vs pp collisions.

  13. Forecast of wind energy production and ensuring required balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, M.

    2010-01-01

    The wind energy is gaining larger part of the energy mix around the world as well as in Bulgaria. Having in mind the irregularity of the wind, we are in front of a challenge for management of the power grid in new unknown conditions. The world's experience has proven that there could be no effective management of the grid without forecasting tools, even with small scale of wind power penetration. Application of such tools promotes simple management of large wind energy production and reduction of the quantities of required balancing powers. The share of the expenses and efforts for forecasting of the wind energy is incomparably small in comparison with expenses for keeping additional powers in readiness. The recent computers potential allow simple and rapid processing of large quantities of data from different sources, which provides required conditions for modeling the world's climate and producing sophisticated forecast. (author)

  14. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Through Balanced Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Douligeris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide utilization of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is obstructed by the severely limited energy constraints of the individual sensor nodes. This is the reason why a large part of the research in WSNs focuses on the development of energy efficient routing protocols. In this paper, a new protocol called Equalized Cluster Head Election Routing Protocol (ECHERP, which pursues energy conservation through balanced clustering, is proposed. ECHERP models the network as a linear system and, using the Gaussian elimination algorithm, calculates the combinations of nodes that can be chosen as cluster heads in order to extend the network lifetime. The performance evaluation of ECHERP is carried out through simulation tests, which evince the effectiveness of this protocol in terms of network energy efficiency when compared against other well-known protocols.

  15. Energy and fuel efficient parallel mild hybrids for urban roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Ajay; Ashok, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and fuel savings depend on battery charge variations and the vehicle speed parameters. • Indian urban conditions provide lot of scope for energy and fuel savings in mild hybrids. • Energy saving strategy has lower payback periods than the fuel saving one in mild hybrids. • Sensitivity to parameter variations is the least for energy saving strategy in a mild hybrid. - Abstract: Fuel economy improvements and battery energy savings can promote the adoption of parallel mild hybrids for urban driving conditions. The aim of this study is to establish these benefits through two operating modes: an energy saving mode and a fuel saving mode. The performances of a typical parallel mild hybrid using these modes were analysed over urban driving cycles, in the US, Europe, and India, with a particular focus on the Indian urban conditions. The energy pack available from the proposed energy-saving operating mode, in addition to the energy already available from the conventional mode, was observed to be the highest for the representative urban driving cycle of the US. The extra energy pack available was found to be approximately 21.9 times that available from the conventional mode. By employing the proposed fuel saving operating mode, the fuel economy improvement achievable in New York City was observed to be approximately 22.69% of the fuel economy with the conventional strategy. The energy saving strategy was found to possess the lowest payback periods and highest immunity to variations in various cost parameters.

  16. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  17. Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M

    2015-02-01

    Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from

  18. Smartness and Urban Resilience. A Model of Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-10-01

    The results have shown that the possibility of identifying an "ideal" sustainable urban form, able to maximize energy efficiency, still remains theoretical, opening up the possibility that there are different consumption patterns due to the different physical, environmental and building characteristics of urban areas.

  19. Energy in the urban environment: the role of energy use and energy efficiency in buildings; Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Mark D.; Meier, Alan K.

    1999-01-01

    A century ago, the world had many cities of which the greatest were magnificent centers of culture and commerce. However, even in the most industrialized countries at the time, only a tiny fraction of the people lived in these cities. Most people lived in rural areas, in small towns, in villages, and on farms. Visits to a great city were, for most of the population, uncommon events often of great fascination. The world has changed dramatically in the intervening years. Now most of the industrial world lives in urban areas in close proximity to large cities. Industry is often located in these vast urban areas. As the urbanized zones grow in extent, they begin to approach one another, as on the East Coast of the United States. The phenomenon of urbanization has moved to developing countries as well. There has been a flood of migrants who have left impoverished rural areas to seek economic opportunities in urban areas throughout the developing world. This movement from the countryside to cities has changed the entire landscape and economies of developing nations. Importantly, the growth of cities places very great demands on infrastructure. Transportation systems are needed to assure that a concentrated population can receive food from the countryside without fail. They are needed to assure personal and work-related travel. Water supplies must be created, water must be purified and maintained pure, and this water must be made available to a large population. Medical services - and a host of other vital services - must be provided to the population. Energy is a vital underpinning of all these activities, and must be supplied to the city in large quantities. Energy is, in many ways, the enabler of all the other services on which the maintenance of urban life depends. In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of energy use in residential and commercial buildings. This topic goes beyond urban energy use, as buildings exist in both urban and non-urban areas. The topic

  20. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  1. Prediction Based Energy Balancing Forwarding in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent cellular network technologies, relay stations extend cell coverage and enhance signal strength for mobile users. However, busy traffic makes the relay stations in hot area run out of energy quickly. Energy is a very important factor in the forwarding of cellular network since mobile users(cell phones in hot cells often suffer from low throughput due to energy lack problems. In many situations, the energy lack problems take place because the energy loading is not balanced. In this paper, we present a prediction based forwarding algorithm to let a mobile node dynamically select the next relay station with highest potential energy capacity to resume communication. Key to this strategy is that a relay station only maintains three past status, and then it is able to predict the potential energy capacity. Then, the node selects the next hop with potential maximal energy. Moreover, a location based algorithm is developed to let the mobile node figure out the target region in order to avoid flooding. Simulations demonstrate that our approach significantly increase the aggregate throughput and decrease the delay in cellular network environment.

  2. Capsaicin increases sensation of fullness in energy balance, and decreases desire to eat after dinner in negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-06-01

    Addition of capsaicin (CAPS) to the diet has been shown to increase satiety; therefore, CAPS is of interest for anti-obesity therapy. We investigated the effects of CAPS on appetite profile and ad libitum energy intake in relation to energy balance. Fifteen subjects (seven women and eight men, age: 29.7 ± 10.8yrs, BMI: 23.3 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) underwent four conditions in a randomized crossover design in 36 hour sessions in a respiration chamber; they received 100% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "100%Control" and "100%CAPS", and 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "75%Control" and "75%CAPS", followed by an ad libitum dinner. In the 100%CAPS and 75%CAPS conditions, CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units) with every meal. Satiety (P dinner desire to eat, satiety and fullness did not differ between 75%CAPS and 100%Control, while desire to eat was higher (P dinner, capsaicin prevents the effects of the negative energy balance on desire to eat. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Urban form and energy use for transport. A Nordic experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P

    1995-02-10

    The main research problem addressed in this thesis is the possible influence of several urban form variables on the amount of transportation, on the modal split between different means of transport, and on energy use for transportation. This problem is elucidated through five empirical investigations covering different geographic levels in a Nordic context, from individual employees and households to commuting regions. A main feature of the study is the combination of socioeconomic and urban form variables in empirical investigations, employing techniques of multivariate analysis. The investigations of residential areas and job sites have been based on travel surveys, while the investigations where the units of analysis are towns or regions have been based on fuel sales. The socioeconomic data have been collected from official statistics and from questionnaires. It is found that urban form variables exert important influences on transportation energy use. Urban density affects energy use for transportation. A central location of residences as well as workplaces is favourable with respect to energy conservation on an intra-urban scale, but not in a wider geographical context, where decentralization into several dense, relatively self-contained local communities distributed over the region is the most energy-saving pattern of regional development. Urban form characteristics favourable for minimizing transport energy requirements also seem favourable for energy conservation in buildings. 160 refs., 39 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Essl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is

  6. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemen A. Nanninga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation

  7. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby

  8. Class transformation and work-life balance in urban Britain: the case of Manchester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kevin; Fagan, Colette; McDowell, Linda; Perrons, Diane; Ray, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an expansion in the work on the attitudes, beliefs and preferences of those middle-class groups that have accompanied the return of capital to many North American and western European city centres and their surrounding urban suburbs. Yet despite this, it is argued that there is little research linking gentrification to wider processes of social transformation, particularly debates over housing market decision-making, the balancing of work and life, and the gender division of labour within the household. It is to examining the interaction of these aspects of everyday life in a gentrifying area that this paper turns, using the example of Chorlton, a southern urban suburb of Manchester.

  9. Net energy balance of tokamak fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1983-01-01

    The net energy balance for a tokamak fusion power plant of present day design is determined by using a PWR power plant as reference system, replacing the fission-specific components by fusion-specific components and adjusting the non-reactor-specific components to altered conditions. For determining the energy input to the fusion plant a method was developed that combines the advantages of the energetic input-output method with those of process chain analysis. A comparison with PWR, HTR, FBR, and coal-fired power plants is made. As a result the energy expenditures of the fusion power plant turn out to be lower than that of an LWR, HTR, or coal-fired power plant of equal net electric power output and nearly in the same range as FBR power plants. (orig.)

  10. Energy Balance of the Netherlands. CBS versus IEA, Eurostat and UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2010-03-01

    The physical energy system of the Netherlands is described in the so-called Energy balance of CBS (Statistics Netherlands). The statistical office of Europe (Eurostat) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) also publish an energy balance of the Netherlands. They use data provided to these organizations by CBS. The main lines of these balances are the same as the CBS balance. Nevertheless, there are quite a number of differences, despite the use of the same basic data. [nl

  11. Application of He’s Energy Balance Method to Duffing-Harmonic Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, M.; Jamshidi, j.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, He's energy balance method is applied for calculating angular frequencies of nonlinear Duffing oscillators. This method offers a promising approach by constructing a Hamiltonian for the nonlinear oscillator. We illustrate that the energy balance is very effective and convenient...... and does not require linearization or small perturbation. Contrary to the conventional methods, in energy balance, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions. It is predicted that the energy balance method finds wide applications in engineering problems....

  12. Optimal energy management of urban rail systems: Key performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overall picture of urban rail energy use is provided. • Performance indicators are developed for urban rail system energy optimisation. • A multi-level methodology for assessing energy efficiency measures is presented. - Abstract: Urban rail systems are facing increasing pressure to minimise their energy consumption and thusly reduce their operational costs and environmental impact. However, given the complexity of such systems, this can only be effectively achieved through a holistic approach which considers the numerous interdependences between subsystems (i.e. vehicles, operations and infrastructure). Such an approach requires a comprehensive set of energy consumption-related Key Performance Indicators (KEPIs) that enable: a multilevel analysis of the actual energy performance of the system; an assessment of potential energy saving strategies; and the monitoring of the results of implemented measures. This paper proposes an original, complete list of KEPIs developed through a scientific approach validated by different stakeholders. It consists of a hierarchical list of 22 indicators divided into two levels: 10 key performance indicators, to ascertain the performance of the whole system and complete subsystems; and 12 performance indicators, to evaluate the performance of single units within subsystems, for example, a single rail vehicle or station. Additionally, the paper gives a brief insight into urban rail energy usage by providing an adequate context in which to understand the proposed KEPIs, together with a methodology describing their application when optimising the energy consumption of urban rail systems

  13. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures.

  14. Urban energy generation and the role of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Although a major part of energy consumption happens in cities, contemporary energy generation is less obviously connected to the urban structure. Energy based on fossil fuels and consumed in transportation is produced at global scale; energy for electricity is usually distributed through a national...... or continental grid; energy for heating, if related to district heating systems or the use of local/regional resources for its generation (e.g. biomass, waste), has a more local or at least regional character. In the latter case, electricity might be a by-product of combined-heat-power plants, but still feeding...... on energy generation and distribution. However, contemporary focus on sustainable and efficient use of resources and energy at local level, mainstreaming of renewable energy production and ideas of urban energy harvesting put energy generation again on the local agenda. The role of cities can be twofold: (1...

  15. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  16. Dependence of balance energy on isospin degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sood, Aman D.; Puri, Rajeev K.; Hartnack, Ch.; Aichelin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Collective transverse in-plane flow in heavy ion collisions has been a subject of intensive theoretical and experimental studies, as it can provide information about the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) as well as in medium nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross section. The study of dependence of collective transverse flow on various entrance channel parameters as beam energy and impact parameter has revealed much interesting physics about the origin and properties of the collective flow. From these studies, it has been found that the transverse in plane flow disappears at an incident energy termed as balance energy (E bal ), where attractive part of the nuclear interactions balances the repulsive part. Presently, due to availability of the radioactive beams, role of isospin degrees of freedom in EOS can be studied. The collective transverse in-plane flow has been found to depend on isospin of the colliding system. Here, we aim to study the dependence of E bal on N/Z ratio of the colliding system using IQMD model

  17. Eight energy and material flow characteristics of urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuemei

    2016-11-01

    Recent decades have seen an expanding literature exploring urban energy and material flows, loosely branded as urban metabolism analysis. However, this has occurred largely in parallel to the mainstream studies of cities as ecosystems. This paper aims to conceptually bridge these two distinctive fields of research, by (a) identifying the common aspects between them; (b) identifying key characteristics of urban ecosystems that can be derived from energy and material flow analysis, namely energy and material budget and pathways; flow intensity; energy and material efficiency; rate of resource depletion, accumulation and transformation; self-sufficiency or external dependency; intra-system heterogeneity; intersystem and temporal variation; and regulating mechanism and governing capacity. I argue that significant ecological insight can be, or has the potential to be, drawn from the rich and rapidly growing empirical findings of urban metabolism studies to understand the behaviour of cities as human-dominated, complex systems. A closer intellectual linkage and cross pollination between urban metabolism and urban ecosystem studies will advance our scientific understanding and better inform urban policy and management practices.

  18. Compensatory Changes in Energy Balance Regulation over One Athletic Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; MüLLER, Manfred J; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, LUíS B

    2017-06-01

    Mechanisms in energy balance (EB) regulation may include compensatory changes in energy intake (EI) and metabolic adaption (MA), but information is unavailable in athletes who often change EB components. We aim to investigate EB regulation compensatory mechanisms over one athletic season. Fifty-seven athletes (39 males/18 females; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive phase of the season. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, respectively, and physical activity energy expenditure was determined as TEE - 0.1(TEE) - REE. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and changed body energy stores was determined by 1.0(ΔFFM/Δtime) + 9.5(ΔFM/Δtime). EI was derived as TEE + EB. REE was predicted from baseline FFM, FM, sex, and sports. %MA was calculated as 100(measured REE/predicted REE-1) and MA (kcal) as %MA/100 multiplied by baseline measured REE. Average EI minus average physical activity energy expenditure was computed as a proxy of average energy availability, assuming that a constant nonexercise EE occurred over the season. Body mass increased by 0.8 ± 2.5 kg (P energy availability (r = 0.356 and r = 0.0644, respectively). TEE increased over the season without relevant mean changes in weight, suggesting that EI compensation likely occurred. The thrifty or spendthrift phenotypes observed among sports and the demanding workloads these athletes are exposed to highlight the need for sport-specific energy requirements.

  19. Dynamic Response of Inextensible Beams by Improved Energy Balance Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sfahani, M. G.; Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M.

    2011-01-01

    An improved He's energy balance method (EBM) for solving non-linear oscillatory differential equation using a new trial function is presented. The problem considered represents the governing equations of the non-linear, large-amplitude free vibrations of a slender cantilever beam...... with a rotationally flexible root and carrying a lumped mass at an intermediate position along its span. Based on the simple EBM, the variational integral of the non-linear conservative system is established, and the Fourier series expansion is employed to address the governing algebraic equations. An alternate...

  20. Arctic melt ponds and energy balance in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Elements of Earth's cryosphere, such as the summer Arctic sea ice pack, are melting at precipitous rates that have far outpaced the projections of large scale climate models. Understanding key processes, such as the evolution of melt ponds that form atop Arctic sea ice and control its optical properties, is crucial to improving climate projections. These types of critical phenomena in the cryosphere are of increasing interest as the climate system warms, and are crucial for predicting its stability. In this paper, we consider how geometrical properties of melt ponds can influence ice-albedo feedback and how it can influence the equilibria in the energy balance of the planet.

  1. The Precession Index and a Nonlinear Energy Balance Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David

    2004-01-01

    A simple nonlinear energy balance climate model yields a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin (Omega)S, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and (Omega)S is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these long periods. A nonlinear energy balance climate model with radiative terms of form T n, where T is surface temperature and n less than 1, does produce e sin (omega)S terms in temperature; the e sin (omega)S terms are called Seversmith psychroterms. Without feedback mechanisms, the model achieves extreme values of 0.64 K at the maximum orbital eccentricity of 0.06, cooling one hemisphere while simultaneously warming the other; the hemisphere over which perihelion occurs is the cooler. In other words, the nonlinear energy balance model produces long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perihelion is near northern summer solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the aphelion is near northern summer solstice. (This behavior is similar to the inertialess gray body which radiates like T 4, but the amplitude is much lower for the energy balance model because of its thermal inertia.) This seemingly paradoxical behavior works against the standard Milankovitch model, which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it must be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is far from the Earth during northern summer. The cold

  2. Energy balance of a wood biomass combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggio, P.; Cemin, A.; Grigiante, M.; Ragazzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the results of a project developed at the University of Trent dealing with some wood biomass combustion processes. The project has been particularly dedicated to the study of the energetic analysis of the combustion processes that occur on a gasified wood stove of advanced combustion technologies. A considerable number of experimental tests has been carried out making use of different type of wood widely in use in Trentino region. The wood stove is a part of a pilot plant providing an hydraulic circuit equipped with a specific apparatus to measure all the necessary data to determine the energy balance required and specifically the thermal efficiency of the plant [it

  3. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2007. Calendar year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects, the installed capacity, the CO 2 emissions, the general structure of the balance, the information treatment, the conversion factors and the consolidated energy balance

  4. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2005. Calendar year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; the balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects; the installed capacity; de CO 2 emissions; the general structure of the balance; the information treatment; conversion factors and the consolidated energy balances

  5. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2006. Calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents an abstract of the analyzed period as follows: supply and demand of the energy by source; energy consumption by sector; external commerce of energy; the balances of the transformation centers; energy and social economy; energy resources and reserves. The annexes show the regional and historical aspects; the installed capacity; the CO 2 emissions; the general structure of the balance; the information treatment; conversion factors and the consolidated energy balance

  6. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Loan T.; Ierland, Ekko C. van; Zhu, Xueqin; Wesseler, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava-based ethanol as energy for transportation. Energy and GHG balances are calculated for a functional unit of 1 km of road transportation using life-cycle assessment and considering effects of land use change (LUC). Based on a case study in Vietnam, the results show that the energy input for and GHG emissions from ethanol production are 0.93 MJ and 34.95 g carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of ethanol respectively. The use of E5 and E10 as a substitute for gasoline results in energy savings, provided that their fuel consumption in terms of liter per kilometer of transportation is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. It will reduce GHG emissions, provided that the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 3.8% and 7.8% respectively. The quantitative effects depend on the efficiency in production and on the fuel efficiency of E5 and E10. The variations in results of energy input and GHG emissions in the ethanol production among studies are due to differences in coverage of effects of LUC, CO 2 photosynthesis of cassava, yields of cassava, energy efficiency in farming, and by-product analyses. -- Highlights: ► Cassava-based ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 could save 1.4 MJ km −1 ► Ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 reduces a CO 2 e emission of 156 g km −1 ► We examined changes in fuel efficiency of blends affecting energy and GHG balances. ► LUC and change in soil management lead to a CO 2 e emission of 942 g L −1 of ethanol. ► LUC effects, energy inputs, yields, and by-products explain results among

  7. The water balance of the urban Salt Lake Valley: a multiple-box model validated by observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stwertka, C.; Strong, C.

