WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban black youth

  1. Mission Impossible? Social Work Practice with Black Urban Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jerry R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of social work practice skills to serve black urban youth gangs. Presents a model for practice which respects youths' right to self-determination and community needs. Model stages discussed include contact, rapport, setting goals, assigning roles, procuring resources, and evaluation. Model applicability is suggested. (NRB)

  2. After-School Programs: A Resource for Young Black Males and Other Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Malcolm H.

    2016-01-01

    While after-school programs are plentiful, they are often developed arbitrarily with little attention given to theoretical underpinnings that may inform program interventions. In this article, after-school programs are situated in resilience theory as protective factors, which encourage resilience among young Black males and other urban youth. The…

  3. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  4. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  5. "Hold up..do pigs eat bacon?!" An investigation of science instruction for urban Black youth and the need for a culturally considerate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Monica Lynn

    As a critical race ethnography, this dissertation attempts to foreground the richness of Black urban youth culture during and around science classroom instruction. Ironically, during an era of much diversity rhetoric in the United States, the culture of urban Black youth is rarely reflected in mainstream public school culture. I attempt to explicate such a worldview compassionately and authentically for both insiders and outsiders of the lived experiences of Black America. Education in the United States can be damning for Black youth who do not fit the mainstream mold, and several authors have provided detailed critique of mechanisms that shape, direct, and marginalize outliers to the successful academic cultural model. The U.S. through this lens is experiencing an opportunity gap, not an achievement gap--one which equitable educational experience can best be viewed through the richness of critical ethnographic methods. This methodical approach allowed me as a researcher to listen to marginalized voices and to incorporate lived interactions with youth, their parents, and community stakeholders all committed to provide support for the today's youth. As a Black female science educator, I explore the evidence for reform impact as I examine in school experiences and science teaching of culturally relevant pedagogies for urban, working-class and poor families of color in grades six-eight who participated in a Western New York academic enrichment program. Findings suggest that skepticism of reform efforts and new pedagogical approaches existed for all stakeholders aforementioned, but that students were the most amenable and responsive to alternative educational approaches. Specific recommendations for engaging students in inquiry processes are given for teachers, institutions, parents and students on the basis of videotaped lessons, interviews, and instructional artifacts. Implications include the recommendations that educators working with youth of color need to be

  6. Popular Visual Images and the (Mis)Reading of Black Male Youth: A Case for Racial Literacy in Urban Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Ruiz, Yolanda; Greene, Perry

    2015-01-01

    In the majority of public schools across the nation, Black male youth are undergoing what can be deemed as "educational genocide"--the killing off of any chances for an equitable education. This dramatically decreases opportunities for Black male youth to develop into fully participating citizens in a democratic society. In many ways,…

  7. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Mental Health Service Use by Urban, Under-Resourced Black Youth: Adolescent and Caregiver Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A; Chambers, Kerri; Pohle, Cara; Beall, Peggy; Lucksted, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Black adolescents with mental health problems are less likely than non-Black adolescents with mental health problems to receive treatment, primarily for non-financial reasons including negative perceptions of services and providers, and self-stigma associated with experiencing mental health problems. To better understand these obstacles, 16 adolescents and 11 caregivers, recruited from two K-8th grade elementary-middle schools, participated in four focus groups guided by the unified theory of behavior to explore mental health help-seeking behaviors and perceptions of mental health services. In the focus groups, caregivers acknowledged more positive attitudes about seeking mental health services than adolescents, but both expected the experience of actually doing so to be negative. Adolescents and caregivers also acknowledged social norms that inhibit their mental health help-seeking. Therefore, we conclude that interventions targeting expectancies and social norms might increase the connection of urban, under-resourced Black adolescents and their families to mental health services, and be particularly important given the long-term consequences of untreated mental health problems for this group.

  8. "Without Porn … I Wouldn't Know Half the Things I Know Now": A Qualitative Study of Pornography Use Among a Sample of Urban, Low-Income, Black and Hispanic Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    Information about the pornography-viewing habits of urban, low-income youth of color in the United States is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16- to 18-year-old urban-residing, low-income Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching; where and for what purpose? (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors? and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (1) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (2) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (3) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (4) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (5) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youth's use of pornography but underequipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a preference for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity.

  9. Emerging Critical Meta-Awareness among Black and Latina/o Youth during Corrective Feedback Practices in Urban English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Danny C.

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses teachers' uptake of Black and Latina/o youth linguistic repertoires within the official space of an English Language Arts (ELA) classroom and how youth respond to corrective feedback that is focused on the form of their messages, rather than their function. Corrective feedback offered by one Latina teacher indexed larger…

  10. Rural and Urban Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  11. “Without Porn…I Wouldn’t Know Half The Things I Know Now”: A Qualitative Study of Pornography Use Among a Sample Of Urban, Low-Income, Black and Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson

    2014-01-01

    Information about pornography-viewing habits of urban, low income, youth of color in the U.S. is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16-18 year old urban-residing, low income, Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching, where, and for what purpose?; (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors?; and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (a) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse, but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (b) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (c) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (d) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (e) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youths’ use of pornography, but under-equipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a prefererence for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity. PMID:25350847

  12. Motivating Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Television, advertising, the Internet, music, and the proliferation of chain stores have had a homogenizing effect on children. Regardless of what type of environment they live in, the style of youth's dress, the way they talk, and how they respond to a wide range of stimuli are surprisingly similar. In spite of these similarities, the challenges…

  13. Relocating the Deficit: Reimagining Black Youth in Neoliberal Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Bianca J.

    2014-01-01

    After-school community-based spaces are often recognized in political and educational discourse as institutions that "save" and "rescue" Black youth. Such rhetoric perpetuates an ethos of pathology that diminishes the agency of youth and their communities. Through ethnographic research with 20 youth workers at a college…

  14. Corner stores: the perspective of urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sandra; Grode, Gabrielle; McCoy, Tara; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Wojtanowski, Alexis; Sandoval, Brianna Almaguer; Foster, Gary D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the perspectives of low-income, urban youth about the corner store experience to inform the development of corner store interventions. Focus groups were conducted to understand youth perceptions regarding their early shopping experiences, the process of store selection, reasons for shopping in a corner store, parental guidance about corner stores, and what their ideal, or "dream corner store" would look like. Thematic analysis was employed to identify themes using ATLAS.ti (version 6.1, 2010, ATLAS.ti GmbH) and Excel (version 2010, Microsoft Corp). Focus groups were conducted in nine kindergarten-through-grade 8 (K-8) public schools in low-income neighborhoods with 40 fourth- to sixth-graders with a mean age of 10.9±0.8 years. Youth report going to corner stores with family members at an early age. By second and third grades, a growing number of youth reported shopping unaccompanied by an older sibling or adult. Youth reported that the products sold in stores were the key reason they choose a specific store. A small number of youth said their parents offered guidance on their corner store purchases. When youth were asked what their dream corner store would look like, they mentioned wanting a combination of healthy and less-healthy foods. These data suggest that, among low-income, urban youth, corner store shopping starts at a very young age and that product, price, and location are key factors that affect corner store selection. The data also suggest that few parents offer guidance about corner store purchases, and youth are receptive to having healthier items in corner stores. Corner store intervention efforts should target young children and their parents/caregivers and aim to increase the availability of affordable, healthier products. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban displaced youth in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.

  16. Assessing materialism in Indian urban youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Abidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the concept of materialism has shifted from (the Indian philosophical concepts Lokāyata/Cārvāka, from supernaturalism to naturalism, following the development of science and modernism. People, who were predominantly religious and believed in philosophical idealism, as opposed to materialism, have started following philosophical materialism to express their worldview and progress. E.g., living in a big city and owning a car is perceived as an orientation toward material goods and materialism, which may not be true. This study makes an attempt to develop a measure for materialistic orientation, which takes into account the cultural and behavioural distinctions of Indian urban youth. Existing measures of materialism are reviewed to develop a measure that is more attuned to trace the contextual materialism in Indian urban youth. Findings of the study suggest that, in order to measure the level of materialism, three dimensions need to be considered, i.e. significance, individuality and satisfaction.

  17. Creating Programs for Africa's Urban Youth : The Challenge of Marginalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sommers, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Urban youth constitute the vanguard of Africa's twinned demographic transformations. Sub-Saharan Africa's youth population growth rate is the highest of any world region (North Africa's rate is also high). In addition, Africa's urban growth rate is the world's highest. Taken together, the need to provide adequate, effective support for urban youth is critical to fostering Africa's development – and its political, social and economic stability. This article is designed to help address this nee...

  18. On Being Disrupted: Youth Work and Black Lives Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marie Bonfiglio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth workers are constantly figuring out how to respond to their young people, especially in times of disruption. The Black Lives Matter movement came close to home in the aftermath of the shooting by police of Jamar Clark, a young black man in north Minneapolis. This article is a reflection on the tensions that six area youth workers faced and the variety of roles that they played in working with their young people. The goal of this paper is to inspire other youth workers to be bold to act in times of disruption in order to support their young people and challenge the systems that impact them.

  19. Strengths as the Foundation for Intervention with Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael Canute; Rowan, George T.; Longhurst, Jim; Kim, Soyoun

    2006-01-01

    The inherent strengths of Black youth are sometimes overlooked by assessment and intervention following perspectives of the dominant culture. This article describes the unique ways in which strengths and difficulties are defined in Black culture. This research is informing more appropriate strategies for building on the strengths of this…

  20. Effectiveness of a Combined Tutoring and Mentoring Intervention with Ninth-Grade, Urban Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Wang, Dan; Piliawsky, Monte

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a combined tutoring and mentoring intervention for urban, low-income Black youth during the transition to high school. Participants were 118 ninth-grade students (experimental n = 69; comparison n = 49). After 7 months in the intervention program, students in the experimental group showed…

  1. Perceptions of E-Cigarettes among Black Youth in California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Catherine; Antin, Tamar; Annechino, Rachelle

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Black youth are less likely to use e-cigarettes than their white counterparts, yet little is known as to why. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black young adults (ages 18–25) to explore the meanings these youth ascribe to e-cigarettes and the role that identity...... plays in how these devices are viewed. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 36 Black smokers and non-smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area suggests that Black youth perceive e-cigarettes as serving distinct, yet overlapping roles: a utilitarian function, in that they are recognized as legitimate smoking...... cessation tools, and a social function, insofar as they serve to mark social identity, specifically a social identity from which our participants disassociated. Participants described e-cigarette users in highly racialized and classed terms and generally expressed disinterest in using e-cigarettes, due...

  2. Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study

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    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has suggested vulnerability to perceived racial discrimination (PRD as a mechanism behind high levels of depression seen in high socioeconomic status (SES Black males. To better understand the effects of gender and SES on shaping experiences of PRD among Black youth in the United States, we used data from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS to explore the trajectory of PRD in Black youth by gender, SES, and place. Methods: Data came from FACHS, 1997–2017, which followed 889 children aged 10–12 years old at Wave 1 (n = 478; 53.8% females and n = 411; 46.2% males for up to 18 years. Data were collected in seven waves. The main predictors of interest were gender, SES (parent education and annual family income, age, and place of residence. Main outcomes of interest were baseline and slope of PRD. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM was used for data analysis. Results: Gender, SES, place, and age were correlated with baseline and change in PRD over time. Male, high family income, and younger Black youth reported lower PRD at baseline but a larger increase in PRD over time. Youth who lived in Iowa (in a predominantly White area reported higher PRD at baseline and also an increase in PRD over time. High parental education was not associated with baseline or change in PRD. Conclusion: In the United States, Black youth who are male, high income, and live in predominantly White areas experience an increase in PRD over time. Future research is needed on the interactions between gender, SES, and place on exposure and vulnerability of Black youth to PRD. Such research may explain the increased risk of depression in high SES Black males.

  3. [Urban youth in Africa: constants and departures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukakayumba, E

    1994-12-01

    Over the past decade, growing interest has been shown in African youth, but the abundant literature has dealt almost exclusively with the minority that attend school. Less advantaged youth are of interest primarily when involved in violent incidents. Exploratory studies of street youth were conducted in Kigali in August 1991 and in Bamako in October and November, 1993. Africa is a young continent, with half the population under 25 in most countries. Young people constitute the majority of the population everywhere, and are even more numerous among those leaving the countryside for the cities. But urban destinations are themselves in crisis, offering poor employment prospects, high prices and inflation, and growing gaps between the rich and poor. The great changes in African socioeconomic life have particularly affected the young. The entry of Africa into world socioeconomic systems has disordered traditional systems in which children were a source of labor and of old age support. The increasing numbers of unwanted pregnancies result from several factors, including breakdowns in traditional mores, extensive poverty, and slow spread of family planning. The increasing number of children and young people who break all ties with their families and live in the streets is a related phenomenon. Young people living completely in the streets and often associated with gangs should not be confused with young people who work in the streets for parts of each day but still live with their families. The scarcity of studies of street children partially explains the difficulty of estimating how many such children exist in African cities. The increase in street children results from the imbalance between population and essential resources, and the failure of traditional structures of economic, social, cultural, and political organization. The family and other elements of traditional solidarity that, until recently, were able to manage economic crises have grown less able to do so

  4. Urban slums and youth criminality in Calabar Municipality of Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the diagnosis of contemporary threat to state stability, urbanization is inevitably included among the litany of emerging challenges. This study sets out to examine the relationship between urban slums and youth criminality in Calabar urban area of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve this objective, 400 respondents ...

  5. Branded for Life: The Case of Detained Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, L. Alex

    The concept represented by the term juvenile delinquency covers a wide range of activities and a complex set of juvenile offenses. Moreover, the concept is vague and its definition is often left to the discretion of law enforcement agencies and the courts. A problem for black youth is that their acts are assessed by outsiders who have the power to…

  6. Whose banner are we waving? Exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Monica L.; Yerrick, Randy K.

    2018-03-01

    This case study examines after school programming in citizen science from the perspective of Critical Race Theory. During the course of enacting community outreach projects this data was used to examine the positioning of experts, student, and teachers within the program. This study explores the role of race and ethnicity, and the ways in which marginalization can manifest itself with black urban youth and teachers. Implications for partner selection and training are addressed.

  7. The Lessons of Non-Formal Learning for Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    Non-formal learning for urban youth has a long history in the United States; it remains a source of innovation. This essay draws on literature about organizations that use community ties to encourage cognitive development and identity formation. It then describes how one youth organization in Camden, New Jersey uses presentations to the community…

  8. Perceptions of E-Cigarettes among Black Youth in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Hess

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that Black youth are less likely to use e-cigarettes than their white counterparts, yet little is known as to why. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black young adults (ages 18–25 to explore the meanings these youth ascribe to e-cigarettes and the role that identity plays in how these devices are viewed. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 36 Black smokers and non-smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area suggests that Black youth perceive e-cigarettes as serving distinct, yet overlapping roles: a utilitarian function, in that they are recognized as legitimate smoking cessation tools, and a social function, insofar as they serve to mark social identity, specifically a social identity from which our participants disassociated. Participants described e-cigarette users in highly racialized and classed terms and generally expressed disinterest in using e-cigarettes, due in part perhaps to the fact that use of these devices would signal alignment with a middle class, hipster identity. This analysis is discussed within a highly charged political and public health debate about the benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use.

  9. Rural And Urban Youth Participation In Community Development In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focused on participation in community development activities, constraints to and benefits derived from participation. It compared rural and urban youth participation in community development activities in Ido local government area of Oyo State. Proportionate random sampling was used to select 2 rural, 1 urban ...

  10. Best management practices in counting urban black bears

    OpenAIRE

    Fusaro, Jonathan L.; Conner, Mary M.; Conover, Michael R.; Taylor, Timothy J.; Kenyon, Marc W., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    DNA-based capture-mark-recapture (CMR) techniques are commonly used to obtain population parameters of black bears (Ursus americanus) in rural and wildland landscapes; however, these techniques have not been implemented in urban clusters (i.e., 2,500 to 50,000 residents). Black bears can readily habituate to urban clusters, and wildlife managers need to monitor and manage these urban bear populations. We modified DNAbased CMR for black bear using hair-snares to take into account the small hom...

  11. Manga comic influences snack selection in Black and Hispanic New York City youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Agaronov, Alen; Hou, Ningqi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether a single exposure to a Manga comic (Japanese comic art) with multiple messages promoting fruit intake influenced snack selection in minority urban youth. Fifty-seven youth (mean age 10.8 y; 54% female; 74% black/African American) attending after-school programs in Brooklyn, NY participated in a pilot study in which they were randomly assigned to receive the comic or a non-health-related newsletter. After reading their media, participants were offered a snack and could choose from among healthy/unhealthy options. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations related to fruit intake and media transportation. Data were analyzed using regression and paired t test. Comic group participants were significantly more likely to choose a healthy snack, compared to the Attention-control group (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-12.1, P = .04). The Comic group reported increases in self-efficacy (P = .04) and greater transportation (immersion into media) (P = .006). Results suggest Manga comics may be a useful format to promote healthy snack selection in urban minority youth. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reclaiming urban youth identity through language in Kenya: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reclaiming urban youth identity through language in Kenya: the case of Koch FM radio. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... a new constitution that has expanded the democratic space and created broader awareness of ...

  13. A Glimpse of Urban Youth Unemployment in Ethiopia | Gizaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this article is to explore the employment status, issues, causes, and possible policy options. The study used both secondary and primary data sources. The study indicated that urban youth unemployment in Ethiopia is fast growing mainly due to the imbalance between the demand and supply sides of the job ...

  14. Urban Youth speech Styles in Kenya and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M; Mous, M.; Nortier, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we compare Urban Youth Speech Styles (UYSS’s) in Nairobi, Kenya (Kiessling and Mous 2004) and in the western parts of the Netherlands as it has been documented around the major cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Den Haag and Utrecht (Dorleijn and Nortier 2012 and references there).

  15. Youth, creativity and urban life: insights from classics | Iraki | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This phenomenon stands in stark contrast with traditional African ethos and social mores. In traditional African setting, the role of the youth was well defined and demarcated. ... With the advent of urbanization, traditional African life mutates rapidly as the pressure of modern life redefines social roles and responsibilities.

  16. Motivating Urban Youth: Honoring the Experiences of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in nearly the last decade has drawn attention to the fact that adolescents often feel disconnected with schooling. Youth are described as bored, unmotivated, uninterested, not listening, and feeling averse to learning. In studies highlighting urban adolescents, feelings of disconnection, disaffection, and despair are noted.…

  17. Urban upgrading, resettlement are tools to overcome youth violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... This systematic review of the evidence suggests that urban upgrading and resettlement programs offer the best outcomes for cities facing high levels of youth violence. This paper is authored by a team of IDRC grantees at the University of Cape Town evaluating the effectiveness of a public infrastructure ...

  18. Pathways to Aggression in Urban Elementary School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…

  19. Teen Pregnancy and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Methods: Literature review. Results: In 2006, the birth rate among 15-…

  20. Asthma and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of asthma among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which poorly controlled asthma adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Methods: Literature review. Results: Asthma is the most common chronic…

  1. Recruiting and Retaining Black Teachers to Work in Urban Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Evans

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine teacher preparation from the perspective of novice Black teachers. While all teachers, regardless of race, can be trained to be effective teachers of Black students, Black teachers can be more adept at motivating and engaging students of color. Six Black teachers were interviewed to determine their experiences during teacher preparation and induction. Findings revealed the teachers believed their programs were high quality and prepared them well to teach in urban spaces, but some expressed concern about the swift immersion into the classroom.

  2. Relationship between urban sprawl and weight of United States youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Brownson, Ross C; Berrigan, David

    2006-12-01

    Among United States youth there is an obesity epidemic with potential life-long health implications. To date, relationships between the built environment and body mass index (BMI) have not been evaluated for youth, and have not been evaluated longitudinally. To determine if urban sprawl is associated with BMI for U.S. youth. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Hierarchical modeling was used to relate characteristics of individuals, households, and places to BMI. Individual and household data were extracted from the NLSY97. The independent variable of interest was the county sprawl index, which was derived with principal components analyses from census and other data. In a cross-sectional analysis, the likelihood of U.S. adolescents (aged 12-17 years) being overweight or at risk of overweight (> or =85th percentile relative to the Centers for Disease Control growth charts) was associated with county sprawl (p=0.022). In another cross-sectional analysis, after controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral covariates, the likelihood of young adults (aged 18-23 years) being obese was also associated with county sprawl (p=0.048). By contrast, in longitudinal analyses, BMI growth curves for individual youth over the 7 years of NLSY97, and BMI changes for individual youth who moved between counties, were not related to county sprawl (although coefficient signs were as expected). Cross-sectional analyses suggest that urban form is associated with being overweight among U.S. youth. The strength of these relationships proved comparable to those previously reported for adults. Longitudinal analyses show no such relationship. It is unclear why these approaches give different results, but sample sizes, latent effects, and confounders may contribute.

  3. The use of slang by black youth in Gauteng | Bembe | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth generally use slang to identify themselves with particular groups in terms of age, gender, region, race, etc. The focus of this paper is to discuss the use of slang, particularly in. English, by black youth in Gauteng and their social motivations for using this variety of English. Thepaper will demonstrate, through examples ...

  4. Learning about the "Real World" in an Urban Arts Youth Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Reed W.; Walker, Kathrin C.

    2006-01-01

    To make the transition to adulthood, youth must learn to function in the complex and unpredictable "real world" of adult life. This is an intensive case study of an urban arts program that sought to provide youth with experiences that prepared them for the real world of arts careers. We conducted 75 interviews with 12 youth and their adult leader…

  5. Review: Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Ineke van Kessel; Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden

    2014-01-01

    Review of the Monograph:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 Seiten

  6. Rethinking Educational Spaces: A Review of Literature on Urban Youth and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Terry T.; Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

    2014-01-01

    This paper serves as an exploration into the landscape of social media use in educational research as it relates to urban youth in the United States. Initially, a social and learning context is provided that situates the implications social media may have for urban youth within formal and informal educational spaces. The paper offers a discussion…

  7. Intervening in Alienation: The Outcomes for Urban Youth of Participating in School Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taines, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether school activism diminishes the alienation that accompanies urban youths' observations of unequal educational conditions, and often leads to underachievement and school rejection. The study is based on interviews with 13 urban youth about their participation in a community-based program that supports education…

  8. Physical activity of youth in non-urban parks: an observation-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Public parks play an important role in healthy, active living, but the extent to which parks influence the physical activity (PA) of diverse youth outside of urban areas has not been adequately explored. This study used systematic behavioural observations to examine demographic factors and environmental attributes associated with youth PA in non-urban state parks of...

  9. Rural-urban Youth Migration and Informal Self-Employment in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bezu, Sosina; Holden, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies in the migration literature indicate that migration is often welfare improving for the migrant. But it is also possible that youth migrants become more susceptible and less competitive in urban areas because of lower endowment in education, experience, financial capital and social network. This report examines the experience of youth migrants, their challenges and opportunities using three sets of data that enable a mapping of youth migration from rural villages to the urban...

  10. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-15

    Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES) on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A). Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio) were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily) discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low) perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth depends on the

  11. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life—Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A. Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth

  12. Black Otherfathering in the Educational Experiences of Black Males in a Single-Sex Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooms, Derrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: A good deal of research has been written about the problems and challenges facing Black male youth in their educational endeavors, ranging from academic performances, aspirations, and outcomes to student-teacher relationships, social experiences, and identity development. Statements calling for more Black male teachers abound…

  13. Urban youth, fear of crime, and resulting defensive actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J S; Singh, B K; Singh, B B

    1994-01-01

    One of the most neglected populations studied in victimology has been juveniles. The present study examines the impact of fear of crime among a sample of urban youth on their defensive actions. Studies of urban adult populations have found that a significant number of people fear to venture outside their homes at night. When they do go out, they often take defensive measures to insure their safety. Carrying "mace," whistles, guns, knives, and clubs, for example, is not uncommon. Some have indicated that they have undertaken training in a variety of self-defensive arts and/or keep dogs to protect themselves from the possibility of being victimized. Using data collected from a sample of 1,775 urban youth in 1986 it was found that this population has taken many of the same defensive actions. Only 11% of the sample indicated that they had not taken any defensive actions as a result of fear of crime. Nearly three-fifths took the precaution of having an escort when they went out at night. Learning a technique of self-defense was reported by 19% of the sample; 10% indicated that they carried "mace" or some other type of repellant. Only 4% reported that they carried a whistle because of crime concerns. Significant predictors of personal defensive actions include gender, crime-witnessing status, victimization status and type of victimization (theft vs. witnessing Other defensive actions taken by members of the respondents' households included installing a burglar alarm (22%), keeping a "trained dog" (17%), keeping lights on a night (39%), and installing security locks (38%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. "The Discipline Stop": Black Male Teachers and the Politics of Urban School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockenbrough, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Calls for the recruitment and retention of more Black male teachers have unfolded amid popular depictions of Black men as patriarchal disciplinarians. Against that backdrop, this article investigates how 11 Black male teachers were positioned as disciplinary agents in a predominantly Black urban school district on the east coast of the United…

  15. Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Shea, Judy A; Rubin, David; Wood, Joanne

    2014-07-01

    Current assessments of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may not adequately encompass the breadth of adversity to which low-income urban children are exposed. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the range of adverse childhood experiences faced by young adults who grew up in a low-income urban area. Focus groups were conducted with young adults who grew up in low-income Philadelphia neighborhoods. Using the nominal group technique, participants generated a list of adverse childhood experiences and then identified the 5 most stressful experiences on the group list. The most stressful experiences identified by participants were grouped into a ranked list of domains and subdomains. Participants identified a range of experiences, grouped into 10 domains: family relationships, community stressors, personal victimization, economic hardship, peer relationships, discrimination, school, health, child welfare/juvenile justice, and media/technology. Included in these domains were many but not all of the experiences from the initial ACEs studies; parental divorce/separation and mental illness were absent. Additional experiences not included in the initial ACEs but endorsed by our participants included single-parent homes; exposure to violence, adult themes, and criminal behavior; personal victimization; bullying; economic hardship; and discrimination. Gathering youth perspectives on childhood adversity broadens our understanding of the experience of stress and trauma in childhood. Future work is needed to determine the significance of this broader set of adverse experiences in predisposing children to poor health outcomes as adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Knowledge provides alternatives to a life of crime for urban youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-08

    Aug 8, 2016 ... Knowledge provides alternatives to a life of crime for urban youth ... related to public housing, education, and family planning also need reform. ... and civil society leaders in Mexico and Central America together to address ...

  17. A New Business: Redirecting Black Youth from the Illegal Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox Edmondson, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Young Black males are an at-risk group for earning a living through illegal activities in the U.S. As with most at-risk groups, concerted efforts have been made to help prepare them to become viable contributors and valued members of society. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members have also tried to reach out and influence young Black males…

  18. Do African Lives Matter to Black Lives Matter? Youth Uprisings and the Borders of Solidarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Krystal

    2018-01-01

    Despite experiencing a proliferation of youth-led mobilizations in recent years, Africa remains peripheral to the analysis of the U.S.-centered Movement for Black Lives (M4BL). This article explores points of convergence and tension between African uprisings and the M4BL, with a focus on two movements at the intersection of education and activism:…

  19. Critical Multicultural Citizenship Education among Black Immigrant Youth: Factors and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; Smith, Patriann

    2016-01-01

    This study uses qualitative interviews with 18 participants across five states to examine the factors that promote enhancement of critical multicultural education for Black immigrant youth. Findings suggest that class discussion, influence of social media and technology, non-educational practices, and cultural and language differences are the…

  20. Aggression and violence and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of aggression and violence among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which aggression and violence adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Literature review. Recent national data indicate that among students aged 12-18, approximately 628,200 violent crimes and 868,100 thefts occurred. Physical fighting was more commonly reported by Blacks and Hispanics (44.7% and 40.4%, respectively) than Whites (31.7%). In-school threats and injuries were nearly twice as prevalent in cities as in suburbs and towns or rural areas (10% vs 6% and 5%, respectively). Associations between exposure to and exhibition of aggression and violence and unfavorable educational outcomes are well documented. Causal pathways through which aggression and violence impede learning include cognition, school connectedness, and absenteeism. Disruptive classroom behavior is a well-recognized and significant impediment to teaching and learning. Compelling research has shown that various school-based programs can significantly reduce the nature and extent of aggressive and violent behaviors. Violence and aggressive behavior are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement by adversely affecting cognition, school connectedness, and absenteeism, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Once the domain of criminal justice, aggression and violence are now recognized as an appropriate and important focus of the education and public health systems. Implementing evidence-based school policies and programs to reduce aggression and violence must be a high priority to help close the achievement gap. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  1. A Loud yet Hardly Audible Voice : Urban Youth Language in “Street Literature”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linn, Stella; Sepp, Arvi; Humblé, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Conference abstract: Recent years have seen the appearance of a new use of language in the French postcolonial novel: the French urban youth vernacular or français contemporain des cités (FCC). This linguistic variety allows underprivileged youths from the banlieues to express their rebellion

  2. Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes of a School-Based Mindfulness Intervention for Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark T.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Gould, Laura Feagans; Rhoades, Brittany L.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Youth in underserved, urban communities are at risk for a range of negative outcomes related to stress, including social-emotional difficulties, behavior problems, and poor academic performance. Mindfulness-based approaches may improve adjustment among chronically stressed and disadvantaged youth by enhancing self-regulatory capacities. This paper…

  3. Social Capital: A Neglected Resource to Create Viable and Sustainable Youth Economic Groups in Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyerere, David J.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an alarming increase in the rate of unemployment among active urban population in Tanzania whereby the youth are severely affected. In this regard Youth Economic Groups (YEGs) program was formed as one among the best alternative strategies to address this perennial problem. Membership in YEGs act as a means to complement youth…

  4. C’est trop auch! The Translation of Contemporary French Literature Featuring Urban Youth Slang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linn, Stella

    2016-01-01

    The French post-colonial novel has recently been witnessing the emergence of urban youth language or français contemporain des cités (Goudaillier 2001). This linguistic variety allows underprivileged youths from multi-ethnic suburbs to rebel against authority by deliberately violating standard

  5. Discerning the role of faith communities in responding to urban youth marginalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald W. Nel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban youth marginalisation became a key consideration in scholarly and policy literature in the 1990s. This entailed a shift from an emphasis on youth in relation to activism in the struggle to overcome colonial racism – popularly known as ‘the struggle against apartheid’ – to an emphasis on youth as the object of social inquiry and social welfare programmes. Irrespective of how we valuate this shift, the question in this article is how urban faith communities and youth ministry research are to respond to the agency of youth as dialogue partners – with a focus on social cohesion. This article explores this shift in scholarship on urban youth movements, especially for the period since 1994. It draws from the perspectives of my recent doctoral studies (Nel 2013 in constructing a creative dialogue with youth movements. The ultimate aim of this article is to provide a grounded basis for constructing a methodology for a postcolonial urban theology. In addition, it aims to inform the ongoing Youth at the Margins (YOMA comparative study on the contribution of faith-based organisations to social cohesion in South Africa and Nordic Europe, with the Riverlea community, in Johannesburg, as one of the case studies.

  6. The development of youth-onset severe obesity in urban US girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. McTigue

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Youth-onset severe obesity warrants particular concern in urban girls due to high prevalence and an increasing secular prevalence trend. Late childhood and early adolescence may represent a key developmental window for prevention and treatment, but is too late to prevent youth-onset severe obesity entirely.

  7. Fulfilling Their Dreams: Marginalized Urban Youths' Perspectives on a Culturally Sensitive Social and Emotional Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten, Christopher D.; Rivera, Roberto C.; Shemwell, Daniel; Elison, Zachary M.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests educators need to focus on cultivating social and emotional competencies that youth will need to thrive in the new knowledge economy (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). For marginalized urban youth, in particular, few have derived programs and interventions to assist with these…

  8. Brand Awareness Strategy for Fashion Urban Youth Local Brand "Pinx Project"

    OpenAIRE

    Insania, Rima; Mutiaz, Intan Rizky

    2013-01-01

    Indonesian young designers have a very strong potential to explore the International level with the achievements that gradually starts to open the eyes of the global fashion world.urban youth local label movement which spreading in 5 years, glance Indonesia fashion industry. One of the is Pinx Project. Pinx Project, found in late November 2011, grew along with urban youth fashion which was booming among young people and many other emerging fashion lines. Pinx, which can still be considered as...

  9. SUICIDAL HANGING IN URBAN YOUTH : A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhola Kumar Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Suicide is among the top three causes of death among youth worldwide. Hanging is among the most common modes of suicide. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the Suicidal hanging in urban youth and determine the prevalence of suicidal hanging in our community. METHODS : In this descriptive, prospective, cross sectional study, all patients who pres ented to the department of emergency medicine with suicidal hanging during this study period of 12 months from January 2010 - December 2011 in . were included. RESULTS : Total number of males in the study is 32 (64%, females in the study is 18(36%. Mean age of the you th was 22.50± 8.15(SD years, Male 18.50± 12.15(SD years, Females 20.50 ±5.25(SD years; predominantly the patients were in the age group of 22 - 26 years. Number of male smokers in the study was 26 (81.25% female smokers were 4(22.22%, number of m ale alcoholics were 27(84.37% whereas female alcoholics were 6(33.33%, number of patients with pallor in males were 16(50% whereas females with pallor were 12(66.66%, number of males with skin changes were 6(18.75% when compared to females who had 8(4 4.44% skin changes, number of males wit oedema were 4(12.5% and 6(33.33% of females had oedema, the mean weight among males were 48±8.34kgs when compared to females which was 42±6.56kgs. Most of the patients who attempted suicide had varied personality issues from mood disorders to psychosis. CONCLUSION : There is significant percentage of patients who attempt suicide by hanging

  10. Monumental heritage exposure to urban black carbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrón, D.; Lyamani, H.; Titos, G.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Cardell, C.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, aerosol light-absorption measurements obtained at three sites during a winter campaign were used to analyse and identify the major sources of Black Carbon (BC) particles in and around the Alhambra monument, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that receives over 2 million visitors per year. The Conditional Bivariate Probability Function and the Aethalometer model were employed to identify the main sources of BC particles and to estimate the contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel emissions to the total Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations over the monumental complex. Unexpected high levels of EBC were found at the Alhambra, comparable to those measured in relatively polluted European urban areas during winter. EBC concentrations above 3.0 μg/m3, which are associated with unacceptable levels of soiling and negative public reactions, were observed at Alhambra monument on 13 days from 12 October 2015 to 29 February 2016, which can pose a risk to its long-term conservation and may cause negative social and economic impacts. It was found that road traffic emissions from the nearby urban area and access road to the Alhambra were the main sources of BC particles over the monument. However, biomass burning emissions were found to have very small impact on EBC concentrations at the Alhambra. The highest EBC concentrations were observed during an extended stagnant episode associated with persistent high-pressure systems, reflecting the large impact that can have these synoptic conditions on BC over the Alhambra.

