The planning stage of the investment-construction process is of a crucial importance. Its overall impact on the costs, construction time and the quality of design solutions is huge. However, in practice, little attention is given to this pre-design stage, except for public buildings or other buildings of particular importance. In consequence, the results of investment and construction activities are unsatisfactory. Therefore, the issue has been given careful consideration in this paper. The paper discusses the issue of programming urban revitalization, emphasizing its socio-economic importance. To illustrate the complexity of revitalization projects planning, the author draws attention to social, economic, technical and organisational factors, such as public participation, reorganization and revaluation of land use planning, rationalization of energy use, organization and management of revitalization processes, as well as technical progress. Summarising the paper, the author concludes that in order to improve the quality of life of town residents and to protect material national heritage, it is indispensable to continuously revitalize subsequent town areas.
Schläppi, Michael R.
Through interactions with the recently formed Cooperative of the Institute of Urban Agriculture and Nutrition (CIUAN), a catalyst initiative co-governed by community organizations and academia to engage in mutually beneficial research and teaching projects, Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is supporting community efforts to bring…
The policy research report reviews the scholarly and print media literatures on urban revitalization. The extent of revitalization; the incumbent or occupant upgrading; gentrification (displacement of low- and moderate-income households by better-off households); gentrification and displacement from all causes; and the role of powerful actors in revitalization are discussed. Public policy dealing with land use and development in urban areas is discussed. Future research needs are indicated.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...
Guy W Hager; Kenneth T. Belt; William Stack; Kimberly Burgess; J. Morgan Grove; Bess Caplan; Mary Hardcastle; Desiree Shelley; Steward T.A. Pickett; Peter M. Groffman
Older, economically troubled urban neighborhoods present multiple challenges to environmental quality. Here, we present results from an initiative in Baltimore, Maryland, where water-quality improvements were rooted in a socioecological framework that highlighted the interactions between biogeophysical dynamics and social actors and institutions. This framework led to...
Wahid, J.; Karsono, B.; Koesmeri, D. R. A.; Indriannisa, S. E.
The phenomenon of urban decline in the highly industrialized nation is now slowly taking place in the developing world. Deindustrialization as defined as a decline in the manufacturing sectors led to the changes in social, economic and subsequently a shift in urban activities. By taking Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Republic of Indonesia as an example, this paper attempts to uncover the possibilities and opportunities in identifying the causes and tracing back on the decline. Lhokseumawe, Aceh was a well-known industrial region outside Java Island, and it has attracted thousands of workers from northern Sumatera and the nearby regions. After the downturn of the economy and the change in activities, the city slowly showed a decline. Scholars has estimated that one in six of the cities around the world that relied on oil and gas production activities will suffer from this phenomenological impact. Lhokseumawe is a good example of an industrial plants where PT Arun LNG (private limited company) operated since 1974 grew up rapidly and nicknamed “Petrodollar City”. The trickle effect of the activities from the petrodollar business led to a few settlements popping up at the periphery as a result of urban sprawl from Lhokseumawe, however, the glory of the economic growth outlived within a short period. This was resulted from the production of PT Arun NGL which had dropped dramatically in the 2000s and suddenly closed the operation in October 2014. From these perspectives, this paper attempts to investigate the impact of deindustrialization within the urban space and activity in Lhokseumawe which have consequences to urban declining phenomena. By taking one of the revitalized urban space formerly known as Cunda Plaza (CP) as a case study area, the paper will apply synoptic method through observation, space mapping and interview techniques for gathering and examining the data. The findings indicates that Cunda Plaza is a magnet as a central hub of urban activities which can be
Jose M Prat Forga
Full Text Available Municipal governments increasingly turn to cultural and leisure activities to promote and revitalize their cities. This study analysed the development of gay tourism in Barcelona (Spain by means of music festivals. While a significant body of literature has examined revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, this paper focuses on strategies in the development of cultural and leisure activities around this specific tourism population. It presents findings from a local survey distributed to key stakeholders in the promotion and development of this tourism (local agents and gay tourists. The survey data indicate that although most agents are guided by a varied set of goals, marketing objectives (“image city” and “brand city” guide the development and support of urban gay tourism in Barcelona.
Kreager, Derek A; Lyons, Christopher J; Hays, Zachary R
This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20 th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle's downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990's, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980's showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990's showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed.
Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.
This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle’s downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990’s, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980’s showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990’s showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed. PMID:25505350
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Single Family Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by...
Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina
This paper proposes a re-thinking of the relationship between sociology and the biological sciences. Tracing lines of connection between the history of sociology and the contemporary landscape of biology, the paper argues for a reconfiguration of this relationship beyond popular rhetorics of 'biologization' or 'medicalization'. At the heart of the paper is a claim that, today, there are some potent new frames for re-imagining the traffic between sociological and biological research - even for 'revitalizing' the sociological enterprise as such. The paper threads this argument through one empirical case: the relationship between urban life and mental illness. In its first section, it shows how this relationship enlivened both early psychiatric epidemiology, and some forms of the new discipline of sociology; it then traces the historical division of these sciences, as the sociological investment in psychiatric questions waned, and 'the social' become marginalized within an increasingly 'biological' psychiatry. In its third section, however, the paper shows how this relationship has lately been revivified, but now by a nuanced epigenetic and neurobiological attention to the links between mental health and urban life. What role can sociology play here? In its final section, the paper shows how this older sociology, with its lively interest in the psychiatric and neurobiological vicissitudes of urban social life, can be our guide in helping to identify intersections between sociological and biological attention. With a new century now underway, the paper concludes by suggesting that the relationship between urban life and mental illness may prove a core testing-ground for a 'revitalized' sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.
Mohamed Yasser Lotfy
Full Text Available Market places have occupied a major role in most cities around the world, being a site for more than just economic interactions, but rather a cultivating agent for social and cultural growth. The Arab and Islamic cities have a proud history of market places, most of the times being the main core of the city, with urban development encompassing it, and till the present day market places are in the heart of most communities. The modern city brought with it a devaluing of the traditional market places, making it a tourist attraction as in the case of "khan el Khalil",or leaving it to rust like "bab el louq" market. Those markets while playing a big role historically, modern city planning moved the services and markets into other form, thus becoming less important, abandoned, or even demolished at cases. The issue at hand deals with how the contemporary urban planning affected market places, with emphasis on closed markets (Bab el-loukwhich can be said to be the successor of the ancient Bazaar or Wekala. Bal el-Louk market was once in the heart of Cairo and vital part of its community life, but now the market after more than a 100 years, is in ruins, but hope is not yet all lost, since the market can still be revived and revitalized. To tackle this issue a combination of comparative and field studies must occur. On the one hand, comparative studies with markets in the US or closed markets in European cities such as Paris or Copenhagen would be done to find the necessary elements and goals that would make those markets vital, and the necessary steps to revitalize our own forgotten markets. The other study would have to deal with the current condition of bab el louk market in Cairo, finding out the reason behind its demise, the owners and users feedback on said market, and the opportunities for change. With the results of the studies, general recommendations would be made for the revitalization of the Egyptian marketplaces, using an urban framework
Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian
This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…
Full Text Available The structure and architecture of many European cities has started their development during the Middle Ages or even earlier. The historic cores gradually had become centers of contemporary cities and are constantly evolving. They are affected by the tendencies of destruction, initiatives and movements of preservation are also taking place there. The comprehensive works of rehabilitation of Lithuanian historic urban centers were carried out during the period of soviet occupation. The insularity of the Soviet empire, ideological reasons and the absence of the private property has determined certain architectural expressions and solutions for the social problems. After the restoration of the country‘s independence the problems and tendencies typical to Western city centers, such as commercialization and gentrification, started to appear in Lithuanian historic urban cores. This justifies the aim of the article which is to analyze the tendencies of revitalization of historic city centers in Western countries with the main attention to the social and architectural aspects.Article in Lithuanian
Victor Salvador Soulary–Carracedo
Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to design a methodology to evaluate the contribution of the science, the technology and the innovation of universities to the local economic revitalizing. The scientific novelty resides in a sequence of procedures, based on administration, statistical and mathematical modeling methods that constitutes a tool for the qualitative improvement of this relationship. The application of the methodology in the Universidad de Oriente allowed to verify that if the optimal structure of scientific projects is implemented it would increase, in the year 2017, the economic impact of the scientific projects in 5% like average, what would improve the efficiency in the use of the financial and human resources, as well as the relevancy of its results. Also, the partial implementation of the proposed plan of actions, it has impacted positively on the detected problems denoting a more favorable situation that the one evaluated initially.
Revitalization is a complex program to restore the functioning of the neglected urban areas in terms of spatial, economic and social. Revitalization activities on post-military facilities are stopping negative phenomena, such as degradation of space, social pathology or lack of proper functioning of the area, adapted to modern needs. The object of the work is to present some aspects with the revitalization of former military facilities in the area of the Artyleryjska Street in Olsztyn. The presented design concept aims to revitalize a neglected area of the barracks, which will enable the activation site and include it in the city urban space. The method adopted in this work is the architectural project of adapting selected post-military facilities for new functions, affecting the economic development and social integration of people.
Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban Poverty ... price crisis and the threat of climate change to traditional sources of food security. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.
Farné Fratini, Chiara; Jensen, Jens Stissing
development. Against this agenda a national strategy is currently being enforced which addresses water as a context-independent functional sector. This agenda operates with a narrow definition of economic efficiency in service provision through a benchmarking system focusing only on technical performances...... addresses the infrastructure as a discrete system - thus pushing for one-way influence of the infrastructure to the cityscape - the place based innovation agenda has traditionally been more inclusive towards the context specific priorities of urban planners. In this paper we apply the arena of development...
One revitalization may not be enough. Especially if a company has been thoroughly neglected for a long time. There are situations when the replacement of management, redundancies and cost cutting has to be repeated or the company will never reach a sound condition with growing revenues and a reasonable profit. In recent years the new owner of one of the biggest traditional Slovak wood processing companies - Smrecina, Banska Bystrica - also had to go through this process. When five years ago investors, Juraj Kamaras and Ladislav Krajnak, from eastern Slovakia took over the company, it was on the brink of bankruptcy.The former owners of Smrecina did not have the money for the modernisation of its overly extensive production base and their debts with wood suppliers started to increase. The new owners soon realised that they could not keep everything and decided to only continue production with the best potential. They only retained about a third or the 500 strong workforce, closed down the outdated sawmill and stopped the production of wooden packaging. They only modernised and developed the production of insulation fibreboards. Today, this has proved to be a good decision. The financially and technologically undemanding sawing of wood is done by many companies but the number of wooden fibreboard insulation producers can be counted on the fingers of two hands. The market is not saturated yet and the popularity of wood in the building industry is growing. Last year the new owners of Smrecina finally moved into profit regarding the sale of insulation. The production started to be profitable after last summer after the owners again replaced the management. The new management again reviewed the human and other potential of the company. Management and employees were released and new cheaper suppliers were found. Today the factory employs 160 people and revenues are at about the same level as five years ago - 500 mil. Sk (16.53 mil. EUR). (author)
Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)
This paper measures the overall inclusive growth of a city by considering changing trends in the key economic variables based on ‘Borda ranking’ and establishes a relationship between city economic growth and overall city inclusive growth. By using data of 52 large cities in India, this paper finds that higher urban economic growth is associated with an increase in urban inequality, a reduction in urban poverty, and a lower level of overall inclusive growth of a city.
An aggregative economic approach to the theory of city size is presented along with some empirical findings which suggest that even the largest cities have not yet reached excessive sizes from the point of view of growth and productivity. Urban magnitude is no simple 1 dimensional phenomenon. Modern urban centers are surrounded by very large, diffuse zonal boundaries, within which there are marked variations in the proportion of firms and people associated with that center, and in the intensity of the association. In sum, population does not constitute a conventional, countable set. In general, population will be considered as the basic magnitude and as a conventionally definable number. Most approaches to city size have emphasized the presumed diseconomy of urban scale and have sought to establish that population at which costs per capita are least, regarding this as optimal. It is argued here that both the logic and the factual basis of this approach are faulty. The argument of minimum costs is insufficient in its own terms. Such an objective is reasonable only if output per capita is constant, but it appears that output per capita is an increasing function of urban size. In that case, a more sensible objective of public policy would deal with the relation of outputs and inputs, rather than only with inputs. In every country for which evidence was found, local product per capita (or some index for it, such as income or wages) rises with urban size, and where comparable figures on cost are available, these rise far more slowly if at all. Although all of the data desirable are not available for any single country, the overall pattern is clear. Possibly the most surprising element in the data is the marked decline with increasing density in Social Overhead Captial Stocks (SOCS) per capita. This runs counter to common belief that the bigger the city the more infrastructure per capita is needed and may be the result of such effects as the greater linear quantities of
Nijkamp, P.; Sahin, M.; Baycan, T.
Nowadays, migrants form a significant share of the urban population, and their business is critical for urban economic growth. This paper addresses the key factors determining the position of migrant entrepreneurs in the urban economy in the Netherlands. In order to develop a solid assessment of CSFs for migrant entrepreneurs, and to understand business performance in a competitive urban environment, this study will investigate the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants in Dutch cities from a ...
Full Text Available Urban agriculture (UA with its multi-functional roles has recently become a globally important topic, as it is considered as an approach to address the emerging challenges to societies seeking greater sustainability. In Taiwan, the Hakka community of Gaoyuan in Taoyuan City, where a traditional farm pond was recently transformed into a public, multi-functional UA resource, is widely regarded as the first successful bottom-up, community-led, farm-pond-based UA in Taiwan, yet its actual performance is rarely explored in any depth. Little work has been done to provide details on the socio-ecological benefits of UA in the community redevelopment process. Through in-depth interviews, fieldwork, and participant observation, this specific qualitative study aims to explore the community champions’ experiences in the transformation leading to a revitalized community. First, by linking nearby nature to people, a green network of diverse spaces, low-impact landscaping, and an agricultural-community-like pondscape, the specific landscape character that makes UA in Gaoyuan distinctive is formed. Second, through active engagement, participation, and the agency of local people, the UA implementation process features cooperative working, mutual learning, and experience-sharing. Third, UA plays a crucial role in building social cohesion that promotes people’s participation in community affairs, and strengthens the community’s social network, which involves agricultural life, crop production, the ecological environment, and community care. It is revealed that the farm-pond-based UA with its multi-functional roles acts as a catalyst for the Gaoyuan community’s progress toward sustainability. The desired end-state of the agricultural landscape, as a synthesis of natural features and human interventions, is a more sustainable, characteristic, well-maintained and united place to fulfill people’s needs and enhance people’s overall health and well-being.
A key step to promoting urban revitalization is the reclamation of abandoned or underutilized contaminated sites, also known as brownfields. : Effective brownfield redevelopment approaches require environmental, socio-economic and urban planning dime...
This paper comments on Darcia Narvaez's Kohlberg Memorial Lecture (EJ1111256), published in this issue, with respect to her contrasting ethics and economics, or morality and market. My basic claim is that ethics and economics, properly understood, are just two sides of the same coin. One main point is that all morality solves cooperation problems…
Full Text Available Malbork is a medium-sized town that arose in the middle ages, near the Teutonic Castle upon Nogat River, one of UNESCO World Heritage Site. The town layout is an expression of its turbulent history, reflected in the mix of new residential and service structures with old industrial buildings and monuments, an urban chaos that caused negative aesthetic feelings among residents and tourists. The following paper presents the key investments made in the town, since 2007, when Malbork adopted a Local Revitalization Program, and their impact upon its residents and tourists.
Kalsø Hansen, Høgni; Winther, Lars
The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....
Youn, Hyejin; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José; Strumsky, Deborah; Samaniego, Horacio; West, Geoffrey B
Understanding cities is central to addressing major global challenges from climate change to economic resilience. Although increasingly perceived as fundamental socio-economic units, the detailed fabric of urban economic activities is only recently accessible to comprehensive analyses with the availability of large datasets. Here, we study abundances of business categories across US metropolitan statistical areas, and provide a framework for measuring the intrinsic diversity of economic activities that transcends scales of the classification scheme. A universal structure common to all cities is revealed, manifesting self-similarity in internal economic structure as well as aggregated metrics (GDP, patents, crime). We present a simple mathematical derivation of the universality, and provide a model, together with its economic implications of open-ended diversity created by urbanization, for understanding the observed empirical distribution. Given the universal distribution, scaling analyses for individual business categories enable us to determine their relative abundances as a function of city size. These results shed light on the processes of economic differentiation with scale, suggesting a general structure for the growth of national economies as integrated urban systems. © 2016 The Authors.
Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.
Full Text Available This article: refers to the recent interventions and present revitalisation projects taking place at São Paulo city centre. It deals with the importance that has been attributed to the urban central areas through the years and the way in which these particular spaces are constant targets of public interventions. The case of São Paulo is treated through the process of "urban revitalisation". The text focuses on the need to speak about the context of this process within a wider one, that of "urban reestructuraron" - which leads to "gentrification" and spatial segregation phenomenon
Improving the mechanism of integrating economic and spatial developments is an important issue in urban policy analysis and design. As Economic Clusters (ECs) become an important organisation in contemporary urban development in both economic and spatial practices, the research addresses the
This article explores leadership of place in the context of three urban middle schools in Morocco. School reform means that principals are changing from agents of authority to leaders with school improvement responsibilities. This shift in mission can be stressful for principals who are called to lead, but are often constrained by bureaucratic and…
World Bank Group
This report argues that urbanization brings significant opportunities for both rural and urban areas and that Burundi needs to prioritize issues of economic growth and job creation. Based on a diagnostic evaluation of the current urbanization and spatial growth, GDP, and job potential, the report highlights the importance of prioritizing policies and investments to address deficiencies in ...
The aim of the article is to discuss the need of defining and implementation of the linear revitalization - the new approach related to the revitalization processes. The results of the preliminary investigations indicate that this kind of revitalization seems to be an important tool supporting city management and planning, especially in cases of cities fragmentation - causing lack of physical, social, economic and ecological cohesion. The problems which may occur in such situations could be, in author’s opinion, solved with the use of linear revitalization. Linear revitalization relates to various linear city structures, which need a renewal. The article presents the idea of new attitude, character of specific actions related to degraded linear structures, draft classification, as well as the potential benefits to the city structure which could be reached due to the linear revitalization implementation. The theoretical deliberations are supplemented by the description and assessment of the chosen case study from Gdynia in Poland. The Kwiatkowskiego Route in Gdynia, playing important role in the city traffic as the external connection, creates the barrier in the city structure, causing many negative effects. Author presents specific problems related to chosen example, and the ways to solve them and to connect city structure. The main conclusion of the study is that the presented approach may be, in author’s opinion, the beginning of the discussion related to the linear revitalization, which may become an important and effective tool of sustainable city development. It may help overcoming physical barriers, and minimise functional, economic, social, mental and environmental conflicts caused by city fragmentation.
Full Text Available This paper emphasizes that for a nation to revitalize in terms of development, not only does it need to evaluate in terms of GDP growth rate, but also has to consider the Quality of Life of its citizen and their human happiness. There is strong correlation between macro-economic development parameters like health, education, GDP growth rate and Quality of Life Index, expressed through HDI. It also has correlation with subjective quality of life based on the perception of urban socio economic classes, as measured in this study. The subjective quality of life is studied through five parameters like Quality of house, education, health care, transportation and recreation facilities. Human happiness is evaluated through the perception of respondents towards change in their financial conditions and consumption expenditure influencing their quality of life. This empirical research through spearman’s rank correlation tried to establish the relationship between macro-economic indicators with the quality of life parameters as perceived by people. The study was conducted in Mumbai, and its suburban areas .with a sample of 850 respondents taken through structured questionnaire, during 2012-13. It was observed from A. T. Kearney’s GRDI report that India was ranking between first five positions, consistently in terms of Modern Trade Retail Business since 2000. The managerial implication of the study highlights the association of quantitative economic development with larger aspect of human development, for the policy makers to understand the various areas which needs to be taken care to cater towards revitalizing the development of the nation
Full Text Available Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability. However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of Shanghai (China, this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely sensed images and a set of landscape metrics; and economic transition is described by a set of indicators from three aspects (globalization, decentralization, and marketization. Results show that urban fragmentation presents an increasing linear trend. Multivariate regression identifies positive linear correlation between urban fragmentation and economic transition. More specifically, the relative influence is different for the three components of economic transition. The relative influence of decentralization is stronger than that of globalization and marketization. The joint influences of decentralization and globalization are the strongest for urban fragmentation. The demonstrated methodology can be applicable to other places after making suitable adjustment of the economic transition indicators and fragmentation metrics.
Full Text Available The article presents a part of the results on the physiognomy of a postindustrial city under conditions of economic transformation in Poland. The study area encompasses industrial centers located in the region of the Central Industrial District (Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy - COP in the Świętokrzystkie and Mazowieckie voivodeships (districts. The specific urban structure of the industrial city and unemployment among its inhabitants resulting from ownership transformations generate various problems. The workers’ neighborhoods and colonies, which sprouted up so quickly at the beginning of the XX century, were a supply base for the rapidly developing industrial centers. Their clear urban structure and cultural potential they possess predispose them to developing necessary repair programs. Thus, the article draws attention to this form of settlement on the one hand, and on the other characterizes the activities assumed by gminas (municipalities in the scope of modernizing and revitalizing these areas.
Despite the urgent need for local economic development in South Africa, Local Economic Development (LED) as area of professional endeavour/activity has largely failed to live up to this need. In this article, an alternative approach to local economic development, which involved a 'bottom-up' approach to urban renewal is ...
Bogen gennemgår et praktisk projekt fra fundament til tag. Desuden gennemgås visualisering af modellen. Hvis du påtænker at anvende Revit et dette et must.......Bogen gennemgår et praktisk projekt fra fundament til tag. Desuden gennemgås visualisering af modellen. Hvis du påtænker at anvende Revit et dette et must....
KEY WORDS: Income, urban forest, education, age ... at the various levels of his education, his endeavours ... conservation developmental activities should be ... tourism. Well-maintained trees improve residential. “curb appeal” and increase ...
Seyed Mohammadreza Khatibi
Full Text Available Not long ago, city gates and entryways had high spatial value and were among the landmarks for marking city boundaries. Today with cities having been expanded and developed, such aspect of the entrance concept is lost and entryways are turned to passages for transportation. In fact, the rich spatial value of such entrances has decreased as they are solely spaces for passing through out or into the city. The dissonant expansion of entryways causes irregularities in thresholds of urban structure. This is due to imprudent intrusion into city landscape entailed by ill-considered planning activities. The main problem is the lack of comprehensive visual or mental definitions in the field. In other words, the challenge includes improper sequencing, zoning, and lack of lucid scenario and interfere procedure. Through defining a scenario, this study aims to set a spatial hierarchy for urban entryways. It then uses a comparative study to examine the scenario for an existing case study. This study provides a new definition for designing and planning for the fields concerned with city entryways. This implies methods by which authorities can interfere in the process of urban design.
Full Text Available Previously economic growth was generally discussed in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI, educational growth, savings, investments, inflation as well as trade openness of a nation. Very recently it has been identified that population is one of the major determinants of economic growth of a nation. In the recent years, the study of urbanization has gained a matter of concern in developing countries as it has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. South Asian countries are one of the emerging economics and growing at a faster rate over the past few years. At the same time, population of South Asia is growing at a significant rate. Therefore the study has attempted to identify the causal relationship between urban population and economic growth in South Asia using a panel data analysis. The study makes use of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Phillips-Perron (PP, Pesaran as well as Fisher methods for panel unit root test. The panel Pedroni cointegration test suggests that there is long run relationship between the variables. The further panel Vector Error Correction Model (VECM suggests that there is long run causality running from urban population growth to economic growth in South Asia. The study concludes that the growth of urban population can have significant impact on economic growth in South Asia in the long run.
Huang, Roger Z.
This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.
One high-leverage strategy rooted in a strong research base--the revitalized tutoring center--provides a wealth of opportunity to students who may be otherwise underserved. This embedded, open-all-day tutoring center supports collaborative teacher teams by using peer tutors and community volunteers. By centralizing resources and providing supports…
Sakovic, A.; Praso, N.
Power Plant Revitalization is a highly ranged concept essentially aimed at continued operations of the generating unit at, or near, rated capacities for the rest of the economic life of the plant or even for an extended life. In essence, the need to rehabilitate may arise due to reasons such as low availability factor, low efficiency, increasing operating and maintenance costs, loss of reliability, drop in safety of plant and personnel, poor maintainability or environmental requirements. The term revitalization is therefore normally used in the context to cover the range of activities including repairing components, replacing equipment, modifying systems, adding new system and equipment and perhaps restoration to rated capacities. This exercise on already complex power generation process will naturally require the application of various technologies in order to ensure a safe and efficient installation of electricity supply. In normal conditions of producing and consumption of electricity (load demands) in order to answer the question of what kind of revitalization to undertake it is necessary to state at the very beginning: - whether it is necessary, from the point of equipment wear-out, to revitalize all equipment at once (one-phase revitalization), or - whether it is possible to postpone the revitalization of a part of equipment for the next period (phased revitalization). Both concepts have some specific advantages and disadvantages. In essence the decision-making process between these two approaches, three basic conditions should be considered: technical-technological adequacy, energy-economy adequacy and financial adequacy. This paper covers general considerations, approach and methodology implemented during the revitalization the Tuzla Thermal Power Plant's Unit 3 (100MW) which was imposed by urgent demands of the Power System, the war conditions and financial possibilities including: - General data on TPP Tuzla and Unit 3 - Scope of work and economic effects
Chandra, Pablo; Gogate, Bageshri; Gogate, Parikshit; Thite, Nilesh; Mutha, Abhay; Walimbe, Amit
Purpose : To find out the average economic burden of medical care on a patient with diabetes in Pune, India Methods : A semi-open ended questionnaire followed by interview was conducted with patients attending diabetes and ophthalmic out-patient departments. They were asked regarding the duration of diabetes, methods undertaken for blood sugar control and the amount they spend on consultations, laboratory tests, medicines and procedures if any within past year. Expenditure was classified as d...
Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.
During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.
Florin Marian Buhociu
Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is
Chandra, Pablo; Gogate, Bageshri; Gogate, Parikshit; Thite, Nilesh; Mutha, Abhay; Walimbe, Amit
To find out the average economic burden of medical care on a patient with diabetes in Pune, India. A semi-open ended questionnaire followed by interview was conducted with patients attending diabetes and ophthalmic out-patient departments. They were asked regarding the duration of diabetes, methods undertaken for blood sugar control and the amount they spend on consultations, laboratory tests, medicines and procedures if any within past year. Expenditure was classified as direct cost (cost of medicines, doctor's fees, investigations, lasers and surgery) and indirect cost (travel, diet control, health classes and loss of wages). Data was collected regarding the socioeconomic status according to Kuppaswamy classification. 219 patients participated of whom 129 were males (58.9%). Average annual direct cost of diabetes treatment was Rs 8,822 of which 52.1% was spend on medicines, 3.2% was spend on lasers, 12.6% was spend on surgical procedures, 11.6% spent on investigations and 10.4% was spend on clinician fees. Average annual indirect cost was Rs. 3949 of which 3.4% was spend on travelling purpose, 0.4% was spent on health classes, 4.9% was spent on diet control and 91.3% was loss of wages. Average expenditure done by lower middle class was 23.7% of their income. Average percentage of income for direct and indirect cost was 3.6% and 1.4% respectively. The cost of the treatment formed1.3% of the annual income for those in Socio-economic class I, 1.7% in class II, 3.7% in class III and 23.7% in class IV. The cost of managing diabetes was a significant proportion of the patients' income, especially for those on lower socio-economic scale (class IV).
Horacio Alfredo Gil
Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the biggest polluters of water resources. For treatment, the usual conventional technologies (CT are based on civil and hydraulic engineering; more recently, green technologies (GT based on biology and ecology began to be developed. The aim of this study was to assess the economic aspects of these technologies using cost-benefit analysis. The economic benefits are derived from the sale of forest products and the environmental benefits of water decontamination, valued by the avoided cost method. The results of the study establish that GT have better commercial and economic performance than CT, and that the inclusion of environmental benefit significantly improves the results.
Full Text Available In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010, Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007, Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008, Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008 or Sahn and Stifel (2002 are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data
Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related to the relationship between city, energy, economic factors and city planning. These issues are analyzed from a theoretical point of view and are placed in a logical path based on three assumptions. The first considers the city as an intelligent system constantly evolving. The second considers the city as a system where economic processes come out at their highest level affecting other aspects of social and urban structure. The third considers the planning as the weak link in the process of urban development, one of the most exposed to economic and social pressures.Energy production has experienced a great progress since steam and electricity were discovered. Each stage of this evolution has affected city and territory introducing significant physical signs, changing the ways of carrying out functions and creating new needs and new activities. The energy revolution, based on sustainable sources and on skillful management of the networks, will strongly affect the city and the way of organizing the activities, their location, dimension, and the shape of the spaces.The paper explores some of the issues related to the relationship between urban system and energy.The first section analyzes the meaning of the intelligent city as an entity that is constantly changing and constantly adapting. The second section analyzes the role of the energy systems in the evolution of the activities and of the city’s image. The last section investigates the role of the economic factors in the evolution of the shape and meaning of city, pointing out that the way towards smart and green urban systems will largely depend on their economic advantage.
Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.
Eckenrod, Sarah B.; Holahan, William L.
The authors provide an explanation of urban sprawl using topics commonly taught in the principles of economics course. Specifically, employing the concepts of congestible public goods, they explain that underpriced road usage leads to an inefficiently large proportion of the population moving farther from the cities. Increased demand for highway…
Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yang; Du, Jian; Fu, Wenqi; Zhao, Xiaowen; Huang, Weidong; Zhao, Xianming; Liu, Guoxiang; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-Wei
With the rapid increase in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer, a growing number of lung cancer patients and their families are faced with a tremendous economic burden because of the high cost of treatment in China. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden and patient responsibility of lung cancer patients and the impact of this burden on family income. This study uses data from a retrospective questionnaire survey conducted in 10 communities in urban China and includes 195 surviving lung cancer patients diagnosed over the previous five years. The calculation of direct economic burden included both direct medical and direct nonmedical costs. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach, which measures the productivity lost for both patients and family caregivers. The price index was applied for the cost calculation. The average economic burden from lung cancer was $43,336 per patient, of which the direct cost per capita was $42,540 (98.16%) and the indirect cost per capita was $795 (1.84%). Of the total direct medical costs, 35.66% was paid by the insurer and 9.84% was not covered by insurance. The economic burden for diagnosed lung cancer patients in the first year following diagnosis was $30,277 per capita, which accounted for 171% of the household annual income, a percentage that fell to 107% after subtracting the compensation from medical insurance. The economic burden for lung cancer patients is substantial in the urban areas of China, and an effective control strategy to lower the cost is urgently needed.
This dissertation consists of three essays on urban economics. The three essays are related to urban spatial structure change, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and housing redevelopment. Chapter 1 answers the question: Does the classic Standard Urban Model still describe the growth of cities? Chapter 2 derives the implications of telework on urban spatial structure, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Chapter 3 investigates the long run effects of minimum lot size zoning on neighborhood redevelopment. Chapter 1 identifies a new implication of the classic Standard Urban Model, the "unitary elasticity property (UEP)", which is the sum of the elasticity of central density and the elasticity of land area with respect to population change is approximately equal to unity. When this implication of the SUM is tested, it fits US cities fairly well. Further analysis demonstrates that topographic barriers and age of housing stock are the key factors explaining deviation from the UEP. Chapter 2 develops a numerical urban simulation model with households that are able to telework to investigate the urban form, congestion, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission implications of telework. Simulation results suggest that by reducing transportation costs, telework causes sprawl, with associated longer commutes and consumption of larger homes, both of which increase energy consumption. Overall effects depend on who captures the gains from telework (workers versus firms), urban land use regulation such as height limits or greenbelts, and the fraction of workers participating in telework. The net effects of telework on energy use and GHG emissions are generally negligible. Chapter 3 applies dynamic programming to investigate the long run effects of minimum lot size zoning on neighborhood redevelopment. With numerical simulation, comparative dynamic results show that minimum lot size zoning can delay initial land conversion and slow down demolition and
Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina
Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.
Prastyawan, A.; Isbandono, P.
This paper presents the discussion the role of local government in traditional market revitalization. It is obvious that traditional market contributes economically into a certain region. However, the existence of the traditional market is decreasing since there are modern markets that are fully facilitated by the government. In order to increase the economic standard of the traders, the government and the legislative revitalized the improper traditional market, without the participation of the society and the stakeholders. Government’s intention to revitalize the market is to increase local revenue. While the Legislative Council considered politically motivated by profit, rent-seeking. Restrictions on the aspirations of the traders in the revitalization cause resistance to the government. The traders wished to be recognized as part of the stakeholder. In the future, the market revitalization activities should involve the traders as the main actors who have received services from the government. Government as policy makers should consider as it partners in developing business traders and increase local revenues.
Nurtaev, B.; Khakimov, S.
Questions of assessment of earthquake economical losses on urban territories of Uzbekistan, taking into account damage forming factors, which are increqasing or reducing economical losses were discussed in the paper. Buildings and facilities vulnerability factors were classified. From total value (equal to 50) were selected most important ones. Factors ranging by level of impact and weight function in loss assessment were ranged. One group of damage forming factors includs seismic hazard assessment, design, construction and maintenance of building and facilities. Other one is formed by city planning characteristics and includes : density of constructions and population, area of soft soils, existence of liquefaction susceptible soils and etc. To all these factors has been given weight functions and interval values by groups. Methodical recomendations for loss asessment taking into account above mentioned factors were developed. It gives possibility to carry out preventive measures for protection of vulnerable territories, to differentiate cost assessment of each region in relation with territory peculiarity and damage value. Using developed method we have ranged cities by risk level. It has allowed to establish ratings of the general vulnerability of urban territories of cities and on their basis to make optimum decisions, oriented to loss mitigation and increase of safety of population. Besides the technique can be used by insurance companies for estimated zoning of territory, development of effective utilization schema of land resources, rational town-planning, an economic estimation of used territory for supply with information of the various works connected to an estimation of seismic hazard. Further improvement of technique of establishment of rating of cities by level of damage from earthquakes will allow to increase quality of construction, rationality of accommodation of buildings, will be an economic stimulator for increasing of seismic resistance of
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Population growth, urbanisation and technological development are creating a growing need for urban forests and parks, which are becoming green oases for recreation and relaxation. Apart from the sociological and economic components, urban forest valuation is presented through tourism, the market value of main and secondary forest products, and the growing value of real estate in the vicinity of green areas. Environmental economics explores the optimal ratio between the costs and the benefits received from the investment in the environment. The aim of this research is monetary valuation of urban trees. Materials and Methods: A Danish model for tree value determination was applied in Ribnjak Park as a case study. The model is based on tree growing costs and the present value. It is limited by the subjective aesthetic tree value estimation, but it is used in Europe because of its practicality. Individual tree value estimation is used because of the tree damage from vehicles or new residential buildings. The method is suitable for individual trees or groups of trees, but it is not appropriate for forest stands. Twenty random selected trees from nine different tree species have been analysed in the park. Diameter at breast height, tree height, expected age, aesthetic value and location were recorded for each tree. Furthermore, ecological, social and health tree values were taken into account separately with the calculation of points. Results: According to the evaluation, the average monetary value of one tree in Ribnjak Park is 542 EUR. The average diameter at breast height is 57.86 cm with the average age of 96.14 years. Plane trees have the highest value in comparison to other sampled species. Conclusions: Tree values vary depending on age, dimension or aesthetic values. The disadvantage of this method is in the estimation of very old tree value and in high involvement of personal estimation, which creates an opportunity
Krasey, R.; Jackson, M.
Over the past eight years, 1981 to mid-1989, Canadian Occidental has invested $16.3 million in the revitalization of the company's Pembina properties. A total of $3.8 million was invested in 83 fracture simulations yielding an average payout period of just over one year and incremental reserves per job of 2,130 m 3 . The stimulated wells are currently producing 45 m 3 /d of incremental oil yielding $1.65 million/y of additional revenue for the Pembina operation. A total of $12.5 million was invested in 33 infill wells and their asociated facilities. The infill wells have an average payout period of 2.5 y and the estimated incremental reserves per well of 10,930 m 3 . The infill wells are currently producing 80 m 3 /d of incremental oil yielding $2 million/y of additional revenue. Canadian Occidental's program has increased the current annual revenue to $5.55 million from an estimated $1.9 million if none of the work had been carried out. The increase is significant considering the majority of the work has achieved payout. The work carried out by Canadian Occidental ensures continued profitability and life from the field in the future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs
Kimijiama, S; Nagai, M
In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development
Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun
Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.
Rural children are more economically valuable than urban children to parents and are twice as likely to be economically active, although social, familial, and individual differences (such as age, sex, and education) can significantly influence labor force activity. (SB)
Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell
This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…
Sundara, Denny M.; Hartono, Djoko M.; Suganda, Emirhadi; Haeruman, S. Herman J.
This paper explores the development of the urban forest in East Jakarta. By 2030 Jakarta area has a target of 30% green area covering 19,845 hectares, including urban forest covering an area of 4,631 hectares. In 2015, the city forest is only 646 hectares, while the city requires 3,985 hectares of new land Urban forest growth from year to year showed a marked decrease with increasing land area awoke to commercial functions, environmental conditions encourage the development of the city to become unsustainable. This research aims to support sustainable urban development and ecological balance through the revitalization of green areas and urban development. Analytical methods for urban forest area is calculated based on the amount of CO2 that comes from people, vehicles, and industrial. Urban spatial analysis based on satellite image data, using a GIS program is an analysis tool to determine the distribution and growth patterns of green areas. This paper uses a dynamic system model to simulate the conditions of the region against intervention to be performed on potential areas for development of urban forests. The result is a model urban forest area is integrated with a social and economic function to encourage the development of sustainable cities.