    2012-12-01

    A main focus of the recently awarded National Science Foundation (NSF) EPSCoR Track-1 research project "innovative Urban Transitions and Arid-region Hydro-sustainability (iUTAH)" is to quantify the primary components of the water balance for the Wasatch region, and to evaluate their sensitivity to climate change and projected urban development. Building on the multiple-box model that we developed and validated for carbon dioxide (Strong et al 2011), mass balance equations for water in the atmosphere and surface are incorporated into the modeling framework. The model is used to determine how surface fluxes, ground-water transport, biological fluxes, and meteorological processes regulate water cycling within and around the urban Salt Lake Valley. The model is used to evaluate the hypotheses that increased water demand associated with urban growth in Salt Lake Valley will (1) elevate sensitivity to projected climate variability and (2) motivate more attentive management of urban water use and evaporative fluxes.

  8. A closed-loop energy price controlling method for real-time energy balancing in a smart grid energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagoz, B. Baykant; Kaygusuz, Asim; Akcin, Murat; Alagoz, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Future smart grids will require a flexible, observable, and controllable network for reliable and efficient energy delivery under uncertain generation and demand conditions. One of the mechanisms for efficient and reliable energy generation is dynamic demand-responsive generation management based on energy price adjustments that creates a balance in energy markets. This study presents a closed-loop PID (proportional–integral–derivative) controller-based price control method for autonomous and real-time balancing of energy demand and generation in smart grid electricity markets. The PID control system can regulate energy prices online to respond dynamically and instantaneously to the varying energy demands of grid consumers. Independent energy suppliers in the smart grid decide whether to sell their energy to the grid according to the energy prices declared by the closed-loop PID controller system. Energy market simulations demonstrate that PID-controlled energy price regulation can effectively maintain an energy balance for hourly demand fluctuations of consumers. - Highlights: • This study presents a control theoretic approach for management of energy balance. • A closed-loop PID controller-based price controlling method is used in smart grid. • The simulation results demonstrate advantages of PID-based energy price control. • This method is appropriate for demand responsive management of smart grid markets

  9. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a

  10. Fuzzy droop control loops adjustment for stored energy balance in distributed energy storage system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    system, in order to smooth the variations at the prime energy generator. In this paper, a decentralized strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed in order to balance the state of charge of distributed energy storage systems in lowvoltage three phase AC microgrid. The proposed method weights the action...

  11. Energy balance, carbon emissions, and costs of sortyard debris disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC), with funding from Natural Resources Canada, conducted this study to determine the main environmental and energy use issues regarding the landfilling, burning or processing of dryland sortyard debris accumulated in the wood products industry. The wood residues that are generated when logs are processed, sorted and remanufactured, have traditionally been burned or landfilled. This is no longer appropriate. Converting the large woody debris into usable products such as hog fuel or compost requires grinding, smashing or chipping into small pieces to facilitate transportation. In order to make smart decisions about alternative methods of handling sortyard debris, information is needed about the comparative amount of fuel used and carbon dioxide produced. This study compared the treatment alternatives with respect to fuel consumption, net energy balance, carbon dioxide emissions and environmental impact. Recommendations were then presented for the treatment of debris from the point of view of net energy balance and environmental impact. Life cycle techniques were used to determine the environmental impact of alternatives for managing sortyard debris. It was determined that wood wastes are valuable as hog fuel for power generation. Burning hog fuel to recover its energy offsets the need to supply energy from other sources such as natural gas. This reduces the total carbon emissions by the amount of debris that would have been burned as waste. Annual carbon emissions can be reduced by nearly half by switching from a maximize burn strategy to a maximize hog strategy that combines composting of fine materials. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  12. Seasonal contrast in the surface energy balance of the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Slingo, A.; Barnard, J. C.; Kassianov, E.

    2009-07-01

    Over much of the world, heating of the surface by sunlight is balanced predominately by evaporative cooling. However, at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) in Niamey, Niger, evaporation makes a significant contribution to the surface energy balance only at the height of the rainy season, when precipitation has replenished the reservoir of soil moisture. The AMF was placed at Niamey from late 2005 to early 2007 to provide measurements of surface fluxes in coordination with geostationary satellite retrievals of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, as part of the RADAGAST experiment to calculate atmospheric radiative divergence. We use observations at the mobile facility to investigate how the surface adjusts to radiative forcing throughout the year. The surface response to solar heating varies with changes in atmospheric water vapor associated with the seasonal reversal of the West African monsoon, which modulates the greenhouse effect and the ability of the surface to radiate thermal energy directly to space. During the dry season, sunlight is balanced mainly by longwave radiation and the turbulent flux of sensible heat. The ability of longwave radiation to cool the surface drops after the onset of southwesterly surface winds at Niamey, when moist, oceanic air flows onshore, increasing local column moisture and atmospheric opacity. Following the onset of southwesterly flow, evaporation remains limited by the supply of moisture from precipitation. By the height of the rainy season, however, sufficient precipitation has accumulated that evaporation is controlled by incident sunlight, and radiative forcing of the surface is balanced comparably by the latent, sensible, and longwave fluxes. Evaporation increases with the leaf area index, suggesting that plants are a significant source of atmospheric moisture and may tap moisture stored beneath the surface that accumulated during a previous rainy season. Surface radiative forcing

  13. Urbanization Process and Variation of Energy Budget of Land Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Gardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing at a rate much higher than human population growth in many part of the world; actually more than 73 towns in the world are larger than 1000 km2. The European Environmental Agency indicates an urban area average growth rate, over the last 20 years, of 20%. The urbanization process, and the consequent soil sealing, determines not only the losses of the ecological functions of the soil, but also a variation of the energy budget of land surfaces, that affect the microclimatic conditions (heat islands. The alteration of the energy budget are determined by the variations of albedo and roughness of surfaces, but especially by the net losses of evapotranspirating areas. In the present research we have assessed the variation of Parma territory energy budget, induced by the change in land use over the last 122 years. The urban area increase between 1881 and 2003 was 535%.

  14. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  15. Investigation of Future Thermal Comforts in a Tropical Megacity Using Coupling of Energy Balance Model and Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueishi, T.; Yucel, M.; Ashie, Y.; Varquez, A. C. G.; Inagaki, A.; Darmanto, N. S.; Nakayoshi, M.; Kanda, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, temperature in urban areas continue to rise as an effect of climate change and urbanization. Specifically, Asian megacities are projected to expand rapidly resulting to serious in the future atmospheric environment. Thus, detailed analysis of urban meteorology for Asian megacities is needed to prescribe optimum against these negative climate modifications. A building-resolving large eddy simulation (LES) coupled with an energy balance model is conducted for a highly urbanized district in central Jakarta on typical daytime hours. Five cases were considered; case 1 utilizes present urban scenario and four cases representing different urban configurations in 2050. The future configurations were based on representative concentration pathways (RCP) and shared socio-economic pathways (SSP). Building height maps and land use maps of simulation domains are shown in the attached figure (top). Case 1 3 focuses on the difference of future scenarios. Case 1 represents current climatic and urban conditions, case 2 and 3 was an idealized future represented by RCP2.6/SSP1 and RCP8.5/SSP3, respectively. More complex urban morphology was applied in case 4, vegetation and building area were changed in case 5. Meteorological inputs and anthropogenic heat emission (AHE) were calculated using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Varquez et al [2017]). Sensible and latent heat flux from surfaces were calculated using an energy balance model (Ashie et al [2011]), with considers multi-reflection, evapotranspiration and evaporation. The results of energy balance model (shown in the middle line of figure), in addition to WRF outputs, were used as input into the PArallelized LES Model (PALM) (Raasch et al [2001]). From standard new effective temperature (SET*) which included the effects of temperature, wind speed, humidity and radiation, thermal comfort in urban area was evaluated. SET* contours at 1 m height are shown in the bottom line of the figure. Extreme climate

  16. City-integrated renewable energy for urban sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M; Sunter, Deborah A

    2016-05-20

    To prepare for an urban influx of 2.5 billion people by 2050, it is critical to create cities that are low-carbon, resilient, and livable. Cities not only contribute to global climate change by emitting the majority of anthropogenic greenhouse gases but also are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and extreme weather. We explore options for establishing sustainable energy systems by reducing energy consumption, particularly in the buildings and transportation sectors, and providing robust, decentralized, and renewable energy sources. Through technical advancements in power density, city-integrated renewable energy will be better suited to satisfy the high-energy demands of growing urban areas. Several economic, technical, behavioral, and political challenges need to be overcome for innovation to improve urban sustainability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1997. Base year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This energy balance of the Santa Catarina State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1996; energy consumption by sector 1983/1996; socio-economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1984/1996

  18. Energy Balance of the Sao Paulo State -1998 Base year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This energy balance of the Sao Paulo State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: panorama of the energy matrix; supply and demand of energy by source 1983-1997; energy consumption by sector 1983/1997; economic aspects; resources and reserves energy; and balance of the transformation centers 1983/1997

  19. Acute effects of capsaicin on energy expenditure and fat oxidation in negative energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilou L H R Janssens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addition of capsaicin (CAPS to the diet has been shown to increase energy expenditure; therefore capsaicin is an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. AIM: We investigated the 24 h effects of CAPS on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure during 25% negative energy balance. METHODS: Subjects underwent four 36 h sessions in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. They received 100% or 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions '100%CAPS', '100%Control', '75%CAPS' and '75%Control'. CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units (SHU with every meal. RESULTS: An induced negative energy balance of 25% was effectively a 20.5% negative energy balance due to adapting mechanisms. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT and resting energy expenditure (REE at 75%CAPS did not differ from DIT and REE at 100%Control, while at 75%Control these tended to be or were lower than at 100%Control (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02 respectively. Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR at 75%CAPS did not differ from SMR at 100%CAPS, while SMR at 75%Control was lower than at 100%CAPS (p = 0.04. Fat oxidation at 75%CAPS was higher than at 100%Control (p = 0.03, while with 75%Control it did not differ from 100%Control. Respiratory quotient (RQ was more decreased at 75%CAPS (p = 0.04 than at 75%Control (p = 0.05 when compared with 100%Control. Blood pressure did not differ between the four conditions. CONCLUSION: In an effectively 20.5% negative energy balance, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal supports negative energy balance by counteracting the unfavorable negative energy balance effect of decrease in components of energy expenditure. Moreover, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal promotes fat oxidation in negative energy balance and does not increase blood pressure significantly. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  20. Energy balance of forage consumption by phyllophagous insects: optimization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tarasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of optimal food consumption by phytophagous insects proposed, in which the metabolic costs are presented in the form of two components – the cost of food utilization and costs for proper metabolism of the individuals. Two measures were introduced – the «price» of food conversion and the «price» of biomass synthesis of individuals to assess the effectiveness of food consumption by caterpillars. The proposed approach to the description of food consumption by insects provides the exact solutions of the equation of energy balance of food consumption and determining the effectiveness of consumption and the risk of death of the individual. Experiments on larvae’s feeding in laboratory conditions were carried out to verify the model. Caterpillars of Aporia crataegi L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae were the research subjects. Supply­demand balance, calculated value of the environmental price of consumption and efficiency of food consumption for each individual were determined from experimental data. It was found that the fertility of the female does not depend on the weight of food consumed by it, but is linearly dependent on the food consumption efficiency index. The greater the efficiency of food consumption by an individual, the higher its fertility. The data obtained in the course of experiments on the feeding caterpillars Aporia crataegi were compared with the data presented in the works of other authors and counted in the proposed model of consumption. Calculations allowed estimation of the critical value of food conversion price below which the energy balance is negative and the existence of an individual is not possible.

  1. Energy balance and photochemical processes in the inner coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Keady, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Energy balance and multifluid flow in the coma are described. Expansion cooling, radiative cooling, photodissociative heating, chemical heating, and relative multifluid flow are the processes determining the energy budget. In the fluid dynamics, fast atomic and molecular hydrogen are considered as separate fluids with larger collision mean free paths than the cold bulk fluid that has a larger mean molecular weight. The transition from fluid flow to free molecular flow is approximated. The model predicts hydrogen and bulk fluid flow velocities in general agreement with observations. The effects of the temperature profile and the fast hydrogen flow on the chemistry in the inner coma are investigated. Results from a model approximating conditions in Halley's comet are presented

  2. Comparison between two models of energy balance in coronal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Cormack, C.; López Fuentes, M.; Vásquez, A. M.; Nuevo, F. A.; Frazin, R. A.; Landi, E.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we compare two models to analyze the energy balance along coronal magnetic loops. For the first stationary model we deduce an expression of the energy balance along the loops expressed in terms of quantities provided by the combination of differential emission measure tomography (DEMT) applied to EUV images time series and potential extrapolations of the coronal magnetic field. The second applied model is a 0D hydrodynamic model that provides the evolution of the average properties of the coronal plasma along the loops, using as input parameters the loop length and the heating rate obtained with the first model. We compare the models for two Carrington rotations (CR) corresponding to different periods of activity: CR 2081, corresponding to a period of minimum activity observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) on board of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), and CR 2099, corresponding to a period of activity increase observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The results of the models are consistent for both rotations.

  3. Assessment of green roof systems in terms of water and energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Ekşi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs concept term is used for extensive green roofs which are planted with herbaceous plants that can be adapted into changeable environmental conditions on a shallow substrate layer, require minimal maintenance, installed for their benefits to building and urban scale. Main objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of a green roof such as thermal insulation, water holding capacity, runoff characteristics, plant growth and its interaction with environmental factors in Istanbul climate conditions by performing comparative measurements. In this study, a research site (IU Green Roof Research Station was founded to assess water and energy balance of green roofs. Thus, a typical green roof was evaluated in terms of water and energy balance and its interaction with the building and city was determined. energy efficiency of green roof system was 77% higher than reference roof. Temperature fluctuations on green roof section of the roof were 79% lower. In addition, green roof retained 12,8% - 100% of precipitation and delayed runoff up to 23 hours depending on water content of substrate.

  4. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  5. Robust energy storage scheduling for imbalance reduction of strategically formed energy balancing groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Shantanu; Okabe, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Imbalance (on-line energy gap between contracted supply and actual demand, and associated cost) reduction is going to be a crucial service for a Power Producer and Supplier (PPS) in the deregulated energy market. PPS requires forward market interactions to procure energy as precisely as possible in order to reduce imbalance energy. This paper presents, 1) (off-line) an effective demand aggregation based strategy for creating a number of balancing groups that leads to higher predictability of group-wise aggregated demand, 2) (on-line) a robust energy storage scheduling that minimizes the imbalance energy and cost of a particular balancing group considering the demand prediction uncertainty. The group formation is performed by a Probabilistic Programming approach using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method after applied on the historical demand statistics. Apart from the group formation, the aggregation strategy (with the help of Bayesian Inference) also clears out the upper-limit of the required storage capacity for a formed group, fraction of which is to be utilized in on-line operation. For on-line operation, a robust energy storage scheduling method is proposed that minimizes expected imbalance energy and cost (a non-linear function of imbalance energy) while incorporating the demand uncertainty of a particular group. The proposed methods are applied on the real apartment buildings' demand data in Tokyo, Japan. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. - Highlights: • Strategic method for intelligent energy balancing group formation using Bayesian MCMC. • Stochastic programming based robust and online energy storage (battery) scheduling. • Imbalance cost (regulation) and energy reduction of a balancing group. • Imbalance cost reduction of 80% attainable by considerably lower battery capacity.

  6. Preliminary approach of the MELiSSA loop energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Lucie; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lebrun, Jean

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require a huge amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen). Current rockets are at the moment unable to launch such a mass from Earth. Consequently Regenerative Life Support Systems are necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. Thus the European and Canadian research has been concentrating on the MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) project over the last 20 years. MELiSSA is an Environmental Controlled Life Support System (ECLSS), i.e. a closed regenerative loop inspired of a lake ecosystem. Using light as a source of energy, MELiSSA's goal is the recovery of food, water and oxygen from CO2 and organic wastes, using microorganisms and higher plants. The architecture of a ECLSS depends widely on the mission scenario. To compare several ECLSS architectures and in order to be able to evaluate them, ESA is developing a multi criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced LIfe Support System Evaluator). One of these criteria is the energy needed to operate the ECLSS. Unlike other criteria like the physical mass, the energy criterion has not been investigated yet and needs hence a detailed analysis. It will consequently be the focus of this study. The main objective of the work presented here is to develop a dynamic tool able to estimate the energy balance for several configurations of the MELiSSA loop. The first step consists in establishing the energy balance using concrete figures from the MELiSSA Pilot Plant (MPP). This facility located at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) is aimed at the ground demonstration of the MELiSSA loop. The MELiSSA loop is structured on several subsystems; each of them is characterized by supplies, exhausts and process reactions. For the purpose of this study (i.e. a generic tool) the solver EES (Engineering

  7. Does performance evaluation help public managers? A Balanced Scorecard approach in urban waste services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bernardo; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-12-01

    The urban waste market has evolved significantly in the past decades, which among other changes, has led to the creation of new utilities and new business models. However, very few things have changed for the users. Urban waste collection remains mainly under the responsibility of local authorities and the charges paid by the users in most countries are very low compared to the provision costs. This situation forces the injection of public money into the system, encouraging the 'quiet-life' within the utilities and, therefore, inefficiency. The present study intends to analyze the potential for the application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSc) methodology into the waste utilities. After a comprehensive revision of the urban waste sector in Portugal, the methodology of BSc and its application in local public services is described and discussed. Focusing on implementation rather than on strategy, a set of performance indicators is proposed to be utilized in the different management models of waste utilities in Portugal: the municipalities, semi-autonomous utilities, municipal companies and mixed companies. This implementation is then exemplified through four case studies, one for each type of utility. This paper provides a flexible framework proposal to be applied to waste utilities operating both in Portugal and abroad. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2018-02-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  9. BALANCE 4P - Balancing decisions for urban brownfield redevelopment : Technical report of the BALANCE 4P project of the SNOWMAN Network coordinated call IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norrman, J.; Volchko, Y.; Maring, L; Hooimeijer, F.L.; Broekx, S.; Garcao, R.; Beames, A.; Kain, J.H.; Ivarsson, M.; Touchant, K.

    2015-01-01

    Land take as a result of urbanization is one of the major soil threats in Europe. One of the key measures to prevent further urban sprawl and additional land take, is redevelopment of urban brownfields: underused urban areas with, in many cases, soil and groundwater pollution. The latter issue can

  10. Dilemmas of energy efficient urban development in three Nordic cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    Energy is high on the agenda of the European Union and in current urban development. In this study we focus on the role of urban planning in energy efficiency in 3 Northern European cities - Turku (FI), Eskilstuna (SE) and Tartu (EE). The case studies were developed in close collaboration between...... the authors and representatives of the cities. The research was carried out by field trips, interviews and analysis of local reports and planning documents. This work was done in the framework of the EU-FP7 project PLEEC (Planning for energy efficient cities), GA no. 314704, www.pleecproject.eu...