  11. Television food advertising viewed by preschoolers, children and adolescents: contributors to differences in exposure for black and white youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L

    2018-02-01

    Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Measurement Noninvariance of Safer Sex Self-Efficacy Between Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Donald; Budd, Elizabeth L; Plax, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Black and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) youth in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Although self-efficacy is strongly, positively associated with safer sex behaviors, no studies have examined the validity of a safer sex self-efficacy scale used by many federally funded HIV/STD prevention programs. This study aims to test factor validity of the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine if scale validity varies between heterosexual and LGBQ Black youth. The study uses cross-sectional data collected through baseline surveys with 226 Black youth (15 to 24 years) enrolled in community-based HIV-prevention programs. Participants use a 4-point Likert-type scale to report their confidence in performing 6 healthy sexual behaviors. CFAs are conducted on 2 factor structures of the scale. Using the best-fitting model, the scale is tested for measurement invariance between the 2 groups. A single-factor model with correlated errors of condom-specific items fits the sample well and, when tested with the heterosexual group, the model demonstrates good fit. However, when tested with the LGBQ group, the same model yields poor fit, indicating factorial noninvariance between the groups. The Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale does not perform equally well among Black heterosexual and LGBQ youth. Study findings suggest additional research is needed to inform development of measures for safer sex self-efficacy among Black LGBQ youth to ensure validity of conceptual understanding and to accurately assess effectiveness of HIV/STD prevention interventions among this population.

  13. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES, skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.07–0.89. A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86, suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72 but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55. Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  14. Cultural Identity among Urban American Indian/Native Alaskan Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682

  15. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  16. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meekers Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1 identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2 establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003 of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24. Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths

  17. Social Capital and Vulnerable Urban Youth in Five Global Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Beth Dail; Astone, Nan; Blum, Robert; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Olumide, Adesola; Wang, Ziliang

    2015-01-01

    Background Social capital is essential for the successful development of young people. The current study examines direct measures of social capital in young people in five urban global contexts. Methods The Well Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people aged 15 to 19 years living in disadvantaged, urban settings. Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) was used to recruit approximately 500 participants from each site. The sample included 2339 young people (mean age 16.7 years; 47.5% female). We examined the associations between social capital in four domains -family, school, peers and neighborhood -and demographic characteristics using gender stratified Ordinary Least Squares regression. We also examined associations between self-reported health and the four social capital domains is minimal. School enrollment was positively associated with social capital for young women in Baltimore, Delhi, and Shanghai: the association was less consistent for young men. The same pattern is true for perceived wealth. Unstable housing was associated with low familial social capital in all groups except young women in Shanghai and young men in Ibadan and Johannesburg. Being raised outside a two-parent family has a widespread, negative association with social capital. Self-reported health had a mainly positive association with social capital with the most consistent association being neighborhood social capital, Conclusions Different types of social capital interact with social contexts and gender differently. Strategies that aim to build social capital as part of risk reduction and positive youth development programming need to recognize that social capital enhancement may work differently for different groups and in different settings. PMID:25453999

  18. Social capital and vulnerable urban youth in five global cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Beth Dail; Astone, Nan; Blum, Robert W; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Olumide, Adesola; Wang, Ziliang

    2014-12-01

    Social capital is essential for the successful development of young people. The current study examines direct measures of social capital in young people in five urban global contexts. The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments is a global study of young people aged 15-19 years living in disadvantaged, urban settings. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit approximately 500 participants from each site. The sample included 2,339 young people (mean age 16.7 years; 47.5% female). We examined the associations between social capital in four domains-family, school, peers, and neighborhood and demographic characteristics-using gender-stratified ordinary least-squares regression. We also examined associations between self-reported health and the four social capital domains, which was minimal. School enrollment was positively associated with social capital for young women in Baltimore, Delhi, and Shanghai; the association was less consistent for young men. The same pattern is true for perceived wealth. Unstable housing was associated with low familial social capital in all groups except young women in Shanghai and young men in Ibadan and Johannesburg. Being raised outside a two-parent family has a widespread, negative association with social capital. Self-reported health had a mainly positive association with social capital with the most consistent association being neighborhood social capital. Different types of social capital interact with social contexts and gender differently. Strategies that aim to build social capital as part of risk reduction and positive youth development programming need to recognize that social capital enhancement may work differently for different groups and in different settings. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adapting the Get Yourself Tested Campaign to Reach Black and Latino Sexual-Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Friedman, Allison; Martinez, Omar; Scheinmann, Roberta; Bermudez, Dayana; Silva, Manel; Silverman, Jen; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2016-09-01

    Culturally appropriate efforts are needed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and care among Black and Latino sexual-minority youth, who are at high risk for STDs. Get Yourself Tested, a national testing campaign, has demonstrated success among youth, but it has yet to be assessed for relevance or impact among this population. This effort included (1) formative and materials-testing research through focus groups; (2) adaptation of existing Get Yourself Tested campaign materials to be more inclusive of Black and Latino sexual-minority youth; (3) a 3-month campaign in four venues of New York City, promoting STD testing at events and through mobile testing and online and social media platforms; (4) process evaluation of outreach activities; and (5) an outcome evaluation of testing at select campaign venues, using a preexperimental design. During the 3-month campaign period, the number of STD tests conducted at select campaign venues increased from a comparable 3-month baseline period. Although testing uptake through mobile vans remained low in absolute numbers, the van drew a high-prevalence sample, with positivity rates of 26.9% for chlamydia and 11.5% for gonorrhea. This article documents the process and lessons learned from adapting and implementing a local campaign for Black and Latino sexual-minority youth. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. A School-Based Mindfulness Intervention for Urban Youth: Exploring Moderators of Intervention Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…

  1. Weaponization and Prisonization of Toronto’s Black Male Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Crichlow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Informed by Galtung (1969, Anderson (2012 and Wacquant (2001, this paper argues that a lifetime of spiralling and everyday state structural violence and overtly racist criminal profiling principally targeted at young Black men living in the Toronto Community Housing Corporation prepares them for prison. Moreover, it contends that interpersonal violence, transmitted from generation to generation and producing a vicious cycle, is a manifestation of institutionalized and systemic inequity. In the context of a hypermasculine culture, young Black men are both victims and participants in a dialectic of interpersonal-structural violence. Routinely precipitated by powerful state actors and agencies of criminal justice, public policy and assorted ‘moral entrepreneurs’, young Black men have their masculinity weaponized and prisonized by the state’s low-intensity declaration of war against them, and, among others, the poor, LGBTQ, immigrants, and First Nations and other people of colour.

  2. Urban American Indian Community Perspectives on Resources and Challenges for Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Rachel L; Gone, Joseph P; Momper, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    American Indian (AI) youth have some of the highest rates of suicide of any group in the United States, and the majority of AI youth live in urban areas away from tribal communities. As such, understanding the resources available for suicide prevention among urban AI youth is critical, as is understanding the challenges involved in accessing such resources. Pre-existing interview data from 15 self-identified AI community members and staff from an Urban Indian Health Organization were examined to understand existing resources for urban AI youth suicide prevention, as well as related challenges. A thematic analysis was undertaken, resulting in three principal themes around suicide prevention: formal resources, informal resources, and community values and beliefs. Formal resources that meet the needs of AI youth were viewed as largely inaccessible or nonexistent, and youth were seen as more likely to seek help from informal sources. Community values of mutual support were thought to reinforce available informal supports. However, challenges arose in terms of the community's knowledge of and views on discussing suicide, as well as the perceived fit between community values and beliefs and formal prevention models. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  3. Youth Exposure to Violence in an Urban Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, David; Nguyen, Annie; Beyer, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    To inform a city-wide youth Violence Prevention Initiative, we explored youth narratives about their exposure to violence to gain insight into their understanding of the causes and effects of violence in their communities. At-risk youth were recruited through street outreach for individual interviews and focus group sessions. Types of experiential violence identified included (1) street, (2) family/interpersonal, (3) school, (4) indirect exposure (e.g., neighborhood crime), and (5) prejudice/...

  4. Youth livelihoods in the cellphone era : perspectives from urban Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Gina; Hampshire, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Issues surrounding youth employment and unemployment are central to the next development decade. Understanding how youth use mobile phones as a means of communicating and exchanging information about employment and livelihoods is particularly important given the prominence of mobile phone use in young lives. This paper explores and reflects on youth phone usage in Ghana, Malawi and South Africa, drawing on mixed-methods research with young people aged approximately 9–25 years, in 12 (high den...

  5. "In my house": laying the foundation for youth HIV prevention in the Black church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Alexandra F; Woods, Briana A; Jackson, Melvin; Riggins, Linda; Krieger, Kathleen; Brodie, Kimberly; Gray, Phyllis; Howard, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the process our community-academic partnership used to lay the groundwork for successful implementation of an adolescent-focused, evidence-based HIV/AIDS prevention curriculum in two Black churches. We highlight the challenges encountered and lessons learned in building a relationship with two churches, garnering the pastor's support, and implementing the curriculum within church youth groups. We engaged a Community Advisory Board (CAB) made up of youth, parents, and diverse faith leaders to ensure community relevance and guide project development, implementation, and evaluation. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach helped us to (1) engage diverse, intergenerational community members, (2) initiate a "culturally humble" process to build relationships with faith leaders, (3) remain responsive to stakeholder concerns, and (4) open the door to HIV prevention in the Black church. Finding effective and responsive ways to implement HIV/AIDS prevention in faith settings is facilitated by engaging diverse partners throughout the research process.

  6. Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-12

    Most studies on the role of family environment in developing risk of obesity among youth have focused on parenting behaviors that are directly involved in energy balance in regional, non-representative White samples. Using a national sample of ethnically diverse Black youth, the current study tested the association between low family support and risk of obesity. We also tested the heterogeneity of this association based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a national survey of Black adolescents in the United States. The study enrolled 1170 African American and Caribbean Black 13-17 year old youth. Obesity was defined based on the cutoff points of body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender of youth. Family support was measured using a five-item measure that captured emotional and tangible social support. Age, gender, and ethnicity were also measured. Logistic regressions were utilized in the pooled sample, and also based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection, to test the link between low family support and risk for obesity. In the pooled sample, low family support was not associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.96-1.89). The association between low family support and risk of obesity was, however, significant among African American females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.01-2.55). There was no association for African American males (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82-1.92), Caribbean Black males (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.01-54.85), and Caribbean Black females (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.42-1.44). In conclusion, policies and programs that enable African American families to provide additional family support may prevent obesity among African American female youth. Future research should test the efficacy of promoting family support as a tool for preventing obesity among African American female youth.

  7. A Ratchet Lens: Black Queer Youth, Agency, Hip Hop, and the Black Ratchet Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bettina L.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the utilization of the theory of a Black ratchet imagination as a methodological perspective to examine the multiple intersections of Black and queer identity constructions within the space of hip hop. In particular, I argue for the need of a methodological lens that recognizes, appreciates, and struggles with the fluidity,…

  8. A systematic review of the effects of poverty deconcentration and urban upgrading on youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Inglis, Gabrielle; Wiysonge, Charles; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors have been shown to be associated with youth violence and predictors of youth violence. This systematic review examined the existing evidence for youth violence interventions involving the deconcentration of poverty and urban upgrading. Search strategies combined related terms for youth, violence and a broad combination of terms for the intervention from a range of academic databases and websites. Abstracts were screened by two authors and appraised using a quantitative study assessment tool. Nine studies were included. No strong evidence was available to support diversification as an intervention, some evidence was identified in support of a variety of urban upgrading interventions, while the strongest study designs and demonstrated positive effects were shown for resettlement interventions. The small number of studies meeting the inclusion criteria was ascribed to the methodological complexity of inferring a causal association with 'upstream' interventions. No studies from low and middle income countries satisfied the inclusion criteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in Urban Youths' Attitude Towards Science and Perception of a Mobile Science Lab Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jared

    This dissertation examined changes in urban youth's attitude towards science as well as their perception of the informal science education setting and third space opportunity provided by the BioBus, a mobile science lab. Science education researchers have often suggested that informal science education settings provide one possible way to positively influence student attitude towards science and engage marginalized urban youth within the traditional science classroom (Banks et al., 2007; Hofstein & Rosenfeld, 1996; National Research Council, 2009; Schwarz & Stolow, 2006; Stocklmayer, Rennie, & Gilbert, 2010). However, until now, this possibility has not been explored within the setting of a mobile science lab nor examined using a theoretical framework intent on analyzing how affective outcomes may occur. The merits of this analytical stance were evaluated via observation, attitudinal survey, open-response questionnaire, and interview data collected before and after a mobile science lab experience from a combination of 239 students in Grades 6, 8, 9, 11, and 12 from four different schools within a major Northeastern metropolitan area. Findings from this study suggested that urban youth's attitude towards science changed both positively and negatively in statistically significant ways after a BioBus visit and that the experience itself was highly enjoyable. Furthermore, implications for how to construct a third space within the urban science classroom and the merits of utilizing the theoretical framework developed to analyze cultural tensions between urban youth and school science are discussed. Key Words: Attitude towards science, third space, mobile science lab, urban science education.

  10. Emotionally Numb: Desensitization to Community Violence Exposure among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Traci M.; Ceballo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Community violence exposure (CVE) is associated with numerous psychosocial outcomes among youth. Although linear, cumulative effects models have typically been used to describe these relations, emerging evidence suggests the presence of curvilinear associations that may represent a pattern of emotional desensitization among youth exposed to…

  11. Population-based assessment of heartburn in urban Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, F K; Makipour, K; Palit, A; Shah, S; Vanar, V; Richter, J E

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence data for heartburn in the urban Black American community is lacking. In order to estimate prevalence for this community, we analyzed data from an ongoing cohort study in progress at our hospital. Comprehensive interviews allowed for exploration of factors associated with heartburn. Complex, stratified sampling design was the method used. Survey invitations are hand-delivered to random blocks in a single zip code tabulation area. One member per eligible household is invited to complete a computer-based survey. Heartburn was defined as ≥ 3 days/week of symptoms as defined by the Montreal Definition and Classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scaling and weighting factors were utilized to estimate population level prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictor variables for heartburn. Enrolled 379 participants corresponding to a weighted sample size of 22,409 (20,888-23,930) citizens. Demographic characteristics of the sample closely matched those of the entire targeted population. Overall, the weighted prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week was 17.6% (16.4-18.8%). Variables independently associated with heartburn were body mass index, daily caloric and fat intake, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 2.95; 2.59-3.36), cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 2.55; 2.25-2.89). Factors inversely associated included illicit drug use and increased physical activity. Waist : hip ratio showed no relationship. The prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week is high in the Black American community. Adverse lifestyle behaviors showed particularly important associations. Our study needs to be replicated in other communities with similar demographics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  12. Characterisation and social impact of urban youth languages on urban toponymy: S’ncamtho toponomastics in Bulawayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambulo Ndlovu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the characterisation of S’ncamtho toponyms in Bulawayo and it goes on to measure the impact of these toponyms on the population of Bulawayo dwellers. S’ncamtho is an urban youth variety that is built on urbanity and streetwise style. The study assumes that, as S’ncamtho is the language of the youth in Bulawayo, people are exposed to S’ncamtho toponyms as the youth are found in all spheres of urban life in Bulawayo, especially the taxi industry which is used by the majority of people in the city. The research collected S’ncamtho verbal toponyms from Godini taxi rank in Bulawayo through undisclosed nonparticipant observations and some from the intuition of the researcher. Intuition and interviews were used to get the etymology of the toponyms and questionnaire tests of familiarity and usage were used to measure the impact of these toponyms on the population. Content analysis is used to characterise and classify S’ncamtho toponyms in Bulawayo and the metaphor comprehension test is used to measure their impact on the population. This article assumes that S’ncamtho has its own toponyms for locations in the city and that these are popular, especially with the youth, but people across age groups now use them.

  13. Are Non-intellectually Disabled Black Youth with ASD Less Impaired on Parent Report than Their White Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Bruno J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of research examining differences in functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across ethnicity, particularly among those without intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated ethnic differences in parent-reported impairment in executive function, adaptive behavior, and social–emotional functioning. White and Black youth (n = 64; ages 6–17) with ASD without ID were compared on each of these domains. Black youth had significantly lower levels of impairment on all three domains. Findings may reflect better daily functioning among Black youth with ASD and/or cultural differences in parent response to questionnaires. Regardless, these findings raise concern about the sensitivity of commonly used measures for Black children with ASD and the impact of culture on daily functioning and symptom manifestation. PMID:26439481

  14. Relation between media and the subcultural expression of urban youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Radomir D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's intention is to investigate the relations of the public media and some issues of youth subculture expression. The author's idea is that the public media are not necessarily in the indirect function of a positive and affirmative presentation of the subcultural sublimation and energy of youth, but are very often in a trivial function and as a factor of distraction, in the purpose of serving the ruling regime and political structures, democratic or nondemocratic.

  15. Ghetto Fabulous: Reading Black Adolescent Femininity in Contemporary Urban Street Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth; Staples, Jeanine; Gibson, Simone

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors provide a general overview of the controversies associated with urban street fiction, a brief introduction to the genre and an introduction to the complex representations of Black adolescent femininity within two contemporary titles, "Black and Ugly" (Styles, 2006) and "Bitch" (King, 2006). The authors provide a…

  16. A study to evaluate the performance of black South African urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A suitable tool is needed to assess child development in South Africa (SA). Using Western normed tools presents difficulties. Aim. To determine whether the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley-III) can be used on black African urban infants in SA. Method. One hundred and twenty-two black African ...

  17. From Mainstream Theatres to Synergy Theatre Project: Black Men's Participation in "Urban" Plays in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares how urban-themed black British playwriting can be understood within mainstream and applied theatre contexts. The paper first examines the focus of the mainstream theatre's education packs for productions of Kwame Kwei-Armah's "Elmina's Kitchen" and Roy Williams's "Fallout" before exploring how black men's…

  18. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the. Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (fanns) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  19. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (farms) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  20. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y)

  1. Enhancing condom use among Black male youths: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Charnigo, Richard J; Salazar, Laura F; Pasternak, Ryan; Terrell, Ivy W; Ricks, JaNelle; Smith, Rachel V; Taylor, Stephanie N

    2014-11-01

    We tested the efficacy of a brief intervention to promote correct and consistent use of condoms among Black male youths attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 3 southern US cities. In 2010 to 2012, we screened (n = 1102) and enrolled (n = 702) youths aged 15 to 23 years who identified as Black and reported recent (past 2 months) sexual activity and randomized them to a private, brief, interactive intervention (n = 349) or an attention-equivalent control condition (n = 353). Assessments occurred at baseline and 2 and 6 months after the intervention. At 6 months, with adjustment for age and pretest nonequivalence of the outcome variable, an estimated odds ratio (EOR) of 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 2.49; P = .02) indicated efficacy for correct condom use. An adjusted generalized estimating equations model with both 2- and 6-month condom use variables produced an EOR of 1.49 (95% CI = 1.06, 2.08; P = .02). We did not observe significant effects on chlamydia and gonorrhea incidence. This brief intervention, delivered as part of STI clinical care, could help alleviate the disproportionate STI-HIV burden among young Black men.

  2. Cultivating Positive Youth Development, Critical Consciousness, and Authentic Care in Urban Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, Jesse; Krasny, Marianne E

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how to provide affordances for youth development in the context of environmental stewardship in cities. Urban environmental education encompasses place-based and action-oriented stewardship practices, including community gardening and vegetable production, often with the dual goals of developing youth and community assets. Yet in-depth understanding of how these goals are achieved is lacking. Using narrative inquiry, we explored participant experiences in a multi-year agriculture internship program conducted by the food justice organization East New York Farms! (ENYF) in Brooklyn, NY. Emerging from our conversations with youth were five themes defining their intern experience: ENYF as somewhere to belong, to be pushed, to grapple with complexity, to practice leadership, and to become yourself. We propose a theory of change that emphasizes politicized notions of caring as a foundation for cultivating developmental assets, including competence, contribution, and critical consciousness, among youth who participate in ENYF programs multiple years. This paper extends the literature on socio-environmental affordances to encompass urban environmental education programs, which incorporate physical and social features that act as affordances. Further, this paper describes a feedback loop in which youth afforded opportunities to develop assets through contributing to their community in turn create affordances for additional youth and adults.

  3. Cultivating Positive Youth Development, Critical Consciousness, and Authentic Care in Urban Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Delia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of how to provide affordances for youth development in the context of environmental stewardship in cities. Urban environmental education encompasses place-based and action-oriented stewardship practices, including community gardening and vegetable production, often with the dual goals of developing youth and community assets. Yet in-depth understanding of how these goals are achieved is lacking. Using narrative inquiry, we explored participant experiences in a multi-year agriculture internship program conducted by the food justice organization East New York Farms! (ENYF in Brooklyn, NY. Emerging from our conversations with youth were five themes defining their intern experience: ENYF as somewhere to belong, to be pushed, to grapple with complexity, to practice leadership, and to become yourself. We propose a theory of change that emphasizes politicized notions of caring as a foundation for cultivating developmental assets, including competence, contribution, and critical consciousness, among youth who participate in ENYF programs multiple years. This paper extends the literature on socio-environmental affordances to encompass urban environmental education programs, which incorporate physical and social features that act as affordances. Further, this paper describes a feedback loop in which youth afforded opportunities to develop assets through contributing to their community in turn create affordances for additional youth and adults.

  4. Youth and the City: Reflective Photography as a Tool of Urban Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Young people's engagement with urban public space has been facing a number of obstacles that reflect a lack of understanding of their needs, values and priorities. The emergence of digital devices and social media as integral elements of youth culture adds further urgency to the need to understand how young people themselves visually articulate…

  5. Repatriating the GED: Urban Youth and the Alternative to a High School Diploma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses competing perspectives on the value of the General Educational Development (GED) credential. Although scholars and journalists debate the worth of the credential, urban youth continue to pursue the GED, especially as proxy for inadequate schooling. Using qualitative data from a participatory action research project, the…

  6. Being young and urban: changing patterns of youth involvement in local environmental action in Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses youth engagement in local environmental action in a peripheral settlement in Lima, Peru. Urban local environmental action is analysed in terms of the so-called "brown agenda", covering issues as the provision of drinking water and sanitation, waste collection, the paving of

  7. Apollo’s Gifts. Dutch Songbooks for the Urban Youth of the Eighteenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijp, L.P.; Beghein, S.; Blondé, B.; Schreurs, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to our knowledge of informal urban singing culture in the Netherlands, especially within the context of youth subcultures. Hundreds of songbooks from the period of the Dutch Republic (the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) evidence such a singing culture. In this

  8. Social Capital: Similarities and Differences between Future Educators and Urban Youth Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearrow, Melissa M.; Zoino-Jeannetti, Julia; Minami, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in social capital between two demographically disparate groups: future education professionals and youth leaders living in urban communities. This is important because there is growing scholarly evidence of a positive relationship between social capital and student achievement. "Social capital," defined as…

  9. Sport as a vehicle for social mobility and regulation of disadvantaged urban youth: lessons from Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses sport's contribution to social mobility of disadvantaged urban youth through an analysis of the Sport Steward Program in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Sport-based social intervention programs are conceptualized as potential vehicles for the creation of different forms of capital

  10. Conflicting cultures – a street-ethnographic take on urban youth, unstructured socialization and territoriality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2015-01-01

    This article is about conflicting cultures among urban youth in a medium-sized Danish town called Lomby. At the central squares in Lomby different groups of children and young people gather around the newly established skater facility. Concentrating on a specific group of young boys, the pseudo...

  11. Correlates of Externalizing Behavior Symptoms among Youth within Two Impoverished, Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether risk factors associated with child externalizing behavior symptoms differ between two similar low-income, urban communities, using baseline parent data of 154 African American youth (ages 9-15) participating in the Collaborative HIV-Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) family program. Separate…

  12. Indians Weaving in Cyberspace Indigenous Urban Youth Cultures, Identities and Politics of Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Quispe, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing how contemporary urban Aymara youth hip hoppers and bloggers are creating their identities and are producing discourses in texts and lyrics to contest racist and colonial discourses. The research is situated in Bolivia, which is currently engaged in a cultural and political revolution supported by Indigenous…

  13. Using recreational sport for social mobility of urban youth: practices, challenges and dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines some of the major challenges and dilemmas faced by sport-based intervention programs that aim to achieve social mobility of urban youth. Drawing on case studies from Brazil, Australia and The Netherlands, the author proposes and illustrates a typology for analysing

  14. Effect of rural-urban migration of youths on agricultural labour supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of rural-urban migration of youths on agricultural labour supply in Umuahia north local government area of Abia State, Nigeria was examined. Data for the study were collected from 100 respondents selected from three the three wards in the area. Data analysis was by use of frequencies, percentages and chi-square ...

  15. The Oil Game: Generating Enthusiasm for Geosciences in Urban Youth in Newark, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Alexander E.; Kalczynski, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    A hands-on game based upon principles of oil accumulation and drilling was highly effective at generating enthusiasm toward the geosciences in urban youth from underrepresented minority groups in Newark, NJ. Participating 9th-grade high school students showed little interest in the geosciences prior to participating in the oil game, even if they…

  16. After-School Programs: A Potential Partner to Support Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ashley; Leung, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    After-school programs (ASPs) are learning centers that provide enrichment opportunities after regular school hours. This article examines the value these programs can add to a child's educational day, especially for urban youth who are vulnerable during after-school hours. Quality ASPs can be part of the solution to help mitigate the effects of…

  17. The Sustained Reduction of Youth Suicidal Behavior in an Urban, Multicultural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year longitudinal case study of the suicide rates of students attending a large, urban, multicultural school district between 1989 and 2006 is described. The high rate of suicide (5.5 per 100,000 students ages 5-19) in the district during the period 1980-1988 led to the development and implementation of a district-wide Youth Suicide…

  18. Disparity in Physical Activity among Urban Youth: An Ecologically Guided Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda; Brown, Michael D.; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insufficient physical activity among urban youth increases risk of chronic disease.Purpose:This study assessed reported physical activity to determine when disparities in participation emerge and what ecologically guided factors are linked with high activity. Methods:We administered a cross-sectional survey to a diverse sample of 321…

  19. Roses in the Concrete: A Critical Race Perspective on Urban Youth and School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasi, Kafi

    2012-01-01

    The late rapper Tupac Shakur wrote a poem called "The Rose that Grew from Concrete" that serves as a good metaphor for helping educators, including school librarians, to disrupt stereotypical metanarratives they might have about urban youth and replace them with new narratives of hope, compassion, and high expectations for all students. Tupac's…

  20. Rurality/Urbanism and Extended Familism Among Working- and Lower-Class Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Katheryn Thomas

    A comprehensive look is taken at the rural-urban variation in extended familism among a segment of the population for which extended familism purportedly is especially salient: lower and working class black Americans. The study is guided by the general hypothesis that rurality/urbanism affects extended familism when nonecological variables are…

  1. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth. PMID:28241490

  2. [Remote sensing monitoring and screening for urban black and odorous water body: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Zhu, Li; Cao, Hong Ye

    2017-10-01

    Continuous improvement of urban water environment and overall control of black and odorous water body are not merely national strategic needs with the action plan for prevention and treatment of water pollution, but also the hot issues attracting the attention of people. Most previous researches concentrated on the study of cause, evaluation and treatment measures of this phenomenon, and there are few researches on the monitoring using remote sensing, which is often a strain to meet the national needs of operational monitoring. This paper mainly summarized the urgent research problems, mainly including the identification and classification standard, research on the key technologies, and the frame of remote sensing screening systems for the urban black and odorous water body. The main key technologies were concluded too, including the high spatial resolution image preprocessing and extraction technique for black and odorous water body, the extraction of water information in city zones, the classification of the black and odorous water, and the identification and classification technique based on satellite-sky-ground remote sensing. This paper summarized the research progress and put forward research ideas of monitoring and screening urban black and odorous water body via high spatial resolution remote sensing technology, which would be beneficial to having an overall grasp of spatial distribution and improvement progress of black and odorous water body, and provide strong technical support for controlling urban black and odorous water body.

  3. The Enduring Significance of Racism: Discrimination and Delinquency Among Black American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Monica J.; McCarthy, Bill; Conger, Rand D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2011-01-01

    Prominent explanations of the overrepresentation of Black Americans in criminal justice statistics focus on the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, racial isolation, and social disorganization. We suggest that perceived personal discrimination is an important but frequently neglected complement to these factors. We test this hypothesis with longitudinal data on involvement in general and violent juvenile delinquency in a sample of Black youth from a variety of communities in 2 states. We examine the direct effects of concentrated disadvantage and racial isolation and the direct and mediating effects of social organization, support for violence, and personal discrimination. Consistent with our hypothesis, perceived personal discrimination has notable direct effects on both general and violent delinquency and is an important mediator between neighborhood structural conditions and offending; moreover, its effects exceed those associated with neighborhood conditions. PMID:21941426

  4. And still WE rise: Parent-child relationships, resilience, and school readiness in low-income urban Black families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Riana Elyse

    2018-02-01

    The Family Stress Model acknowledges forms of resilience in the face of hardship; however, few studies have emerged on the potentially positive role of familial relationships in the academic, psychological, and prosocial success of impoverished Black children. The current study evaluates how parent-child relationship conflict and financial stress are associated with children's school readiness (i.e., academic, psychosocial, and socioemotional indicators). Latent profile analyses, incorporating financial stress, general stress, and parent-child relationship variables were used to test whether varying family stress profiles differentially predicted children's school readiness in Black families with children entering kindergarten (N = 292). Findings revealed 4 latent classifications with profiles of low, moderate, moderate/high, and high/moderate stress and conflict variables, respectively. Whereas the low-profile was associated with the most desirable school readiness indicators overall, children in the high/moderate-profile were rated as significantly more psychosocially and socioemotionally prepared for school than their moderate/high-profile counterparts. Families with less conflictual parent-child relationships had more optimal school readiness relative to families with higher conflict and less financial strain. The findings of the current study have the potential to contribute to theories of poverty and parent-child relationships, as well as guide therapeutic services focused on family relationships through school- and community-related programs for impoverished urban Black youth and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselmann DiSantis, Katherine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Rohm Young, Deborah; Grier, Sonya A; Lassiter, Vikki

    2017-10-29

    Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers' responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30) and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35) from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure-a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization) focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer's perspective ("it's about demand"; "consumers choose"), respect for community ("marketers are setting us up for failure"; "making wrong assumptions"), and food environments as a social justice issue ("no one is watching the door"; "I didn't realize"). Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants' stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization.

  6. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Isselmann DiSantis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers’ responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30 and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35 from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure—a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer’s perspective (“it’s about demand”; “consumers choose”, respect for community (“marketers are setting us up for failure”; “making wrong assumptions”, and food environments as a social justice issue (“no one is watching the door”; “I didn’t realize”. Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants’ stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization.

  7. Sensitizing Black Adult and Youth Consumers to Targeted Food Marketing Tactics in Their Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isselmann DiSantis, Katherine; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Rohm Young, Deborah; Grier, Sonya A.; Lassiter, Vikki

    2017-01-01

    Food marketing environments of Black American consumers are heavily affected by ethnically-targeted marketing of sugar sweetened beverages, fast foods, and other products that may contribute to caloric overconsumption. This qualitative study assessed Black consumers’ responses to targeted marketing. Black adults (2 mixed gender groups; total n = 30) and youth (2 gender specific groups; total n = 35) from two U.S. communities participated before and after a sensitization procedure—a critical practice used to understand social justice concerns. Pre-sensitization focus groups elicited responses to scenarios about various targeted marketing tactics. Participants were then given an informational booklet about targeted marketing to Black Americans, and all returned for the second (post-sensitization) focus group one week later. Conventional qualitative content analysis of transcripts identified several salient themes: seeing the marketer’s perspective (“it’s about demand”; “consumers choose”), respect for community (“marketers are setting us up for failure”; “making wrong assumptions”), and food environments as a social justice issue (“no one is watching the door”; “I didn’t realize”). Effects of sensitization were reflected in participants’ stated reactions to the information in the booklet, and also in the relative occurrence of marketer-oriented themes and social justice-oriented themes, respectively, less and more after sensitization. PMID:29109377

  8. Black God and white devil in the urban ghettos of America: Religion and black nationalism of the Nation of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nation of Islam, commonly known as the Black Muslim movement,appeared during the Great Depression in the black ghettos of the big urban andindustrial centers in the northern United States. It was founded by W. Fard Muhammad,one of the probably most mysterious figures in the history of Black America,in whom his followers saw the incarnation of Allah. Its doctrine was a combinationof an extremely heterodox or “heretical” Islam and a separatist variety of blacknationalism. A quarter of century later, the marginal sect led by Elijah Muhammadas Messenger of Allah became the most important new religious movement to emerge in the U.S. in the twentieth century. It has proved to be the largest and longest-lived nationalist movement among the American blacks. Its activities, including the preaching of “black internationalism”, were seen by the federal authorities as a threat to national security. The outstanding revolutionary leader Malcolm X emerged from its bosom. Rooted in the lowest layers of the black working class, the Nation of Islam durably and successfully questions the liberal middle-class leadership of the northern black communities, which aspires toward integration into white society.

  9. The Association Between Forms of Aggression, Leadership, and Social Status Among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Courtney N.; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Leff, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of elementary aged youth. The current study examined the associations between aggression, popularity, social preference, and leadership among 227 urban, ethnic minority (74 % African American, 9 % bi-racial including African American, 12 % other ethnic minorities, and 5 % European American) elementary school youth (average age 9.5 years, 48.5 % female). Results indicated that in an urban, high risk environment, displaying aggressive behaviors was associated with increased perceived popularity, decreased social preference, and, in some cases, increased perceived leadership. The results also suggested gender differences in the association between the forms of aggression (i.e. relational and overt) and popularity. The current study underscores the importance of examining youth leadership along with forms of aggression and social status among urban minority youth. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are highlighted. PMID:23086015

  10. Youth Entrepreneurship and Socioeconomic Change in Urban Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevang, Thilde

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how young people in urban Africa are responding to globalization, economic restructuring, and socioeconomic change through various forms of entrepreneurship. The chapter charts different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship and explores its relationship to young people’s c...