The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and
O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko
Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…
Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.
Moomaw, R L; Shatter, A M
"We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per capita, population, and export orientation reduce primacy. Political factors, such as whether a country's largest city is also its capital, affect primacy. Our results do not seem to imply that developing-country urbanization today differs fundamentally from urbanization in the past." excerpt
La consulta popular com a mecanisme per revitalitzar l’urbanisme democràtic - Popular Consultation as a Way to Revitalize Democratic Urban Planning - La consulta popular como mecanismo para revitalizar el urbanismo democrático
Marta Llorens Ferrer
Full Text Available En el context actual de greu crisi econòmica, en l'àmbit immobiliari i urbanístic han vist la llum moltes arbitrarietats a causa de la realització de projectes il·legals o insostenibles que han inundat de desconfiança la societat. La participació ciutadana duta a terme a través del tràmit d'informació pública en el procediment d'aprovació dels plans urbanístics, és una formalitat procedimental que no ha satisfet les necessitats de democratització de l'urbanisme, però la consulta directa als ciutadans pot permetre conèixer l'opinió dels ciutadans, essencial per guiar la presa de decisions discrecionals al si de l'Administració. El referèndum és un instrument de difícil aplicació, però la consulta no referendària es presenta com una eina eficaç per satisfer els requeriments de major aprofundiment en matèria de democràcia participativa en l'urbanisme. En aquest escenari, s'analitza la consulta urbanística, amb especial atenció a l'àmbit material que pot incloure, tenint en compte la concurrència competencial entre el municipi i la Generalitat de Catalunya en la planificació urbanística, així com la presència d'interessos supramunicipals.In the current context of economic crisis, many illegal or unsustainable projects have been discovered in the sphere of urban planning. Citizen participation through public inquiry into the urban planning approval process is a procedural formality that has not satisfied the need for democratization of urban planning, but direct consultation may make the Administration aware of the opinions of the citizens, essential in guiding its discretionary decisions. Referendums are difficult to implement, but non- referendary consultations could be an effective tool to satisfy the requirements of participatory democracy in urban planning. This article analyses urban public consultation, with special attention to its aims, complicated by the overlap of competences between municipalities and
The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...
economic status of rural dwellers in the study area. Policy makers and development workers should exploit the role of rural-urban interaction to bring about sustainable livelihood in the present changing perspective of extension system in ...
Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong
The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process.
This study carries out an economic analysis of the demand for fuelwood in urban areas using Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe, as a case study. The demand for fuelwood in urban areas is one of the causes of several environmental and health problems in Africa, where the up to 90% of energy
Full Text Available The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process.
Goli, Srinivas; Doshi, Riddhi; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequa...
Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Li, Zhigang; Xue, Desheng
The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood. To bridge these gaps, the present study investigates the impact of both urbanization and economic development on individuals' self-rated health and its underlying mechanisms in China. We use data from the national scale of the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey to analyze the impact of China's urbanization and economic development on health. A total of 14,791 individuals were sampled from 401 neighborhoods within 124 prefecture-level cities. Multilevel ordered logistic models were applied. Model results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between individuals' self-rated health and urbanization rates (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 42.0%) and a positive linear relationship between their self-rated health and economic development. Model results also suggested that the urbanization-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and middle-income people (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 0.0% and 49.2%, respectively), and the development-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and low-income people (with turning points of GDP per capita at 93,462 yuan and 71,333 yuan, respectively) and linear for middle-income people. The impact of urbanization and economic development on health in China is complicated. Careful assessments are needed to understand the health impact of China's rapid urbanization. Social and environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and economic growth
Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu
The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality.
This study is on influence of socio-economic development of urban centers on intra-city trip generation in Ogun state, Nigeria. The proportion of the aggregate socio-economic variables in each city was used to rank the cities in hierarchical order of development while the average household trip per week was used to rank ...
Che'Man, N.; Sabri, S.; Hosni, N.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
In urban growth processes, urbanisation is highly influenced by economic growth which triggers the dynamics of economic agents and land uses. This is consisted of complex subsystems which need sophisticated methods like agent-based modelling and simulation to understand the pattern, behaviour and
Widjaksana; Latief, A; Langenati, R; Rachmawati, M
Based on the economic and technical study, there is a good prospect in the future to develop Experimental Fuel Element Installation into a more beneficial facility. At present the facility is not in good condition due to inappropriate design and construction of the facility. It is therefore proposed to revitalize and modify the facility to become more productive. Such a proposal includes several steps of activity starting from the engineering and design activities including economical evaluation, up to product qualification. Up to now, some engineering activities have been done. The result shows that the facility could be revitalized and modified to manufacture PWR fuel pin with five alternatives. It is recommended to revitalized and modified following the fifth alternative step by step. Such modification would result in achievement of BEP at 39.1 % capacity and IRR of 31. 4 %/year. The selling price of the product (fuel pin) used in the analysis is US $ 190/kg U which is lower the prevailing price in the market, and the additional investment to do the activity about US $ 9.070.700 (based on the contant US dollar of 1996)
Nolan, J. Shaun
promotion organizations comprising teachers, linguists, enthusiasts, and activists are working hard at a local and regional level to ensure that there is a greater awareness of the existence of this language variety and to foster an appreciation of the importance of its maintenance and revitalization....... Whether these efforts will help Gallo become more used in eastern Brittany’s everyday sociolinguistic landscape remains to be seen. However, Gallo promotional organizations appear to be establishing the symbolic and cultural value of Gallo as part of Brittany’s languages, and are thereby solidifying...
Fan, Peilei; Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet
Driven by drastic socioeconomic changes in China and Mongolia, urbanization has become one of the most significant driving forces in the transformation of the Mongolian Plateau in the past 30 years. Using Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar as case studies, we developed a holistic approach to examine the socioeconomic and natural driving forces for urbanization and to investigate the impact on the urban environment. We used a multidisciplinary approach and relied on a variety of data sources to assess the changes of the landscape and environment of the two cities. We detected a rapid urbanization in Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar, both in terms of urban population growth and urban land expansion, from 1990 to 2010, with a much faster speed in 2000-2010. The local geo-physical conditions have constrained the spatial direction of expansion. Ulaanbaatar lagged behind Hohhot for about a decade when measured by indicators of urban population and urban land. Both cities have a degraded urban environment and a growing air pollution epidemic. While Hohhot had worse air pollution than Ulaanbaatar in the early 2000s, the gap between the two cities became smaller after 2010. The research presented here highlights the following as key determinants for urbanization and environmental change: (1) the co-evolution of urbanization, economic development, and environmental change; (2) the urbanization of transitional economies driven by the change of the economic structure, i.e., the development by both manufacturing and tertiary sectors and the change in the primary sector; and (3) the recent institutional changes and increased integration with the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ASCENT center for technical knowledge
The Autodesk® Revit® Architecture software is a powerful Building Information Modeling (BIM) program that works the way Architects think. From Preliminary Design through Design Development, and into Construction Documents, the program streamlines the design process with a central 3D model. Changes made in one view update across all views and on the printable sheets. This training guide is designed to teach you the Autodesk Revit functionality as you would work with it in the design process. You begin by learning about the user interface and the Autodesk Revit commands for design development followed by those available for construction documentation. Since building projects themselves tend to be extremely complex, the Autodesk Revit Architecture software is also complex. The objective of the Autodesk Revit Architecture 2014 Fundamentals training guide is to enable students to create full 3D architectural project models and set them up in working drawings. This training guide focuses on basic tools that the ...
The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...
Michael V. Tomeldan
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Urban renewal is a strategy for revitalizing underutilized and degraded sections of an inner city in the hopes of reducing crime, enhancing the environment, preventing further depreciation of land values, and stimulating economic activity. Many urban renewal projects in the past, however, have been associated with substantial demolition of properties, the displacement of residents, expensive infrastructure, and the gentrification of the urban renewal site.In this study, urban renewal schemes in Makati City, Philippines, are explored to determine the appropriate developments for identified urban renewal sites that are situated on the fringes of its affluent sections. The urban renewal proposals seek to involve the participation of the residents of the blighted areas so that they themselves can benefit from the revitalization initiatives. The conceptualized “shared growth” urban renewal initiatives will attempt to minimize dislocation, encourage investment, improve the urban environment, create a more vibrant neighborhood, and spread the economic benefits of the initiatives to the original residents of the redevelopment sites. KEYWORDS: Urban renewal, shared growth, sustainable urbanism
The study then suggested the introduction of standard yardstick policy, which could be used to measure socio-economic status of residents in relation to their health status determinants in this country. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp.
Full Text Available Process of deindustrialization of downtowns in most of well-developed Western European countries has been undertaken since 1960’s while in post-socialist countries just from last 25 years, after political and economic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe. As far as urban structure is concerned, a new type of inner-city sites has appeared as a consequence of the collapse of industrial activities in second half of 20th century. In vast majority of cases newly developed morhological units (e.g. run-down post-industrial have been unavailable to the public. As a reult, “classical” public space organization of European cities has been significantly changed. However, revitalization of post-industrial urban areas creates opportunities to reorganize public space according to current inhabitants and other urban space users’ needs. All transitions undertaken as a part of re-developement of brownfields sites are focused on impovements in physical and functional dimension of urban space quality to increase the standard of living condition. According to the concept of smat cities it is relaeted to “smart living” in sustainable urban environment. As a matter of fact, post-socialist cities in Central and Eastern Europe where interval of central planning was present in second half of 20th century and “classical” capitalist cites of Western Europe represent different patterns of public space transitions due to distinct historical development process of central space. In the paper a comparative study of Manchester, Lyon and Łódź is presented. The aim of the research is to indicate the reorganization of historically shaped public space structre in central space of analyzed cities after revitalization of post-industrial urban areas and new central space creation.
Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.
Zhou, Q; Halsnæs, K; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K
Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.
Zhou, Zhimin; Zhou, Yanli; Ge, Xiangyu
This research studies the nexus of nitrogen oxide emissions and economic development/urbanization. Under the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis, we apply the analysis technique of spatial panel data in the STIRPAT framework, and thus obtain the estimated impacts of income/urbanization on nitrogen oxide emission systematically. The empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence on nitrogen oxide emission distribution exist at provincial level, and the inverse N-shape EKC describes both income-nitrogen oxide and urbanization-nitrogen oxide nexuses. In addition, some well-directed policy advices are made to reduce the nitrogen oxide emission in future.
Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)
In February 2011 Secretary of Energy Steven Chu established a Task Force on Asset Revitalization to facilitate a discussion among the Department of Energy (DOE), communities around DOE sites, non-profits, tribal governments, the private sector, and other stakeholders to identify reuse approaches as environmental cleanup efforts at DOE sites reach completion. The Task Force was charged with exploring opportunities to reuse DOE site assets for beneficial purposes and making recommendations to the Under Secretaries of Energy, Science, and Nuclear Security on the formation of an Asset Revitalization Initiative (ARI). The ARI is a Department-wide effort to advance the beneficial reuse of the DOE's unique and diverse mix of assets including land, facilities, infrastructure, equipment, technologies, natural resources, and a highly skilled workforce. The ARI will encourage collaboration between the public and private sectors in order to achieve energy and environmental goals as well as to stimulate and diversify regional economies. The recommendations of the ARI Task Force are summarized below, focusing on the sustainability and waste management aspects. DOE's ongoing completion of cleanup efforts and modernization efforts is creating opportunities to transition under-used or excess assets to future beneficial use. The FY 2011 DOE ARI Task Force determined that DOE's assets could be reused for beneficial purposes such as clean energy production, industrial manufacturing, recreational and conversation use, and other economic development initiatives. Asset revitalization has the potential to both help achieve DOE's energy and environmental goals and diversify regional economies where the sites are located, including providing the support needed to implement large-scale projects that achieve green sustainability goals. Asset revitalization efforts could be accelerated by effectively incorporating future use plans into environmental management and
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The growth of cities has attracted considerable scholarly attention during the last decade as it is becoming clear that powerful agglomeration forces are reinforcing the role of cities as the engines of economic growth. Close to 4 billion people live in cities, about 55 per cent of the world's population. While population growth rates are declining and the world's population is likely to level off from the middle of the 21st century, probably ending up around 10 billion, further urbanization is expected to continue. Another 3 billion people will become urban citizens this century. At the same time no corner of the world will be sheltered from sweeping demographic changes due to population ageing and increasing migration. Such changes will be amplified in cities. In this paper we combine UN population projections and migration data with our own assumptions to derive projections of age composition and birthplace composition of urban populations by continent. We also briefly address the consequences of these demographic trends for future urban economic vitality. Particular attention is paid to the impacts of demographic changes on urban creativity and innovation. We conclude that, with the right policies in place, such demographic changes enhance rather than impede the future prosperity of the urban world. KEYWORDS: World population projections, urbanization, ageing, migration, ethnic diversity
Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the possible energy savings in various approaches to outdoor lighting modernization. Several solutions implementable using currently-available systems are presented and discussed. An innovative approach using real-time sensor data is also presented in detail, along with its formal background, based on Artificial Intelligence methods (rule-based systems and graph transformations. The efficiency of all approaches has been estimated and compared using real-life data recorded at an urban setting. The article also presents other aspects which influence the efficiency and feasibility of intelligent lighting projects, including design quality, design workload and conformance to standards.
Endang Titi Sunarti Darjosanjoto
Full Text Available Neglected warehouse buildings along the Kalimas River have created a poor urban façade in terms of visual quality. However the city government is planning to encourage tourism activities that take advantage of Kalimas River and its surrounding environment. If there is no good plan in accordance with the concept of local identity for old city of Surabaya, it will reduce it as a tourist attraction. In reference to the issue above, design criteria needs to be compiled for revitalizing the old warehouse district, which is expected to revive the identity of this district and be able to support the city’s tourism. This study was conducted by recording field observations, and the data was analyzed using the character appraisal method. The character appraisal analysis method is presented in the form of street picture data, which is divided into determined segments. The results show that there are five components including place attachment, sustainable urban design, green open space design, ecological riverfront design, and activity support that should be considered in the revitalization of the warehouse district. Those components are divided into two parts: building and open space at the riverbank. There are 13 design criteria for building at the riverbank, while there are 14 design criteria for open space at the riverbank. These design criteria can enrich the warehouse district’s revitalization by improving the visual quality of the urban environment.Keywords: design criteria; warehouse district; riverbank; Surabaya; revitalization.
Goli, Srinivas; Doshi, Riddhi; Perianayagam, Arokiasamy
Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06), this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs), institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501), institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214), children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340), underweight children (CI = -0.19420), and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596). Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical pathways through which economic factors operate on inequalities in
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. METHODS: Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06, this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs, institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR. Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. RESULTS: The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501, institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214, children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340, underweight children (CI = -0.19420, and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596. Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical
Full Text Available Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields, ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.
The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...
May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains resources provided by EPA's Brownfields and Land Revitalization program that can be used for the assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment of...
Zhou, Z X; Li, J; Zhang, W
Ecosystems offer material and environmental support for human habitation and development in those areas of the earth where people choose to live. However, urbanization is an inexorable trend of human social development and threatens the health of those ecosystems inhabited by humans. This study calculates the values of NPP (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration, water interception, soil conservation, and agricultural production in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone. At the same time, we combined DMSP/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner) night lights remote sensing data and statistical data to analyze the level of urbanization. Quantitative analysis was performed on the interactions between the ecosystem service functions and urbanization based on the calculations of their coupled coordination degrees. The results were the following: (1) The values of NPP, carbon sequestration, and agricultural production showed a trend of increase. However, water interception decreased before increasing, while soil conservation showed the reverse trend; (2) Urbanization levels in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone for the last 10 years have proceeded at a fast pace with comprehensive promotion; and (3) Coupled and coupled coordination degrees between urbanization and ecosystem services show increasing trends. This research can provide a theoretical basis for the region's rapid economic development in the balance.
Qu, L.; Huang, Xin; Yang, Qiao; Tieben, Hendrik; Geng, Yan; Rossini, Francesco
In the past few years, one of the major changes in urban development strategies of the first-tier cities in China is the increasing focus on urban regeneration. To cope with the magnitude of migration and challenges of economic transition, these cities are forced to find new models of urban
Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin
In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.
Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars
The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of the outer city plays in the urban economy of Copenhagen. The centre of attention is on the changing industrial structure, the progressively higher complexity of firm location, and the division of labour that have emerged in the past decade of growth as a result of the resurgence of the metropolitan region...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....
This article investigates the survival strategies of the urban poor in Lagos metropolis. The study considers the socio-economic characteristics as well as the livelihood patterns and strategies employed in the absence of formal social security systems. The research adopts a purposive sampling of 396 household heads in 31 ...
Muller, Thomas; And Others
This report focuses on demographic and economic changes affecting urban households during the 1980s. Statistics regarding birth, fertility and mortality rates, marriage and divorce, and household formation are presented. Metropolitan and interregional trends in mobility are examined by racial, income and age groups. Growth rates of the national…
Manyerere, David J.
There has been an alarming increase in the rate of unemployment among active urban population in Tanzania whereby the youth are severely affected. In this regard Youth Economic Groups (YEGs) program was formed as one among the best alternative strategies to address this perennial problem. Membership in YEGs act as a means to complement youth…
Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.
The aim of of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of ethnic female entrepreneurship in urban economic life. The focus of the research is on the attitudes and behaviour of Turkish female entrepreneurs in Amsterdam. The main question we pose is: Are ethnic female entrepreneurs special ethnic
F.U. Khan (Farid U.); Arjun S. Bedi; R.A. Sparrow (Robert)
textabstractThis paper investigates the economic consequences of sickness and death and the manner in which poor urban households in Bangladesh respond to such events. Based on longitudinal data we assess the effects of morbidity and mortality episodes on household income, medical spending, labour
Mohammadi, S.; Vries, de B.; Schaefer, W.F.; Timmermans, H.
A model for allocating PV panels and wind turbines in urban areas is developed. Firstly, it examines the spatial and technical requirements for the installation of PV panels and wind turbines and then evaluates their economic feasibilities in order to generate the cost effective electricity neutral
Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl
This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The results...... are revealed by collection and analysis of historical material and interviews with key stakeholders. The historical material is obtained from libraries, online resources, and reports from professionals including urban designers, transportation engineers, research centres and politicians of the Beijing...
Jesús M. González Pérez
Full Text Available In the early 1980s, suburbanization and periurbanization processes became widespread in major cities within Spain. An interesting stage of returning to city centers commenced that materialized in the start of rehabilitation policies within historic centers. These processes coincided with weak population growth, an acute industrial economic crisis, and new democratic policies in municipal councils. Three decades later, we may be witnessing similar processes, although with different origins. The consequences of a construction-based economic model have been disastrous in Spain, from both an economic as well as an environmental point of view. The artificial land boom was significant throughout the country, but was especially prominent within the Mediterranean areas that specialize in tourism and real estate (second homes. The burst of the real estate bubble has shown the irrationality of the economic model and the serious social and environmental consequences that the model has entailed. Within this context, some of the territorial transformation processes that occurred in Spain during the real estate boom period are being studied for the first time. Additionally, changes in land policies (urban renewal of centers and urban renewal in general within the current economic and real estate crisis are analyzed. An urban rehabilitation that gradually includes new spaces for intervention and for introducing new sustainable methods for recovering degraded spaces, such as the Master Plan for Platja de Palma, a mature tourism destination that seeks a final ‘0 CO2 balance’ scenario, among other objectives.
During economic reform, Chinese economic labor markets became segmented by state sector associated with a planned redistributive economy and private sector associated with the market economy. By considering an economic sector as a concrete institutional setting in post-reform China, this paper compares the extent to which socioeconomic status, measured by education and income, is associated with self-rated health between state sector and private sector. The sample is limited to urban Chinese employees between the ages of 18 and 55 who were active in the labor force. By analyzing pooled data from the 1991-2006 Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey , I find that there is a stronger association between income and self-rated health in the private sector than in the state sector. This study suggests that sectoral differences between market and redistributive economies are an important key to understanding health inequalities in post-reform urban China.
Full Text Available During economic reform, Chinese economic labor markets became segmented by state sector associated with a planned redistributive economy and private sector associated with the market economy. By considering an economic sector as a concrete institutional setting in post-reform China, this paper compares the extent to which socioeconomic status, measured by education and income, is associated with self-rated health between state sector and private sector. The sample is limited to urban Chinese employees between the ages of 18 and 55 who were active in the labor force. By analyzing pooled data from the 1991–2006 Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey, I find that there is a stronger association between income and self-rated health in the private sector than in the state sector. This study suggests that sectoral differences between market and redistributive economies are an important key to understanding health inequalities in post-reform urban China.
Mayasari, Ruth; Mawengkang, Herman; Gomar Purba, Ronal
Land revitalization refers to comprehensive renovation of farmland, waterways, roads, forest or villages to improve the quality of plantation, raise the productivity of the plantation area and improve agricultural production conditions and the environment. The objective of sustainable land revitalization planning is to facilitate environmentally, socially, and economically viable land use. Therefore it is reasonable to use participatory approach to fullfil the plan. This paper addresses a multicriteria decision aid to model such planning problem, then we develop an interactive approach for solving the problem.
Full Text Available Since it implemented open-door policies, China has become the fastest growing economy in the world, and its urbanization level has steadily improved. Taking a special economic zone as the object of study, this paper delineates the urban development boundary of the Central Urban Area of Doumen. Using multiple models and methods, the urban development rigid and elastic boundaries are delineated separately, with the rigid boundary serving as the premise and foundation for delineating the elastic boundary. The results are as follows. First, the scale of the urban development rigid boundary is 79.60 km². Moreover, the scales of the urban development elastic boundaries in 2020 and 2026 are 24.51 km² and 28.53 km², respectively. Second, by delimiting the urban development elastic boundary, the compactness of urban land will be improved. Third, the urban development boundary of this paper is reasonable in theory. This paper suggests that the urban development boundary can curb urban sprawl and guide rational urban development, which is conducive to optimizing an urban spatial layout.
Muhammad Yousif Mangi
Full Text Available Land use planning is a technical approach for developing and managing the land into various public interests to endorse sustainable socio-economic development. This paper focuses on socio-economic problems by improper allocations of urban land uses particularly in vertical development (High rise buildings. Taluka Qasimabad Town was selected as a case study to observe the existing urban land use trends. Spatial and Quantitative data were collected through detailed land use survey and formal interviews. The ArcGIS and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science online software were used to analyze spatial and quantitative data. LRM (Linear Regression Model was used for predicting urban land use change particularly in vertical development by the year 2050. In this context, yearly code and land use change variables were applied in LRM to predict land use change since 2007. The results were found that rapid change in land uses occurred in the study area, by which inhabitants are facing problems like privacy, insecurity, property devaluation, and orientation nearby their accommodations. This research can lead to suggest several ways to improve and enhance urban land use planning approaches for betterment of urban communities.
Li, Kebai; Ma, Tianyi; Wei, Guo
As China quickly urbanizes, urban domestic water generally presents the circumstances of both rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. A robust economic control decision method for dynamic uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. It is developed based on the internal model principle and pole allocation method, and it is applied to an urban domestic water supply system with rising tendency and seasonal cycle fluctuation. To achieve this goal, first a multiplicative model is used to describe the urban domestic water demand. Then, a capital stock and a labor stock are selected as the state vector, and the investment and labor are designed as the control vector. Next, the compensator subsystem is devised in light of the internal model principle. Finally, by using the state feedback control strategy and pole allocation method, the multivariable robust economic control decision method is implemented. The implementation with this model can accomplish the urban domestic water supply control goal, with the robustness for the variation of parameters. The methodology presented in this study may be applied to the water management system in other parts of the world, provided all data used in this study are available. The robust control decision method in this paper is also applicable to deal with tracking control problems as well as stabilization control problems of other general dynamic uncertain systems.
Michael F. Goodchild
Full Text Available Urban economic modeling and effective spatial planning are critical tools towards achieving urban sustainability. However, in practice, many technical obstacles, such as information islands, poor documentation of data and lack of software platforms to facilitate virtual collaboration, are challenging the effectiveness of decision-making processes. In this paper, we report on our efforts to design and develop a geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI for urban economic analysis and simulation. This GCI provides an operational graphic user interface, built upon a service-oriented architecture to allow (1 widespread sharing and seamless integration of distributed geospatial data; (2 an effective way to address the uncertainty and positional errors encountered in fusing data from diverse sources; (3 the decomposition of complex planning questions into atomic spatial analysis tasks and the generation of a web service chain to tackle such complex problems; and (4 capturing and representing provenance of geospatial data to trace its flow in the modeling task. The Greater Los Angeles Region serves as the test bed. We expect this work to contribute to effective spatial policy analysis and decision-making through the adoption of advanced GCI and to broaden the application coverage of GCI to include urban economic simulations.
Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun
Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.
The development of mining of rock raw materials in Poland has significantly contributed to economic growth and the quality of life of local communities. However, mining activity, besides a number of positive effects, also implies broadly understood changes in the environment and the formation of brownfields. Reclamation and redevelopment of post-industrial areas, and especially post-mining areas, is currently a huge environmental and socio-economic challenge. Revitalization of post-mining areas is particularly important for small towns and municipalities, where mining was one of the main pillars of development and prosperity. An example of such a municipality is Siewierz in Silesian Voivodship. In the paper analysis the conditions have been conducted and the concept of revitalization of dolomite quarry Górnicze Zakłady Dolomitowe S.A. has been proposed. The AHP method has been used to analyse and select the optimal method of revitalization. As a result of the analysis, the concept of multidirectional revitalization with socially, economically and environmentally beneficial functions has been created, maximizing the potential of the quarry.
Zhao, Chunli; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl
Abstract This paper explores the urban form, demographic and socio-economic dependencies of walking, cycling and e-biking in Beijing based on a survey (N = 1427) of daily travel among residents in eight neighborhoods, enriched with urban form variables. The results show that walking is most...... frequently used, followed by cycling, which in turn is more frequent than e-biking. Walking and cycling are preferred when the accessibility of public facilities and services is good, while e-bikes are used when public transport provision is low. Urban form variables of population density, job employment...... be encouraged to keep on walking, cycling and e-biking even if their income situation may improve in the future....
Tian Jiafu; Xiao Hongchai; Jin Ziying
In consideration of the heat market in northern cities, the economics of the pool-type low temperature heating reactor and the investment of urban heating system, the scale of protype reactor is chosen 200 MW, which will be able to meet the requirement of cities with more than 500 thousands population, and about 2/3 urban heat market can be met. In some areas, choosing 100 MW reactor probability is better. It is expected that the newly built apartments in North-East, North-West and North China will be about 50 million sq. meters each year and they will require some 3 GW of additional heat sources per year, and the building area incorporated into urban heating system will be 150 million sq. meters by 1990, and 500 million sq. meters by 2000. The market demand of the nuclear heat sources will increase rapidly
Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten
framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best......Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible...
Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J
Numerous empirical studies have examined the influence of smoke-free legislation on economic activity, with most finding a null effect. The influence could possibly differ in rural areas relative to urban areas due to differing rates of smoking prevalence and access to prevention and treatment programs. Furthermore, the discussion of the effectiveness of smoke-free laws has been extended to consider local ordinances relative to statewide laws. This study examines these issues using 21 local laws in Kentucky and the Ohio statewide smoke-free law. The number of employees, total wages paid, and number of reporting establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services in Kentucky and Ohio counties were documented, beginning the first quarter 2001 and ending the last quarter of 2009. A generalized estimating equation time-series design is used to estimate the impact of local and state smoke-free laws in Kentucky and Ohio rural and urban counties. There is no evidence that the economies in Kentucky counties were affected in any way from the implementation of local smoke-free laws. There was also no evidence that total employment or the number of establishments was influenced by the statewide law in Ohio, but wages increased following the implementation of the law. Furthermore, there is no evidence that either rural or urban counties experienced a loss of economic activity following smoke-free legislation. The study finds no evidence that local or state smoke-free legislation negatively influences local economies in either rural or urban communities.
Full Text Available Coastal cities in China are challenged by multiple growth paths and strategies related to demands in the housing market, economic growth and eco-system protection. This paper examines the effects of conflicting strategies between economic growth and environmental protection on future urban scenarios in Ningbo, China, through logistic-regression-based cellular automata (termed LogCA modeling. The LogCA model is calibrated based on the observed urban patterns in 1990 and 2015, and applied to simulate four future scenarios in 2040, including (a the Norm-scenario, a baseline scenario that maintains the 1990–2015 growth rate; (b the GDP-scenario, a GDP-oriented growth scenario emphasizing the development in city centers and along economic corridors; (c the Slow-scenario, a slow-growth scenario considering the potential downward trend of the housing market in China; and (d the Eco-scenario, a slow-growth scenario emphasizing natural conservation and ecosystem protections. The CA parameters of the Norm- and Slow-scenarios are the same as the calibrated parameters, while the parameters of proximities to economic corridors and natural scenery sites were increased by a factor of 3 for the GDP- and Eco-scenarios, respectively. The Norm- and GDP-scenarios predicted 1950 km2 of new growth for the next 25 years, the Slow-scenario predicted 650 km2, and the Eco-scenario predicted less growth than the Slow-scenario. The locations where the newly built-up area will emerge are significantly different under the four scenarios and the Slow- and Eco-scenarios are preferable to achieve long-term sustainability. The scenarios are not only helpful for exploring sustainable urban development options in China, but also serve as a reference for adjusting the urban planning and land policies.
Gwee, Tat Meng
In recent years, the potential to produce economic benefits has become increasingly important to the decision-making process for urban passenger rail investments. Such benefits are seen as a motivation for rail investment either by encouraging jobs to locate in a particular location or by opening up new journey-to-work opportunities for residential areas. However, while a significant portion of the benefits (e.g. travel time savings) are already well captured under the present Cost-Benefit An...
Srinivasan, Veena; Gorelick, Steven M.; Goulder, Lawrence
In this paper, we discuss a challenging water resources problem in a developing world city, Chennai, India. The goal is to reconstruct past system behavior and diagnose the causes of a major water crisis. In order to do this, we develop a hydrologic-engineering-economic model to address the complexity of urban water supply arising from consumers' dependence on multiple interconnected sources of water. We integrate different components of the urban water system: water flowing into the reservoir system; diversion and distribution by the public water utility; groundwater flow in the aquifer beneath the city; supply, demand, and prices in the informal tanker-truck-based water market; and consumer behavior. Both the economic and physical impacts of consumers' dependence on multiple sources of water are quantified. The model is calibrated over the period 2002-2006 using a range of hydrologic and socio-economic data. The model's results highlight the inadequacy of the reservoir system and the buffering role played by the urban aquifer and consumers' coping investments during multiyear droughts.
Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.
Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities
Full Text Available The study assessed the role and importance of Local Economic Development as a means of enhancing urban development paying particular attention to the regulators of Local Economic Development in Harare. Local Economic Development is a process which encourages partners from the community, public sector, private sector and non-governmental sectors to work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation with the aim of improving the locality economic future and the quality of life for all citizens. The study was premised on the theory of competitive advantage which puts up that prosperity and wealth creation is determined by microeconomic factors and that prosperity means increasing the standards of living for the local people and ultimately their quality of life. Primary data for the research was gathered through observation and key informant interviews. Data on key stakeholders understanding on the concept of Local Economic Development, how it is being practised and how the current regulatory framework enhance or impinge on local people’s participation in Local Economic Development was collected. Secondary data was also collected from Harare’s 2014 budget, census and existing forward plans. The study revealed that the practice of Local Economic Development in Harare is biased towards the setting aside of land zoned for industrial and commercial uses and implementation of development control parameters. Small to Medium Enterprises and the informal sector have also been identified as the major forms of Local Economic Development that citizens are involved in. However, the study revealed that proper policy frameworks which guide practice of Local Economic Development initiatives were missing
Brown, C.; Carriquiry, M.; Souza Filho, F. A.
Hydroclimatological variability presents acute challenges to urban water supply providers. The impact is often most severe in developing nations where hydrologic and climate variability can be very high, water demand is unmet and increasing, and the financial resources to mitigate the social effects of that variability are limited. Furthermore, existing urban water systems face a reduced solution space, constrained by competing and conflicting interests, such as irrigation demand, recreation and hydropower production, and new (relative to system design) demands to satisfy environmental flow requirements. These constraints magnify the impacts of hydroclimatic variability and increase the vulnerability of urban areas to climate change. The high economic and social costs of structural responses to hydrologic variability, such as groundwater utilization and the construction or expansion of dams, create a need for innovative alternatives. Advances in hydrologic and climate forecasting, and the increasing sophistication and acceptance of incentive-based mechanisms for achieving economically efficient water allocation offer potential for improving the resilience of existing water systems to the challenge of variable supply. This presentation will explore the performance of a system of climate informed economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on water-sensitive stakeholders. The system is comprised of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Contract and insurance parameters are linked to forecasts and the evolution of seasonal precipitation and streamflow and designed for financial and political viability. A simulation of system performance is presented based on ongoing work in Metro Manila, Philippines. The
Full Text Available In the new context of contemporary cities, local competitiveness for financial resources has grown more than ever, resulting in cities characterised by important socioeconomic transformations. Earlier studies addressed the relation between urban expansion, socioeconomic development and mega-events only for specific areas and types of urban growth, often overlooking the role of mega-events in fuelling urban sprawl. As the host of the 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece is a paradigmatic example for emerging cities hosting mega-events due to the close interconnection between the Olympics, infrastructure development and urban sprawl. This article connects the latent relationship between economic expansion driven by the Olympic Games and laissez-faire urbanism to the long-term unregulated urban expansion characterising Athens’s development. By providing room for the original wave of sprawl, the resulting socioeconomic context is interpreted as a signal of the weakness of the “competitive city” framework in poorly planned and long-deregulated urban contexts such as Athens. A comprehensive analysis of recent phases of economic growth and discontinuous urban expansion thus provides further insight into understanding sprawl processes in today’s cities, and helps distinguish the morphological patterns and socioeconomic dynamics that characterise urban expansion during sequential cycles of economic expansion and recession.
Marques, Guilherme F.; de Souza, Verônica B. F. S.; Moraes, Natália V.
Urban flood management have often focused either on the capacity expansion of drainage systems or on artificial detention storage. While flood control should take part early on urban planning, not enough is known to guide such plans and provide incentive to land use decisions that minimize the vulnerability to localized floods. In this paper, we offer a broader perspective on flood protection, by treating the original hydrologic flow regulation as an environmental service, and exploring how the value of this environmental service drives economic land use decisions that convert original (permeable) land into urbanized (impermeable). We investigate the relationship between land use decisions and their hydrologic consequences explicitly, and use this relationship to simulate resulting land use scenarios depending on the value attached to the environmental service of flow regulation. Rainfall-runoff simulation model results are combined to an optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming approach to model economic land use decisions. The objective function maximizes the total expected land use benefit in an urban area, considering the opportunity cost of permeable areas in the first stage and the resulting loss of the environmental service of flow regulation on the second stage, under several probable hydrological events. A watershed in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is used to demonstrate the approach. Different values attached to the environmental service were tested, from zero to higher than the opportunity cost of land, and artificial detention infrastructure was included to calculate the resulting land use change and the loss in the environmental service value. Results indicate that by valuing the environmental service loss and discounting it from the economic benefits of land use, alternative solutions to land use are found, with decreased peak flows and lower flood frequency. Combined solutions including structural and non
Deegan, William L.
Reviews alternatives for revitalizing the programs and management of community college student services. As program development models, considers Miami-Dade Community College's computer-based instructional management system; entrepreneurial fee-based services; and divestment of situational or special-interest services to student groups. In…
Ge, Xiangyu; Zhou, Yanli; Liu, Songlin
Is nitrogen oxides emissions spatially correlated in a Chinese context? What is the relationship between nitrogen oxides emission levels and fast-growing economy/urbanization? More importantly, what environmental preservation and economic developing policies should China’s central and local governments take to mitigate the overall nitrogen oxides emissions and prevent severe air pollution at the provincial level in specific locations and their neighboring areas? The present study aims to tackle these issues. This is the first research that simultaneously studies the nexus between nitrogen oxides emissions and economic development/urbanization, with the application of a spatial panel data technique. Our empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence of nitrogen oxides emissions distribution exists at the provincial level. Through the investigation of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) embedded within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, we conclude something interesting: an inverse N-shaped EKC describes both the income-nitrogen oxides nexus and the urbanization-nitrogen oxides nexus. Some well-directed policy advice is provided to reduce nitrogen oxides in the future. Moreover, these results contribute to the literature on development and pollution. PMID:29641500
Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene
To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.
Ge, Xiangyu; Zhou, Zhimin; Zhou, Yanli; Ye, Xinyue; Liu, Songlin
Abstract : Is nitrogen oxides emissions spatially correlated in a Chinese context? What is the relationship between nitrogen oxides emission levels and fast-growing economy/urbanization? More importantly, what environmental preservation and economic developing policies should China's central and local governments take to mitigate the overall nitrogen oxides emissions and prevent severe air pollution at the provincial level in specific locations and their neighboring areas? The present study aims to tackle these issues. This is the first research that simultaneously studies the nexus between nitrogen oxides emissions and economic development/urbanization, with the application of a spatial panel data technique. Our empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence of nitrogen oxides emissions distribution exists at the provincial level. Through the investigation of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) embedded within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, we conclude something interesting: an inverse N-shaped EKC describes both the income-nitrogen oxides nexus and the urbanization-nitrogen oxides nexus. Some well-directed policy advice is provided to reduce nitrogen oxides in the future. Moreover, these results contribute to the literature on development and pollution.