  11. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy. The performance of Surface Renewal (SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux (H was analysed and evaluated in terms of correlation with H fluxes from the eddy covariance (EC method. Study revealed that the mean available energy (RN- G and latent heat flux (LE were of about 300 W m-2 and 237 W m-2, respectively, during dry periods and unstable-case atmospheric conditions. The estimated crop coefficient Kc values for the orchard crop averaged close to 0.80, which is considerably higher than previous FAO studies that found the value to be 0.65 for citrus with 70% of ground cover. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (LI PAR by the crop was measured and relationships between LAI and crop coefficient (Kc were established.

  12. Derivation of integral energy balance for the manotea facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollman, Anthony, E-mail: pollman@nps.edu [Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department, United States Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Marzo, Marino di [Fire Protection Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An integral energy balance was derived for the MANOTEA facility. • A second equation was derived which frames transients in terms of inventory alone. • Both equations were implemented and showed good agreement with experimental data. • The equations capture the physical mechanisms behind MANOTEA transients. • Physical understanding is required in order to properly model these transients with TRACE. - Abstract: Rapid-condensation-induced fluid motion occurs in several nuclear reactor accident sequences, as well as during normal operation. Modeling these events is central to our ability to regulate and ensure safe reactor operations. The UMD-USNA Near One-dimensional Transient Experimental Apparatus (MANOTEA) was constructed in order to create a rapid-condensation dataset for subsequent comparison to TRACE output. This paper outlines a derivation of the energy balance for the facility. A path integral based on mass and energy, rather than fluid mechanical, considerations is derived in order to characterize the physical mechanisms governing MANOTEA transients. This equation is further simplified to obtain an expression that frames transients in term of liquid inventory alone. Using data obtained from an actual transient, the path integral is implemented using three variables (change in liquid inventory, liquid inventory as a function of time, and change in metal temperature) to predict the outcome of a fourth independently measured variable (condenser pressure as a function of time). The implementation yields a very good approximation of the actual data. The inventory equation is also implemented and shows reasonable agreement. These equations, and the physical intuition that they yield, are key to properly characterizing MANOTEA transients and any subsequent modeling efforts.

  13. Energy budget of the convective boundary layer over an urban and rural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschgens, M J; Hacker, J M

    1985-05-01

    The results of a two day field study in and around the city of Bonn (50/sup 0/ 42'N, 7/sup 0/ 2'E) are presented. The study was designed to compare the energy balances at the top of the rural and urban canopy layer, and to get estimates of the various terms of the budgets of sensible and latent heat. The synoptic situation during the experiment was dominated by a high pressure cell leading to mostly undisturbed conditions with a convective boundary layer under a subsidence inversion. The measurements of several ground-based instruments, a radiosonde, two tethered sondes and a motorglider were combined to give a comprehensive picture of the contrasts between the urban and rural conditions. Main results of the study are: a confirmation of the previously supposed relation between the strength of the urban heat and moisture anomaly and the mean wind; a correlation between the Bowen ratio of the canopy fluxes and the fractional amount of green space in urban areas; a negligible difference in the net radiative fluxes and their divergences between the urban and rural environment; significant differences in the energy budgets of the two regions, especially in the divergences of the turbulent vertical heat fluxes and the advection mechanisms and time-height cross sections of the Bulk-Richardson number for two sites upwind and downwind of the city.

  14. Energy Balance of Triathletes during an Ultra-Endurance Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Barrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE and the fluid balance through the race. Methods: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2 regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM, total body water (TBW and intracellular (ICW and extracellular water (ECW were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA. Results: Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%. BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Conclusions: Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit.

  15. Energy balance of triathletes during an ultra-endurance event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Anna; Erola, Pau; Bescós, Raúl

    2014-12-31

    The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the fluid balance through the race. Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI) during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR) recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2) regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM), total body water (TBW) and intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA). Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%). BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit.

  16. Urban wind energy. State of the Art 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, C.

    2009-10-15

    Wind energy in urban areas is a new area and a rather blank page concerning design criteria, aesthetics, concepts, minimizing costs etc. Even though the potential energy in the flow is much higher on the country side or off-shore, the erection of wind turbines in urban areas is carried out and also shows perspectives regarding e. g. direct use of the energy instead of redirecting the energy to the grid and reduction of transmission loss. Within the area of urban wind energy, different applications are to be distinguished. The main groups are turbines integrated in buildings, small turbines on already existing buildings and free standing turbines in public areas. In this report, a look is taken on the mentioned applications, a short introduction to urban climate is given, followed by a list of already existing small turbines which are compared. Examples in between, field tests and experiments support the understanding. An overview of current projects set the application of wind turbines in the urban environment in a relevant perspective. (author)

  17. Urban climate and energy demand interaction in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilova, E. V.; Ginzburg, A. S.; Demchenko, P. F.

    2017-11-01

    The regional and urban climate change in Northern Eurasia is one of the main challenges for sustainable development of human habitats situated in boreal and temperate areas. The half of primary energy is spent for space heating even under quite a mild European climate. Implementation of the district heating in urban areas is currently seen as one of the key conditions of sustainable development. The clear understanding of main problems of the urban climateenergy demand interaction is crucial for both small towns and megacities. The specific features of the urban energy systems in Finland, Russia and China under the changing climate conditions were studied. Regional manifestations of the climate change were examined. The climate projections were established for urban regions of the Northern Eurasia. It was shown that the climate warming is likely to continue intensively there. History and actual development trends were discussed for the urban district heating systems in Russia, China and Finland. Common challenges linked with the climate change have been identified for the considered areas. Adaptation possibilities were discussed taking into account climate-energy interactions.

  18. Urban energy conversion and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The extent to which the building up and energy conversion affect the quality and energy economy of living space is shown by the example of Munich. The comparison of the energy economy of various ecological systems give qualified information for assessing the thermal loading in densely inhabited areas and show the basic differences between built-up and country areas. (DG) [de

  19. Seismic fatigue life evaluation of mechanical structures using energy balance equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Seiji; Okamura, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic resistant performance for severe earthquakes is required, because of occurrence of earthquakes which exceed the design criteria. Additionally, quantitative evaluation of cumulative damage by earthquake is also required. In this study, the energy balance equation is applied to the evaluation. The energy balance equation expresses integral information of response, so that the energy balance equation is adequate for the evaluation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. At first, vibration experiment that leads experimental model to fatigue failure by continuous vibration disturbance is conducted. As a result of the experiment, relation between fatigue failure and energy balance equation is confirmed. Then the relation is proved from the viewpoint of hysteresis energy, and consistency between energy balance equation and hysteresis energy is confirmed. Finally, we adopted cumulative damage rule to energy balance equation in order to expect the fatigue life under random waves that have various input acceleration. (author)

  20. Summary report on urban energy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane; Groth, Niels Boje

    Based on the case study (Deliverables 4.2) as well as the thematic (Deliverable 4.3) work, a list of 29 spatial planning measures and policies was elaborated. The measures can increase energy efficiency, reduce energy use or increasing the share of renewable energy in a city. In the main part...... should take into consideration when working on their Energy Efficiency Action Plans: (1) How can spatial planning reduce energy use in our cities? (2) How do different geographical, regional, cultural or political contexts influence options? (3) How can we measure and monitor its effects? (4) What...

  1. Managing urban energy system: A case of Suzhou in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Managing urban energy system is vital for energy conservation and CO 2 reduction. Integrating energy input-output model with carbon emission pinch analysis, we propose a framework for managing urban energy system. This framework could analyze current energy demands and CO 2 emissions, predict their future possibilities and optimize energy mix of key sectors under CO 2 emission constraints. Key sectors are identified by the energy input-output table from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Moreover, taking Suzhou, a typical manufacturing center and export-oriented city in China, as a case example, energy metabolism of Suzhou in 2020 is predicted using energy input-output model. And three sectors named Coking, Smelting and pressing of metals and Production and supply of electric power are identified to have big effects on CO 2 emissions. Subsequently, energy mix of three identified key sectors is optimized under CO 2 emission constraints by the carbon emission pinch analysis. According to the results, clean energy sources will occupy a great position in Suzhou's future energy demands. And the reuse of wastes as energy sources should be limited to achieve CO 2 mitigation targets. Finally, policy implications of results and future work are discussed. - Research highlights: → We construct a framework for sustainable energy system management. → We apply the framework in a typical manufacturing center named Suzhou in China. → Key sectors for CO 2 emissions are identified, and energy mix is optimized. → Policy implications of results and future work are discussed.

  2. Radiation dose in mammography: an energy-balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    An energy-balance approach for calculation of mean, integral, and midpoint doses in mammography is introduced. Estimation of mean absorbed dose for individual applications is described. Calculations made for a range of xeromammographic techniques used at various breast cancer detection centers show that although increasing the beam h.v.l. dramatically decreases breast surface exposure, it is insignificant in lowering mean breast dose or radiation risk. Thus selection of a moderate h.v.l. to optimize image quality in xeromammography may be more beneficial than unduly increasing h.v.l. merely to reduce surface exposure. The mean breast dose per mammogram with low h.v.l. screen-film techniques was 3 to 9 times lower than for xeromammography, suggesting that general acceptance of screen-film techniques can significantly reduce the risk associated with mammography

  3. Radiation dose in mammography: an energy-balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    An energy-balance approach for calculation of mean, integral, and midpoint doses in mammography is introduced. Estimation of mean absorbed dose for individual applications is described. Differences in breast composition and thickness are accounted for by simple measurements of entrance and exit exposures. Calculations made for a range of xeromammographic techniques used at various breast cancer detection centers show that although increasing the beam h.v.l. dramatically decreases breast surface exposure, it is insignificant in lowering mean breast dose or radiation risk. Thus selection of a moderate h.v.l. to optimize image quality (soft-tissue contrast) in xeromammography may be more beneficial than unduly increasing h.v.l. merely to reduce surface exposure. The mean breast dose per mammogram with low-h.v.l. screen-film techniques was 3 to 9 times lower than for xeromammography, suggesting that general acceptance of screen-film techniques can significantly reduce the risk associated with mammography

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea and energy balance regulation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari

    2017-08-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a reciprocal relationship. Sleep disruptions characteristic of OSA may promote behavioral, metabolic, and/or hormonal changes favoring weight gain and/or difficulty losing weight. The regulation of energy balance (EB), i.e., the relationship between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE), is complex and multi-factorial, involving food intake, hormonal regulation of hunger/satiety/appetite, and EE via metabolism and physical activity (PA). The current systematic review describes the literature on how OSA affects EB-related parameters. OSA is associated with a hormonal profile characterized by abnormally high leptin and ghrelin levels, which may encourage excess EI. Data on actual measures of food intake are lacking, and not sufficient to make conclusions. Resting metabolic rate appears elevated in OSA vs. Findings on PA are inconsistent, but may indicate a negative relationship with OSA severity that is modulated by daytime sleepiness and body weight. A speculative explanation for the positive EB in OSA is that the increased EE via metabolism induces an overcompensation in the drive for hunger/food intake, which is larger in magnitude than the rise in EI required to re-establish EB. Understanding how OSA affects EB-related parameters can help improve weight loss efforts in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomimetic Urban Design: Ecosystem Service Provision of Water and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maibritt Pedersen Zari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ecosystem biomimicry methodology for urban design called ecosystem service analysis. Ecosystem services analysis can provide quantifiable goals for urban ecological regeneration that are determined by site specific ecology and climate of an urban area. This is important given the large negative environmental impact that most cities currently have on ecosystems. If cities can provide some of their own ecosystem services, pressure may be decreased on the surrounding ecosystems. This is crucial because healthier ecosystems enable humans to better adapt to the impacts that climate change is currently having on urban built environments and will continue to have in the future. A case study analyzing two ecosystem services (provision of energy and provision of water for an existing urban environment (Wellington, New Zealand is presented to demonstrate how the ecosystem services analysis concept can be applied to an existing urban context. The provision of energy in Wellington was found to be an example of an ecosystem service where humans could surpass the performance of pre-development ecosystem conditions. When analyzing the provision of water it was found that although total rainfall in the urban area is almost 200% higher than the water used in the city, if rainwater harvested from existing rooftops were to meet just the demands of domestic users, water use would need to be reduced by 20%. The paper concludes that although achieving ecological performance goals derived from ecosystem services analysis in urban areas is likely to be difficult, determining site and climate specific goals enable urban design professionals to know what a specific city should be aiming for if it is to move towards better sustainability outcomes.

  6. Energy year 2005 - how is the energy balance in Rogaland and what are the implications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The topic of the lunch meeting is the current and future energy balance in the county of Rogaland, Norway. The question of how to meet the future's increased energy demand is treated. An assessment of the energy situation in the years 2005-2015 is made. Regional projects are presented in the forms of coal fired power station, gasworks and wind power projects. The presented projects are Haugaland Kraft's coal-fired power station, Naturkraft's gas fired power plant and Norsk Vind Energi's wind turbine plants (ml)

  7. The Influence of Urban Environments on Oxidative Stress Balance: A Case Study on the House Sparrow in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Herrera-Dueñas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The House Sparrow is a globally distributed species and is closely associated with anthropised environments. They are well-adapted to urban life; therefore the decline of their populations in Europe represents an unexpected event that demands an investigation into its causes. Causes that have promoted this decline are not well-known, but one of the highlighted hypotheses is an increase of oxidative stress linked to the toxicity of pollution in urban areas. From an ecophysiological perspective, oxidative damage, antioxidant defense, and oxidative balance are considered reliable indicators of environmental stressors such as pollutants. To carry out this study, blood samples were collected from House Sparrows in three different habitats that varied in terms of urbanization degree: urban, suburban, and rural; during the winter and breeding season. According to our results, urban sparrows showed higher levels of oxidative damage and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, but lower antioxidant capacity in comparison with the rural birds; and these differences especially increase during the breeding season. The maintenance of oxidative balance increases in an urban environment in comparison to a rural one; we suggest that the high level of pollution and the poor quality diet linked to urban environments. The breeding season is expected to be particularly challenging for the oxidative balance of urban birds, when the reallocation of resources between self-maintenance and reproduction may be critical due to the scarcity of antioxidants found in urban areas. This study may contribute to determining the causes of the population decrease of House Sparrows in cities.

  8. Energy And Environment in Urban Regeneration. Studies for a Method of Analysis of Urban Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo De Pascali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite planning of urban regeneration has been theorized from several decades, today activating concrete programs encounters major difficulties. Moreover, the structural nature of economic crisis and the operators tendency to maintaining obsolete models of urban transformation certainly do not help to overcome the stalemate.The article argues, however, that this framework appears to evolve under the influence of some external factors that bring to the fore the importance of the energy - environmental components in the renewal of the existing city.This address, focused on the concept of urban environment, seems to identify new principles of economic environmental sustainability of the city that converge towards social models of smart community and urban models of smart city.The article then describes the research in progress regarding an operative method to define explicit and replicable bases of the urban environment concept to be considered in plans of urban renewal. Main fields of observation and measurement are “urban comfort” and “anthropogenic load (pollution”. An experimental application of the analysis is developed on the eastern area of Rome. Finally, the paper offers specific lines for the research development.

  9. Energy, fiscal balances and national sharing : research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansell, R.; Anderson, J.; Schlenker, R.; Calgary Univ., AB

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the large fiscal surpluses of the Alberta government have attracted considerable attention. The economies of this major oil and gas producing region in Canada have expanded due to rising energy demand and high prices. The province accounts for nearly 75 per cent of Canada's oil and gas production, while its energy sector accounts for more than 50 per cent of the Alberta economy. Non-renewable resource revenue for the provincial government has increased along with gains in output and employment. There are some concerns that the strength in Alberta's fiscal position and in the economy may undermine Canada's fiscal equalization regime. Proposed solutions include federal policies that transfer more of Alberta's wealth to other regions. Alberta is concerned that a national fiscal, energy or environmental policy that transfers huge amounts of income out of the province would result in bankruptcies and a legacy of mistrust. There is also growing awareness in the province that it will be difficult to maintain a strong economy and that revenues will decline as reserves of conventional oil and gas are depleted. Presently, it is more challenging to develop unconventional energy supplies due to labour, environmental, technology and infrastructure constraints. This paper examined the record of fiscal redistribution across regions in Canada along with the future of Alberta's resource revenues in an effort to pursue informed discussion on these issues. The authors indicated that the province is already the largest net contributor to federal fiscal balances and redistribution to other regions. Alberta's net contributions are greater than what one would expect given accepted measures of fairness and the same standards applied to other regions. It was suggested that asking Albertans to make even larger net fiscal contributions to the benefit of other regions is not consistent with any standard of fairness. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Energy and exergy utilizations of the Chinese urban residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Yang; Wang, Dengjia; Liu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy and exergy use in China’s urban residential sector between 2002 and 2011 are analyzed. • The primary locations and causes of energy and exergy losses in the CURS are identified. • The large gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies great potential for energy saving. • The exergy utilization can be improved by using appropriate technology, management and policy. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy and exergy utilizations in the Chinese urban residential sector (CURS) are analyzed by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 2002 and 2011. The energy and exergy efficiencies of this sector are calculated to examine the potential for advancing the ‘true’ energy efficiency and determine the real energy losses. The results demonstrate large differences between the overall energy efficiencies (62.8–70.2%) and the exergy efficiencies (11.0–12.2%) for the years analyzed. The sizable gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies a high potential for energy savings in the CURS. Future energy saving strategies should pay more attention to the improvement in exergy efficiencies. Moreover, it is found that direct fuel use constituted the primary exergy losses of the CURS; coal-fired boiler heating systems cause approximately 35% of the total exergy losses. Gas stoves, cogeneration systems, coal stoves and gas water heaters constitute 15.3%, 15%, 5.5% and 4.9% of the total exergy losses, respectively

  11. Executive summary of the energy balance from Sao Paulo State, Brazil, 1996. Base year: 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document presents a executive summary of the energy balance in the year 1995, reporting the energy consumption considering the energy market dynamics and increasing ratio in the residential, public, commercial, agricultural, cattle breeding, transportation and industry areas

  12. Constraining the Surface Energy Balance of Snow in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Karl E.

    Physically-based snow models form the basis of our understanding of current and future water and energy cycles, especially in mountainous terrain. These models are poorly constrained and widely diverge from each other, demonstrating a poor understanding of the surface energy balance. This research aims to improve our understanding of the surface energy balance in regions of complex terrain by improving our confidence in existing observations and improving our knowledge of remotely sensed irradiances (Chapter 1), critically analyzing the representation of boundary layer physics within land models (Chapter 2), and utilizing relatively novel observations to in the diagnoses of model performance (Chapter 3). This research has improved the understanding of the literal and metaphorical boundary between the atmosphere and land surface. Solar irradiances are difficult to observe in regions of complex terrain, as observations are subject to harsh conditions not found in other environments. Quality control methods were developed to handle these unique conditions. These quality control methods facilitated an analysis of estimated solar irradiances over mountainous environments. Errors in the estimated solar irradiance are caused by misrepresenting the effect of clouds over regions of topography and regularly exceed the range of observational uncertainty (up to 80Wm -2) in all regions examined. Uncertainty in the solar irradiance estimates were especially pronounced when averaging over high-elevation basins, with monthly differences between estimates up to 80Wm-2. These findings can inform the selection of a method for estimating the solar irradiance and suggest several avenues of future research for improving existing methods. Further research probed the relationship between the land surface and atmosphere as it pertains to the stable boundary layers that commonly form over snow-covered surfaces. Stable conditions are difficult to represent, especially for low wind speed

  13. Energy balance calculations and assessment of two thermochemical sulfur cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Lessart, P.; Manaud, J.P.; Benizri, R.; Courvoisier, P.