  11. Youth empowerment through urban agriculture: Red Hook Community Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian Marvy

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  12. Inattention and hyperactivity and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of inattention and hyperactivity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which inattention and hyperactivity adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Literature review. Approximately 4.6 million (8.4%) of American youth aged 6-17 have received a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and almost two thirds of these youth are reportedly under treatment with prescription medications. Urban minority youth are not only more likely to be affected but also less likely to receive accurate diagnosis and treatment. Causal pathways through which ADHD may affect academic achievement include sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out. In one study, youth with diagnosed ADHD were 2.7 times as likely to drop out (10.0% vs. 22.9%). A similar odds ratio for not graduating from high school was found in another prospective study, with an 8-year follow-up period (odds ratio = 2.4). There are many children who are below the clinical diagnostic threshold for ADHD but who exhibit signs and symptoms that interfere with learning. Evidence-based programs emphasizing functional academic and social outcomes are available. Inattention and hyperactivity are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement through their effects on sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out, and effective practices are available for schools to address these problems. This prevalent and complex syndrome has very powerful effects on academic achievement and educational attainment, and should be a high priority in efforts to help close the achievement gap. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  13. Effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Mbah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was assessed to determine the effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria during November 2014 to June 2015. Interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. Results indicate that majority (76.3% of the respondents were males, middle aged and married. Major causes of rural-urban youth migration indicated by the respondents include inadequate employment opportunities in rural areas (M=3.6, search for better education (M=3.5, inadequate social infrastructure such as schools (M=3.4, poor medical care services in rural areas (M=3.4, looking for money through labour (M=3.4, apprenticeship programme (M=3.2, etc. Findings of the study also indicate that reduction of agricultural labour force (M=3.5, low agricultural productivity (M=3.3, high cost of labour (M= 3.3, reduction on demand for locally grown foods (M=2.9, decrease in dependency ratio in the rural areas (M=2.7, reduction on number of mouths to feed (M=2.7, among others were major effects of rural-urban youth migration among farm families. The study recommends that Nigerian government should provide adequate physical and social infrastructure in rural areas in order to encourage youths to remain in agriculture, reduce rural-urban youth migration as well as sustain agriculture for enhanced food security.

  14. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...

  15. Urban sprawl and its relationship with active transportation, physical activity and obesity in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-06-01

    Urban sprawl is a potential environmental influence on youth overweight/obesity. However, little is known about the association between urban sprawl and behaviours that influence obesity such as active transportation and physical activity. The study population consisted of 7,017 respondents aged 12 to 19 to the 2007/2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, living in Canada's 33 census metropolitan areas (CMAs). Factor analysis was used to obtain an urban sprawl score for each CMA, incorporating dwelling density, percentage of single or detached dwelling units, and percentage of the population living in the urban core. Multi-level logistic regression examined whether urban sprawl was associated with frequent active transportation (30 or more minutes a day), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (60 or more minutes a day), and overweight/obesity. Urban sprawl was associated with active transportation among 12- to 15-year-olds, with the relative odds of engaging in at least 30 minutes of active transportation per day increasing by 24% (95% CI: 10-39%) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in the urban sprawl score. For the entire sample aged 12 to 19, higher urban sprawl was associated with MVPA (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.20), but not with overweight/obesity (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.18). Urban sprawl was associated with active transportation and MVPA in Canadian youth, although in the opposite direction to what has been reported in the literature for adults.

  16. Psychological Empowerment Among Urban Youth: Measurement Model and Associations with Youth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisman, Andria B; Zimmerman, Marc A; Kruger, Daniel; Reischl, Thomas M; Miller, Alison L; Franzen, Susan P; Morrel-Samuels, Susan

    2016-12-01

    Empowerment-based strategies have become widely used method to address health inequities and promote social change. Few researchers, however, have tested theoretical models of empowerment, including multidimensional, higher-order models. We test empirically a multidimensional, higher-order model of psychological empowerment (PE), guided by Zimmerman's conceptual framework including three components of PE: intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral. We also investigate if PE is associated with positive and negative outcomes among youth. The sample included 367 middle school youth aged 11-16 (M = 12.71; SD = 0.91); 60% female, 32% (n = 117) white youth, 46% (n = 170) African-American youth, and 22% (n = 80) identifying as mixed race, Asian-American, Latino, Native American, or other ethnic/racial group; schools reported 61-75% free/reduced lunch students. Our results indicated that each of the latent factors for the three PE components demonstrate a good fit with the data. Our results also indicated that these components loaded on to a higher-order PE factor (X 2  = 32.68; df: 22; p = .07; RMSEA: 0.04; 95% CI: .00, .06; CFI: 0.99). We found that the second-order PE factor was negatively associated with aggressive behavior and positively associated with prosocial engagement. Our results suggest that empowerment-focused programs would benefit from incorporating components addressing how youth think about themselves in relation to their social contexts (intrapersonal), understanding social and material resources needed to achieve specific goals (interactional), and actions taken to influence outcomes (behavioral). Our results also suggest that integrating the three components and promoting PE may help increase likelihood of positive behaviors (e.g., prosocial involvement); we did not find an association between PE and aggressive behavior. Implications and future directions for empowerment research are discussed. © Society for Community Research and

  17. "It's the Worst Place to Live": Urban Youth and the Challenge of School-Based Civic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Beth C.; Hayes, Brian; Benson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    One of the primary aims of education in the United States is to prepare youth to contribute to civic life in a democracy. Urban youth have daily school and community experiences with poverty, violence, and injustice that complicate their relationship with civic life. In this article the authors explore the ramifications of these experiences for…

  18. Gender Differences in Monitoring and Deviant Peers as Predictors of Delinquent Behavior among Low-Income Urban African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…

  19. Contributions of non-urban state parks to youth physical activity: A case study in northern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has documented positive relationships among youth physical activity levels and park use. However, most investigations to date have focused on municipal parks, and relatively little is known about the physical activity levels of racially and ethnically diverse populations of youth using different types of parks in non-urban settings. This...

  20. Coping Styles of Adolescents Experiencing Multiple Forms of Discrimination and Bullying: Evidence from a Sample of Ethnically Diverse Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bernice R.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Williams, David R.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-01-01

    Background: We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to characterize coping styles of urban youth and examined if coping styles moderated the association between experiencing discrimination and bullying and depressive symptoms. Methods: The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, where students were asked to select 2 behaviors they do most often…

  1. Higher Education and Urban Migration for Community Resilience: Indigenous Amazonian Youth Promoting Place-Based Livelihoods and Identities in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Diana

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of indigenous Peruvian Amazonian youth pursuing higher education through urban migration to contribute to the resilience of their communities, place-based livelihoods, and indigenous Amazonian identities. Youth and their communities promoted education and migration as powerful tools in the context of…

  2. "You Have to Hold Your Own": Investigating the Social Networks of a Diverse Group of Disenfranchised Urban Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jennifer; Happel, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic case study investigates social networks and forms of social capital accessed by a group of five urban male youth (ages 15-19), from diverse racial backgrounds, who were disenfranchised economically. We refer to the youth as "disenfranchised" because they were disconnected from forms of institutional support, especially…

  3. The association of physical activity, body mass index and the blood pressure levels among urban poor youth in Accra, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afrifa-Anane, Ernest; Agyemang, Charles; Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2015-01-01

    Globally, there is an increasing prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) among adults and youth. However, the mechanisms of how the risk factors (physical inactivity and obesity) relate with blood pressure (BP) are not well known especially among the urban poor youth in low and middle income

  4. Empowerment Starts Here: Seven Principles to Empowering Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Angela

    2011-01-01

    "Empowerment Starts Here" covers an experimental approach to social change within urban communities by way of seven distinct principles for student empowerment. Turning classroom methods into a school model, Preparatory School for Global Leadership was the first to experience student empowerment at a school-wide level. This book provides insight…

  5. Predicting an Alcohol Use Disorder in Urban American Indian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Linda R.; Miller, Kimberly A.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R. Dale

    2014-01-01

    This study examines predictors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among an urban American Indian cohort who were followed from approximately age 11 to age 20. Approximately 27% of the sample had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence. The results indicated that externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors, family conflict, and school…

  6. Some Dynamics of Urban Service Evaluations Among Blacks and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Roger

    1976-01-01

    This study investigates public service evaluations among blacks and whites in St. Louis, Missouri over the period 1956 to 1968. Changes in levels and sources of satisfaction with schools, parks, police protection, and garbage collection are examined. (Author/RM)

  7. Examining the Role of Supportive Family Connection in Violence Exposure Among Male Youth in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Fein, Joel A; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Miller, Elizabeth; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-04-24

    Family connection has demonstrated protective effects on violence perpetration, victimization, and witnessing in the general U.S. adolescent population. However, several studies examining the impact of family connection on violence exposure in adolescents living in low-resource urban environments have failed to demonstrate similar protective effects. We interviewed male youth in low-resource neighborhoods in Philadelphia recruited through household random sampling. Adjusted logistic regression was used to test whether a supportive relationship with an adult family member was inversely associated with violence involvement and violence witnessing. In 283 youth participants aged 10 to 24 years, 33% reported high violence involvement, 30% reported high violence witnessing, and 17% reported both. Youth who identified at least one supportive adult family member were significantly less likely to report violence involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.18, 0.69]) and violence witnessing (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.24, 0.88]). Youth with two supportive parents, and those with supportive mothers only, also demonstrated significant inverse associations with violence involvement. Supportive parental relationships were inversely but not significantly related to witnessing violence. The findings suggest that supportive parental relationships may not prevent youth in low-resource neighborhoods from witnessing violence but may help prevent direct violence involvement. Next studies should be designed such that the mechanisms that confer protection can be identified, and should identify opportunities to bolster family connection that may reduce adolescent violence involvement among youth in low-resource urban environments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  9. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  10. Where Youth Live: Economic Effects of Urban Space on Employment Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    O'Regan, Katherine M.; Quigley, John M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes and synthesizes a series of empirical analyses investigating the role of urban space in affecting minority employment outcomes. It adds to the considerable (but inconclusive) literature by broadening the focus beyond transportation and the “friction of space,” and by expanding the data available for spatial research. The empirical analyses share a common framework linking “access” to youth labor market performance. The first set of results is based on aggregate data re...

  11. Returns to Qualification in Informal Employment: A Study of Urban Youth in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Informal employment is a reality for roughly two-thirds of economically active youth in urban Egypt, and it has been argued to be correlated with poverty, poor working conditions, and few opportunities for advancement. This essay analyzes whether informal employment rewards job qualification measures, using survey data from 2006 and a Blinder-Oaxaca wage decomposition. After creating a taxonomy of formal, para-formal, and informal modes of qualification, it is shown that formal public and for...

  12. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths’ psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. Method and Results We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12–17 years, n = 677) drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, padaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies. PMID:26716829

  13. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  14. Religion, Ritual, and Healing among Urban Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Brian M.

    1980-01-01

    Research carried out among urban residents in a satellite city in South Africa shows that while nearly all the subjects were members of Christian churches and attended church services, traditional supernatural beliefs and ritual practices were common. (Author/GC)

  15. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and HIV-related Stigma among African Diasporic Youth; Results from the African, Caribbean, and Black Youth (ACBY) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Northington, Toya; Sockdjou, Tamara; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2018-01-01

    Socio-environmental factors such as neighborhood quality are increasingly recognized drivers of HIV disparities. Additionally, HIV- related stigma heightens HIV vulnerability among youth in the African Diaspora. However, little research examines the intersection of neighborhood quality and HIV- related stigma. This study uses survey data (N=495) from African, Caribbean, and Black youth in a midsized city in Ontario, Canada to address this research deficit. Analysis of variance and multivariate ordinary least squares regressions were conducted to determine differences in HIV- related stigma by neighborhood quality, experiences of discrimination, HIV- knowledge, and demographic factors. Residents in more socially disordered neighborhoods (p<.05), males (p<.0001), African- Muslim youth (p<.01), and individuals with lower HIV- knowledge (p<.0001) endorsed stigmatizing beliefs more often. Addressing neighborhood disadvantage may have implications for HIV- related stigma. More research should be conducted to understand the impact of socio- environmental disadvantage and HIV- related stigma.

  16. Classroom and School Predictors of Civic Engagement Among Black and Latino Middle School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagers, Robert J; Lozada, Fantasy T; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Guillaume, Casta

    2017-07-01

    This study used short-term longitudinal data to examine the contributions of democratic teaching practices (e.g., the Developmental Designs approach) and equitable school climate to civic engagement attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among 515 Black and Latino middle school students (47.9% male). Concurrent experiences of democratic homeroom and classroom practices, and equitable school climate were associated with higher scores on each civic engagement component. The relation between classroom practices and civic attitudes was more robust when school climate was seen as more equitable. Longitudinally, homeroom practices and equitable school climate predicted higher civic attitudes 1 year later. Discussion focuses on civic attitudes and future research on school experiences that support civic engagement among youth of color. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Urban form relationships with walk trip frequency and distance among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lawrence; Kerr, Jacqueline; Chapman, Jim; Sallis, James

    2007-01-01

    To assess the relationship among objectively measured urban form variables, age, and walking in youth. Cross-sectional analyses of travel diary data mapped against urban form characteristics within a 1-km buffer of participant's place of residence. Setting. Youth in the Atlanta, Georgia region with selection stratified by income, household size, and residential density. A total of 3161 5- to 20-year-olds who completed 2-day travel diaries. Diaries of those under 15 years were completed by a parent or legal guardian. Walking distances were calculated from a 2-day travel diary. Residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and commercial and recreation space were assessed within a 1-km network distance around residences. Analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed for each urban form variable by age groups controlling for the demographic variables. All variables were then entered simultaneously into an analysis of the whole sample. All five urban form variables tested were related to walking. Recreation space was the only variables associated with walking across the four different age groups. All the urban form variables were related to walking in the 12 to 15 years age cohort. For this group, the odds of walking were 3. 7 times greater for those in highest- versus lowest-density tertile and 2.6 times greater for those with at least one commercial and 2.5 times greater for those with at least one recreational destination within 1 km from home. In the analysis of the full sample, number of cars, recreation space, and residential density were most strongly related to walking. Access to recreation or open space was the most important urban form variable related to walking for all age groups. Children aged 12 to 15 years old may be particularly influenced by urban form.

  18. Physical Activity, Sleep, and BMI Percentile in Rural and Urban Ugandan Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Baingana, Rhona; Ntambi, James M

    Uganda is experiencing a dual burden of over- and undernutrition, with overweight prevalence increasing while underweight remains common. Potential weight-related factors, particularly physical activity, sleep, and rural/urban status, are not currently well understood or commonly assessed in Ugandan youth. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a survey measuring weight-related factors in rural and urban Ugandan schoolchildren. A cross-sectional survey measured sociodemographics, physical activity, sleep patterns, and dietary factors in 148 rural and urban schoolchildren aged 11-16 in central Uganda. Height and weight were objectively measured. Rural and urban youth were compared on these factors using χ 2 and t tests. Regression was used to identify correlates of higher body mass index (BMI) percentile in the full sample and nonstunted youth. Youth were on average 12.1 ± 1.1 years old; underweight (10%) was more common than overweight (1.4%). Self-reported sleep duration and subjective sleep quality did not differ by rural/urban residence. Rural children overall had higher BMI percentile and marginally higher stunting prevalence. In adjusted analyses in both the full and nonstunted samples, higher BMI percentile was related to living in a rural area, higher frequency of physical activity, and higher subjective sleep quality; it was negatively related to being active on weekends. In the full sample, higher BMI percentile was also related to female gender, whereas in nonstunted youth, higher BMI was related to age. BMI percentile was unrelated to sedentary time, performance of active chores and sports, and dietary factors. This study is one of the first to pilot test a survey assessing weight-related factors, particularly physical activity and sleep, in Ugandan schoolchildren. BMI percentile was related to several sociodemographic, sleep, and physical activity factors among primarily normal-weight school children in Uganda, providing a basis for

  19. The Importance of Audience and Agency for Representation: A Case Study of an Urban Youth Media Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Urban youths' agency to represent their realities through media has been largely unexplored in the youth development literature. In this qualitative case study of an after-school youth media program in the Bay Area, expressions of youth agency and the role of audiences are explored during the process of producing videos for public consumption. METHODOLOGY: As participant observer of 14 ethnically diverse youth participants aged between 15 and 18 years over 18 months, I documented (a) the kind of agencies participants engaged in and (b) the impact of live and imagined future audiences on youths' creative processes. Analyses of field notes, semi-structured interviews, and media projects were conducted using thematic analysis to inductively generate emerging categories. FINDINGS: Themes included an agentive sense of self-efficacy, commitment, and responsibility, as well as perceived contributions to local audiences and an emerging collective identity. The youth demonstrated their increased sense of a social or civic duty to realistically represent youth of color to familiar and unfamiliar audiences. IMPLICATIONS: This case study demonstrated how one youth media organization fostered agency through youth authorship, production, distribution, and local community dialogue. By documenting the impact of audiences from conception to public reception, this study provides valuable insight into the agentive process of publicly "performing" a commitment to complete a social change video project. CONTRIBUTION: This chapter underscores the value of performance within youth development programs and the critical component of audiences as one form of authentic assessment in order to foster individual and collective agency.

  20. Physical fitness and health risk assessment of urban black females ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whereas coronary heart disease was not a major cause of death among black populations of South Africa in the past, the situation is fast changing. Health and fitness providers should give special attention to the modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease for all populations. The aim of the present study was to identify ...

  1. Unemployment among Black Teenage Females in Urban Poverty Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Phyllis A.

    The peer group network for black teenage females (16-19 years of age) from low income families serves as the powerful interactive mechanism to enable these young women to develop job orientation for themselves and others. Through a group process simulation and guidance model steps can be taken to enter and to remain in the labor market. In New…

  2. Urban black social life and leisure activities in Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , using art that was created by black artists who lived and worked in Soweto and surrounding areas from the early 1940s up to the mid 1970s. These artists included Gerard Sekoto, Durant Sihlali and Ephraim Ngatane. Works created by these ...

  3. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity among Urban Black and Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Kerstin; Way, Niobe

    2006-01-01

    The current study modeled developmental trajectories of ethnic identity exploration and affirmation and belonging from middle to late adolescence (ages 15-18) and examined how these trajectories varied according to ethnicity, gender, immigrant status, and perceived level of discrimination. The sample consisted of 135 urban low-income Black and…

  4. A Critical Race Case Analysis of Black Undergraduate Student Success at an Urban University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Smith, Edward J.; Davis, Charles H. F., III

    2018-01-01

    Presented in this article is a case study of Black students' enrollment, persistence, and graduation at Cityville University, an urban commuter institution. We combine quantitative data from the University's Office of Institutional Research and the U.S. Department of Education with qualitative insights gathered in interviews with students,…

  5. The Relationship between Black Racial Identity and Academic Achievement in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between Black racial identity and academic achievement in urban settings. Using Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1918) as a comparative framework, the author describes current practices and suggests practical applications of empirical findings for practicing classroom teachers of African American students.…

  6. Intrinsic Motivation, Self-Perception, and Their Effects on Black Urban Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gregory J.

    This study examined the effects of specific motivational dimensions and self-perceptions of a group of 47 urban black fourth and fifth grade students on attendance and academic achievement. Each student's responses to a measure of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and a self-perception inventory were compared to each other and to his or her…

  7. The manifestation of depression in the context of urban poverty: a factor analysis of the Children's Depression Inventory in low-income urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeremy J; Grant, Kathryn E; Amrhein, Kelly; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Farahmand, Farahnaz; Harrison, Aubrey; Thomas, Kina J; Carleton, Russell A; Lugo-Hernandez, Eduardo; Katz, Brian N

    2014-12-01

    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare the fit of 2 factor structures for the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) in an urban community sample of low-income youth. Results suggest that the 6-factor model developed by Craighead and colleagues (1998) was a strong fit to the pattern of symptoms reported by low-income urban youth and was a superior fit with these data than the original 5-factor model of the CDI (Kovacs, 1992). Additionally, results indicated that all 6 factors from the Craighead model contributed to the measurement of depression, including School Problems and Externalizing Problems especially for older adolescents. This pattern of findings may reflect distinct contextual influences of urban poverty on the manifestation and measurement of depression in youth. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Contesting History and Pursuing "Other" Knowledge: A Study of Hip-Hop and Non-Formal Education among Native American Youth in San Francisco and Black Portuguese Youth in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Miye Nadya

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop--a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music--to…

  9. Nonreciprocal and Reciprocal Dating Violence and Injury Occurrence among Urban Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swahn, Monica H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dating violence is a significant health problem among youth that leads to adverse health outcomes, including injuries. Reciprocal violence (perpetrated by both partners is associated with increased injury in adults, but very little is known about the prevalence and context for reciprocal violence, as well as injury rates, among youth. We sought to determine the prevalence and scope of reciprocal dating violence and injury occurrence among urban youth in a high-risk community. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and administered to over 80% of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district. The current analyses were restricted to those who reported dating in the past year and who also reported any dating violence (n=1,158. Dating violence was categorized as reciprocal (the participant reported both violence perpetration and victimization and non-reciprocal (the participant report either violence perpetration or victimization, but not both. Results: Dating violence reciprocity varied by sex. Girls who reported any dating violence were more likely to report reciprocal dating violence (50.4% than were boys (38.9%. However, reciprocity did not vary by race/ethnicity or grade level. Reciprocal dating violence was more common among participants who reported more frequent violence experiences. Reciprocal violence was also associated with greater injury occurrences relative to non-reciprocal relationships (10.1% versus 1.2%. Conclusion: Reciprocal dating violence is common among adolescents and leads more often to injury outcomes. In particular, relationships in which boys report reciprocal violence against their partner appear to lead to more frequent injury occurrences. These findings underscore the importance of addressing dating violence and factors that increase risk for reciprocal violence and therefore exacerbate injury occurrence

  10. Green Schoolyards in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods: Natural Spaces for Positive Youth Development Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn R. Bates

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children from low-income families are increasingly growing up in urban areas with limited access to nature. In these environments, strategies that promote access to natural outdoor spaces, such as green schoolyards, may enhance positive youth development outcomes by promoting physical activity (PA and prosocial behavior, as well as increasing perceptions of safety. The current study examines children’s PA and social interactions, as well as caregiver and teacher perceptions of safety, injuries, teasing/bullying, and gang activity on three newly renovated green schoolyards in low-income urban neighborhoods. A multi-method strategy, including behavioral mapping and caregiver- and teacher-reported surveys, was utilized at three time points to examine positive youth development outcomes and maintenance of effects over time. Analyses revealed that children evidenced a range of PA on the green schoolyards and demonstrated significant decreases in sedentary activity over time. The majority of children were engaged in social interactions with peers on the green schoolyards when observed. Less than 3% of interactions were negative and follow-up analyses found significant increases in positive interactions on the green schoolyards up to 24 months post-renovation. Caregivers and teachers reported increased perceptions of safety, fewer injuries, less teasing/bullying, and less gang-related activity on the renovated green schoolyards in comparison to the pre-renovation schoolyards, and these effects were maintained up to 32 months post-renovation. Overall, the study suggests that green schoolyards may promote positive development outcomes among youth living in urban, low-income neighborhoods by providing natural and safe spaces for PA and prosocial behavior.

  11. Urban marginality, religious liminality, and the black poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Drew Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While many persons within westernised or westernising nations such as the United States of America and South Africa continue to place importance on matters of faith, a growing number of those persons approach matters of faith informally rather than formally and individually rather than institutionally. The implications of this are that among 21st century populations informal religious formation may be as important as or more important than the formation taking place via formal religious channels. A central emphasis of this article is that this is especially true among more socially marginalised populations, not simply because they may not enjoy the same level of access to formal institutions, but also because they may regard those institutions as spiritually and culturally restrictive and exclusionary. The contributions of the article are, firstly, its use of original and unique survey data generated from neighbourhood studies the author directed in low-income contexts within several U.S. cities and within Pretoria, South Africa, and, secondly, its analysis of informal ways the urban poor engage Christian ideas and practices − an aspect of urban religion that has not received adequate scholarly attention.

  12. Young people of other worlds: Urban tribes? Youth cultures? Contributions from nonwestern contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sánchez García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available From an experience of field in four districts of the city of Cairo, the author raises a reflection and a reframing of the instituted traditional methodologies for the investigation between generational groups in western contexts. Although the basically urban character of these associations is defended, it discusses to the relevance of the application of the concepts of “urban tribe” and “youth culture” in cultural scenes like the represented ones in societies that have undergone a fast transition to a modernity imposed by the transnational networks. In this sense, the objective is the refining of those conceptual tools offering a new perspective of which it considers the historical and social peculiarities of the construction of “young” the social category in other places. Finally, the text tries to vindicate the Anthropology like an empirical and non a priori discipline.

  13. Healthcare Providers' Formative Experiences with Race and Black Male Patients in Urban Hospital Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisime, Marie V; Malebranche, David J; Davis, Andrea L; Taylor, Jennifer A

    2017-12-01

    We explored health providers' formative personal and professional experiences with race and Black men as a way to assess their potential influence on interactions with Black male patients. Utilizing convenience sampling with snowballing techniques, we identified healthcare providers in two urban university hospitals. We compared Black and White providers' experiences based on race and level of training. We used the Gardener's Tale to conceptualize how racism may lead to racial health disparities. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct in-person interviews (n = 16). Using the grounded theory approach, we conducted three types of coding to examine data patterns. We found two themes reflective of personally mediated racism: (1) perception of Black males accompanied by two subthemes (a) biased care and (b) fear and discomfort and (2) cognitive dissonance. While this latter theme is more reflective of Jones's internalized racism level, we present its results because its novelty is compelling. Perception of Black males and cognitive dissonance appear to influence providers' approaches with Black male patients. This study suggests the need to develop initiatives and curricula in health professional schools that address provider racial bias. Understanding the dynamics operating in the patient-provider encounter enhances the ability to address and reduce health disparities.

  14. Using the Urban Environment to Engage Youths in Urban Ecology Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Lord, Charles; Strauss, Eric; Rosca, Camelia; Langford, Heather; Chavez, Dawn; Deni, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Recent science education reform proponents explicitly put forward the idea that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. To address this need, the authors have developed and implemented a field-based urban ecology science program to engage traditionally…

  15. Improving job performance of Neighborhood Youth Corps aides in an urban recreation program1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles H.; Risley, Todd R.

    1974-01-01

    In most federal job training and employment programs, trainees' pay is not contingent on job performance, but upon physical presence. This study sought to increase the job performance of seven Neighborhood Youth Corps workers being paid an hourly wage for serving as aides in an urban recreation program. When thorough job descriptions and threatened termination of employment were insufficient to maintain adequate job performance, an attempt was made to make the hourly wage (required by the Neighborhood Youth Corps program) more contingent on job performance. When the number of hours credited the workers on their payroll sheets was proportional to their rating on a simple checklist of job performance, rather than to the number of hours they were present, their job performance was maintained at near-perfect levels. Although this simple semantic shift in emphasis—from “hours worked” to “hours worked”—was still interpreted as meeting the Neighborhood Youth Corps requirements for hourly pay, its behavioral effects were substantial. This simple procedure might be used in other training programs handicapped by hourly wage requirements. PMID:4436168

  16. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A study of the mixing state of black carbon in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Putaud, J. P.; Dubovik, O.

    2004-02-01

    The knowledge of the mixing state of black carbon particle with other aerosol species is critical for adequate simulations of the direct radiative effect of black carbon particles and its effect on climate. This paper reports the investigation of the mixing state of black carbon aerosol in the urban zone. The study uses a combination of in situ and ground-based remote sensing observations conducted during the ESCOMPTE experiment, which took place in industrialized region in France in summer of 2001. The criteria we used for identifying mixing state relies on the known enhancement of absorption for aerosol composed by internal versus external mixtures of black carbon with weakly absorbing aerosol components. First, using in situ aerosol data, we performed Mie computations and reconstructed the single scattering albedo of aerosol for the two different mixing assumptions: black carbon mixed externally or internally with other aerosol species. Then, we compared the obtained values ωo,int and ωo,ext with the retrievals of ωo from independent AERONET Sun-photometric measurements. The aerosol single scattering albedo (ωo,aer.) derived from the AERONET photometer observations (with the mean value equal to 0.84 ± 0.04) was found to be close to ωo,ext reconstructed from in situ observation under assumptions of external mixture. This similarity between AERONET values and external mixture simulations was observed during all the days studied. Our conclusion on external mixture of black carbon aerosol with other particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE (close to the pollution source) is coherent with observations made during other independent studies reported in a number of recent publications.

  18. Struggles of agency and structure as cultural worlds collide as urban African American youth learn physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmesky, Rowhea

    This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge

  19. Crossing Boundaries: Exploring Black Middle and Upper Class Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in High Poverty Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea D.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to explore the perceptions of Black middle and upper class preservice teachers as they relate to teaching and learning in high poverty urban schools. Participants included 11 senior early childhood education preservice teachers at a historically Black college in the southeast region of the United States. The study was…

  20. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  1. Urban Preparation: Young Black Men Moving from Chicago's South Side to Success in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Chezare A.

    2017-01-01

    Chezare A. Warren chronicles the transition of a cohort of young Black males from Urban Prep Charter Academy for Young Men to their early experiences in higher education. A rich and closely observed account of a mission-driven school and its students, "Urban Preparation" makes a significant contribution to our understanding of how young…

  2. Exploring Value Orientations toward the Human-Nature Relationship: A Comparison of Urban Youth in Minnesota, USA and Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Ernst, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Research exploring urban youths' value orientations toward the human-nature relationship was conducted with 59 students from a school in Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA) and 51 students from a school in Guangzhou, Guangdong (China). Quantitative findings suggest that the majority of participants in both groups shared a similar value orientation,…

  3. Community-Based Mental Health and Behavioral Programs for Low-Income Urban Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farahnaz K.; Duffy, Sophia N.; Tailor, Megha A.; Dubois, David L.; Lyon, Aaron L.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Zarlinski, Jennifer C.; Masini, Olivia; Zander, Keith J.; Nathanson, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of 33 studies and 41 independent samples was conducted of the effectiveness of community-based mental health and behavioral programs for low-income urban youth. Findings indicated positive effects, with an overall mean effect of 0.25 at post-test. While this is comparable to previous meta-analytic intervention research with…

  4. A Critical Pedagogy Approach for Engaging Urban Youth in Mobile App Development in an After-School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    To understand the digital divide as a matter of social justice, I identify access to computational fluency as a civil rights issue. "Access" refers to material as well as social resources, including meaningful learning opportunities that create the conditions for urban youth to engage in computational thinking. In this article, I explore…

  5. "There Is Nothing Else to Do but Make Films": Urban Youth Participation at a Film and Television School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chiu; Grauer, Kit; Castro, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Our three-year inquiry at the Gulf Islands Film and Television School (GIFTS), a community-based media arts educational center, presents a practical model illustrating how urban youth explore their own strengths and connect themselves to a learning space in a rural environment within the context of filmmaking. It also offers pedagogical insights…

  6. The Applicability of Cognitive Mediational and Moderational Models to Explain Children's Depression Inventory Factor Scores in Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinemann, Dawn H. S.; Teeter Ellison, Phyllis A.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined whether cognition serves as a direct factor, mediates, or moderates the relationship between stressful life events and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 1992) factor scores in urban, ethnic minority youth. Ninety-eight middle school students completed measures of stressful life events, cognition (cognitive…

  7. An Evaluation of Training for Lay Providers in the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Promote Academic Achievement among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…

  8. Historical record of black carbon in urban soils and its environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yue; Zhang Ganlin

    2009-01-01

    Energy use in urbanization has fundamentally changed the pattern and fluxes of carbon cycling, which has global and local environmental impacts. Here we have investigated organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) in six soil profiles from two contrast zones in an ancient city (Nanjing) in China. BC in soils was widely variable, from 0.22 to 32.19 g kg -1 . Its average concentration in an ancient residential area (Zone 1) was, 0.91 g kg -1 , whereas in Zone 2, an industrial and commercial area, the figure was 8.62 g kg -1 . The ratio of BC/OC ranged from 0.06 to 1.29 in soil profiles, with an average of 0.29. The vertical distribution of BC in soil is suggested to reflect the history of BC formation from burning of biomass and/or fossil fuel. BC in the surface layer of soils was mainly from traffic emission (especially from diesel vehicles). In contrast, in cultural layers BC was formed from historical coal use. The contents of BC and the ratio of BC/OC may reflect different human activities and pollution sources in the contrasting urban zones. In addition, the significant correlation of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Zn) with BC contents in some culture layers suggests the sorption of the metals by BC or their coexistence resulted from the coal-involved smelting. - Soil black carbon can reflect the pollution history of a city during urbanization.

  9. Health care practices influencing health promotion in urban black women in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.

  10. “Are You From The Police, Or What?” Critical Remarks On Ethnographic Fieldwork Among (Disadvantaged) Urban Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2016-01-01

    studies. In the fall of 2014 we carried out ethnographic fieldwork (Hastrup 2010, Spradley 1980) in the city of Horsens in Denmark in relation to our research on unstructured socialization among urban youth in urban public spaces. Despite our efforts to explain the young people about our field work......“Are You From The Police, Or What?” Critical Remarks On Ethnographic Fieldwork Among (Disadvantaged) Urban Youth As pointed out by Hammersley and Atkinson (2007) the field observer can experience being perceived as a spy and feeling undeniably unwelcome, especially in the beginning of observation...... and our role as non-SSP (a special Social services, School and Police unit) and non-police, we repeatedly experienced the youngsters questioning our presence. The confusion and skepticism that we experienced emphasized the importance of reflecting our position as researchers (Bourdieu 1999, Goodson...

  11. Moral Markets for Troubling Youths: A Disruption!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Linwood H.

    2001-01-01

    Maintains that public policy discourse with narrow views of morality and character are at the center of contemporary definitions and marketing of services for violent/troubled youth. Uses descriptive and ethnographic data on violence in urban and black schools/communities to argue that, left undisturbed, moral entrepreneurs pose as much risk as…

  12. The Variables Associated With Health Promotion Behaviors Among Urban Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Millie

    2018-04-24

    To improve understanding of variables impacting health promotion behaviors among urban Black women. A cross-sectional survey was used. Urban Black women (N = 132) between the ages of 30 to 64 years participated. The study was conducted in a U.S. metropolitan region in 2015. Health literacy (Newest Vital Sign [NVS]), self-efficacy (New General Self-Efficacy Scale [NGSE]), and readiness for change (Health Risk Instrument [HRI]) were correlated with health promotion behaviors (Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II [HPLPII]). Univariate statistics addressed demographic characteristics; bivariate/simultaneous linear regression determined the relationships between the NVS, NGSE, and HRI to health promotion behaviors (HPLPII). Demographics: 72.6% completed high school and 25% completed college, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was >32. Positive correlations existed between each variable to health promotion behaviors: NVS (r = .244, p promotion behaviors. Education and health literacy were also correlated (r s = .414, p = .001). Although health literacy, self-efficacy, and readiness for change are associated with health promotion behaviors, readiness for change was the most highly correlated. The development and incorporation of interventions to promote health promotion behaviors should include readiness for change, health literacy, BMI, and education, especially among urban Black women in order to reduce critical health disparities. Community-based and culturally relevant strategies in promoting health that are integrated into existing lifestyles and designed to impact readiness for change will have the greatest impact on reducing health disparities both in the United States and in countries experiencing rapid urbanization. For example, healthy eating behaviors or increased physical activity may be best adopted when integrated into existing community-based spiritual or cultural events via trusted community leaders. Replication of this study in other populations of Black

  13. Contesting history and pursuing "other" knowledge: A study of hip-hop and non-formal education among Native American youth in San Francisco and black Portuguese youth in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Miye Nadya

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop - a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music - to examine how youth from specific communities access knowledge which is denied to them in schools, give revolutionary voice to their realities, and broadcast perspectives on race, place and belonging. When knowledge is negated in learning institutions, non-formal education created by youth is a powerful force in re-affirming tradition and transformation. Hip-hop becomes a medium to create alternative educational projects addressing the needs of youth in San Francisco, USA, and Lisbon, Portugal, where this research was conducted.