Full Text Available Is nitrogen oxides emissions spatially correlated in a Chinese context? What is the relationship between nitrogen oxides emission levels and fast-growing economy/urbanization? More importantly, what environmental preservation and economic developing policies should China’s central and local governments take to mitigate the overall nitrogen oxides emissions and prevent severe air pollution at the provincial level in specific locations and their neighboring areas? The present study aims to tackle these issues. This is the first research that simultaneously studies the nexus between nitrogen oxides emissions and economic development/urbanization, with the application of a spatial panel data technique. Our empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence of nitrogen oxides emissions distribution exists at the provincial level. Through the investigation of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC embedded within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT framework, we conclude something interesting: an inverse N-shaped EKC describes both the income-nitrogen oxides nexus and the urbanization-nitrogen oxides nexus. Some well-directed policy advice is provided to reduce nitrogen oxides in the future. Moreover, these results contribute to the literature on development and pollution.
Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.
Nissing, Christian; Blottnitz, Harro von
It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea, and if implemented in its full complexity it should have multiple beneficial effects. To demonstrate this, an economic model is developed for an urban developmental context, drawing on the theory of urban ecosystems and illustrating energy and waste production and consumption issues with current South African data sets. This new understanding of the concept of energisation is then integrated into a local government energy planning process, by means of a checklist for energy planners, covering 18 aspects that between them affect all 7 identifiable tiers of the energy service supply network. A 6-step structured approach is proposed for integrating sustainable energisation into the first four phases of the advanced local energy planning (ALEP) tool.
Full Text Available Assessing the network structure of the urban economic ties (NSUET of a city can help us understand its development level.Using the gravity model,the social network analysis method and the Arcgis tool,this paper has done some researches about the NSUET in Shanghai.The research results show that the NSUET in Shanghai was improved gradually from 2000 to 2010 and is in a stable status now.In the future,the NSUET in Shanghai should be adjusted to meet the need of urban development;the more focuses should be placed on the districts with better infrastructure,while the other areas are also considered to develop the NSUET.
Madlener, Reinhard; Bachhiesl, Mario
This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success
Full Text Available The objective of the research, presented in this paper, was to demonstrate the superiority of the hard facing as the revitalization technology of various damaged machine parts. The analysis of the two different revitalization methods of the damaged machine parts is presented – the replacement of the damaged part by the new – spare part and reparation by hard facing. The comparison is done on the example of hard facing and replacing of damaged loader's teeth. The paper presents a method for calculating costs of the two revitalization technologies based on their profitability and their comparison. That method could be applied for similar calculations for any machine part, with smallest or no adjustments. The paper presents a verification of advantage of applying the hard facing as the machine parts reparatory technology with respect to the other revitalization technology. The savings realized by application of hard facing reparation of the loader's teeth reach 73.5 % for one set of teeth and 82.40per annum of the costs for purchasing the new spare parts. The analysis was conducted under an assumption that organization of the maintenance function is at the exceptionally high level so that the purchasing of the new part/repairing of the damaged one is always done in time. This idealized approach was adopted since in that way one obtains the least economic effects of the reparatory technology application with respect to replacing the part with the spare one. In any other case the economic effects would be significantly higher, namely even more positive in favor of the hard facing revitalization technology.
Poor urban households in the economic 'south' deploy various livelihood activities. One of these is a Home-Based Economic Activity (HBEA), e.g. sales of home-made snacks or car maintenance. This study examines the prevalence, organisation and relevance of HBEAs in four neighbourhoods in the
Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Chatterjee, Samrat
This article presents a framework for economic consequence analysis of terrorism countermeasures. It specifies major categories of direct and indirect costs, benefits, spillover effects, and transfer payments that must be estimated in a comprehensive assessment. It develops a spreadsheet tool for data collection, storage, and refinement, as well as estimation of the various components of the necessary economic accounts. It also illustrates the usefulness of the framework in the first assessment of the tradeoffs between enhanced security and changes in commercial activity in an urban area, with explicit attention to the role of spillover effects. The article also contributes a practical user interface to the model for emergency managers. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
Full Text Available During the 1990's, many members of the German national minority have awaken from the several decades long sleep in 'ethnic hibernation'. Several associations have been founded at that time, with an aim to gather and encourage ethnic feelings of the Germans living in Vojvodina. These associations work toward revitalization and reconstruction of the German ethnic and cultural identity. There are quite a few of such institutions today, and one of them is German association promoting good neighbor relations Karlowitz, Sremski Karlovci. This paper will discuss transformation of an ethnic identity strategy among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci; in addition, I will analyze modus operandi by which this local association aims at keeping and encouraging certain elements of the ethnic and cultural particulars. The results of the research point out how a relatively small group, without social power, can define and redefine its own identity, in regards to historical, social and economic conditions.
Dexter V.L. Hunt
Full Text Available The water industry is becoming increasingly aware of the risks associated with urban supplies not meeting demands by 2050. Greywater (GW recycling for non-potable uses (e.g., urinal and toilet flushing provides an urban water management strategy to help alleviate this risk by reducing main water demands. This paper proposes an innovative cross connected system that collects GW from residential buildings and recycles it for toilet/urinal flushing in both residential and office buildings. The capital cost (CAPEX, operational cost (OPEX and water saving potential are calculated for individual and shared residential and office buildings in an urban mixed-use regeneration area in the UK, assuming two different treatment processes; a membrane bioreactor (MBR and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW. The Net Present Value (NPV method was used to compare the financial performance of each considered scenario, from where it was found that a shared GW recycling system (MBR was the most economically viable option. The sensitivity of this financial model was assessed, considering four parameters (i.e., water supply and sewerage charges, discount rate(s, service life and improved technological efficiency, e.g., low flush toilets, low shower heads, etc., from where it was found that shared GW systems performed best in the long-term.
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...... languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......–2004. This article focuses on dictionaries of the languages of the Ainu populations in the borderlands between the nation-states Japan and Russia. The main argument is that the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act promulgated in 1997 had a significant impact on the production and purpose of Ainu dictionaries...
Roefs, Ivar; Meulman, Brendo; Vreeburg, Jan H G; Spiller, Marc
Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can take place by building small autonomous decentralised units that operate closer to the actual demand. Research has shown that variability and uncertainty in urban development does affect the cost effectiveness of this approach. Previous studies do not, however, consider the entire sanitation system from collection to treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the economic performance of three sanitation systems with different scales and systems characteristics under a variety of urban development pathways. Three systems are studied: (I) a centralised conventional activated sludge treatment, (II) a community on site source separation grey water and black water treatment and (III) a hybrid with grey water treatment at neighbourhood scale and black water treatment off site. A modelling approach is taken that combines a simulation of greenfield urban growth, a model of the wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure design properties and a model that translates design parameters into discounted asset lifetime costs. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the economic performance under uncertain development trends. Results show that the conventional system outperforms both of the other systems when total discounted lifetime costs are assessed, because it benefits from economies of scale. However, when population growth is lower than expected, the source-separated system is more cost effective, because of reduced idle capacity. The hybrid system is not competitive under any circumstance due to the costly double piping and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Li, Zhaoling; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en
Highlights: • A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating various urban wastes and technologies. • Waste-to-energy industries are formed and introduced into current socioeconomic system. • A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis. • Complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes are discovered. - Abstract: Tremendous amounts of wastes are generated in urban areas due to accelerating industrialization and urbanization. The current unreasonable waste disposal patterns and potential energy value of urban wastes necessitates the promotion of waste-to-energy implementation. This study is intent on discovering the complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes taking municipal solid wastes, waste oil, organic wastewater and livestock manure into consideration. A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating these wastes and five waste-to-energy technologies. A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis to introduce the waste-to-energy system into the current socioeconomic system and form five waste-to-energy industries. The trends in waste generation and energy recovery potential, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation contribution for the study area are estimated and explored from 2011 to 2025. By 2025, biodiesel production and power generation could amount to 72.11 thousand t and 1.59 billion kW h respectively. Due to the highest energy recovery and the most subsidies, the organic wastewater biogas industry has the highest output and net profit, followed by the waste incineration power generation industry. In total 17.97 million t (carbon dioxide-equivalent) accumulative greenhouse gas emission could be mitigated. The organic wastewater biogas industry and waste incineration power generation industry are more advantageous for the study area in terms of better energy, economic and environmental performances. The
Zhang, Biao; Xie, Gaodi; Zhang, Canqiang; Zhang, Jing
Urbanization involves the replacement of vegetated surfaces with impervious built surfaces, and it often results in an increase in the rate and volume of rainwater surface runoff. Urban green spaces play a positive role in rainwater-runoff reduction. However, few studies have explored the benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces. Based on inventory data of urban green spaces in Beijing, the paper evaluated the economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces, using the rainwater-runoff-coefficient method as well as the economic valuation methods. The results showed that, 2494 cubic meters of potential runoff was reduced per hectare of green area and a total volume of 154 million cubic meters rainwater was stored in these urban green spaces, which almost corresponds to the annual water needs of the urban ecological landscape in Beijing. The total economic benefit was 1.34 billion RMB in 2009 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1=RMB6.83), which is equivalent to three-quarters of the maintenance cost of Beijing's green spaces; the value of rainwater-runoff reduction was 21.77 thousand RMB per hectare. In addition, the benefits in different districts and counties were ranked in the same order as urban green areas, and the average benefits per hectare of green space showed different trends, which may be related to the impervious surface index in different regions. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role that Beijing's green spaces play in rainwater regulation and in the creation and scientific management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song
Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern
The study arose from question about the future of towns, as well as the possibility of their development. The paper is an attempt to look at the direction in which many towns around the world aim, connecting to a networks, and especially the network of Cittaslow. The author asked a few questions - whether the Cittaslow network actually helps towns to use their inner potential, build their brand and improve the quality of residents’ lifes? The starting point for the case study method adopted in the paper is a discussion of examples of urban networks as a background for a wider Cittaslow characteristic. For this purpose, there was conducted literature and in situ research on the Cittaslow towns, the query of documents related to Polish Cittaslow, own photographic documentation was collected and a series of talks were carried out in different offices and municipalities. The database constructed in this way, allowed the analysis and conclusions. An important part of the research was the synthesis of information on the integrated project which has been taken in 14 Polish Slow Cities. “The Cross-Local Programme of Revitalization of Cittaslow Town Network in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship” is a unique action on the scale of the entire international Cittaslow network. Each of the participating towns tried to exploit through revitalization its own unique potential for real growth and improve the quality of life of its residents. Through the joint action, even the smallest town could more easily obtain significant funding. The involvement of regional government and understanding of the idea was also crucial. Cittaslow network, although not perfect, may in the long term strengthen linkages and exchange of experience between the slow towns and not lead to their unification. Furthermore, as shown by the example of Polish “The Cross-Local Programme of Revitalization of Cittaslow Town Network in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship”, belonging to the Cittaslow network
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James
There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity), socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education) and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas). In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage) and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.
Full Text Available Waterfront revitalization would be an effective strategy to preserve heritages, conserve the contaminated or abandoned site and inspire the identity and authenticity. However, there is no decision support tool to quantify and evaluate the sustainability accreditation of waterfronts in tourism attraction. This research aimed to identify the most potential waterfront typology in tourism attraction and develop the waterfront sustainable revitalization (SWR index assessment model. The SWR index can assist policy makers and urban developers to analyze the heritage waterfronts using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. The research found out the historic waterfront has the highest potential in tourism attraction among other typologies. And, pollution moderator is mostly important sub-criterion in tourism absorption (WC2.2 = 0.1294; followed by Identity (WC1.2 = 0.1272 and Safety and well-being (WC1.3 = 0.1043. The SWR index can be applied in any waterfronts in heritage cities around the world, while this research implemented it as a case study in Bandar Maharani, Muar, Malaysia. It resulted Bandar Maharani was ranked as grade C; means, usable waterfront to which extent environmental, social and physical revitalization are needed. The SWR index can be coupled with other decision-making methods in future, to reduce its inconsistencies and increasing accuracy.
S. 1626: This Act may be cited as the Mickey Leland Minority Economic Impact Revitalization Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, September 14, 1989
S. 1626 is a bill to establish within the Office of Minority Economic Impact of the Department of Energy (DOE) programs involving loans and grants to enhance the development and operation of minority business enterprises with respect to energy-related business, to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 to permit the investment of certain funds in the Minority Bank Deposit Program of the Department of the Treasury, and for other purposes
H.R. 3184: The Act may be cited as the Department of Energy Minority Economic Impact Revitalization Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, August 4, 1989
H.R. 3184 is a bill to establish within the Office of Minority Economics Impact of the Department of Energy (DOE) programs involving loans and grants to enhance the development and operation of minority business enterprises with respect to energy-related business, to amend the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 to permit the investment of certain funds in the Minority Bank Deposit Program of the Department of the Treasury, and for other purposes
Red books list everything endangered; green books revitalize the endangered. That is exactly what Hinton and Hale set out to do when they brought together no less than-thirty three essays, divided into categories such as Language Policy, Language Planning, Maintenance and Revitalization of National Indigenous ...
Ease of access, production, and distribution have made online technologies popular in language revitalization. By incorporating multimodal resources, audio, video, and games, they attract indigenous communities undergoing language shift in hopes of its reversal. However, by merely expanding language revitalization to the web, many language…
Progressive devitalization is a malady that afflicts many workers resulting in tremendous costs to organizations. This malady has long been recognized by management but little has been done to treat it. A new approach to the problem has been insitituted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in the form of a group program called Revitalization. Early results have been very encouraging. The program will continue to be designed and improved in the hope of bringing more productivity to the organization and self-esteem to the individual.
Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim
The Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project was initiated in September of 2011 as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Under the ARREM project, testing of sub-scale and full-scale systems has been combined with multiphysics computer simulations for evaluation and optimization of subsystem approaches. In particular, this paper describes the testing and modeling of the water desiccant subsystem of the carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). The goal is a full system predictive model of CDRA to guide system optimization and development.
Downey, H. D.
The 300 Area Revitalization Team has been tasked with the responsibility to develop an integrated path forward for the 300 Area, as part of a commitment stemming from the 300 Area Disposition Workshop that was held on March 17, 1998. The integrated path forward that is needed must ensure that budget, schedule, and work scopes are complementary between the Programs that are involved in the 300Area. This Project Management Plan (PMP) defines the roles and responsibilities, and the overall approach, to development of a prioritized schedule for 300 Area activities that will achieve the end-state condition
Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lenzen, Manfred; Steinberger, Julia K.
Household consumption requires energy to be used at all stages of the economic process, thereby directly and indirectly leading to environmental impacts across the entire production chain. The levels, structure and determinants of energy requirements of household consumption therefore constitute an important avenue of research. Incorporating the full upstream requirements into the analysis helps to avoid simplistic conclusions which would actually only imply shifts between consumption categories without taking the economy wide effects into account. This paper presents the investigation of the direct and indirect primary energy requirements of Australian households, contrasting urban, suburban and rural consumption patterns as well as inter- and intra-regional levels of inequality in energy requirements. Furthermore the spatial and socio-economic drivers of energy consumption for different categories of energy requirements are identified and quantified. Conclusions regarding the relationships between energy requirements, household characteristics, urban form and urbanization processes are drawn and the respective policy implications are explored. - Highlights: • We statistically analyze the energy requirements of consumption in Australia. • Contrasting urban/suburban/rural consumption patterns and spatial inequality. • Energy requirements are influenced by urban form, income and demographics. • Urban households require less direct energy, but their total consumption is higher. • Significant rebound effects can be expected when direct energy use is decreased
ASCENT center for technical knowledge
The Autodesk® Revit® Architecture 2014 Review for Certification guide is intended for users of the Autodesk Revit Architecture software who are preparing to complete the Autodesk Revit Architecture 2014 Certified Professional exam. This guide contains a collection of relevant instructional topics, practices, and review questions from the Autodesk Official Training Guides (AOTG) training guides created by ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge® and pertaining specifically to the Certified Professional exam topics and objectives. This training guide is intended for experienced users of the Autodesk Revit Architecture software in preparation for certification. New users of the software should refer to the AOTG training guides from ASCENT, such as Autodesk Revit Architecture 2014 Fundamentals, for more comprehensive instruction.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured at the population level in the same cities. Methods We searched the literature in the medical databases and in the annals of scientific meeting, retrieving population-based surveys of asthma that were conducted in Brazil using the methodology defined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. We performed separate analyses for the age groups 6–7 years and 13–14 years. We examined the association between asthma prevalence rates and eleven health and socio-economic indicators by visual inspection and using linear regression models weighed by the inverse of the variance of each survey. Results Six health and socioeconomic variables showed a clear pattern of association with asthma. The prevalence of asthma increased with poorer sanitation and with higher infant mortality at birth and at survey year, GINI index and external mortality. In contrast, asthma prevalence decreased with higher illiteracy rates. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma in urban areas of Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be higher in cities with more marked poverty or inequality.
Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert
Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…
Nijkamp, P.; Sahin, M.; Baycan Levent, T.
In recent years, entrepreneurship among migrant minorities has increased significantly in the Netherlands. This paper addresses the key factors determining the economic position of migrant entrepreneurs in the urban economy in the Netherlands, with an application to Amsterdam. So far, little
Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.
Liška, Pavel; Nečasová, Barbora; Kovářová, Barbora; Novotný, Michal
The presented study reveals that the revitalization of lightweight claddings installed before 1990 can have a positive impact on the environment and on the reduction of greenhouse gases in particular. The main focus is placed on the revitalization of a structural system known as OD-001, commonly called the ‘Boleticky panel’ system, which was frequently utilised all around the Czech Republic in the period before 1990. Only revitalization methods utilizing contemporary structural designs and current materials were verified during this study. The ‘Boleticky panel’ system was the type of façade cladding most frequently installed on administrative buildings in what was then Czechoslovakia. It is a panel system where load-bearing structure of the panel itself consists of closed profiles that are suspended from the building’s load-bearing structure. This type of system saw a great deal of use for more than 20 years. From today’s point of view, its thermal and technical properties are completely unsatisfactory and the gradual structural degradation of such systems, with a direct impact on their mechanical resistance, has been monitored over the last few years. However, these defects can be completely eliminated by the selection of a suitable type of revitalization. Cladding revitalization can be divided into three main categories. Each category represents a different level of impact on the structure of the above described cladding system. The first category only involves the replacement of windows, while the second consists in the replacement both of the windows and the existing panel sections. The third category of revitalization entails the complete removal of the existing cladding system and its replacement with a new one. The Life Cycle Assessment method (LCA) was used for environmental impact assessment. The aims and intentions of this method are not to search for the most economical or technically perfect product, service or technology, but to find the
Drakakis-smith, D W
This article reports the findings of a survey, conducted to collect information on the present economic situation of women and the constraints they face in the choice of work in Zimbabwe, which has recently witnessed a steady growth in its urbanization. Questionnaires were administered to women in 3 district areas of the city of Harare--a middle class suburb within easy commuting distance to the main white collar employment in the city, a low income area of site-and-service housing in the semiperiphery of the city, and a densely populated, lower income, inner city district. There are clear contrasts among the economic activities of women in the 3 areas studied, but the factors which influence the activities seem to vary between and within the social groups, relating somewhat uneasily to the generalized concepts on the female labor market. The occupational analysis of Harare reveals not only the inadequacy of conventional dualistic theories on the labor market, but the somewhat limited utility of westernized concepts on the domestic role of women. The survey also showed strong spatial and geographic influence on women's work and the different opportunities that arise from particular residential locations in Harare. However, this was clearly tempered by social contacts and migrational histories, especially in the inner city areas, where proximity to potential employment was not exploited by many recent migrants. Political factors too were found to play an important role, in the particular circumstance of Zimbabwe, in affecting the residential and economic opportunities for households. In the middle class suburb and low income area studied, the allocation of site and service plots or mortgages was strongly influenced by one's previous combatant status during the struggle for independence. For instance, families with such a status which could be earned by men as well as women), and who are also members of the ruling ZANU-PF party have been favored since 1980.
There is much speculation today about how rapid economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa is transforming development prospects in the region. However, in terms of a broad, multi-dimensional, understanding of the term ‘development’, into which social justice must be factored, there are real concerns about whether the undoubted improvements in GDP growth in many countries are strongly connected to urban-located investment and job growth. Many African countries remain poorly placed, in terms of glo...
Katarina Lozić Knezović
Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.
With a focus on the efforts of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, this paper introduces the movement of decommissioning and decontamination, as well as the efforts for regional revitalization. After the accident, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan performed information collection / analysis / evaluation, held a variety of symposiums, listened to the opinions of experts and knowledgeable persons in and out of Japan, discussed the measures for the accident, and expressed its opinions. The investigation committee academically summarized a wide variety of information about the accident, and published a report. In its accident investigation report, it analyzed the underlying factors of the accident, and proposed recommendations of 50 items. It has continued for an additional contribution to complete the decommissioning project. It is disseminating accurate and easy-to-understand information as the standpoints of residents as well as a nuclear expert. It dispatches specialists to 'Decontamination Information Plaza' to continuously carry out the decontamination advisory job. As part of regional revitalization, it has been implementing a support, such as the provision of counselling and accurate information for the decision-making on the returning-home of refugees. Its contents are as follows; (1) provision of information on the decontamination situation of each site, (2) consultation about the health effects of radiation, and (3) dispatch cooperation of lecturers for education of the staff of municipalities. (A.O.)
Sharif Hossain, Md.
This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971-2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from economic growth to energy consumption, from trade openness to economic growth, from urbanization to economic growth and from trade openness to urbanization. It is found that the long-run elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions with respect to energy consumption (1.2189) is higher than short run elasticity of 0.5984. This indicates that over time higher energy consumption in the newly industrialized countries gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result our environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run. - Highlights: → Dynamic causal relationships are conducted for different panel variables of NIC. → Test results support only existence of unidirectional short-run causal relationships. → Environment will be polluted more due to energy consumption in the long-run. → But environmental quality is found to be normally good in respect of other variables. → NIC should use solar energy as the substitute of oil to control CO 2 emissions.
Full Text Available Pressure on existing water resources in China is expected to increase with undergoing rapid demographic transformation, economic development, and global climate changes. We investigate the economy-wide impacts of projected urban population growth and economic structural change on water use and allocation in China. Using a multi-regional CGE (Computable General Equilibrium model, TERM (The Enormous Regional Model, we explore the implications of selected future water scenarios for China’s nine watershed regions. Our results indicate that urbanization and industrial transformation in China will raise the opportunity cost of water use and increase the competition for water between non-agricultural users and irrigation water users. The growth in water demand for domestic and industrial uses reduces the amount of water allocated to agriculture, particularly lower-value and water-intensive field crops. As a response, farmers have the incentive to shift their agricultural operations from traditional field crop production to higher-value livestock or intensive crop production. In addition, our results suggest that growing water demand due to urbanization and industrial transformation will raise the shadow price of water in all nine river basins. Finally, we find that national economic growth is largely attributable to urbanization and non-agricultural productivity growth.
Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover
Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 11 countries from three regions were used to test the hypothesis that intra-urban differentials in child stunting were greater than intra-rural differentials, and that the prevalence of stunting among the...
These data have been compiled in support of the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Partnership for the region including Albuquerque, New Mexico.The Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership is co-chaired by the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. There are also a number of other federal agencies engaged in projects with Tribal, State, and local officials, and community stakeholders. Like many western river ecosystems, the Middle Rio Grande faces numerous challenges in balancing competing needs within a finite water supply and other resource constrains. Historical practices by our ancestors and immigrants to the Middle Rio Grande have established the conditions that we have inherited. Long-term drought exacerbated by climate change is changing conditions that affect natural and human communities as we strive to improve our precious Rio Grande.The Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership will reconnect our urban communities, particularly those that are overburdened or economically distressed, with the waterway by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led revitalization efforts. Our projects will improve our community water systems and promote their economic, environmental and social benefits. Specifically, the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership will support the development of the Valle de Oro
Ngongo, Carrie Jane; Mathingau, Florence Alice; Burke, Heather; Brieger, William; Frick, Kevin; Chapman, Kimberly; Breiman, Robert
Ownership of household durable assets can be a useful proxy for determining relative socio-economic status in a community, but the assets that should be measured are not always unambiguous. Often the selection of asset variables has been ad hoc or not well explained in the literature. Although the benefits of conducting focus groups to design surveys are widely recognized, the use of focus groups to adapt community-specific asset indices has not previously been reported in Kenya. This article describes how focus group discussions can allow communities to express how residents value assets and distinguish relative wealth. Focus group discussions were conducted within the informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants identified assets that distinguish between the poorest and the least poor in their community. They considered whether they would move away from the slum if they had the opportunity, and many would not, citing reasons ranging from loyalty to the community to greater living expenses on the outside. Local perceptions of relative poverty and mobility provide insight into how quality of life in this setting can be assessed and potentially improved. Moreover, a qualitative approach can lead to the adaptation of a community asset index for use in further research.
The article takes an historic perspective on contemporary issues of trade union revival in Malaysia, focusing on the challenge of raising union density and analysing the process of organizing employees in the strategically important electronics industry. It concludes that the political support...... for transnational corporations in the electronics industry is declining. This strategic shift enables union activists to bypass enterprise and state-based unions and to establish larger, regionally based unions. However, newly organized unions have not yet overcome resistance from global corporations, nor have...... organizations prefer non-partisan engagement. In order to revitalize themselves, the unions must demonstrate to the Malaysian public that they are both relevant and important for increased productivity and that they can play a significant role in enabling Malaysia to move beyond the middle-income ‘trap’ towards...
Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie
To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.
Considers the ways by which English departments might begin the process of revitalization. Provides suggestions in eight areas of concern: record keeping, teaching, scheduling, advertising, handling workloads, revising the curriculum, funding, and hiring. (HB)
Full Text Available The Changchun–Jilin Economic Zone (CJEZ is one of the most rapidly developing areas in Northeast China, as well as one of the famous golden maize belts in the world. This is a case study to assess the impacts of urban sprawl on soil resources using remote sensing imagery and geographic spatial analysis methods. The common urbanization intensity index (CUII, soil quality index, and soil landscape metrics were calculated to reflect urbanization and the response of soil resource. Results showed that the area of soil sealing changed from 112,460 ha in 2000 to 139,233 ha in 2015, and in the rural region, the area occupied by urbanization nearly kept balance with the area of rural residential expansion. Urban land increased by 26,767 ha at an annual rate of 3.23% from 2000 to 2015. All seven soil types were occupied during the urbanization process, among which black soil ranked the highest (18,560 ha and accounted for 69.34% of the total occupied area. Soils of Grades I (3927 ha and II (15,016 ha were 64.75% of the total occupied soil areas. Urban land expanded in an irregular shape and a disordered way, which led to an increasing large patch index (LPI and aggregation index (AI, and a decreasing edge density (ED and Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI of the soil landscape in the study area during 2000–2015. According to the geographically weighted regression (GWR model analysis, the R2 between the CUII and soil landscape metrics decreased from the LPI and ED to SHDI and in turn to AI. The local R2 between SHDI, ED, and CUII showed a gradient structure from the inner city to peri-urban areas, in which larger values appeared with strongly intensive urbanization in urban fringes. Soil sealing induced by urbanization has become a significant factor threatening soil, the environment, and food security. How to coordinate regional development and ensure the sustainability of the multiple functions of soil is a problem that needs to be taken into account
Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Law, Siong Hook; Zannah, Talha Ibrahim
The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment.
Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Wang, Shaojian; Sun, Siao
Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China have led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM 2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011. The results showed that PM 2.5 concentrations and three anthropogenic factors were cointegrated. The panel Fully Modified Least Squares and panel Granger causality test results indicated that economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization increased PM 2.5 concentrations in the long run. The results implied that if China persists in its current development pattern, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization will inevitably lead to increased PM 2.5 emissions in the long term. Industrialization was the principal factor that affected PM 2.5 concentrations for the total panel, the industry-oriented panel and the service-oriented panel. PM 2.5 concentrations can be reduced at the cost of short-term economic growth and industrialization. However, reducing the urbanization level is not an efficient way to decrease PM 2.5 pollutions in the short term. The findings also suggest that a rapid reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations relying solely on adjusting these anthropogenic factors is difficult in a short-term for the heavily PM 2.5 -polluted panel. Moreover, the Chinese government will have to seek much broader policies that favor a decoupling of these coupling relationships.
The Article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labour. The main question is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labour movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization.......The Article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labour. The main question is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labour movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization....
Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.
Full Text Available Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to learners in several remote European areas and received a ‘best practice’ distinction in social inclusion. These e-courses were designed and developed for the purpose of providing training in aspects of the learners’ professional domains related to the utilization of information and communication technologies. The main challenge was to prove that it is possible and economically feasible to provide meaningful training opportunities via distance education, by utilizing existing infrastructure (“revitalizing schools” and by making use of modern digital technology affordances coupled with suitable distance learning techniques and Web 2.0 tools. ADDIE, the generic instructional systems design model, enhanced with a rapid prototyping phase, was put forth in order to allow stakeholders to interact with a prototypical e-course, which served as an introductory lesson and as a reference point, since its evaluation informed the design choices of all subsequent e-courses. The learning needs approach adopted in REVIT combined learner analysis, context analysis, and needs analysis into a coherent analysis framework in which several methods (observation, estimation, document analysis, survey, and dialogue were exploited. Putting emphasis on the analysis phase and decoupling the design from the delivery of the e-courses facilitated adaptation and localization. Adaptation and localization issues concerning the adoption of the REVIT distance learning framework, taking into account the socio-cultural and pedagogical context, are discussed. A central result reported is that the analysis phase was crucial for the
Singh, V. K.; Jha, A. K.; Gupta, K.; Srivastav, S. K.
Recent studies indicate that there is a significant improvement in the urban land use dynamics through modeling at finer spatial resolutions. Geo-computational models such as cellular automata and agent based model have given evident proof regarding the quantification of the urban growth pattern with urban boundary. In recent studies, socio- economic factors such as demography, education rate, household density, parcel price of the current year, distance to road, school, hospital, commercial centers and police station are considered to the major factors influencing the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) pattern of the city. These factors have unidirectional approach to land use pattern which makes it difficult to analyze the spatial aspects of model results both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, cellular automata model is combined with generic model known as Agent Based Model to evaluate the impact of socio economic factors on land use pattern. For this purpose, Dehradun an Indian city is selected as a case study. Socio economic factors were collected from field survey, Census of India, Directorate of economic census, Uttarakhand, India. A 3X3 simulating window is used to consider the impact on LULC. Cellular automata model results are examined for the identification of hot spot areas within the urban area and agent based model will be using logistic based regression approach where it will identify the correlation between each factor on LULC and classify the available area into low density, medium density, high density residential or commercial area. In the modeling phase, transition rule, neighborhood effect, cell change factors are used to improve the representation of built-up classes. Significant improvement is observed in the built-up classes from 84 % to 89 %. However after incorporating agent based model with cellular automata model the accuracy improved from 89 % to 94 % in 3 classes of urban i.e. low density, medium density and commercial classes
Full Text Available The European historic city centres are currently experiencing innovative approaches for rehabilitation of urban spaces afflicted by social and physical decay. The revitalization challenges are a consequence of the integration of contemporary technologies and solutions to achieve new requirements and of the impacts of socio-economic dynamics. Understanding and boosting the drivers connected to the cultural potential of the historic city centres can play an important role in adaptive re-use. This paper focuses on the synergy between cultural heritage and urban development, cultural heritage preservation and local economic growth, proposing adaptive reuse design practices applied in historic city centre, through the adoption of a multi-criteria methodology for heritage-led regeneration.
M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter); Z. Mingshun (Zhang)
textabstractThis paper is based on research in Chinese cities. It addresses the issues related to urban environmental performance and sustainability in emerging Chinese cities. The result shows that: (1) To basically control the degradation of urban environment the minimum per capita GDP should be
Lopez Estrada, Raul Eduardo
Full Text Available Diverse theoretical efforts have been made in order to understand the urban problematic related to sustainability. Among them is an analysis that highlight an inadequacy about the sustainability concept which is only limited to an ecological matter and it not considers that the most important issue is political and social. This has explained the failure of several international meetings about the matter, when the contradiction has not been considered in the capitalist system where the economic interest and interest in sustainability contrasts. Then, in the political and social field is where many efforts should be channeled as urban regional research priorities for the next decade. In this regard, most of the academic analysis have been focused on two main aspects: on the one hand, those who consider that the solution to the sustainability problem lies in the change of the relations of production, without clearly specifying what this means; and on the other hand, the analyses that estimate the relevance of making changes inside of the capitalist system where the State would play an important role. In both cases a mental change is required to dealing with the problem of sustainability and new forms of population participation to perform it. Muchos esfuerzos teóricos se han realizado para comprender la problemática urbana vinculada con la sustentabilidad. Entre ellos hay análisis que destacan la insuficiencia de la definición del concepto sustentabilidad cuando éste es reducido únicamente al aspecto de la ecología sin considerar que el problema más importante es político y social. Esto ha explicado el fracaso de muchas reuniones internacionales sobre el tema, cuando no se ha considerado la contradicción en el sistema capitalista donde se contrapone el interés económico y el interés por la sustentabilidad. Es entonces en el terreno político y social donde muchos esfuerzos deben canalizarse como prioridades de investigación urbano
Shoaib Ur Rehman
Full Text Available Faisalabad city is surrounded by agricultural lands, where farmers are growing vegetables, grain crops, and fodder for auto-consumption and local marketing. To study the socioeconomic impact and resource use in these urban and peri-urban agricultural production (UPA systems, a baseline survey was conducted during 2009–2010. A total of 140 households were selected using a stratified sampling method and interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that 96 % of the households rely on agriculture as their main occupation. Thirty percent of the households were owners of the land and the rest cultivated either rented or sharecropped land. Most of the families (70 % were headed by a member with primary education, and only 10 % of the household head had a secondary school certificate. Irrigationwater was obtained from waste water (37 %, canals (27 %, and mixed alternative sources (36 %. A total of 35 species were cultivated in the UPA systems of which were 65% vegetables, 15% grain and fodder crops, and 5% medicinal plants. Fifty-nine percent of the households cultivated wheat, mostly for auto-consumption. The 51 % of the respondents grew cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. and gourds (Cucurbitaceae in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. Group marketing was uncommon and most of the farmers sold their produce at the farm gate (45 % and on local markets (43 %. Seeds and fertilizers were available from commission agents and dealers on a credit basis with the obligation to pay by harvested produce. A major problem reported by the UPA farmers of Faisalabad was the scarcity of high quality irrigation water, especially during the hot dry summer months, in addition to lacking adequate quantities of mineral fertilizers and other inputs during sowing time. Half of the respondents estimated their daily income to be less than 1.25 US$ and spent almost half of it on food. Monthly average household income and expenses were 334 and 237 US
Samadikun, Budi Prasetyo; Handayani, Dwi Siwi; Laksana, Muhamad Permana
Palabuhanratu Village has three waste banks, one of them was established since 2010, the others built in 2016. However, waste processing from the source is still not optimal, it's only reduced waste about 5% of the total waste generated to the final waste disposal site. The performance of waste banks is still minimal, because one waste bank can not serve the entire area of the village. Furthermore, organic waste processed by some communities of Palabuhanratu Village to be compost can not be a mass movement, due to the lack of public knowledge. The purpose of this research is to know the existing condition of waste management in Palabuhanratu Village and to formulate the revitalization of existing waste bank. The research used survey research method by using questionnaire, in depth interview, and observation. Analytical technique using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The findings of the research indicate that the residents of Palabuhanratu Village who often do waste sorting from the source only from the residents of RT 01 / RW 33. The number of existing temporary waste disposal site in Palabuhanratu Village is still lacking, so it requires addition up to 5 units that integrated with waste bank in this village.
Full Text Available Nowadays more and more scientific communities, decisional factors and the most of the inhabitants had realised that there is no future without revering the nature by its all component. The most important component of the Planet Earth is water, in all its conditions and locations. The fresh water is one of the main forms of the water thathas high value for the entire humanity. Most of the fresh waters are stoked into lakes which are permanently or temporary supplied by permanent and respective temporary rivers. In the past, people did not consider water as important as it is in present days and did not take care of its quality and quantity. Therefore, there were built a lot of industrial pollutant plants on immediate proximity, hydro-technical works that changed its shapes and courses, maleficent water consumption entities (e.g. for irrigations, for residential purpose, industrial etc.. All these works did serious changes in the natural (equilibrate water bodies status in order to alter its natural functions. To win back these natural functions the affected water bodies should be restored. This paper presents an attempt to draw a set of rules to be followed in solving the problem of rivers revitalization, as a study case is about the Danube River. These rules involve scientific specialists, decisional factors and social communities. The beneficiary of the results by applying this set of rules is the entire socio-ecologic system.
Climate is a key driver regulating vegetation structure across rural ecosystems. In urban ecosystems, multiple interactions between humans and the environment can have homogenizing influences, confounding the relationship between vegetation structure and climate. In fact, vegetat...
Roth, Lars Christian
High population growth rate in Metro Manila has a direct effect on the intensity of urbanisation and development in the region and population is expected to reach 13 million by the year 2015. Urban congestion is one of the region's most pressing problems as air pollution has a major impact on public health and particularly affects children and the elderly. This study will give a broad description of transportation and urban development in Metro manila and thus contribute to improve the unders...