    1978-01-01

    Thermochemical cyclic processes which include the highly endothermal decomposition of sulphuric acid are promising for hydrogen production by water-splitting. Our study is directed toward two cycles of this family, each involving the formation and decomposition of sulphuric acid and including other reactions using iron sulphide for the first and oxides and bromides of copper and magnesium for the second. Thermochemical analyses of the two cycles are undertaken. Thermodynamic studies of the reactions are carried out, taking into account possible side-reactions. The concentration of reactants, products and by-products resulting from simultaneous equilibria are calculated, the problems of separation thoroughly studied and the flow-diagrams of the processes drawn up. Using as heat source the helium leaving a 3000 MWth high temperature nuclear reactor and organizing internal heat exchange the enthalpy diagrams are drawn up and the net energy balances evaluated. The overall thermal efficiencies are about 28%, a value corresponding to non-optimized process schemes. Possible improvements aiming at energy-saving and increased efficiency are indicated

  14. Energy efficiency in urban management: Russian and world experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The article discusses the role of energetics in creating a comfortable and safe environment of modern megacities, and the problem is considered in the socio-economic aspect. The object is the energy security of the city, and the subject is the influence of urban society on the formation of energy security. In particular, the problems are raised: ecological problems of urban energy supply, the condition of surface layer of the atmosphere near electric power lines. The author assesses the actions, implemented by the urban authorities in Mytischi, in the southwestern areas of New Moscow. The author assesses these sample areas on the basis of Ch. Landry’s concept of self-training, designated for municipal authorities and urban communities, and offers several successfully implemented self-study cases and in the light of modern methods of ensuring energy security. The forecasts of creation of energy-safe space, made by modern sociologist-urbanist Leo Hollis, are taken into account. The author also considers some of the economic aspects of biosphere safety. In particular, he insists that biosphere safety, convenience, and comfort have developed into competitive advantages in the housing market.

  15. Urban Systems and Energy Consumptions: A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available City transformations are also due to the development of new energy sources, which have influenced economy and lifestyles, as well as the physical and functional organization of urban systems. Cities are the key place where it is need to act for the achievement of strategic environmental objectives, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy saving. The hard resolution of these challenges depends on several factors: their multidimensional nature, the change of the economic and settlement development model, and also the complexity of the relationships between the elements that constitute the urban systems and that affect energy consumption. According to this awareness the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 has been developed: it is aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. With the goal of describing some of the results of the methodological phase of this project, this paper proposes a review of the major studies on the issue of energy consumption at the urban scale in the first section; in the second section the outcomes of the first phase of the development of the comprehension/interpretive model related to the identification of the set of physical/environmental variables at urban scale, that most affect the energy consumption, are described; the third makes a critical review of the reference scientific literature, characterised by a too sectoral approach, compared to the complexity of the topic.

  16. ORADEA URBAN BUS SYSTEM ENERGY EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIBOR L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brief description of Public Transport Company and network in Oradea, passenger statistics, analysis of energy consumption, passenger/kilometer parameter evaluation, compare liquid fuel and electricity consumption, cost reduction, optimization.

  17. Energy behaviour engagement in smart urban environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira, Paulo; Mendes, Gonçalo; Barroca, Bruno; Amaral, Vasco; Honkapuro, Samuli; Prada, Rui

    2018-01-01

    In today’s ubiquitously connected society, citizens are continuously exposed to information energy usage- related. information However, users are not interpreting or taking appropriate action to benefit from the opportunities such information embodies. This concern is particularly relevant when

  18. Energy and Emissions Conflicts in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Touria Abdelkader B. Conde; Fernando Barreiro-Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to observe the environmental behaviour in some cities of the word, by analyzing for each city the trends of several energy and emissions indicators that appear as explanatory variables in both energy and labour average productivity equations. At the same time we also consider the life expectancy at birth as an endogenous variable which be partially explained by these indicators to for observing the carbon dioxide (CO2) effects on the population health. To quantif...

  19. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995; Balanco energetico nacional 1996: ano base 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances.

  20. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995; Balanco energetico nacional 1996: ano base 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances.

  1. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997; Balanco energetico nacional 1998: ano base 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances.

  2. Energy balance for Sachsen-Anhalt 2010; Energiebilanz Sachsen-Anhalt 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The energy balance of Saxony-Anhalt is presented in physical units, in terrajoule and in coal equivalent to show supply, conversion, and consumption of primary and secondary energy sources in the year under report 2010 Energy balance for Sachsen-Anhalt.

  3. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  4. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Vlad; Ionita, Mihai Vlad

    2018-02-01

    In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  5. Gut microbiota and energy balance: role in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaut, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The microbial community populating the human digestive tract has been linked to the development of obesity, diabetes and liver diseases. Proposed mechanisms on how the gut microbiota could contribute to obesity and metabolic diseases include: (1) improved energy extraction from diet by the conversion of dietary fibre to SCFA; (2) increased intestinal permeability for bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in response to the consumption of high-fat diets resulting in an elevated systemic LPS level and low-grade inflammation. Animal studies indicate differences in the physiologic effects of fermentable and non-fermentable dietary fibres as well as differences in long- and short-term effects of fermentable dietary fibre. The human intestinal microbiome is enriched in genes involved in the degradation of indigestible polysaccharides. The extent to which dietary fibres are fermented and in which molar ratio SCFA are formed depends on their physicochemical properties and on the individual microbiome. Acetate and propionate play an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. Acetate serves as a substrate for de novo lipogenesis in liver, whereas propionate can be utilised for gluconeogenesis. The conversion of fermentable dietary fibre to SCFA provides additional energy to the host which could promote obesity. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that diets rich in fibre rather prevent than promote obesity development. This may be due to the fact that SCFA are also ligands of free fatty acid receptors (FFAR). Activation of FFAR leads to an increased expression and secretion of enteroendocrine hormones such as glucagon-like-peptide 1 or peptide YY which cause satiety. In conclusion, the role of SCFA in host energy balance needs to be re-evaluated.

  6. Scheduling algorithms for saving energy and balancing load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Antonios

    2012-08-03

    In this thesis we study problems of scheduling tasks in computing environments. We consider both the modern objective function of minimizing energy consumption, and the classical objective of balancing load across machines. We first investigate offline deadline-based scheduling in the setting of a single variable-speed processor that is equipped with a sleep state. The objective is that of minimizing the total energy consumption. Apart from settling the complexity of the problem by showing its NP-hardness, we provide a lower bound of 2 for general convex power functions, and a particular natural class of schedules called s{sub crit}-schedules. We also present an algorithmic framework for designing good approximation algorithms. For general convex power functions our framework improves the best known approximation-factor from 2 to 4/3. This factor can be reduced even further to 137/117 for a specific well-motivated class of power functions. Furthermore, we give tight bounds to show that our framework returns optimal s{sub crit}-schedules for the two aforementioned power-function classes. We then focus on the multiprocessor setting where each processor has the ability to vary its speed. Job migration is allowed, and we again consider classical deadline-based scheduling with the objective of energy minimization. We first study the offline problem and show that optimal schedules can be computed efficiently in polynomial time for any convex and non-decreasing power function. Our algorithm relies on repeated maximum flow computations. Regarding the online problem and power functions P(s) = s{sup {alpha}}, where s is the processor speed and {alpha} > 1 a constant, we extend the two well-known single-processor algorithms Optimal Available and Average Rate. We prove that Optimal Available is {alpha}{sup {alpha}}-competitive as in the single-processor case. For Average Rate we show a competitive factor of (2{alpha}){sup {alpha}}/2 + 1, i.e., compared to the single

  7. Residential energy consumption in urban China: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.

  8. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  9. Relationships between energy balance and health traits of dairy cattle in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, B L; Boettcher, P J; Dekkers, J C; Petitclerc, D; Schaeffer, L R

    2000-11-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate phenotypic relationships between energy balance in early lactation and health and reproduction in that lactation. Data were 26,701 daily records of dry matter intake and milk production, periodic measures of milk composition and body weight, and all health and reproductive information from 140 multiparous Holstein cows. Daily energy balance was calculated by multiplying feed intake by the concentration of energy of the ration and subtracting the amount of energy required for maintenance (based on parity and body weight) and for milk production (based on yield and concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose). Six measures of energy balance were defined: mean daily energy balance during the first 20, 50, and 100 d of lactation; minimum daily energy balance; days in negative energy balance; and total energy deficit. Measures of health were the numbers of occurrences of each of the following during lactation: all udder problems, mastitis, all locomotive problems, laminitis, digestive problems, and reproductive problems. Reproductive traits were the number of days to first observed estrus and number of inseminations. Several significant relationships between energy balance and health were observed. Increased digestive and locomotive problems were associated with longer and more extreme periods of negative energy balance.

  10. Buildings Interaction with Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Wyckmans, Annemie; Zucker, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    to demonstrate that they can become not only smart fossil-free energy cities but sustainable in a wider sense, including water, waste, transportation and more. In the current paper, the research agenda to support such goals through smart city efforts is presented for a few European cases as examples, focusing...

  11. Symbiots: Conceptual Interventions Into Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Jenny; Mazé, Ramia; Redströmand, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Symbiots set out to examine values such as ease-of-use, comfort, and rationality assumed within conventions of ‘good design’, in order to expose issues related to energy consumption and current human- (versus eco-) centered design paradigms. Exploring re-interpretations of graphical patterns, arc...

  12. Assessment of photobiological safety of energy-efficiency urban lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Stanisław Pierzchała

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exceeding the safe threshold for exposure on high energy radiation (UV and blue light could cause the emergence of a number of diseases. Eyesight is particularly sensitive to excessive lighting. This paper presents the laboratory research on the assessment of the photobiological risk generated by the energy-efficiency urban lighting. The results show that LED lighting systems can be a source of radiation that significantly negatively affects the eyesight and could contribute to circadian rhythm disorders.

  13. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  14. A Mixed Transmission Strategy to Achieve Energy Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tong; Gu, Tao; Jin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of energy balanced data collection in wireless sensor networks, aiming to balance energy consumption among all sensor nodes during the data propagation process. Energy balanced data collection can potentially save energy consumption and prolong network...... lifetime, and hence, it has many practical implications for sensor network design and deployment. The traditional hop-by-hop transmission model allows a sensor node to propagate its packets in a hop-by-hop manner toward the sink, resulting in poor energy balancing for the entire network. To address...... the problem, we apply a slice-based energy model, and divide the problem into inter-slice and intra-slice energy balancing problems. We then propose a probability-based strategy named inter-slice mixed transmission protocol and an intra-slice forwarding technique to address each of the problems. We propose...

  15. Hohlraums energy balance and x-ray drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    For many years there has been an active ICF program in the US concentrating on x-ray drive. X-ray drive is produced by focusing laser beams into a high Z hohlraum. Conceptually, the radiation field comes close to thermodynamic equilibrium, that is it becomes isotropic and Planckian. These properties lead to the benefits of x-ray drive--it is relatively easy to obtain drive symmetry on a capsule with no small scalelengths drive perturbations. Other advantages of x-ray drive is the higher mass ablation rate, leading to lower growth rates for hydrodynamic instabilities. X-ray drive has disadvantages, principally the loss of energy to the walls of the hohlraum. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) review of blackbody radiation; (2) laser absorption and conversion to x-rays; (3) x-ray absorption coefficient in matter and Rosseland mean free path; (4) Marshak waves in high Z material; (5) x-ray albedo; and (6) power balance and hohlraum temperature

  16. Ground temperature estimation through an energy balance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, X. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Naterer, G.F. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A joint research project by the University of Manitoba and the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) is currently examining ground thermal responses to heat conduction within power transmission line towers. The aim of the study is to develop thermal protection alternatives for the freezing and thawing conditions that typically lead to the tilting and heaving of tower foundations. The analysis presented in this paper focused on the temperatures of areas undisturbed by tower foundations. The ground was approximated as a semi-infinite homogenous system with a sinusoidal variation of ground temperature and constant thermophysical properties. Solar radiation and air temperature data were used to develop the sinusoidal profiles. The far-field temperature was modeled using a 1-D transient heat conduction equation. Geothermal gradients were neglected. The energy balance method was used for boundary conditions at the ground surface. Energy components included heat conduction through the ground; heat convection due to wind; net radiative heat transfer; and latent heat transfer due to evaporation. Newton's law of cooling was used to model the convective heat transfer. The model was used to predict ground temperature under varying conditions. Monthly variations of temperature at 2 meters depth were calculated using different evaporation fractions. The model was also used to estimate summer ground temperature at a site in Manitoba. Air temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation data were used. It was suggested that further research is needed to consider the effects of freezing, thawing, and winter snow cover. 2 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Energy balance of the optimised CVT-hybrid-driveline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Bernd-Robert; Pflaum, Hermann; Lechner, Claus [Forschungsstelle fuer Zahnraeder und Getriebebau, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Funded by the DFG (German Research Foundation) and some industry partners like GM Powertrain Europe, ZF, EPCOS the Optimised CVT-Hybrid was developed at Technische Universitaet Muenchen in close collaboration with the industry and is currently under scientific investigation. Designed as a parallel hybrid vehicle the Optimised CVT-Hybrid combines a series-production diesel engine with a small electric motor. The core element of the driveline is a two range continuously variable transmission (i{radical}i-transmission), which is based on a chain variator. By a special shifting process without interruption of traction force the ratio range of the chain variator is used twice; thereby a wide transmission-ratio spread is achieved by low complexity. Thus the transmission provides a large pull-away ratio for the small electric motor and a fuel-efficient overdrive ratio for the ic-engine. Instead of heavy and space-consuming accumulators a small efficient package of double layer capacitors (UltraCaps) is used for electric energy and power storage. The driveline management is done by an optimised vehicle controller. Within the scope of the research project two prototype drivelines were manufactured. One driveline is integrated into an Opel Vectra Caravan and is available for investigations at the roller dynamometer and in the actual road traffic. The second hybrid driveline is assembled at the powertrain test rig of the FZG for detailed analysis of system behaviour and fuel consumption. Based on measurements of standardised driving cycles system behaviour, fuel consumption and a detailed energy balance of the Optimised CVT-Hybrid are presented. In comparison to the series-production vehicle the fuel savings are shown. (orig.)

  18. Energy partitioning in dairy cows : effects of lipogenic and glucogenic diets on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: dairy cows; dietary energy source; glucogenic nutrients; lipogenic nutrients; negative energy balance; metabolic disorders; reproduction, immune system Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation which results from high energy requirements for milk production

  19. Renewable Energy in Urban Areas: Worldwide Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Perea-Moreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the contribution made by different international institutions in the field of urban generation of renewable energy, as a key element to achieve sustainability. This has been possible through the use of the Scopus Elsevier database, and the application of bibliometric techniques through which the articles content published from 1977 to 2017 has been analysed. The results shown by Scopus (e.g., journal articles and conferences proceedings have been taken into account for further analysis by using the following search pattern (TITLE-ABS-KEY ({Renewable energy} AND ({urban} OR ({cit*}. In order to carry out this study, key features of the publications have been taken into consideration, such as type of document, language, thematic area, type of publication, and keywords. As far as keywords are concerned, renewable energy, sustainability, sustainable development, urban areas, city, and energy efficiency, have been the most frequently used. The results found have been broken down both geographically and by institution, showing that China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany and India are the main research countries and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Education China and Tsinghua University the major contributing institutes. With regard to the categories, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Engineering are positioned as the most active categories. The scientific community agrees that the study of the renewable energy generation in cities is of vital importance to achieve more sustainable cities, and for the welfare of a growing urban population. Moreover, this is in line with the energy policies adopted by most of developed countries in order to mitigate climate change effects.

  20. Making cities energy efficient. Urban and regional planning adopting RES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, A.-M.; David, T.; Dorfner, J. [and others

    2013-06-01

    This report summarises the outcomes of a 30 months duration continuing education project entitled 'Urban Planners with Renewable Energy Skills' (UP-RES). The project was carried out by a multi-disciplinary international consortium with the aim of informing planners and related professionals about energy-efficient and CO{sub 2} reducing technologies, practices and systems that can be developed across urban areas to serve whole communities. This report provides an overview of the key issues: The overall project approach to devising a training program based on preceding training needs analysis The key tasks involved in creating the training materials The marketing of the training as well as evaluation results Best practise examples of RES in urban planning. The UP-RES project has focused on several major target groups. These include those groups directly involved in taking forward renewable energy projects for whom the UP-RES training was principally focused; those who wish to deliver such training programmes; and policy makers who are ultimately responsible for the decisions that govern how widely such technologies will be implemented. Each of these groups has its own perspective concerning renewable energy technologies so the report is structured accordingly: For professionals involved in implementation: Among those professions that are likely to become involved with renewable energy initiatives in urban areas are urban planners, architects, energy suppliers, developers, building owners, and consulting engineers. For these professionals chapters 3.2 (summary of training need analysis) and 4 (best practise examples) are most likely to appeal. For training experts and organisations: Training programmes that address the relevance of renewable energies in urban areas require a comprehensive set of materials. As an example of how to organise training courses and lessons learnt, chapter 3 might be interesting. For the generally interested: Renewable energies are

  1. Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2006-01-01

    An extensive survey on household expenditures in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, was used to analyze the factors determining urban household energy choices using a multinomial logit model. Wood-energy remains the preferred fuel of most urban households in the country; though rational, the choice is not sustainable as it portends a threat to the savanna woodlands and the economy. Many important policies have been adopted by public authorities to minimize household wood-energy consumption and to substitute it by alternative fuel. Despite the magnitude of all these policies, the depletion rate of the forest resource is increasing. A kind of inertia is thus observed for household preferences for cooking fuel. This model analyzes the sociological and economic variables of household energy preferences for cooking in Ouagadougou. The analyses show that the inertia of household cooking energy preferences are due to poverty factors such as low income, poor household access to electricity for primary and secondary energy, low house standard, household size, high frequency of cooking certain meals using woodfuel as cooking energy. The descriptive analyses show that the domestic demand for wood-energy is strongly related to household income. The firewood utilization rate decreases with increasing household income. In other words, this fuel appears as a 'transition good' for these households which aim for other sources of energy for cooking that are more adapted for urban consumption. This implies that a price subsidy policy for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and its cook stoves could significantly decrease the utilization rate of wood-energy

  2. Energy in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 22. annual Illinois energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference addressed the energy and environmental challenges facing large metropolitan areas. The topics included a comparison of the environmental status of cities twenty years ago with the challenges facing today`s large cities, sustainable economic development, improving the energy and environmental infrastructure, and the changing urban transportation sector. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Heat storage in forest biomass improves energy balance closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation very well. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy covariance

  4. Modelling the impact of urban form on household energy demand and related CO2 emissions in the Greater Dublin Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochen; Sweeney, John

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between household space heating energy use and urban form (land use characteristics) for the Greater Dublin Region. The geographical distributions of household energy use are evaluated at the Enumeration Districts (ED) level based on the building thermal balance model. Moreover, it estimates the impact of possible factors on the household space heating consumption. Results illustrate that the distribution profile of dwellings is a significant factor related to overall heating energy demand and individual dwelling energy consumption for space heating. Residents living in compact dwellings with small floor areas consume less energy for space heating than residents living in dwellings with big floor areas. Moreover, domestic heating energy demand per household was also estimated for two extreme urban development scenarios: the compact city scenario and the dispersed scenario. The results illustrate that the compact city scenario is likely to decrease the domestic heating energy consumption per household by 16.2% compared with the dispersed city scenario. Correspondingly, the energy-related CO 2 emissions could be significantly decreased by compact city scenario compared with the dispersed city scenario. - Highlights: ► A method was developed to investigate urban form impacts on energy demand. ► This study estimates impacts of possible factors on the household energy consumption. ► Household heating energy demand is sensitive to dwelling distribution profile. ► The compact case could reduce domestic energy demand compared with the dispersed case.