  14. Youth access to indoor tanning salons in urban versus rural/suburban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Rosenthal, Meagen; Lemon, Stephenie C; Kane, Kevin; Cheng, Jie; Oleski, Jessica L; Li, Wenjun; Hillhouse, Joel J; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-03-01

    Research suggests that youth proximity to tanning salons may promote use; however, little is known about tanning salon proximity to schools. We assessed the proximity of tanning salons to schools in urban versus rural/suburban communities across Worcester County, Massachusetts (population > 800K). To put findings in context, we compared school proximity to tanning salons to school proximity to McDonald's restaurants, a large franchise that also caters to young people. Accessibility was measured by ArcGIS 10.2 Network Analyzer (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA) and the most current road network data layer from Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT). A total of 145 schools were observed in the study area, of which about 39% of schools were within 1 mile from a tanning salon. Urban schools (53.41%) had a higher proportion within 1 mile of a tanning salon than rural/suburban schools (17.54%; P < .001). More schools (39.31%) were within 1 mile of a tanning salon than schools within 1 mile of a McDonald's (22.70%; P < .001). Schools may be particularly impactful for implementing skin cancer prevention programing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Promoting careers in health care for urban youth: What students, parents and educators can teach us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Lynne; Rumala, Bernice; Carson, Patricia; Siegel, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    There are many obstacles that urban youth experience in pursuing health careers, but the benefits of diversifying the classroom and workforce are clear. This is especially true today as educators and policymakers seek to enhance underrepresented minority students' access to health careers, and also achieve the health workforce needed to support the Affordable Care Act. The creation of student pipeline programs began more than 40 years ago, but success has been equivocal. In 2008, Mentoring in Medicine (MIM) conducted a research project to identify how students learn about health careers; develop strategies for an integrated, experiential learning program that encourages underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health; and translate these into best practices for supporting students through their entire preparatory journey. Six focus groups were conducted with educators, students, and their parents. The inclusion of parents was unusual in studies of this kind. The outcome yielded important and surprising differences between student and parent knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. They informed our understanding of the factors that motivate and deter underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health care. Specific programmatic strategies emerged that found their place in the subsequent development of new MIM programming that falls into the following three categories: community-based, school-based and Internet based. Best practices derived from these MIM programs are summarized and offered for consideration by other health career education program developers targeting underrepresented minority students, particularly those located in urban settings.

  16. The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-01-03

    Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and

  17. The Nature, Challenges and Consequences of Urban Youth Unemployment: A Case of Nairobi City, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiya, Bernard Munyao

    2014-01-01

    Globally, decline in employment has affected the youth more compared to other cohorts with youth in developing countries being particularly hard hit. There have been various interventions by the Kenyan government to address the challenge of youth employment through human capital development like the Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEFD).…

  18. 'Ballroom itself can either make you or break you' - Black GBT Youths' psychosocial development in the House Ball Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telander, Kyle; Hosek, Sybil G; Lemos, Diana; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2017-11-01

    Social context plays a significant role in adolescent identity development, particularly for youth lacking traditional systems of support. Using ecological and symbolic interactionism perspectives, this study qualitatively explored the psychosocial identity development of Black gay, bisexual, or transgendered youth participating in the House Ball Community (HBC). The HBC is a diverse network of family-like structures called 'houses', as well as a glamorous social outlet via pageant-like 'balls' in which participants compete. A series of focus groups were conducted with youth and leaders from the HBC (n = 37; age range = 17-24). Via cross-case and comparative analyses, specific motivating factors related to entry into and continued involvement in the community were identified. Factors related to entry into the community included lack of safe spaces, opportunities for acceptance, means of subsistence, and allure of the scene. Factors related to continued involvement included resilience and coping skills development, sexual identity acceptance and pride, prevalence of risky behaviour, and risk of exploitation. Discussion of these factors provides insight on how self-constructed, supplementary social contexts may provide both unique supports and risks to members, allowing for more focused and well-informed interventions and policies to enhance healthy development in such communities while mitigating risk.

  19. RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AMONG OUT-OF-SCHOOL THAI AND NON-THAI YOUTH IN URBAN CHIANG MAI, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Manoyosa, Veruree; Tarnkehard, Surapee; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-school youth in Thailand engage in risky sexual behavior that puts them at risk for contracting HIV infection and can have other negative sexual reproductive health outcomes. No study has examined risky sexual behaviors and compared them between Thai and non-Thai out-of-school youth. The current study compares sexual risk behavior and HIV testing behavior between out-of-school Thai and non-Thai youth. We conducted face-to-face interviews in this study population in urban Chiang Mai during 2014. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling from two main sources: non-formal education centers (NFECs) and social meeting places. We recruited 924 youth, aged 15-24 years, of whom 424 (45.9%) were Thai and 500 (54.1%) were non-Thai. The majority were attending NFECs (82.3%). Of the sexually experienced participants (57.7%), 75.4% did not use condoms consistently, and 50.3% had at least 2 lifetime sexual partners. Among the study participants, the Thai studied youth had significantly higher odds of ever having had sex (AOR=2.33; 95% CI: 1.56-3.49; p<0.001), having an earlier sexual debut (AOR=5.52; 95% CI: 2.71-11.25; p<0.001) and having a larger number of lifetime sexual partners (AOR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.37-3.88; p=0.002) than non-Thai participants. There was no significant difference between the Thai and non-Thai participants in terms of having HIV testing. The Thai studied youth were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than the non-Thai youth. However, both groups displayed risky sexual behaviors. Future research should explore indepth the drivers of risky sexual behaviors among both Thai and non-Thai youth.

  20. The urban explosion of black majority churches : their origin, growth, distinctives and contribution to British Christianity / by Babatunde Aderemi Adedibu

    OpenAIRE

    Adedibu, Babatunde Aderemi

    2010-01-01

    British church history in the last sixty years is best described as a “coat of many colours”. This image is appropriate because of the growth and proliferation of Black Majority Churches in urban areas of the British Isles. The advent of these churches has contributed to the prevailing pluralistic theological landscape. This thesis aims to evaluate the current status of Black Majority Churches with respect to their origin, growth, distinctives and contributions to British Ch...

  1. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to

  2. Patterns, levels and correlates of self-reported physical activity in urban black Soweto women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-09-08

    Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p travel (both p travel is a major contributor to physical activity, future research should attempt to determine whether the intensity of this activity plays a role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  3. Effects of cumulative trauma load on perceptions of health, blood pressure, and resting heart rate in urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner-Warren, Rhonda

    2014-04-01

    This study examined relationships between cumulative trauma (CT) and urban African American (AA) adolescents' blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and perceptions of health. A correlational design using secondary data analysis studied effects of CT, health outcomes, and perceptions of health. Participants were 175 urban AA youth (11-16 years) who completed structured surveys and physiological measures of HR and BP before and after exercise. AA youth were experiencing high levels of CT. Negative correlations were obtained between AA females' perceptions of their health and systolic BP with levels of trauma. No gender differences were found in HR or BP. AA females with high CT may perceive themselves as less healthy and can be at risk for health problems. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Direitos civis dos jovens e a insegurança urbana Youth civil rights and urban insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Caccia-Bava Junior

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio parte do reconhecimento de uma conjuntura de crise institucional, para analisar o contexto da formação dos direitos civis dos jovens e suas fragilidades ,com vista a alcançar, por meio dessa reflexão, uma exposição dos aspectos da insegurança urbana presentes na sociedade brasileira. Palavras-chave: Crise institucional. Direitos civis dos jovens. Insegurança urbana. This essay starts with the recognition of a particular political institutional crisis as a base to analyze the development of the youth civil wrights and their gaps in order to reach an exposition of the characteristics of urban insecurity that takes place in Brazilian society. Keywords: Institutional crisis; Youth civil wrigths; Urban insecurity.

  5. The "paradox" of being young in New Delhi : urban middle class youth negotiations with popular Indian film

    OpenAIRE

    Williams-Ørberg, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to understand the ways in which popular film is integrated into the everyday lives of urban middle class youth in India. Approaching the study of film through an audience reception approach, I engaged in participant observation and interviews during a fieldwork period in New Delhi in order to better understand how a young audience might negotiate the fantasy of filmic images into the reality of their own lives. The two movies, Salaam Namaste and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (KA...

  6. The Black Swans of Agricultural Education: A Glimpse into the Lived Experiences That Shape Urban Agricultural Educators' Meaning in Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richie; Ramsey, Jon W.

    2017-01-01

    Urban agricultural educators face a number of unique challenges in performing their job duties. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the essence of urban agricultural educators' meaning in their work by exploring their lived experiences. In this study, the essence emerged in the form of a metaphor: A Black Swan. The black swan…

  7. Coping and metabolic syndrome indicators in urban black South African men: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, A; Malan, L; Malan, N T

    2010-01-01

    Urbanisation is associated with obesity, hypertension and development of the metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to assess the use of different coping styles and their influence on increases in MS indicators and target end-organ damage (TOD) in urban black African men. A sample of 53 men was classified as clear high active (AC, n = 30) or passive coping (PC, n = 23) responders, using the Amirkhan African validated coping style indicator. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded with an aneroid sphygmomanometer and waist circumference (WC) was determined. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and microalbuminuria were analysed to determine TOD. Fasting serum and eight-hour urine samples revealed elevated MS indicators in AC men. Strong associations existed between MS indicators and TOD in AC but not PC men. To conclude, only BP and seeking social support were positively associated with TOD in urban PC African men, while in urban AC African men, most MS indicators were positively associated with TOD, i.e. sub-clinical atherosclerosis and renal impairment.

  8. New Possibilities: (Re)Engaging Black Male Youth within Community-Based Educational Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Bianca J.; Hill, Marc Lamont; Davis, James Earl

    2011-01-01

    Despite the assertion that due to an Obama presidency America has become a post-racial society, Black males still face a unique social crisis. In this article, we hold that both race and gender continue to work in tandem to produce a certain set of social outcomes for young Black men in America despite this assertion. The educational, economic,…

  9. Morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition of black carbon (BC) in urban topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C). Elemental analysis shows that carbon content in the BC of studied soils ranged from 64.5 to 78.4%, with the average more than 70%. The O/C atomic ratio of BC is on average 0.18. The BC particle displays different morphology, including porous spherical, irregular porous fragmentary, and blocky shapes. The porous spherical BC particles has atomic molar O/C ratio determined by SEM-EDS ranging from 0.04 to 0.37. XRD indicates that BC exists in mainly combining with mineral phases hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), kaolinite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and calcite (CaCO 3 ). The FTIR spectra of BC particles show major bands at approximately 3400 cm -1 (O-H), 2920 cm -1 (C = H), 1600 cm -1 (C = C), 1230 cm -1 (C = O), and 1070 cm -1 (C = O). The stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) of BC ranges from -24.48 to -23.18‰ with the average of -23.79 ± 0.39‰. The concentration of BC in the industrial area is significantly (p fuel combustion. Results indicated that a combination of atomic O/C ratio, porous structure, and stable carbon isotopic (δ 13 C) of BC could reflect effectively the origin of BC

  10. Formative Research to Design a Promotional Campaign to Increase Drinking Water among Central American Latino Youth in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Nicole; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Elkins, Allison; Rivera, Ivonne; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Latinos consume more sugary drinks and less water than other demographic groups. Our objective was to understand beverage choice motivations and test promotional concepts that can encourage Central American Latino urban youth to drink more water. Two rounds of focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 focus groups, 61 participants, 6-18 years old). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive coding approaches. Youth motivations for drinking water were shaped by level of thirst, weather, energy, and perceptions of health benefits. Youth were discouraged from drinking water due to its taste and perceptions of the safety and cleanliness of tap water. Youth beverage preference depended on what their friends were drinking. Availability of water versus other beverages at home and other settings influenced their choice. Promotional materials that included mixed language, informative messages about the benefits of drinking water, and celebrities or athletes who were active, energized, and drinking water were preferred. A promotional campaign to increase water consumption among these Latino youth should include bicultural messages to underscore the power of water to quench true thirst, highlight the health benefits of drinking water, and address the safety of tap water.

  11. To Be Alone or in a Group: An Exploration into How the School-Based Experiences Differ for Black Male Teachers across One Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Travis J.

    2018-01-01

    One urban district administered the Black Male Teacher Environment Survey (BMTES) to each of its Black male teachers to measure their school-based experiences. This article highlights descriptive statistics from the 86 Black male teacher respondents. Findings suggest that participants' background characteristics and school-based experiences varied…

  12. “Coming to Town”: The Impact of Urbanicity, Cigarette Advertising, and Network Norms on the Smoking Attitudes of Black Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Chyvette T.; Grier, Sonya A.; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, whi...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Family Adaptability and Cohesion Ratings among Traumatized Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantuono, Alessandro; Saigh, Philip A.; Durham, Katherine; Dekis, Constance; Hackler, Dusty; McGuire, Leah A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Halamandaris, Phill V.; Oberfield, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Given the need to identify psychological risk factors among traumatized youth, this study examined the family functioning of traumatized youth with or without PTSD and a nonclinical sample. Method: The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, second edition (FACES II; Olson, Portner, & Bell, 1982), scores of youth with…

  14. Descriptive analysis of individual and community factors among African American youths in urban public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  15. Aggressive and prosocial behavior: community violence, cognitive, and behavioral predictors among urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema

    2013-06-01

    We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.

  16. When Black Girls Fight: Interrogating, Interrupting, and (Re)Imagining Dangerous Scripts of Femininity in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jennifer; Edwards, Erica B.

    2018-01-01

    The recent death of Amy Joyner, a promising Wilmington, Delaware, high school sophomore demonstrates very clearly the ways in which Black girls are made vulnerable in urban schools. Joyner, an honor roll student, was jumped by a group of girls in the bathroom just before classes began. The alleged cause of the fight was jealousy over a boy. Black…

  17. It's Not about "You," It's about "Us": A Black Woman Administrator's Efforts to Disrupt White Fragility in an Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lori D.; Jordan, Jodi L.

    2017-01-01

    This case centers on a Black woman school administrator and efforts to disrupt Whiteness among an urban elementary school teaching staff. The case details the resistance she encounters while encouraging teachers to confront "White fragility" and consider how their fragile perspectives on race and racism shape how they educate Black…

  18. Characterization of atmospheric black carbon and co-pollutants in urban and rural areas of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Valle, M.; Coz, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Močnik, G.; Pandis, S. N.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Díaz, E.; Pérez, R. M.; Artíñano, B.

    2017-11-01

    A one-year black carbon (BC) experimental study was performed at three different locations (urban traffic, urban background, rural) in Spain with different equivalent BC (eBC) source characteristics by means of multi-wavelength Aethalometers. The Aethalometer model was used for the source apportionment study, based on the difference in absorption spectral dependence of emissions from biomass burning (bb) and fossil fuel (ff) combustion. Most studies use a single bb and ff absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) pair (AAEbb and AAEff), however in this work we use a range of AAE values associated with fossil fuel and biomass burning based on the available measurements, which represents more properly all conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the source specific AAE was carried out to determine the most appropriate AAE values, being site dependent and seasonally variable. Here we present a methodology for the determination of the ranges of AAEbb and AAEff by evaluating the correlations between the source apportionment of eBC using the Aethalometer model with four biomass burning tracers measured at the rural site. The best combination was AAEbb = [1.63-1.74] and AAEff = [0.97-1.12]. Mean eBC values (±SD) obtained during the period of study were 3.70 ± 3.73 μg m-3 at the traffic urban site, 2.33 ± 2.96 μg m-3 at the urban background location, and 2.61 ± 5.04 μg m-3 in the rural area. High contributions of eBC to the PM10 mass were found (values up to 21% in winter), but with high eBC/PM10 variability. The hourly mean eBCff and eBCbb concentrations varied from 0 to 51 μg m-3 and from 0 to 50 μg m-3 at the three sites, respectively, exhibiting distinct seasonal and daily patterns. The fossil fuel combustion was the dominant eBC source at the urban sites, while biomass burning dominated during the cold season (88% of eBCbb) in the rural area. Daily PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume air samplers and analyzed for OC and EC. Analysis of biomass

  19. Risky sexual behaviors among female youth in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojjam Tadesse

    Full Text Available Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia.A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15-29 years in September 2011.711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3% used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6% had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6% had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1% did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%, and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3% participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing 'khat', watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex.Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended.

  20. Risky sexual behaviors among female youth in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Gojjam; Yakob, Bereket

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15-29 years in September 2011. 711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3%) used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6%) had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6%) had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1%) did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%), and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3%) participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing 'khat', watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex. Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended.

  1. Environmental pollution due to black carbon aerosols and its impacts in a tropical urban city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavi Latha, K. [National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space-Government of India, Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 037 (India); Badarinath, K.V.S. [National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space-Government of India, Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 037 (India)]. E-mail: badrinath_kvs@nrsa.gov.in

    2005-05-15

    Black carbon (BC) has become the subject of interest in the recent years for a variety of reasons. BC aerosol may cause environmental as well as harmful health effects in densely inhabited regions. BC is a strong absorber of radiation in the visible and near-infrared part of the spectrum, where most of the solar energy is distributed. Black carbon is emitted into the atmosphere as a byproduct of all combustion processes, viz., vegetation burning, industrial effluents, motor vehicle exhausts, etc. In this paper, we present results from our measurements on BC aerosols, total aerosol mass concentration, and aerosol optical depth over an urban environment, namely Hyderabad during January-May, 2003. Diurnal variations of BC suggest that high BC concentrations are observed during 6:00-9:00 h and 19:00-23:00 h. Weekday variations of BC suggest that the day average BC concentrations increases gradually from Monday to Wednesday and gradually decreases from Thursday to Sunday. Fraction of BC to total mass concentration has been observed to be 7%. BC showed positive correlation with total mass concentration and aerosol optical depth at 500 nm. Radiative transfer calculations suggest that during January-May, diurnal averaged aerosol forcing at the surface was calculated to be -33 Wm{sup -2} and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) it is to be +9 Wm{sup -2}.

  2. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Sarcopenia in Black South African Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J; Tieland, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = -.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = -.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

  3. Markedly enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing of black carbon under polluted urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Levy Zamora, Misti; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Yuan; Glen, Crystal R; Collins, Donald R; Molina, Mario J; Zhang, Renyi

    2016-04-19

    Black carbon (BC) exerts profound impacts on air quality and climate because of its high absorption cross-section over a broad range of electromagnetic spectra, but the current results on absorption enhancement of BC particles during atmospheric aging remain conflicting. Here, we quantified the aging and variation in the optical properties of BC particles under ambient conditions in Beijing, China, and Houston, United States, using a novel environmental chamber approach. BC aging exhibits two distinct stages, i.e., initial transformation from a fractal to spherical morphology with little absorption variation and subsequent growth of fully compact particles with a large absorption enhancement. The timescales to achieve complete morphology modification and an absorption amplification factor of 2.4 for BC particles are estimated to be 2.3 h and 4.6 h, respectively, in Beijing, compared with 9 h and 18 h, respectively, in Houston. Our findings indicate that BC under polluted urban environments could play an essential role in pollution development and contribute importantly to large positive radiative forcing. The variation in direct radiative forcing is dependent on the rate and timescale of BC aging, with a clear distinction between urban cities in developed and developing countries, i.e., a higher climatic impact in more polluted environments. We suggest that mediation in BC emissions achieves a cobenefit in simultaneously controlling air pollution and protecting climate, especially for developing countries.

  4. Characterization of black carbon in an urban-rural fringe area of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongsheng; Li, Liang; Pang, Bo; Xue, Peng; Wang, Lili; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Hongliang; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-04-01

    Measuring black carbon (BC) is critical to understand the impact of combustion aerosols on air quality and climate change. In this study, BC was measured in 2014 at a unique community formed with rapid economic development and urbanization in an urban-rural fringe area of Beijing. Hourly BC concentrations were 0.1-33.5 μg/m 3 with the annual average of 4.4 ± 3.7 μg/m 3 . BC concentrations had clear diurnal, weekly, and seasonal variations, and were closely related with atmospheric visibility. The absorption coefficient of aerosols increased while its contribution to extinction coefficient decreased with the enhancement of PM 2.5 concentration. The high mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC was attributed to a combination of coal combustion, vehicular emission and rapidly coating by water-soluble ions and organic carbon (OC). BC concentrations followed a typical lognormal pattern, with over 88% samples in 0.1-10.0 μg/m 3 . Low BC levels were mostly bounded up with winds from north and northwest. Coal combustion and biomass burning were closely associated with severe haze pollution events. Firework discharge had significant UV absorption contribution. During the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in November 2014, air quality obviously improved due to various control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Preventive Intervention Program for Urban African American Youth Attending an Alternative Education Program: Background, Implementation, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Steven B; Hanlon, Thomas E; O'Grady, Kevin E; Watts, Amy M; Pothong, Pattarapan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted of structured group mentoring, parental support, and community outreach services administered to alternative education students and their primary caregiver(s) during the school year. Over a two-year intake period, 109 youth participated in the present process evaluation study. Findings from the study not only provided relevant demographic information on the characteristics of youth likely to be included in such programs but also indicated the importance of including the family in the rehabilitation effort and the need for school administrative system support for the underlying alternative education approach. The information presented in this report has a direct bearing on the planning of future prevention efforts conducted in similar settings that are aimed at reducing problem behaviors and promoting positive lifestyles among high-risk youth.

  6. "Bounded" empowerment: analyzing tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research in urban public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Newlan, Sami; Douglas, Laura; Hubbard, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    This multi-method study examines tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research (YPAR) in urban high schools among 15 semester-cohorts. Student participants in the present study were 77 ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in a major metropolitan school district. Data were gathered using systematic classroom observations, interviews with teachers and students involved in the projects, and participant observation. The two most commonly-constrained phases of the YPAR project were issue selection and action steps. A central tension in the issue selection phase for projects enacted across multiple semester cohorts was the tension between original inquiry and "traction:" Sticking with the same topic enabled sustained building of strategic alliances and expertise for making change, but limited the incoming cohort's power to define the problem to be addressed. In further analyses, we identified processes that promoted student power despite continuity-related constraints-teachers' framing and buy-in strategies, "micro-power" compensation, and alignment of students' interests with the prior cohort-as well as constraints in other phases of the projects. This study's findings regarding the promotion of youth power in the face of constraints advance the integration of theory and practice in youth-led research and have implications for participatory research more broadly.

  7. Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Black American Youth and Families: A Case Study from the EMBRace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana E. Anderson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Black American youth are vulnerable to the consequences of repeated exposure to racial discrimination, particularly through hampered coping abilities and greater internalizing and externalizing problems. One way in which Black American parents have protected their children from these deleterious consequences is through racial socialization, or communication regarding aspects of racialized experiences and contexts. Less is known, however, about the potential therapeutic benefits of racial socialization via clinical intervention. The five-week Engaging, Managing, and Bonding through Race (EMBRace racial socialization intervention was developed to enhance coping strategies for parents and adolescents and reduce adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. The purpose of this study is to describe a case study of one family through a mixed methods approach. Variables of interest included racial discrimination, racial socialization, coping, and psychological well-being. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed two weeks prior to and one week after the implementation of EMBRace, with qualitative data collected throughout the intervention. Results indicate a developing sense of coping for the adolescent and parent and reduced adolescent psychosocial problems despite increased racialized stress. Results will be used to further investigate the hypotheses proposed in the pilot with a powered sample, and future studies will explore how sociodemographic and biopsychosocial variables relate to policy recommendations, program implementation, and psychosocial outcomes.

  8. Black youth's personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue: does the public service announcement still work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Truman R; Morant, Kesha M; Stroman, Carolyn A

    2009-03-01

    Recent public service announcements (PSAs) directed toward Black youth utilize various formats and appeals to stimulate a motivated cognitive process that engenders personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by Petty and Cacioppo argues that engagement with messages that consist of substantive content causes the audience member to critically analyze the message, which can produce awareness and attitude change. An efficient way to add emphasis to the message and seize the attention of the target audience is to insert the message into an entertainment context. Our study attempted to analyze the impact of the peripheral cue, character appeal, on audience members' attitude change in response to analyzing high- and low-involvement message content. A2 x 4 factorial design was used, with message involvement (high/low) and character appeal (White/Black and celebrity/noncelebrity) as independent variables. The findings showed that celebrity status is the salient factor, with source perception inducing attitude change as a main effect or in an interaction effect with high- and low message content.

  9. Association of Youth and Caregiver Anxiety and Asthma Care Among Urban Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Reigada, Laura C; Lamm, Alexandra; Wang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zandieh, Stephanie O; Klein, Rachel G

    To examine the association of adolescent asthma-related anxiety, social anxiety, separation anxiety, and caregiver asthma-related anxiety with asthma care by urban adolescents. Participants were 386 ethnic minority adolescents (mean age 12.8 years) with persistent asthma and their caregivers. Adolescents reported what they do to prevent asthma symptoms and to manage acute symptoms, and if they or their caregiver is responsible for their asthma care. Adolescents completed the Youth Asthma-Related Anxiety Scale, and the social and separation anxiety subscales of the Screen for Child Anxiety and Emotional Disorders (SCARED); caregivers completed the Parent Asthma-Related Anxiety Scale. Linearity of the associations was assessed by generalized additive models. When there was no evidence for nonlinearity, linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the effects of the predictors. Adolescent asthma-related anxiety had a strong curvilinear relationship with symptom prevention (P Adolescents took more prevention steps as their anxiety increased, with a plateau at moderate anxiety. There was a linear relationship of adolescent asthma-related anxiety to symptom management (β = 0.03, P = .021) and to asthma responsibility (β = 0.11, P = .015), and of caregiver asthma-related anxiety to adolescent symptom prevention (β = 0.04, P = .001). Adolescent social and separation anxiety had weak to no relationship with asthma care. Results remained consistent when controlling for each of the other anxieties. Asthma-related anxiety plays an important, independent role in asthma care. When low, adolescents may benefit from increased support from caregivers and awareness of the consequences of uncontrolled asthma. When elevated, health providers should ensure the adolescents are not assuming responsibility for asthma care prematurely. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    Abstract / Journal of youth studies Conference 2015 Peter Frostholm Olesen & David Thore Gravesen Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark. In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town...... in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater / parkour / ball-cage facility right on the city's central squares. The facility serves as a territorial meeting place for a number of conflicting groups of adolescents with different codes of behavior based on their cultural orientation...... and sense of belonging to certain districts of the city. Through positioning battles of various kinds the groups fight for space and place for their unstructured socialization processes with their peers. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give local children and young people an opportunity...

  11. Fatal youth of the Universe: black hole threat for the electroweak vacuum during preheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry; Levkov, Dmitry; Panin, Alexander, E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: levkov@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: panin@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    Small evaporating black holes were proposed to be dangerous inducing fast decay of the electroweak false vacuum. We observe that the flat-spectrum matter perturbations growing at the post-inflationary matter dominated stage can produce such black holes in a tiny amount which may nevertheless be sufficient to destroy the vacuum in the visible part of the Universe via the induced process. If the decay probability in the vicinity of Planck-mass black holes was of order one as suggested in literature, the absence of such objects in the early Universe would put severe constraints on inflation and subsequent stages thus excluding many well-motivated models (e.g. the R {sup 2}-inflation) and supporting the need of new physics in the Higgs sector. We give a qualitative argument, however, that exponential suppression of the probability should persist in the limit of small black hole masses. This suppression relaxes our cosmological constraints, and, if sufficiently strong, may cancel them.

  12. Unitas: Evaluating a Preventative Program for Hispanic and Black Youth. Monograph No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procidano, Mary E.; Glenwick, David S.

    This monograph is the third of a trilogy of studies on the Unitas Therapeutic Community, a program that attempts to strengthen the competencies of the Hispanic and Black youngsters living in the Longwood/Hunts Point section of the South Bronx, New York City. The program uses indigenous nonprofessionals as surrogate parents, uncles, and aunts for…

  13. The Enduring Significance of Racism: Discrimination and Delinquency among Black American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Monica J.; McCarthy, Bill; Conger, Rand D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2011-01-01

    Prominent explanations of the overrepresentation of Black Americans in criminal justice statistics focus on the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, racial isolation, and social disorganization. We suggest that perceived personal discrimination is an important but frequently neglected complement to these factors. We test this…

  14. “The Boys Are Coming to Town”: Youth, Armed Conflict and Urban Violence in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krijn Peters

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Young people are major participants in contemporary intra-state armed conflicts. Since the end of the Cold War there has been a trend to portray these as criminal violence for private (economic ends, rather than politically or ideologically motivated. Hence, the perception of young people’s role has moved from “freedom fighters” to “violent criminals.” Our discursive and conceptual reconsideration based on a case study of Sierra Leone finds that the associated dichotomies (“new war/old war,” “greed/grievance,” “criminal/political violence” are grounded in traditional modernization assumptions and/or constructed for policy purposes, rather than reflecting reality on the ground. Urban and rural youth violence in developing countries cannot be separated from its political roots. Moreover, the violent dynamics in which urban youth violence is embedded challenge our conceptions of what an armed conflict is. Including this form of violence in mainstream conflict theory would open the way for a new interpretation and more effective policy interventions. Extrapolating the experience of Latin American cities plagued by drug violence, the recent and significant increase in drug trafficking on the West African seaboard could mark the beginning of another armed conflict with high youth involvement, this time playing out in urban settings.

     

  15. A social history of urban male youth varieties in Stirtonville and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young men who were old enough to participate in male youth street social networks in Stirtonville mainly used an Afrikaans-based slang. When Stirtonville residents moved to Vosloorus, the grammatical base of the male youth variety shifted from Afrikaans to Zulu and South Sotho. These findings suggest that the Afrikaans ...

  16. A Population-Based Assessment of Heartburn in Urban Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Frank K.; Makipour, Kian; Palit, Amiya; Shah, Sweetang; Vanar, Vishwas; Richter, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence data for heartburn in the urban Black American community is lacking. In order to estimate prevalence for this community we analyzed data from an ongoing cohort study in progress at our hospital. Comprehensive interviews allowed for exploration of factors associated with heartburn. Methods Complex, stratified sampling design. Survey invitations are hand delivered to random blocks in a single zip code tabulation area. One member per eligible household is invited to complete a computer-based survey. Heartburn was defined as ≥ 3 days/week of symptoms as defined by the Montreal Definition and Classification of GERD. Scaling and weighting factors were utilized to estimate population-level prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictor variables for heartburn. Results Enrolled 379 participants corresponding to a weighted sample size of 22,409 (20,888–23,930) citizens. Demographic characteristics of the sample closely matched those of the entire targeted population. Overall, the weighted prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week was 17.6% (16.4%–18.8%). Variables independently associated with heartburn were BMI, daily caloric and fat intake, diabetes mellitus (OR=2.95; 2.59–3.36), cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (OR=2.55; 2.25–2.89). Factors inversely associated included illicit drug use and increased physical activity. Waist: hip ratio showed no relationship. Conclusions The prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week is high in the Black American community. Adverse lifestyle behaviors showed particularly important associations. Our study needs to be replicated in other communities with similar demographics. PMID:23237330

  17. Diminished Economic Return of Socioeconomic Status at Birth among Black than White Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES systemically generates larger gains for Whites compared to Blacks. It is, however, unknown whether the effects of baseline SES on future family income also varies between Blacks and Whites. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the effects of family SES (i.e., family structure, maternal education, and income at birth on subsequent household income at age 15. Methods: This 15-year longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, which followed 1471 non-Hispanic Black or White families from the time of birth of their child for 15 years. Two family SES indicators (maternal education and income at birth were the independent variables. Family income 15 years later was the outcome. Maternal age, child gender, and family structure at baseline were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, maternal education (b = 11.62, p < 0.001 and household income (b = 0.73, p < 0.001 at baseline were predictive of family income 15 years later. Race, however, interacted with maternal education (b = −12,073.89, p < 0.001 and household income (b = −312.47, p < 0.001 at birth on household income 15 years later, indicating smaller effects for Black compared to White families. These differential gains were independent of family structure, mother age, and child gender. Conclusions: The economic return of family SES is smaller for Black compared to White families, regardless of the SES indicator. Policies should specifically address structural barriers in the lives of racial and ethnic minorities to minimize the diminished return of SES resources across racial minority groups. Policies should also reduce extra cost of upward social mobility for racial minorities. As the likely causes are multi-level, solutions should

  18. Leveraging After-School Programs to Minimize Risks for Internalizing Symptoms Among Urban Youth: Weaving Together Music Education and Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, Erin R; Frazier, Stacy L

    2017-09-01

    This study examined a university-community partnership, focusing on mental health promotion within an after-school music program. We pursued two goals: (a) supporting staff around student engagement and behavior management; (b) integrating social-emotional activities into the curriculum. We assessed youth's mental health needs and examined feasibility of social-emotional activities delivered. One-hundred sixty-two youth participated in activities, while a subset of youth (n = 61) and their parents provided information on mental health need. Rates of anxiety and depression symptoms were high, and youth reported high satisfaction with the activities. Results suggest promise of this model for mental health promotion for urban youth.

  19. Opportunities Matter: Exploring Youth’s Perspectives on Their Long-Term Participation in an Urban 4-H Youth Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Ferrari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights a study which explored youths’ perspectives on their long-term involvement at Adventure Central, a comprehensive 4-H youth development program based at an urban park facility. We conducted four focus groups with 16 youth between the ages of 12 and 16 who had participated in the program between three and seven years. The youth experienced a wide range of opportunities including nature-related activities, jobs at park facilities, and travel. They spoke positively of their experiences and described how they benefited from their participation. Novelty, challenge, and leadership were key features of these opportunities. The youth noted the connection between learning and fun. In the process, they learned new skills, such as teamwork and public speaking, and developed personal qualities, such as responsibility, that helped them as they were growing up, transferred to other settings, and would benefit them in the future. Findings from this study suggest some clear implications for youth development professionals.