Chukwunonso E.C.C. Ejike
Full Text Available Income inequality within the same place of residence may impact the nutritional status of children. This study therefore investigated the impact of income inequality on the nutritional status of children living in the same place of residence, using anthropometric tools. Children in four schools (Schools 1–4 within the vicinity of a housing estate in Umuahia, Nigeria, that charge fees making them ‘very affordable’, ‘affordable’, ‘expensive’ and ‘very expensive’, respectively, were recruited for the study. Thinness, overweight and obesity were defined using the Cole et al. reference standards. Thinness was present in 10.4% (13.0% of boys, 7.6% of girls; 20.4% (15.6% of boys, 27.3% of girls; and 0.7% (1.4% of boys, 0.0% of girls of children in Schools 1–3, respectively; but absent in school 4. Only 3.7% (1.4% of boys, 6.1% of girls and 5.6% (6.3% of boys, 4.5% of girls of children in Schools 1 and 2, respectively, were overweight/obese. Conversely, 25.8% (18.9% of boys, 32.5% of girls and 41.6% (38.8% of boys, 45.3% of girls of children in Schools 3 and 4, respectively, were overweight/obese. The urban-poor (School 2 are clearly affected by malnutrition disproportionately.
Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Bricas, Nicolas; Maire, Bernard; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis
In the context of the nutrition transition and associated changes in the food retail sector, to examine the socio-economic characteristics and motivations of shoppers using different retail formats (large supermarkets (LSM), medium-sized supermarkets (MSM) or traditional outlets) in Tunisia. Cross-sectional survey (2006). Socio-economic status, type of food retailer and motivations data were collected during house visits. Associations between socio-economic factors and type of retailer were assessed by multinomial regression; correspondence analysis was used to analyse declared motivations. Peri-urban area around Tunis, Tunisia, North Africa. Clustered random sample of 724 households. One-third of the households used LSM, two-thirds used either type of supermarket, but less than 5 % used supermarkets only. Those who shopped for food at supermarkets were of higher socio-economic status; those who used LSM were much wealthier, more often had a steady income or owned a credit card, while MSM users were more urban and had a higher level of education. Most households still frequently used traditional outlets, mostly their neighbourhood grocer. Reasons given for shopping at the different retailers were most markedly leisure for LSM, while for the neighbourhood grocer the reasons were fidelity, proximity and availability of credit (the latter even more for lower-income customers). The results pertain to the transition in food shopping practices in a south Mediterranean country; they should be considered in the context of growing inequalities in health linked to the nutritional transition, as they differentiate use and motivations for the choice of supermarkets v. traditional food retailers according to socio-economic status.
Samuel, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Raghupathy, Palani; Richard, Joseph; Fall, Caroline H D
We examined associations between socio-economic status (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education and paternal education. CVD risk factors included obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, plasma total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and triglyceride levels and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and risk factors. Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants' own education and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all the three SES indicators, adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score. Compared with those in the lowest fifth of the score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity [odds ratio (OR) =6.4, 95% CI 3.4-11.6], high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.9-4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) was lower. Except for hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. In this young cohort of rural and urban south Indians, higher SES was associated with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile but lower tobacco use.
Redwood, Yanique; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Yoshihama, Mieko; Wang, Caroline C; Kreuter, Marshall
Growing evidence suggests that the built environment features found in many high-poverty urban areas contribute to negative health outcomes. Both built environment hazards and negative health outcomes disproportionately affect poor people of color. We used community-based participatory research and Photovoice in inner-city Atlanta to elicit African Americans' perspectives on their health priorities. The built environment emerged as a critical factor, impacting physical and mental health outcomes. We offer a conceptual model, informed by residents' perspectives, linking social, economic, and political processes to built environment and health inequities. Research, practice, and policy implications are discussed within an environmental justice framework.
Full Text Available An urban forest assessment is essential for developing a baseline from which to measure changes and trends. The most precise way to assess urban forests is to measure and record every tree on a site, but although this may work well for relatively small populations (e.g., street trees, small parks, it is prohibitively expensive for large tree populations. Thus, random sampling offers a cost-effective way to assess urban forest structure and the associated ecosystem services for large-scale assessments. The methodology applied to assess ecosystem services in this study can also be used to assess the ecosystem services provided by vacant land in other urban contexts and improve urban forest policies, planning, and the management of vacant land. The study’s findings support the inclusion of trees on vacant land and contribute to a new vision of vacant land as a valuable ecological resource by demonstrating how green infrastructure can be used to enhance ecosystem health and promote a better quality of life for city residents.
... Awards, HOPE VI Revitalization Grant Program, Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... the Fiscal Year 2010 (FY2010) Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the HOPE VI Revitalization... recipients under the HOPE VI Revitalization grant program. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions...
Taraszkiewicz, Karolina; Nyka, Lucyna
The paper gives an evidence that building a large sports facility can generate beneficial urban space transformation and a significant improvement in the dilapidated urban areas. On the basis of theoretical investigations and case studies it can be proved that sports facilities introduced to urban brownfields could be considered one of the best known large scale revitalization methods. Large urban spaces surrounding sport facilities such as stadiums and other sports arenas create excellent conditions for designing additional recreational function, such as parks and other green areas. Since sports venues are very often located on brownfields and post-industrial spaces, there are usually well related with canals, rivers and other water routes or reservoirs. Such spaces become attractors for large groups of people. This, in effect initiate the process of introducing housing estates to the area and gradually the development of multifunctional urban structure. As research shows such process of favourable urban transformation could be based on implementing several important preconditions. One of the most significant one is the formation of the new communication infrastructure, which links newly formed territories with the well-structured urban core. Well planned program of the new sports facilities is also a very important factor. As research shows multifunctional large sports venues may function in the city as a new kind of public space that stimulates new genres of social relations, offers entertainment and free time activities, not necessarily related with sport. This finally leads to the creation of new jobs and more general improvement of a widely understood image of the district, growing appreciation for the emerging new location and consequently new investments in the neighbouring areas. The research gives new evidence to the ongoing discussion on the drawbacks and benefits of placing stadiums and sports arenas in the urban core.
Dijk, Meine Pieter; Mingshun, Zhang
textabstractThis paper is based on research in Chinese cities. It addresses the issues related to urban environmental performance and sustainability in emerging Chinese cities. The result shows that: (1) To basically control the degradation of urban environment the minimum per capita GDP should be about 1000 USD in China. This amount is only one third of that in the developed world; (2) The average share in GDP necessary for environmental investments is 2.9%. Such an amount would help to avoi...
Full Text Available Scholars tend to discuss gentrification in a colorblind fashion which suggests that gentrification is solely a classed process. It is not. In this article, we move our attention away from a discussion on the colorblind features of New Urbanism to focus on how the shift from an industrial economy to a post-industrial service economy in New Urban "World Cities" creates a push that drives local minorities away from the city and a pull that draws new stakeholders into the city.
Aroca-Jimenez, Estefanía; Bodoque, Jose Maria; García, Juan Antonio; Diez-Herrero, Andres
The growth of exposed population to floods, the expansion in allocation of economical activities to flood-prone areas and the rise of extraordinary event frequency over the last few decades, have resulted in an increase of flash flood-related casualties and economic losses. The increase in these losses at an even higher rate than the increase of magnitude and frequency of extreme events, underline that the vulnerability of societies exposed is a key aspect to be considered. Vulnerability is defined as the conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards such as floods, being flash floods one of the natural hazards with the greatest capacity to generate risk. In recent years, numerous papers have deal with the assessment of the social dimension of vulnerability. However, economic factors are often a neglected aspect in traditional risk assessments which mainly focus on structural measures and flood damage models. In this context, the aim of this research is to identify those economic characteristics which render people vulnerable to flash flood hazard, and consider whether these characteristics are identifiable as local patterns at regional level. The result of this task is an Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) based on susceptibility profiles of the population per township. These profiles are obtained by Hierarchical Segmentation and Latent Class Cluster Analysis of economic information provided by different public institutional databases. The methodology proposed here is implemented in the region of Castilla y León (94,230 km2), placed in Central-Northern Spain. Townships included in this study meet two requirements: i) urban areas are potentially affected by flash floods (i.e. villages are crossed by rivers or streams with a longitudinal slope higher than 0.01 m m-1); ii) urban areas are affected by an area with low or exceptional probability of
Arruti, A.; Fernandez-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.
Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: → The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. → The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. → The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. → The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).
Job Taiwo Gbadegesin
Full Text Available Recent critique against the past urban housing provision strategies in Nigeria was that the low-income groups are marginalised. It then led to the adoption of public private partnership (PPP initiative with a view to pursuing the broad goal of housing-for-all in Nigeria. Most recent studies have however criticised the effectiveness of the existing PPP practice in the housing provision structure without providing a pragmatic suggestion towards an effective framework for improvement. It thus raised the question; what are the main causes of ineffectiveness of existing PPP in housing provision and how can an effective PPP policy framework for urban low-income housing be achieved in Nigeria? This study utilised the concepts of new institutional economics (NIE - a theoretical and methodological underpinning for multi-actors’ policy matters. Using qualitative data from structured interview and credible literature sources, findings indicate that uncertainties in land accessibility, high transaction costs and the developers’ high profit agenda, are the major causes of PPP ineffectiveness for housing provision, which are also attributed to lack of a specific PPP policy that recognises all income groups and their roles on housing provision. End-users suggested that government could have a negotiation with land owners and building materials dealers to address the housing problem. In conclusion, it is established in this study that adoption of all-inclusive conceptual approach described within the context of NIE thought can facilitate an effective planning for urban low-income housing in Nigeria.
Gikas, G.; Hyz, A.; Vasileiou, K.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.
This paper attempts to describe and study in detail the evolution of urban and rural dietary patterns in Greece during the period 1957-2008, in terms of natural and technical features. Natural features refer to the consumption of animal versus plant products, while technical features pertain to
Habitat loss is often cited as the primary cause of species endangerment in the United States, followed by invasive species, pollution, and direct take. Urbanization, one type of habitat loss, is the leading cause of species endangerment in the contiguous United States and entails a relatively thorough transformation from the "economy of nature" to the human...
Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.
This paper argues that, in a developing economy, progress in agriculture may stimulate growth of the urban sector through important non-market-mediated e¤ects. Higher living standards enable traditional agricultural societies to solve their social dilemmas, which implies a stream of civic-minded
Wenting, R.; Atzema, O.A.L.C.; Frenken, K.
The spatial clustering of industries is traditionally explained by agglomeration economies benefiting co-located firms. The focus on firms rather than people has been challenged by Florida arguing that urban amenities attract creative people to certain cities. On the basis of a questionnaire, an
Full Text Available Estimating economic losses caused on buildings and other civil engineering works due to flooding events is often a difficult task. The accuracy of the estimate is affected by the availability of detailed data regarding the return period of the flooding event, vulnerability of exposed assets, and type of economy run in the affected area. This paper aims to provide a quantitative methodology for the assessment of economic losses associated with flood scenarios. The proposed methodology was performed for an urban area in Southern Italy prone to hydrogeological instabilities. At first, the main physical characteristics of the area such as rainfall, land use, permeability, roughness, and slopes of the area under investigation were estimated in order to obtain input for flooding simulations. Afterwards, the analysis focused on the spatial variability incidence of the rainfall parameters in flood events. The hydraulic modeling provided different flood hazard scenarios. The risk curve obtained by plotting economic consequences vs. the return period for each hazard scenario can be a useful tool for local authorities to identify adequate risk mitigation measures and therefore prioritize the economic resources necessary for the implementation of such mitigation measures.
The present study explores the impact of economic growth; urban expansion; and consumption of fossil fuels, solid fuels, and renewable energy on environmental degradation in developing economies of Sub-Saharan Africa. To demonstrate its findings in detail, the study adopts a system generalized method of moment (GMM) on a panel of 34 emerging economies for the period from 1995 to 2015. The results describe that the consumption of fossil and solid fuels for cooking and expansion of urban areas are significantly contributing to carbon dioxide emissions, on one end, and stimulating air pollution, on the other. The results also exhibit an inverted U-shape relationship between per capita economic growth and carbon emissions. This relation confirms the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in middle- and low-income economies of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, the findings reveal that the use of renewable energy alternatives improves air quality by controlling carbon emissions and lowering the direct interaction of households with toxic gases. Thus, the use of renewable energy alternatives helps the economies to achieve sustainable development targets.
Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.
Florin Marian BUHOCIU
Full Text Available In Romania there are 13 cities urban growth poles, including the city of Galati. Our research presents the structure of public services as well as a recital of the trade becoming more sectors / public areas and is developing a major commercial component. It is therefore necessary to evaluate both the overall public services, public or private and commercial of the NACE codes. Were identified 15 key activities that provide 90% of all available services for them and presenting the turnover and number of employees. Malfunctions roots in key areas identified were evaluated on the structure and layout in the area of public services. In this way you can calculate specific indicators of public services of such a city, being able to compare their levels with corresponding levels of the same indicators of urban growth pole unite and can also take the best decisions for development near the levels of both types of municipalities in Romania.
Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Engel, Vic; Martinez, Chris; Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David; Sukop, Michael C; Hughes, Joseph D
High-value urban zones in coastal South Florida are considered particularly vulnerable to salt water intrusion into the groundwater-based, public water supplies caused by sea level rise (SLR) in combination with the low topography, existing high water table, and permeable karst substrate. Managers in the region closely regulate water depths in the extensive South Florida canal network to control closely coupled groundwater levels and thereby reduce the risk of saltwater intrusion into the karst aquifer. Potential SLR adaptation strategies developed by local managers suggest canal and groundwater levels may have to be increased over time to prevent the increased salt water intrusion risk to groundwater resources. However, higher canal and groundwater levels cause the loss of unsaturated zone storage and lead to an increased risk of inland flooding when the recharge from rainfall exceeds the capacity of the unsaturated zone to absorb it and the water table reaches the surface. Consequently, higher canal and groundwater levels are also associated with increased risk of economic losses, especially during the annual wet seasons. To help water managers and urban planners in this region better understand this trade-off, this study models the relationships between flood insurance claims and groundwater levels in Miami-Dade County. Via regression analyses, we relate the incurred number of monthly flood claims in 16 Miami-Dade County watersheds to monthly groundwater levels over the period from 1996 to 2010. We utilize these estimated statistical relationships to further illustrate various monthly flood loss scenarios that could plausibly result, thereby providing an economic quantification of a "too much water" trade-off. Importantly, this understanding is the first of its kind in South Florida and is exceedingly useful for regional-scale hydro-economic optimization models analyzing trade-offs associated with high water levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Full Text Available Nowadays the majority of coastal urban areas facing issues concerning economic growth in combination with environmental protection. These challenges have led local authorities to take immediate measures as well as the European Union to formulate new policies. This study refers to the environmental problems of the coastal urban area of Kallithea and on the measures that have been taken in response. Specifically, it focuses on land uses, natural resources and business. To conduct this study a method of personal interviews with the local authorities and an in situ research took place. At the same time, the survey focuses on action and policies that have been implemented until now regarding growth and improving of the quality of life. The results showed despite the problems the research area presents, it has dynamics for growth developments and revitalization. The implementation of new measures and new policies under the frame of sustainable development, taking into account the directives of European Union, is required.
ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU; LIVIU NEAMTU
The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of ...
O'Regan, Katherine M.; Quigley, John M.
This paper summarizes and synthesizes a series of empirical analyses investigating the role of urban space in affecting minority employment outcomes. It adds to the considerable (but inconclusive) literature by broadening the focus beyond transportation and the “friction of space,” and by expanding the data available for spatial research. The empirical analyses share a common framework linking “access” to youth labor market performance. The first set of results is based on aggregate data re...
Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.
ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU
Full Text Available The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of air the priority role is held by the obtainment of necessary information in the view of adopting decision. In this context, monitoring the existent green areas represents a fundamental element that has to provide the necessary information. In correlation with this monitoring it is necessary the realization of the operative informational system for supervising the air quality constituted automatically from fix monitoring points and in a real time of the main air pollutants. The domains of sustainable development at the level of urban areas are considered to be: urban planning, the management of green areas and air quality, the management and the reduction of the sweepings, water quality, energy efficiency, clean and efficient transportation, etc.
Real Bird, Lanny
The purpose of this essay is to introduce nativist expression, historic practices, and perceptions in describing an important approach to exercising language revitalization based on traditional fundamentals and operational ownership in Native organizations of these reflections. Information is presented to enhance the understanding of how Native…
Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu
Within the last two decades, there has been increased interest in how technology supports Indigenous language revitalization and reclamation efforts. This paper considers the effect technology has on Indigenous language learning and teaching, while conceptualizing how language educators, speakers, learners, and technology users holistically…
Deegan, William L.
Alternatives for revitalizing the programs and management of student services in community colleges are reviewed in this paper. First, alternatives related to student services programs are considered, including: (1) the increased use of computer-assisted counseling to integrate student services more fully with mainstream academic activities; (2)…
Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…
Describes the revitalization of the Brooklyn College Women's Center, a 10-year-old women's center experiencing the effects of the conservative 1980s. Discusses the challenge of making feminism matter to young women who may be suspicious or indifferent, or who may not have identified their needs as "women's issues." (NB)
Many people talk about arts integration, but not everyone can actually walk the talk. In this article, the author describes how she vigorously embraced arts integration as an administrator at Casey Elementary, an urban, art-integrated school located in central Mississippi. The author contends that it requires total focus, and an enormous amount of…
Zissi, Anastasia; Stalidis, George
This study draws on old and well-established evidence that economic change, and especially recession, affects people's lives, behavior and mental health. Even though the literature is rich on the relationship between unemployment and mental distress, there is a renewed research interest on the link between socio-economic inequalities and psychological health. The study investigates the relationship of social class with mental distress during the hard times of persistent and severe economic crisis in Greece by conducting a comparative, community study in the country's second largest city, Thessaloniki. A face-to-face structured interview covering living conditions, life events, chronic stressors and coping strategies was employed to 300 residents of socio-economically contrasting neighborhood areas. Social class was operationalized by Erik Olin Wright's social class position typology, based on ownership and control over productive assets. The method of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was also applied to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that mental distress was significantly differentiated across social classes and in each residential area. Unemployed and unskilled workers were the most vulnerable groups in terms of psychological health. Chronic stress arose in this study as a risk factor for poor mental health outcomes and it was associated to low marital quality, intense economic burden and impoverished housing conditions. Those who face income loss, job loss and disability are at high risk for poverty and marginalization, suffering from greater psychological distress.
Full Text Available The relationship between economic growth, expansion of urban land area and the broader issue of cultivated land conversion in China has been closely examined for the late 1980s and 1990s. Much less is known about recent urban expansion and if the effects of economic growth on this expansion have changed over time. This paper updates estimates of urban expansion for China and examines the relationship with city economic growth for 1993–2012. To see if patterns are robust to different types of evidence, administrative data on the area of 225 urban cores are compared to estimates of brightly lit areas from remotely sensed night lights. The trend annual expansion rate in lit area is 8% and was significantly faster in the decade to 2002 than in the most recent decade. Expansion is slower according to administrative data, at just 5% per annum, with no change in unconditional expansion rates between decades, while conditional expansion rates have declined. The elasticity of area with respect to city economic output is about 0.3. Over time, expansion of urban land area is becoming less responsive to the growth of the local non-agricultural population.
"Sugar daddy" relationships, which are characterized by large age and economic asymmetries between partners, are believed to be a major factor in the spread of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Information is needed about sugar daddy partnerships-and about age and economic asymmetries more generally-to determine how common they are and whether they are related to unsafe sexual behavior. The sample comprised 1,052 men aged 21-45 who were surveyed in Kisumu, Kenya, in 2001. Data on these men and their 1,614 recent non-marital partnerships were analyzed to calculate the prevalence of sugar daddies and sugar daddy relationships, as well as a range of age and economic disparities within non-marital partnerships. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess relationships between condom use at last sexual intercourse and various measures of age and economic asymmetry. The mean age difference between non-marital sexual partners was 5.5 years, and 47% of men's female partners were adolescents. Fourteen percent of partnerships involved an age difference of at least 10 years, and 23% involved more than the mean amount of male-to-female material assistance. Men who reported at least one partnership with both these characteristics were defined as sugar daddies and made up 5% of the sample; sugar daddy relationships accounted for 4% of partnerships. Sugar daddy partnerships and the largest age and economic asymmetries we constructed were associated with decreased odds of condom use. Although sugar daddy relationships are not as pervasive as generally assumed, age and economic asymmetries in non-marital partnerships are relatively common. All these types of asymmetries are associated with nonuse of condoms. Increasing women's power within asymmetric sexual relationships could improve their ability to negotiate safer sexual behaviors, such as condom use.
Jennings, Larissa; Mathai, Muthoni; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Trujillo, Antonio; Mak'anyengo, Margaret; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Kerrigan, Deanna L
Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Results indicated that slum youth made many sexual decisions considered rational from a traditional economics perspective, such as acquiring more sex when resources were available, maximizing wealth through sex, being price-sensitive to costs of condoms or testing services, and taking more risks when protected from adverse sexual consequences. Youth's engagement in sexual risk behaviors was also motivated by scarcity phenomena explained by behavioral economics, such as compensating for sex lost during scarce periods (risk-seeking), valuing economic gains over HIV risks (tunneling, bandwidth tax), and transacting sex as an investment strategy (internal referencing). When scarcity was alleviated, young women additionally described reducing the number of sex partners to account for non-economic preferences (slack). Prevention strategies should address the traditional and behavioral economics of the HIV epidemic.
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
This report provides a longitudinal study of the Fiji economy covering more than 2 decades of growth and development. It presents an economic update and outlook for the Fiji economy and assesses the key drivers of performance across key economic sectors. The report identifies potential reform strategies that can guide future policy action, assist in accelerating growth, and strengthen pro-poor policy development in Fiji.
Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E
A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.
Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Jørgen
As part of the 2014 fall semester study programme, Studio Design and Social Innovation, from Aarhus School of Architecture, collaborated with DemokraCity on a community initiative project to revitalize TILST, a town located on the outskirts of Aarhus, Denmark. Demokracity focuses on urban social...... and story for the site, thereby building a new identity and creating value for the area....
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Way, Niobe; Chen, Xinyin
Social ecological and dynamic systems theories propose that human development is shaped by the cumulative impact of social interactions in proximal and distal settings, which are themselves influenced by social and economic forces. The understanding of the links between microsystem-level factors (such as parenting styles and parent-child…
Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Collins, James P; Minteer, Ben A; Daszak, Peter
Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. Globalization-the closer integration of the world economy-has facilitated pathogen spread among countries through the growth of trade and travel. High-risk areas for the emergence and spread of infectious disease are where these three trends intersect with predisposing socioecological conditions including the presence of wild disease reservoirs, agricultural practices that increase contact between wildlife and livestock, and cultural practices that increase contact between humans, wildlife, and livestock. Such an intersection occurs in China, which has been a "cradle" of zoonoses from the Black Death to avian influenza and SARS. Disease management in China is thus critical to the mitigation of global zoonotic risks.
Full Text Available This paper studies different functions and relations between 45 agglomerated municipalities in southern Switzerland (Ticino, using a territorial agent-based model. Our research adopts a bottom-up approach to urban systems, considering the agglomeration mechanism and effects of different regional and urban policies, and simulates the individual actions of diverse agents on a real city using an Agent-based model (ABM. Simulating the individual actions of diverse agents on a real city and measuring the resulting system behaviour and outcomes over time, they effectively provide a good test bed for evaluating the impact of different policies. The database is created merging the Swiss official secondary data for one reference year (2011 with Eurostat and OECD-Regpat. The results highlight that the understanding of municipalities’ functions on the territory appears to be essential for designing a solid institutional agglomeration (or city. From a methodological point of view, we contribute to improve the application of territorial ABM. Finally, our results provide a robust base to evaluate in a dynamic way various political interventions, in order to ensure a sustainable development of the agglomeration and the surrounding territories. Applying the analyses and the model on a larger scale, including further regions and conurbations, and including more indicators and variables, to obtain a more detailed and characteristic model, will constitute a further step of the research.
Danis, Marion; Kotwani, Namrata; Garrett, Joanne; Rivera, Ivonne; Davies-Cole, John; Carter-Nolan, Pamela
To determine the priorities of low-income urban residents for interventions that address the socio-economic determinants of health. We selected and estimated the cost of 16 interventions related to education, housing, nutrition, employment, health care, healthy behavior, neighborhood improvement, and transportation. Low-income residents of Washington, D.C. (N=431) participated in decision exercises to prioritize these interventions. Given a budget valued at approximately twice an estimated cost of medical and dental care ($885), the interventions ultimately prioritized by the greatest percentage of individuals were: health insurance (95%), housing vouchers (82%) dental care (82%), job training (72%), adult education (63%), counseling (68%), healthy behavior incentives (68%), and job placement (67%). The percentages of respondents who received support for housing, adult education, and job training and placement were far less than the percentage who prioritized these interventions. Poor and low-income residents' priorities may usefully inform allocation of social services that affect health.
Santarelli, M.G.L.; Cali, M.; Bertonasco, A.
In the energy field, an important cause of pollutant emissions is linked to ground transportation. The increase of the ratio between energy consumption due to transport and the gross internal product has been 1.12% per year from 1970. All these energy consumption increases have been made while using fossil fuel with serious environmental consequences on the local and global scale and reduction of fuel availability. Environmental policy points towards improvement by cleaner fuels utilisation and increase of engine efficiencies. In this paper, a specific application will be discussed concerning the public transport service in an Italian urban area: a bus fleet motorised with fuel cell systems will be compared with traditional buses using fossil fuels. The comparison will be done in energy, economic, environmental and social terms
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.
Manuel Luís Tender
Full Text Available Abstract Tunnelling has been used for several purposes for thousands of years. In the coming years the world's population will increase in the urban areas. So, the urban centres will have to adapt, in order to guarantee that their future population will have the necessary and sustainable growth. Due to the constraints for surface construction, also connected to environmental issues, this population growth will imply a greater use of the underground. With this optimal growth, the population of the cities will have better mobility, quality of life, and economic and social sustainability. In a first phase, this report will present a historic approach to tunnelling and its foreseeable future. Afterwards, we will present some considerations on the three factors which tunnelling impacts: mobility, quality of life and social sustainability. As a case study, we will analyse the 2nd phase of the construction of the Marão Tunnel (TDM - the longest ever built in the Iberian Peninsula- and describe the options made regarding each of those factors. In this case study, the options implemented made it possible to successfully execute the works. For the industry, this work is important because it describes a successful management of the aspects under analysis.
Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q
Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was law and poorer knowledge of safety benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present turning point, accentuated by the crisis, has revitalized the interdisciplinary study of economics and determined the reconsideration of its fundamental bases as a social science. The economists have abandoned the traditional neoclassical sphere and have directed towards understanding the behaviour resorting to psychology and developing in this manner a new field - behavioural economics. This article examines whether this economic sub-discipline is a viable research direction and the extent to which it may increase the explanatory power of science by providing a realistic database for analysis, taking into account the complexity of the human factor.
Caruso, Geoffrey; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique; Thomas, Isabelle; Frankhauser, Pierre; Vuidel, Gilles
This paper describes a dataset of 6284 land transactions prices and plot surfaces in 3 medium-sized cities in France (Besançon, Dijon and Brest). The dataset includes road accessibility as obtained from a minimization algorithm, and the amount of green space available to households in the neighborhood of the transactions, as evaluated from a land cover dataset. Further to the data presentation, the paper describes how these variables can be used to estimate the non-observable parameters of a residential choice function explicitly derived from a microeconomic model. The estimates are used by Caruso et al. (2015) to run a calibrated microeconomic urban growth simulation model where households are assumed to trade-off accessibility and local green space amenities.
Caruso, Geoffrey; Cavailhès, Jean; Peeters, Dominique; Thomas, Isabelle; Frankhauser, Pierre; Vuidel, Gilles
This paper describes a dataset of 6284 land transactions prices and plot surfaces in 3 medium-sized cities in France (Besançon, Dijon and Brest). The dataset includes road accessibility as obtained from a minimization algorithm, and the amount of green space available to households in the neighborhood of the transactions, as evaluated from a land cover dataset. Further to the data presentation, the paper describes how these variables can be used to estimate the non-observable parameters of a residential choice function explicitly derived from a microeconomic model. The estimates are used by Caruso et al. (2015) to run a calibrated microeconomic urban growth simulation model where households are assumed to trade-off accessibility and local green space amenities. PMID:26958606
Biello, Katie Brooks; Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Kershaw, Trace
In the USA, sexual intercourse is the leading route of human immunodeficiency virus transmission among women, primarily through their main partner. Because male condom use is not directly under a woman's control, gender inequalities may help shape this sexual risk behavior. To examine this association, data came from follow-up interviews of young, primarily minority, pregnant women enrolled in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Specifically, we aimed to determine the relationship between economic dependence on a male partner and condom use, and to establish whether this relationship was mediated by sexual assertiveness. Overall, 28% of women reported being economically dependent on a male partner. Young women dependent on a male partner were 1.6 times more likely to report not using a condom at last sex than women not dependent on their partner (95% confidence interval = 1.11-2.32; p = 0.01). Sexual assertiveness mediated the relationship between economic dependence and condom use (Sobel = 2.05, p = 0.04). Coupled with past research, this study supports the premise that sexual behaviors may be rooted in a complex web of social determinants. Addressing gender inequalities in contextual factors may promote healthier decisions within sexual relationships.
Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.
Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Gao, Xiangyun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Zhong, Weiqiong
Due to high population densities and rapid economic development, great number of cities worldwide rely heavily on external resources, and many are experiencing serious environmental pollution. Municipal governments are facing the issue of balancing the relationship between economic growth and environmental preservation. An urban system is an open, complex, dynamic ecological-economic system with different types of materials and resources. This paper combines emergy theory and System Dynamics (SD) and establishes an emergy-flow SD model of an urban eco-economic system that includes economic, population, waste and emergy sub-models. Three scenarios with different economic growth rates and investments in environmental preservation are designed to analyze the sustainable development capacity of Beijing under different scenarios. The results of the analysis show that current economic development in Beijing highly depends on resources consumption, especially the consumption of imported resources. Based on the current growth rate, development in Beijing will heavily depend on external resources that may make the system being more fragile in the future. A lower economic growth rate and a small increase in environmental preservation investment are more suitable for in Beijing than area higher economic growth rate and a large increase in environmental preservation investment. - Highlights: • A Systems Dynamics model simulating urban emergy flows is set up. • Current economic development of Beijing depends on high consumption of resources. • Beijing has extreme and increasing dependence on external resources. • Beijing relies heavily on nonrenewable resources and its development is unsustainable. • Low GDP growth is better than high GDP growth with increased environmental investment.
The committee found that coal is the preferred fuel to (1) bridge the gap until renewable energy supplies are adequate, and (2) support economic growth. It also found that the US is in a good position to expand coal production and export, which would help to revitalize American industry and improve the US balance of payments. To do this, they feel the government must increase its support of mining and coal-use research and developments, encourage the development and use of safer and less-polluting technology, grant eminent domain for slurry-pipeline construction, improve port facilities, establish national environmental standards with special assistance to states as needed, and accelerate research on the effects and alleviation of acid rain. The private and public sectors must cooperate to finance these efforts, with the government filling the role of catalyst. 30 references. (DCK)
Gwak, Jae Ha; Lee, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Won Kyung; Sohn, So Young
This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects. The benefits of green roofs are improved energy efficiency and air quality, reduction of urban flood risk and infrastructure improvement costs, reuse of storm water, and creation of space for education and leisure. Furthermore, the estimated cost of installing green roofs is also considered. We employ spatial data to determine the expected effects of green roofs on each building unit, because the benefits and costs may vary depending on the location of the building. This is due to the heterogeneous spatial conditions. In the third step, the final building sites are proposed by solving the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) to determine the optimal locations for green roofs as urban honeybee foraging sites. As an illustrative example, we apply the proposed framework in Seoul, Korea. This new framework is expected to contribute to sustainable urban ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Important demographic shifts have occurred in Canada in the last decades. As a consequence of these shifts, many geographical communities have won or lost substantial number of residents between 1981 and 2001. Using the CCS (consolidated census subdivision data set of the Agriculture Division of Statistics Canada, the paper explores the linkages between socio-economic strains and population changes affecting communities in a variety of regional and provincial contexts. A total of 2,607 rural and urban consolidated census subdivisions were examined across five census periods. Quasi simplex structural equation models using unemployment, earnings and poverty as indicators were tested on a variety of communities located in various OECD regions and provinces. Although the predictive power of strains on population gains was found to be limited in the models, a higher level of strain was persistently found to be negatively associated with population gains regardless of regional and provincial groupings of communities. Socio-economic strains were also observed to be relatively stable over time across a variety of geographies.
Continued economic recession, a growing national debt, and consumer overconsumption mean that a federal tax similar to a sales tax may be passed. Because the "value-added tax" will significantly affect school budgets, according to economist Anthony Carnevale, educators should demand a portion of the tax for education revenue sharing. (CJH)
Most of human history and prehistory was lived in economic poverty but with social and ecological wealth, both of which are diminishing as commodification takes over most everything. Human moral wealth has also deteriorated. Because humans are biosocially, dynamically, and epigenetically shaped, early experience is key for developing one's moral…
Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction. Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. Objective. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. Material and methods. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13–18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions. The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES included 6 features. The SES index (SESI was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR of underweight (BMI0.05. The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05. The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05. Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Conclusions. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.
Długosz, Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Długosz, Tomasz; Wądołowska, Lidia
Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13-18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions). The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES) included 6 features. The SES index (SESI) was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of underweight (BMI0.05). The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05). The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05). Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.
Full Text Available Brand revitalization is a process, which is often necessary when the brand’s offer of products as well as associated attention from consumers decline. Even so, the core of a brand needs to be clearly defined, in order for brand revitalization to be successfully implemented. Marketing managers need to be able to recognize the acute, as well as the latent signs of brand aging, and need to implement brand revitalization elements and strategies that are most suitable for a certain brand. The goal of the paper is presenting brand revitalization through the practical example of two Slovenian brands, which both went through the process of brand revitalization. With the review of secondary data, as well as interviews with the brand’s marketing managers, the paper proposes main steps and serves as a guideline to other managers, when going through brand revitalization.
Song Guojun; Zhou Li; Zhang Lei
The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: → National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. → We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. → The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.
Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros
During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.
Full Text Available During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.
Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of brownfield in Lithuania. The paper overviews Lithuanian and foreign experience of integrating the introduced areas into the urban framework based on social, economic, ecological and cultural contextuality. The main problem, on Lithuanian scale, is the absence of an official definition of urban brownfield. The legal framework in Lithuania does not contain any provisions to be processed. The article is aimed at identifying potential threats to the areas in respect of criteria for urban brownfields, and, according to this review, at revealing possible uses of this land. One of the most effective ways of urban sustainable development is the conversion of former military, industrial and other land accepted as the legacy of the Soviet regime. The authors have established a causal relationship resulting in the emergence of the urban areas of wilderness and developed guidance on using them. The authors have analysed and evaluated the existing real estate developers and current trends towards opportunities for private and public partnership (PPP in Lithuania. Although PPP is widespread in most of European countries, it is a rare phenomenon in Lithuania, and has no deep-rooted tradition of this kind of investment in urban infrastructure; however, evaluation is one of the most potential ways to revitalize abandoned urban territories. Based on practices of foreign countries, the authors have identified PPP as a priority.
Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas
domains during which the IUDWS can be coupled with the electrical smart grid to optimise its energy consumption. The REV framework was used to determine which decision threshold of the EPS (i.e. number of ensemble members predicting an event) provides the highest benefit for a given situation...... in cities where space is scarce and large-scale construction work a nuisance. This the-sis focuses on flow domain predictions of IUDWS from numerical weather prediction (NWP) to select relevant control objectives for the IUDWS and develops a framework based on the relative economic value (REV) approach...... to evaluate when acting on the forecast is beneficial or not. Rainfall forecasts are extremely valuable for estimating near future storm-water-related impacts on the IUDWS. Therefore, weather radar extrapolation “nowcasts” provide valuable predictions for RTC. However, radar nowcasts are limited...
The following analysis develops the theory and implementation of the observed behavior technique in an altruistic setting, to assess the health benefits of reducing environmental lead exposure in urban children. Three models are presented which allow for endogenous body lead burden, risk of irreversible neurological damages, and Bayesian information. Conditions are derived under which the observed behavior technique can be modified to value the health consequences of exposure to a general class of persistent micropollutants (PMP's): the heavy metals. Benefit expressions reflect the tradeoff between parental wealth and child health when children are exposed to low level doses of lead. The purpose is to derive exact measures of marginal welfare change associated with variations in child body lead burden, and to determine the conditions under which these measures will be functions of observable parameters. The analysis presents an entirely ex ante approach to the recovery of benefit estimates when PMP exposure involves risk of irreversible health damages. In doing so, an empirical estimate is also obtained for the parental value of child health information that is used in the revision of prior risk beliefs. Risk of chronic irreversible health effects in younger generations from environmental lead exposure may be experienced by a large share of metropolitan population in the US. Given the large numbers of possible victims, the aggregate social value of avoiding this risk is an important policy issues. Moreover, the value of health risk information is potentially important to the use of an information program as a policy instrument in reducing health risk because it would enable the comparison of societal benefits from an information program to the cost of it's implementation
Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)
In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los
Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)
In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los
Considering the moribund status of the nuclear industry, something has to be done in the near-term to reverse the decaying economics of nuclear power. Standardization can turn around nuclear economics in the short term and in the longer term can foster a significant return to nuclear power. In the short term the industry needs to take advantage of those current designs that have proved their worth by excellent operating records. These designs can be replicated taking advantage of the complete status of the design and the construction techniques already in place. In the longer term it needs to develop preapproved designs and sites. Further, it must develop a discipline within the system of regulation as well as within the utility management to accept a power design as is. They cannot afford customized regulation nor customized design. Traditional institutional structures may also be up for grabs as utilities struggle to be more cost-effective. Generating companies may plan a significant role in the future of electric utilities. This kind of emphasis will also provide an impetus for the use of cost-effective, standardized designs that can be the catalyst for nuclear power's resurgence
Full Text Available A city as a type of a human settlement is characterized by high population density, welldeveloped infrastructure, comfortable living conditions. However, a city is a source of social problems due to high population density, limited resources and conflicts between indigenous population and newcomers. The article analyzes the development of research about the city, provides an assessment of the scope of the historical urban studies in the development of solutions to contemporary problems of urban space. Methodological resource of historical urban studies allows fully exploring the city as a set of historically interconnected spaces and social processes. The analysis of the problem field of historical urban studies at various stages of its formation allowed tracing the evolution of ideas about the city as an object of scientific knowledge, to identify future prospects of research on conditions of Russian urban development, to improve the comfort of living in them.