  5. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-12-01

    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P balance was lower (P military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits.

  6. An experimental study of the ion energy balance of a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pots, B.F.M.; Hooff, P. van; Schram, D.C.; Sijde, B. van der

    1981-01-01

    A report is given on an experimental study of the ion energy balance of the magnetized and current-driven plasma f a hollow cathode discharge. The balance appears to be classical. At the axis of the plasma column the electron-ion Coulomb interaction is in equilibrium with the ion-neutral interaction. No significant influence on the energy balance by the spontaneously appearing plasma turbulence is formed. (author)

  7. Theoretical study of the building principal of internal and external energy balances structures in diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Djallel ZEBBAR; Salaheddine ZEBBAR; Sidali HORR

    2016-01-01

    Distribution knowledge of the energy introduced into the combustion chamber is of great importance in the theory of internal combustion engines. This work aims to highlight the very complex relationship, often indistinguishable between internal and external energy balances components. The scrutiny of internal balance components has permitted to trace back up to the external balance. This can be easily established on a test bench equipped for the occasion. It will assess the perfection of ener...

  8. Proposal for a refinement of the National Energy Balance (BEN) and Useful Energy Balance (BEU); Proposta de refinamento do Balanco Energetico Nacional e do Balanco de Energia Util

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (DCET/UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], email: aafleite@uesc.br; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    The need to discuss the reformulation of two important tools for the Brazilian energy planning - the National Energy Balance (BEN) and the Useful Energy Balance (BEU) - was the motivation to carry out the study reported in this paper. The concepts embodied in the BEN were set out in the seventies, while those structuring the BEU were defined in the eighties. Since then, the ways to produce, trade and consume energy underwent important changes in Brazil and the expansion planning of the national energy system requires, nowadays, more detailed information and, in some cases, more reliable data than those currently provided by the two balances. They need, thus, to be refined, and this paper aims to contribute towards this goal. (author)

  9. Energy balance of the Rio de Janeiro State - 1980/1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document informs the energetic balance for Rio de Janeiro State -1980/1994, containing the energy fluxes from primary and secondary energy sources in the main sectors of Rio de Janeiro economy. 50 figs., 139 tabs

  10. Effect of mass asymmetry on the mass dependence of balance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of the mass asymmetry on the balance energy (E bal ) by studying asymmetric reactions throughout the periodic table and over entire colliding geometry. Our results, which are almost independent of the system size and as well as of the colliding geometries indicate a sizeable effect of the asymmetry of the reaction on the balance energy.

  11. On Energy Balance and Production Costs in Tubular and Flat Panel Photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norsker, N.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Vermue, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing mixing in both flat panel and tubular photobioreactors can result in a positive net energy balance with state-of-the-art technology and Dutch weather conditions. In the tubular photobioreactor, the net energy balance becomes positive at velocities <0.3 ms-1, at which point the biomass

  12. Socioecological correlates of energy balance using urinary C-peptide measurements in wild female mountain gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C; Deschner, Tobias; Behringer, Verena; Fawcett, Katie; Robbins, Martha M

    2014-03-29

    Maintaining a balanced energy budget is important for survival and reproduction, but measuring energy balance in wild animals has been fraught with difficulties. Female mountain gorillas are interesting subjects to examine environmental correlates of energy balance because their diet is primarily herbaceous vegetation, their food supply shows little seasonal variation and is abundant, yet they live in cooler, high-altitude habitats that may bring about energetic challenges. Social and reproductive parameters may also influence energy balance. Urinary C-peptide (UCP) has emerged as a valuable non-invasive biomarker of energy balance in primates. Here we use this method to investigate factors influencing energy balance in mountain gorillas of the Virunga Volcanoes, Rwanda. We examined a range of socioecological variables on energy balance in adult females in three groups monitored by the Karisoke Research Center over nine months. Three variables had significant effects on UCP levels: habitat (highest levels in the bamboo zone), season (highest levels in November during peak of the bamboo shoot availability) and day time (gradually increasing from early morning to early afternoon). There was no significant effect of reproductive state and dominance rank. Our study indicates that even in species that inhabit an area with a seemingly steady food supply, ecological variability can have pronounced effects on female energy balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The energy balance of a plasma in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, G.M.W.; Schram, D.C.; Timmermans, C.J.; de Haas, J.C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The energy balance for electrons and heavy particles constituting a plasma in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium is derived. The formulation of the energy balance used allows for evaluation of the source terms without knowledge of the particle and radiation transport situation, since most of

  14. Refined energy-balance modelling of a supraglacial pond, Langtang Khola, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, Evan S.; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Willis, Ian C.; Steiner, Jakob F.; Buri, Pascal; Arnold, Neil S.

    2016-01-01

    Supraglacial ponds on debris-covered glaciers present a mechanism of atmosphere/glacier energy transfer that is poorly studied, and only conceptually included in mass-balance studies of debris-covered glaciers. This research advances previous efforts to develop a model of mass and energy balance for

  15. Neutron balance as indicator of long-term resource availability in growing nuclear energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandinskiy, Victor [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-15

    The article describes neutron balance in nuclear energy system as necessary but not sufficient indicator of long-term sustainability. Three models are introduced to evaluate neutron balance based on nuclide chain evolution and reaction rates comparison. The indicator introduced is used to compare several nuclear energy systems consisting of thermal, fast and molten salt reactors.

  16. Reassessing the effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, A.; L'Ecuyer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud feedbacks depend critically on the characteristics of the clouds that change, their location and their environment. As a result, accurately predicting the impact of clouds on future climate requires a better understanding of individual cloud types and their spatial and temporal variability. This work revisits the problem of documenting the effects of distinct cloud regimes on Earth's radiation budget distinguishing cloud types according to their signatures in spaceborne active observations. Using CloudSat's multi-sensor radiative fluxes product that leverages high-resolution vertical cloud information from CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS observations to provide the most accurate estimates of vertically-resolved radiative fluxes available to date, we estimate the global annual mean net cloud radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere to be -17.1 W m-2 (-44.2 W m-2 in the shortwave and 27.1 W m-2 in the longwave), slightly weaker than previous estimates from passive sensor observations. Multi-layered cloud systems, that are often misclassified using passive techniques but are ubiquitous in both hemispheres, contribute about -6.2 W m-2 of the net cooling effect, particularly at ITCZ and higher latitudes. Another unique aspect of this work is the ability of CloudSat and CALIPSO to detect cloud boundary information providing an improved capability to accurately discern the impact of cloud-type variations on surface radiation balance, a critical factor in modulating the disposition of excess energy in the climate system. The global annual net cloud radiative effect at the surface is estimated to be -24.8 W m-2 (-51.1 W m-2 in the shortwave and 26.3 W m-2 in the longwave), dominated by shortwave heating in multi-layered and stratocumulus clouds. Corresponding estimates of the effects of clouds on atmospheric heating suggest that clouds redistribute heat from poles to equator enhancing the general circulation.

  17. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  18. Diagnosis, balances and energy indicators in municipalities of 'BASAL' project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Martín, David; Soler Iglesias, Belkis; López López, Ileana; Moreno, Helsy; Matos, Yamilexis; Sanfiel, Caridad; Román, José Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Under the 'Basis for Environmental Sustainability Local Food' project (BASAL)) transverse energy-related activities were conducted. In this work we are analyzed and presented energy diagnoses in municipalities Los Palacios, Guira de Melena and Jimaguayú, capturing energy statistics in the 3 municipalities, energy balances and key energy indicators compared to support sustainability and decision making. (full text)

  19. Aedes aegypti Global Suitability Maps Using a Water Container Energy Balance Model for Dengue Risk Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue infections are estimated to total nearly 400 million per year worldwide, with both the geographic range and the magnitude of infections having increased in the past 50 years. The primary dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is closely associated with humans. It lives exclusively in urban and semi-urban areas, preferentially bites humans, and spends its developmental stages in artificial water containers. Climate regulates the development of Ae. aegypti immature mosquitoes in artificial containers. Potential containers for Ae. aegypti immature development include, but are not limited to, small sundry items (e.g., bottles, cans, plastic containers), buckets, tires, barrels, tanks, and cisterns. Successful development of immature mosquitoes from eggs to larvae, pupae, and eventually adults is largely dependent on the availability of water and the thermal properties of the water in the containers. Recent work has shown that physics-based approaches toward modeling container water properties are promising for resolving the complexities of container water dynamics and the effects on immature mosquito development. An energy balance container model developed by the author, termed the Water Height And Temperature in Container Habitats Energy Model (WHATCH'EM), solves for water temperature and height for user-specified containers with readily available weather data. Here we use WHATCH'EM with NASA Earth Science products used as input to construct global suitability maps based on established water temperature ranges for immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. A proxy for dengue risk is provided from habitat suitability, but also population estimates, as Ae. aegypti is closely associated with human activity. NASA gridded Global Population of the World data is used to mask out rural areas with low dengue risk. Suitability maps are illustrated for a variety of containers (size, material, color) and shading scenarios.

  20. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) version 2017: a database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Folini, Doris; Schwarz, Matthias; Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the central storage of the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland). This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 dataset, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and contains in its 2017 version around 500 000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components measured at 2500 locations. The database contains observations from 15 surface energy flux components, with the most widely measured quantity available in GEBA being the shortwave radiation incident at the Earth's surface (global radiation). Many of the historic records extend over several decades. GEBA contains monthly data from a variety of sources, namely from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, from national weather services, from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), from peer-reviewed publications, project and data reports, and from personal communications. Quality checks are applied to test for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA has played a key role in various research applications, such as in the quantification of the global energy balance, in the discussion of the anomalous atmospheric shortwave absorption, and in the detection of multi-decadal variations in global radiation, known as global dimming and brightening. GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible through the internet via http://www.geba.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873078.

  1. City and Energy Infrastructures between Economic Processes and Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related to the relationship between city, energy, economic factors and city planning. These issues are analyzed from a theoretical point of view and are placed in a logical path based on three assumptions. The first considers the city as an intelligent system constantly evolving. The second considers the city as a system where economic processes come out at their highest level affecting other aspects of social and urban structure. The third considers the planning as the weak link in the process of urban development, one of the most exposed to economic and social pressures.Energy production has experienced a great progress since steam and electricity were discovered. Each stage of this evolution has affected city and territory introducing significant physical signs, changing the ways of carrying out functions and creating new needs and new activities. The energy revolution, based on sustainable sources and on skillful management of the networks, will strongly affect the city and the way of organizing the activities, their location, dimension, and the shape of the spaces.The paper explores some of the issues related to the relationship between urban system and energy.The first section analyzes the meaning of the intelligent city as an entity that is constantly changing and constantly adapting. The second section analyzes the role of the energy systems in the evolution of the activities and of the city’s image. The last section investigates the role of the economic factors in the evolution of the shape and meaning of city, pointing out that the way towards smart and green urban systems will largely depend on their economic advantage. 

  2. Urban warming and energy consumption in Tokyo metro area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.; Hisada, T.; Shimada, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of field observation and three-dimensional simulation of urban warming in Tokyo metropolitan area. The three-dimensional governing equations in an urban atmospheric boundary layer were formulated by virtue of vorticity-velocity vector potential method. Particular attention was focused on the representation of a buoyancy term in equation of motion in the vertical direction, thereby describing the crossover and stratification effects near the ground surface. The vorticity-velocity potential method is superior from the view point of numerical stability and suitable for the simulation of an urban heat island. The authors first made a survey on the energy consumption in Tokyo metropolitan area. Next, the three-dimensional simulations were carried out using these data. The simulation results were then compared with the data of field observation of the surface temperature by automobiles. Further future prediction of urban warming was performed when the energy consumption rate is increased five times as large as the present rate, which will correspond to the year 2030 if the present consumption rate were maintained until then

  3. Energy supply and urban planning projects: Analysing tensions around district heating provision in a French eco-district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabillet, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of energy supply choices, this article explores the way in which energy priorities and their climate-related features are incorporated into urban public policy. These choices must take account of different factors, as is the case with district heating, which is justified as a vehicle of renewable energy while subject to pressure in eco-districts because its techno-economic balances are destabilised by falls in demand. Our study focuses particularly on the city of Metz (France), which has chosen district heating as the primary source for provision for the municipal area and for its first eco-district. We analyse the tensions within these choices, with particular attention to the way in which they are negotiated inside municipal departments and with the local energy operator. This enables us to explore the tensions in defining the scale that governs decisions and the linkages between energy-related and urban priorities. - Highlights: • Analyses of tensions in the choice of energy supplies for eco-districts. •District heating networks can be vehicles of renewable energy. • District heating networks are threatened by drops in energy consumption. • Energy supply issues oppose urban planning and energy policy in municipal departments. • Technical and financial adjustments can be made by the municipality to justify its energy choices

  4. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m"2, the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m"2, the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  5. HAMBURG ENERGIE makes biogas plants fit for the balancing energy market; HAMBURG ENERGIE macht Biogasanlagen fit fuer den Regelenergiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmann, Bernd [HAMBURG ENERGIE, Hamburg (Germany). Direktvermarktung und Regelenergie; Bettinger, Carola [HAMBURG ENERGIE, Hamburg (Germany). Forschungsprojekt SMART POWER HAMBURG

    2013-04-15

    HAMBURG ENERGIE GmbH (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) bundles 40 biogas plants with a total capacity of 15 megawatts to a virtual power plant. Thus, also small, decentralized plants may offer negative balancing power and achieve additional profits that were previously available only to large producers. In the medium term, HAMBURG ENERGIE wants to place a performance of 150 MW on the market.

  6. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  7. Energy efficiency and urbanism: Guide for urbanism planning energetically efficiency; Eficiencia energetica y urbanismo: Guia del planeamiento urbanistico energeticamente eficiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The present book summarizes the urbanism in the context of energy efficiency. the book has 4 chapters and 3 annexes: The energy in the context of substantiality, the soil planning, recommendations for the urbanism planning with substantiality criteria and small description URBE project.

  8. Understanding the Relationship Between Food Variety, Food Intake, and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Vadiveloo, Maya

    2018-03-01

    In accordance with US dietary guidance, incorporating variety into the diet can align with energy balance, though greater food variety in some categories may make energy balance more challenging. Thus, experimental and epidemiologic evidence is summarized on the relationship between food variety, food and energy intake, and energy balance. Lab-based, experimental research consistently demonstrates that greater variety within foods or sensory characteristics of food increases food and energy intake within an eating occasion. Epidemiologic evidence is less consistent, potentially driven by differing methodologies, particularly in defining and measuring food variety. Moreover, the effect of variety on energy balance appears to be moderated by food energy density. Integrating insights from experimental and epidemiologic research are essential for strengthening food variety guidance including developing evidence-based definitions of food variety, understanding moderators of the relationship, and developing practical guidance interpretable to consumers.

  9. The National Energy Strategy: A balanced program?. Proceedings of the nineteenth annual Illinois energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The Nineteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference was held in Chicago, Illinois November 1991. It was organized by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago with major support provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Illinois Commerce Commission, the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, and the Citizens Council on Energy Resources. The conference program was developed by a planning committee who drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The members of the planning committee were brought together for a full-day session where they were asked to assess the political, economic, and social impacts of the proposed National Energy Strategy as it relates to Illinois and the Midwest region. Within this context, the planning committee identified several major issues including: (1) Is the proposed plan a balanced strategy; (2) What are the NES impacts on the transportation sector; (3) What are the opportunities for improved efficiency in the Electric Utility Sector; and (4) What is the role of advanced research and development.

  10. First characterization and comparison of TEB model simulations with in situ measurements regarding radiation balance in a single urban canyon at the BOKU site (Vienna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Revesz, Michael; Nadeem, Imran; Masson, Valéry; Weihs, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Health Organization more than half of the world population lives in a city since 2010. Predictions foresee that by 2030 six out of ten people will live in an urban area. As a result, many cities are expanding in size. Almost 10% of all urban dwellers live in megacities (defined according to UN HABITAT as a city with a population of more than 10 million). There are several effects in cities which strongly influence human health. Visible influences like the severe emissions of air pollutants by industry and traffic (e.g. Mayer H., 1999, Grimmond et al., 2010) are obvious to people but thermal stress in urban areas is only recently recognized for its strong devastating effect on human health. As a consequence, the urban environment virtually influences all weather parameters that have an impact on human comfort and thermal stress. Within this study, we investigate effects of city growth and the development of outlying districts on the local climate of Vienna. We focus particularly on the influence of urban heat island and consequent the risk for heat related illnesses or thermal stress for people. To quantify radiation balance and other important meteorological factors, we performed an extensive field campaign with three types of net radiometer in three different heights at BOKU site in August 2016. The first results indicated a strong correlation (ρ=0.96) between the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model and the measurements of the top net radiometer regarding radiation balance at roof level, meanwhile the TEB results are slightly underestimated. Further check if the measurements are reasonable, a comparison of the input values (global and direct solar radiation) for the TEB simulation with Secondary Standard measurements of ARAD site Wien Hohe Warte shows a deviation under 2% concerning interquartile range on clear sky days. The next steps will enclose TEB simulations, coupled with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, for

  11. Designing and evaluating a balanced scorecard for a health information management department in a Canadian urban non-teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W

    2016-06-01

    This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Sustainable urban energy planning: A strategic approach to meeting climate and energy goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobriansky, Larisa

    2010-09-15

    Meeting our 21st century challenges will require sustainable energy planning by our cities, where over half of the population resides. This already has become evident in the State of California, which has set rigorous greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and timeframes. To attain these targets will necessitate technically-integrated and cost-optimum solutions for innovative asset development and management within urban communities. Using California as a case study, this paper focuses on the crucial role for sustainable energy planning in creating the context and conditions for integrating and optimizing clean and efficient energy use with the urban built environment and infrastructure.