  20. Mental Health and Educational Experiences Among Black Youth: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Theda; Lindsey, Michael A; Xiao, Yunyu; Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Joe, Sean

    2017-11-01

    Disproportionately lower educational achievement, coupled with higher grade retention, suspensions, expulsions, and lower school bonding make educational success among Black adolescents a major public health concern. Mental health is a key developmental factor related to educational outcomes among adolescents; however, traditional models of mental health focus on absence of dysfunction as a way to conceptualize mental health. The dual-factor model of mental health incorporates indicators of both subjective wellbeing and psychopathology, supporting more recent research that both are needed to comprehensively assess mental health. This study applied the dual-factor model to measure mental health using the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a representative cross-sectional survey. The sample included 1170 Black adolescents (52% female; mean age 15). Latent class analysis was conducted with positive indicators of subjective wellbeing (emotional, psychological, and social) as well as measures of psychopathology. Four mental health groups were identified, based on having high or low subjective wellbeing and high or low psychopathology. Accordingly, associations between mental health groups and educational outcomes were investigated. Significant associations were observed in school bonding, suspensions, and grade retention, with the positive mental health group (high subjective wellbeing, low psychopathology) experiencing more beneficial outcomes. The results support a strong association between school bonding and better mental health and have implications for a more comprehensive view of mental health in interventions targeting improved educational experiences and mental health among Black adolescents.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  2. Black, queer, and looking for a job: an exploratory study of career decision making among self-identified sexual minorities at an urban historically black college/university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Latashia N

    2014-01-01

    This thematically analyzed study seeks to explore the career decision perceptions of sexual minority college students at an urban historically black college/university (HBCU). This qualitative focus group study delved into how sexual minorities feel their visible variables of race, gender expression, and degree of disclosure influence their career thought process. Theories relative to the study included Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision-making, gender role theory, racial socialization, Cass's homosexual identity model, and impression management. Though participants initially proclaimed they did not allow their sexual minority identity to affect their career decisions, their overall responses indicated otherwise.

  3. Race Differences in Diet Quality of Urban Food-Insecure Blacks and Whites Reveals Resiliency in Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Allyssa J; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies shows a link between food insecurity and diet intake or quality. However, the moderating effect of race in this relation has not yet been studied. Food insecurity (USDA Food Security Module) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010; HEI) were measured in 1741 participants from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Data were collected from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed in 2014. Multivariable regression assessed the interaction of race and food insecurity on HEI scores, adjusting for age, sex, poverty status, single parent status, drug, alcohol and cigarette use, and comorbid diseases. The interaction of food insecurity and race was significantly associated with diet quality (p = 0.001). In the absence of food insecurity, HEI scores were similar across race. However, with each food insecurity item endorsed, HEI scores were substantially lower for Whites compared to Blacks. An ad hoc analysis revealed that Blacks were more likely than Whites to participate in SNAP (p race stratified analyses revealed that Blacks participating in SNAP showed diminished associations of food insecurity with diet quality. Study findings provide the first evidence that the influence of food insecurity on diet quality may be potentiated for Whites, but not Blacks. Additionally, results show that Blacks are more likely to participate in SNAP and show attendant buffering of the effects of food insecurity on diet quality. These findings may have important implications for understanding how food insecurity affects diet quality differentially by race.

  4. Adult Connection in Assault Injury Prevention among Male Youth in Low-Resource Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Miller, Elizabeth; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Branas, Charles C; Guo, Wensheng; Fein, Joel A; Richmond, Therese S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-04-26

    Strengths-based strategies to reduce youth violence in low-resource urban communities are urgently needed. Supportive adolescent-adult relationships may confer protection, but studies have been limited by self-reported composite outcomes. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 10- to 24-year-old males in low-resource neighborhoods to examine associations between supportive adult connection and severe assault injury. Cases were victims of gunshot assault injury (n = 143) and non-gun assault injury (n = 206) from two level I trauma centers. Age- and race-matched controls (n = 283) were recruited using random digit dial from the same catchment. Adolescent-adult connections were defined by: (1) brief survey questions and (2) detailed family genograms. Analysis used conditional logistic regression. There were no significant associations between positive adult connection, as defined by brief survey questions, and either gunshot or non-gun assault injury among adolescents with high prior violence involvement (GSW OR = 2.46, 95% CI 0.81-7.49; non-gun OR = 1.59, 95% CI 0.54-4.67) or low prior violence involvement (GSW OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.34-2.44; non-gun OR = 1.96, 95% CI 0.73-5.28). In contrast, among adolescents with high levels of prior violence involvement, reporting at least one supportive adult family member in the family genogram was associated with higher odds of gunshot assault injury (OR = 4.01, 95% CI 1.36-11.80) and non-gun assault injury (OR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.48-12.04). We were thus unable to demonstrate that positive adult connections protected adolescent males from severe assault injury in this highly under-resourced environment. However, at the time of injury, assault-injured adolescents, particularly those with high prior violence involvement, reported high levels of family support. The post-injury period may provide opportunities to intervene to enhance and leverage family connections to explore how to

  5. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  6. RACE DIFFERENCES IN DIET QUALITY OF URBAN FOOD-INSECURE BLACKS AND WHITES REVEALS RESLIENCY IN BLACKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Allyssa J.; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence from epidemiological studies shows a link between food insecurity and diet intake or quality. However, the moderating effect of race in this relation has not yet been studied. Methods Food insecurity (USDA Food Security Module) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010; HEI) were measured in 1,741 participants from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Data were collected from 2004–2009 and analyzed in 2014. Multivariable regression assessed the interaction of race and food insecurity on HEI scores, adjusting for age, sex, poverty status, single parent status, drug, alcohol, and cigarette use, and co-morbid diseases. Results The interaction of food insecurity and race was significantly associated with diet quality (p=.001). In the absence of food insecurity, HEI scores were similar across race. However, with each food insecurity item endorsed, HEI scores were substantially lower for Whites compared to Blacks. An ad-hoc analysis revealed that Blacks were more likely than Whites to participate in SNAP (p quality. Conclusions Study findings provide the first evidence that the influence of food insecurity on diet quality may be potentiated for Whites, but not Blacks. Additionally, results show that Blacks are more likely to participate in SNAP, and show attendant buffering of the effects of food insecurity on diet quality. These findings may have important implications for understanding how food insecurity affects diet quality differentially by race. PMID:27294760

  7. What are the characteristics of 'sexually ready' adolescents? Exploring the sexual readiness of youth in urban poor Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biney, Adriana A E; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo

    2016-01-05

    Adolescent sexual activity, especially among the urban poor, remains a challenge. Despite numerous interventions and programs to address the negative consequences arising from early and frequent sexual activity among youth in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, only slight progress has been made. A plausible explanation is that our understanding of what adolescents think about sex and about their own sexuality is poor. In that sense, examining how adolescents in urban poor communities think about their sexual readiness, and identifying characteristics associated with that sexual self-concept dimension, should deepen our understanding of this topical issue. A total of 196 male and female adolescents, ages 12 to 19, were surveyed in the 2011 RIPS Urban Health and Poverty Project in Accra, Ghana. The youth responded to three statements which determined their levels of sexual readiness. Other background characteristics were also obtained enabling the assessment of the correlates of their preparedness to engage in sex. The data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression models. Overall, the majority of respondents did not consider themselves ready for sex. Multivariate analyses indicated that sexual experience, exposure to pornographic movies, gender, ethnicity and household wealth were significantly linked to their readiness for sex. Sexual readiness is related to sexual activity as well as other characteristics of the adolescents, suggesting the need to consider these factors in the design of programs and interventions to curb early sex. The subject of sexual readiness has to be investigated further to ensure adolescents do not identify with any negative effects of this sexual self-view.

  8. "Coming to town": the impact of urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and network norms on the smoking attitudes of black women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chyvette T; Grier, Sonya A; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women's smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women's networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women's attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted.

  9. Sexual knowledge, attitude, behaviors and sources of influences in Urban college youth: A study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Dutt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was undertaken as there is very less literature related to sources of influence for sexual knowledge and attitude toward sex and sexual behaviors of youth in India. Aim: The objectives of the study were to explore sexual knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and the sources of influence and also to examine the relationship between sexual knowledge, attitude and behaviors in the youth. Method: The sample was selected from colleges using purposive sampling method and from the community using snowball method (n = 300. The tools used were sociodemographic data sheet, Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire (SKAQ-II and Sexual Behavior and Sources of Influence (SBSI scale. Results: Descriptive statistics and correlation was done to analyze the data. The youth had poor sexual knowledge; there was positive relationship between sexual knowledge and attitudes. Sexual behaviors through media and with self or others were found to be low. Internet was found to be the major source for gathering information and was considered the most reliable source. Conclusion: Indian college youth continue to have poor sexual knowledge. Internet is a major source of information and is considered as the most reliable one among youth. More knowledge about sex is associated with liberal attitude toward sex.

  10. Variation at the DRD4 locus is associated with wariness and local site selection in urban black swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Wouter F D; Robinson, Randall W; Weston, Michael A; Mulder, Raoul A; Guay, Patrick-Jean

    2015-12-11

    Interactions between wildlife and humans are increasing. Urban animals are often less wary of humans than their non-urban counterparts, which could be explained by habituation, adaptation or local site selection. Under local site selection, individuals that are less tolerant of humans are less likely to settle in urban areas. However, there is little evidence for such temperament-based site selection, and even less is known about its underlying genetic basis. We tested whether site selection in urban and non-urban habitats by black swans (Cygnus atratus) was associated with polymorphisms in two genes linked to fear in animals, the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and serotonin transporter (SERT) genes. Wariness in swans was highly repeatable between disturbance events (repeatability = 0.61) and non-urban swans initiated escape from humans earlier than urban swans. We found no inter-individual variation in the SERT gene, but identified five DRD4 genotypes and an association between DRD4 genotype and wariness. Individuals possessing the most common DRD4 genotype were less wary than individuals possessing rarer genotypes. As predicted by the local site selection hypothesis, genotypes associated with wary behaviour were over three times more frequent at the non-urban site. This resulted in moderate population differentiation at DRD4 (FST = 0.080), despite the sites being separated by only 30 km, a short distance for this highly-mobile species. Low population differentiation at neutrally-selected microsatellite loci and the likely occasional migration of swans between the populations reduces the likelihood of local site adaptations. Our results suggest that wariness in swans is partly genetically-determined and that wary swans settle in less-disturbed areas. More generally, our findings suggest that site-specific management strategies may be necessary that consider the temperament of local animals.

  11. Current Use of E-Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes Among US High School Students in Urban and Rural Locations: 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Rayens, Emily A; Howard, Tiffany; Hahn, Ellen J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design. United States. A nationally representative sample of US high school students (N = 11 053) who completed the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS); slightly more than half were urban (54%). The NYTS measures tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and use behavior and demographics of students in the United States. Weighted logistic regression assessed the relationships of urban-rural location with current e-cigarette use and dual use, adjusting for demographic factors, perceived risk, and social norms. There were clear differences in patterns of adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette use in rural versus urban areas. Social norms and perceptions may play a role in understanding these differences. Urban youth current cigarette smokers were nearly twice as likely as rural cigarette smokers to also use e-cigarettes. Reasons for urban-rural differences need to be taken into account when designing prevention programs and policy changes.

  12. Engaging Students in Constructive Youth-Adult Relationships: A Case Study of Urban School-Based Agriculture Students and Positive Adult Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, William A.; Martin, Michael J.; Tummons, John D.; Ball, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore the day-to-day functioning of a successful urban school-based agriculture veterinary program. Findings indicated student success was a product of multiple youth-adult relationships created through communal environments. Adults served as mentors with whom students felt constant, caring…

  13. COPE: A Pilot Study with Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for…

  14. Observations of black carbon aerosols characteristics over an urban environment: Radiative forcing and related implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Samina; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Humera; Rahman, Said

    2017-12-15

    With observations of black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations, optical and radiative properties were obtained over the urban city of Karachi during the period of March 2006-December 2008. BC concentrations were continuously measured using an Aethalometer, while optical and radiative properties were estimated through the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and Santa Barbra DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) models, respectively. For the study period, the measured BC concentrations were higher during January, February and November, while lower during May, June, July and August. A maximum peak value was observed during January 2007 while the minimum value was observed during June 2006. The Short Wave (SW) BC Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) both at Top of the Atmosphere (ToA) and within ATMOSphere (ATMOS) were positive during all the months, whereas negative SW BC ARF was found at the SurFaCe (SFC). Overall, SW BC ARF was higher during January, February and November, while relatively lower ARF was found during May, June, July and August. Conversely, the Long Wave (LW) BC ARF at ToA and SFC remained positive, whereas within ATMOS it shifted towards positive values (heating effect) during June-August. Finally, the net (SW+LW) BC ARF were found to be positive at ToA and in ATMOS, while negative at SFC. Moreover, a systematic increase in Atmospheric Heating Rate (AHR) was found during October to January. Additionally, we found highest correlation between Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD abs ) and SW BC ARF within ATMOS followed by SFC and ToA. Overall, the contribution of BC to the total ARF was found to greater than 84% for the whole observational period while contributing up to 93% during January 2007. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake and high bone turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Marlena C.; Kruger, Iolanthé Marike; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2011-01-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the Nor...

  16. Linkages between gender equity and intimate partner violence among urban Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E

    2011-10-01

    Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How Urban Youth Perceive Relationships Among School Environments, Social Networks, Self-Concept, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Perez-Aguilar, Giselle; Kim, Grace; Wong, Mitchell D; Chung, Paul J

    2017-03-01

    Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent self-concept, social networks, and substance use. Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17-22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self-concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students' names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracurricular activities, and school norms determined potential friendship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social networks, all of which impact substance use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Offal dumping sites influence the relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) in urban landscape: a study from Kolkata metropolis, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Subhendu; Ghose, Dipankar; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-12-14

    Although Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) serve as major scavenging raptor in most of the urban areas, scientific studies on this important ecosystem service provider are almost non-existent in Indian context. The present study was carried out in a metropolis in eastern India to find out the factors influencing relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites. Separate generalized linear models (GLMs) were performed considering encounter rate and roosting Black Kite abundance as response variables. The study conclusively indicated that encounter rates of Black Kites were significantly influenced by the presence of garbage dumps in its vicinity. Numbers of Black Kites were also higher in the roosting sites situated closer to garbage dumps and open spaces. In addition, expected counts of Black Kites significantly increased in roosting sites situated away from buildings and water bodies. However, built-up area and tree cover around the roosting sites had no influence on the abundance of Black Kites therein. With rapid urbanization and changing offal disposal patterns, our findings would be useful to ensure continued availability of food and roosting sites of Black Kites in urban areas.

  19. Impact of parent-child communication interventions on sex behaviors and cognitive outcomes for black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth: a systematic review, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Lasswell, Sarah M; Lanier, Yzette; Miller, Kim S

    2014-04-01

    We reviewed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)- behavioral interventions implemented with disproportionately affected black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth and designed to improve parent-child communications about sex. We compared their effectiveness in improving sex-related behavior or cognitive outcomes. A search of electronic databases identified peer-reviewed studies published between 1988 and 2012. Eligible studies were U.S.-based parent-child communication interventions with active parent components, experimental and quasiexperimental designs, measurement of youth sexual health outcomes, and enrollment of ≥ 50% black/African-American or Hispanic/Latino youth. We conducted systematic, primary reviews of eligible papers to abstract data on study characteristics and youth outcomes. Fifteen studies evaluating 14 interventions were eligible. Although youth outcome measures and follow-up times varied, 13 of 15 studies (87%) showed at least one significantly improved youth sexual health outcome compared with controls (p communication skills with their youth. Parent-child communication interventions that include parents of youth disproportionately affected by HIV/STIs can effectively reduce sexual risk for youth. These interventions may help reduce HIV/STI-related health disparities and improve sexual health outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. How much can you drink before driving? The influence of riding with impaired adults and peers on the driving behaviors of urban and rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Foran, Kathleen; Grove-White, Aidan

    2008-04-01

    Following an ecological model to specify risks for impaired driving, we assessed the effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults and peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on the youths' own driving after drinking or using cannabis. Participants were 2594 students in grades 10 and 12 (mean age = 16 years and 2 months; 50% girls) from public high schools in urban (994) and rural communities (1600) on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada; 1192 of these were new drivers with restricted licenses. Self-report data were collected in anonymous questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to assess the independent and interacting effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults or peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on youth driving. Youth driving risk behaviors were associated independently with their own high-risk attitudes and experiences riding with peers who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. However, risks were highest for the youth who also report more frequent experiences of riding with adults who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. Prevention efforts should be expanded to include the adults and peers who are role models for new drivers and to increase youths' awareness of their own responsibilities for their personal safety as passengers.

  1. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it.

  2. Teaching Urban Youth about Controversial Issues: Pathways to Becoming Active and Informed Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alex Romeo; Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; Snow, Catherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although American schools are required to meet civic education goals of preparing students to become active and informed citizens, high-quality civic opportunities (e.g. service learning and volunteering) are consistently less available to youth of color who are typically enrolled in schools located in high-poverty communities. The purpose of this…

  3. The Gender Gap in Youth Sports: Too Many Urban Girls Are Being Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Don

    2009-01-01

    The last several decades have witnessed a large increase in the number of girls who participate in sports in the United States. Today an estimated 8 million third- through 12th-grade girls and 12 million boys participate in organized and team sports. While much progress has been made toward achieving gender equity in youth sports, too many girls…

  4. What Do Community Science Workshops Do For Kids? The Benefits to Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverness Research Associates, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This module presents the range of benefits youths receive from their participation in Community Science Workshops (CSWs)--from personal, to social, to academic and how these benefits reveal the core values of the CSWs in action. The multi-year evaluation of the CSW program included site visits to multiple Community Science Workshop sites around…

  5. Improving Job Performance of Neighborhood Youth Corps Aides in an Urban Recreation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles H.; Risley, Todd R.

    1974-01-01

    Neighborhood Youth Corps (NYC) aides were paid on the basis of proportion of tasks completed on a simple checklist of job performance rather than on simply being physically present. This procedure was found to be effective for increasing the level of work performance. (EH)

  6. Weekend wanderings: Exploring the role of neighborhood design on leisure physical activity of urban youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driven largely by concerns over children’s sedentary behavior and high obesity rates, a growing body of literature focuses on the role of the built environment in children’s active commuting trips. Nonetheless, leisure physical activity among youth has been understudied. This paper explores the link...

  7. Impact of a 4-H Youth Development Program on At-Risk Urban Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutz, German; Campbell, Benjamin; Filchak, Karen K.; Valiquette, Edith; Welch, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic programs that integrate science literacy and workforce readiness are essential to today's youth. The program reported here combined science literacy (gardening and technology) with workforce readiness to assess the impact of program type, prior program participation, and behavior/punctuality on knowledge gain. Findings show that past…

  8. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Urban Youth: The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Henrich, Christopher C.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Vermeiren, Robert; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban…

  9. Neighborhood & Family Effects on Learning Motivation among Urban African American Middle School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William

    2012-01-01

    Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…

  10. Youth Criminality and Urban Social Conflict in the City of Rosario, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Felice, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present article describes and analyses youth criminality in the city of Rosario, Argentina, between 2003 and 2006. Key actors’ understandings of and responses to the conflict were investigated by means of semi-structured interviews, observations, discourse analysis of policy documents, and

  11. Advancing Social Justice in Urban Schools through the Implementation of Transformative Groups for Youth of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Richard Q.; Rogers, Jennifer; Stanciu, Amalia; Silas, Melany; Brown-Smythe, Claudette; Austin, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The unique challenges faced by some youth of color living in high poverty contexts necessitate the creation of innovative, culturally relevant, group interventions. Framing the work of group counselors from a social justice perspective provides a structure for emphasizing the complex intersection of economic, political, and socio-historical issues…

  12. Do men need empowering too? A systematic review of entrepreneurial education and microenterprise development on health disparities among inner-city black male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa

    2014-10-01

    Economic strengthening through entrepreneurial and microenterprise development has been shown to mitigate poverty-based health disparities in developing countries. Yet, little is known regarding the impact of similar approaches on disadvantaged U.S. populations, particularly inner-city African-American male youth disproportionately affected by poverty, unemployment, and adverse health outcomes. A systematic literature review was conducted to guide programming and research in this area. Eligible studies were those published in English from 2003 to 2014 which evaluated an entrepreneurial and microenterprise initiative targeting inner-city youth, aged 15 to 24, and which did not exclude male participants. Peer-reviewed publications were identified from two electronic bibliographic databases. A manual search was conducted among web-based gray literature and registered trials not yet published. Among the 26 papers retrieved for review, six met the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis. None of the 16 registered microenterprise trials were being conducted among disadvantaged populations in the U.S. The available literature suggests that entrepreneurial and microenterprise programs can positively impact youth's economic and psychosocial functioning and result in healthier decision-making. Young black men specifically benefited from increased autonomy, engagement, and risk avoidance. However, such programs are vastly underutilized among U.S. minority youth, and the current evidence is insufficiently descriptive or rigorous to draw definitive conclusions. Many programs described challenges in securing adequate resources, recruiting minority male youth, and sustaining community buy-in. There is an urgent need to increase implementation and evaluation efforts, using innovative and rigorous designs, to improve the low status of greater numbers of African-American male youth.

  13. The Link between Poverty, the Proliferation of Violence and the Development of Traumatic Stress among Urban Youth in the United States to School Violence: A Trauma Informed, Social Justice Approach to School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawles, Portia D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two premises regarding school violence in urban America. First, that traumatic stress among urban youth in the United States is a key factor in the development and exacerbation of school violence in urban areas. Secondly, an efficacious approach to the resolution of school violence cannot be achieved without addressing this…

  14. Use of Black English and Racial Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Lundy, Garvey

    2001-01-01

    Compared male and female speakers of white middle class English, black accented English, and black English vernacular in their telephone contacts with rental agents who were advertising apartments for rent in Philadelphia. Results found clear, dramatic evidence of telephone-based racial discrimination. Callers perceived as lower class black…

  15. Large reductions in urban black carbon concentrations in the United States between 1965 and 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Preble, Chelsea V.; Hadley, Odelle L.; Bond, Tami C.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term pollutant concentration trends can be useful for evaluating air quality effects of emission controls and historical transitions in energy sources. We employed archival records of coefficient of haze (COH), a now-retired measure of light-absorbing particulate matter, to re-construct historical black carbon (BC) concentrations at urban locations in the United States (U.S.). The following relationship between COH and BC was determined by reinstating into service COH monitors beside aethalometers for two years in Vallejo and one year in San Jose, California: BC (μg m-3) = 6.7COH + 0.1, R2 = 0.9. Estimated BC concentrations in ten states stretching from the East to West Coast decreased markedly between 1965 and 1980: 5-fold in Illinois, Ohio, and Virginia, 4-fold in Missouri, and 2.5-fold in Pennsylvania. Over the period from the mid-1960s to the early 2000s, annual average BC concentrations in New Jersey and California decreased from 13 to 2 μg m-3 and 4 to 1 μg m-3, respectively, despite concurrent increases in fossil fuel consumption from 1.6 to 2.1 EJ (EJ = 1018 J) in New Jersey and 4.2 to 6.4 EJ in California. New Jersey's greater reliance on BC-producing heavy fuel oils and coal in the 1960s and early 1970s and subsequent transition to cleaner fuels explains why the decrease was larger in New Jersey than California. Patterns in seasonal and weekly BC concentrations and energy consumption trends together indicate that reducing wintertime emissions - namely substituting natural gas and electricity for heavy fuel oil in the residential sector - and decreasing emissions from diesel vehicles contributed to lower ambient BC concentrations. Over the period of study, declining concentrations of BC, a potent and short-lived climate warming pollutant, contrast increasing fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the U.S. Declining BC emissions may have had the benefit of mitigating some atmospheric warming driven by increased CO2 emissions with

  16. Enhanced light absorptivity of black carbon with air pollution development in urban Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Su, H.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosols on air quality and climate are dependent on BC light absorptivity. However, the light absorptivity of ambient BC-containing particles remains conflicting. In this work, we investigated the evolution of BC light absorptivity with pollution development in urban Beijing, China. We found that the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of ambient BC-containing particles measured during the campaign increased with BC mass concentration, which can be attributed to more coating materials on BC surface with pollution development. A single-particle soot photometer (SP2) measurement showed that the coating thickness (CT) of BC-containing particles increased by 48% with PM1 and BC mass concentration increasing from 10 μg m-3 and 0.3 μg m-3 to 230 μg m-3 and 12 μg m-3. Based on Mie calculation, the CT increase could led to light absorption enhancement (Eab) of BC-containing particles increasing by 22%, consistent with the increase of measured MAC. The relationship between growth rate of BC light absorptivity (kEab) and that of PM1 or rBC concentration (kPM1 or krBC) showed that kEab ≈ 4.8% kPM1 or kEab ≈ 2.5% krBC. The analysis of effective emission intensity (EEI) for BC revealed that the enhancement of BC light absorptivity with increasing pollution levels was dominated by regional transport. During the pollution period, 63% of BC over Beijing originated from regional sources. The aging of these regional BC during atmospheric transport controlled the increase of coating materials for BC-containing particles observed in Beijing. As a result of enhanced light absorptivity with pollution development, BC forcing efficiency could increase by 20% during polluted period. Our work identified the importance of BC on radiative forcing under polluted environment, which is determined by not only the increase of BC mass concentration, but also the enhancement of BC forcing efficiency due to more coating materials.

  17. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  18. Congregating to create for social change: Urban youth media production and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda

    2013-03-01

    This case study explored how adolescents were empowered through after school media production activities and, in the process, re-imagined themselves as active and engaged citizens within their community. Through analyzing interviews, participant observations, and media artifacts of 14 participants (aged 15-19) over a period of 18 months, three main themes emerged from the triangulation of data: (1) sociocultural capital through group ownership; (2) safe space for creative expression; and (3) developing a sense of community with diverse voices. These young people exercised their collective voice toward pro-social actions by writing and producing their stories and showcasing their works at community screenings. They hoped that their videos would promote individual and community transformations. Building on youth development, community psychology, and media literacy frameworks, this article discusses educational implications like advocating for the power of youth media production to bridge participants' personal and private artistry to public and political statements.

  19. "Black folk don't get no severe depression": Meanings and expressions of depression in a predominantly black urban neighborhood in Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Sirry M

    2016-05-01

    Discrepancies exist between how some Black populations perceive depression and how depression is conceptualized within research and clinical settings. Based on a 12-month ethnography of mental health in a predominantly Black disadvantaged urban neighborhood in Midwestern United States, the current study identifies meanings and common ways of expressing depression among African Americans. Depression was often considered a sign of weakness rather than a health problem that might need medical attention. Associated emotions like sadness and hopelessness were inconsistent with notions of strength. Common indicators of depression included classic symptoms such as hopelessness, loss of sleep, and feeling worthless. However, expressions of depression such as anger, agitation, violent behavior, and a frantic search for social interaction that are inconsistent with DSM-V criteria were also common. These findings have implications for the clinical assessment of depression and for the measurement of depression in community surveys. In addition, the context and meaning of symptoms play an important role in determining whether experiences are indicative of depression. This paper underscores that the provision of patient-centered mental health care requires a better understanding of the conceptualization of disorders within specific contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paternal Caregivers' Parenting Practices and Psychological Functioning among African American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E

    2017-09-01

    Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  1. Physical Activity and Anthropometric Characteristics Among Urban Youth in Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nathan; Atrooshi, Darran; Lévesque, Lucie; Jauregui, Edtna; Barquera, Simón; Taylor, Juan Lopez Y; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a critical problem among Mexican youth, but few studies have investigated associations among physical activity (PA) modes and anthropometrics in this population. This study examined associations among active commuting to school (ACS), sports or other organized PA, outdoor play, and body mass index (BMI) percentile and waist circumference (WC) among Mexican youth. Parents of school children (N = 1996, ages 6 to 14 years, 53.1% female) in 3 Mexican cities reported PA participation using the (modified) fourth grade School Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey. Trained assessors measured BMI percentile and WC in person. Parents reported that 52.3% of children engaged in ACS, 57.3% participated in sports or organized PA, and a median of 2 days in the previous week with at least 30 minutes of outdoor play. In complete case analyses (n = 857), ACS was negatively associated with BMI percentile, and outdoor play was negatively associated with WC after adjusting for school, age, sex, and income. In analyses incorporating data from multiple imputation (N = 1996), outdoor play was negatively associated with WC (all Ps obesity in Mexico. ACS and outdoor play should be priorities for increasing youth PA in Mexico.

  2. [A new urban typology applicable to Black Africa: the case of towns in the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-vil, J

    1981-12-01

    A new typology of African urban areas is presented using the example of the Ivory Coast. The impact of demographic factors on education in the towns is considered, with attention to the number of inhabitants per secondary school class, the median age of urban residents, the percentage aged 10 to 20 and 15 to 20, and the sex ratio of the school-age population. The importance of education-related migration to urban centers is noted.

  3. Youth Historians in Harlem: An After-School Blueprint for History Engagement through the Historical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript, written with the educator in mind, describes the Youth Historians in Harlem (YHH) program, a twenty-week after-school history program that engaged urban students in history by immersing them in aspects of the historical process. Throughout the program, a group of Black male high school students were apprenticed as historical…

  4. Effects of Religious Involvement on Parent-child Communication Regarding Schooling: A Study of Black Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…

  5. Health services - needs of the elderly in two black urban areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... ledge of health and other services by black elderly persons in two townships in the Cape ... people live) and open areas were not included in the sampling plan. .... Khayelitsha are generally less well iriformed on these matters.

  6. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Blum, O.B.; Filby, R.H.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  7. Smoking Prevention Strategies for Urban and Minority Youth. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Urban areas are the sites of many smoking prevention strategies targeting special populations. This digest provides an overview of these initiatives. Adolescents smoke for the same reasons that they use alcohol and other drugs. Personal factors that contribute to risk are enhanced by tobacco company advertising that makes smoking seem attractive.…

  8. Youth Leadership Development: Perceptions and Preferences of Urban Students Enrolled in a Comprehensive Agriculture Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James C., II; Kim, Eunyoung

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study explores the perceptions of and preferences for leadership development by students enrolled in a comprehensive urban agriculture program. A total of 284 students from the Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences participated in the study. The results of the study showed that the average respondent was involved in a…

  9. Entrepreneurial Endeavors: (Re)Producing Neoliberalization through Urban Agriculture Youth Programming in Brooklyn, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Driven by social and environmental criticism of the neoliberalization of agro-food systems, urban agriculture today enjoys renewed interest throughout the United States as a primary space to engage the politics of food. Using Brooklyn, New York as a case study, I employ mixed qualitative methods to investigate the contradictions that arise in…

  10. Peer Victimization among Urban, Predominantly African American Youth: Coping with Relational Aggression between Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bagdi, Aparna; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of research documenting the deleterious effect of experiencing relational aggression, few studies have explored how children cope with relational aggression, especially when it occurs between close friends. Moreover, relational aggression is understudied among urban African American children. Using data from a…

  11. Fostering Social and Cultural Capital in Urban Youth: A Programmatic Approach to Promoting College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Amanda K.; Bowen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor's degree attainment has become essential for U.S. labor market participation. However, degree attainment is differentially accessible across racial and economic lines. One explanation of degree disparities is that urban students often lack the social and cultural capital needed to succeed in higher education institutions. This article…

  12. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  13. Provider Perspectives on School-Based Mental Health for Urban Minority Youth: Access and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…

  14. Direct Marketing Alternatives in an Urban Setting: A Case Study of Seattle Youth Garden Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mykel; Young, Doug; Miles, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is direct marketing of produce from an urban market garden. Rather than discussing broad issues of direct marketing, we use a case study to frame the decisions a market gardener is likely to face in developing both production and marketing plans. The garden featured in this study is located in Seattle, Washington, a city…

  15. Preparing Youth for College and Career: A Process Evaluation of Urban Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodos, Brett; Pergamit, Michael R.; Edelstein, Sara; George, Taz; Freiman, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    This report presents baseline and process study findings of an evaluation of the Urban Alliance high school internship program, which provides training, mentoring, and work experience to high school seniors from distressed communities in Washington, DC, Baltimore, Northern Virginia, and Chicago. The report, which focuses on the program's…

  16. "Knowing the Ledge": Participatory Action Research as Legal Studies for Urban High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, David; Delgado, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Zero-tolerance discipline policies, harsh sentencing laws, and the gentrification of communities of color have devastating effects for the lives of young people. Coupled with the fact that urban schools can devalue their views, values, and understandings of the world, this article examines an effort to challenge deficit theories that permeate…

  17. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  18. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Payne

    Full Text Available Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  19. Urban Youth in the Reconstruction of Social Order in Ouagadougou: Generational mobility as an indicator of social dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Bernard Ouédraogo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze information based on a survey of young urban people in the city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, looking at the way in which their position is clearly articulated in urban social dynamics. The hypothesis defended is that the emergence and evolution of the youth group stresses a movement which is at the heart of the reproduction and transformation of the entire society. To better understand the historical function of youths, the sketch of this sociology of generations will revisit the theoretical notions and make a critical comparison of this polysemic conceptualisation of a practical process in the roots of evolution. This dynamics is only visible in the observation of individual and collective strategies, but simultaneously represents the ratio of youths in the ancient order of things. It is the collective social position, the youthful social ideal and the forms of generational stabilization in the general course of history. The paper ends with a presentation of a theoretical attempt to formulate a strictly sociological design of the concept of “youths”, which will enable practical usage of a category hitherto marked a priori by common sense.O objectivo deste trabalho é analisar, a partir de um inquérito junto de jovens urbanos da cidade de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, a maneira pela qual a sua posição se articula na dinâmica social urbana. A hipótese que aqui se defende é a do surgimento e evolução do grupo jovens acentuar um movimento que está no cerne da reprodução e transformação de toda a sociedade. Para entender melhor a função histórica da juventude, o esboço desta sociologia de gerações revisita as principais teorias sobre este conceito e confronta, de forma crítica, a conceptualização polissémica de um processo concreto de evolução de itinerários. Uma dinâmica que só será visível através da observação de estratégias individuais e colectivas que descrevem

  20. The Talented Tenth: Gay Black Boys and the Racial Politics of Southern Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina

    2004-01-01

    This interview-based, narrative study examines the effects of schooling in a Deep South urban community on the identity construction of gay African American boys and young men. Specifically, it exposes the ways in which the dominant culture of White racism creates and imposes a hegemonic masculinity on Black youth culture that forces these young…

  1. Influence of experiences of racial discrimination and ethnic identity on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Hanh; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian; Tsang, Kathy; Wright, Rosalind J

    2012-04-01

    Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking among minority women exceeds the projected 2010 national objective, data on the determinants of prenatal smoking among minorities remain sparse. We examined associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women aged 18-44 years (n=677). Our main independent variable was created from the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between EOD (moderate EOD as the referent group) and smoking for the entire sample and then separately by race/ethnicity adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We also examined the role of ethnic identity (EI) as a buffer to racial discrimination (n=405). The prevalence of smoking was 18.1% versus 10% for black and Hispanic women, respectively (p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the level of EOD based on race. In multivariate regressions, compared to those reporting moderate EOD, women reporting high discrimination (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.60) had higher odds of smoking. In stratified analyses, this relationship remained significant only in black women. Results suggest that foreign-born Hispanic women with higher EI were less likely to smoke compared to their low-EI counterparts (3.5 vs 10.1%; p=0.08). These are the first data in pregnant minority women showing an association between discrimination and increased risk of smoking particularly among black women. Ethnic identity and nativity status were also associated with smoking risk. Smoking cessation programmes should consider such factors among childbearing minority women.