Due to the concentration of functions into cities and the spread of room cooling facilities, the energy demand in cities increased rapidly especially in summer season. The improvement of load factor of electric power has become an important subject for electric power companies, and as the technology for positively improving it, there is electric power storage. As for compressed air energy storage (CAES) system, its introduction, has been investigated as the electric power storage technology for the future in electric power business, but since it is also gas turbine technology, it becomes a cogeneration system. If the waste heat of gas turbines and compressors can be utilized effectively, not only the load factor of electric power is improved, but also it contributes to the improvement of overall energy efficiency and the improvement of environmental problems. This research is to study on the feasibility of compressed air energy storage centering around its economical efficiency when it is installed in customer side as the cogeneration system in cities. The features of CAES, the tendency of the development in Japan and foreign countries, the introduction of CAES in new town districts and the economy are described. (K.I.)
As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...
Lesorogol, Carolyn; Bond, Caitlin; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Iannotti, Lora
There is limited and inconsistent empirical evidence regarding the role of economic factors in breastfeeding practices, globally. Studies have found both negative and positive associations between low income and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Employment, which should improve household income, may reduce EBF due to separation of mother and infant. In the context of a randomized controlled study of lipid-based complementary feeding in an urban slum in Cap Haitien, Haiti, we examined the economic factors influencing breastfeeding practices using mixed methods. Findings demonstrate relationships between urban context, economic factors, and breastfeeding practices. Poverty, food insecurity, time constraints, and limited social support create challenges for EBF. Maternal employment is associated with lower rates of EBF and less frequent breastfeeding. Extreme food insecurity sometimes leads to increased exclusive breastfeeding among Haitian mothers, what we call "last resort EBF." In this case, women practice EBF because they have no alternative food source for the infant. Suggested policies and programs to address economic constraints and promote EBF in this population include maternal and child allowances, quality child care options, and small-scale household urban food production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu
Situated in China's market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker's happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being - reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu
Situated in China’s market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker’s happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being – reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty. PMID:26188448
Malte von Szombathely
Full Text Available Living in cities offers many benefits and thus more and more people are living in urban areas. However, the concentration of human activities also creates environmental stressors with severe influence on people’s health and well-being. Noise is an environmental stressor with known health impact. Despite this, studies investigating small-scale difference in noise exposure and annoyance are lacking. Against this background, this case study investigates environmental justice empirically, focusing on the distribution of road traffic noise and its perception in Hamburg, Germany. The study outlines a methodological approach that takes into account subjective and objective measures of exposure in small-scale residential blocks. The results show that annoyance by noise is clearly related to noise emission. Moreover, different groups are affected by noise pollution in our study area unequally. In particular, younger people and people with lower socio-economic status have higher probabilities to be affected by noise. Additionally, it emerged that participants reporting higher levels of annoyance from noise are on average younger than those feeling less annoyed. Overall, these results show that the current legal noise limits applicable to residential planning processes in German cities are not sufficient to prevent substantial annoyance effects in residential populations.
Morell, D; Singer, G
An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)
During his three terms as mayor of Curitiba, Brazil in the 1970s and ‘80s, architect and urbanist Jaime Lerner transformed his city into a global model of the sustainable and livable community. Through his pioneering work, Lerner has learned that changes to a community don’t need to be large-scale and expensive to have a transformative impact—in fact, one block, park or a single person can have an outsized effect on life in the surrounding city. In Urban Acupuncture, his first work published in English, Lerner celebrates these “pinpricks” of urbanism—projects, people and initiatives from around the world that ripple through their communities to uplift city life. With meditative and descriptive prose, Lerner brings readers around the world to streets and neighborhoods where urban acupuncture has been practiced best, from the bustling La Boqueria market in Barcelona to the revitalization of the Cheonggyecheon River in Seoul, South Korea. Through this journey, Lerner invites us to re-examine the true...
Becerra, Patricia; Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Lin, Louis M
Histologic studies of teeth from animal models of revascularization/revitalization are available; however, specimens from human studies are lacking. The nature of tissues formed in the canal of human revascularized/revitalized teeth was not well established. An immature mandibular premolar with infected necrotic pulp and a chronic apical abscess was treated with revascularization/revitalization procedures. At both the 18-month and 2-year follow-up visits, radiographic examination showed complete resolution of the periapical lesion, narrowing of the root apex without root lengthening, and minimal thickening of the canal walls. The revascularized/revitalized tooth was removed because of orthodontic treatment and processed for histologic examination. The large canal space of revascularized/revitalized tooth was not empty and filled with fibrous connective tissue. The apical closure was caused by cementum deposition without dentin. Some cementum-like tissue was formed on the canal dentin walls. Inflammatory cells were observed in the coronal and middle third of revascularized/revitalized tissue. In the present case, the tissue formed in the canal of a human revascularized/revitalized tooth was soft connective tissue similar to that in the periodontal ligament and cementum-like or bone-like hard tissue, which is comparable with the histology observed in the canals of teeth from animal models of revascularization/revitalization. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Penfield, Susan D.; Tucker, Benjamin V.
This paper explores the distance between documenting and revitalizing endangered languages and indicates critical points at which applied linguistics can play a role. We look at language documentation, language revitalization and their relationship. We then provide some examples from our own work. We see the lack of applied linguistics as a…
... Awards for the HOPE VI Revitalization Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2009 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... the Fiscal Year 2009 (FY 2009) Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the HOPE VI Revitalization.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions concerning the HOPE VI Revitalization grant awards...
NASA s vision and mission statements include an emphasis on human exploration of space, which requires environmental control and life support technologies. This Contractor Report (CR) describes the development and evaluation of an Air Revitalization System, modeling and simulation of the components, and integrated hardware testing with the goal of better understanding the inherent capabilities and limitations of this closed loop system. Major components integrated and tested included a 4-Bed Modular Sieve, Mechanical Compressor Engineering Development Unit, Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and a Sabatier Engineering and Development Unit. The requisite methodolgy and technical results are contained in this CR.
A mathematical model was developed for simulating the steady state performance in electrochemical CO2 concentrators which utilize (NMe4)2 CO3 (aq.) electrolyte. This electrolyte, which accommodates a wide range of air relative humidity, is most suitable for one-man air revitalization systems. The model is based on the solution of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations derived from mass transport and rate equations for the processes which take place in the cell. The boundary conditions are obtained by solving the mass and energy transport equations. A shooting method is used to solve the differential equations.
Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.
Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.
Full Text Available Urban expansion is considered as one of the most important problems in several developing countries. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR is the urbanized and agglomerated area of Bangkok Metropolis (BM and its vicinity, which confronts the expansion problem from the center of the city. Landsat images of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2011 were used to detect the land use and land cover (LULC changes. The demographic and economic data together with corresponding maps were used to determine the driving factors for land conversions. This study applied Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain (MLP-MC to model LULC and urban expansions. The performance of the CA-MC and MLP-MC yielded more than 90% overall accuracy to predict the LULC, especially the MLP-MC method. Further, the annual population and economic growth rates were considered to produce the land demand for the LULC in 2014 and 2035 using the statistical extrapolation and system dynamics (SD. It was evident that the simulated map in 2014 resulting from the SD yielded the highest accuracy. Therefore, this study applied the SD method to generate the land demand for simulating LULC in 2035. The outcome showed that urban occupied the land around a half of the BMR.
Abouzar Fathi; Ali Fathi; Mansour Parvin; Noushin Dolatyari
Increasing concerns about global warming and climate change in recent is more serious. Weather problems, along with the accumulation of dirt on the economy and other aspects of human life, they affect. Urban growth and urbanization, the most striking feature of social change - the economy, has been in the last two centuries. Presently the growth of cities, especially in developing countries under led to urbanization, coupled with the loss of environmental and human ecology is. In this period,...
To understand the differences between urban and rural breast-fed infants' growth patterns. In economically better regions of six provinces in China, 1147 urban and 1058 rural subjects were recruited by the project respectively, and their longitudinal weight, length, and head circumference were measured from birth to 12 months old. The monitoring frequency was 16 times in total. Analysis was conducted to compare the growth patterns between 497 of urban and 764 of rural subjects meeting the breast-fed babies definition by WHO. During the first year after birth, urban breast-feeding boys' weight, length, head circumference increased by 7.13 kg, 26.9 cm, and 12.4 cm respectively, and 6.60 kg, 26.1 cm, and 11.9 cm for girls. The corresponding values of rural population were 6.70 kg, 25.7 cm and 12.4 cm for boys, and 6.20 kg, 25.0 cm, and 11.8 cm for girls respectively. The gaps existed in the three physical indexes between urban and rural breastfeeding babies were 110 - 480 g, 1.2 - 2.0 cm and 0.1 - 0.6 cm for boys, and 200 - 510 g, 1.3 - 1.7 cm, and 0.4 - 0.6 cm for girls. In about 50% of monitoring age points, monthly increments of urban boy's weight presented higher than rural samples, but only 17% for girl's weight, and boy/girl's length and head circumference. The urban-rural regional gaps in breast-fed infants' physical development were not optimistic and seemed to be wider in boys than in girls. There are still large room for improvement for growth of infants in rural areas.
Mansaray, Lamin R; Huang, Jingfeng; Kamara, Alimamy A
Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone has experienced vast land-cover changes over the past three decades. In Sierra Leone, however, availability of updated land-cover data is still a problem even for environmental managers. This study was therefore, conducted to provide up-to-date land-cover data for Freetown. Multi-temporal Landsat data at 1986, 2001, and 2015 were obtained, and a maximum likelihood supervised classification was employed. Eight land-cover classes or categories were recognized as follows: water, wetland, built-up, dense forest, sparse forest, grassland, barren, and mangrove. Land-cover changes were mapped via post-classification change detection. The persistence, gain, and loss of each land-cover class, and selected land conversions were also quantified. An overall classification accuracy of 87.3 % and a Kappa statistic of 0.85 were obtained for the 2015 map. From 1986 to 2015, water, built-up, grassland, and barren had net gains, whereas forests, wetlands, and mangrove had net loses. Conversion analyses among forests, grassland, and built-up show that built-up had targeted grassland and avoided forests. This study also revealed that, the overall land-cover change at 2001-2015 was higher (28.5 %) than that recorded at 1986-2001 (20.9 %). This is attributable to the population increase in Freetown and the high economic growth and infrastructural development recorded countrywide after the civil war. In view of the rapid land-cover change and its associated environmental impacts, this study recommends the enactment of policies that would strike a balance between urbanization and environmental sustainability in Freetown.
Guzzetta, Giorgio; Trentini, Filippo; Poletti, Piero; Baldacchino, Frederic Alexandre; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Melegaro, Alessia
In the last decades, several European countries where arboviral infections are not endemic have faced outbreaks of diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, initially introduced by infectious travellers from tropical endemic areas and then spread locally via mosquito bites. To keep in check the epidemiological risk, interventions targeted to control vector abundance can be implemented by local authorities. We assessed the epidemiological effectiveness and economic costs and benefits of routine larviciding in European towns with temperate climate, using a mathematical model of Aedes albopictus populations and viral transmission, calibrated on entomological surveillance data collected from ten municipalities in Northern Italy during 2014 and 2015.We found that routine larviciding of public catch basins can limit both the risk of autochthonous transmission and the size of potential epidemics. Ideal larvicide interventions should be timed in such a way to cover the month of July. Optimally timed larviciding can reduce locally transmitted cases of chikungunya by 20% - 33% for a single application (dengue: 18-22%) and up to 43% - 65% if treatment is repeated four times throughout the season (dengue: 31-51%). In larger municipalities (>35,000 inhabitants), the cost of comprehensive larviciding over the whole urban area overcomes potential health benefits related to preventing cases of disease, suggesting the adoption of more localized interventions. Small/medium sized towns with high mosquito abundance will likely have a positive cost-benefit balance. Involvement of private citizens in routine larviciding activities further reduces transmission risks but with disproportionate costs of intervention. International travels and the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases are increasing worldwide, exposing a growing number of European citizens to higher risks of potential outbreaks. Results from this study may support the planning and timing of interventions aimed to reduce the
Caleb Christian Amos
Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH plays an important role in increasing water security for individuals and governments. The demand for tools to enable technical and economic analysis of RWH systems has led to a substantial body of research in the recent past. This paper focuses on the economic aspects of domestic RWH in urban and peri-urban environments. In this regard, key issues are identified and discussed including quality and quantity of harvested water, the water demand profile, the scale of installation, interest rates, the period of analysis, real estate value, and the water-energy-food nexus. Kenya and Australia are used as reference points having different economies and opposing RWH policies. It has been found that the previous studies on financial aspects of RWH systems often had conflicting results. Most of the economic analyses have ignored the full benefits that a RWH system can offer. In view of the varying and conflicting results, there is a need to standardize the methods of economic analysis of RWH systems.
Izzadati Khairuni, Zhilli; Rahmadhani, Fitri
Rapid development Medan city apparently impact on the region as tourism. Medan generally have the potential to large enough in the development of tourism in the center for food. The purpose of revitalization is to change the place to be used for more appropriate functions. What is meant by functions better suit usefulness who do no ask an abrupt change or that is just minimize the negative effects. Medan city is one of the city famous in culinary tour. One of the typical culinary attractions in Medan city located in Pagaruyung street. Here sold various culinary existing in Medan city. Pagaruyung area is a strategic location of culinary because it is in the middle in Medan city. No wonder so easily found from the Sun plaza shopping center, Cambridge hotel, Shri mariamman temple, and also Ghaudiyah mosque. But, as the growth and development, pagaruyung start difficulty.Central growth hawker night with modern facilities are unstoppable more or less succeeded in stealing visitors from young generation. To create the region that remained one of tourim Medan city will be applied concept. Focus research about revitalize the region pagaruyung to improve the potential existing that the process this research to the need for theories from the perspective of discipline architecture.
Millward, Andrew Allan
Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change
Full Text Available The food sovereignty movement initiated in 1996 by a transnational organization of peasants, La Via Campesina, representing 148 organizations from 69 countries, became central to self-determination and decolonial mobilization embodied by Indigenous peoples throughout the world. Utilizing the framework of decolonization and sustainable self-determination, this article analyzes the concept of food sovereignty to articulate an understanding of its potential for action in revitalizing Indigenous food practices and ecological knowledge in the United States and Canada. The food sovereignty movement challenged the hegemony of the globalized, neoliberal, industrial, capital-intensive, corporate-led model of agriculture that created destructive economic policies that marginalized small-scale farmers, removed them from their land, and forced them into the global market economy as wage laborers. Framed within a larger rights discourse, the food sovereignty movement called for the right of all peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food and the right to define their own food and agricultural systems. “Indigenizing” food sovereignty moves beyond a rights based discourse by emphasizing the cultural responsibilities and relationships Indigenous peoples have with their environment and the efforts being made by Indigenous communities to restore these relationships through the revitalization of Indigenous foods and ecological knowledge systems as they assert control over their own foods and practices.
Grant, Theresa L; Edwards, Nancy; Sveistrup, Heidi; Andrew, Caroline; Egan, Mary
Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older people who walk in their neighbourhoods; b) to examine differences among neighbourhood stakeholder key informant perspectives on socio-political processes that shape the walkability of neighbourhood environments. An embedded comparative case study examined differences among four Ottawa neighbourhoods that were purposefully selected to provide contrasts on urban form (inner-urban versus suburban) and SES (higher versus lower). Qualitative data collected from 75 older walkers and 19 neighbourhood key informants, as well as quantitative indicators were compared on the two axes of urban form and SES among the four neighbourhoods. Examining the inter-relationship of neighbourhood SES and urban form characteristics on older people's walking experiences indicated that urban form differences were accentuated positively in higher SES neighbourhoods and negatively in lower SES neighbourhoods. Older people in lower SES neighbourhoods were more affected by traffic hazards and more reliant on public transit compared to their higher SES counterparts. In higher SES neighbourhoods the disadvantages of traffic in the inner-urban neighbourhood and lack of commercial destinations in the suburban neighbourhood were partially offset by other factors including neighbourhood aesthetics. Key informant descriptions of the socio-political process highlighted how lower SES neighbourhoods may face greater challenges in creating walkable places. These differences pertained to the size of neighbourhood associations, relationships with political representatives, accessing information and salient neighbourhood
Yadav, A.; Punia, M.
Economic processes are a manifestation of dynamic complex interdependent array of factors which involves resources, technology and an acting innovative human mind. Production, growth and development are the processes which has vast number of complex drivers, determinants and factors. Innovation, research, diffusion and dissemination are vital instrument of the economic processes of production, which are part of education. Whereas ecological transformations can be corroborated and analyzed by integrating remote sensing based information related to expansion of built-up area beyond city boundaries, extending to peripheries. City reflect economic, environmental, technological and social processes in their change, yet all are in turn profoundly driven by the urban spatial expansion. Metropolitan cities reflects expansion of existing urban and peri-urban areas with a significant socio-ecological transformation in terms of employment, education, and work force participation and land use changes. From the point of view of New Economic Geography (NEG) Theory 2009, the growth dynamic of metros is influenced by their proximity and dependence to a metropolis and the probable spillover effect. Entry point of discussion is the change in production of space in the post globalization era. It attempts to understand city morphology by using remote sensing datasets of LISS IV, IRS-P6 of 5.8 m spatial resolution for 2008 and 2013 and used Gurgaon Municipal Corporation's (GMC) ward boundary to represent socio-political meaning of this expansion and ways of life within the suburb. To understand how city works, detailed analysis related occupational structure, education and informality of ward 31 of Gurgaon and two villages namely Behlpa, Fazalwas and ward 11 of Nuh ( Mewat) along with the village Gabsanpur is attempted as the spatial units of study.
Wendel, Heather E Wright; Downs, Joni A; Mihelcic, James R
Urban green space and water features provide numerous social, environmental, and economic benefits, yet disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. This study examines the link between issues of environmental justice and urban water management to evaluate potential improvements in green space and surface water access through the revitalization of existing engineered water infrastructures, namely stormwater ponds. First, relative access to green space and water features were compared for residents of Tampa, Florida, and an inner-city community of Tampa (East Tampa). Although disparities were not found in overall accessibility between Tampa and East Tampa, inequalities were apparent when quality, diversity, and size of green spaces were considered. East Tampa residents had significantly less access to larger, more desirable spaces and water features. Second, this research explored approaches for improving accessibility to green space and natural water using three integrated stormwater management development scenarios. These scenarios highlighted the ability of enhanced water infrastructures to increase access equality at a variety of spatial scales. Ultimately, the "greening" of gray urban water infrastructures is advocated as a way to address environmental justice issues while also reconnecting residents with issues of urban water management.
Jacobson, Gloria; Davis, Ken; Richardson, Scott; Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Deng, Aijun; Calonder, Gian-Paul; Ruesch, Marc; Lehning, Michael; Bals, Andre; DeCola, Phil; Rella, Chris
Efforts to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions require validation. Atmospheric measurements capture all emissions, and provide a unique and powerful means of continuous validation and feedback. To demonstrate the utility of real time greenhouse gas measurements, in-situ GHG mixing ratio instruments were deployed in Davos, Switzerland to measure emissions from the city before, during and after the World Economic Forum (WEF). Three Instruments were deployed at two separate locations over 3 months (late December 2011 to February 2012). One site was located in the middle of the Davos urban area and a second site was located out of the valley in the surrounding mountains. Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) were measured continuously by Picarro G2401 instruments at both sites. Additionally, a Picarro flux analyzer was deployed in the city to evaluate the inverse fluxes. The mesoscale atmospheric model, WRF nudged to meteorological observations (WRF-FDDA), was used to simulate the transport of GHG over the valley of Davos at 1.3km resolution. A Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) from Sigma Space was deployed to evaluate the simulated planetary boundary layer depth from the WRF-FDDA model. The initial flux estimates for CO2 were constructed based on inventories reported for 2005. CO2 mixing ratio measurements prior to WEF suggest the difference between modeled (real-time) and inventory (annual) emissions to be on the order of +40%. The enhancement is likely due to the increased use of heating fuel in the winter. We present here the temporal variability in the inverse fluxes, which are correlated with a cold wave severely affecting Western Europe during the past winter, as well as changes in anthropogenic activities during the week of the WEF meeting. Also presented are new analyses of composite diurnal cycles of hourly CO/CO2 ratios, which provide additional information on the contributions of traffic relative to heating
Elias Asfaw Zegeye
Full Text Available Economic analyses of patients’ costs are pertinent to improve effective healthcare services including the prevention of mother-to-child HIV/AIDS transmission (PMTCT. This study assessed the direct and non-direct medical costs borne by pregnant women attending PMTCT services in urban (high-HIV prevalence and rural (low-HIV prevalence settings, in Ethiopia. Patient-level direct medical costs and direct non-medical data were collected from HIV-positive pregnant women in six regions. The cost estimation was classified as direct medical (service fee, drugs and laboratory and direct non-medical (food, transportation and accommodation. The mean direct medical expense per patient per year was Ethiopian birr (ETB 746 (US$ 38 in the urban settings, as compared to ETB 368 (US$ 19 in the rural settings. On average, a pregnant woman from urban and rural catchments incurred direct non-medical costs of ETB 6,435 (US$ 327 and ETB 2,154 (US$ 110 per year, respectively. On average, non-medical costs of friend/relative/guardian were ETB 2,595 (US$ 132 and ETB 2,919 (US$ 148.39 in the urban and rural settings, respectively. Although the PMTCT service is provided free of charge, HIV-positive pregnant women and infant pairs still face a substantial amount of out-of-pocket spending due to direct medical and non-medical costs.
Since the second half of the 20th century, urban environment has experienced significant transformation. Splash of interactivity, bottom-up initiations with development of creative sector of city economy and participatory planning, irretrievably changed the attitude to the urban medium. One of the most intensively growing field - creative industry - provided cities with numerous cultural clusters, which boosted urban economic development and social cohesion. Supported in many cases by gentrification and revitalization, these processes brought renovation of brownfield and more comprehensive approaches to urban design. Understanding of the economic benefits made city managers start an active promotion of creative clusters and their intensive integration into urban life, involving the main museums and cultural institutions. Thus, a new type of cultural clusters - Museum Quarter - appeared. Holding the position of cultural flagman in the historical heart of the city, Museum Quarters (MQs) pretend to take on an important role both in urban planning structure and in social life. Furthermore, such role usually has strong influence on the surrounding districts, in a positive or negative way. Although basic principles are still applied for all types of cultural districts, the phenomena of “Museum Quarters” due to the complexity of planning, operating and maintenance issues, stepped far above basic cultural clusters, requiring substantially new attitude to the planning of such urban entities. Five clusters were chosen for this study: MQs in Vienna, Berlin, Amsterdam, Copenhagen and the currently developing project in Budapest. The main purpose of this paper is to elaborate the principles for the practical implementation of Museum Quarters by the definition and classification of their specific urban planning aspects. The complexity of target object - Museum Quarter - and its multi-level relationships with the whole city, require from the research interdisciplinary
Eisler Mark C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human brucellosis has been found to be prevalent in the urban areas of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. A cross-sectional study was designed to generate precise information on the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and risk factors for the disease in its urban and peri-urban dairy farming systems. Results The adjusted herd prevalence of brucellosis was 6.5% (11/177, 95% CI: 3.6%-10.0% and the adjusted individual animal prevalence was 5.0% (21/423, 95% CI: 2.7% - 9.3% based on diagnosis using commercial kits of the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA for Brucella abortus antibodies. Mean within-herd prevalence was found to be 25.9% (95% CI: 9.7% - 53.1% and brucellosis prevalence in an infected herd ranged from 9.1% to 50%. A risk factor could not be identified at the animal level but two risk factors were identified at the herd level: large herd size and history of abortion. The mean number of milking cows in a free-grazing herd (5.0 was significantly larger than a herd with a movement restricted (1.7, p Conclusions Vaccination should be targeted at commercial large-scale farms with free-grazing farming to control brucellosis in cattle in and around Kampala city.
Full Text Available The behavior of academic library users has drastically changed in recent years. Internet search engines have become the preferred tool over the library online public access catalog (OPAC for finding information. Libraries are losing ground to online search engines. In this paper, two aspects of OPAC use are studied: (1 the current OPAC interface and searching capabilities, and (2 the OPAC bibliographic display. The purpose of the study is to find answers to the following questions: Why is the current OPAC ineffective? What can libraries and librarians do to deliver an OPAC that is as good as search engines to better serve our users? Revitalizing the library OPAC is one of the pressing issues that has to be accomplished.
de Gelder, Rianne; Koster, Emmy M; van Buren, Laurens P; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Harrison, Annie; Birt, Christopher A; Verma, Arpana
With a growing proportion of the European population living in urban areas (UAs), exploring health in urban areas becomes increasingly important. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of differences in health and health behaviour between adults living in urban areas (UAs) across Europe. We also explored whether and to what extent such differences can be explained by socio-economic status (SES) and physical or social environment. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, performed between as part of the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) project. Using multi-level logistic regression analysis, UA differences in psychological distress, self-assessed health, overweight and obesity, daily smoking, binge drinking and physical exercise were assessed. Median Odds Ratios (MORs) were calculated to estimate the extent to which the observed variance is attributable to UA, individual-level SES (measured by perceived financial strains, education level and employment status) and/or characteristics of physical and social environment. The dataset included 14 022 respondents in 16 UAs within 9 countries. After correction for age and gender, all MORs, except that for daily smoking, indicated statistically significant UA health differences. SES indicators (partly) explained UA differences in psychological distress, decreasing the MOR from 1.43 [95% credible interval (Cr.I.) 1.27-1.67, baseline model], to 1.25 (95% Cr.I. 1.14-1.40, SES model): a reduction of 42%. Accounting for the quality of green areas reduced the MOR for psychological distress by an additional 40%, to 1.15 (95% Cr.I. 1.05-1.28). Our study showed large differences in health and health behaviour between European UAs. Reducing socio-economic disadvantage and improving the quality of the neighbourhood's green spaces may reduce UA differences in psychological distress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European
Jiang Mei Ming
Full Text Available For ecological economic evaluation based on the unified biophysical matrix this research illustrates an updated emergy synthesis in terms of embodied cosmic exergy instead of embodied solar energy, which successes the foundation of systems ecological theory but changes the starting point for the estimation from simply the sun to the cosmos. According to the modified definition implicating explicit scarcity and strict additivity based on the fundamental thermodynamics laws, the updated emergy approach overcomes the confusable and intractable deficiencies of traditional one and shows firmer theoretical basis as well as better applicability. As a case study for the regional socio-economic ecosystem, a cosmic emergy based ecological economic evaluation of the Beijing urban ecosystem during the period 1978-2004 is presented. The local and external resources supporting the concerned ecosystem are accounted and analyzed in a common unit, i.e., cosmic Joule, according to which a series of indicators are applied to reveal its evolutional characteristics through five aspects as emergy structure, emergy intensity, emergy welfare, environmental impacts, and degree of exploitation and economic efficiency. During the analyzed period, the major emergy source sustaining the operation of the ecosystem had changed from the renewable resources exploited locally to the nonrenewable resources purchased from outside. Emergy intensity for the Beijing urban ecosystem kept rising owing to the continuous investment of resources, which not only improved the living standard but also intensified the environmental pressure. Moreover, the increase of exploitation degree was accompanied with the decline of economic efficiency, while the rising emergy investment ratio implicates that Beijing was at the risks of resources shortage and high dependence on external resources
Cabral, Guilherme G.; Cunha, Eduardo N.; Teixeira, Clovis C. [Companhia de Gas do Estado do RS (SULGAS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
SULGAS has developed more judicious systematics investments analysis in the natural gas distribution plants in urban areas . A survey has been made of the variables that influence this type of investment, identifying the most relevant ones. Spread sheet in platform Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic was elaborated that makes possible the deterministic analysis, sensibility, and risk analysis of the projects, through consolidated indicators usable in economic engineering. The great differentiation of this proposal is the possibility/flexibility of the economic impact analysis that each future customer has in the branch where he is linked. The spread sheet presents graphical platforms in which the schematical drawings of the projects are inserted on satellite photos of the region, making possible the projects architectures visualization in parallel with the economic analysis. This graphical platform is tied with the alternatives selected in the economic analysis, being brought up to date the images in accordance with the projects selected in the spread sheet. The risk analysis are carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation, generating investment return probability from each branch, cell, or customer, depending on the criteria defined in the spread sheet. This makes possible the insertion and economic analysis of the factors that can influence the investments in NG distribution system, becoming an important tool in the decision making. (author)
Coles, Flournoy A., Jr.
This article discusses some of the more important economic problems of minorities in the United States, identifying the economics of minorities with the economics of poverty, discrimination, exploitation, urban life, and alienation. (JM)
Baker, Jimmy G
...). The response rate for the questionnaire was 40.69%, Analysis of collected data revealed that most respondents believe major facility revitalization must occur at WRAMC, staff awareness of the Master Facility Plan is lacking and staff education...
This study is conducted for the Belgian engineering firm CENERGIE, whose main business activities are within the fields of building systems and sustainable buildings. The company wants to change their current design workflows to adapt the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) with Autodesk Revit The research focused on the development of a BIM workflow where no models are exchanged between building partners. The aim of this study was to develop such a Revit BIM workflow for the desig...
Anderson Giovane Sontag
Full Text Available The disposal of solid residues has been a critical factor in urban management. Sanitary landfilling treatment systems predominate, but new alternatives have been developed, supported by high-tech. Nevertheless, financial investment exerts a strong restriction to that choice. Thus, is it economically viable to implement an Alfa equipment to replace sanitary landfills? This study aimed to measure the costs of landfilling and to implement a heat treatment system. The methodology was an applied and exploratory research characterized as a case study in the municipality of Marechal Cândido Rondon, in the State of Paraná. The results demonstrate that such a replacement is not economically viable, and sanitary landfilling is still the chosen method.. The new technology has a great environmental and social potential, essentially in the cities where physical space is very restricted or costly.
Full Text Available Objectives: This article aims to identifying social, cultural, economic, wellbeing, and urban structure needs of Tehran Seniors Association members and recognizing their current conditions in 8 areas with respect to WHO project on an age-friendly city indexes. Methods & Materials: Four hundred members of Tehran Seniors Association who lived in Tehran were selected by random sampling method (276 women and 124 men with the mean age of 63 years to participate in this descriptive-inferential study. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including inferential and descriptive parts. The descriptive part was divided into demographic characteristics with 12 questions and elders’ needs in 8 areas or 75 indexes. Scoring was conducted based on a 1 to 5 scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: In the area of open spaces and buildings, the highest score belonged to “cleanness of public areas” and the lowest score to “providing special services in stores and banks” (mean scores of 2.50 and 1.65, respectively. Regarding transportation area, the highest score went to “appropriate installment of traffic signs at cross-roads” and the lowest score to “seniors specific transportation” (mean scores of 3.03 and 1.58, respectively. Concerning housing, “suitability of interior design” got the highest score and “affordable and adequate housing” got the lowest one (mean scores of 1.93 and 1.51, respectively. Regarding social participation, “allowance of proper time to seniors special occasions” and “aiding elders at risk of social isolation” (mean scores of 2.88 and 2.07, resectively got the maximum and minimum scores. Considering respect and socialization, “positive attitude toward elders in mass media” and “looking for elders’ advices on how to serve them better in commercial centers” (mean scores of 2.84 and1.74, respectively gained the highest and lowest scores, respectively. Concerning
In the past decade, India’s development has featured rapid economic growth and unprecedented urbanization. Using preliminary results from the 2011 Census and recent macro-economic data, this paper analyses the relationship between urbanization and economic development in India. While urbanization is
Using data from the Young Lives younger cohort, we examine the effect of economic shocks on nutritional achievement, schooling and child work of index children (at age 5), controlling for various individual and household characteristics. Shocks that occurred both before and after the child was born
This study investigates the existence of long-run relationship between CO 2 emissions, economic growth, energy use, and urbanization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971-2014. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach with structural breaks, where structural breaks are identified with the recently impulse saturation break tests, is applied to conduct the analysis. The bounds test result supports the existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The existence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis has also been tested. The results reveal the non-validity of the EKC hypothesis for Saudi Arabia as the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and the long run. Moreover, energy use increases pollution both in short and long run in the country. On the contrary, the results show a negative and significant impact of urbanization on carbon emissions in Saudi Arabia, which means that urban development is not an obstacle to the improvement of environmental quality. Consequently, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia should consider the efficiency enhancement, frugality in energy consumption, and especially increase the share of renewable energies in the total energy mix.
Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Destouni, Georgia
More than half of the world's population lives in cities, a proportion expected to increase to two thirds by 2050 (United Nations (UN), 2015). In this study, we investigate the spatial relationships that may exist between income and/or nationality homogeneity/heterogeneity levels of urban populations and their accessibility to local green-blue areas as possible nature-based solutions for sustainable urban design. For this investigation, we consider as a concrete case study the urban region of Stockholm, Sweden, for which we compile and use available land-cover and vegetation density data (the latter in terms of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) in order to identify and assess the spatial distributions of various green-blue area types and aspects. We further combine this data with spatial distribution data for population density, income and nationality, as well as with road-network data for assessing population travel times to nearby green-blue areas within the region. The present study results converge with those of other recent studies in showing large socio-economic-ethnic segregation in the Stockholm region. Moreover, the present data combination and analysis also show large spatial differences in and important socio-economic-ethnic correlations with accessibility to local green areas and nearby water bodies. Specifically, population income and share of Swedish nationals are well correlated in this region, with increases in both of these variables implying greater possibility to choose where to live within the region. The living choices of richer and more homogeneous (primarily Swedish) population parts are then found to be areas with greater local vegetation density (local green areas as identified by high-resolution NDVI data) and greater area extent of nearby water bodies (blue areas). For comparison, no such correlation is found between increased income or Swedish nationality homogeneity and accessibility to nearby forest areas (overall green
Davydova, Tatyana; Zhutaeva, Evgeniya; Dubrovskaya, Tatyana
Article considers the significance of the demographic forecast for the effective operation of the providing system of social and economic development of the urban transport infrastructure. Analysis of the factors which influence on the population of the city of Voronezh was performed and the population forecast for the year 2020 is presented on the basis of the classification by year of birth. Calculation was performed in three variants (with consideration of the use of classification by year of birth) in connection with an impact of modern social and economic situation on the negative tendencies formed in demographic processes. In the basis of variants were grounded different approaches to the dynamics of demographic processes. The main demographic indicators are the number of permanent residents, birth rates, death rates, migration rates. According to the results of the study, population of the urban district of the city of Voronezh is expected to increase in the specified period and migration inflow of the population has a dominant role in the formation in the formation of the number of the city population.