  13. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil 2012. Calendar year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The document presents the consolidated annual energy balances, which encompasses: Executive Summary; Participation of the Sao Paulo's Electric Energy in the National Context; Overview Energy Mix of the State of Sao Paulo; Final Consumption by Source; Final Consumption by Sectors in 2011; Contents of the Energy Balance for the State of Sao Paulo; Methodology; Summary of the period in analysis; Supply and Demand of energy by source; External trade of energy; Energy imports and export; Transformation center balances; Energy and Economy and Resources and energy Reserves. In this 2012 edition, we highlight the growth of gasoline consumption at the expense of ethanol, compared with previous years. The fall harvest of cane sugar and federal policies aimed at artificially support the price of gasoline are some of the factors that led to the fall in competitiveness of ethanol. Nowadays, it is up to the government to create policies to stimulate the supply of renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  14. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  15. Cities ready for energy crisis : Building urban energy resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Keeffe, G.; Tillie, N.M.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Various sources indicate that threats to modern cities lie in the availability of essential streams, among which energy. Most cities are strongly reliant on fossil fuels; not one case of a fully self-sufficient city is known. Engineering resilience is the rate at which a system returns to a single

  16. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable Energy Into the Grid, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-06-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.

  17. The global mean energy balance under cloud-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Hakuba, Maria; Folini, Dois; Ott, Patricia; Long, Charles

    2017-04-01

    är, C., Loeb, N., Dutton, E.G., and König-Langlo, G., 2013: The global energy balance from a surface perspective. Climate Dynamics, 40, 3107-3134. Wild, M., Folini, D., Hakuba, M., Schär, C., Seneviratne, S.I., Kato, S., Rutan, D., Ammann, C., Wood, E.F., and König-Langlo, G., 2015: The energy balance over land and oceans: An assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models, Climate Dynamics, 3393-3429, 44, DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z.

  18. Energy saving and emission reduction of China's urban district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xia; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Sun, Shufeng; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    China's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission ranks highest in the world. China is committed to reduce its CO 2 emission by 40% to 45% from the 2005 levels by 2020. To fulfill the target, China's CO 2 emission reduction must exceed 6995 million tons. Energy consumption and CO 2 emission of China's urban district heating (UDH) are increasing. The current policy implemented to improve UDH focuses on replacing coal with natural gas to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission to some extent. This paper proposes that heat pump heating (HPH) could serve as a replacement for UDH to help realize energy-saving and emission-reduction goals to a greater extent. The paper also analyzes the impact of this replacement on the heating and power generation sectors. The results show that replacing coal-based UDH with HPH decreases energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 43% in the heating sector. In the power generation sector, the efficiency of power generation at the valley electricity time increases by 0.512%, and the ratio of peak–valley difference decreases by 16.5%. The decreases in CO 2 emission from the heating and power generation sectors cumulatively account for 5.55% of China's total CO 2 emission reduction target in 2020. - Highlights: ► Replacing urban district heating with heat pump heating. ► Impact of heat pump heating on heating and power generation sectors. ► Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. ► China should adjust current urban heating strategy

  19. Panel estimation for urbanization, energy consumption and CO2 emissions: A regional analysis in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chuanguo; Lin Yan

    2012-01-01

    As urbanization accelerates, urban areas play a leading role in energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China. The existing research is extensively concerned with the relationships between urbanization, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in recent years, but little attention has been paid to the regional differences. This paper is an analysis of the impact of urbanization on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions at the national and regional levels using the STIRPAT model and provincial panel data from 1995 to 2010 in China. The results showed that urbanization increases energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China. The effects of urbanization on energy consumption vary across regions and decline continuously from the western region to the central and eastern regions. The impact of urbanization on CO 2 emissions in the central region is greater than that in the eastern region. The impact of urbanization on energy consumption is greater than the impact on CO 2 emissions in the eastern region. And some evidences support the argument of compact city theory. These results not only contribute to advancing the existing literature, but also merit particular attention from policy makers and urban planners in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze the impact of urbanization on energy use and CO 2 emissions in China. ► Urbanization increases energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China. ► The effects of urbanization on energy use and CO 2 emissions vary across regions.

  20. Maximizing recovery of energy and nutrients from urban wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaratnam, T.; Henkanatte-Gedera, S.M.; Muppaneni, T.; Nirmalakhandan, N.; Deng, S.; Lammers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, UWWs (urban wastewaters) that contain high levels of organic carbon, N (nitrogen), and P (phosphorous) have been considered an environmental burden and have been treated at the expense of significant energy input. With the advent of new pollution abatement technologies, UWWs are now being regarded as a renewable resource from which, useful chemicals and energy could be harvested. This study proposes an integrated, algal-based system that has the potential to treat UWWs to the desired discharge standards in a sustainable manner while recovering high fraction of its energy content as well as its N- and P-contents for use as fertilizers. Key embodiments of the system being proposed are: i) cultivation of an extremophile microalga, Galdieria sulphuraria, in UWW for removal of carbon, N, and P via single-step by mixotrophic metabolism; ii) extraction of energy-rich biocrude and biochar from the cultivated biomass via hydrothermal processing; and, iii) enhancement of biomass productivity via partial recycling of the nutrient-rich AP (aqueous product) from hydrothermal-processed biomass to the cultivation step to optimize productivity, and formulation of fertilizers from the remaining AP. This paper presents a process model to simulate this integrated system, identify the optimal process conditions, and establish ranges for operational parameters. - Highlights: • Developed model for algal system for wastewater treatment/energy production. • Evaluated energy efficiency in algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Optimized algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Demonstrated feasibility of energy-positive wastewater treatment.

  1. 11. State energy balance - 1978-1992 - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Minas Gerais energetic system report is presented including the energy sources by economic-social sectors and statistical data about energy consumption, energy demand and energy supply for the period 1978/1992, with revised and updated data. 96 figs., 119 tabs

  2. Balanced evaluation of energy systems: development of an integration model between use and energy generation; Avaliacao balanceada de sistemas energeticos: desenvolvimento de um modelo de integracao entre uso e geracao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, Karin Regina de Castro [Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: kmarins@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The present theme treats of urban and environment planning through an integrated approach. Developed as master of science dissertation, the project included the development of a balanced evaluation of energy systems, having in mind the efficient, potentialize initiatives of both sides. In the system of 'Energy use' strategies for energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings from urban, architecture solutions were included. In {sup e}nergy generation{sup ,} urban centralized systems and distributed generation systems were included. Electricity, environmental heating and refrigeration were considered, excepting peaks in the daily consumption. The model involve quantitative evaluation modules and graphical interfaces, giving support to development of project and decision making processes, demonstrating the advantages of the integrated approach.

  3. Towards a sustainable global energy supply infrastructure: Net energy balance and density considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.; Wade, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs a framework of dynamic energy analysis to model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical energy balance and dynamic response limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (ability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power, on the other hand, meet both the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. However, due to their substantially different energy densities and load factors, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net excess energy and attain the scale needed for meeting the huge global energy demand. The low power density of renewable energy extraction and the intermittency of renewable flows limit their ability to achieve high rates of indigenous infrastructure growth. A significant global nuclear power deployment, on the other hand, could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses and errors can have ecological and social impacts that are catastrophic and irreversible. Thus, the transition to a low carbon economy is likely to prove much more challenging than early optimists have claimed. - Highlights: → We model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures. → Coal is scalable and abundant but carries a heavy carbon footprint. → Renewables and nuclear meet the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. → The low power density and intermittency of renewables limit their growth potential. → Nuclear power continues to raise concerns about proliferation, safety, and waste.

  4. Analysis of hohlraum energetics of the SG series and the NIF experiments with energy balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic energy balance model is applied to analyze the hohlraum energetics data from the Shenguang (SG series laser facilities and the National Ignition Facility (NIF experiments published in the past few years. The analysis shows that the overall hohlraum energetics data are in agreement with the energy balance model within 20% deviation. The 20% deviation might be caused by the diversity in hohlraum parameters, such as material, laser pulse, gas filling density, etc. In addition, the NIF's ignition target designs and our ignition target designs given by simulations are also in accordance with the energy balance model. This work confirms the value of the energy balance model for ignition target design and experimental data assessment, and demonstrates that the NIF energy is enough to achieve ignition if a 1D spherical radiation drive could be created, meanwhile both the laser plasma instabilities and hydrodynamic instabilities could be suppressed.

  5. Balancing urban growth and ecological conservation: A challenge for planning and governance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneralp, Burak; Perlstein, Andrew S; Seto, Karen C

    2015-10-01

    China has high biodiversity and is rapidly urbanizing. However, there is limited understanding of how urban expansion in the country is likely to affect its habitats and biodiversity. In this study, we examine urban expansion patterns and their likely impacts on biodiversity in China by 2030. Our analysis shows that most provinces are expected to experience urban expansion either near their protected areas or in biodiversity hotspots. In a few provinces such as Guangdong in the south, urban expansion is likely to impinge on both protected areas and biodiversity hotspots. We show that policies that could facilitate the integration of natural resource protection into urban planning exist on paper, but the prevailing incentives and institutional arrangements between the central and local governments prevent this kind of integration. Removing these obstacles will be necessary in order to safeguard the country's rich biodiversity in light of the scale of urbanization underway.

  6. Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3

  7. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, van den, H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a Starch-rich (33.2 g/kg fat; 380.9 g/kg carbohydrate) diet at either a High (44 MJ NE/d; 1,050 g protein/d) or a Low (33 MJ NE/d; 790 g protein/d) feeding level. Within each feeding level, the two diets...

  8. Energy-balance check for continuous energy cross section library CENACE-1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiujuan; Wu Haicheng; Ge Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    In order to verify the reliability of the multiple-temperature continuous energy cross section library CENACE-1.0 when used for calculating nuclear heating in reactor core, NJOY99/HEATR module and auxiliary code chkACEheat developed locally were used to perform energy-balance check for all materials in the library. The test results show that the pass rate of KERMA factors and heat production cross sections of the CENACE-1.0 library is better than that of the other ACE libraries used as comparison. However, unreasonable KERMA factors still exist in various evaluation libraries, and methods to directly revise the calculation results of KERMA factors need to be developed. (authors)

  9. Energy balance during underwater implosion of ductile metallic cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Ryan E; Guzas, Emily L; Ambrico, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    Energy-based metrics are developed and applied to a numerical test case of implosion of an underwater pressure vessel. The energy metrics provide estimates of the initial energy in the system (potential energy), the energy released into the fluid as a pressure pulse, the energy absorbed by the imploding structure, and the energy absorbed by air trapped within the imploding structure. The primary test case considered is the implosion of an aluminum cylinder [diameter: 2.54 cm (1 in.), length: 27.46 cm (10.81 in.)] that collapses flat in a mode-2 shape with minimal fracture. The test case indicates that the structure absorbs the majority (92%) of the initial energy in the system. Consequently, the energy emitted as a pressure pulse into the fluid is a small fraction, approximately 5%, of the initial energy. The energy absorbed by the structure and the energy emitted into the fluid are calculated for additional simulations of underwater pressure vessel implosions. For all cases investigated, there is minimal fracture in the collapse, the structure absorbs more than 80% of the initial energy of the system, and the released pressure pulse carries away less than 6% of the initial energy.

  10. The former USSR: an energy balance in urgent need of improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, H.

    1993-01-01

    The energy balance of the former USSR is a decisive factor in the economies of the countries now remaining. This balance is facing a crunch due to excessive consumption of liquid hydrocarbons, combined with a downswing in production since 1988. There is a pressing need to open up the petroleum industries to Western technologies and partnerships. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. CO2 balance in production of energy based on biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Biogas is an essential biomass source for achieving a reduction of CO2 emission by 50% in year 2030 in Denmark. The physical potential for biogas production in Denmark is more than 10 times the present biogas production in Denmark. In Denmark the largest part of the biogas production is produced...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  12. Energy, environment and economics: greenhouse policy in the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkenfeld, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Taking New South Wales as a case study, this paper reviews the government's major economic and environmental concerns, and analyses how they bear on energy and greenhouse policy options. The government's economic strategy emphasises the continuing importance of primary resources, minerals processing and energy-intensive manufacturing, where the State is perceived to have a competitive advantage because of its extensive coal resources. The implications of these trends for the energy utilities and for greenhouse energy policy are analysed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  13. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    An evaluation of federal research, development, and demonstration options on solar energy is presented. This assessment treats seven groups of solar energy technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, biomass, photovoltaics, thermal power, wind, and ocean thermal energy conversion. The evaluation methodology is presented in detail. (MHR)

  14. Energy balance from Parana State - 1980-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The energy flows of primary and secondary energy sources since the production to the end consumption in the main sectors of Parana State economy during 1980 to 1992, are presented. The supply and demand, consumption and production of energy sources are shown. Some information about resources and reserves are also cited. (C.G.C.)

  15. Energy balance of the Sao Paulo State - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The energy production and consumption for the several categories of the economy in the Brazilian State of Sao Paulo are presented. The data are given according to the energy source and to consumer sectors and information about the import, export, losses in the transformation and distribution of the several forms of energy is supplied. 18 figs., 120 tabs

  16. Brazilian Energy Balance 2016 - calendar year 2015; Balanco energetico nacional 2016 - ano base 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2015 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments and total consumption disaggregated per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining. Annex II - Self-production of Electricity - presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex III - World Energy Data - presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source

  17. The impacts of urban surface characteristics on radiation balance and meteorological variables in the boundary layer around Beijing in summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiting; Han, Zhiwei; Wu, Jian; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    In this study, some key geometric and thermal parameters derived from recent field and satellite observations in Beijing were collected and incorporated into WRF-UCM (Weather Research and Forecasting) model instead of previous default ones. A series of sensitivity model simulations were conducted to investigate the influences of these parameters on radiation balance, meteorological variables, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), as well as planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) in regions around Beijing in summer 2014. Model validation demonstrated that the updated parameters represented urban surface characteristics more realistically and the simulations of meteorological variables were evidently improved to be closer to observations than the default parameters. The increase in building height tended to increase and slightly decrease surface air temperature at 2 m (T2) at night and around noon, respectively, and to reduce wind speed at 10 m (WS10) through a day. The increase in road width led to significant decreases in T2 and WS10 through the whole day, with the maximum changes in early morning and in evening, respectively. Both lower surface albedo and inclusion of anthropogenic heat (AH) resulted in increases in T2 and WS10 over the day, with stronger influence from AH. The vertical extension of the impact of urban surface parameters was mainly confined within 300 m at night and reached as high as 1600 m during daytime. The increase in building height tended to increase TKE and PBLH and the TKE increase was larger at night than during daytime due to enhancements of both mechanical and buoyant productions. The increase in road width generally reduced TKE and PBLH except for a few hours in the afternoon. The lower surface albedo and the presence of AH consistently resulted in increases of TKE and PBLH through both day and night. The increase in building height induced a slight divergence by day and a notable convergence at night, whereas the increase in road width

  18. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: Is physical activity more "programmable" than food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mecha...

  19. Determination of r Factor of Kalbach-Mann Systematics for Energy Balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    2008-01-01

    Kalbach-Mann systematics is a very useful formula to discrete the double-differential cross sections of emitted particles. However, the energy balance by using this systematics is still a task to be studied. In the form of Legendre polynomial expansion the energy balance has been proved analytically. In terms of this approach, the formula to determine the pre-equilibrium fraction r factor of Kalbach-Mann systematics has been obtained for keeping energy balance strictly. This formula could be straightforwardly applied for describing the double-differential cross sections of all projectile types in the continuum spectrum emissions. It indicates that Legendre expansion coefficient with l = 1 is the key term in the energy balance

  20. Process Evaluation of a Workplace Health Promotion Intervention Aimed at Improving Work Engagement and Energy Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  1. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  2. The influence of internal variability on Earth's energy balance framework and implications for estimating climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, Andrew E.; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2018-04-01

    Our climate is constrained by the balance between solar energy absorbed by the Earth and terrestrial energy radiated to space. This energy balance has been widely used to infer equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) from observations of 20th-century warming. Such estimates yield lower values than other methods, and these have been influential in pushing down the consensus ECS range in recent assessments. Here we test the method using a 100-member ensemble of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.1) simulations of the period 1850-2005 with known forcing. We calculate ECS in each ensemble member using energy balance, yielding values ranging from 2.1 to 3.9 K. The spread in the ensemble is related to the central assumption in the energy budget framework: that global average surface temperature anomalies are indicative of anomalies in outgoing energy (either of terrestrial origin or reflected solar energy). We find that this assumption is not well supported over the historical temperature record in the model ensemble or more recent satellite observations. We find that framing energy balance in terms of 500 hPa tropical temperature better describes the planet's energy balance.

  3. To Ingest or Rest? Specialized Roles of Lateral Hypothalamic Area Neurons in Coordinating Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette A. Brown

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and autonomic output. There are several populations of LHA neurons that are defined by their neuropeptide content and contribute to energy balance. LHA neurons that express the neuropeptides melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH or orexins/hypocretins (OX are best characterized and these neurons play important roles in regulating ingestion, arousal, locomotor behavior and autonomic function via distinct neuronal circuits. Recently, another population of LHA neurons containing the neuropeptide Neurotensin (Nts has been implicated in coordinating anorectic stimuli and behavior to regulate hydration and energy balance. Understanding the specific roles of MCH, OX and Nts neurons in harmonizing energy sensing and behavior thus has the potential to inform pharmacological strategies to modify behaviors and treat energy balance disorders.

  4. Explaining the Microtubule Energy Balance: Contributions Due to Dipole Moments, Charges, van der Waals and Solvation Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Taha Ayoub

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are the main components of mitotic spindles, and are the pillars of the cellular cytoskeleton. They perform most of their cellular functions by virtue of their unique dynamic instability processes which alternate between polymerization and depolymerization phases. This in turn is driven by a precise balance between attraction and repulsion forces between the constituents of microtubules (MTs—tubulin dimers. Therefore, it is critically important to know what contributions result in a balance of the interaction energy among tubulin dimers that make up microtubules and what interactions may tip this balance toward or away from a stable polymerized state of tubulin. In this paper, we calculate the dipole–dipole interaction energy between tubulin dimers in a microtubule as part of the various contributions to the energy balance. We also compare the remaining contributions to the interaction energies between tubulin dimers and establish a balance between stabilizing and destabilizing components, including the van der Waals, electrostatic, and solvent-accessible surface area energies. The energy balance shows that the GTP-capped tip of the seam at the plus end of microtubules is stabilized only by − 9 kcal/mol, which can be completely reversed by the hydrolysis of a single GTP molecule, which releases + 14 kcal/mol and destabilizes the seam by an excess of + 5 kcal/mol. This triggers the breakdown of microtubules and initiates a disassembly phase which is aptly called a catastrophe.

  5. Green IGP Link Weights for Energy-efficiency and Load-balancing in IP Backbone Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Frederic; Wang, Ning; Moessner, Klaus; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Xu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption of backbone networks has become a primary concern for network operators and regulators due to the pervasive deployment of wired backbone networks to meet the requirements of bandwidth-hungry applications. While traditional optimization of IGP link weights has been used in IP based load-balancing operations, in this paper we introduce a novel link weight setting algorithm, the Green Load-balancing Algorithm (GLA), which is able to jointly optimize both energy efficiency ...