  2. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Baruch-Mordo

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus, little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years, where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from

  3. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R; Lewis, David L; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S; Breck, Stewart W

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks.

  4. Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Lewis, David L.; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S.; Breck, Stewart W.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks

  5. The diffusion of youth-led participatory research in urban schools: the role of the prevention support system in implementation and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Cantor, Jeremy P; Cruz, Gary W; Fox, Brian; Hubbard, Elizabeth; Moret, Lauren

    2008-06-01

    This article discusses the dissemination of a process of youth-led participatory research in urban secondary schools within the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF) developed in collaboration with the CDC and its university partners (Wandersman et al. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3-4) 2008). The focus here is on the development of the Prevention Support System with respect to general and innovation-specific capacity building. The specific process under study involves youth-led needs assessment and research to inform the planning of prevention programs and policies to address students' health and developmental needs. The article first briefly describes the youth-led research process, its potential benefits, and a case example in two urban secondary schools. It then describes challenges and responses in providing support for the diffusion of this model in 6 secondary schools. The settings are urban public schools with a majority of students of color from diverse ethnic groups: Asian-American, Latino, and African-American. This project constitutes a collaborative partnership with a university school of public health and community-based organizations (CBOs) to build capacity for long-term, sustainable implementation of this innovative process within the local school system. The perspectives of the university-based researcher and the CBO partners on the development and effectiveness of the Prevention Support System are presented.

  6. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  7. The Urban Environment Can Modify Drought Stress of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Moser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment characterized by various stresses poses challenges to trees. In particular, water deficits and high temperatures can cause immense drought stress to urban trees, resulting in reduced growth and die-off. Drought-tolerant species are expected to be resilient to these conditions and are therefore advantageous over other, more susceptible species. However, the drought tolerance of urban trees in relation to the specific growth conditions in urban areas remains poorly researched. This study aimed to analyze the annual growth and drought tolerance of two common urban tree species, namely small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill. (T. cordata and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. (R. pseudoacacia, in two cities in southern Germany in relation to their urban growing conditions. Marked growth reductions during drought periods and subsequent fast recovery were found for R. pseudoacacia, whereas T. cordata exhibited continued reduced growth after a drought event, although these results were highly specific to the analyzed city. We further show that individual tree characteristics and environmental conditions significantly influence the growth of urban trees. Canopy openness and other aspects of the surrounding environment (water supply and open surface area of the tree pit, tree size, and tree species significantly affect urban tree growth and can modify the ability of trees to tolerate the drought stress in urban areas. Sustainable tree planting of well adapted tree species to their urban environment ensures healthy trees providing ecosystem services for a high quality of life in cities.

  8. LP (a) levels and apo (a) phenotypes in urban black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    300 U/I), intermediate (300 - 700 UII) and high (> 700 UII) plasma Lp (a) ... Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, W Cape ... up to 200-fold difference in Lp (a) concentrations.' In addition, ethnic .... An interesting observation was the large number of phenotypes, Le. ... sample of black Americans with a high-resolution SOS- agarose ...

  9. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  10. Moving on Up: Urban to Suburban Translocation Experiences of High-Achieving Black American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Seeberg, Vilma; Malone, Larissa

    2017-01-01

    Minority suburbanization has been a fast growing demographic shift in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century. This article examines the tapestry of the suburbanization experience of a group of high-achieving Black American students and their families as told by them. Departing from the all too common, deficit orientation…

  11. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  12. Predictors of Faculty-Student Engagement for Black Men in Urban Community Colleges: An Investigation of the Community College Survey of Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Luke; Newman, Christopher B.

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on factors predicting faculty-student engagement for Black male collegians. In this study, the authors investigated whether students' perceptions of racial/gender stereotypes had a moderating effect on the determinants of engagement with faculty. The sample population was derived from 16 urban community colleges located…

  13. Rural–urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678

  14. The Most Blessed Room in the City: The Influence of a Youth Development Program on Three Young Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Malcolm H.; Martin, Justin F.; Hill, R. LeRoi; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The social and educational life risks associated with being a Black male in the United States are not novel concerns. However, researchers, policymakers, educators, and other stakeholders have yet to consistently identify programs and interventions that can mediate the inequities that confront young Black men. Some researchers have indicated that…

  15. Restricting youth suicide: behavioral health patients in an urban pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Steven C; DiVietro, Susan; Borrup, Kevin; Brinkley, Ashika; Kaminer, Yifrah; Lapidus, Garry

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among individuals age 10 years to 19 years in the United States. Adolescents with suicidal behaviors are often cared for in emergency departments (EDs)/trauma centers and are at an increased risk for subsequent suicide. Many institutions do not have standard procedures to prevent future self-harm. Lethal means restriction (LMR) counseling is an evidence-based suicide prevention strategy that informs families to restrict access to potentially fatal items and has demonstrated efficacy in preventing suicide. The objectives of this study were to examine suicidal behavior among behavioral health patients in a pediatric ED and to assess the use of LMR by hospital staff. A sample of 298 pediatric patients was randomly selected from the population of behavioral health patients treated at the ED from January 1 through December 31, 2012 (n = 2,294). Descriptive data include demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, etc,), chief complaint, current and past psychiatric history, primary diagnosis, disposition, alcohol/drug abuse, and documentation of any LMR counseling provided in the ED. Of the 298 patients, 52% were female, 47% were white, and 76% were in the custody of their parents. Behavior/out of control was the most common chief complaint (43%). The most common diagnoses were mood disorder (25%) and depression (20%). Thirty-four percent of the patients had suicidal ideation, 22% had a suicide plan, 32% had documented suicidal behavior, and 25% of the patients reported having access to lethal means. However, only 4% of the total patient population received any LMR counseling, and only 15% of those with access to lethal means had received LMR counseling. Providing a safe environment for adolescents at risk for suicidal behaviors should be a priority for all families/caretakers and should be encouraged by health care providers. The ED is a key point of entry into services for suicidal youth and presents an opportunity to implement

  16. Exposure of Seventh and Eighth Grade Urban Youth to Dentistry and Oral Health Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Melanie E; Young, Deirdre D; Sawilowsky, Shlomo; Hoelscher, Diane

    2018-01-01

    While pipeline programs for students from underrepresented minority groups have been established at the high school and college levels, fewer programs have been developed for middle school students. In an effort to reach this cohort, the University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry embarked on a grassroots collaborative pipeline program with two distinct segments: Urban Impressions and Dental Imprint. Their purpose is to expose Detroit-area seventh and eighth grade students to careers in dentistry, provide oral health education, and introduce role models. The aim of this pilot study was to determine outcomes for the middle school participants in Urban Impressions (n=86) and Dental Imprint (n=68). Both segments featured hands-on dental activities at the dental school. Outcomes were assessed by pretest-posttest surveys. Across the three cohorts, a total of 86 students participated in one or more sessions, with 57 completing the pre- and post-program surveys, for a 66% response rate. The results showed that the Dental Imprint respondents' knowledge of oral health, dental admissions, and specialties increased by an average 26% over three years. The gain in knowledge for each cohort was statistically significant (pdentistry as a career following the program. These results suggest that the two segments of this program are meeting their goals of increasing middle grade students' awareness of oral health professions including dentistry and providing access to role models. Institutions may benefit from the description of strategies used by this program to address challenges related to establishing early pipeline programs.

  17. Urban adolescent high-risk sexual behavior: corroboration of focus group discussions through pile-sorting. The AIDS Youth Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Aronson, R; Borgatti, S; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1993-01-01

    Risk activities for acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain prevalent among urban adolescents. While interdisciplinary approaches to examine the variables contributing to risk/protective behaviors have been promoted, strategies for such explorations require further formulation. Recently we employed focus group discussions to explore factors placing urban adolescents at risk for engaging in HIV risk behaviors. The focus group format enables substantial interaction on a topic in a limited time period, but does not always provide expression of the full range of behavioral options. In this study we investigated the use of pile-sorts for confirmation of impressions from focus group discussions among 57 urban youths aged 10-14. The pile-sorts revealed some support for most of the views expressed in the group discussions. However, the sorts revealed more variability in views than was expressed in the group discussions. Substantial gender and age-based differences in perceptions were revealed with potentially important intervention implications.

  18. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  19. An Investigation Into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...

  20. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-08-24

    Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV) are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA) youth in Baltimore, MD. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10-14 y) dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice) and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake) controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD) servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth's healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15-1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23-1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03-1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01-1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04-1.16). Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9). In addition, youth shopping more frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable

  1. Dimensions of poverty and inconsistent condom use among youth in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff-Gore, Alena; Luke, Nancy; Wawire, Salome

    2011-10-01

    To date, research on the link between poverty and unsafe sexual behaviors has utilized limited measures of socioeconomic status and has overlooked key dimensions of poverty at the individual level. This study explored how various dimensions of socioeconomic status are associated with inconsistent condom use and how these associations vary by gender. We analyzed unique life history survey data from 261 young men and women in Kisumu, Kenya, and conducted analyses based on 959 person-months in which respondents had been sexually active in nonmarital relationships. Dependent variables were inconsistent condom use (not always using a condom) and never use of condoms. Condoms were used inconsistently in 57% of months and were never used in 31%. Corroborating existing literature, lower household wealth and lower educational attainment were associated with inconsistent condom use. Lower individual economic status (lower earned income, food insufficiency, and larger material transfers from partners) were also important determinants of inconsistent condom use. There were no significant differences in these associations by gender, with the exception of food insufficiency, which increased the risk of inconsistent condom use for young women but not for young men. None of these individual measures of socioeconomic status were associated with never use of a condom. The findings suggest that both household- and individual-level measures of socioeconomic status are important correlates of condom use and that individual economic resources play a crucial role in negotiations over the highest level of usage. The results highlight the importance of poverty in shaping sexual behavior, and, in particular, that increasing individual access to resources beyond the household, including ensuring access to food and providing educational and work opportunities, could prove to be effective strategies for decreasing the risk of HIV among youth.

  2. Using peer ethnography to address health disparities among young urban Black and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Matt G; McKay, Tara; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K

    2013-05-01

    We examined the effectiveness of peer ethnography to gain insider views on substance use and sex among a diverse range of high-risk substance-using Black and Latino young men who have sex with men. We recruited 9 peer ethnographers aged 21 to 24 years from youth programs for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community in Los Angeles, California, and trained them in ethnography, study protocol, and human participant protection. Peer ethnographers collected 137 single-spaced pages of field notes in 2009 and 2010 derived from observation of 150 members of the target population. Peer ethnography revealed local language and phrasing and provided a window into new and different social contexts. Peers provided valuable information on current trends in substance use, revealing themes that needed to be addressed in further research, such as the use of substances during sex to "clock coin" (exchange sex for money and substances). These data enabled us to refine our recruitment strategies and ask more culturally relevant questions in a later phase of the study. The peer ethnography method can provide a sound basis for further research phases in multistage studies on numerous other social issues and with other hard-to-reach populations.

  3. Temporal characteristics of black carbon concentrations and its potential emission sources in a southern Taiwan industrial urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the temporal characteristics of black carbon and its potential emission sources, as well as the fractions of BC in PM2.5 levels in Kaohsiung urban area, which is an industrial city in southern Taiwan. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 are monitored continuously from March 2006 to February 2010, using an aethalometer and a tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor. Additionally, the presence of organic compounds (or UV enhanced species) in particles at the sampling site is determined using the Delta-C (UVBC-BC) value. According to long-term measurement results, BC and PM2.5 concentrations are 3.33 and 34.0 μg m(-3), respectively, in the Kaohsiung urban area. The ratio of BC/PM2.5 is approximately 11 %. Low concentration of BC and PM2.5 in the summer of this study period is mostly likely owing to meteorological conditions that favored dispersion of local air pollutants. Nevertheless, BC concentrations peaked markedly during morning hours (7:00-11:00), likely owing to local traffic congestion. Measurement results suggest that BC is released from local traffic activities and emitted from industrial activities at this sampling site. Additionally, Delta-C values are significantly higher than zero during January-March and November-December periods in this industrial urban area, implying that UV enhanced species can be observed. At this sampling site, these UV enhanced species do not only originate from household activity and solid waste burning but also release from industrial activities. The elevated Delta-C values during nighttime (18:00-6:00) in the autumn and winter seasons are likely related to those UV enhanced species in the atmosphere, which can be condensed on particle surface under low temperature conditions. According to long-term measurement results, significantly positive Delta-C values can be observed under temperatures industrial parks and a coal-fired power plant.

  4. Did send-down experience benefit youth? A reevaluation of the social consequences of forced urban-rural migration during China's Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jiang, Yang; Greenman, Emily

    2008-06-01

    During China's Cultural Revolution, a large proportion of urban youth were forced to go to the countryside as a result of the state's "send-down" policy. Past research has been ambivalent about the long-term social consequences for the Chinese youth who experienced send-down. Some scholars have suggested that the send-down experience may have yielded beneficial effects. To test this claim, we analyze data from the Survey of Family Life in Urban China, which we conducted in three large cities in 1999. Questions available in this data set allow us to ascertain the send-down experience of both the respondent and a sibling and educational attainment at the times of send-down and return. Our analyses of the new data show that the send-down experience does not seem to have benefited the affected Chinese youth. Differences in social outcomes between those who experienced send-down and those who did not are either non-existent or spurious due to other social processes.

  5. Filling some black holes: modeling the connection between urbanization, infrastructure, and global service intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Vijver, Elien; Derudder, Ben; Bassens, David; Witlox, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This empirical article combines insights from previous research on the level of knowledge-intensive service in metropolitan areas with the aim to develop an understanding of the spatial structure of the global service economy. We use a stepwise regression model with the Globalization and World Cities research network's measure of globalized service provisioning as the dependent variable and a range of variables focusing on population, infrastructure, urban primacy, and national regulation as ...

  6. GIS, ENSURING ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY STUDY PARAMETERS URBANIZED AREAS OF THE CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Eprintsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of geo-information for geo-environmental studies , including the formation and maintenance of the GIS database ( for periodic ecological and geochemical studies ; database processing ( statistical data processing , holding current calculations , creating kartoosnovy GIS (creating "layers" of a vector map ; geocoding data ( data transformation ecogeochemical research kartoosnovy vector coordinate system , GIS mapping ( thematic maps , data analysis , design (development of priority actions to optimize the urban environment .

  7. Multi-Sensor Constrained Time Varying Emissions Estimation of Black Carbon: Attributing Urban and Fire Sources Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The short lifetime and heterogeneous distribution of Black Carbon (BC) in the atmosphere leads to complex impacts on radiative forcing, climate, and health, and complicates analysis of its atmospheric processing and emissions. Two recent papers have estimated the global and regional emissions of BC using advanced statistical and computational methods. One used a Kalman Filter, including data from AERONET, NOAA, and other ground-based sources, to estimate global emissions of 17.8+/-5.6 Tg BC/year (with the increase attributable to East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe - all regions which have had rapid urban, industrial, and economic expansion). The second additionally used remotely sensed measurements from MISR and a variance maximizing technique, uniquely quantifying fire and urban sources in Southeast Asia, as well as their large year-to-year variability over the past 12 years, leading to increases from 10% to 150%. These new emissions products, when run through our state-of-the art modelling system of chemistry, physics, transport, removal, radiation, and climate, match 140 ground stations and satellites better in both an absolute and a temporal sense. New work now further includes trace species measurements from OMI, which are used with the variance maximizing technique to constrain the types of emissions sources. Furthermore, land-use change and fire estimation products from MODIS are also included, which provide other constraints on the temporal and spatial nature of the variations of intermittent sources like fires or new permanent sources like expanded urbanization. This talk will introduce a new, top-down constrained, weekly varying BC emissions dataset, show that it produces a better fit with observations, and draw conclusions about the sources and impacts from urbanization one hand, and fires on another hand. Results specific to the Southeast and East Asia will demonstrate inter- and intra-annual variations, such as the function of

  8. School's out: what are urban children doing? The Summer Activity Study of Somerville Youth (SASSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research indicates that in the United States, children experience healthier BMI and fitness levels during school vs. summer, but research is limited. The primary goal of this pilot study was to assess where children spend their time during the months that school is not in session and to learn about the different types of activities they engage in within different care settings. A secondary goal of this pilot study was to learn what children eat during the summer months. Methods A nine-week summer study of 57 parents of second and third grade students was conducted in an economically, racial/ethnically and linguistically diverse US urban city. Weekly telephone interviews queried time and activities spent on/in 1 the main caregiver's care 2 someone else's care 3 vacation 4 and camp. Activities were categorised as sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous (0-3 scale. For each child, a mean activity level was calculated and weighted for proportion of time spent in each care situation, yielding a weighted activity index. On the last phone call, parents answered questions about their child's diet over the summer. Two post-study focus groups were conducted to help interpret findings from the weekly activity interviews. Results The mean activity index was 1.05 ± 0.32 and differed between gender (p = 0.07, education (p = 0.08 and primary language spoken in the household (p = 0.01. Children who spent a greater percentage of time in parent care had on average a lower activity index (β = -0.004, p = 0.01 while children who spent a greater percentage of time in camp had a higher activity index (β = 0.004, p = 0.03. When stratified into type of camp, percentage of time spent in active camp was also positively associated with mean activity index (β = 0.005, p = Conclusions Summer activities and some dietary behaviours are influenced by situation of care and socio-demographic characteristics. In particular, children who spend a greater

  9. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA youth in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10–14 y dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. Results On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth’s healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15–1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23–1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03–1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01–1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04–1.16. Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9. In addition, youth shopping more

  10. Study protocol: incentives for increased access to comprehensive family planning for urban youth using a benefits card in Uganda. A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwasiima, Afra; Nuwamanya, Elly; Navvuga, Patricia; Babigumira, Janet U; Asiimwe, Francis T; Lubinga, Solomon J; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2017-10-27

    The use of contraception is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and has the potential to prevent about 30% of maternal and 10% of child deaths in developing countries. Voucher-based initiatives for family planning are an effective and viable means of increasing contraceptive use. In this paper, we present a protocol for a pilot study of a novel incentive, a family planning benefits card (FPBC) program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda while leveraging private sector funding. The study employs both impact and health economic evaluation methods to assess the effect of the FPBC program. We propose a quasi-experimental study design with two separate pre- and post-samples to measure program effectiveness. The main outcome of the impact evaluation is the percentage change in the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. We will also conduct model-based incremental cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses. The main outcomes of the economic evaluation are the cost per enrolled youth and cost per pregnancy averted, and cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. We will also pilot a corporate social responsibility model of sponsorship for the FPBC program in partnership with local corporations. Budget impact analysis will examine the potential affordability of scaling up the FPBC program and the fiscal implications of this scale up to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) budgets of partner corporations, the government, and the individual taxpayer. In this study, we propose an impact and economic evaluation to establish the proof concept of using a FPBC program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda. The results of this study will present stakeholders in Uganda and internationally with a potentially viable option for corporate-sponsored access to family planning in urban poor communities. MUREC1/7 No. 10

  11. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake, and high bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-10-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Future Directions in Research on Racism-Related Stress and Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors for Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-01-01

    Research on racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors represents an important enterprise for optimizing the mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth. However, there has been a relative dearth of work on these factors in the clinical psychology research literature, and more work is needed in outlets such as these. To this end, the current article adopts a developmental psychopathology framework and uses recent empirical findings to outline our current understanding of racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors (i.e., racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) for African American youth. We then provide nine recommendations-across basic, applied, and broader/cross-cutting research lines-that we prioritize as essential to advancing the future scientific investigation of this crucial research agenda. Within and across these recommendations, we issue a charge to researchers and clinicians alike, with the ultimate goal of alleviating the negative mental health impact that racism-related stress can have on the well-being and mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth.

  13. Aging of black carbon particles under polluted urban environments: timescale, hygroscopicity and enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Hu, M.; Guo, S.; Du, Z.; Zheng, J.; Shang, D.; Levy Zamora, M.; Shao, M.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Collins, D. R.; Molina, M.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) exerts profound impacts on air quality and climate because of its high absorption cross-section over a broad range of electromagnetic spectra, but the current results on absorption enhancement of BC particles during atmospheric aging remain conflicting. Here, we quantified the aging and variation in the hygroscopic and optical properties of BC particles under ambient conditions in Beijing, China, and Houston, United States, using an outdoor environmental chamber approach. BC aging exhibits two distinct stages, i.e., initial transformation from a fractal to spherical morphology with little absorption variation and subsequent growth of fully compact particles with a large absorption enhancement. The timescales to achieve complete morphology modification and an absorption amplification factor of 2.4 for BC particles are estimated to be 2.3 h and 4.6 h, respectively, in Beijing, compared with 9 h and 18 h, respectively, in Houston. The κ (kappa) values of coating materials are calculated as 0.04 at both subsaturation and supersaturation conditions, respectively, indicating that the initial photochemical aging of BC particles does not appreciably alter the BC hygroscopicity. Our findings suggest that BC aging under polluted urban environments could play an essential role in pollution development and contribute importantly to large positive radiative forcing. The variation in direct radiative forcing is dependent on the rate and timescale of BC aging, with a clear distinction between urban cities in developed and developing countries, i.e., a higher climatic impact in more polluted environments. We suggest that mediation in BC emissions achieves a cobenefit in simultaneously controlling air pollution and protecting climate, especially for developing countries.

  14. “I Live by Shooting Hill” – A Qualitative Exploration of Conflict and Violence among Urban Youth in New Haven, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Massey, Zohar; O Caughy, Margaret; Cavanaugh, Brenda; Pillsbury, Charles A; Groce, Nora

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate urban youths’ perceptions of conflict and violence we conducted a qualitative study among minority urban youths in New Haven, Connecticut. We utilized the ecological framework to explore the multilevel nature of the findings, and triangulated results with a parallel quantitative study. We found risk factors for violence at multiple levels including lack of interpersonal anger management skills (individual level); parents not physically present in the household (relationship level); residence in crime and gang-ridden neighborhoods (community level); and socioeconomic inequalities between neighborhoods, as reflected by participants’ perception of the inadequacy of neighborhood resources to provide safety (societal level). Neighborhood resources were perceived as sparse, and police were not regarded as a protective factor (sometimes rather as racially discriminatory). Participants’ statements pertaining to feelings of isolation, racism, and violence without strong parental, neighborhood, and school support may impede prosocial attitudes and behaviors throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22643467

  15. Participation of Youth

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note provides examples that investors, civil society, and governments can follow to engage youth in participating in agriculture. Young people can be the driving force for the inclusive rural transformation needed to address the many challenges posed by growing populations, urbanization, and youth unemployment. Yet, many young people are frustrated by the lifestylesand opportunities a...

  16. The effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on plant communities within a complex urban landscape: an ecological surprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Stower C; Hartley, Laurel M; Prevéy, Janet S; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2014-05-01

    Historically, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been considered essential keystone species of western United States grassland ecosystems because they provide unique services and increase vegetation community richness, evenness, and diversity. However, the effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on lands adjacent to or surrounded by urban areas may not result in the same ecosystem benefits historically associated with their presence. An urban landscape presents prairie dogs with movement challenges unparalleled in natural landscapes, as well as suites of nonnative plant species that are more common in disturbed areas. This study examined a complex ecosystem where vegetation communities are being influenced by directional environmental change, and quantified the synergistic effects resulting from the protective management of a native keystone species. The data set for this analysis was comprised of 71 paired (occupied by prairie dogs vs. unoccupied) vegetation surveys and 156 additional unpaired surveys collected from around the city of Boulder, Colorado, USA for 14 yr. Linear mixed models were used to compare data from transects occupied and unoccupied by prairie dogs, as well as to evaluate the effect of prairie dog occupation duration. In the absence of prairie dogs, vegetation in this region exhibited declines in native grasses, no changes in introduced grasses, and increases in native and nonnative forbs and bare soil over the study interval. In the presence of prairie dogs, these observed directional changes were nearly all amplified at rates four to 10 times greater than when prairie dogs were absent. Areas in Boulder occupied by prairie dogs also had significantly lower richness, evenness, and diversity of plant species, compared to unoccupied areas. Analysis of plant functional groups revealed the significant reduction of perennial native grasses, as well as a significantly higher cover of introduced forbs in occupied areas. Prairie dogs

  17. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urosevic, Maja, E-mail: maja@ugr.es [Dept. Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Yebra-Rodriguez, Africa [Dept. Geology-Associated Unit IACT (CSIC-UGR), Faculty of Experimental Science, University of Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Sebastian-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina [Dept. Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness ({Delta}L*) and chroma changes ({Delta}C*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone

  18. Racial/Ethnic differences in the educational expectations of adolescents: does pursuing higher education mean something different to latino students compared to white and black students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education.

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Educational Expectations of Adolescents: Does Pursuing Higher Education Mean Something Different to Latino Students Compared to White and Black Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

  20. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  1. Suicide ideation and attempt in a community cohort of urban Aboriginal youth: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Joanne N; Anderson, Ian P; Gee, Graham J; Thorpe, Reg; Rowley, Kevin G; Reilly, Rachel E; Thorpe, Alister; Stewart, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing attention over the last decade on the issue of indigenous youth suicide. A number of studies have documented the high prevalence of suicide behavior and mortality in Australia and internationally. However, no studies have focused on documenting the correlates of suicide behavior for indigenous youth in Australia. To examine the prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt and the associated factors for a community1 cohort of Koori2 (Aboriginal) youth. Data were obtained from the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service (VAHS) Young People's Project (YPP), a community initiated cross-sectional data set. In 1997/1998, self-reported data were collected for 172 Koori youth aged 12-26 years living in Melbourne, Australia. The data were analyzed to assess the prevalence of current suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempt. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify closely associated social, emotional, behavioral, and cultural variables at baseline and Cox regression modeling was then used to identify associations between PCA components and suicide ideation and attempt. Ideation and attempt were reported at 23.3% and 24.4%, respectively. PCA yielded five components: (1) emotional distress, (2) social distress A, (3) social distress B, (4) cultural connection, (5) behavioral. All were positively and independently associated with suicide ideation and attempt, while cultural connection showed a negative association. Suicide ideation and attempt were common in this cross-section of indigenous youth with an unfavorable profile for the emotional, social, cultural, and behavioral factors.

  2. Time-resolved measurements of black carbon light absorption enhancement in urban and near-urban locations of southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Chan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study a photoacoustic spectrometer (PA, a laser-induced incandescence instrument system (LII and an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were operated in parallel for in-situ measurements of black carbon (BC light absorption enhancement. Results of a thermodenuder experiment using ambient particles in Toronto are presented first to show that LII measurements of BC are not influenced by the presence of non-refractory material thus providing true atmospheric BC mass concentrations. In contrast, the PA response is enhanced when the non-refractory material is internally mixed with the BC particles. Through concurrent measurements using the LII and PA the specific absorption cross-section (SAC can be quantified with high time resolution (1 min. Comparisons of ambient PA and LII measurements from four different locations (suburban Toronto; a street canyon with diesel bus traffic in Ottawa; adjacent to a commuter highway in Ottawa and; regional background air in and around Windsor, Ontario, show that different impacts from emission sources and/or atmospheric processes result in different particle light absorption enhancements and hence variations in the SAC. The diversity of measurements obtained, including those with the thermodenuder, demonstrated that it is possible to identify measurements where the presence of externally-mixed non-refractory particles obscures direct observation of the effect of coating material on the SAC, thus allowing this effect to be measured with more confidence. Depending upon the time and location of measurement (urban, rural, close to and within a lake breeze frontal zone, 30 min average SAC varies between 9 ± 2 and 43 ± 4 m2 g−1. Causes of this variation, which were determined through the use of meteorological and gaseous measurements (CO, SO2, O3, include the particle emission source, airmass source region, the degree of atmospheric processing. Observations from this study

  3. Development of Cities Mentor Project: An Intervention to Improve Academic Outcomes for Low-Income Urban Youth through Instruction in Effective Coping Supported by Mentoring Relationships and Protective Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Farahmand, Farahnaz; Meyerson, David A.; Dubois, David L.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Barnett, Alexandra; Horwath, Jordan; Doxie, Jackie; Tyler, Donald; Harrison, Aubrey; Johnson, Sarah; Duffy, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes an iterative process used to develop a new intervention for low-income urban youth at risk for negative academic outcomes (e.g., disengagement, failure, drop-out). A series of seven steps, building incrementally one upon the other, are described: 1) identify targets of the intervention; 2) develop logic model; 3)…

  4. Between Rights and Realities: Human Rights Education for Immigrant and Refugee Youth in an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha; Canlas, Melissa; Argenal, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This article presents data from a two-year ethnographic case study to explore how immigrant and refugee youth in the United States made sense of participation in a weekly human rights club after school. Three types of student responses to human rights education are exemplified through the profiles of students. The article offers new insights on…

  5. Gender Patterns in the Contribution of Different Types of Violence to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among South African Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Debra; Hardy, Anneli; Heath, Katherine; Mosdell, Jill; Bawa, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identifying the comparative contributions of different forms of violence exposure to trauma sequelae can help to prioritize interventions for polyvictimized youth living in contexts of limited mental health resources. This study aimed to establish gender patterns in the independent and comparative contributions of five types of violence…

  6. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Aggression and Weapons Carrying in Urban African American Early Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the…

  7. "Cause That's the Only Skills in School You Need": A Qualitative Analysis of Revenge Goals in Poor Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, Lena; Kliewer, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Revenge goals are correlated with maladjustment, and retaliation is a factor driving youth violence. However, revenge might be an important social tool adolescents use to achieve (self-)justice in environments where institutionalized interventions from authorities such as teachers or police are limited. This qualitative secondary analysis of 50…

  8. Black Perceptions of the Mayor: An Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lorn S.

    1978-01-01

    During the past ten years Blacks have increased their participation in the urban political process. In a few urban areas, such as Newark and Detroit, Blacks constitute an electoral majority and have elected Black mayors. (Author/RLV)

  9. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M = 15 years; range = 13–16 years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

  10. Effects of exposure to community violence and family violence on school functioning problems among urban youth: The potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tia eMcGill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M= 15 years; range= 13-16 years; 60 males, 61 females within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home. Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence.

  11. Effective Nation Characters Leaders in Connection with Inclusive Design for Preparing The Visionary and Effective of Youth Leaders for Urban Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuah Perdamenta Tarigan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While we are looking for a leadership in Jakarta Municipal City from time to time, it is already worsening and not look good for many people, the author is very keen to conduct a research, starting from 2012 up to 2013. There are many degradation already appear in Jakarta in these years, especially for the disappearance of humility, urban genuine life vanish and social alienation, more specific for Jakarta Youth People who will be receiving the next turn of leadership position for Indonesia development and city of Jakarta and its surrounding areas. Before this is too late, the author make a small steps for the development and to transform this situation with the approach of Emphatic Leadership and Management related to CRPD (Convention on The Rights for People with Disability to enrich and develop the existence of the Youth and the future generation of Indonesia. The approach of this research based on various literatures and journals which are relevant to Community Development, Leadership, Social Entrepreneurship and Management with the depth approach with. 

  12. The Impact of Urban US Policing Practices on Black Men Who Have Sex with Men's HIV Vulnerability: Ethnographic Findings and a Conceptual Model for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline M; Parker, Richard G; Philbin, Morgan M; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2018-04-01

    This paper advances research on racism and health by presenting a conceptual model that delineates pathways linking policing practices to HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men in the urban USA. Pathways include perceived discrimination based on race, sexuality and gender performance, mental health, and condom-carrying behaviors. The model, intended to stimulate future empirical work, is based on a review of the literature and on ethnographic data collected in 2014 in New York City. This paper contributes to a growing body of work that examines policing practices as drivers of racial health disparities extending far beyond violence-related deaths.

  13. Robustness of intra urban land-use regression models for ultrafine particles and black carbon based on mobile monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoffs, Jules; Hoek, Gerard; Vlaanderen, Jelle; van Nunen, Erik; Messier, Kyle; Brunekreef, Bert; Gulliver, John; Vermeulen, Roel

    2017-11-01

    Land-use regression (LUR) models for ultrafine particles (UFP) and Black Carbon (BC) in urban areas have been developed using short-term stationary monitoring or mobile platforms in order to capture the high variability of these pollutants. However, little is known about the comparability of predictions of mobile and short-term stationary models and especially the validity of these models for assessing residential exposures and the robustness of model predictions developed in different campaigns. We used an electric car to collect mobile measurements (n = 5236 unique road segments) and short-term stationary measurements (3 × 30min, n = 240) of UFP and BC in three Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Utrecht, Maastricht) in 2014-2015. Predictions of LUR models based on mobile measurements were compared to (i) measured concentrations at the short-term stationary sites, (ii) LUR model predictions based on short-term stationary measurements at 1500 random addresses in the three cities, (iii) externally obtained home outdoor measurements (3 × 24h samples; n = 42) and (iv) predictions of a LUR model developed based upon a 2013 mobile campaign in two cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam). Despite the poor model R 2 of 15%, the ability of mobile UFP models to predict measurements with longer averaging time increased substantially from 36% for short-term stationary measurements to 57% for home outdoor measurements. In contrast, the mobile BC model only predicted 14% of the variation in the short-term stationary sites and also 14% of the home outdoor sites. Models based upon mobile and short-term stationary monitoring provided fairly high correlated predictions of UFP concentrations at 1500 randomly selected addresses in the three Dutch cities (R 2 = 0.64). We found higher UFP predictions (of about 30%) based on mobile models opposed to short-term model predictions and home outdoor measurements with no clear geospatial patterns. The mobile model for UFP was stable over different settings as

  14. Youth mental health in deprived urban areas: a Delphi study on the role of the GP in early intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schaffalitzky, E

    2014-09-06

    GPs, as healthcare professionals with whom young people commonly interact, have a central role in early intervention for mental health problems. However, successfully fulfilling this role is a challenge, and this is especially in deprived urban areas.