The research focuses on the monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as potential anthropogenic indicators of industrial and urban influences on surface water in poorly gauged transboundary Ukraine/Russia region. This study includes analysis of tracers use for the indication of water pollution events, including controlled and emerging discharges, and discussion of the detection method of these chemicals. The following criteria were proposed for the evaluation of indicators: specificity (physical chemical properties), variability (spatial and temporal) and practicality (capacity of the sampling and analytical techniques). The combination of grab and passive water sampling (i.e. DGT and POCIS) procedure was applied for the determination of dissolved and labile trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diazepam, paracetamol, caffeine, diclofenac and ketoprofen). Samples were analysed using ICP - MS (trace metals) and LC-MS/MS ESI +/- (pharmaceuticals). Our results demonstrate the distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of trace elements distribution along an urban watercourse. Accordingly, two general groups of trace metals have been discriminated: 'stable' (Cd and Cr) and 'time-varying' (Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb). The relationship Cd >> Cu > Ag > Cr ≥ Zn was proposed as an anthropogenic signature of the industrial and urban activities pressuring the environment from point sources (municipal wastewaters) and the group Pb - Ni was discussed as a relevant fingerprint of the economic activity (industry and transport) mainly from non-point sources (run-off, atmospheric depositions, etc.). Pharmaceuticals with contrasting hydro-chemical properties of molecules (water solubility, bioaccumulation, persistence during wastewater treatment processes) were discriminated on conservative, labile and with combined properties in order to provide information on wastewater treatment plant efficiency, punctual events (e.g. accidents on sewage
K. I. Hladka
Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to solve the following tasks: 1 to investigate the possibilities of Autodesk Revit to create parametric objects; 2 to create an information model of the bridge pier with the possibility of changing the model size without changing geometry of the object; 3 to trace the complexity and feasibility of using parametric models when designing the elements of bridges. Methodology. The studies were carried out using spatial modeling in the Autodesk Revit system. The ratio of the parameters of the object was set, the relationship between individual geometric elements was determined and the changes that were made to the model with the change of the specified parameters were checked. Findings. Support model of two types has been created: for railway bridges and for road bridges. Both types of models change the dimensions and the number of constituent elements in accordance with the entered parameters. The performed work confirms the possibility of creating information parametric models of complex form and the expediency of using them in the design of bridges and not only. Originality. Creation of information models is a modern and relevant topic. But both in the literature and in Internet resources, parametrization is considered on the example of simple objects. The model proposed in the article consists of several dependent geometric bodies; therefore, it opens the topic of objects parameterization more fully and in detail, in comparison with the existing sources. As for the creation of parametric models of the bridge elements - such information is not found in the literature, that is, it is proposed for the first time. Practical value. Parametrization of spatial models allows significantly to accelerate and simplify the process of designing any objects due to the use of typical parametric models in many projects. Especially it concerns the design of bridges, since the standard elements for them, such as support or span are not
Full Text Available When looking at the increase of tourism in a destination, it can be said that tourism is a valuable part of the economy. The proposal offered by today’s competitive paradigm: that higher the number of tourists visiting a city, the higher the income, sounds good at first. The increased number of tourist arrivals gives the appearance of increasing desirability of the city. Parallel with the increased tourism activities, new buildings, new lifestyles, foreign capital and new socio-economic relationships appear rapidly and replace the traditional ones. However, there will be a huge amount of social, cultural, economic and environmental problems faced by the local people as well as the tourists the city. Tourism paradox is the name given to the phenomenon where tourism industry destroys natural and cultural environment in a destination that is necessary for tourism activities. On the other hand the balance, which does not change and disturbs the social and economic relations at the destination is called “tourism equinox”. Therefore, spatial reorganization and urban regeneration play a crucial role for the marketing of cities and this transformation action affects all infrastructure facilities, restorations of old buildings, reorganization of historical zones, and revitalizing the architectural style of the cities. New projects and approaches to solve the problems caused by the growth of urban populations and to establish healthy sustainable tourism destinations are becoming more important than ever. Tourism detox is a treatment that is intended to remove harmful substances from these destinations. This paper investigates the influence of tourism paradox and tourism equinox on urban environments in relation to tourism activities and the protection of natural and cultural resources with the help of tourism detox. It primarily relies on qualitative research to understand the main futures of tourism paradox, equinox and detox taking the physical
Full Text Available While the multiple benefits of urban greening are known, implementing green projects in post-industrial urban centers—where economic development, community revitalization and job creation are prioritized—requires accurate data that are relevant to local advocates and decision-makers. Municipal tax rolls are often used to identify vacant properties but are not necessarily up-to-date or do not contain detailed attributes about vacant properties. The Rutgers University Center for Urban Environmental Sustainability (CUES partnered with the City of Trenton and Isles, Inc., a local non-governmental organization (NGO, to conduct a unique smart-phone based city-wide property survey that captured property data not available in the city's tax rolls. Spatial analysis of data was completed and compared to a baseline vacant property survey. Having current and accurate data has empowered Trenton to develop a strategy to redevelop their unproductive tax base, and has given an NGO the tools needed to draft a Master Plan Revision to institutionalize the need for green redevelopment. This paper discusses data collection and analysis methodology and recommendations to “green” the City of Trenton.
Full Text Available The profound economic and social changes that took place during the period of transition from a central-based economy to the market system have deeply marked the evolution of industrial towns, particularly those targeted for heavy industry development between 1950 and 1989. The present paper analyses this model of urban evolution affected by the interference of the political-ideological factor. Three towns, Galaţi, Târgovişte and Oţelu Roşu, in which a strong iron-and-steel industry was planted, have been taken into the study. Galaţi – a large town with complex functions, a regional and crossborder polarization center, was singled out for this type of industry by political decision within the context of the industrialization drive of the 1950s; Târgovişte – an old middle urban center, was pushed into the iron-and-steel route in the 1970-1980 decade. Oţelu Roşu – a small town, has a traditional iron-and-steel industry based on local raw material resources. Relying on historical documents, bibliographical sources and field work, the author correlates urban development evolutions with the industrialization policies, highlighting the causes that have led to the present decline of these towns and the challenges facing the local authorities in revitalizing them in a sustainable manner.
Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant
In this paper an integrated model of the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water within the political divisions in the South Creek catchment of the ‘peri-urban’ region of Western Sydney is presented. This model enables an assessment of the hydrological and economic merits of different water allocation-substitution strategies, both over the whole catchment and in each political region and jurisdiction within it, to be undertaken. Not only are the differences in the water allocated to each region and use revealed, but also the net present values associated with each use within each region. In addition, it is possible to determine measures of equity in water distribution using this approach. It was found that over a period from 2008 to 2031 the South Creek catchment in total would on average use approximately 50,600 ML of potable water a year, the vast majority of this is used in the two urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown. Agricultural water use was also greatest in these two regions. Over this period the allocation system was estimated to have a small net present value of approximately A301 million and the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated to be 1.06. The urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown and the rural region of Hawkesbury were estimated to have returned a net positive benefit of A76 million, A246 million and A39 million (respectively), while water to Liverpool and Camden was delivered at a loss of A7 million and A52 million over the period assessed. It was found that across the catchment a fair degree of both physical and economic equity occurred between regions, with the exception of Liverpool, which was over endowed with water and paid a high cost for it.
Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria
The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.
Yuan, Ye; Luo, Zhiwen; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yaowu; Lin, Yaoyu
China is confronted with serious PM 2.5 pollution, especially in the capital city of Beijing. Exposure to PM 2.5 could lead to various negative health impacts including premature mortality. As people spend most of their time indoors, the indoor exposure to PM 2.5 from both indoor and outdoor origins constitutes the majority of personal exposure to PM 2.5 pollution. Different building interventions have been introduced to mitigate indoor PM 2.5 exposure, but always at the cost of energy expenditure. In this study, the health and economic benefits of different ventilation intervention strategies for reducing indoor PM 2.5 exposure are modeled using a representative urban residence in Beijing, with consideration of different indoor PM 2.5 emission strengths and outdoor pollution. Our modeling results show that the increase of envelope air-tightness can achieve significant economic benefits when indoor PM 2.5 emissions are absent; however, if an indoor PM 2.5 source is present, the benefits only increase slightly in mechanically ventilated buildings, but may show negative benefit without mechanical ventilation. Installing mechanical ventilation in Beijing can achieve annual economic benefits ranging from 200yuan/capita to 800yuan/capita if indoor PM 2.5 sources exist. If there is no indoor emission, the annual benefits above 200yuan/capita can be achieved only when the PM 2.5 filtration efficiency is no urban Beijing will increase the indoor PM 2.5 exposure and result in excess costs to the residents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria
The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.
Full Text Available To improve Chinese cities’ resilience to climate change, the Sponge City Program, which was designed to tackle water pollution, storm water management, and flooding, was initiated in 2014. Being a major policy initiative, the Sponge City Program raises heated discussions among Chinese academics; however, no relevant extensive economic or financial analysis has been conducted. The research carries out an integrated economic and financial analysis on the Sponge City Program from the perspectives of two stakeholders: the government and the project manager. Different stakeholders have unique perspectives on the management of water projects. This study has two parts: economic analysis and financial analysis. The economic analysis is from the government perspective, and considers all the economic, environmental, and social effects. The financial analysis is from the project manager’s perspective, and judges the financial feasibility of projects. Changde city, one of the demo cities of Sponge City Program, is chosen for the research. The results show that from the perspective of the government, the Sponge City Program should be promoted, because most water projects are economically feasible. From the perspective of the project manager, the program should not be invested in, because the water projects are financially infeasible. A more comprehensive and integrated plan for developing and managing the water projects of the Sponge City Program is required. Otherwise, the private sector may not be interested in investing in the water projects, and the water projects may not be operational in the long term.
Urban gardening and agriculture is of increasing interest as a land revitalization option for interim as well as long term use, and is receiving increased attention, funding, and promotiion under EPA's Brownfields land redevelopment efforts. A broad range of state and local gove...
Button, Amy B.; Swerterlitsch, Jeffrey J.
An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In three previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of this technology in a sea-level pressure environment, with simulated and real human metabolic loads, in both open and closed-loop configurations. The test article design was iterated a third time before the latest series of such tests, which was performed in the first half of 2009. The new design incorporates a canister configuration modification for overall unit compactness and reduced pressure drop, as well as a new process flow control valve that incorporates both compressed gas purge and dual-end vacuum desorption capabilities. This newest test article is very similar to the flight article designs. Baseline tests of the new unit were performed to compare its performance to that of the previous test articles. Testing of compressed gas purge operations helped refine launchpad operating condition recommendations developed in earlier testing. Operating conditions used in flight program computer models were tested to validate the model projections. Specific operating conditions that were recommended by the JSC test team based on past test results were also tested for validation. The effects of vacuum regeneration line pressure on resulting cabin conditions was studied for high metabolic load periods, and a maximum pressure is recommended
Full Text Available Directing and concentrating structures are used mainly on water coursers with unstable channel and major sediment transport or in areas with major bank erosion. The main purpose of these structures is to redirect water flow from the stressed and very often eroded bank to the centre of the channel or other parts of the channel, where the water flow may be used e.g. for dispersion of unsuitable deposit before its eventual stabilization by natural succession.Another important goal is to achieve a desired change of the stream channel by using the transporting power of the water flow and targeted depositing of sediment. In the area of the deflecting structure (deflector, so-called hydraulic shadow also appears where sediment deposits. The objective is to achieve depositing of sediments at desired places of the stream.It is possible to design a whole range of suitable or less suitable types of flow deflectors. In our article, we will particularly focus on problems of revitalization of a water course; that is design of structures from biological or biotechnical elements for channel stabilization.
numerous villages that pass trough a crisis of all levels. At the very center of the settlement, there is a protected historical core, which represents a characteristic of a high level of city planning in a village environment. According to the idea of a garden city, the core becomes an initial point of space by which a new dimension of a whole settlement is created. At the same time, applying the idea of a garden city, there is created sustainability and relationship between urban and natural landscapes, which is also specific, improving not only a physical quality of the space, but also its contents and offers, so in that way also the complete socio-economical situation.
Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter
Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.
Musyawaroh, M.; Pitana, T. S.; Masykuri, M.; Nandariyah
Revitalization is a much-needed for a historic kampong as a settlement, place of business, and as tourist destinations. The research was conducted in Kauman as one of the cultural heritage kampong which was formerly as a residence of abdidalemulamaKeraton who also work as batik entrepreneurs. This study aims to formulate a sustainable revitalization step based on the character of the area and the building. Aspects of sustainable revitalization that analyzed are the physical and non-physical condition of the environment. This research is an applied research with qualitative rationalistic approach supported with spatial distribution analysis through satellite imagery and Arch-GIS. The results revealed that sustainable revitalization for Kaumancan be done through: 1) Physical condition of the environment consists of land and building use, green open space, recreational park and sport activities, streets, drainage network, sewer network, the garbage disposal network; 2) Non-physical of the environment consists of economy, heritage socio-cultural, and the engagement of relevant stakeholders. The difference of this study with others is, this study is a continuation of the Kauman revitalization assistance program which involves community participation to produce a more appropriate solution for the problem of kampong.
Hu, Shanlian; Yu, Xin; Chen, Shengdi; Clay, Emilie; Toumi, Mondher; Milea, Dominique
To estimate the clinical and economic benefits of memantine treatment initiated in moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China, compared with initiation in severe AD only. A Markov model with a 5-year time horizon simulated moderate patients' progression through health states. Two groups were compared: patients receiving memantine from the moderate stage (i.e., at model entry), continuing treatment when reaching the severe stage; patients initiating memantine only when they developed severe disease. After 5 years, fewer patients receiving memantine from the moderate stage were severe (49%), dependent (59%) or aggressive (47%) compared with moderate patients who initiated treatment from severe stage only (58, 67 and 55%, respectively). Total cost of care was lower for treatment from moderate stage (67 billion RMB) when compared with treatment from severe stage (73 billion RMB). In China, AD treatment with memantine from the moderate stage could result in substantial cost savings.
SMARTe (Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic) is a web-based decision support tool developed by the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in partnership with the Office of Brownfields and Land Revital...
Maintains that Chinese urbanization is proceeding rapidly in step with population growth and a structural shift in employment patterns. Discusses governmental policies and economic reforms that enhance the urbanization process. Describes four extended metropolitan areas and maintains they will be the models for future urbanization. (CFR)
Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, J.H.; van Marrewijk, J.G.M.
Urbanization is important for economic development. As the largest country in the world in terms of population, China has experienced a remarkable history of urbanization; one 1000 years ago it housed the largest cities in world, it went through a counter-urbanization revolution during the Mao
Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...
Wolfgang G. Stock
Full Text Available Contemporary and future cities are often labeled as "smart cities," "ubiquitous cities," "knowledge cities" and "creative cities." Informational urbanism includes all aspects of information and knowledge with regard to urban regions. "Informational city" is an umbrella term uniting the divergent trends of information-related city research. Informational urbanism is an interdisciplinary endeavor incorporating on the one side computer science and information science and on the other side urbanism, architecture, (city economics, and (city sociology. In our research project on informational cities, we visited more than 40 metropolises and smaller towns all over the world. In this paper, we sketch the theoretical background on a journey from Max Weber to the Internet of Things, introduce our research methods, and describe main results on characteristics of informational cities as prototypical cities of the emerging knowledge society.
Nguyen, Quang Minh; Doan, The Trung; Tran, Minh Tung; Nguyen, Manh Tri; Hoa Ta, Quynh
Developed by Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUD) over a decade ago as one of the pioneering and modelling urban housing projects in Hanoi, Van Quan new town can be regarded as a fairly successful scheme, because it provides people with a better living quality than most of the other new residential quarters planned and built at the same time, and even afterwards. However, the success would be greater, if the project developer paid due attention to some socio-economic aspects of mass housing construction - such as income, education, healthcare and social interaction as well as communication - in one of the city’s fastest-growing and most typical areas characterised with the presence of traditional old villages where a rich rural culture can still be found and should be conserved in the rapid urbanisation and modernisation. Van Quan makes an even more remarkable case study, because there are four villages connected to the site with both similar and different features, rather than the other new towns with only one or two villages nearby. The research results drawn and the lessons learnt from Van Quan will be useful for other projects, as far as a harmony and a sustainable development between the old and the new factors are concerned.
Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette
The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.
Kathleen L. Wolf
Revitalization programs are under way in many inner-city business districts. An urban forestry program can be an important element in creating an appealing consumer environment, yet it may not be considered a priority given that there are often many physical improvements needs. This research evaluated the role of trees in consumer/...
Krofta, Janet; Panshin, Dan
Extension needs to find its future niche in the urban area where people now are with the same success that it currently enjoys in rural areas. Opportunities for extension programing include at-risk youth and families, environmental quality, and community revitalization. (JOW)
Kunc, J.; Navrátil, J.; Tonev, P.; Frantál, Bohumil; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Havlíček, M.; Černík, J.
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 66-77 ISSN 2065-4421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : urban environment * revitalization * perception * Brno * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/1_2014/07_kunc.pdf
Constantine, Kinda; Massoud, May; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem
Population growth and development are associated with increased water demand that often exceeds the capacity of existing resources, resulting in water shortages, particularly in urban areas, where more than 60% of the world's population resides. In many developing communities, shortages often force households to depend on water tankers amongst other potential sources for the delivery of water for domestic and/or potable use. While water tankers have become an integral part of the water supply system in many countries, the sector is often unregulated and operates with little governmental supervision. Users are invariably unaware of the origin or the quality of purchased water. In an effort to better assess this sector, a field survey of water vending wells and tankers coupled with a water quality sampling and analysis program was implemented in a pilot semi-arid urban area (Beirut, Lebanon) to shed light on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the water tanker sector. Total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride (Cl - ), and microbial loads exceeded drinking water quality standards. While TDS and Cl - levels were mostly due to saltwater intrusion in coastal wells, tankers were found to be a significant source of total coliforms. Delivered water costs varied depending on the tanker size, the quality of the distributed water, and pre-treatment used, with a markup of nearly 8-24 folds of the public water supply and an equivalent economic burden of 16% of the average household income excluding environmental externalities of water quality. The study concludes with a management framework towards consumer protection under integrated supply and demand side measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prevalence and socio-economic distribution of eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among South Australian children in urban and rural communities: baseline findings from the OPAL evaluation.
Bell, L; Ullah, S; Olds, T; Magarey, A; Leslie, E; Jones, M; Miller, M; Cobiac, L
To identify current prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of adherence to national diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among Australian primary school children. Cross-sectional survey of children (n = 4637, 9-11 years) participating at baseline in the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) programme evaluation. Self-reported diet, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) behaviours were assessed via questionnaire. Children were classified as meeting or not meeting each guideline (two or more serves of fruit, five or more serves of vegetables, two or less serves of discretionary food, ≥60 min of PA, and ≤2 h of ST per day). Although 65% of children met fruit recommendations, only 22% met vegetable recommendations (17% consumed no vegetables). Approximately one-quarter (28%) of children met discretionary food recommendations. Only 17% of children met the ST recommendations and 33% met PA recommendations. Less than 1% of children met all five recommendations. Rural children were more likely to meet both PA (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.21-1.74, P < 0.001) and ST (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.14-1.66, P < 0.01) recommendations than urban counterparts. Children at least socio-economic disadvantage performed better than those at greatest disadvantage for most behaviours. Improvement in Australian children's diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours, particularly urban children and those at greatest socio-economic disadvantage, is urgently warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação de pacientes submetidos a sessões sequenciais do RevitalVision (RV e relatar seu benefício na melhora da acuidade visual (AV. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com uma amostra de 10 pacientes submetidos a sessões sequenciais do RV. A terapia foi realizada em um ritmo de 3 sessões por semana durante um período de 2 a 3 meses, sendo concluída depois de 20 a 40 sessões. Os principais critérios de inclusão foram pós-cirurgia de catarata (sem complicações com LIO multifocal e até +3,00 D, astigmatismo < -1,00 D, ambliopia, glaucoma, pós-transplante de córnea, síndrome de Axenfeld Rieger, catarata congênita e pós-lasik. RESULTADOS: A amostra de dez pacientes foi composta por 30% do sexo feminino, 70% masculino em uma média de 29 anos e de 38,6 sessões por paciente. Houve significância estatística em relação à AV pré e pós as sessões sequenciais do RV (p = 0,0135, assim como melhora da sensibilidade ao contraste. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se melhora da AV e da sensibilidade ao contraste nos pacientes submetidos após as sessões do RV.
Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.
Full Text Available Since early in 2006, the republic of Bolivia has been ruled by the first indigenous president in that country’s history: the Aymara Evo Morales, union leader and first name in the ballot of the so-called “Movement for Socialism” (MAS. His political rise, electoral victory and government program have drawn considerable attention from international mass media and been the subject of valuable political and sociological analyses. From the perspective of comparative anthropology, the process can be understood as an instance, in the Andean cultural context, of what Anthony Wallace called a “revitalization movement,” triggered by the convergence, at a juncture of crisis begun in 1997, of a number of historical conditions of variable duration in Bolivia as a national project.
Desde comienzos de 2006, la república de Bolivia cuenta con el primer presidente indígena de su historia: el aymara Evo Morales, dirigente sindical y cabeza de lista del llamado “Movimiento al Socialismo” (MAS. Su ascensión política, victoria electoral y programa de gobierno han llamado mucho la atención de los medios informativos internacionales y han sido objeto de valiosos análisis políticos y sociológicos. Desde la perspectiva de una antropología comparada, el proceso se ajusta bien, en el contexto cultural andino, a lo que Anthony Wallace llamara un “movimiento de revitalización”, desencadenado por la convergencia, en un periodo de crisis iniciado en 1997, de varias condiciones estructurales de duración histórica variable en Bolivia como proyecto nacional.
Nysmith, C. Robert
During the last decade, the United States has lost competitive stature in the world. Challenged daily by a technically sophisticated and vitalized global economy, industry and Government are examining quality and productivity initiatives with which to meet the foreign competitive challenge. At stake are our quality of life and our standard of living for the remainder of this century and beyond. Being competitive is an ongoing process, tuned to an awareness and understanding of the dynamics of the world marketplace and to the changing nature of the work environment. Solutions to America's quality and productivity problems do not exist independently within any organization or industry or at any given level of society. Success depends on commitment, partnership, meshing of goals and responsibilities, mutual respect and understanding, and a desire to be first. A change in organizational management culture is required. Traditional authoritarian management practices must give way to enlightened leadership initiatives that stress employee involvement and participation. There must be a lessening of adversarial relationships between management and labor and between industry and Government. Quality and productivity are understood to be the end result of an integrated process which begins with vigorous, committed leadership and ends with a satisfied customer. The essential elements in the revitalization process are organized in this report into seven strategies which represent the major findings of the Second NASA Symposium on Quality and Productivity. Each strategy is then broken down into its principal themes which are presented as recommendations. No one strategy can stand apart from any other; all are interrelated and work together.
Evelyn Gordon, RPN, Reg. Fam. Ther. & Sup. (FTAI, MSc, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Rates of suicide and suicidality have risen in many countries in recent years and in Ireland this trend has been particularly evident among young men (NOSP, 2005, focusing attention on how best to respond to this group. Although mental health professionals have been identified as a key group to respond to the suicidal person, it has been suggested that they are ill-prepared for working in this area (Maltsberger & Goldblatt, 1996; Ting et al., 2006; Cutcliffe & Stevenson, 2007. This study aimed to address these issues by developing a theoretical understanding of suicidality among young men to inform professional practice. Using Classic Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with 17 young men who had been suicidal and had been in contact with the mental health services. The substantive theory that emerged, re-vitalizing worthiness in overcoming suicidality, describes the psychosocial process that young men go through to resolve their main concern, which centres on their painful pull between life and death. Overcoming suicidality involves moving from a death orientation to a life orientation while incorporating the inevitability of death into their new sense of being. This transition entails identity re-configuration whereby young men emerge as individuals of value who are deserving of life. The process is influenced significantly by personal insights and interpersonal interactions that influence their suicide trajectories and life pathways. The theory contributes to the fields of suicidology and mental health by providing a theoretical understanding of overcoming suicidality and identifying professional and social practices that facilitate and impede this process.
Anwar; Suardika, I. Ketut; Mursidin, T.; Suleiman, Abdul Rauf; Syukur, Muhammad
The aims of the research are (1) to identify types of character through "kalosara" revitalization as an ethno-pedagogical media in social sciences (IPS) learning at junior high school (SMP), (2) to develop strategy of "kalosara" revitalization as an ethno-pedagogical media in the development of characters of students, and (3)…
Full Text Available Revit è il software di Autodesk destinato al mondo delle costruzioni, che permette ad architetti, progettisti e ingegneri di produrre e documentare in maniera coerente e coordinata un edificio, dalla fase concettuale alla realizzazione esecutiva. In questo contributo verranno analizzate le peculiarità che fanno di Revit un modellatore B.I.M., attraverso cui è possibile generare il modello virtuale di una costruzione per mezzo di “elementi intelligenti” che interagiscono con l’ambiente di progetto. La maturità raggiunta da Revit negli ultimi anni ha permesso ad un numero sempre maggiore di studi professionali di abbandonare ambienti CAD più generalisti, paragonabili ai classici tecnigrafi tradizionali, in favore di un contesto integrato che agevola l’interscambio informativo tra le discipline coinvolte nel processo edilizio, seppure con alcune criticità ancora da superare.
Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir
In recent years universal health coverage has become an important issue in developing countries. Successful introduction of such a social security system requires knowledge of the relationship between socio-economic status and usage of health care services. This paper examines this relationship, and analyzes the impact of introducing health insurance into the model, using data for India, a major developing country with poor health outcomes. In contrast to similar works undertaken for develope...
Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie
In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.
Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie
In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305
Full Text Available In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the
Newman, S L; Gowland, R L
The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sustainable urban planning and development requires not only a fast-growing economic growth and modernity, but also social equity and environmental sustainability. Meanwhile, the global goals of sustainable development have fascinatingly set a promising urban development future by enhancing ecology based pro-poor policy program. Apparently, pro-poor development agenda has led to the notion of pro-poor tourism as part of urban development strategies on poverty alleviation. This research presents Jakarta Hidden Tour and Kampung Warna-warni as certain cases of pro-poor tourism in Indonesia. By the emergence of criticism on “pro-growth” paradigm, the critical analysis of this research focuses on the scenario of sustainable pro-poor tourism through eco-cultural based Kampung-Tour development. In accordance, debates and dilemma have been continuously arising as pros and cons regarding the ethical issues of poverty alleviation based Kampung-Tour development. Nevertheless, this paper tries to redefine Slum Kampung as potential; the writer wildly offers a concept of poverty alleviation by reinventing pro-poor tourism strategy; revitalizing slum site to eco-cultural based pro-poor tourism development as an embodiment of a sustainable urban development. By holding system thinking analysis as research method, sustainable pro-poor tourism highlights the urgency community based tourism and eco-tourism so that poverty alleviation based tourism can be tangibly perceived by the poor. In this sense, good local governance and public private partnership must be enhanced, it is due to, like any other development projects; sustainable pro-poor tourism needs a strong political commitment to alleviate urban poverty, as well as to pursue a better future of sustainable nation.
Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros
During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents’ health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers’ properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers. PMID:28859121
Wright, Sarah E.; Hansen, Scott W.
In any human spaceflight mission, a number of Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies work together to provide the conditions astronauts need to live healthily, productively, and comfortably in space. In a long-duration mission, many of these ECLSS technologies may use materials supplied by In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), introducing more interactions between systems. The Human Exploration Spacecraft Test-bed for Integration & Advancement (HESTIA) Project aims to create a test-bed to evaluate ECLSS and ISRU technologies and how they interact in a high-fidelity, closed-loop, human-rated analog habitat. Air purity and conditioning are essential components within any ECLSS and for HESTIA's first test they were achieved with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) described below. The ARS provided four essential functions to the test-bed chamber: cooling the air, removing humidity from the air, removing trace contaminants, and scrubbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. In this case, the oxygen supply function was provided by ISRU. In the current configuration, the ARS is a collection of different subsystems. A fan circulates the air, while a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) pulls humidity out of the air. A Trace Contaminant Removal System (TCRS) filters the air of potentially harmful contaminants. Lastly, a Reactive Plastic Lithium Hydroxide (RP-LiOH) unit removes CO2 from the breathing air. During the HESTIA Phase I test in September 2015, the ARS and its individual components each functioned as expected, although further analysis is underway. During the Phase I testing and in prior bench-top tests, the energy balance of heat removed by the CHX was not equal to the cooling it received. This indicated possible instrument error and therefore recalibration of the instruments and follow-up testing is planned in 2016 to address the issue. The ARS was tested in conjunction with two other systems: the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) and the
A Gestão da Noite Urbana Carioca: entre discursos sobre ordem urbana e práticas socioeconômicas / Urban Night Policies in Rio de Janeiro: between discourses of urban order and socio-economic practices
Marcos Paulo Ferreira de Góis
Full Text Available This article deals with some concerns about the Rio de Janeiro’s urban nightlife in the last thirty years. In that way, we discuss the idea of urban night and nighttime-economy through urban plans, projects and policies. Preliminary conclusions points out that planners and social scientists are overthinking about urban centers when they are looking for nightlife activities. So we propose a decentered view about urban night. It is especially true when we argue about the appropriation of public spaces at night, which has been put aside in urban planning initiatives.
Full Text Available Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in cities that are rapidly losing population, so-called shrinking cities. This is becoming a global phenomenon, with shrinking cities found on every continent. The decline has been attributed variously to changing demographics, suburbanization, postsocialist transformation and deindustrialization. We are just beginning to develop approaches to dealing with shrinkage and its consequences – vacancy, abandonment, and limited public and private resources. However, there is currently little faith in the ability of design-related disciplines to deal with shrinking cities. Some authors argue that disciplines such as architecture, urban design and urban planning have always planned for growth and have reached their limits when dealing with shrinking cities (Oswalt, 2006. Still others suggest that restructuring should be seen as an opportunity (Vey, 2007. This paper challenges the first view and responds to the second by suggesting that design education can and must respond to these new realities. It critically examines a collaborative urban design studio that was part of an attempt to transform a part of a shrinking city in the American ‘rustbelt.’ The city, once a flourishing manufacturing center, is now facing steep economic decline along with the decline of the auto industry. It is also home to a university that is beginning efforts to revitalize neighborhoods adjacent to the campus. The studio, which brought together architecture and urban planning students from two different universities to work on a section of the city including the campus area, suggests possibilities for preparing students to work in an environment where economic growth is no longer the norm. The following lessons emerged: 1 In a shrinking city, urban designers may need to focus less on designing the solids and more on meeting the challenges of the voids. 2 In spite of urban design’s historical bias towards
Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa
The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (χ(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p < 0.05), geographical site (χ(2) = 7.41, df = 2, p < 0.05), gender (χ(2) = 33.10, df = 1, p < 0.0005), household food insecurity (χ(2) = 4.77, df = 1, p < 0.05), cooking with cast iron pots (χ(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p < 0.05) and availability of perceived 'wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (χ(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with HIV-status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that
During the European Council at Hampton Court (October 2005), the European Heads of State or Government expressed the desire to see Europe's energy policy revitalized, given the new and increasingly tough challenges facing Europe and the world today, in particular concerning energy security on the one hand, and the need to combat climate change on the other. These guidelines were confirmed and clarified by the European Council on 15 and 16 December 2005, which particularly 'stressed the importance of an integrated approach to climate change, energy and competitiveness objectives, and underlined the fact that strategies to invest in cleaner and more sustainable energy, both within the EU and more widely, can support a range of policy objectives, including energy security, competitiveness, employment, air quality and reduced greenhouse gas emissions'. To make a contribution to the debate around these strategic questions ongoing in many arenas, and pending the publication of new documents announced by the Commission and the Presidency of the Council concerning European energy policy, France wishes to make known its point of view and propose areas for action in order to promote solutions to encourage the creation of safer and more sustainable energy systems both within the EU and with our partners, which would be accessible to all. This involves: - guaranteeing that the energy we produce, import and consume for our economic and social development remains available and economically accessible to all, both today and in the future; - progressing towards sustainable use of energy in that it must take account of environmental impacts and the depletion of fossil resources; - developing employment by promoting energy efficiency, renewable energies and other low greenhouse gas emitting technologies. After a reminder of the context and stakes (part 1), suggestions are made with regard to policies (part 2) and means, concerning the various types of consumption on the energy
Full Text Available This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built environment characteristics. It then explores how the built environment defines the affordances of urban areas for travelling by particular modes of transport, i.e. its walk-ability, cycleability, drive-ability and transit-ability, by developing a typology of what I call their ‘urban modality’. And finally the work combines this typology with the socio-economic characteristics of urban areas to determine their sustainable mobility potential and performance. It focuses on the case of the Randstad region of the Netherlands and its VINEX neighbourhoods, which are an emblematic example of new urban areas created under a policy programme with sustainable mobility objectives. A key stance in this work is the understanding that the location of an urban area in the region can be indicative of its population’s travel patterns, because the built environment (infrastructural and socio-economic characteristics are interrelated and present strong regional spatial patterns. What types of urban areas support sustainable travel patterns, and what are their spatial characteristics? How do new neighbourhoods compare to the best performing urban areas, and to other areas of the same ‘modality’ type? These are some of the questions addressed in this study. There are two main contributions of this research: the methods for building and analysing integrated multimodal network models, and the framework for contextual performance evaluation using urban area typologies. The
Many educators have sung the praises of Indian Education for All, Montana's constitutional mandate, and heard the successes of Montana's Indigenous language revitalization efforts which reverberate around the globe. Teaching Indigenous languages is especially, challenging since there are limited numbers of fluent speakers and scarce resources…
Sooi Beng Tan
Full Text Available Beginning with a short overview of the strategies and activities in applied ethnomusicology in Southeast Asia, this paper focuses on the development of a socially engaged approach to empower young people in Malaysia to address two concerns: revitalizing traditions and bridging cultural barriers in a multiethnic and multireligious society where tensions often occur.
Hornberger, Nancy H.
This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language…
A new transition course centered on complex topics would help in revitalizing complex analysis in two ways: first, provide early exposure to complex functions, sparking greater interest in the complex analysis course; second, create extra time in the complex analysis course by eliminating the "complex precalculus" part of the course. In…
The issue of the Smart Moves in Superfund bulletin series provides an update on the revitalization effort, highlighting National Priorities List (NPL) construction completions, accelerating cleanup, the Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model, risk assessment/risk management, contracts management, enforcement policy/equity, interagency cooperation, public forms, and state meetings
... sizeable portions of their audiences in the evening hours, and still others can provide no protected..., can block AM signals, hindering AM reception in urban areas where such structures are prevalent. Third... license ``should ensure sufficient flexibility in siting facilities and reaching target audiences...
In the past decade, India's development has featured rapid economic growth and unprecedented urbanization. Using preliminary results from the 2011 Census and recent macro-economic data, the paper by a noted EU-based specialist analyzes the relationship between urbanization and economic development
Full Text Available Sustainable Forest Management (SFM should be able to produce an optimal level of bundle of Ecosystem Services (ES, thus ensuring more resilient forest ecosystems also creating benefits for local population and human well-being. Yet, choosing between alternative forest management practices is not straightforward as it necessarily involves ES trade-offs. Forest management decisions have to reconcile the socio-economic and ecological contributions of forest ecosystems by fostering a synergistic relation between multiple ES while lowering ES trade-offs. The aim of the study is to analyze different forest management practices (selective and traditional thinning in black pine peri-urban forest in Central Italy, by investigating their contribution in terms of provisioning (wood production, cultural (recreational benefits, regulating (climate change mitigation ES. For each management option was performed: (1 the biophysical assessment of selected ES by using primary data and calculating indicators for wood production with special regard to biomass for energy use (living trees and deadwood volume harvested, recreational benefits (tourists’ preferences for each forest management practice, climate change mitigation (carbon sequestration in above-ground and below-ground biomass, and (2 the economic valuation of wood production, recreational benefits and climate change mitigation ES using direct and indirect methods (environmental evaluation techniques. The results show that the effects of the selective thinning on ES is higher that the effects of the traditional thinning. The economic value of the three ES provided by traditional and selective thinning are respectively: bioenergy production 154.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 223.3 € ha-1 yr-1; recreational benefits 193.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 231.9 € ha-1 yr-1; carbon sequestration 29.0 € ha-1 yr-1and 36.2 € ha-1 yr-1. The integrated (biophysical and economic assessment of ES in addition to the trade
Rissel, Chris; Greaves, Stephen; Wen, Li Ming; Capon, Anthony; Crane, Melanie; Standen, Chris
There are repeated calls to build better cycling paths in Australian cities if the proportion of people cycling is to increase. Yet the full range of transport, health, environmental and economic impacts of new cycling infrastructure and the extent to which observed changes are sustained is not well understood. The City of Sydney is currently building a new bicycle network, which includes a new bicycle path separated from road traffic in the south Sydney area. This protocol paper describes a comprehensive method to evaluate this new cycling infrastructure. A cohort of residents within two kilometres of the new bicycle path will be surveyed at baseline before a new section of bicycle path is built, and again 12 and 24 months later to assess changes in travel behaviour, sense of community, quality of life and health behaviours. Residents in a comparable area of Sydney that will not get a new separated bike path will act as a comparison group. At baseline a sub-set of residents who volunteer will also take a small GPS device with them for one week to assess travel behaviour. This research should contribute to the advancement in evaluation and appraisal methods for cycling projects.
Lara-Santillán, Pedro M.; Mendoza-Villena, Montserrat; Fernández-Jiménez, L. Alfredo; Mañana-Canteli, Mario
This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC) in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economic crisis (2008–2013). This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002–2012) with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis). These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base) date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.). The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period. PMID:24895677
Pedro M. Lara-Santillán
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economic crisis (2008–2013. This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002–2012 with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis. These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.. The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period.
Caves, Roger W.
This introductory text presents a collection of articles from urban-studies journals to introduce undergraduate students to the interdisciplinary field of urban studies. The book is divided into 9 parts as follows: Part 1: Cities and Urbanism; part 2: Urban History; part 3: Urban Policy; part 4: Economic Development; part 5: Community Services and…
Kwok, R Y
The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified.
Full Text Available Service-learning classes, because they emphasize the creation of product that has value outside the confines of the college classroom, offer students an experience in professional formation, a practice that may prove anathema to the ethos of “service.” The desire to counteract this individualistic attitude has led instructors to promulgate an activist agenda within their classrooms, teaching students to critique hierarchical power structures, redress social inequities, or challenge lines of societal exclusion. And yet, such practitioners repeatedly acknowledge the difficulty of this instructional aim and attest to the students’ inability to envision themselves as advocates for societal change. I hold that this objective of transforming students into activists based on the experience of service-learning classes may not be feasible due the economic dynamic of a college classroom, where students pay tuition for their education and engage in work that is assessed and evaluated. Consequently, rather than create service-learning projects around theoretical positions of dissent and critique, I have designed a service-learning class on the topic of urban revitalization that involves students in promotional and collaborative partnerships with non-profit organizations in town. In other words, by tapping into a pragmatic, national movement such as urban renewal, I have aimed to raise the students’ awareness of how they might become agents of change and how their particular skill set of writing could be of service to the community. Drawing upon my experiences with students in a Business and Professional Writing class, I discuss specific readings and writing assignments in this article, chiefly the writing products that were commissioned by different non-profit groups in town. The discussion examines some of the theoretical implications behind reinforcing college students’ awareness of civic commitment while developing their written and rhetorical
Full Text Available In the wake of post-Soviet privatization, Vilnius has embraced westernized models for growth and development. The city is changing rapidly in a backlash against Soviet planning practice and with an influx of funding from the European Union and private investment. City plans aim for sustainable growth and development while tackling the revitalization of Soviet-era residential districts and control of suburban sprawl. This paper examines how planning efforts in Vilnius can benefit from the principles of New Urbanism as the reach of these popular American planning fundamentals provide convenient remedies to challenges in the redeveloping city.Article in English
Heloísa Helena Couto
Full Text Available Indiscriminate clandestine depositions of construction wastes have produced enormous and irreparable damage to the environment, causing pollution of public urban areas, shortening the landfills' life cycle, promoting sedimentation of sub-watersheds and burden on public coffers. The object of this study is the management to deal with demolition wastes using them on residential interventions of urban cluster. This study aims to show the epistemological interfaces in Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary approaches of the object of study proposed. Based on the epistemology and on the concepts of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity, we'll seek to identify the disciplines and their interfaces with the object, offering a brief background on sustainability and economic development, materials, construction waste, social relations. Recycling construction waste can generate social inclusion programs by employing and training disqualified human resources as well as enabling automanagement.