  6. Effects of Supplemental Energy on Protein Balance during 4-d Arctic Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Gundersen, Yngvar; Castellani, John W; Karl, J Philip; Carrigan, Christopher T; Teien, Hilde-Kristin; Madslien, Elisabeth-Henie; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2016-08-01

    Soldiers often experience negative energy balance during military operations that diminish whole-body protein retention, even when dietary protein is consumed within recommended levels (1.5-2.0 g·kg·d). The objective of this study is to determine whether providing supplemental nutrition spares whole-body protein by attenuating the level of negative energy balance induced by military training and to assess whether protein balance is differentially influenced by the macronutrient source. Soldiers participating in 4-d arctic military training (AMT) (51-km ski march) were randomized to receive three combat rations (CON) (n = 18), three combat rations plus four 250-kcal protein-based bars (PRO, 20 g protein) (n = 28), or three combat rations plus four 250-kcal carbohydrate-based bars daily (CHO, 48 g carbohydrate) (n = 27). Energy expenditure (D2O) and energy intake were measured daily. Nitrogen balance (NBAL) and protein turnover were determined at baseline (BL) and day 3 of AMT using 24-h urine and [N]-glycine. Protein and carbohydrate intakes were highest (P balance (-3313 ± 776 kcal·d), net protein balance (NET) (-0.24 ± 0.60 g·d), and NBAL (-68.5 ± 94.6 mg·kg·d) during AMT were similar between groups. In the combined cohort, energy intake was associated (P balance and NBAL during AMT. These data reinforce the importance of consuming sufficient energy during periods of high energy expenditure to mitigate the consequences of negative energy balance and attenuate whole-body protein loss.

  7. Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents.......A short sleep (SS) duration has been linked to obesity in observational studies. However, experimental evidence of the potential mechanisms of sleep restriction on energy balance is conflicting and, to our knowledge, nonexistent in adolescents....

  8. Systems-design and energy-balance considerations for impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Areas of concern and potential problems for impact fusion are qualitatively considered within an overall systems context. A parametric and qualitative description of the general energy balance and systems considerations for an Impact Fusion Reactor (IFR) design is discussed. Reactor systems design considerations for an IFR are presented. An attempt to assess the IFR viability is made based on highly simplified but limiting projectile-target energy balances and thermonuclear burn models

  9. Inter-comparison of energy balance and hydrological models for land surface energy flux estimation over a whole river catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, R.; Nieto, H.; Stisen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the main link between the natural water cycle and the land surface energy budget. Therefore water-balance and energy-balance approaches are two of the main methodologies for modelling this process. The water-balance approach is usually implemented as a complex....... The temporal patterns produced by the remote sensing and hydrological models are quite highly correlated (r ≈ 0.8). This indicates potential benefits to the hydrological modelling community of integrating spatial information derived through remote sensing methodology (contained in the ET maps...

  10. Balancing energy, development and climate priorities in India. Current trends and future projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.R.; Garg, A.; Dhar, S.; Halsnaes, K.

    2007-09-01

    This report gives a short introduction to the project: Projecting future energy demand: Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in large developing countries. Furthermore, the report analyses Indian energy, development and climate change, followed by an assessment of cross-country results that gives a range of key indicators of the relationship between economic growth, energy, and local and global pollutants. The focus is on the energy sector policies that mainstream climate interests within development choices. (BA)

  11. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  12. Surface energy balance of an extensive green roof as quantified by full year eddy-covariance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinger, Jannik; Weber, Stephan

    2017-01-15

    Green roofs are discussed as a promising type of green infrastructure to lower heat stress in cities. In order to enhance evaporative cooling, green roofs should ideally have similar Bowen ratio (β=sensible heat flux/latent heat flux) characteristics such as rural sites, especially during summer periods with high air temperatures. We use the eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify the energy balance of an 8600m 2 extensive, non-irrigated green roof at the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Germany over a full annual cycle. To understand the influence of water availability on green roof-atmosphere energy exchange, we studied dry and wet periods and looked into functional relationships between leaf area, volumetric water content (VWC) of the substrate, shortwave radiation and β. The surface energy balance was dominated by turbulent heat fluxes in comparison to conductive substrate heat fluxes. The Bowen ratio was slightly below unity on average but highly variable due to ambient meteorology and substrate water availability, i.e. β increased to 2 in the summer season. During dry periods mean daytime β was 3, which is comparable to typical values of urban instead of rural sites. In contrast, mean daytime β was 0.3 during wet periods. Following a summer wet period the green roof maximum daily evapotranspiration (ET) was 3.3mm, which is a threefold increase with respect to the mean summer ET. A multiple regression model indicated that the substrate VWC at the present site has to be >0.11m 3 m -3 during summer high insolation periods (>500Wm -2 ) in order to maintain favourable green roof energy partitioning, i.e. mid-day βurban green roofs can be significantly optimised by using sustainable irrigation approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Indoor and outdoor urban atmospheric CO2: Stable carbon isotope constraints on mixing and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Yurena; Yapp, Crayton J.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → 13 C of indoor CO 2 indicates proportion of C 4 -derived carbon in occupants' diet. → Flux balance model for ventilated rooms shows rapid approach to CO 2 steady-state. → From extant indoor CO 2 data more dietary C 4 carbon in American than European diets. → Local outdoor urban CO 2 increase of 17 ppm in ten years, no change in average 13 C. - Abstract: From July to November 2009, concentrations of CO 2 in 78 samples of ambient air collected in 18 different interior spaces on a university campus in Dallas, Texas (USA) ranged from 386 to 1980 ppm. Corresponding δ 13 C values varied from -8.9 per mille to -19.4 per mille. The CO 2 from 22 samples of outdoor air (also collected on campus) had a more limited range of concentrations from 385 to 447 ppm (avg. = 408 ppm), while δ 13 C values varied from -10.1 per mille to -8.4 per mille (avg.=-9.0 per mille). In contrast to ambient indoor and outdoor air, the concentrations of CO 2 exhaled by 38 different individuals ranged from 38,300 to 76,200 ppm (avg. = 55,100 ppm), while δ 13 C values ranged from -24.8 per mille to -17.7 per mille (avg. = -21.8 per mille). The residence times of the total air in the interior spaces of this study appear to have been on the order of 10 min with relatively rapid approaches (∼30 min) to steady-state concentrations of ambient CO 2 gas. Collectively, the δ 13 C values of the indoor CO 2 samples were linearly correlated with the reciprocal of CO 2 concentration, exhibiting an intercept of -21.8 per mille, with r 2 = 0.99 and p 2 data representing 18 interior spaces (with varying numbers of occupants), and the coincidence of the intercept (-21.8 per mille) with the average δ 13 C value for human-exhaled CO 2 demonstrates simple mixing between two inputs: (1) outdoor CO 2 introduced to the interior spaces by ventilation systems, and (2) CO 2 exhaled by human occupants of those spaces. If such simple binary mixing is a common feature of interior spaces, it

  14. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  15. Arc tracking energy balance for copper and aluminum aeronautic cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    André, T; Valensi, F; Teulet, P; Cressault, Y; Zink, T; Caussé, R

    2017-01-01

    Arc tracking tests have been carried out between two voluntarily damaged aeronautic cables. Copper or aluminum conductors have been exposed to short circuits under alternating current. Various data have been recorded (arc voltage and current, radiated power and ablated mass), enabling to determine a power balance, in which every contribution is estimated. The total power is mainly transferred to the cables (between 50 and 65%, depending on the current and the cable type), and causes the melting and partial vaporization of the metallic core and insulating material, or is conducted or radiated. The other part is deposited into the arc column, being either radiated, convected or conducted. (paper)

  16. Optimized energy recovery in line with balancing of an ATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behi, M.; Mirmohammadi, S.A.; Suma, A.B.; Palm, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the potential imbalance problem of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system at the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) campus, Eindhoven. This ATES is one of the largest European aquifer thermal energy storage systems, and has a seasonal imbalance problem.

  17. Discrete event simulations for glycolysis pathway and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwieten, van D.A.J.; Rooda, J.E.; Armbruster, H.D.; Nagy, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the biological network of the glycolysis pathway has been modeled using discrete event models (DEMs). The most important feature of this pathway is that energy is released. To create a stable steady-state system an energy molecule equilibrating enzyme and metabolic reactions have

  18. Capacitor voltage ripple reduction and arm energy balancing in MMC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parikh, Harsh; Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánches; Tsolaridis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Modular Multilevel Converters are emerging and widely used in HVDC applications. However, the submodule capacitors are still large and the energy balancing under unbalanced conditions is a challenge. In this paper, an analytical model focusing on the energy stored in the capacitors and voltage...... variations is utilized in order to achieve better performance. By injecting a second order harmonic component into the circulating current, the energy variation and consequently the capacitor voltage ripple is reduced allowing for a capacitor size reduction. At the same time, an arm energy balancing...

  19. Actual evapotranspiration modeling using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Mark E.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Maupin, Molly A.; Kenny, Joan F.; Perry, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Remote-sensing technology and surface-energy-balance methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) when used in combination with local weather datasets over irrigated lands. Estimates of ETa may be used to provide a consistent, accurate, and efficient approach for estimating regional water withdrawals for irrigation and associated consumptive use (CU), especially in arid cropland areas that require supplemental water due to insufficient natural supplies from rainfall, soil moisture, or groundwater. ETa in these areas is considered equivalent to CU, and represents the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated and/or transpired, and is not available for immediate reuse. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study demonstrated the application of the remote-sensing-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to estimate 10-year average ETa at 1-kilometer resolution on national and regional scales, and compared those ETa values to the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Use Information Program’s 1995 county estimates of CU. The operational version of the operational SSEB (SSEBop) method is now used to construct monthly, county-level ETa maps of the conterminous United States for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010. The performance of the SSEBop was evaluated using eddy covariance flux tower datasets compiled from 2005 datasets, and the results showed a strong linear relationship in different land cover types across diverse ecosystems in the conterminous United States (correlation coefficient [r] ranging from 0.75 to 0.95). For example, r for woody savannas (0.75), grassland (0.75), forest (0.82), cropland (0.84), shrub land (0.89), and urban (0.95). A comparison of the remote-sensing SSEBop method for estimating ETa and the Hamon temperature method for estimating potential ET (ETp) also was conducted, using regressions of all available county averages of ETa for 2005 and 2010, and yielded correlations of r = 0

  20. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Gentile, Christopher L; Nindl, Bradley C; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Ruby, Maxwell

    2013-07-01

    Unrefined, complex carbohydrates and lean protein diets are used to combat obesity, although it's unknown whether more frequent meals may improve this response. The effects of consuming traditional (~15%) versus higher (~35%) protein intakes as three or six meals/day on abdominal fat, postprandial thermogenesis (TEM), and cardiometabolic biomarkers in overweight individuals during 28 days of energy balance (BAL) and deficit (NEG), respectively were compared. Overweight individuals (n = 30) were randomized into three groups: two high-protein groups (35% of energy) consumed as three (HP3) or six (HP6) meals/day and one group consumed three meals/day of a traditional intake (TD3). Following a 5-day baseline control (CON), subjects consumed their respective diets throughout a 56-day intervention consisting of two, 28 day phases: a BAL followed by a NEG phase (75% of energy needs). Total body fat (BF) and abdominal BF (ABF), body weight (BW), TEM, and fasting biomarkers were assessed at the end of CON, BAL, and NEG phases. BW remained stable throughout CON and BAL in all groups, whereas BF (P meals/day in overweight individuals during both BAL and NEG. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  1. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  2. Theoretical study of the building principal of internal and external energy balances structures in diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djallel ZEBBAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution knowledge of the energy introduced into the combustion chamber is of great importance in the theory of internal combustion engines. This work aims to highlight the very complex relationship, often indistinguishable between internal and external energy balances components. The scrutiny of internal balance components has permitted to trace back up to the external balance. This can be easily established on a test bench equipped for the occasion. It will assess the perfection of energy's use, the heat loss and the possibility of their reducing, the energy efficiency of exhaust gas use, the possibility and ways of engine operating parameters improving and finally it will allowing to calculate the cooling and energy recovery systems.

  3. Balancing Renewable Electricity Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO2 emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the techn...

  4. Energy balance in the solar transition region. I - Hydrostatic thermal models with ambipolar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1990-01-01

    The energy balance in the lower transition region is analyzed by constructing theoretical models which satisfy the energy balance constraint. The energy balance is achieved by balancing the radiative losses and the energy flowing downward from the corona. This energy flow is mainly in two forms: conductive heat flow and hydrogen ionization energy flow due to ambipolar diffusion. Hydrostatic equilibrium is assumed, and, in a first calculation, local mechanical heating and Joule heating are ignored. In a second model, some mechanical heating compatible with chromospheric energy-balance calculations is introduced. The models are computed for a partial non-LTE approach in which radiation departs strongly from LTE but particles depart from Maxwellian distributions only to first order. The results, which apply to cases where the magnetic field is either absent, or uniform and vertical, are compared with the observed Lyman lines and continuum from the average quiet sun. The approximate agreement suggests that this type of model can roughly explain the observed intensities in a physically meaningful way, assuming only a few free parameters specified as chromospheric boundary conditions.

  5. Determination of the energy potential of the Urban Solid Residuals in three municipalities of the county of Luanda. Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Diaz, Yudith; Gato Clavell, Tania; Girón Guillot, Rosa L.; Pires Araújo, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The biological conversion of the Urban Solid Residuals (USR) for energy purposes comes winning importance every day, once the urban residuals became considered a source of alternative energy. To foresee the generation of resulting biogas of the process of biological decomposition of the solid residuals of organic origin in the sanitary fillers is fundamental to estimate the energy and economic balance of facilities of recovery of gas. For the appropriate determination of the potential of generation of gases you employment the calculation methodology presented by the Agency of Environmental Protection of United States. In this context, the objective of this article is to quantify the potential of electric power generation coming from the gas methane originating of the Urban Solid Residuals of the municipalities Belas, Cacuaco and Viana of the County of Luanda in Angola. The available energy power was determined annually of the three municipalities. The instinct demonstrates that the biogas flow arrives at the maximum level and it possesses the maximum available Power in the year 2037, obtaining stops the municipalities Belas, Cacuaco and Viana 3330 · 103, 1206.13 · 103 and 2809.23 · 103m"3/year of profitable methane respectively whose calculated energy potential was respectively of 2316.52, 1358.88 and 3165,02 kW. The carried out calculations not allow alone to evaluate the energy potential of the filler, but also to evaluate, in certain way, the environmental impact for the mitigation of emissions of gases of effect hothouse. (author)

  6. Determination of the Energy Potential of the Urban Solid Residuals in Three Municipalities of the County of Luanda, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra.C. Yudith González-Diaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological conversion of the Urban Solid Residuals (USR for energy purposes she comeswinning importance every day, once the urban residuals became considered a source ofalternative energy. To foresee the generation of resulting biogas of the process of biologicaldecomposition of the solid residuals of organic origin in the sanitary fillers is fundamental toestimate the energy and economic balance of facilities of recovery of gas. For the appropriatedetermination of the potential of generation of gases you employment the calculationmethodology presented by the Agency of Environmental Protection of United States. In thiscontext, the objective of this article is to quantify the potential of electric power generationcoming from the gas methane originating of the Urban Solid Residuals of the municipalitiesBelas, Cacuaco and Viana of the County of Luanda in Angola. The available energy power wasdetermined annually of the three municipalities. The instinct demonstrates that the biogas flow e"> arrives at the maximum level and it possesses the maximum available Power in the year 2037,obtaining stops the municipalities Belas, Cacuaco and Viana 3 330· 103, 1 206,13· 103 and 2 809,23· 103m3/ year of profitable methane respectively whose calculated energy potential wasrespectively of 2 316,52, 1 358,88 and 3 165,02 kW. The carried out calculations not allowalone to evaluate the energy potential of the filler, but also to evaluate, in certain way, theenvironmental impact for the mitigation of emissions of gases of effect hothouse.

  7. Analysing urban planning implications from an electric vehicles scenario for urban structure-, transport- and energy-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rid, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadtplanung und Entwerfen; Fachhochschule Erfurt (Germany). Fachgebiet Stadt- und Regionaloekonomie; Pesch, Franz; Wewer, Max; Sperle, Tilman [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Stadtplanung und Entwerfen

    2013-06-01

    Depending on scenarios of actual electric vehicles on the road, ''electric mobility'' will heavily affect urban planning and infrastructure. We analyze these effects by developing an ''urban typology for electro-mobility''. By doing so, we seek to demonstrate that both requirements from electric vehicle scenarios (infrastructure, on-site provision of renewable energy etc.) and potential benefits (noise-reduction, NOx-reduction, modal-split etc.) are dependent on the urban context. The typology was developed according to preliminary studies' results recommending to use the GFZ (Gross Floor Area) and residential density to describe different types of urban structure, but additionally makes use of the proportion of public space and number of resident families (per ha net residential area) to extract five different ''urban types for electro-mobility''. Electro-mobility will have a significant climate effect only if 'green' electric power production is able to provide the additional amount of renewable energy needed. On-site power plants must be further developed to reduce externalities from large scale power plants providing C02-free energy (e.g. externalities from offshore wind energy plants). The potential to produce renewable energy from on-site power plants is dependent on the type of the urban context: Advanced ''plus-energy-concepts'' for example, today, are restricted to building scales of low-density residential zones, whereas in inner city zones, buildings have to provide energy for far more people per floorspace or for cooling purposes, as well. On-site renewable energy plants should be placed in urban settings, where they can work most efficiently and where they can be best integrated into the urban context given, hence, electro-mobility needs to be viewed from an urban perspective. Many other projects, so far, have investigated technical solutions to improve

  8. Comparison of tropical and subtropical glacier surface energy balance in Africa and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, L.; Prinz, R.; Kinnard, C.; Mölg, T.; Winkler, M.; Kaser, G.

    2010-05-01

    Tropical glaciers exist only at high altitude, and meteorological and surface energy balance studies of these glaciers can tell us much about the conditions and changes occurring in the mid troposphere. Understanding the surface energy balance and resultant mass balance regime of tropical glaciers is prerequisite to predicting glacier evolution, and future meltwater contributions to local hydrological resources, in response to future climate scenarios. Tropical glacier mass balance variability is strongly linked to precipitation and, via this, to multi-annual climate oscillations such as ENSO and IOZM, so it is useful to understand what role these differing regional influences play in comparison to the similarities imposed by the overarching tropical climate conditions and seasonality. New surface energy balance and mass balance data is available from Lewis glacier (Kenya, 0°09' S; 37°18' E), and here we use an energy and mass balance model to determine the surface energy flux characteristics at this site through a wet and dry season. Results are compared with those from Kersten glacier (Tanzania, 3°04' S; 37°21' E) to understand how conditions at these two glaciers compare and thus what coherent and contrasting climatic information glaciological records from these two sites can be expected to deliver. Meteorological data available from glacier stations on Antizana (Ecuador, 0°25' S; 78°09' W), Artesonraju (Peru, 8°28' S; 77°38' W) Zongo (Bolivia, 16°39' S; 67°47' W) and Guanaco (Chile, 29°20' S; 70°00' W) glaciers in South America offer the opportunity to examine how the surface fluxes and seasonal variability of the energy balance compares to those of the African glaciers. We include the extra-tropical Chilean example for comparison with the similarly high altitude, cold ice of Kersten glacier.