  15. Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

  16. Schools as Radical Sanctuaries: Decolonizing Urban Education through the Eyes of Youth of Color. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Large, comprehensive urban high schools were designed and constructed with the belief that they could meet the needs of all its students, academic and otherwise. By and large, however, these schools have only done a good job of sorting students for specific jobs in a society based on capitalism and White supremacy. Consequently, students schooled…

  17. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  18. Tourism, Tolerance, or Hospitality? An Assessment of a Native/Non-Native, Urban/Rural Youth Exchange Program between Fort Good Hope, NWT, and East Vancouver, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hern, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article considers and assesses a youth exchange project between two community-based youth centers: The Purple Thistle Centre in East Vancouver, British Columbia, and the K'asho Got'ine Youth Centre in Fort Good Hope, Northwest Territories. Both centers serve primarily low-income youth, but after that the similarities are very few. The…

  19. Experiences of racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.

  20. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  1. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  2. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex. To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning. Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2) was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex. Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black); 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04). The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  3. What School Movies and "TFA" Teach Us about Who Should Teach Urban Youth: Dominant Narratives as Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Colette N.

    2015-01-01

    White teacher savior films (WTSFs) depict the teaching profession as one for which conventional credentialing is unnecessary. White teachers with little training and experience perform miracles in urban classrooms where trained, experienced teachers have failed. This same narrative is echoed in alternative credential programs such as Teach For…

  4. Urban Youth, Worklessness and Sport: A Comparison of Sports-based Employability Programs in Rotterdam and Stoke-on-Trent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Magee, J.; Jeanes, R.

    2013-01-01

    The potential value of sport as a vehicle through which urban regeneration and social renewal policy can be delivered has been extensively examined. However, there are an increasing number of initiatives aiming to use sports-based programmes as a way to address worklessness and social exclusion

  5. A Comprehensive Partnership Approach Increasing High School Graduation Rates and College Enrollment of Urban Economically Disadvantaged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…

  6. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality among Low-income, Urban, Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence of associations between social support and dietary intake among adolescents is mixed. This study examines relationships between social support for healthy and unhealthy eating from friends and parents, and associations with diet quality. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting Baltimore, MD. Participants 296 youth ages 9-15 years, 53% female, 91% African American, participating in the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids study. Main Outcome Measure(s) Primary dependent variable: Diet quality measured using Healthy Eating Index 2010 overall score, calculated from the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Independent variables: Social support from parents and friends for healthy eating (4 questions analyzed as a scale) and unhealthy eating (3 questions analyzed individually), age, gender, race, and household income, reported via questionnaire. Analysis Adjusted multiple linear regressions. Alpha, pFriend and parent support for healthy eating did not have statistically significant relationships with overall HEI scores. Youth who reported their parents offering high fat foods or sweets more frequently had lower overall HEI scores (β=−1.65; SE=0.52; 95% CI: −2.66 to −0.63). Conclusions and Implications These results are novel and demonstrate the need for additional studies examining support for unhealthy eating. These preliminary findings may be relevant to researchers as they develop family-based nutrition interventions. PMID:26865358

  7. Family functionality and parental characteristics as determinants of sexual decision-making of in-school youths in a semi-urban area of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Ayodeji M; Ajuonu, Ezidinma J; Betiku, Benson O

    2016-11-01

    Though research findings have indicated that family characteristics have a bearing on sexual behavior, there is a paucity of published literature on the role of family functionality and parental characteristics on adolescent sexual decision-making. This study was designed to assess the role of family function and parental influence on sexual behavior of in-school youths in secondary schools in a sub-urban area of Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary school students using semi-structured interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Information was obtained on the sexual behavior and parent-child characteristics. Family functionality was assessed using family APGAR standardized instrument. Association was established using χ2-test for qualitative variables and t-test for quantitative variables at p=0.05. Mean age of respondents was 14.8±2.2 years. Majority were from monogamous family setting (70.7%) and lived with their families (75.6%). About a quarter (26.8%) was from dysfunctional families and 9.2% had ever had sexual intercourse. Recent sexual engagement in the preceding 1 month was reported (47.4%). The mean score for parental monitoring, father-child communication, mother-child communication, and parental disapproval of sex were 10.4±2.2, 9.3±2.3, 9.8±2.4, and 10.4±2.3, respectively. There was a significant association between parental monitoring (t=3.9, p≤0.001), mother-child communication (t=3.03, p=0.003), and parental disapproval of sex (t=5, p≤0.001); and sexual experience. This study showed that parental influence had a vital role in the sexual behavior of young persons. Advocacy and health education interventions are needed among parents regarding their role in the sexual behavior of in-school youths.

  8. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe; Pedro T. Pisa; Alison B. Feeley; Titilola M. Pedro; Kathleen Kahn; Shane A. Norris

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...

  9. Reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a calcium food frequency questionnaire for use in Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette S; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2015-04-01

    A dietary assessment instrument designed for use in a nationally representative pediatric population was required to examine associations between calcium intake and bone mineral accrual in a large, multicenter study. To determine the reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a youth calcium food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multiracial/ethnic sample of children and adolescents. Reproducibility (n=69) and intermethod reliability (n=393) studies were conducted by administering repeat FFQs and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls to stratified random samples of individuals participating in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study. Children and adolescents ages 5 to 21 years. Calcium intake estimated from the FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls. Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intermethod reliability was assessed by deattenuated Pearson correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls. Attenuation factors and calibration corrected effect estimates for bone density were calculated to determine the potential influence of measurement error on associations with health outcomes. The ICC (0.61) for repeat administrations and deattenuated Pearson correlation between the FFQ and 24-hour recalls (r=0.60) for all subjects indicated reproducibility and intermethod reliability (Pearson r=0.50 to 0.74 across sex and age groups). Attenuation factors were ≤0.50 for all sex and age groups and lower for non-Hispanic blacks (λ=0.20) and Hispanics (λ=0.26) than for non-Hispanic whites (λ=0.42). The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study calcium FFQ appears to provide a useful tool for assessing calcium intake in children and adolescents drawn from multiracial/ethnic populations and/or spanning a wide age range. However, similar to other FFQs, attenuation factors were substantially <1, indicating the potential for appreciable measurement error bias. Calibration correction should be performed and racial/ethnic differences

  10. Youth Education - Programs / Projects

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Christine Bozak: 4-H Steers that Work. Rebecca Brooks: Relationship Skills Education. Travis Burke: Defining Competency in the 4-H Professional’s Job. Holly L. Hays Butler: 4-H at the Indiana School for the Deaf . Kevin D. Chilek: Quality Assurance Program for Youth Livestock Exhibitors. Graham Cochran: Lessons from an Innovative Urban Youth Education Center. Steve Cramer: Use Activities Fun and Humor to Teach Character Education. Annette Devitt: Life on the Farm Project. Janet Edwards: Emot...

  11. Healthy dietary practices among rural and semi-urban Blacks in the Northern Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate five healthy dietary behaviours in a sample of rural and semi-urban South Africans. The sample consisted of 200 adults, 100 from an semi-urban area (Mankweng and 100 from a rural area (Tiberius in the central region of the Northern Province of South Africa. The two geographically different communities were chosen by convenience and the participants in the two communities were choosen by cluster sampling. Results indicate that about a third (30% in semi-urban and 34% in rural of the study sample are overweight and 18% are obese. A moderately high prevalence of six simple healthy dietary practices was found. However, there was a very low prevalence rate of eating fruits daily among both semi-urban (10% and rural dwellers (9%. Semi-urban dwellers showed significantly higher healthy diet behaviour than rural dwellers in regard to avoiding fat, trying to eat fiber, limiting red meat, and limiting salt. Men reported more than women that they tried to eat fiber and they had more often breakfast everyday. Being semi-urban and female were significantly associated with the healthy dietary index, whereas age, BMI, educational level and marital status were not. The results give insight into dietary health behaviour practices and the factors that influence them, which have practical implications for dietary health promotion.

  12. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, F; Karakas, T; Cakir, M; Aksoy, A; Baki, A; Gedik, Y

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of adverse reactions to food in childhood in Turkey is not known. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of IgE-mediated food allergies (FAs) in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study recruited 3500 of the randomly selected 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren from the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during 2006. Following a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents and the child, consenting children were invited for skin prick tests (SPTs) and oral food challenges. Children with suspected IgE-mediated FA were skin prick tested with a predefined panel of food allergens (milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, peanut, fish, and hazelnut), aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, dog, Alternaria, grass pollen mix, weed pollen mix, and tree pollen mix), and food allergens reported in the questionnaire. All children with a positive SPT to any food were invited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). The prevalence of IgE-mediated FA was established using DBPCFCs. The response rate to the questionnaire was 78.2% (2739/3500). The estimated prevalence of parental-reported IgE-mediated FA was 5.7% (156/2739) [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.83-6.57%]. The rate of sensitization to the food allergens was 33.1% (48/145) in the parental-reported group. The confirmed prevalence of IgE-mediated FA by means of DBPCFC in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren living in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey was 0.80% (22/2739) (95% CI, 0.47-1.13%). The most common allergenic foods were beef (31.8%), cow's milk (18.1%), cocoa (18.1%), hen's egg (13.6%), and kiwi (13.6%). The rate of reported IgE-mediated FA was significantly higher than clinically confirmed FA by means of DBPCFC (odds ratio, 7.46; 95% CI, 4.67-12.01; Pfoods was different and somewhat unique to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey when compared with western countries.

  13. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially-diverse urban youth

    OpenAIRE

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p < .0001), family dinner frequency was positively associa...

  14. The place of the youth in Vila Varjão: urban integrated public policy and educational implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda de Lima Lúcio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to analyse the educational structure of Vila Varjão (one of Brasilia’s poorest districts in order to infer the educational possibilities available to the youngsters who live there. From an assessment of its educational structure I intend to evaluate the public policy for integrated urbanization currently implemented in that district; my aim is to verify to what extent this policy has succeeded in creating opportunities of social integration for those youngsters in their community through the spurring of individual and collective rights based on the concept of citizenship. My theoretical approach is founded on the work of Pierre Bourdieu concerning the relations between the respective structures of social space and physical space. For in such a way, the model of specific urbanization of Brasilia, called for some researchers of ‘planned segregation’ will be analyzed. This model brings obtains a dichotomized vision of city, that opposes center and periphery. In this measure, the cities satellites are fruits of this model and not an unexpected presence. As a fieldwork, I conducted in loco interviews with 20 inhabitants (men, women and youngsters. This procedure had as premise the necessity of if knowing the representation of the inhabitants of the city concerning the feeling of belonging to the city, Vila Varjão and also its evaluation on the program of integrated urbanization.

  15. Examining Rural-Urban Obesity Trends among Youth in the U.S.: Testing the Socioeconomic Gradient Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Reed Porter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased three-fold in the U.S. during the last three decades. While this trend is well-known, relatively little is known about differences in obesity across the rural-urban continuum. This research addresses that gap by testing for such a relationship across time while accounting for variations in familial socioeconomic status.  Using 1986-2004 Monitoring the Future (MTF survey data, we estimate recent trends in rural-urban body weight, also testing for potential differences among the rural, small town, and urban high school seniors along socioeconomic gradients. Statistically significant differences disfavoring rural high school seniors in their BMI, their risk for the onset of obesity, and obesity itself over the past decade are identified, with significant interactions between demographics and parental education levels driving the largest disparities. These findings are rich and speak directly to the allocation of public health resources aimed at addressing issues associated with the adolescent obesity epidemic.

  16. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  17. Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations in urban areas near Schiphol airport (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.; Zandveld, P.; Henzing, J.S.; Hoek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of black carbon, and size-resolved and total particle number concentrations (PNC) were investigated in the vicinity of Schiphol airport in the Netherlands, the fourth busiest airport in Europe. Continuous measurements were conducted between March and May 2014at Adamse Bos, located 7km

  18. Social Justice Leadership: Advocating Equity, Access and Opportunity for Black Students Attending Urban High-Poverty Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounders, Cherise

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the lived experiences and perspectives of 4 elementary school principals and 4 instructional leaders committed to social justice practices who have improved and sustained grade level performance in reading with Black students for the duration of 3 consecutive years.…

  19. Teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban health sciences curriculum in closing the Black-White test score gap: A participatory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Joan Marie

    1999-12-01

    Over the past years, progress in Black academic achievement, particularly in the area of science, has generally slowed or ceased. According to the 1994 NAEP assessment, twelfth-grade Black students are performing at the level of White eighth-grade students in the discipline of science (Department of Education, 1996). These students, in their last year of required schooling, are about to graduate, yet they lag at least four years behind their white counterparts in science achievement. Despite the establishment and implementation of numerous science intervention programs, Black students still suffer from a disparate gap in standardized test score achievement. The purpose of this research is to investigate teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of an urban sciences intervention tool that was designed to assist in narrowing the Black-White science academic achievement gap. Specifically, what factors affect teachers' personal sense of instructional efficacy, and how does this translate into their outcome expectancy for student academic success? A multiple-case, replicative design, grounded in descriptive theory, was selected for the study. Multiple sources of evidence were queried to provide robust findings. These sources included a validated health sciences self-efficacy instrument, an interview protocol, a classroom observation, and a review of archival material that included case study participants' personnel files and meeting minutes. A cross-comparative analytic approach was selected for interpretation (Yin, 1994). Findings indicate that teachers attribute the success or failure of educational intervention tools in closing the Black-White test score gap to a variety of internal and external factors. These factors included a perceived lack of both monetary and personal support by the school leadership, as well as a perceived lack of parental involvement which impacted negatively on student achievement patterns. The case study participants displayed a depressed

  20. impact of life style on body Weight in adolescents on the basis of questionnaire findings in selected group of youth from rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ścibor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and primary obesity in children and adolescents is a crucial problem in public health. Obese children and adolescents are especially susceptible to obesity in adulthood and consequently exposed to many obesity related diseases. Objective: Evaluation of overweight and primary obesity in urban and rural youth populations and comparison of life style concerning: physical activity, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits among overweight and obese adolescents and their peers with proper Body Mass Index value. Materials and methods: The study was performed in the group of 136 students from junior high school. The students with BMI value over 85th percentile of sex-specific growth charts were classified as overweight. Research tool was a questionnaire. Results: 15,9% of adolescents were overweight, out of which 4,5% were obese. There was not a significant relation between Body Mass Index and the place of residence. Overweight and obese adolescents revealed lower physical activity and tendency to spend much more time playing computer games. Adolescents with overweight or obesity did not regularly have breakfast at weekends, more often had sweets and sweet drinks and also high energy and very salty snacks instead. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem among students from junior high school population which calls for taking immediate preventive measures to promote healthy lifestyle among children and adolescents.

  1. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Maja; Yebra-Rodríguez, Africa; Sebastián-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Why don't urban youth in Zambia use condoms? The influence of gender and marriage on non-use of male condoms among young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Pinchoff

    Full Text Available Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%. This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia.A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18-24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use at most recent sexual intercourse.A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15. Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38], married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73], and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]. Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]. Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95] and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91].Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in contraception for family planning but

  3. Black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as an alternative indicator of urban air pollution by chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric air pollution by chemical elements were tested against epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) and Physcia adscendens (Fr.). Concentrations of 40 macro and trace elements were determined using epicadmium and instrumental NAA. The data obtained were processed using non-parametric tests. A good correlation was found between concentrations of majority of elements in bark and lichens. On the accumulation capability bark turned out to be competitive with both lichens examined. The main inorganic components of black poplar-tree bark were revealed. A substrate influence on the concentrations of some elements in epiphytic lichens was established. An optimized procedure of bark pre-irradiation treatment was suggested. (author)

  4. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring profile in urban African black and European white untreated hypertensive patients matched for age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Jorge; Madede, Tavares; Silva, José A; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Damasceno, Albertino

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) profile in never-treated black hypertensive patients living in Africa, Mozambique (20-80 years), versus never-treated white hypertensive patients living in Europe. ABP recordings of untreated black hypertensive patients and white hypertensive patients with 24-h ABP of 130/80 mmHg or more were retrospectively selected from two computerized database records of ABP and matched for age by decades, sex, and BMI. Black hypertensive patients were n=548, 47 ± 12 years, 52% women, BMI=28.0 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), 7% smokers, 7% diabetics; white hypertensive patients were n=604, 47 ± 15 years, 52% women, BMI=27.4 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), 8.4% diabetics, and 18% smokers (Pwhite hypertensive patients showed higher casual blood pressure (BP) 160/104 ± 19/14 versus 149/97 ± 18/12 mmHg, 24-h ABP 146/92 ± 16/13 versus 139/85 ± 11/10 mmHg, daytime ABP 150/95 ± 16/13 versus 143/88 ± 13/11 mmHg, night-time BP 139/84 ± 17/13 versus 130/78 ± 13/10 mmHg (all Pwhite hypertensive patients for all spectra of age distribution. This might be the reason for the worse cardiovascular prognosis described in black hypertensive patients compared with white hypertensive patients.

  5. Bright is the New Black - Multi-Year Performance of Generic High-Albedo Roofs in an Urban Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, S. R.; Imhoff, M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Pasqualini, A.; Kong, A. Y. Y.; Grillo, D.; Freed, A.; Hillel, D.; Hartung, E.

    2012-01-01

    High-albedo white and cool roofing membranes are recognized as a fundamental strategy that dense urban areas can deploy on a large scale, at low cost, to mitigate the urban heat island effect. We are monitoring three generic white membranes within New York City that represent a cross-section of the dominant white membrane options for U.S. flat roofs: (1) an ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber membrane; (2) a thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) membrane and; (3) an asphaltic multi-ply built-up membrane coated with white elastomeric acrylic paint. The paint product is being used by New York City s government for the first major urban albedo enhancement program in its history. We report on the temperature and related albedo performance of these three membranes at three different sites over a multi-year period. The results indicate that the professionally installed white membranes are maintaining their temperature control effectively and are meeting the Energy Star Cool Roofing performance standards requiring a three-year aged albedo above 0.50. The EPDM membrane however shows evidence of low emissivity. The painted asphaltic surface shows high emissivity but lost about half of its initial albedo within two years after installation. Given that the acrylic approach is an important "do-it-yourself," low-cost, retrofit technique, and, as such, offers the most rapid technique for increasing urban albedo, further product performance research is recommended to identify conditions that optimize its long-term albedo control. Even so, its current multi-year performance still represents a significant albedo enhancement for urban heat island mitigation.

  6. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urosevic, Maja; Yebra-Rodríguez, Africa; Sebastián-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration. - Highlights: ► A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions.

  7. Urban residential greenspace and mental health in youth: Different approaches to testing multiple pathways yield different conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel; Hartig, Terry; Markevych, Iana; Tilov, Boris; Dimitrova, Donka

    2018-01-01

    Urban greenspace can benefit mental health through multiple mechanisms. They may work together, but previous studies have treated them as independent. We aimed to compare single and parallel mediation models, which estimate the independent contributions of different paths, to several models that posit serial mediation components in the pathway from greenspace to mental health. We collected cross-sectional survey data from 399 participants (15-25 years of age) in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Objective "exposure" to urban residential greenspace was defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, tree cover density within the 500-m buffer, and Euclidean distance to the nearest urban greenspace. Self-reported measures of availability, access, quality, and usage of greenspace were also used. Mental health was measured with the General Health Questionnaire. The following potential mediators were considered in single and parallel mediation models: restorative quality of the neighborhood, neighborhood social cohesion, commuting and leisure time physical activity, road traffic noise annoyance, and perceived air pollution. Four models were tested with the following serial mediation components: (1) restorative quality → social cohesion; (2) restorative quality → physical activity; (3) perceived traffic pollution → restorative quality; (4) and noise annoyance → physical activity. There was no direct association between objectively-measured greenspace and mental health. For the 500-m buffer, the tests of the single mediator models suggested that restorative quality mediated the relationship between NDVI and mental health. Tests of parallel mediation models did not find any significant indirect effects. In line with theory, tests of the serial mediation models showed that higher restorative quality was associated with more physical activity and more social cohesion, and in turn with better mental health. As for self

  8. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially diverse urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Pasch, Keryn E; Stigler, Melissa H; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L; Komro, Kelli A

    2010-06-01

    We examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication using growth curve models conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5-year period among a population of racially diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4,750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p parent-child communication scores over time (p parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. In addition, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of sixth grade may be protective through eighth grade. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal associations between family dinner and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication among racially-diverse urban youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth curve models examined changes in adolescent self-reported parent-child communication conditional on family meal frequency over a 3.5 year period among a population of racially-diverse, low-income adolescents from an urban environment (n = 4750). Results indicated that although both family dinner frequency and adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores were characterized by negative linear growth over time (both p family dinner frequency was positively associated with adolescent perceptions of parent-child communication scores over time (p families with teenagers may enhance parent-child communication and ultimately promote healthy adolescent development by making family dinner a priority. Additionally, the communication benefits of family dinner at the beginning of 6th grade may be protective through 8th grade. PMID:20545399

  10. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood. Current study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15) to 2012 (mean age 32). All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012). Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment) measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms. While racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  11. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time.ObjectiveThe current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood.MethodsCurrent study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15 to 2012 (mean age 32. All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012. Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects.ResultsMultigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms.ConclusionWhile racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  12. Variability of Black Carbon and Ultrafine Particle Concentration on Urban Bike Routes in a Mid-Sized City in the Po Valley (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lonati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclists might experience increased air pollution exposure, due to the proximity to traffic, and higher intake, due to their active travel mode and higher ventilation. Several local factors, like meteorology, road and traffic features, and bike lanes features, affect cyclists’ exposure to traffic-related pollutants. This paper investigates the concentration levels and the effect of the features of the bike lanes on cyclists’ exposure to airborne ultrafine particulate matter (UFP and black carbon (BC in the mid-sized city of Piacenza, located in the middle of the Po Valley, Northern Italy. Monitoring campaigns were performed by means of portable instruments along different urban bike routes with bike lanes, characterized by different distances from the traffic source (on-road cycle lane, separated cycle lane, green cycle path, during morning (9:00 am–10:00 am and evening (17:30 pm–18:30 pm workday rush hours in both cold and warm seasons. The proximity to traffic significantly affected cyclists’ exposure to UFP and BC: exposure concentrations measured for the separated lane and for the green path were 1–2 times and 2–4 times lower than for the on-road lane. Concurrent measurements showed that exposure concentrations to PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were not influenced by traffic proximity, without any significant variation between on-road cycle lane, separated lane, or green cycle path. Thus, for the location of this study PM mass-based metrics were not able to capture local scale concentration gradients in the urban area as a consequence of the rather high urban and regional background that hides the contribution of local scale sources, such as road traffic. The impact of route choice on cyclists’ exposure to UFPs and BC during commuting trips back and forth from a residential area to the train station has been also estimated through a probabilistic approach through an iterative Monte Carlo technique, based on the measured data. Compared

  13. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive...

  14. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  15. Crisis of Black Athletes on the Eve of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the dynamics of black youth sports involvement and the blind faith of black youths and families in sports as a vehicle for self-realization and socioeconomic advancement generate complex problems for black society. Black families often push their children toward sports careers, neglecting personal and cultural development. Discusses…

  16. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  17. Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-01-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

  18. Engaged Learning and Youth Interest in STEM Careers: A Science Museum Exhibit on Air Pollution and Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curricula currently lag workforce needs. Participation of women and minorities in STEM careers also remains low despite efforts to improve their representation in these fields. We discuss the development and evaluation of a science museum exhibit aimed at stimulating interest of middle school children (particularly girls) in STEM careers. The exhibit was designed to teach science, while addressing two factors identified as limiting the interest of girls in STEM fields — perceived lack of social relevance and lack of female role models. Further, it was designed to apply best practices in science education, including inquiry-based learning and interdisciplinary content. The exhibit was developed through collaboration between students and faculty researchers at the University of South Florida and science education and evaluation specialists at the Museum of Science and Industry of Tampa. A few stages of formative and summative assessment, including focus group discussions, visitor observation, and surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exhibit to educational project goals. The installed exhibit is focused on teaching content related to interactions between air pollution, urban design, and human health. The approximately 25 square foot exhibit space involves four different types of components. A three-dimensional model of a city, with underlying dynamic computer simulations, allows visitors to interactively explore relationships between city design, air pollution and exposures. A computer game, with quiz questions requiring user decisions on personal to community behavior, provides visual feedback regarding impacts on air pollution. Traditional panels with graphics and text, including results of current research, display integrative scientific content with open-ended questions to stimulate discussion. Finally, personal profiles highlight the diverse family, work, and social lives

  19. Spatiotemporal Association of Real-Time Concentrations of Black Carbon (BC with Fine Particulate Matters (PM2.5 in Urban Hotspots of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungroul Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the spatiotemporal distributions of black carbon (BC and particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 m (PM2.5 concentrations at urban diesel engine emission (DEE hotspots of South Korea. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 were measured at the entrance gate of two diesel bus terminals and a train station, in 2014. Measurements were conducted simultaneously at the hotspot (Site 1 and at its adjacent, randomly selected, residential areas, apartment complex near major roadways, located with the same direction of 300 m (Site 2 and 500 m (Site 3 away from Site 1 on 4 different days over the season, thrice per day; morning (n = 120 measurements for each day and site, evening (n = 120, and noon (n = 120. The median (interquartile range PM2.5 ranged from 12.6 (11.3–14.3 to 60.1 (47.0–76.0 μg/m3 while those of BC concentrations ranged from 2.6 (1.9–3.7 to 6.3 (4.2–10.3 μg/m3. We observed a strong relationship of PM2.5 concentrations between sites (slopes 0.89–0.9, the coefficient of determination 0.89–0.96 while the relationship for BC concentrations between sites was relatively weak (slopes 0.76–0.85, the coefficient of determination 0.54–0.72. PM2.5 concentrations were changed from 4% to 140% by unit increase of BC concentration, depending on site and time while likely supporting the necessity of monitoring of BC as well as PM2.5, especially at urban DEE related hotspot areas.

  20. Looking for Learning in All the Wrong Places: Urban Native Youths' Cultured Response to Western-Oriented Place-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    For Indigenous youth growing up in today's Canadian cities, summer, non-formal learning programs developed around outdoor and/or environmental education themes offer the chance for reconnecting with ancestral territories. While tenable, few interpretive studies focus on youths' engagement with such learning. This paper offers an analysis of the…

  1. Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  2. Diesel vehicle and urban burning contributions to black carbon concentrations and size distributions in Tijuana, Mexico, during the Cal-Mex 2010 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Shores, C. A.; Marr, L. C.; Zheng, J.; Levy, M.; Zhang, R.; Castillo, E.; Rodriguez-Ventura, J. G.; Quintana, P. J. E.; Subramanian, R.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) was characterized by three complementary techniques - incandescence (single particle soot photometer, SP2, at Parque Morelos), light absorption (cavity ringdown spectrometer with integrating nephelometer, CRDS-Neph, at Parque Morelos and Aethalometers at seven locations), and volatility (volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer, V-TDMA) during the Cal-Mex 2010 campaign. SP2, CRDS-Neph, and Aethalometer measurements characterized the BC mass, and SP2 and V-TDMA measurements also quantified BC-containing particle number, from which mass-mean BC diameters were calculated. On average, the mass concentrations measured in Tijuana (1.8 ± 2.6 μg m-3 at Parque Morelos and 2.6 μg m-3 in other regions of Tijuana) were higher than in San Diego or the international border crossing (0.5 ± 0.6 μg m-3). The observed BC mass concentrations were attributable to nighttime urban burning activities and diesel vehicles, both from the local (Baja California) and transported (Southern California) diesel vehicle fleets. Comparisons of the SP2 and co-located Aethalometers indicated that the two methods measured similar variations in BC mass concentrations (correlation coefficients greater than 0.85), and the mass concentrations were similar for the BC particles identified from nighttime urban burning sources. When the BC source changed to diesel vehicle emissions, the SP2 mass concentrations were lower than the Aethalometer mass concentrations by about 50%, likely indicating a change in the mass absorption efficiency and quantification by the Aethalometers. At Parque Morelos there were up to three different-sized modes of BC mass in particles: one mode below 100 nm, one near 100 nm, and another between 200 and 300 nm. The mode between 200 and 300 nm was associated with urban burning activities that influenced the site during evening hours. When backtrajectories indicated that airmasses came from the south to the Parque Morelos site, BC mass in particles was

  3. Factors Associated with Excessive Body Fat in Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Data from Black South Africans Living in a Rural Community and an Urban Township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okop, Kufre Joseph; Levitt, Naomi; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with excessive body fat among black African men and women living in rural and urban communities of South Africa. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, Cape Town, South Africa conducted in 2009/2010. The study sample included 1220 participants (77.2% women) aged 35–70 years, for whom anthropometric measurements were obtained and risk factors documented through face-to-face interviews using validated international PURE study protocols. Sex-specific logistic regression models were used to evaluate socio-demographic, lifestyle and psychological factors associated with three excessive body fat indicators, namely body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percent (BF%). Results The prevalence of excessive body fat based on BF%, WC and BMI cut-offs were 96.0%, 86.1%, and 81.6% for women respectively, and 62.2%, 25.9%, and 36.0% for men respectively. The significant odds of excessive body fat among the currently married compared to unmarried were 4.1 (95% CI: 1.3–12.5) for BF% and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3–2.9) for BMI among women; and 4.9 (95% CI: 2.6–9.6), 3.2 (95% CI: 1.6–6.4) and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9–6.8) for BF%, WC and BMI respectively among men. Age ≤50 years (compared to age >50 years) was inversely associated with excessive BF% in men and women, and less-than-a-college education was inversely associated with excessive BMI and WC in men. Tobacco smoking was inversely associated with all three excessive adiposity indicators in women but not in men. Unemployment, depression, and stress did not predict excessive body fat in men or women. Conclusion The sex-differences in the socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with the high levels of excessive body fat in urban and rural women and men should be considered in packaging interventions to reduce obesity in these communities. PMID:26447880

  4. Air pollution studies in terms of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10, lead and black carbon in urban areas of Antananarivo-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoazanany, E. O.; Andriamahenina, N. N.; Ravoson, H. N.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Randriamanivo, L. V.; Ramaherison, H.; Ahmed, H.; Harinoely, M.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols or particulate matters are chemically complex and dynamic mixtures of solid and liquid particles. Sources of particulate matters include both natural and anthropogenic processes. The present work consists in determining the concentrations of existing elements in the aerosols collected in Andravoahangy and in Ambodin Isotry in Antananarivo city (Madagascar). The size distribution of these elements and their main sources are also studied.The Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer is used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results show that the concentrations of the airborne particulate matters PM 2.5-10 are higher than those of PM 2.5 .The identified elements in the aerosol samples are Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb. The average concentrations of these elements are also higher in the coarse particles than in the fine particles. The calculation of the enrichment factors by Mason's model shows that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb are of anthropogenic origins. The average concentrations of lead (2.8 ng.m -3 , 31.3 ng.m -3 and 19.6 ng.m -3 respectively in aerosols collected in Andravoahangy in 2007 and in 2008 and in Ambodin Isotry in 2008) are largely lower than the average concentration of 1.8 μg.m -3 obtained in 2000 in the Antananarivo urban areas. The concentration of black carbon is higher in the fine particles. The Air Quality Index category is variable in the two sites.

  5. Prevalence of Teen Dating Violence and Co-occurring Risk Factors Among Middle School Youth in High-Risk Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Latzman, Natasha E.; Valle, Linda Anne; Kuoh, Henrietta; Burton, Tessa; Taylor, Bruce G.; Tharp, Andra T.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the lifetime prevalence of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration in a sample of middle school students from high-risk urban communities and examines the relation between TDV and related cognitive and behavioral risk factors. Methods Surveys were administered to 2,895 middle school students in four U.S. cities; 1,673 students (58%) reported having dated and were included in analyses. The sample was 52.3% female, 48.2% non-Hispanic black/African-American, 38.2% Hispanic, 4.8% non-Hispanic white, and 7.6% other race. Six types of TDV perpetration were assessed: threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and stalking. Results Of the students who had dated, 77% reported perpetrating verbal/emotional abuse, 32% reported perpetrating physical abuse, 20% reported threatening a partner, 15% reported perpetrating sexual abuse, 13% reported perpetrating relational abuse, and 6% reported stalking. Girls were more likely than boys to report perpetrating threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, and physical abuse, and boys were more likely to report perpetrating sexual abuse. Involvement in bullying positively predicted perpetration of TDV, albeit, in different ways for boys and girls. Other risk factors differed by sex. For instance, alcohol use and sex initiation predicted multiple forms of TDV perpetration for boys, whereas weapon carrying and emotional symptoms predicted several forms of TDV perpetration for girls. Conclusions The prevalence of TDV was high in our sample. Important sex differences in rates of perpetration and risk factors emerged. Comprehensive prevention programs that target TDV and related risk factors, such as bullying and other risk factors, seem warranted. PMID:25620454

  6. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Modiehi Heather; Pisa, Pedro T; Feeley, Alison B; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural ( n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban ( n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114-2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106-2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007-1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For "Year 15" adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099-2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299-0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218-0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324-0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  7. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02, eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01, and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05 were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01, was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  8. Urban Stories : Producing news for urban youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christa de Graaf; Dr. Joke Hermes

    2015-01-01

    This paper will query whether a dedicated news platform can attune to young people’s civic needs? That is to ask: can this be a space that follows a social media logic of conversation and ‘give and take’ – with producers and consumers changing roles or even losing the distinction? How could and

  9. "Nothing Has Stopped Me. I Keep Going:" Black Gay Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Are being Black and gay problematic in the United States? Are Black gay youth "suffering" with these two intersecting identities? Traditional Eurocentric epistemologies would have one believe that Black males, Black gay males, and gay males (liminal groups) are suffering, rarely acknowledging those successfully navigating through…

  10. A critique of neoliberalism with fierceness: queer youth of color creating dialogues of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Jonathan; Marquez, Rigoberto; McLaren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As a form of deregulated capitalism that has run amok, commodifying all that is in its path, and as a cultural means of commodifying Black and brown bodies, neoliberalism has taken a serious toll on the lives of working-class queer youth of color. Although it has hijacked spaces of cultural representation and material production, neoliberal capitalism is far from transparent. Through resistance, activism and performance queer youth of color have now started to shape a critique of oppressive structures, neoliberal policies, and pedagogical practices that are critical of their intersecting identities. This article examines neoliberalism's impact on education, focusing on educational policy and how these policies have affected queer youth of color in the urban centers of our major cities. This article also considers the contributions made by educators writing from the perspective of critical pedagogy in addressing the plight of queer youth of color in U.S. schools while employing the example of the dance group, Innovation, as way of addressing the havoc of neoliberalism in the lives of queer youth of color through performance and activism. This group has not only transformed notions of gender, race, class and sexuality that challenge major tenants of neoliberalism, but has also served as potent sites for the development of a critical pedagogy for working-class queer youth of color. Through sites of resistance rooted in progressive struggle, queer youth of color must be enabled by critical transformative intellectuals committed to encouraging youth to critically evaluate and challenge ideologies while displaying an allegiance to egalitarianism.