The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European
Laursen, Lea Louise Holst
Due to the economical and political changes marked by globalization, neo-liberalism and, post-industrialism a changed spatial configuration is emerging in which an increased division is taking place, into on the one hand, economical and demographical growing urban areas, where the urban fabric...... is being concentrated, and on the other, into declining urban areas that experience a dilution of the urban fabric and a de-concentration of people and capital. This gives an uneven spatial geography where some places are becoming nodal points in the global society and others are left behind. But the urban...... situation of concentration and de-concentration is also closely connected where there is a dynamic relation between the two. Decline might in some cases even be seen as an aspect of growth, where the growth of some places influence the decline in others. With this approach the urban fabric can, therefore...
1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized
Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local
Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.; Suprapti
Rice barns have been developed in some areas in Central Java, but several problems seem to appear, leading to nonoptimal functions of nonactive food barns. The present article aims to examine revitalization of food barns through systematic, integrated, and sustainable empowerment. The research design is exploratory research to generate data that are in-depth qualitative and quantitative. Survey was applied in four regencies including Wonogiri, Purworejo, Temanggung, and Batang. Key informants comprise caretakers of food barns, village apparatus, public figures, and Food Security Office apparatus. The research results revealed that the food barns have not been managed in professional manners. Active roles of all members and caretakers, village government, and Food Security Agency are, therefore, required in revitalizing the food barns. In order to perform social functions well, the food barns should be profit-oriented to achieve sustainability.
Gendron, Fidji; Hancherow, Anna; Norton, Ashley
The project discussed in this paper was designed to expand research and instigate revitalization of Indigenous food networks in Saskatchewan, Canada, by exploring the current state of local Indigenous food networks, creating a Facebook page, organizing volunteer opportunities and surveying workshop participants regarding their knowledge and interest in Indigenous foods. The survey included Likert scale questions and qualitative questions. Project activities and survey results are discussed using statistical and qualitative analysis of the themes. Results indicate that participants are very interested in learning more about, and having greater access to, traditional foods and suggest that supporting Indigenous food networks may be an appropriate response to food insecurity in communities. Elders and community members are vital players in Indigenous foods exploration and revitalization in Saskatchewan by passing on traditional education. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of revitalized units in HPP Zvornik for islanding, with proposed parameters and characteristics. For the selected scenario and specific disturbances, dynamic response of aggregates have been identified for sufficiently long period, by using the computer program Primcont. Achieved results show the ability of HPP Zvornik islanding, for one scenario considered. However, the complexity of this problem requires its general quantitative treatment, which was emphasized at the end of the paper.
Graf, John; Brennecke, Joan; Weislogel, Mark
Carbon Dioxide removal systems on submarines are compact and reliable. They use solubility chemistry. They spray a Carbon Dioxide adsorbing chemical directly into the air stream, and allow the liquid to settle. Carbon Dioxide removal systems on ISS are large and need repair. They use adsorption chemistry. They force air through a bed packed with granular zeolite, and heat the bed to desorb the Carbon Dioxide. The thermal cycles cause the zeolite to dust. New advances in additive manufacturing, and a better understanding of uid behavior in microgravity make it possible to expose a liquid directly to air in a microgravity environment. It is now practical to use submarine style solubility chemistry for atmosphere revitalization in space. It is now possible to develop space systems that achieve submarine levels of reliability. New developments in Ionic Liquid research make it possible to match the solubility performance characteristics of MEA used on submarines - with Ionic Liquids that do not release chemical vapors into the air. "Thirsty Walls" provide gentle, passive contact between ventilation air and Air Revitalization functions of temperature control, relative humidity control, and Carbon Dioxide removal. "Thirsty Walls" eliminates the need of large blowers and compressors that need to force air at high velocities through restrictive Air Revitalization hardware.
Full Text Available This article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labor. The main question in this discussion is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labor movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization. This question also relates to discussions of changes in division of work, the concept of work, working class, commodification, decommodification, and new centers of global production—all related to different paradigms or new concepts. The reason or need for reconceptualizing comes from the great transformation of capitalism in forms of neoliberal globalization, in a different direction than predicted by Polanyi. That is, instead of increased public sector decommodification (not profit- or market-oriented production and national regulation, embedding capitalist markets, as seen after 1945, the last three decades have witnessed a countertransformation and large-scale recommodification by privatizing, disembedding, and deregulating global markets. As a consequence, inequality in income and working life conditions has increased in most countries and been used to press trade unions. Western industrial unions have been declining as many industries and labor-intensive, low-paid jobs moved to developing countries. Most blue-collar jobs are now in Asia, especially China, with about one-third of its employment blue collars. Is the center of global capital-labor contradictions and dynamics moving to the South, with a possibility of a new revitalization of labor and international solidarity? We discuss different optimistic and pessimistic views on a possible international revitalization of labor.
Cole, Scott; Lindhjem, Henrik; Zandersen, Marianne
the associated nonmarket welfare benefits. The study stresses the need to collect user data to better understand visitation patterns, which can be combined with valuation methods to provide evidence of economic benefits associated with e.g., hiking, cycling, skiing, paddling and other recreation activities. Once......The Nordic countries continue to experience growth of urban areas, which provides benefits like economic growth, but also imposes economic costs in terms of reduced ecosystem services. This report focuses on urban nature recreation and highlights economic methods and data that can help capture...... these benefits are visible, decision-makers will have a better basis to balance economic growth with the environmental costs it imposes on urban ecosystem services....
Steven W. Burr
Rural residents' perceptions of tourism and its associated impacts are likely to be important in planning, development, marketing, and operation of existing and future tourism projects. This study examines rural influentials' perceptions of tourism as a tool for economic revitalization in Pennsylvania's rural counties, its present impact, and its...
The subject of this paper is the question of China’s contribution to the establishment of an association of ecological civilizations—as seen from the perspective of a European—given the growing economic, political, and ecological influence that China has in the world today. The question is which...... worldviews? The paper discusses a number of modern interpretations that have argued that some basic concepts in the Chinese tradition are not only congenial with, but even provide fruitful additions to the modern debate about the establishment of cooperative ecological civilizations. In the final part...
The diagnostic imaging department has a pivotal role within the hospital and its pillar services. Understanding this role and also understanding the population served helps to further define and justify the "what" and "why" of the business plan. Understand the market capacity and how market needs can be satisfied. Develop a "go-to-market" strategy, which is the part of the business plan where it is decided how to share that message with the market. In the aftermath of healthcare reform and the economic recession, investing in new imaging technology has never been under greater scrutiny. A three step process for developing support is provided.
Muñoz Gielen, D.
Everyone would agree that urban development, especially when involving the building of residential areas, should be accompanied by sufficient and good public infrastructure and facilities. We all want neighborhoods with the necessary roads, green areas, social facilities, affordable housing and
Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael
The urban environment is usually associated with a variety of activities, which involve matching the demand for goods, commerce, services, rules and laws, culture and intellectual exchange. Proximity and congregation are essential factors when it comes to the economic efficiency of urban society....... However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise...
Simonsen, Paul Erik; Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.
parasite species causing LF in humans, only Wuchereria bancrofti has been documented to have a significant potential for urban transmission. This is primarily because one of its vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus, thrives and proliferates excessively in crowded city areas with poor sanitary, sewerage...... impact. However, with rapid and unplanned growth of cities in the developing world, there is a need also to consider LF transmission and control in urban settings. Here, we review currently available knowledge on urban LF and the environmental and socio-economic basis for its occurrence. Among the three...... and drainage facilities. For this reason, urban LF also often shows a marked focality in distribution, with most cases clustered in areas inhabited by the less privileged city populations. More knowledge on urban LF is needed, in particular on its socio-economic and human behavioural context, on the potential...
Lang, William W.; Beranek, Leo L.
At the present time, our Nation does not have a national noise policy. The Congress attempted to define one with the passage of the Noise Control Act of 1972 as follows: The Congress declares that it is the policy of the United States to promote an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardizes their health and welfare. The Act assigned to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the role of leading Federal agency with the task of coordinating the programs of all Federal agencies relating to noise research and noise control. Ten years later (1982), all funds for noise control were withdrawn from the EPA, and today the Nation is without an effective, overall noise policy. Residual responsibility for the control of environmental and occupational noise currently rests with a dozen agencies of the Federal government, as well as State, municipal, and local authorities. But the activities of these organizations are largely uncoordinated, and the enforcement of existing noise control regulations is at best sporadic, and in some cases nonexistent. To assure our quality of life and to minimize the economic impact of potential trade barriers, a study team is recommending that a national noise policy be developed and then implemented in the immediate future.
Aunsborg, Christian; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj
in more land-based freight and less shipping, amalgamation of industries and re-location due to new localization parameters. As the case may be, these structural alterations bring about more or less abandoned and worn-down areas. Typically, the areas are located centrally in the towns. With that......, they hold a substantial need for redevelopment and revitalization from an urban planning and management point of view as well as a considerable development potential, as the areas generally offer an attractive possibility for building new housing, offices and other white-collar workplaces. However......, redevelopment of these older business areas faces great challenges; especially compared to urban (re)development in general. The property structure and ownerships are often complex and need re-composition to meet new land uses, the soil may be polluted from former activities implying large clearing costs...
The population according to the 1989 census was 21,448,774 inhabitants. This figure shows that on average the total population has been increasing by more than 40% every decade since 1948. As a result the widening gap between fertility and mortality, the population is growing at an accelerated rate. The current official population growth rate figure of 3.4% per annum puts the country among the world's most rapidly growing nations. It is projected that by the year 2010, the population will be about 37.4 million. At present the urban centres with a population size of 2,000 people and above constitute about 18.1% of the total population (Kenya, 1994). Rapid economic growth has led to the development of a number of urban centres as centres of commerce, industry and tourism. Consequently, this has led to rural urban drift. This drift to urban areas causes a number of problems which if unresolved will limit the ability of the urban centres to support their population The rapid increase in urban population causes a shortage of facilities to meet the increasing demand in services such as public transport, water supply, sewage and housing (Ramatullah, 1997: 161-168). Urban Transport acts as catalyst to both urban and national development, by facilitating the movements associated with urban and national Development. They provide a means by which goods and services are made available to industry and consumers, creating opportunity for social and economic interaction and employment. Without urban transport, access to health, education and employment would not be possible. Indeed urban transport is what gives life to urban development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management....
Full Text Available Using a sequential slack-based measure (SSBM model, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal disparities of urban land use economic efficiency (ULUEE under environmental constraints, and its influencing factors in 270 cities across China from 2003–2012. The main results are as follows: (1 The average ULUEE for Chinese cities is only 0.411, and out of the 270 cities, only six cities are always efficient in urban land use in the study period. Most cities have a lot of room to improve the economic output of secondary and tertiary industries, as well as environmental protection work; (2 The eastern region of China enjoys the highest ULUEE, followed by the western and central regions. Super-scale cities show the best performance of all four city scales, followed by large-scale, small-scale and medium-scale cities. Cities with relatively developed economies and less pollutant discharge always have better ULUEE; (3 The results of slack variables analysis show that most cities have problems such as the labor surplus, over-development, excessive pollutant discharge, economic output shortage, and unreasonable use of funds is the most serious one; (4 The regression results of the influencing factors show that improvements of the per capita GDP and land use intensity are helpful to raise ULUEE. The urbanization rate and the proportion of foreign enterprises’ output account for the total output in the secondary and tertiary industries only have the same effect in some regions and city scales. The land management policy and land leasing policy have negative impact on the ULUEE in all the three regions and four city scales; (5 Some targeted policy goals are proposed, including the reduction of surplus labor, and pay more attention to environmental protection. Most importantly, effective implementation of land management policies from the central government, and stopping blind leasing of land to make up the local government’s financial deficit would be very
Phua, Kai Hong
The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618
Rhew, Ray D.
NASA's Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) chartered a team to examine the issues and risks associated with the lack of funding and focus on force measurement over the past several years, focusing specifically on strain-gage balances. NASA partnered with the U.S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) to exploit their combined capabilities and take a national level government view of the problem and established the National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) project. This paper provides an update on the team's status for revitalizing the government's balance capability with respect to designing, fabricating, calibrating, and using the these critical measurement devices.
LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.
Air purification systems are necessary to provide clean air in the closed environments aboard spacecraft. Trace contaminants are removed using adsorption. One major factor concerning the removal of trace contaminants is relative humidity. Water can reduce adsorption capacity and, due to constant fluctuations, its presence is difficult to incorporate into adsorption column designs. The purpose of the research was to allow for better design techniques in trace contaminant adsorption systems, especially for feeds with water present. Experiments and mathematical modeling research on effects of humidity swings on adsorption columns for air revitalization were carried out.
Kensek, K. M.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM. A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study followed a similar procedure by implementing the Revit API directly instead of using Dynamo. Then the process was reversed to demonstrate that not only could data could be sent from sensors to change the 3D model, but changes to parameters of a 3D model could effect a physical model through the use of actuators. It is intended that these virtual/physical prototypes could be used as the basis for testing intelligent façade systems before constructing full size mock-ups.Este estudio investiga la posibilidad de conectar sensores ambientales como de luz, humedad, o dióxido de carbono con un modelo de información de un edificio (siglas BIM en inglés. Un caso base fue creado en Rhino; usando Grasshopper and Firefly, donde un simple modelo digital respondió a niveles de luz detectados por un foto resistor en una tarjeta Arduino. El caso de estudio fue duplicado usando Revit Architecture, una herramienta popular en BIM, y Dynamo, un ambiente de programación gráfica, en una creativa aplicación. Un segundo caso de estudio siguió un procedimiento similar implementando Revit API directamente en vez de usar Dynamo. Entonces el proceso fue revertido para demostrar que no solamente la información podría ser enviada desde sensores para cambiar el modelo tridimensional, pero cambios en los parámetros de un modelo tridimensional podrían afectar un modelo físico mediante el uso de actuadores. Se espera que esos modelos virtuales puedan ser usados como base para
On December 8, 1986, the Committee on Nuclear Safety Research of the National Research Council submitted its report, ''Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research,'' to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Commission and its staff have carefully reviewed the Committee's report and have extensively examined the planning, implementation, and management of NRC research programs in order to respond most effectively to the Committee's recommendations. This report presents the Commission's view of the Committee's report and describes the actions that are under way in response to its recommendations
Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Vasudevan, Anil; Thomas, Tinku; Anand, Sonia S; Desai, Dipika; Gupta, Milan; Menezes, Gladys; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women. Prospective observational cohort. A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State. Pregnant women (n 843) aged 18-40 years recruited in early pregnancy from whom detailed sociodemographic, environmental, anthropometric and dietary intake information was collected. A high proportion of low BMI (32 v. 26 %, Pwomen were younger, had lower body weight, tended to be shorter and less educated. They lived in poor housing conditions, had less access to piped water and good sanitation, used unrefined fuel for cooking and had lower standard of living score. The age (β=0·21, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·29), education level of their spouse (β=1·36, 95 % CI 0·71, 2·71) and fat intake (β=1·24, 95 % CI 0·20, 2·28) were positively associated with BMI in urban women. Our findings indicate that risk factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy are different in rural and urban settings. It is important to study population-specific risk factors in relation to perinatal health.
Shimizu, Emi; Ricucci, Domenico; Albert, Jeffrey; Alobaid, Adel S; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Huang, George T-J; Lin, Louis M
Revitalization procedures have been widely used for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. The treatment procedures appear to be capable of encouraging continued root development and thickening of the canal walls. The nature of tissues formed in the canal space and at the root apex after revitalization has been shown histologically in several animal studies; similar studies in humans were recently reported. A 9-year-old boy had a traumatic injury to his upper anterior teeth. Tooth #9 suffered a complicated crown fracture with a pulp exposure, which was restored with a composite resin. The tooth developed a chronic apical abscess. Revitalization procedures were performed on tooth #9 because it was an immature permanent tooth with an open apex and thin canal walls. Twenty-six months after revitalization, the tooth had a horizontal crown fracture at the cervical level and could not be restored. The tooth was extracted and processed for routine histological and immunohistochemical examination to identify the nature of tissues formed in the canal space. Clinically and radiographically, the revitalization of the present case was successful because of the absence of signs and symptoms and the resolution of periapical lesion as well as thickening of the canal walls and continued root development. The tissue formed in the canal was well-mineralized cementum- or bone-like tissue identified by routine histology and immunohistochemistry. No pulp-like tissue characterized by the presence of polarized odontoblast-like cells aligning dentin-like hard tissue was observed. The tissues formed in the canal of revitalized human tooth are similar to cementum- or bone-like tissue and fibrous connective tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay
Highlights: • Application of a MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents the application of a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methodology to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the assessment of the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems, and on the decoupling of the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps. After a brief description of the methodology, which is presented in detail in Part I of the research, an application to a generic urban area is proposed. Moreover, the influence of energy demand typologies (urban areas energy density, heat consumption patterns, buildings energy efficiency levels, baseline energy costs and available infrastructures) and specific constraints of urban areas (transport logistics, air emission levels, space availability) on the selection of optimal bioenergy pathways for heat and power is assessed, by means of sensitivity analysis. On the basis of these results, broad considerations about the key factors influencing the use of bioenergy into urban energy systems are proposed. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas
Vicente Caballero de la Torre
Full Text Available This paper presents the origin of the issue of empathy in the History of Ideas and its importance in economics, as well as its revitalization. It concludes that it is not the study of empathy, so fashionable today, but the study of decision making the place where Economics can find the nature of emotions in relation to human behavior. This nature is its power to inhibit behavior. The study of repentance is itself more interesting and helpful for the economy than the study of empathy. Finally, the institutional approach is presented as the best in order to understand the issues related to economic human behavior
Othman, N.; Mohamad, M.; Latip, R. A.; Ariffin, M. H.
In Malaysia, urban farming is viewed as a catalyst towards achieving the well-being of urban dwellers and natural environment. Urban farming is a strategy for Malaysia’s food and economic security, and as one of the foci in the agriculture transformation whereby urban dwellers are encouraged to participate in this activity. Previous study proved that urban farming can help to address social problems of food security, urban poverty and high living cost, also provides leisure and recreation among urban dwellers. Thus, this study investigates the best urban farming practices suitable for urban setting, environment and culture of urban dwellers. Data collection was done via questionnaire survey to urban farmers of a selected community garden in Subang Jaya, Selangor. Meanwhile, on-site observations were carried out on gardening activities and the gardens’ physical attributes. The study sample encompasses of 131 urban farmers of 22 community gardens in Subang Jaya. It was found that most of the community gardens practiced crops planting on the ground or soil base planting and dwellers in the lower income group with monthly low household income constitutes the majority (83.2%) of the respondents. Social and health benefits are the highest motivating factors for urban farmers. This study provides unprecedented insights on urban farming practices and motivations in a Malaysian setting.
Objective of the study is measuring economy feasibility of Kridosono urban park as a public goods that expected directly addresses the issues of natural environmental quality. Data were obtained from interviews toward local resident of Yogyakarta municipality. Hereafter, willingness to pay (WTP toward demand models were estimated by contingent valuation method (CVM and used to derive total consumer surplus. The results indicate that economic value of Kridosono Stadium land is about US$ 27 million (IDR 257 billion per annum, more than its market price i.e. amount US$ 7.8 million or IDR 74 billion. Thus, the study gives stakeholders knowledge of decision making for managing, funding and alocating resources. Utilization part of Kridosono Stadium land as urban park will give bigger benefit than it would be this for commercial interest. Auspicious is hanging on the urban park, because it will help eliminate greenhouse gases i.e. Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Hydro-fluorocarbons, Perflurocarbon and Sulfur hexafluoride which is produced by motor vehicle.
Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene
Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....
Chong, W.T.; Naghavi, M.S.; Poh, S.C.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Pan, K.C.
harvesting technologies. → The system overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by introducing the power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV). → The PAGV is used to guide and create venturi effect to increase the wind speed before the wind-stream enters wind turbine. → This design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact, and is safer for populated area. → The PAGV improves the wind turbine's starting behavior and prolongs its operating hour, thus reduces the payback period. -- Abstract: The technical and economic feasibility study of an innovative wind-solar hybrid renewable energy generation system with rainwater collection feature for electrical energy generation is presented in this paper. The power generated would supply part of the energy requirements of the high-rise building where the system is installed. The system integrates and optimizes several green technologies; including urban wind turbine, solar cell module and rain water collector. The design was conceptualized based on the experiences acquired during the development and testing of a suitable wind turbine for Malaysian applications. It is compact and can be built on top of high-rise buildings in order to provide on-site renewable power to the building. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by channeling and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through the power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before it enters the wind turbine at the center portion. The shape or appearance of the PAGV that surrounds the wind turbine can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact (becomes part of the building). The design improves the starting behavior of wind turbines. It is also safer to people around and reduces noise pollution. The techno-economic analysis is carried out by applying the life cycle cost (LCC) method. The LCC method takes into consideration the complete range of costs and makes cash flows time
A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)
textabstractThis paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes – population, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting, the
A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)
textabstractThis paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes – population, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting, the
Nakakushi, T.; Hisatomi, K.; Konomatsu, M.; Furukubo, A.
This paper presents our community-revitalization project in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Wakayama Prefecture is the southwestern part of the Kii Peninsula. The Kii Peninsula, especially its southern part, has many geoscientifically important natural heritages such as the volcano-plutonic complex including well exposed ring dyke in the Kumano region. Those geoheritages have been considered just as on-site educational tools, and not received enough attentions as contents for geotours. UNESCO defines that a Geopark is a geographical area where geological heritage sites are part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development. UNESCO also describes that it is necessary to also include and highlight sites of ecological, archaeological, historical and cultural value within each Geopark. In many societies, natural, cultural and social history are inextricably linked and cannot be separated. We plan to have the region registered as a geopark by Japan (or Global) Geopark Network. In the context of community-revitalization, a "regional brand" has drawn attention for its potential to attract tourists. A Geopark may contribute to establish a regional brand.
Nevins, Alan J; Cymerman, Jerome J
An enhanced revision of the revitalization endodontic technique for immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been described. It includes the addition of collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the currently practiced revascularization technique. Four cases treated in series are presented in this report, 1 case involving 2 teeth. Periapical diagnoses of immature teeth included "asymptomatic apical periodontitis," "symptomatic apical periodontitis," and "acute apical abscess." Additionally, 1 fully developed tooth that had undergone root canal treatment that failed had a periapical diagnosis of acute apical abscess. An established revascularization protocol was used for all teeth. In addition to stimulating blood clots, all teeth were filled with collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Periapical radiolucencies healed in all teeth, and diffuse radiopacity developed within the coronal portions of canal spaces. Root development with root lengthening occurred in the immature nonvital maxillary premolar that had not undergone prior treatment. The technique of adding a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold to the existing revitalization protocol has been described in which substantial hard tissue repair has occurred. This may leave teeth more fully developed and less likely to fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article’s main focus is on exploring Sunan Kudus’multiculturalism in Java with special focus on revitalizing them in responding Islamic radicalism in Indonesia. In this writing the authors use the semiotic and phenomenological approaches and supported by the oral history. Semiotics in this case can be a form of deconstruction of the understanding that was considered to be established. So it will be able to find the cultural capital with does not separate the spiritualism of Sunan Kudus. Some important conclusions are: First, the presence of Sunan Kudus in has brought the mission of Walisong to transmit a peaceful Islam in Java through a cultural approach, according to prominent local situation and conditions of each. Second, Sunan Kudus has built a successful political integration with the rights of democratic participation that considers tolerance and equality for citizens even though dealing with the different religious communities such as Hindu and Confucianism so that awakened a ‘social system’ with democratic civility, known as “Kudus Darussalam”. Third, the values and spirit of multiculturalism of Sunan Kudus are a cultural capital that will be the habitus of the community and strengthen democratic civility to the level of actions (behaviors, when reconstructed through a systematic educational values in responding the Islamic radicalism in the name of democracy. Keywords: Revitalizing, Sunan Kudus’ multiculturalism, Islamic radicalism
Stello, V. Jr.
Technical and managerial experience in nuclear power plant construction is presented from the perspective of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In the context of actions that would contribute to revitalizing the nuclear industry in the United States of America, greater effectiveness of utility management during construction is proposed. The reasons why management effectiveness is so important are developed beginning with summaries of defects that were built into several US plants under construction. The root causes of these significant defects were management failures. In terms of benefits, effective management is important because of its effects on nuclear safety, project construction costs, and future reliability of the plant after commissioning. Actions that would enhance good management include emphasizing the inseparable nature of production and quality, that quality cannot be inspected into a plant, and that a strong construction management staff and exchanges of experience and information are essential. Techniques that have been used successfully in construction management are discussed. NRC and industry initiatives are in progress to improve management responsibility and learning from experience. Projects include Owner's Certification, assessments of licensee performance, fostering good practices across the industry, and improving the NRC inspection programme. Revitalization will not be easy, but it is achievable. (author)
Chiesa, M.; Perrone, M.G.; Cusumano, N.; Ferrero, L.; Sangiorgi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Lorenzoni, A.; Ballarin Denti, A.
Highlights: • PM10 and NO x emission reduction by different policies have been estimated. • Various actions have been considered, in the transport and residential sectors. • Environmental, economic and socio-political data were jointly evaluated. • Results are reported for the case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy). • Bike use fostering best matches cost–benefit results and socio-political acceptance. - Abstract: In the frame of urban air-pollution reduction policies, economic costs and environmental benefits of a variety of actions have been quantitatively assessed for the Province of Milan (Northern Italy), focusing on PM10 and NO x emission sources. Short-to-mid-term interventions that have been taken into consideration include reduction of inner temperature in residential buildings, banning of residential biomass heating systems, banning of diesel fuelled domestic boilers, night-time streets washing, speed limit reduction on highways, circulation restrictions of oldest EURO vehicles, conversion of diesel buses to natural gas, car sharing/biking promotion, DPF adoption in diesel vehicles, extension of road lanes for urban buses, energy efficiency refurbishment in residential buildings. Re*sults emerged from the cost–benefit analysis integrated with socio-political indicators obtained through direct surveys, will contribute, with an holistic and multidisciplinary approach, to drive the local administrators to implement the most suitable actions in one of the most polluted areas in west-Europe
Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Fink, Günther
The proportion of a country's population living in urban areas is highly correlated with its level of income. Urban areas offer economies of scale and richer market structures, and there is strong evidence that workers in urban areas are individually more productive, and earn more, than rural workers. However, rapid urbanization is also associated with crowding, environmental degradation, and other impediments to productivity. Overall, we find no evidence that the level of urbanization affects the rate of economic growth. Our findings weaken the rationale for either encouraging or discouraging urbanization as part of a strategy for economic growth.
Aziz, A.; Mayo, S.M.
Urbanization put immense pressure on urban infrastructure and services. Burdened with unrelenting pressure, the founded areas of Lahore have now been converted into slums. Poor services, urban infrastructure and dilapidated building have made lives of the resident miserable. A significant proportion of the people is living in dangerous buildings which could be declared unfit for habitation under section 34 of Punjab Local Government Ordinance 2001 (PLGO 2001). The paper attempts to highlight situations of two founded areas of Lahore namely, Icchra and Sanda in comparison with slums areas to grade living standards of the people. Actions under PLGO 2001 and urban renewal programs are suggested to revitalize such areas. (author)
of country. By this approach it will be possible the revitalization stratotype outcrops and the economic development of rural areas by mineral business – parallel to ongoing agricultural circumstances and benefits.
Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities
Technical experts from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will hold a workshop in Biddeford, Maine on June 6-7, intended to revitalize downtowns, boost the local economy, improve public health, and protect the environment through local food ent
The U.S. contingent of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group is developing Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools-electronic (SMARTe). SMARTe is a web-based, decision support system designed to assist stakeholders in developing and evaluating alternative reu...
Valadez, Concepción; Etxeberria, Feli; Intxausti, Nahia
In the Basque Country, Northern Spain, Basque (Euskera) and Spanish are official languages. In recent decades, Basque language revitalization and the efforts to make this an unmarked language (normalization) have co-existed with the rapid increase in immigration from outside the Basque region, and most recently from outside Spain. Given the…
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2010-0111] Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Correction Notice. SUMMARY: On December 29, 2010, at 75 FR...
Grzyl, Beata; Kristowski, Adam; Miszewska-Urbańska, Emilia
Each investment plan, including the one concerning a building, is exposed to the consequences of various types of threats taking place. Therefore, in the case of some large-scale, atypical and complicated building ventures, some actions included in the procedure of risk management should be taken (identifications, analysis, measurements, control and supervision of the risk). This will allow for the risk to be eliminated or limited. While preparing a building venture, an investor does not possess full information about the course of events on each stage of investment completion. The identification of the above-mentioned unknowns, subjecting them to quantification and specifying the method of dealing with them, allows an investor to increase the effectiveness of the intended plan. The enterprise discussed in this article and analyzed in the context of risk, concerns alteration, revitalization and conversion for office purposes of two buildings located in Gdańsk at 1 and 2 Lastadia Street. These buildings are situated on the area of historical urban layout of Gdańsk, in the northern-eastern part of Stare Przedmieście District (Old Suburb), about 800 meters south from Dlugi Targ Street and 200 meters west from The Old Motława River. The investor is “Gdańskie Melioracje Ltd.”, a limited liability company, which belongs to the Council of Gdańsk. In order to increase the effectiveness of the intended investment venture, while organizing the investment process, the investor commissioned preparation of an analysis and risk evaluation connected with the above-mentioned intention. Based on an on-site visit, the opinions of experts, who have been involved in the process of the preparation of the investment, studies of the available monographies about the technical condition of the buildings at 1 and 2 Lastadia Street and their own experiences, the authors identified 54 types of relevant risks, which have been systematized into 10 subject groups (among others
A quick reference compilation of certain population, socio-economic, employment, and modal split characteristics of the 35 largest Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA) in the United States is presented. The three basic groups or urban data ...
Urban management in any context has a different economic, social and political structure, which is in harmony with the existing models of organization. In spite of these differences, in order to reach a sustainable urban development, several different conferences should be referred to. In the “Brundtland Commission 1987” about urban sustainable development these definitions have been given: “preservation and promotion of the quality level of city life. This consists of ecology, culture, polit...
Agribotix GCS 077
1Institute of Statistical, Social & Economic Research (ISSER)/Department of ... nor democratic: unregulated, informal economic activities are very common in .... with crime in urban Ghana based on a household survey and a qualitative study.
Rofman, A B
"This article describes the historical development of Argentina's cities, pointing out the traditional dominance of the 'centre-litoral' region and...[of] Buenos Aires. Recent trends such as the population increase in the southern region are described and demographic trends are related to economic developments. The article concludes by examining Argentina's contemporary urban patterns, including the current low rate of urbanization." excerpt
Backman, Kenneth; And Others
This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…
Until recently, it was thought that Kenya would be an overwhelmingly rural country and that urbanization would not be a problem, because it was associated with modernization and industrialization. Both Government of Kenya (GoK) and international donor agencies fostered rural developmental and agricultural-based strategies without paying attention to rapid rates of urbanization. Today, the high rate of urbanization in Kenya has been added to the long list of potentially devastating development problems that must be addressed. The fundamental problem is that, the urban population is growing very fast while the economic growth and development transformations necessary to support it enhance the quality of urban life are not occurring as rapidly. The new planning strategy for Kenya is to move beyond isolated projects, that emphasize shelter and residential infrastructure towards integrated urban-wide effort that promote urban productivity and reduce constraints on efficiency
Full Text Available This article has three parts: in the first part the authors discusses two theoretical ways of interpreting revival and revitalization of religion in Serbia. The first way takes religion as a public institution and implies mutual support of religious and non-religious factors, while the other way describes independent, internal religious revival emerging from the very core of religion and church as a divine institution and individual spiritual needs of believers for religiousness (terminal faith. In the second part, the author points to two different interpretations of empirical data on attachment to religion and church in Serbia accumulated in the last thirty years. The third part compares socio-demographic characteristics of religious people from twenty-five years ago and characteristics of contemporary believers.
Berryhill, K. J.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; Harbour, C.; Forrester, J. H.
A wide range of incoming knowledge is seen in students taking introductory astronomy courses. Using the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) as a pre-course measure of incoming knowledge, an evaluation was completed to discover any explanation for this variation. It would be reasonable to suggest that this could result from the variety we see in student's motivation, self-efficacy, general scholastic achievement, their high school science experience, or even whether one or more of their parents is in a STEM field. In this re-evaluation, there was no correlation seen between the above and the student's pre-test scores. Instead, the only predictor of pretest scores was student's exposure to astronomy through informal learning opportunities. This leads to important implications for faculty revitalizing their courses to improve student learning.
Agundu, Prince U C; Okon, Godwin B; Robinson, Eric T
In times like this, when Nigeria (like many other developing countries) is bracing up to the contemporary challenges posed by adoption and advancement of globally driven millennium development goals (MDGs), public medical centers (PMCs) cannot afford to be reckoned with financial epilepsy, bankruptcy, and degeneracy. This concern informed the thrust of the study. In the process, pertinent research questions were posed which elicited corresponding hypothetical propositions. With primary data volunteered by 150 administrative officials drawn from PMCs across the country, analytical proceedings were facilitated by the application of chi-square (x2) technique. The findings brought to the fore, the general bad shape of cash management in PMCs in the country. The recommendations for urgent attention underscored the constitution of strategic budget communities (SBCs), revitalization of internal audit committees (IACs), and attraction of goodwill private-sector endowments through convincing justification of the utilization and optimization of current government logistic subventions.
Marilou M. Orlanda
Full Text Available This study investigated the service Physical Education Program at Batangas State University system based on the assessments of the administrators, faculty and students on its implementation in consideration of its program components and attitudes of PE teachers towards the subject with the proposed revitalized Physical Education program as an output. Using descriptive research design of research and statistical tools such as percentage, weighted mean, and f-test, the result showed a great extent of the implementation of the service Physical Education program at BSU system in terms of attainment of objectives, curriculum, teaching effectiveness of faculty, and adequacy of facilities, equipment, supplies, and instructional materials. Positive attitudes towards PE except on the concerns on reducing the time allocation for the subject and that it should be mainly sports and play were among the findings. In addition, the objectives of the PE program are believed to be the best indicators while the least indicator is the facilities, equipment and supplies.
Saiidi, M. J.
The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the atmospheric Revitalization Pressure Control Subsystem (ARPCS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL proposed Post 51-L updates based upon the CCB/PRCB presentations and an informal criticality summary listing. A discussion of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. These discrepancies were flagged as issues, and recommendations were made based on the FMEA data available at the time. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ARPCS hardware.
Mao, Qi-zheng; Huang, Gan-lin; Wu, Jian-guo
Maintaining and improving ecosystem services in urban areas and human well-being are essential for sustainable development and therefore constitute an important topic in urban ecology. Here we reviewed studies on ecosystem services in urban areas. Based on the concept and classification of urban ecosystem services, we summarized characteristics of urban ecosystem services, including the human domination, high demand of ecosystem services in urban areas, spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas, multi-services of urban green infrastructures, the socio-economic dimension of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem disservices in urban areas. Among different urban ecosystem services, the regulating service and cultural service are particularly indispensable to benefit human health. We pointed out that tradeoffs among different types of ecosystem services mostly occur between supportive service and cultural service, as well as regulating service and cultural service. In particular, we emphasized the relationship between landscape design (i.e. green infrastructure) and ecosystem services supply. Finally, we discussed current gaps to link urban ecosystem services studies to landscape design and management and pointed out several directions for future research in urban ecosystem services.
Full Text Available The Tuzla basin is located in the central part of the region of north-eastern Bosnia. It covers an area of 1,405 km² consisting of five municipalities:Tuzla, Ţivinice, Lukavac, Banovići and Kalesija. It is surrounded by mountains Majevica, Ozren, Konjuh and Javornik. It has a favorable geo-traffic position because it represents the intersection of roads leading to Belgrade,Orašje, Sarajevo and Doboj. The area of Tuzla basin has significant resources of coal and rock salt on the basis of which was developed chemical industry.The period of industrialization has considerably affected the economic situation of the entire region, and particularly the development of the central places of the Tuzla basin. Intensive exploitation of rock salt has significantly influenced the subsidence in the metropolitan area of Tuzla and turned it into an unordered wetlands. After the end of coal mining in the abandoned mining pits in the area of the municipalities of Ţivinice, Tuzla and Banovići were formed lake depressions. In order to improve and protect the environment, there were implemented several environmental projects which reconstructed coastal areas of lakes in the area of Ţivinice, Tuzla, Lukavac and Banovići, and in the metropolitan area of Tuzla there were built three artificial salt lakes in the function of the city outdoor pool.The paper places particular emphasis on the promotion of values of artificial lakes created by revitalization of degraded areas in the Tuzla basin and future directions in the development of the same. Moreover, considerable attention is given to the system of planned realisation of environmental projects for the improvement of environment in the towns of Tuzla, Ţivinice, Lukavac, Banovići and solving environmental problems.The aim of this study is to point out the proper management and use of hydrographic resources in the function of tourism development in the area of the Tuzla basin.