  9. Balancing act: Government roles in an energy conservation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, A.; Kourula, A.; Levitt, R.

    2014-01-01

    Government-led interorganizational alliance networks present a sensible opportunity to overcome many societal challenges through collaborative governance. In particular, few researchers have studied alliance networks in the field of energy conservation in commercial buildings—a sector with unique

  10. Electric buses - An energy efficient urban transportation means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Reinhart [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Transportation Studies, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Bus transit systems with electric traction are an important contribution to the post fossil fuel mobility. Most renewable energy sources provide energy in the form of electricity. Electric motors thus have promise in the development of the way ''beyond oil''. The reactivation of trolley bus systems - grid bounded but also catenary free for short distances - paves this way. The design of modern trolley bus operations overcomes the existing disadvantages of conventional buses using fossil fuel. Germany has an efficient industry in this field, that offers braking energy recovery and energy storage in modern supercapacitors as well as technical and organisational innovations for a local emission free and a low noise transit system. Gentle but powerful when starting and braking, the trolley bus is cost effective and easy to integrate into an existing infrastructure. Such an electric bus system is ecological, customer-friendly and suitable for cities. It has a high economic efficiency and it also expands the traffic planning field towards an ecological future technology. This paper shows examples at home and abroad how electric buses achieve an energy solving modern urban traffic. It gives insights into technical developments of electric vehicle equipment, cateneries with fast driving handling characteristics and the use of plain electric and hybrid powertrains. (author)

  11. Integrative Control of Energy Balance and Reproduction in Females

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Garcia, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong association between nutrition and reproduction. Chronic dietary energy deficits as well as energy surpluses can impair reproductive capacity. Metabolic status impacts reproductive function at systemic level, modulating the hypothalamic GnRH neuronal network and/or the pituitary gonadotropin secretion through several hormones and neuropeptides, and at the ovarian level, acting through the regulation of follicle growth and steroidogenesis by means of the growth hormone-IGF-ins...

  12. Relation Decomposing between Urbanization and Consumption of Water-Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Xiao, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, J., , Dr; Jiang, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Water resources and energy, important subsystems of city, are the basic guarantee for the normal operation of city, which play an important role to brace the urbanization. The interdependence between them are increasing along with the rapid development of China's economy. The relationship between urbanization and consumption of energy and water have become the focal point of the scholars, but the research have more attention to the impact of urbanization on two subsystems separately, and do not reveal the effects of urbanization on the water-energy nexus. Thus, there is little consideration upon the different characteristics of China's several regions in water and energy consumption in urbanization. In this paper, the STIRPAT model is built to reveal the relationship between urbanization and the consumption of water and energy. Also, the influence of urbanization on different main body of water and energy consumption are discussed. The different regional main factors of water and energy in the process of urbanization are identified through water and energy panel data of China's thirty provinces. Finally, through the regression analysis of total water consumption data of agriculture, industry, service industry with total energy consumption data, the relationship of water and energy in the process of urban development are analyzed.

  13. Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    conceptually and practically integrate urban spatial and energy planning approaches. The combined modelling approach that will be developed based on the described sectorial models holds the potential to represent hybrid energy systems coupling distributed generation of electricity with thermal conversion systems.

  14. Energy prices and the urban poor in India: Some policy imperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, R.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are: to study the pattern of domestic energy consumption of poor people in selected urban centers in India; to analyse the role of prices in determining the cost of providing energy for lighting and cooking in these urban areas; and to suggest policy alternatives which can reduce the cost meeting basic energy needs of the urban poor. Refs, 10 tabs

  15. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  16. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  17. Analysis of PV system energy balance based on meteorological data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokop, L.; Mišák, S.; Pelikán, Emil; Juruš, Pavel; Kasanický, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 11 (2013), s. 27-30 ISSN 0033-2097 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12009 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/1842; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0069; VŠB(CZ) sp2013/68; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : photovoltaic power plant * energy concept * energy consumption * PAX system * solar radiation Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 0.244, year: 2011 http://pe.org.pl/abstract_pl.php?nid=8034

  18. Energy balance and deformation at scission in 240Pu fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caamaño

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental determination of the total excitation energy, the total kinetic energy, and the evaporation neutron multiplicity of fully identified fragments produced in transfer-induced fission of 240Pu, combined with reasonable assumptions, permits to extract the intrinsic and collective excitation energy of the fragments as a function of their atomic number, along with their quadrupole deformation and their distance at scission. The results show that the deformation increases with the atomic number, Z, except for a local maximum around Z=44 and a minimum around Z=50, associated with the effect of deformed shells at Z∼44, N∼64, and spherical shells in 132Sn, respectively. The distance between the fragments also shows a minimum around Z1=44, Z2=50, suggesting a mechanism that links the effect of structure with the length of the neck at scission.

  19. Balancing renewable electricity. Energy storage, demand side management, and network extension from an interdisciplinary perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie zur Erforschung von Folgen Wissenschaftlich-Technischer Entwicklungen GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Paal, Boris P.; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO{sub 2} emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the technical system for balancing electricity over Europe is sketched. Looking at the challenges of a future energy system a mix of complementary technologies will prospectively become prevalent. In order to foster the needed innovation processes adequately, several funding mechanisms and legal regulations should be adapted. The authors give recommendations to handle major challenges in the development of the technical infrastructure, for the design of market conditions and for specific support of the application of balancing technologies. (orig.)

  20. Investment, firm value, and risk for a system operator balancing energy grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Kucsera, Dénes; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe

    2013-01-01

    With the liberalization of energy markets integrated energy companies have separated into entities that specialize in production and/or transmission of energy. Transmission of energy requires balancing the grid to guarantee system security, which is performed by the (independent) system operator (SO). When the SO faces stochastic demand, grid balancing has sizeable consequences on current and future profits, and hence, on firm value and firm risk. We explore these value and risk consequences with and without an investment option to expand transmission capacity. We show that firm value consists of the value of the transmission capacity in place plus the value of a short put and a short call option that are the result of the SO's balancing actions. Firm risk without investment option is non-linear and determined by the short option positions. It is decreasing with increasing energy demand. The existence of an option to expand transmission capacity increases firm value and firm risk. - Highlights: ► Grid balancing under stochastic demand affect current and future revenues, and firm value and firm risk. ► Balancing firm value consists of the value of the transmission capacity plus the value of a short strangle. ► Firm risk without investment option is determined by the short strangle and decreasing with increasing energy demand. ► The existence of an expansion option implies that transmission capacity increases firm value and firm risk

  1. Effects of dietary energy source on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes three recent studies by the same authors with the objective to study the effect of dietary energy source on the energy balance (EB) and risk for metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation. The first study, a literature survey, illustrated that feeding

  2. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  3. Urban physics : effect of the micro-climate on comfort, health and energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Defraeye, T.W.J.; Dorer, V.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The global trend towards urbanization explains the growing interest in the study of the modification of the urban climate due to the heat island effect and global warming, and its impact on energy use of buildings. Also urban comfort, health and durability, referring respectively to pedestrian

  4. Negotiation processes in urban redevelopment projects: dealing with conflicts by balancing integrative and distributive approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarveld, Marlijn; Smit, Marnix; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with conflict through dialogue receives considerable attention in current planning approaches. However, debate and negotiation are also inevitable features in the planning of urban redevelopment projects. Insight into the negotiation process contributes to current planning practice as

  5. Energy balance and transient responses in wave driven plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-06-01

    In a current-drive experiment with a RF power source, a certain amount of power is absorbed by resonant electrons. From the electrons, energy can flow through four channels: it can be converted into magnetic work when the electron interacts with an electric field, or it can be converted into heat when the electron collides the thermal plasma. In addition, there exists also the conversion of the low frequency RF energy into high frequency non thermal free-free or cyclotron radiation. Efficiencies of these conversions are considered together with the turn-on times of the associated responses

  6. Energy demand, poverty and the urban environment in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some insights into the prime problems of energy and related environmental issues as well as urbanisation in Jordan. The country has very limited natural resources: water is scarce; arable land is limited; and fossil-fuel sources are few. Moreover, the population is increasing rapidly. Hence, problems are arising. During the last 30 years, the country has experienced vast changes in its infrastructure with respect to the housing, urbanisation, commerce, agriculture and industry. Such developments have led to increasing demographic stresses: unemployment has increased and poverty is experienced by more than half of the population. The pressures have resulted in a high percentage of the population moving from rural to urban areas and so society is becoming less self-sufficient. At present, energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for about one quarter of the kingdom's fuel consumption. Kerosene, bottled LPG, diesel fuel and electricity are the main forms of energy used by households, but kerosene is still the dominant fuel because about 83% of households depend on it for space and water heating. The use of open fires and/or portable stoves has led to an increasing number of people being killed each year by suffocation or suffering health problems due to the inhalation of fumes and gaseous pollutants. Thus a national plan to achieve energy thrift and protect the environment, as well as accomplish the more rational utilisation of the limited natural resources available, is urgently needed and should be enacted soon. (author)

  7. Developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitola, J.P. [Unicom Thermal Technologies, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In two year`s time, Unicorn Thermal Technologies has grown into one of the largest district cooling systems of 25,000 tons with a 1996 plan to grow to 40,000 tons. This growth is attributed to the development and implementation of a marketing and sales plan based on thorough market research and innovative marketing and sales strategies, and the consistent implementation of those strategies. The beginning of the sales effort was focused around the company`s first district cooling facility, However, it quickly grew into a much broader vision as market acceptance increased. Although the district energy industry has often based its message on being a low cost energy provider, market research and early sales experience indicated that customers choose district cooling as a value added service. As customers began to reserve capacity in the first plant, the idea that district cooling is a value added service and not a commodity energy product was continually reinforced through marketing communications. Although this analysis is a review of developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market, it purposely avoids a long winded discussion of head to head competition.

  8. Multicriteria Decisions in Urban Energy System Planning: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajot, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.cajot@alumni.epfl.ch [European Institute for Energy Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering Group, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mirakyan, Atom [Energy Economics and Planning Department, Lahmeyer International, Bad Vilbel (Germany); Koch, Andreas [European Institute for Energy Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Maréchal, François [Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering Group, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-05-30

    Urban energy system planning (UESP) is a topic of growing concern for cities in deregulated energy markets, which plan to decrease energy demand, reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy sources. UESP being a highly multisectoral and multi-actor task, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are frequently used in the decision processes. These methods may provide support in organizing and identifying solutions to problems with conflicting objectives. However, knowing which method to use is generally not straightforward, as the appropriateness of a method or combination of methods depends on the decision problem’s context. Therefore, this article reviewed scientific papers to characterize and analyze MCDA problems and methods in the context of UESP. The review systematically explores issues such as the scope of the problems, the alternatives and criteria considered, the expected decision outcomes, the decision analysis methods and the rationales for selecting and combining them, and the role of values in driving the decision problems. The final outcome is a synthesis of the data and insights obtained, which may help potential users identify appropriate decision analysis methods based on given problem characteristics.

  9. Multicriteria Decisions in Urban Energy System Planning: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajot, Sébastien; Mirakyan, Atom; Koch, Andreas; Maréchal, François

    2017-01-01

    Urban energy system planning (UESP) is a topic of growing concern for cities in deregulated energy markets, which plan to decrease energy demand, reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy sources. UESP being a highly multisectoral and multi-actor task, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are frequently used in the decision processes. These methods may provide support in organizing and identifying solutions to problems with conflicting objectives. However, knowing which method to use is generally not straightforward, as the appropriateness of a method or combination of methods depends on the decision problem’s context. Therefore, this article reviewed scientific papers to characterize and analyze MCDA problems and methods in the context of UESP. The review systematically explores issues such as the scope of the problems, the alternatives and criteria considered, the expected decision outcomes, the decision analysis methods and the rationales for selecting and combining them, and the role of values in driving the decision problems. The final outcome is a synthesis of the data and insights obtained, which may help potential users identify appropriate decision analysis methods based on given problem characteristics.

  10. Balancing energy and the environment: the case of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Brewer, S.

    1978-06-01

    The results of part of a Rand study on the federal role in resolving environmental issues arising out of the implementation of energy projects are reported. The projects discussed are two geothermal programs in California: the steam resource development at The Geysers (Lake and Sonoma counties) in northern California, and the wet brine development in the Imperial Valley in southern California.

  11. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapouri, Hosein [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Duffield, James A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Washington DC (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate.

  12. An energy balance and greenhouse gas profile for county Wexford, Ireland in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Residential sector emits 38% of total CO 2 emissions. → Transport and industry/commerce sectors emit 28% each. → Oil composes 91% of total primary energy requirement (TPER). → Methane accounts for 25% of total greenhouse gas emissions. → Agriculture accounts for 36% of total greenhouse gas emissions. -- Abstract: In this paper an energy balance and a greenhouse gas profile has been formulated for the county of Wexford, situated in the south east of Ireland. The energy balance aims to aggregate all energy consumption in the county for the year 2006 across the following sectors; residential, agriculture, commerce and industry, and transport. The results of the energy balance are compared with the previous energy balance of 2001 where it is found that the residential sector is the biggest emitter of CO 2 with 38% of total emissions with the transport and industry/commerce sectors sharing second place on 28%. Consumption of oil is seen to have increased significantly in nearly all sectors, accounting for over 70% of the total final energy consumed (TFC) while the total primary energy requirement (TPER) sees oil consumption accounting for 91% of all fuels consumed. To take into account the contribution of agriculture in total GHG emissions the gases CH 4 and N 2 O will be estimated from the agricultural and waste sectors. The results show that methane contributes 25% of total GHG emissions with agriculture being the primary contributor accounting for 36% of total emissions.

  13. Natural Antibodies Related to Energy Balance in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Meulenberg, S.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of natural antibodies (NAb) in plasma and milk of individual dairy cows and to study the relation between NAb concentrations and energy balance (EB) and dietary energy source. Cows (n = 76) were fed a mainly glucogenic, lipogenic, or a

  14. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were ... mate source of energy for all physical and bio- logical processes ... May) account for major thunderstorm activity in the state and winter ...

  15. Meals and snacking, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2014-07-01

    The present obesity "epidemic" has been attributed to a growing trend for snacking. Snacking may contribute to excess energy intake and weight gain through different ways, for example: context/environment of eating, frequency of consumption and quality of food choices. The present article reviews data and hypotheses about the role of snacks in diet quality and body weight control. One obvious difficulty in this field is the diversity of definitions and approaches used in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. A brief paragraph reviews the prevalence of snacking in various countries and its recent evolution. The literature addressing the contribution of snacks to daily energy and nutrient intake presents two contrasting pictures. In many reports, snacking appears to facilitate the adjustment of energy intake to needs, and to contribute carbohydrates, rather than fats, to the diet, in addition to valuable micronutrients. Such results are usually reported in healthy, normal-weight children and adults. By contrast, snacking often appears to contribute much energy but little nutrition in the diet of other consumers, particularly obese children and adults. In addition to selecting energy-dense foods, eating in the absence of hunger in response to external non-physiological cues, in an irregular fashion, in contexts (e.g. while watching television) that do not favor attention to the act of eating, might be crucial factors determining the nutritional effects of snacking. While efforts should be continued to harmonize definitions and minimize the influence of under-reporting, interventions aimed at decreasing detrimental snacking should address both food-related aspects and behavioral components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkáč Štefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual “energy circles”. This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  17. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkáč, Štefan

    2015-11-01

    To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual "energy circles". This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  18. Eawag Forum Chriesbach - Detailed energy balance - Final report; Energie-Detailbilanz des Eawag Forum Chriesbach - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettinger, H.; Lichtensteiger, T.; Mauz, M. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, EAWAG, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Velsen, S. van [3-Plan Haustechnik AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Lehmann, B.; Frank, T.; Dorer, V.; Beerle, D. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    In June 2006 Eawag moved into its new headquarters, Forum Chriesbach. The building's external appearance is striking owing to the 1232 blue glass panels which clad the compact 6-storey rectangular structure. Eawag Forum Chriesbach houses 150 workplaces, a staff cafeteria, meeting and seminar rooms as well as the library of Eawag and Empa. It is an exemplary illustration of 'sustainable' construction design and is one of the best known buildings in Switzerland. It has been awarded several prizes and described in numerous national and international publications. The building is modern, functional, aesthetic, and uses a unique array of sources for heating, including the sun as well as waste heat from light sources, electric appliances and people. Cooling requirements are very low. Only electricity requirements and the embedded energy of construction materials are of significance. Approximately one third of the electricity required, namely 70 MWh/a, is produced by photovoltaic panels on the roof, and the rest is purchased as renewable electricity from the utilities under the label 'nature-made star'. During a two-year optimization period the building's control system was adjusted and know-how was transferred from planners and builders to owners and facility managers. From autumn 2007 Eawag, Empa and 3-Plan Haustechnik AG carried out temperature and energy measurements to determine the extent to which original planning assumptions and simulation forecasts corresponded to actual experience. Computer simulations with TRNSYS have revealed the relative contribution of individual building components to the overall energy balance and their sensitivity to external parameters. Temperatures during hot summer days have remained in comfortable ranges below 26 {sup o}C and have usually ranged between 20 and 23 {sup o}C in winter. Although heating and electricity requirements have exceeded predicted levels, at 5.7 kWh/m{sup 2} weighted energy reference

  19. Domestic fuel energy consumption in an Indian urban ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.K.; Rao, B.G.; Nisanka, S.K.; Sahu, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Berhampur is one of the oldest and biggest towns of Orissa State where 93% of people earn their living from non-primary economic activities. The fuel consumption structure reveals an element of rural bias since the domestic sector derives 49% of its energy used for cooking and heating from biomass sources. Firewood is the only fuel used by all income groups and almost all occupations. Other traditional fuels such as dungcake, agricultural waste and leaf litter are used in the town with different degrees of dominance in various occupation groups and income classes. The inequality of income distribution is reflected in the fuel consumption structure of the rich and poor with greater dependence on non-biomass in the high income group and biomass in the low income group. Family size is an important determinant of biomass fuel use. For the urban poor, there is a relationship between income and fuel consumption. There exists scope for enlarging the biomass base by utilising the available bio-wastes and developing a green belt around the town. This requires some rural features in the urban area using new technologies. (author)

  20. Impact of the urban heat island on residents’ energy consumption: a case study of Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Pang, Huaji; Guo, Wenhui

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines impact of urban heat island on residents’ energy consumption through comparative analyses of monthly air temperature data observed in Qingdao, Laoshan and Huangdao weather stations. The results show effect of urban heat island is close related with urbanization speed. Recently, effects of urban heat island of Laoshan and Huangdao exceed that of Qingdao, consistent with rapid urbanization in Laoshan and Huangdao. Enhanced effect of urban heat island induces surface air temperature to rise up, further increase electricity energy consumption for air conditioning use in summer and reduce coal consumption for residents heating in winter. Comparing change of residents’ energy consumption in summer and winter, increments in summer are less than reduction in winter. This implicates effect of urban heat island is more obvious in winter than in summer.