Aloysius Clemence Mosha
Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.
For decades the Italian system of planning has been strongly characterized by a regulatory approach and the question of cities' development had been taken into account within general land use plans. In the 1990s this approach has been considered a strong constraint on the regeneration of cities and the revitalization of their economic potential. Therefore, in the last decade the improvement of flexibility and participation within planning processes were considered primary objectives both at r...
Xu, Y.; van Leeuwen, B.; van Zanden, J.L.
This paper presents new estimates of the development of the urban population andthe urbanization ratio for the period spanning the Song and late Qing dynasties. Urbanizationis viewed, as in much of the economic historical literature on the topic, as an indirectindicator of economic development and
Full Text Available Car-orientated modal splits represent problems for the city in economic, environmental and social terms. The implementation of policies and other measures can fail if the causes are not well recognized. Mid-sized cities in Mexico are not well-represented in studies where only the capital and other bigger cities are studied. This research aims to recognize those causes focusing on northern midsized cities in Mexico. The approach involves numerical work (linear regression complemented with a descriptive analysis of the city. The analysis takes on such areas of consideration as socio-economic factors, land-use variables and the street network of the city. Of the 16 variables, almost all presented a relationship with car ownership levels, but not all behaved as expected. The final part of the research is a reaction to the previous studies and recommendations to change the city from car-orientated to one with a sustainable modal split.
This article deals with the part of urban climatology which is of particular relevance to human beings. Presented first is a summary of all human biometerologically effective complexes, as well as other factors which are relevant to urban planning and which depend on atmospheric conditions in urban structures in a direct or indirect manner. Later, methods for human biometerologically significant assessment of thermal and air pollution components of the urban climate are discussed in detail, because these components can be strongly influenced by urban planning. The application of these methods is illustrated by some results of appropriate investigations in urban areas.
cannot directly influence their structures, they can influence their contours through such leisure practices. In this chapter focus will be on how citizens’ engagement in locative leisure activities may allow them to co-create urban space. This participatory urbanism is a form of everyday democracy......Urban areas are planned structures that cannot easily be changed. Urban areas do however still afford physical spaces for various types of leisure expression and participation, from street art to parkour and from urban gaming to artistic happenings. Thus, while citizens who inhabit the urban areas...
Cadenasso, M L; Pickett, S T A; Groffman, P M; Band, L E; Brush, G S; Galvin, M F; Grove, J M; Hagar, G; Marshall, V; McGrath, B P; O'Neil-Dunne, J P M; Stack, W P; Troy, A R
Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was originally based on the documented importance of riparian zones in agricultural and forested ecosystems. The watershed and boundary frameworks have been used to guide stream research and a riparian conservation strategy to reduce nitrate pollution in urban streams. But is stream restoration and riparian-zone conservation enough? Data from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study and other urban stream research indicate that urban riparian zones do not necessarily prevent nitrate from entering, nor remove nitrate from, streams. Based on this insight, policy makers in Baltimore extended the conservation strategy throughout larger watersheds, attempting to restore functions that no longer took place in riparian boundaries. Two urban revitalization projects are presented as examples aimed at reducing nitrate pollution to stormwater, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay. An adaptive cycle of ecological urban design synthesizes the insights from the watershed and boundary frameworks, from new data, and from the conservation concerns of agencies and local communities. This urban example of conservation based on ameliorating nitrate water pollution extends the initial watershed-boundary approach along three dimensions: 1) from riparian to urban land-water-scapes; 2) from discrete engineering solutions to ecological design approaches; and 3) from structural solutions to inclusion of individual, household, and institutional behavior.
Martinez Tirado, N
The process of urbanization and urban growth in relation to economic development in Venezuela is analyzed. Four periods are considered: the period prior to the discovery of oil in Venezuela, which ended in the early 1940s; from the 1940s to the early 1970s; from the 1970s to 1983; and the present. Information is provided for the period 1936-1981 on total and urban population growth and on the size and number of urban centers.
Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.
This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...
Kensek, K. M.
This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM). A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study...
Williams, David E.
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 ACS, AR, and WRM design and detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for Node 1.
Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine
The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan
The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby dosing the air-loop. We have developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts for performing these tasks. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low- pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. This paper discusses the design and testing of a TSAC for carbon dioxide that has application in the ISS and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop.
Urban Physics is the multiscale and interdisciplinary research area dealing with physical processes in urban environments that influence our everyday health, comfort and productivity. It involves disciplines ranging from mesoscale meteorology to human thermophysiology. The introductory lecture
This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....
Gbogbo, Francis; Otoo, Samuel D
Sakumo II is an urban wetland and a receptacle for domestic and industrial wastes from two cities in Ghana. It however supports viable populations of fish and crabs, is cultivated for food crops and grazed by farm animals. Components of the wetland can therefore accumulate pollutants, but the public health and phytoremediation implications of this are yet to be evaluated. We analysed Cd, As, Hg, Cu and Pb in the lagoon water, sediment, green algae, eight species of aquatic macrophytes, seven species of arthropods and one species of fish. The concentrations of Pb were generally below detection limit whilst Cu was detected only in the lagoon water and Pheropsophus vertialis. Cadmium ranged from 21 ± 4 ppb in algae to 69 ± 12 ppb in Typha domingensis and was generally higher than As and Hg. The highest concentration of As was 11.7 ± 2.1 ppb in Pistia stratiotes whilst Hg was highest in lagoon water (4 ± 2 ppb). The Cd concentrations generally, and Hg concentrations in macrophytes, were higher than US EPA guidelines indicating the wetland's resources were unsafe for regular consumption. Among the emergent aquatic macrophytes, T. domingensis, Ludwigia sp. and Paspalum vaginatum, respectively, had the highest accumulation capacity for Cd, As and Hg, but the floating aquatic plant P. stratiotes appeared to be a better accumulator of Cd and As.
Watts, T E
The Department of Community Medicine with the assistance of fourth year medical students have been monitoring the basic cost of living of high density urban dwellers near Harare from March 1992 to June 1993. The cheapest diet able to provide sufficient calories, protein and vitamin A for a standard family of five people was calculated, and also the average cost of rent, rates, essential travel and schooling for a month. Sixty to 80 people were interviewed on each of four occasions. The cost of basic foods increased by over 50 pc from $157.50 in March 1992 to $349.20 in June 1993, and the cost of rents, rate, transport and schooling from $230.63 to $268.43 in the same period. This gave an average total monthly cost of $388.18 in March 1992 and $617.63 in June 1993. Minimum costs were calculated by using the mean cost of rent and rates etc.--2 standard errors. This increase in the basic cost of living is compared with the wages of security guards and the implications regarding the affordability of health care.
TONGAM SIHOL NABABAN
Full Text Available In our community, many structural problems unresolved well, especially in social and economic life. Seeing this reality, the Church needs to have a sensitivity and a strong commitment to encourage cooperation of some parties to empower people, especially its congregation. Congregation of the Church, especially the poor need to be raised and empowered to pursue their own welfare through economic business. One manifestation of the Church's task is to empower the community-based and to revitalize its role more focused on optimizing the institution of community economy. For that, it is important to use the Model of Empowerment of Congregation-Based Community Economic in form of business partnership. The success of congregation economic empowerment lies in the motivation and orientation of the actors themselves, where the Church is expected to seriously fight. Keywords: Church, Congregation, Community-Based Economic, Business Partnership, Empowerment.
Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca
Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating
Izkeaga, Jose Ramon
The Bay of Biscay is located in the heart of district known as Donostialdea (San Sebastian). Together with the towns of Donostia-San Sebastian, Lezo, Errenteria and Oiartzun, it makes up the so-called Oarsoaldea region, a supramunicipal area of common interest. A urban continuum peculiar to the region, than may be better understood as an area of shared territorially with several elements in common and as a community where individual interests intersect with common interests. The importance of the geographical location of this region is more than notable. It is on the Bay of Biscay right where Spain curves northward to meet France; it is the only natural point of passage on the west end of the Pyrenees Mountains, with La Junquera in Catalonia at the east end, thus communicating the Iberian Peninsula with the rest of Europe. This is the strategic point for each and every known means of transport. The rail system consists of three different types of track gauge; the road network includes major motorways and the national road system; the airports at Hondarribia and Biarritz and the natural port of Pasaia complements this transportation node. All of this takes place in a small space, a natural corridor at the foot of Mount Jaizkibel. What was once considered modern infrastructures sufficient to meet transportation needs is today absolutely insufficient, obsolete and in operative. A set of partial solutions lacking an overall vision cannot be considered an integrated system. Therein lies the origin of the problem. Here is the diagnosis: The Port of Pasaia is obsolete. Pressure is felt from urban growth in the surrounding cities and from the restrictions of the Hondarribia airport. The roads are completely saturated and traffic continues to increase. The railway service is inefficient owing to three different types of track gauge. And each of these infrastructures is subject to its own restrictions and management. This forces us to think about the current state of these
Full Text Available Over 50 years urban development in Europe has been affected by extensive urban sprawl. Environmental, economic and social impacts of long lasting sprawl are threatening urban identity, urban culture and cultural identity of European territory. Last two decades the main concept in European planning and governance system has been the sustainable development, namely sustainable urban development and its implementation. We ought to be realistic about the possibilities to counter sprawl. Realistic seams to steer sprawling tendencies in more suitable and sustainable manner, so called smart urban sprawl. This paper analyses the planning concepts and gives the brief review of current policies for steering the urban sprawl in EU, which are considered to be of importance in achieving more sustainable urban development and efficient urban management in Serbia.
Cronin, Drew T.; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A.; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O’Connor, Michael P.; Hearn, Gail W.
Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990’s. From October 1997 – September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko’s wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504
Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole
and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...
Fatima Bayma de Oliveira
Full Text Available This article investigates the role and ways of action of leaderships in urban contexts characterized by urban revitalization processes (RJ/Brazil. Adopting as its theoretical basis the bibliographical review of the literature on leadership and public area requalification processes, as well as research conducted by Jacobs (2011 on diversity and innovation, the present research may be characterized as qualitative in nature (case study. Results indicate that the Porto Maravilha project has transposed business concepts to public administration. Today, the keynote lies in the attraction of new enterprises and in the construction of urban revitalization projects for the city’s makeover. With regard to the leadership, although public leadership has apparently adopted management instruments for decentralizing management and for public participation, these measures were not enough to achieve an effectively shared leadership that would reflect the multiple interests of different actors (as the theory of relational leadership presupposes. Thus, a set of contradictions and dilemmas for the leaders is apparent, among them: how to build an effectively-shared leadership, as every urban transformation project depends on the negotiation and complex interaction between different social actors?
Santana, J.C.; Herrero, J. [Wood and Forest Service Center of Castilla y Leon (CESEFOR) Pol. Ind. Las Casas, Soria (Spain); Crema, L.; Bozzoli, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FKB), Trento (Italy); Karampinis, E.; Grammelis, P.; Margaritis, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Inst. for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Athens (Greece)
Castilla y Leon (Spain), Trento (Italy) and Western Macedonia (Greece) are regions with a very high potential for forest and agricultural biomass production, but their biomass supply chains are not firmly established yet. In Castilla y Leon, a municipality from a forest area takes advantage of its large autochthonous stock of wood to arrange a complete chain of business, beginning with wood cutting and extraction, processing of raw biomass in local logistic centers to produce quality and traceable wood chips and pellets, distribution of the solid biofuels to consumers in a determined area and own use to generate energy and heat. In Trento, we analyse the exploitation of locally certified wood and residues pellets for public micro-cogeneration in a town, reaching a virtual closed cycle of use and recycling of resources. In a municipality from Western Macedonia, biomass residues from animal waste are being used to produce biogas to generate electric power to be sold and heat to dry wood biomass in a local pellet factory, revitalizing a land very conditioned by mining industry. These strategies maximize the number of jobs created and make optimum use of the local resources, providing them with high added value.
Norway is part of the so-called social democratic welfare state model, which is characterized by its emphasis on solidarity and redistribution among social groups. The concepts of upstream and downstream policy measures may be useful to characterize different approaches to public health policies: upstream measures would be structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model, while downstream measures would be more targeted at individuals or groups at some sort of risk. The aim of this article is to analyze national policies in Norway and how these may be characterized in terms of upstream and downstream factors. Health promotion and public health policies have been high on the Norwegian political agenda for two decades. However, the national policy emphasis has shifted between strategies aimed at individuals and structural strategies--that is, between downstream and upstream measures. Until 2003, policies included mainly downstream measures, but since then a policy shift has taken place and current policy includes an emphasis on upstream measures. This policy was strengthened after a left-wing coalition came into government in 2005. It may be argued that the present policy represents a revitalization of universal and structural measures, in line with the social democratic welfare state model.
Rhew, Ray D.; Skelley, Marcus L.; Woike, Mark R.; Bader, Jon B.; Marshall, Timothy J.
Lack of funding and lack of focus on research over the past several years, coupled with force measurement capabilities being decentralized and distributed across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research centers, has resulted in a significant erosion of (1) capability and infrastructure to produce and calibrate force measurement systems; (2) NASA s working knowledge of those systems; and (3) the quantity of high-quality, full-capability force measurement systems available for use in aeronautics testing. Simultaneously, and at proportional rates, the capability of industry to design, manufacture, and calibrate these test instruments has been eroding primarily because of a lack of investment by the aeronautics community. Technical expertise in this technology area is a core competency in aeronautics testing; it is highly specialized and experience-based, and it represents a niche market for only a few small precision instrument shops in the United States. With this backdrop, NASA s Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) chartered a team to examine the issues and risks associated with the problem, focusing specifically on strain- gage balances. The team partnered with the U.S. Air Force s Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) to exploit their combined capabilities and take a national level government view of the problem. This paper describes the team s approach, its findings, and its recommendations, and the current status for revitalizing the government s balance capability with respect to designing, fabricating, calibrating, and using the instruments.
Ball, Marion J; Weaver, Charlotte; Abbott, Patricia A
The application of information technology (IT) in health care has the potential to transform the delivery of care, as well as the health care work environment, by streamlining processes, making procedures more accurate and efficient, and reducing the risk of human error. For nurses, a major aspect of this transformation is the refocusing of their work on direct patient care and away from being a conduit of information and communication among departments. Several of the technologies discussed, such as physician order entry and bar code technology, have existed for years as standalone systems. Many others are just being developed and are being integrated into complex clinical information systems (CISs) with clinical decision support at their core. While early evaluation of these systems shows positive outcome measurements, financial, technical, and organizational hurdles to widespread implementation still remain. One major issue is defining the role nurses, themselves, will play in the selection and implementation of these systems as they become more steeped in the knowledge of nursing informatics. Other challenges revolve around issues of job satisfaction and the attraction and retention of nursing staff in the midst of a serious nursing shortage. Despite these concerns, it is expected that, in the long run, the creation of an electronic work environment with systems that integrate all functions of the health care team will positively impact cost-effectiveness, productivity, and patient safety while helping to revitalize nursing practice. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
On May 30 - 31, 2015, the fourth and last convention entitled 'International Symposium on Radiological Issues for Fukushima's Revitalized Future' was held in Iizaka Onsen, Fukushima city, under auspices of Institute of Environmental Radioactivity at Fukushima University and other organizations. The following four subjects were the main topics of this symposium: Decontamination/radioactive waste; Environmental radiation/external exposure; Marine/agricultural products, food, internal exposure; and Issues at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP site. The program included 2 invited lectures by overseas guest speakers, 12 oral presentations, 80 poster presentations, and 2 panel discussion sessions, in which over 600 participants consisting of researchers, experts, community dwellers, and young students had lively discussion in a warm and friendly atmosphere. It is noteworthy that several poster presentations were given by high school and junior college students in Fukushima in this international symposium. This report is a collection of the presentation slides and the transcriptions of Q and A sessions for oral lectures as well as the transcriptions of the panel discussion sessions. (J.P.N.)
Full Text Available Cenotes are sinkholes through which groundwater may be accessed from the Yucatan Peninsula Aquifer. Historically and culturally, cenotes are also important cultural and spiritual natural sites for the Maya, but they have been contaminated and degraded. We ask the following: What are the present-day meanings, understanding, and values of cenotes for the Maya? Is it possible to adopt a cultural approach for conservation of cenotes in Yucatan? Participant observation, interviews with stakeholders, and underwater exploration in cenotes were used to obtain data. Results indicate that cenotes often retain some spiritual meaning for people but not as important cultural, spiritual, or sacred sites. Little consensus was found regarding the significance of cenotes and how best to protect them. Informants noted changes in water quality, and identified the threats to cenotes including tourism, poor solid waste management, contamination, and deficiency of interest in preservation. Lack of accurate knowledge was a problem: informants did not seem to understand that cenotes are interconnected through the groundwater system. The Yucatan case illustrates how loss of cultural values can be linked to environmental quality and resource degradation. Conversely, it can be argued that cultural revitalization in indigenous communities has the potential to bring back community-based conservation.
Full Text Available It is commonly believed that the quality of teachers correlates with the quality of students‘ learning. This implies that if the quality of teachers is good the quality of students‘ learning will be good too. On the contrary, if the quality of teachers is bad the quality of students‘ learning will be bad too. The following data may justify this belief. First, the results of UKA (Uji Kompetensi Awal and UKG (Uji Kompetensi Guru held by the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2012 indicate that the mean score of the first was 42.25 whereas the mean score of the second was 45.82 – lower than the passing grade of UN (Ujian Nasional. When they are correlated with the results of study carried out by PISA on mathematics, natural sciences and language in 2009 and the study conducted by TIMSS on mathematics and natural sciences in 2007 and 2011 the belief may have its justification. PISA‘s study uncovered that Indonesian students were only in level 3 (out of 6 levels. Whereas, TIMSS‘ study revealed that around 95% of Indonesian junior high school students could only reach intermediate level (among five levels. Based on the above data, there must some efforts that must be done to improve the quality of teachers so that the quality of students‘ learning can be made better too. Revitalization of language teacher education is suggested to be one of the solutions.
Thu Ba Huynh
Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.
Full Text Available The present research is an attempt to explicate Shibli> Nu’ma>ni>’scontribution of ‘ilm al-Kala > m which to Muslim is a pivotal matter in terms ofboth its doctrine and practice. This study attempts at examining Shibli> Nu’ma>ni>’sviews in dealing with religious problems in his community, and how hepropagated his ideas in revitalization of ‘ilm al-Kala > m. It seeks to discover severalaspects of Shibli> Nu’ma>ni>’s thoughts of ‘ilm al-Kala > m, such as the coherentrelationship of religion and science, Islamic culture, Islamic legal system, Islamiceducational system, Islamic political science, reason and revelation, prophecy,and tawh } i > d. This study concludes that Shibli> Nu’ma>ni>’s understanding of ‘ilm-al-Kala > m is in line with the teaching of ahl al-sunnah wa al-jama > ’ah, and he was verymuch influenced by Ima>m al-Ghaza>li>’s and Jala>l al-Din Ru>mi>’s thoughts. Healso succeeded in harmonizing traditional and modern system of thoughts aswell as synthesizing the theologian’s approach with the s } u > fi > tradition
Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...
Kyu Hong Hwang
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A city experiencing a cycle from growth to decline cannot maintain sustainable development without the type of urban identity that could be consolidated by culture-led urban regeneration. A plan for urban regeneration in a declining urban area should be practiced partially or on the whole according to the characteristics of the community. By transforming a low-value and deteriorated area into a highly valued district, the local community can simultaneously restore its social pride, revive the local economy, and realize an urban identity.Firstly, this paper examines urban decline in order to better understand urban regeneration and the need for multidisciplinary management, and also, by considering the necessity for and universal types of urban regeneration, investigates the characteristics of culture-led urban regeneration as a tool for realizing socio-economic revival and urban identity. In particular, this study suggests the action techniques and benchmarking points for urban regeneration by analyzing cases of culture-led urban regeneration in Korea. Three subjects were considered as case studies in this paper: 1 Hanok village in Jeonju city, which changed from a twilight zone to a tourist attraction; 2 Changdong district in Changwon city, which recovered from an area of declining and dark alleyways that had been the hub for arts and culture in the 1970s to become a new artist village; and 3 Cheongju city, which is being transformed from an idle industrial facility into a cultural space. This thesis suggests the implementation process of culture-led urban regeneration to find an urban identity through analysis of the causes of urban decline, the methods of regeneration, and the results of urban regeneration in the three aforementioned cases. In the conclusion section of this paper, the implementation process for culture-led urban regeneration is summarized as consisting of 5 phases: Phase 1, the diagnosis of decline; Phase 2
Urbanization is sometimes defined as a process of population concentration that requires both growth in the size of cities and multiplication of their numbers. This demographic approach seems to neglect two other important aspects of urbanization: namely, economic and social. The economic dimension consists of structural change in the productive…
Robert Mark Silverman
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine municipal property acquisition patterns in shrinking cities. We use data from the City of Buffalo’s municipal property auction records to analyze the spatial distribution of properties offered for sale in its annual tax foreclosure auction. In addition to these data, we examine demolition and building permit records. Our analysis suggests that cities like Buffalo follow strategies based on an urban growth paradigm when responding to abandonment. This paradigm operates under the assumption that growth is a constant and urban development is only limited by fiscal constraints, underdeveloped systems of urban governance, environmental degradation, and resistance by anti-growth coalitions. We recommend that planners in shrinking cities de-emphasize growth-based planning and focus on rightsizing strategies. These strategies are based on the assumption that growth is not a constant. Consequently, urban revitalization is concentrated in a smaller urban footprint.
María Laura Silveira
Full Text Available En los últimos treinta años las modernizaciones del territorio brasileño fueron acompañadas de intensos procesos de urbanización y metropolización. Para comprender las nuevas dinámicas metropolitanas discutimos las condiciones del medio construido y los diferentes circuitos de producción. Las actividades vinculadas a la producción científico-tecnológica, consultoría, finanzas y comercio internacional constituyen el circuito superior, en el cual también se desarrolla un sector marginal constituido de formas mixtas. Como resultado indirecto de esa modernización, otro conjunto de formas de fabricación, comercio y servicios con bajo grado de capital, tecnología y organización constituye el circuito inferior. Las variables explicativas que entran en el análisis, a partir de resultados empíricos, son locafización y medio construido, técnicas, relaciones de empleo, información, propaganda, finanzas y relación con el poder público. La distancia creciente entre ambos circuitos y la forma de superarla parece ser el problema más acuciante de la dinámica metropolitana y de la política actualOver the last thirty years the modernization of Brazilian territory has been accompanied by intense processes of urbanization and metropolitanization. To understand the new metropolitan dynamics that have emerged, we discuss the conditions of the built environment and the different circuits of production. The activities linked to scientific-technological production, consulting the financial system and international trade constitute the upper circuit, which is also constituted by a marginal contribution of mixed forms. As an indirect result of this modernization, another set, of manufacturing, commercial and service forms with low degrees of capital, technology and organization, constitutes the lower circuit. The explanatory variables in the analysis, using empirical results, are location and the built environment, technologies, relations of
Swilling, Mark; Hajer, Maarten
The transition to sustainable resource efficient cities calls for new governance arrangements. The awareness that the doubling of the global urban population will result in unsustainable levels of demand for natural resources requires changes in the existing socio-technical systems. Domestic material consumption could go up from 40 billion tons in 2010, to 89 billion tons by 2050. While there are a number of socio-technical alternatives that could result in significant improvements in the resource efficiency of urban systems in developed and developing countries (specifically bus-rapid transit, district energy systems and green buildings), we need to rethink the urban governance arrangements to get to this alternative pathway. We note modes of urban governance have changed over the past century as economic and urban development paradigms have shifted at the national and global levels. This time round we identify cities as leading actors in the transition to more sustainable modes of production and consumption as articulated in the Sustainable Development Goals. This has resulted in a surge of urban experimentation across all world regions, both North and South. Building on this empirically observable trend we suggest this can also be seen as a building block of a new urban governance paradigm. An ‘entrepreneurial urban governance’ is proposed that envisages an active and goal-setting role for the state, but in ways that allows broader coalitions of urban ‘agents of change’ to emerge. This entrepreneurial urban governance fosters and promotes experimentation rather than suppressing the myriad of such initiatives across the globe, and connects to global city networks for systemic learning between cities. Experimentation needs to result in a contextually appropriate balance between economic, social, technological and sustainable development. A full and detailed elaboration of the arguments and sources for this article can be found in chapter 6 of Swilling M et
Arjomand Kermani, A.; Luiten, E.A.J.
The issue of cultural heritage preservation is more challenging in developing countries than in other parts of the world. In societies eager for progress, the modern European cities are regarded as the most desirable reference for a high quality urban environment. Urban settlement transformation in
Governor's Task Force on Rural Affairs, Olympia, WA.
Recognizing that urban and rural problems are interconnected, the Governor's Advisory Council on Urban Affairs (State of Washington), made a recommendation that led to formation (in 1970) of the Task Force on Rural Affairs. The report of that task force identifies the continuing technological revolution in agriculture as an important cause of (1)…
model of climate resilience, within unequal local–global assemblages of urban planning and power. This work of resilience-building is shown to revolve around Surat-based economic and political elites, who deploy mobile consultancy knowledges to render particular urban ‘riskscapes’ (in)visible, in ways...... knowledge practices, I suggest, link into and enable different visions and commitments to competing ‘scales of change’ for the city. By thus allowing us to grasp the situated tools, practices and knowledges through which ‘large-scale’ processes of urban change—development, climate resilience, justice...... conducive to specific forms of middle-class development. In turn, the article shows how this ‘official’ work of resilience-building is challenged and contested by fragmented civic–professional publics, mobilizing their own versions of counter-expertise towards alternative riskscapes. These heterogeneous...
Perez, E M; Carrara, H; Bourne, L; Berg, A; Swanevelder, S; Hendricks, M K
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of massage therapy on the growth and development of infants of HIV-infected mothers in a low socio-economic community in Cape Town. It was a prospective, randomised, controlled intervention trial that included massage therapy and control groups of HIV-infected mothers and their normal birth weight infants who were enrolled in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme. Participants were recruited at the 6-week clinic visit and followed up every 2 weeks until their infants were 9 months of age. Mother-infant pairs in the massage therapy and control groups included 73 and 88 at 6 weeks and 55 and 58 at 9 months, respectively. Mothers in the intervention group were trained to massage their infants for 15 min daily. The socioeconomic status, immunity, relationship with the partner and mental pain of mothers; the infants' dietary intake, anthropometry and development (Griffiths Mental Development Scales); and haematological and iron status of mothers and infants were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Nine infants (5.3%) were HIV-infected on the HIV DNA PCR test at 6 weeks. Despite significantly higher levels of maternal mental pain, infants in the massage therapy compared to control group scored higher in all five of the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development and significantly higher in the mean quotient (p=0.002) and mean percentile (p=0.004) for the hearing and speech scale at 9 months. Based on the mean difference in scores, the massage therapy group showed greater improvement for all five scales compared to the control group. The mean difference in scores was significantly greater for the hearing and speech quotient (21.9 vs. 11.2) (pdevelopment and had a significant effect on the hearing and speech and general quotient of HIV-exposed infants in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mansfield Elizabeth D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1 to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2 to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59. Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights.
One feature of climate change is the increasing heat exposure in many workplaces where efficient cooling systems cannot be applied. Excessive heat exposure is a particular problem for working people because of the internal heat production when muscle work is carried out. The physiological basis for severe heat stroke, other clinical effects, and heat exhaustion is well known. One feature of this health effect of excessive workplace heat exposure is reduced work capacity, and new research has started to quantify this effect in the context of climate change. Current climate conditions in tropical and subtropical parts of the world are already so hot during the hot seasons that occupational health effects occur and work capacity for many working people is affected. The Hothaps-Soft database and software andClimateCHIP.orgwebsite make it possible to rapidly produce estimates of local heat conditions and trends. The results can be mapped to depict the spatial distribution of workplace heat stress. In South-East Asia as much as 15% to 20% of annual work hours may already be lost in heat-exposed jobs, and this may double by 2050 as global climate change progresses. By combining heat exposure data and estimates of the economic consequences, the vulnerability of many low- and middle-income countries is evident. The annual cost of reduced labor productivity at country level already in 2030 can be several percent of GDP, which means billions of US dollars even for medium-size countries. The results provide new arguments for effective climate change adaptation and mitigation policies and preventive actions in all countries. © 2015 APJPH.
Karduni, Alireza; Cho, Isaac; Wessel, Ginette; Ribarsky, William; Sauda, Eric; Dou, Wenwen
Understanding people's behavior is fundamental to many planning professions (including transportation, community development, economic development, and urban design) that rely on data about frequently traveled routes, places, and social and cultural practices. Based on the results of a practitioner survey, the authors designed Urban Space Explorer, a visual analytics system that utilizes mobile social media to enable interactive exploration of public-space-related activity along spatial, temporal, and semantic dimensions.
Aigbokhan, B E
This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.
Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J
The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) in comparison with aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater (UWW) treatment. To this aim, a combined approach of steady-state performance modelling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) was used, in which AnMBR (coupled with an aerobic-based post-treatment) was compared to aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS). AnMBR with CAS-based post-treatment for nutrient removal was identified as a sustainable option for moderate-/high-loaded UWW treatment: low energy consumption and reduced sludge production could be obtained at given operating conditions. In addition, significant reductions can be achieved in different aspects of environmental impact (global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, etc.) and LCC over existing UWW treatment technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
STATUS SOSIAL-EKONOMI DAN KADAR HORMON TIROTROPIN RUMAH-TANGGA PENGGUNA GARAM BERIDOIUM DI PERKOTAAN INDONESIA : ANALISIS DATA RISKESDAS 2007 (SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND THYROTROPIN HORMONE LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODIZED SALT IN INDONESIAN URBAN : ANA
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodized salt is the long term and sustainable strategy to improve iodine intakeof the community.Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin hormone can be used as indicator of iodine intake adequacy. To study the socio-economic status of households using iodized salt and thyrotropin hormone level in urban areas. Riskesdas data 2007 that include 280.000 households was used.Thyrotropin hormone data include 9.457 people aged above 1 years. Variables included classification of village, rapid test on salt, education and occupation of households’ head, household expenditure and level of thyrotropin hormone. Around 80 percentof households where households’ head graduated from college/university used salt containing sufficient iodine. Only 18 percent households with households’ headworks as government workers used salt containing sufficient iodine. Around 70 percent households in 5th quintile of household’s expenditure were using salt with sufficient iodine content. Around 70 percent households in urban areas were using salt withsufficient iodine content.Among children 1-4 years, percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormon level was 3.3 percentand among 60 years of age and above was 15.8 percent. The higher the educational levelthe higher the percentage of households used salt with sufficient iodine. Percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine was higher in urban than in rural areas. The higher the quintiles of household expenditures the higher the percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine. There was a trend that the higher the age the higher the percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormone level. Keywords: householdsalt, education, occupation, urban, rural, expenditure, thyrotropin hormone ABSTRAK Garam beriodium merupakan strategi jangka panjang dan berkesinambungan untuk memperbaiki asupan iodium masyarakat. Sementara itu, kadar thyroid stimulating hormone (hormon tirotropin dapat
Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy
China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg = 1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m−2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014
David J. Nowak; Paula B. Randler; Eric J. Greenfield; Sara J. Comas; Mary A. Carr; Ralph J. Alig
Close to 80 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban areas and depends on the essential ecological, economic, and social benefits provided by urban trees and forests. However, the distribution of urban tree cover and the benefits of urban forests vary across the United States, as do the challenges of sustaining this important resource. As urban areas expand...
Gouda, Sushanto; Kerry, Rout George; Das, Gitishree; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been functioning as a co-evolution between plants and microbes showing antagonistic and synergistic interactions with microorganisms and the soil. Microbial revitalization using plant growth promoters had been achieved through direct and indirect approaches like bio-fertilization, invigorating root growth, rhizoremediation, disease resistance etc. Although, there are a wide variety of PGPR and its allies, their role and usages for sustainable agriculture remains controversial and restricted. There is also variability in the performance of PGPR that may be due to various environmental factors that might affect their growth and proliferation in the plants. These gaps and limitations can be addressed through use of modern approaches and techniques such as nano-encapsulation and micro-encapsulation along with exploring multidisciplinary research that combines applications in biotechnology, nanotechnology, agro biotechnology, chemical engineering and material science and bringing together different ecological and functional biological approaches to provide new formulations and opportunities with immense potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Contemporary studies have shown that the regeneration of tissues and root elongation is possible in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative endodontic therapy by using platelet rich fibrin for revitalization of immature non vital tooth. An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Intra oral periapical radiograph showed open apex and associated immature supernumerary tooth with respect to tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. During second visit, 5 mL of whole blood was drawn from the medial cubital vein of the patient and blood was then subjected to centrifugation at 2400 rpm for 12 minutes for the preparation of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF utilizing Choukroun′s method. Triple antibiotic paste was removed and canal was dried. PRF clot was pushed to the apical region of tooth #21 using hand pluggers. Three milimetres of Mineral trioxide (MTA was placed in cervical part of the root canal and permanent restoration was done three days later. Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21and it responded positively to both electric pulp and cold tests. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21 and its associated supernumerary tooth. On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that PRF clot may serve as a scaffold for regeneration of necrotic immature teeth.
Lee, Annette S.; Gawboy, Carl; Rock, Jim; Tibbetts, Jeff; Wilson, William; O'Rourke, Charlene
In Ojibwe culture we look towards the Evening Star and honor Ikwe’ Anung - the Woman’s Star. In D(L)akota culture in addition to seeing the dragon, Draco in the northern circumpolar skies, we recognize Wakiyan - the Thunderbird, located at the center of the precession circle. Woven into the native star knowledge are important and insightful understandings of astronomical patterns and phenomenon that are too valuable to be forgotten. This living relationship with the cosmos is a core part of the cultural history and present day heritage of native people.Native Skywatchers is an indigenous led initiative to revitalize and rebuild the star knowledge of the Ojibwe and D(L)akota peoples. Right now is a critical time; much has been lost. At the same time, there is a tremendous demand and excitement for this knowledge.Growing momentum is due in part to the MN State K-12 Science Standards (2009) that requires educators to teach how: “Men and women throughout the history of all cultures, including Minnesota American Indian tribes and communities, have been involved in engineering design and scientific inquiry.” Specifically Benchmark 220.127.116.11.1 states, “For example: Ojibwe and Dakota knowledge and use of patterns in the stars to predict and plan”.This important work has many branches: interdisciplinary connections in science and culture, formal and informal science education, artwork and art programming, history and heritage, outreach and community wellness.The focus of this presentation will be collaborative work done with educators. The aim has been expanding the work from cultural heritage into classroom curriculum while preserving the cultural integrity. This has been accomplished by two primary factors: 1.) the development of resources such as: native star maps, planispheres, constellation guidebooks, artwork, curriculum; 2.) dissemination and exchange with regional educators, including the state office of the Minnesota Department of Education.
Full Text Available During 1970s, the de-industrialization in many western countries caused large unemployment and decay of industrial cities. Accordingly, as an urban revitalization strategy, tourism was initiated in many urban historical quarters to revitalize the economy and to improve the decaying city image. Many de-industrialized cities witnessed the rise of place marketing-led tourism in historical quarters. Many quarters have removed and replaced the existing residents and original functions which were thought to convey negative images. Meanwhile, new images and attractions, including museums, crafts, arts, cultural heritage, and festivals have been introduced in these empty physical fabrics to attract investors and tourists. More recently, the strategy of tourism development tends to be closely related with other urban planning strategies, especially in historical quarters’ revitalization process, which usually link tourism with other development strategies such as cultural industry and creative industry (Tiesdell et al., 1996, Cunningham, 2002 to transform these quarters into cultural hubs or creative dismissions (Roodhouse, 2010, aiming to attract not only tourists but also local people, enhance the quarters’ cultural ambience, and promote local cultural production consumption without emptying all the residents and functions. In recent decades, many Chinese cities have experienced huge urban changes. With many urban historical quarters being demolished to gain development profits and new city image, many old neighbourhoods collapsed with their residents relocated to frontier areas. This paper conducts a comparative study on recent creative hub initiated by Shanghai government—Tianzi Fang and the Xi’an Muslim Quarter. It analyzes the recycling mode, the everyday life , the experience of uniqueness, and social network based on the two cases. It also explores the tensions, conflicts, and cooperation within the network of disciplines, governmental
Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lazaro, Evelyn
The interlinked relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are perceived crucial in enhancing possibilities for livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Urban settlements provide opportunities for investment in more remunerative economic...... activities, job/employment opportunities that retain potential migrants in the area, and access to services for the rural hinterlands. This paper examines the role of emerging urban centres (EUCs) as ‘drivers’ of rural development based on a study of two EUCs and their rural hinterlands in Tanzania. Findings...... and poverty reduction....
Wang, Hui; Zhu, Pengyu; Chen, Xiao Qing
A driving force of urban development is “accumulation by dispossession” which occurs through expropriation, privatization, and commodification of land. While the macro theory is now well refined, there is still much we do not know about how the underlying processes occur and how they shape economic...... development and urbanization. In this study, we analyze 2009 survey data of land expropriation cases across 12 Chinese cities, and find that expropriation takes different forms leading to specific outcomes. In half the cases, local governments followed central government policies requiring them to pay...... undermines urban development leading to social instability....