  11. Reimaginar la ciudad. Prácticas de ocio juvenil y producción del espacio público urbano (Reimagining the city. Youth leisure practices and the production of public urban space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bayón

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tras recorrer algunas de las recientes transformaciones discursivas en la comprensión del espacio urbano, este artículo teórico analiza tres prácticas de ocio juvenil, seleccionadas por su especial imbricación con la trama de la ciudad: el skateboarding, el graffiti y el juego de realidad aumentada Pokémon Go. Se pretende así contribuir a la comprensión del papel de las formas contemporáneas del ocio juvenil, y los tipos de experiencia territorial que les son propias, en la reestructuración del imaginario urbano y la producción del espacio público en la actualidad. | After reviewing some of the most recent discursive transformations in the understanding of urban space, this theoretical article analyses three youth leisure practices, which were selected because of their special link with the city plot: skateboarding, graffiti and the augmented reality game Pokémon Go. We intend to contribute to the understanding of the role of contemporary forms of youth leisure, and the their own types of experience, in the restructuring of the urban imaginary and the production of the public space nowadays.

  12. Black carbon radiative forcing derived from AERONET measurements and models over an urban location in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Arola, A.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper provides an account of observed variations in Black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations and their induced radiative forcing for the first time over Granada a measurement site in Southeastern Iberian Peninsula. Column-integrated BC concentrations were retrieved for the period 2005-2012. Monthly averages of BC concentrations (± one standard deviation) ranged from higher values in January and December with 4.0 ± 2.5 and 4 ± 3 mg/m2, respectively, to lower values in July and August with 1.6 ± 1.2 and 2.0 ± 0.5 mg/m2, respectively. This reduction is not only observed in the average values, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. The average BC concentration in winter (3.8 ± 0.6 mg/m2) was substantially higher than in summer (1.9 ± 0.3 mg/m2), being the eight-year average of 2.9 ± 0.9 mg/m2. The reduction in the use of fossil fuels during the economic crisis contributed significantly to reduced atmospheric loadings of BC. According to our analysis this situation persisted until 2010. BC concentration values were analyzed in terms of air mass influence using cluster analysis. BC concentrations for cluster 1 (local and regional areas) showed high correlations with air masses frequency in winter and autumn. In these seasons BC sources were related to the intense road traffic and increased BC emissions from domestic heating. High BC concentrations were found in autumn just when air mass frequencies for cluster 3 (Mediterranean region) were more elevated, suggesting that air masses coming from that area transport biomass burning particles towards Granada. BC aerosol optical properties were retrieved from BC fraction using aerosol AERONET size volume distribution and Mie theory. A radiative transfer model (SBDART) was used to estimate the aerosol radiative forcing separately for composite aerosol (total aerosols) and exclusively for BC aerosols. The mean radiative forcing for composite aerosol was + 23 ± 6 W/m2 (heating rate of + 0.21 ± 0.06 K

  13. Undocumented Youth Living Between the Lines: Urban Governance, Social Policy, and the Boundaries of Legality in New York City and Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, Stephen P.

    This dissertation compares the transition to adulthood of undocumented youth in New York and Paris, along with analysis of the construction of illegality in each city. In both the United States and France, national restrictions against undocumented immigrants increasingly take the form of deportations and limiting access to social rights. New York City and Paris, however, mitigate the national restrictions in important but different ways. They construct "illegality" differently, leading to different young adult outcomes and lived experiences of "illegality." This project uses seven years of multi-site ethnographic data to trace the effects of these mitigated "illegalities" on two dozen (male) youth. We can begin to understand the variation in these undocumented young men's social lives within and between cities by centering on (1) governance structure, the labyrinth of obtaining rights associated with citizenship, (2) citizenship, the possibility of gaining a legal status, steered in particular by civil society actors, and (3) identity, here centered on youths' negotiation of social mobility with the fear of enforcement. Biographical narratives show the shifts in social memberships as youth transition to new countries, new restrictions at adulthood, and new, limiting work. In New York, most social prospects are flattened as future possibilities are whittled down to ones focusing on family and wages. Undocumented status propels New York informants into an accelerated transition to adulthood, as they take on adult responsibilities of work, paying bills, and developing families. In Paris, youth experience more divergent processes of transitioning to adulthood. Those who are more socially integrated use a civil society actor to garner a (temporary) legal status, which does not lead to work opportunities. Those who are less socially integrated face isolation as they wait to gain status and access to better jobs. Paris undocumented youth are thus characterized by a

  14. A youth mentor-led nutritional intervention in urban recreation centers: a promising strategy for childhood obesity prevention in low-income neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila M; Steeves, Elizabeth A; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Trude, Angela C; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M J; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-04-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers within interventions targeting youth. This article evaluates the implementation of the BHCK intervention in recreation centers, and describes lessons learned. Sixteen youth leaders delivered bi-weekly, interactive sessions to 10- to 14-y olds. Dose, fidelity and reach are assessed, as is qualitative information regarding what worked well during sessions. Dose is operationalized as the number of interactive sessions, and taste tests, giveaways and handouts per session; fidelity as the number of youth leaders participating in the entire intervention and per session and reach as the number of interactions with the target population. Based on a priori set values, number of interactive sessions was high, and number of taste tests, giveaways and handouts was moderate to high (dose). The number of participating youth leaders was also high (fidelity). Of the 14 planned sessions, the intervention was implemented with high/moderate reach. Data suggest that working with cross-age peers is a promising nutritional intervention for recreation centers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Black American and Nigerian Pentecostalism: A Black Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black American and Nigerian Pentecostalism: A Black Religious Schizophrenia, 1910-2010. ... in American and African Pentecostalism as is related to social crisis, the dislocation of masses brought on by economic deprivation, urbanization, the break up of traditional society and consequence loss of traditional values.

  16. Assessing Rural Communities through Youth Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee A. Oscarson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite frequent concerns about youth and young adult migration from rural to urban areas, most measures used to assess youth in rural community research have been developed by adults. Accurate understanding of youth community perceptions necessitates youth input into the research process. The participatory research strategy described here, using photography to describe community, enables youth to define community and identify what they value about their communities. Photographs and explanations of the photographs indicated that youth value places (schools, churches, as well as locations unique to communities and people from those communities. Photovoice, photography-based participatory-action research, is a feasible and engaging method for obtaining youth perspectives on community issues. Further, Photovoice may be adapted to the needs of different age groups and situations.

  17. Intermediaries for youth: a vital target audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Worldwide, youth are recognized as a key target audience for HIV/STD awareness and prevention campaigns. Rural young people, who often have less access to information and prevention tools than urban youth, may be particularly vulnerable to HIV/STD infection. Many initiatives have been organized by nongovernmental organizations, governments, churches, and other organizations to help youth. However, parents, relatives, guardians, teachers, church and youth leaders, social workers, and other adults in a position to influence youth must also be helped to undertake the role of an intermediary between youth and HIV/STD interventions and other youth-oriented programs. In training adults to openly address sexual and reproductive health issues with adolescents, adults must first be encouraged to feel comfortable about discussing such issues among themselves. Intermediaries and how to target them are discussed.

  18. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  19. The relationship between future time perspective, self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour in the Black youth of central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousselam, Nikki; Naudé, Luzelle; Lens, Willy; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2016-01-01

    An interest exists in understanding why adolescents partake in risky sexual behaviours, as well as the risk and protective practices associated with risky sexual behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderator effect of future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. A random cluster consisting of 467 learners from English medium high schools of central South Africa participated in this study. The participants' risky sexual behaviour, self-efficacy and future time perspective were measured with the Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk Survey, Generalised Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, respectively. Product term regression analysis was performed. It was found that both self-efficacy and future time perspective were negatively related to risky sexual behaviour. No moderating effect was found for future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. Self-efficacy and future time perspective were identified as qualities that protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. This finding can be useful in developing prevention programmes. Intervention programmes aimed at the youth should foster a sense of hope and possibility about the future and the development of goals and aspirations to prevent risky behaviour.

  20. Rethinking Youth, Livelihoods, and Fragility in West Africa : One Size Doesn’t Fit All

    OpenAIRE

    Fortune, Francis; Ismail, Olawale; Stephen, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Africa’s population is young and growing at twice the pace of other continents. A youth bulge presents a series of development policy opportunities and challenges. In this context, simplistic linkages between the youth bulge, high unemployment, and fragility have gained traction and given rise to a youth policy agenda that targets urban male youth as the problem and emphasizes formal secto...

  1. Effects of different thinning systems on the economic value of ecosystem services: A case-study in a black pine peri-urban forest in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Forest Management (SFM should be able to produce an optimal level of bundle of Ecosystem Services (ES, thus ensuring more resilient forest ecosystems also creating benefits for local population and human well-being. Yet, choosing between alternative forest management practices is not straightforward as it necessarily involves ES trade-offs. Forest management decisions have to reconcile the socio-economic and ecological contributions of forest ecosystems by fostering a synergistic relation between multiple ES while lowering ES trade-offs. The aim of the study is to analyze different forest management practices (selective and traditional thinning in black pine peri-urban forest in Central Italy, by investigating their contribution in terms of provisioning (wood production, cultural (recreational benefits, regulating (climate change mitigation ES. For each management option was performed: (1 the biophysical assessment of selected ES by using primary data and calculating indicators for wood production with special regard to biomass for energy use (living trees and deadwood volume harvested, recreational benefits (tourists’ preferences for each forest management practice, climate change mitigation (carbon sequestration in above-ground and below-ground biomass, and (2 the economic valuation of wood production, recreational benefits and climate change mitigation ES using direct and indirect methods (environmental evaluation techniques. The results show that the effects of the selective thinning on ES is higher that the effects of the traditional thinning. The economic value of the three ES provided by traditional and selective thinning are respectively: bioenergy production 154.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 223.3 € ha-1 yr-1; recreational benefits 193.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 231.9 € ha-1 yr-1; carbon sequestration 29.0 € ha-1 yr-1and 36.2 € ha-1 yr-1. The integrated (biophysical and economic assessment of ES in addition to the trade

  2. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  3. Youth Alienation: Implications for Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Edward A.

    1989-01-01

    Charts modern phenomena (technology, urbanization, affluence, large institutions, mass media, and others) that affect human interactions and teach certain attitudes. Provides supporting statistics to show increases in youth suicide, illegitimate births, delinquency, substance abuse, and homicide. Outlines desirable school changes producing modest…

  4. Youth Migration and Agricultural Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    The study investigated the causes and examined the effects of youth ... poverty and search for better education in the cities were the major causes of .... and women from farming (rural) communities engenders urban nuisance and .... Frequency Percentage Mean. St.Dev. Age. <30 years. 31-60 years. 61 years and above.

  5. Assessing youth engagement with a collaborative Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, K.; Nefedova, A.; Thurner, T

    2016-07-01

    As a response to the proliferation of student-led protests and movements across the globe, we, as part of an international platform for young planning professionals- Urbego-, have developed the Youth Engagement Index (YEI) that assesses the involvement of young generations (ages 18-34) in urban governance. Designed to include, and be improved upon by, a collaboration with relevant actors such as local municipal governments, academia, nongovernmental youth organizations and the youth themselves, the YEI presents a unique opportunity to unveil weaknesses and opportunities for cities in terms of engaging their youth. Furthermore, the collaborative process highlights the value of having a recognized and engaged youth for future urban development and city life in general. (Author)

  6. HIV/AIDS among youth in urban informal (slum settlements in Kenya: What are the correlates of and motivations for HIV testing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulu Eliya M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV counseling and testing (HCT is widely considered an integral component of HIV prevention and treatment strategies, few studies have examined HCT behavior among youth in sub-Saharan Africa-a group at substantial risk for HIV infection. In this paper we examine: the correlates of HIV testing, including whether associations differ based on the context under which a person gets tested; and the motivations for getting (or not getting an HIV test. Methods Drawing on data collected in 2007 from 4028 (51% male youth (12-22 years living in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi (Kenya, we explored the correlates of and motivations for HIV testing using the Health Belief Model (HBM as a theoretical framework. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were employed to examine correlates of HIV testing. Bivariate analyses were employed to assess reasons for or against testing. Results Nineteen percent of males and 35% of females had been tested. Among tested youth, 74% of males and 43% of females had requested for their most recent HIV test while 7% of males and 32% of females reported that they were required to take their most recent HIV test (i.e., the test was mandatory. About 60% of females who had ever had sex received an HIV test because they were pregnant. We found modest support for the HBM in explaining variation in testing behavior. In particular, we found that perceived risk for HIV infection may drive HIV testing among youth. For example, about half of youth who had ever had sex but had never been tested reported that they had not been tested because they were not at risk. Conclusions Targeted interventions to help young people correctly assess their level of risk and to increase awareness of the potential value of HIV testing may help enhance uptake of testing services. Given the relative success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT services in increasing HIV testing rates

  7. HIV/AIDS among youth in urban informal (slum) settlements in Kenya: what are the correlates of and motivations for HIV testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Beguy, Donatien; Crichton, Joanna; Zulu, Eliya M

    2011-09-03

    Although HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is widely considered an integral component of HIV prevention and treatment strategies, few studies have examined HCT behavior among youth in sub-Saharan Africa-a group at substantial risk for HIV infection. In this paper we examine: the correlates of HIV testing, including whether associations differ based on the context under which a person gets tested; and the motivations for getting (or not getting) an HIV test. Drawing on data collected in 2007 from 4028 (51% male) youth (12-22 years) living in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements in Nairobi (Kenya), we explored the correlates of and motivations for HIV testing using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were employed to examine correlates of HIV testing. Bivariate analyses were employed to assess reasons for or against testing. Nineteen percent of males and 35% of females had been tested. Among tested youth, 74% of males and 43% of females had requested for their most recent HIV test while 7% of males and 32% of females reported that they were required to take their most recent HIV test (i.e., the test was mandatory). About 60% of females who had ever had sex received an HIV test because they were pregnant. We found modest support for the HBM in explaining variation in testing behavior. In particular, we found that perceived risk for HIV infection may drive HIV testing among youth. For example, about half of youth who had ever had sex but had never been tested reported that they had not been tested because they were not at risk. Targeted interventions to help young people correctly assess their level of risk and to increase awareness of the potential value of HIV testing may help enhance uptake of testing services. Given the relative success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) services in increasing HIV testing rates among females, routine provider-initiated testing and

  8. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  9. On the diurnal cycle of urban aerosols, black carbon and the occurrence of new particle formation events in springtime São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Backman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Large conurbations are a significant source of the anthropogenic pollution and demographic differences between cities that result in a different pollution burden. The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP, population 20 million accounts for one fifth of the Brazilian vehicular fleet. A feature of MASP is the amount of ethanol used by the vehicular fleet, known to exacerbate air quality. The study describes the diurnal behaviour of the submicron aerosol and relies on total particle number concentration, particle number size distribution, light scattering and light absorption measurements. Modelled planetary boundary layer (PBL depth and air mass movement data were used to aid the interpretation. During morning rush-hour, stagnant air and a shallow PBL height favour the accumulation of aerosol pollution. During clear-sky conditions, there was a wind shift towards the edge of the city indicating a heat island effect with implications on particulate pollution levels at the site. The median total particle number concentration for the submicron aerosol typically varied in the range 1.6 × 104–3.2 × 104 cm−3 frequently exceeding 4 × 104 cm−3 during the day. During weekdays, nucleation-mode particles are responsible for most of the particles by numbers. The highest concentrations of total particle number concentrations and black carbon (BC were observed on Fridays. Median diurnal values for light absorption and light scattering (at 637 nm wavelength varied in the range 12–33 Mm−1 and 21–64 Mm−1, respectively. The former one is equal to 1.8–5.0 μg m−3 of BC. The growth of the PBL, from the morning rush-hour until noon, is consistent with the diurnal cycle of BC mass concentrations. Weekday hourly median single-scattering albedo (ω0 varied in the range 0.59–0.76. Overall, this suggests a top of atmosphere (TOA warming effect. However

  10. Urban-rural differences in excess mortality among high-poverty populations: evidence from the Harlem Household Survey and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A

    2006-08-01

    Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.

  11. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  12. The Oceanus statue of the Fontana di Trevi (Rome): The analysis of black crust as a tool to investigate the urban air pollution and its impact on the stone degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Russa, Mauro F; Fermo, Paola; Comite, Valeria; Belfiore, Cristina M; Barca, Donatella; Cerioni, Annamaria; De Santis, Marina; Barbagallo, Lorena Francesca; Ricca, Michela; Ruffolo, Silvestro A

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of black crust coming from the statue of Oceanus belonging to the Fontana di Trevi (Rome). This monument is undoubtedly one of the main touristic attractions of Rome. During the restoration held between 2014 and 2015, some diagnostic analyses had been carried out. It has been highlighted that the sheltered surfaces suffer the formation of black crust, especially on the marble statues. The possibility to sample those degradation products, together with the unaltered substrate, represented an excellent opportunity to characterize the marble itself, to assess the impact of the urban air pollution on the stone material, and to detect the pollutant on a precise timescale. In fact, it is known that the previous restoration of the fountain had been carried out between 1989 and 1991 then, information about the air pollution over the last 25years can be highlighted, because it has been proved that black crusts act as passive samplers of pollution. In order to fully characterize those samples, several techniques were used, including optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and ion chromatography. Furthermore, a new methodology based on CHN (Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen) analysis has been developed for the quantification of the two main constituents of the carbonaceous fraction present in the black crusts, i.e. OC (organic carbon) and EC (elemental carbon). This integrated approach proposed in the present study allowed us to gain information about the mineralogical phases and the elements within the crusts and at the crust-substrate interface, giving the possibility to identify the pollution sources causing the stone decay within the monument. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ''Feeling Like a Different Kind of Smart'': Twitter as Digital Literacy Mediates Learning for Urban Youth and Literacy Specialist Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jevon D.; Silvestri, Katarina N.; Ackerman, Madison L.

    2018-01-01

    This article shares the qualitative research findings of an emerging professional development schools partnership that investigated the way Twitter, as a type of digital literacy, mediated literature discussions of Lois Lowry's "The Giver" between urban high school students and master's degree literacy specialist candidates. The findings…

  14. Youth Awareness on Youth Development Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon, Asmah Laili; Azhar, Alias; Ayub, Zainal Amin; Abdullah, Siti Alida John; Arshad, Rozita; Suhaimi, Safiah

    2016-01-01

    Lack of awareness and understanding of youth development law amongst youth and policy makers is quite significant. Among the reasons that have been identified to be the root cause of this weakness is due to the failure or less priority given by the youth societies and related organization which are responsible in providing quality programmes for youth. In light of the above gap, the paper examines youth awareness on youth development law from the perspective of policy makers and youth themse...

  15. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  16. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  17. Perceived Social Support From Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality Among Low-Income, Urban, Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Evidence of associations between social support and dietary intake among adolescents is mixed. This study examines relationships between social support for healthy and unhealthy eating from friends and parents, and associations with diet quality. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Baltimore, MD. 296 youth aged 9-15 years, 53% female, 91% African American, participating in the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids study. Primary dependent variable: diet quality measured using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) overall score, calculated from the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Social support from parents and friends for healthy eating (4 questions analyzed as a scale) and unhealthy eating (3 questions analyzed individually), age, gender, race, and household income, reported via questionnaire. Adjusted multiple linear regressions (α, P Friend and parent support for healthy eating did not have statistically significant relationships with overall HEI scores. Youth who reported their parents offering high-fat foods or sweets more frequently had lower overall HEI scores (β = -1.65; SE = 0.52; 95% confidence interval, -2.66 to -0.63). These results are novel and demonstrate the need for additional studies examining support for unhealthy eating. These preliminary findings may be relevant to researchers as they develop family-based nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Politics, gender and youth citizenship in Senegal: Youth policing of dissent and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossouard, Barbara; Dunne, Máiréad

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on empirical research on youth as active citizens in Senegal with specific reference to their education and their sexual and reproductive health rights. In a context of postcoloniality which claims to have privileged secular, republican understandings of the constitution, the authors seek to illuminate how youth activists sustain patriarchal, metropolitan views of citizenship and reinforce ethnic and locational (urban/rural) hierarchies. Their analysis is based on a case study of active youth citizenship, as reflected in youth engagement in the recent presidential elections in Senegal. This included involvement in youth protests against pre-election constitutional abuse and in a project monitoring the subsequent elections using digital technologies. The authors compare how youth activists enacted different notions of citizenship, in some instances involving a vigorous defence of Senegal's democratic constitution, while in others dismissing this as being irrelevant to youth concerns. Here the authors make an analytic distinction between youth engagement in politics, seen as the public sphere of constitutional democracy, and the political, which they relate to the inherently conflictual and agonistic processes through which (youth) identities are policed, in ways which may legitimate or marginalise. Despite the frequent construction of youth as being agents of change, this analysis shows how potentially productive and open spaces for active citizenship were drawn towards conformity and the reproduction of existing hegemonies, in particular through patriarchal gender relations and sexual norms within which female youth remained particularly vulnerable.

  19. Radically Healing Black Lives: A Love Note to Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginwright, Shawn A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how present conditions in Black communities have fostered the development of new modes of youth leadership that focus on hope, love, and joy, and are ultimately restorative and redemptive. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Youth programmes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez De Macias, G

    1990-12-01

    Research indicates that in-school adolescents in Mexico have their first sexual contact at the average age of 15.5 years. In 50% of cases, such contact is with a boyfriend or girlfriend, 28.1% with a fiance, and 18.3% with a prostitute. First sexual intercourse occurs with a spouse in only 1.3% of cases. Since only one in six young people in Mexico use a form of contraception, many unwanted pregnancies outside of marriage result. 450,000 births in 1989 were to mothers below 20 years old, with 15% of births annually being among teenage mothers. An estimated three million abortions occur annually in Mexico, and abortions are the fifth major cause of death at the national level. Teen pregnancy is decisively linked with poor living conditions and life expectancy, a relatively lower level of education, and rural residence. As for psychological and anthropological variables, most teens who become pregnant belong to large, unstable families with poor family communication, and are characterized as submissive, highly dependent, and of low self-esteem. Targeting students, workers, and other youths, the MEXFAM Youth Program selects and trains program coordinators over age 21 and volunteer promoters of both sexes aged 16-20 in urban/marginal communities. Promoters offer information to their peers and other youths in their local communities, distribute barrier contraceptives, and channel medical, psychological, and legal services to young people in need. Program procedure is described.

  1. Diagnostic and Demographic Differences Between Incarcerated and Nonincarcerated Youth (Ages 6-15) With ADHD in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Samuel L; Probst, Janice; Xirasagar, Sudha; Martin, Amy B; Smith, Bradley H

    2017-05-01

    Analyze diagnostic and demographic factors to identify predictors of delinquency resulting in incarceration within a group of children/adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. The study followed a cohort of 15,472 Medicaid covered children/adolescents with ADHD, ages 6 to 15 inclusive, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2006. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev. [ DSM-IV-TR]), 2000 Codes were used for qualifying diagnosis codes. Available demographic characteristics included race, sex, and residence. The outcome was incarceration at the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice during 2005-2006. Among youth with ADHD, incarceration was more likely among black, male, and urban youth. Children/adolescents with comorbid ODD and/or CD were at greater risk compared with those with ADHD alone. Within ADHD-diagnosed youth, comorbid conditions and demographic characteristics increase the risk of incarceration. Intervention and treatment strategies that address behavior among youth with these characteristics are needed to reduce incarceration.

  2. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...

  3. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  4. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  5. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  6. Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among High-Risk, Urban Youth in the U.S.: Shared and Unique Risk and Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which self-harm and suicidal behavior overlap in community samples of vulnerable youth is not well known. Secondary analyses were conducted of the “linkages study” (N = 4,131, a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11/12 in a high-risk community in the U.S. in 2004. Analyses were conducted to determine the risk and protective factors (i.e., academic grades, binge drinking, illicit drug use, weapon carrying, child maltreatment, social support, depression, impulsivity, self-efficacy, parental support, and parental monitoring associated with both self-harm and suicide attempt. Findings show that 7.5% of participants reported both self-harm and suicide attempt, 2.2% of participants reported suicide attempt only, and 12.4% of participants reported self-harm only. Shared risk factors for co-occurring self-harm and suicide attempt include depression, binge drinking, weapon carrying, child maltreatment, and impulsivity. There were also important differences by sex, grade level, and race/ethnicity that should be considered for future research. The findings show that there is significant overlap in the modifiable risk factors associated with self-harm and suicide attempt that can be targeted for future research and prevention strategies.

  7. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population.

  8. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  9. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  10. Experiential Manifestation of Youth Violence in Tanzania: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increased trend of rural-urban migration annually exacerbates the common problem of youth unemployment. Problems of street-level employment opportunities force many youth to join notorious gang activities aimed at terrorizing communities barely for the sake of making ends meet. They formed nefarious gangs that ...

  11. Youth and social change in Jordan and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Petersen, Marie Juul

    2007-01-01

    The Middle East has recently witnessed the rise of Muslim youth movements with an activist agenda. This article shows that these movements prove particularly attractive to urban upper middle class youth for whom religious engagement is about fostering the collective good as well as about self-emp...

  12. Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities ... Learn more about what drives DRC's urban violence and how it is linked to poverty ... ​Youth violence and the shift of land disputes from rural communities into ...

  13. Filling some black holes: modeling the connection between urbanization, infrastructure, and global service intensity in 112 metropolitan regions across the world

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Vijver, Elien; Derudder, Ben; Bassens, David; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This empirical article combines insights from previous research on the level of knowledge-intensive service in metropolitan areas with the aim to develop an understanding of the spatial structure of the global service economy. We use a stepwise regression model with GaWC’s measure of globalized service provisioning as the dependent variable and a range of variables focusing on population, infrastructure, urban primacy, and national regulation as independent variables. The discussion of the re...

  14. Youth and Adult Perspectives on Violence Prevention Strategies: A Community-Based Participatory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodington, James; Mollen, Cynthia; Woodlock, Joseph; Hausman, Alice; Richmond, Therese S.; Fein, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the beliefs and perspectives of urban adults and youth regarding community violence prevention strategies and identifies points of overlap and differences of opinion that can contribute to the development of successful youth violence prevention programs. We coded transcript data from adults and 10-16-year-old youth from the…

  15. Adolescents' Development of Skills for Agency in Youth Programs: Learning to Think Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Reed W.; Angus, Rachel M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines how youth in arts and leadership programs develop skills for organizing actions over time to achieve goals. Ethnically diverse youth (ages 13-21) in 11 high-quality urban and rural programs were interviewed as they carried out projects. Qualitative analyses of 712 interviews with 108 youth yielded preliminary grounded theory…

  16. Youth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping with the Stress of Living in Violent Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne; McDonald, Catherine C.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

    2010-01-01

    Youth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research…

  17. Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

  18. Ambivalence toward Black English: Some Tentative Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hanni

    1991-01-01

    Describes the writing problems of a poor, black, urban student who wants to succeed in college but doesn't know how. Asserts that language use, particularly the use of Black English, plays a major role in their lack of academic success. Offers drills and strategies to help with this problem. (PRA)

  19. Food Shopping Venues, Neighborhood Food Environment, and Body Mass Index Among Guyanese, Black, and White Adults in an Urban Community in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scars of disengagement: perspectives on community leadership and youth engagement in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Wilson; Jooste, Karien; Aziato, Lydia; Anakwe, Adaobi

    2017-08-01

    Given the emerging global youth disengagement epidemic, anticipated population growth, and the threat of continued rural-urban migration among young adults, recent research has focused on community leadership practice and the factors that influence youth engagement at the local level. Studying these practices and factors can elicit interventions that can improve youth engagement and youth health. This study engaged South African rural community leaders in interviews to collect perceptions and experiences on community leadership and factors that influence youth engagement and their health behaviors. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Emergent themes are categorized into four domains: conceptualizations of leadership, current youth behaviors, barriers to youth engagement, and youth leadership opportunities and potential solutions. Findings demonstrate a clear grasp of the concept of community leadership among community leaders, and an awareness of the complex interplay of social, economic and environmental factors on youth disengagement and the potential interventions to promote more youth participation.

  1. LGBT Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in schools without LGB support groups. 8 A recent study found that LGB students had fewer suicidal thoughts ... factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the ... Youth and Family Studies 2014;1:89‒112. Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. ...

  2. Pathways to Youth Empowerment and Community Connectedness: A Study of Youth-Adult Partnership in Malaysian After-School, Co-Curricular Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Krauss, Steven Eric; Kim, Taehan; Collura, Jessica; Abdullah, Haslinda

    2016-08-01

    After-school programs are prevalent across the world, but there is a paucity of research that examines quality within the "black box" of programs at the point of service. Grounded in current theory, this research examined hypothesized pathways between the experience of youth-adult partnership (youth voice in decision-making; supportive adult relationships), the mediators of program safety and engagement, and the developmental outcomes of youth empowerment (leadership competence, policy control) and community connectedness (community connections, school attachment). Surveys were administered to 207 ethnically diverse (47.3 % female; 63.3 % Malay) youth, age 15-16, attending after-school co-curricular programs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results showed that youth voice in program decision-making predicted both indicators of youth empowerment. Neither youth voice nor supportive adult relationships was directly associated with community connectedness, however. Program engagement mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and empowerment. In contrast, program safety mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and community connectedness. The findings indicate that the two core components of youth-adult partnership-youth voice and supportive adult relationships-may operate through different, yet complementary, pathways of program quality to predict developmental outcomes. Implications for future research are highlighted. For reasons of youth development and youth rights, the immediate challenge is to create opportunities for youth to speak on issues of program concern and to elevate those adults who are able and willing to help youth exercise their voice.

  3. Does substance use moderate the association of neighborhood disadvantage with perceived stress and safety in the activity spaces of urban youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Way, Thomas; Zahakaris, Nikola; Flay, Brian

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the association of activity space-based exposure to neighborhood disadvantage with momentary perceived stress and safety, and the moderation of substance use on those associations, among a sample of 139 urban, primarily African American, adolescents. Geospatial technologies are integrated with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to capture exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and perceived stress and safety in the activity space. A relative neighborhood disadvantage measure for each subject is calculated by conditioning the neighborhood disadvantage observed at the EMA location on that of the home neighborhood. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are used to model the effect of relative neighborhood disadvantage on momentary perceived stress and safety, and the extent to which substance use moderates those associations. Relative neighborhood disadvantage is significantly associated with higher perceived stress, lower perceived safety, and greater substance use involvement. The association of relative neighborhood disadvantage with stress is significantly stronger among those with greater substance use involvement. This research highlights the value of integrating geospatial technologies with EMA and developing personalized measures of environmental exposure for investigating neighborhood effects on substance use, and suggests substance use intervention strategies aimed at neighborhood conditions. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal pathways of influence and selection that relate neighborhood environment, stress, and substance use, while also accounting for the role of gender and family and peer social contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress mitigation to promote development of prosocial values and school engagement of inner-city urban African American and Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolan, Patrick; Lovegrove, Peter; Clark, Eren

    2013-01-01

    Studies of predictors of development of young men of color have been primarily focused on factors that impede positive development rather than factors that promote it. There are also few examples of longitudinal studies of positive development of this population and few that consider multiple protective factors simultaneously. Little is also known about how such positive outcomes might relate to prediction of problematic functioning. This study tests a developmental-ecological framework of positive and risky development among a sample of young men of color growing up in high-risk urban environments. African American and Latino adolescent males (148 African American, 193 Latino) were followed from early to late adolescence. Stress in early adolescence was related to school engagement and prosocial values as well as depressive symptoms and problems assessed 2 years later. The role of family and individual protective factors as direct effects and as mitigating the stress-outcome relation were also tested. Stress predicted problem outcomes but not positive functioning. Early engagement in prosocial activities and coping skills did predict positive outcomes. In contrast, problem outcomes were predicted directly by stress, with some indication of interaction with some protective factors for both such outcomes. Overall results suggest value in focusing on positive outcomes along with negative outcomes, as they are not the antithesis and have some shared but some different predictors. Implications for supporting positive development are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  5. Physical Dating Violence Victimization Among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feijun; Tharp, Andra T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined (1) whether sexual minority youths (SMYs) are at increased risk for physical dating violence victimization (PDVV) compared with non-SMYs, (2) whether bisexual youths have greater risk of PDVV than lesbian or gay youths, (3) whether youths who have had sexual contact with both sexes are more susceptible to PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact, and (4) patterns of PDVV among SMYs across demographic groups. Methods. Using 2 measures of sexual orientation, sexual identity and sexual behavior, and compiling data from 9 urban areas that administered the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2011, we conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate odds of PDVV among SMYs across demographic sub-samples. Results. SMYs have significantly increased odds of PDVV compared with non-SMYs. Bisexual youths do not have significantly higher odds of PDVV than gay or lesbian youths, but youths who had sexual contact with both-sexes possess significantly higher odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. These patterns hold for most gender, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions. Overall, SMYs have greater odds of PDVV versus non-SMYs. Among SMYs, youths who had sexual contact with both sexes have greater odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. Prevention programs that consider sexual orientation, support tolerance, and teach coping and conflict resolution skills could reduce PDVV among SMYs. PMID:25121813

  6. Adherence challenges encountered in an intervention programme to combat chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban black community, Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheetah Solomons

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD have become the greatest contributor to the mortality rate worldwide. Despite attempts by Governments and various non-governmental organisations to prevent and control the epidemic with various intervention strategies, the number of people suffering from CNCD is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa and worldwide. Objectives: Study's objectives were to explore perceived challenges with implementation of, and adherence to health messages disseminated as part of a CNCD intervention programme; to gain an understanding of participants' expectations of CNCD intervention programmes;, and to explore the acceptability and preference of health message dissemination methods. In addition, participants' awareness of, and willingness to participate inCNCDs intervention programmes in their community was explored. Methods: Participants were recruited from the existing urban Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study site in Langa, Cape Town. Focus group discussions were conducted with 47participants using a question guide. Summative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: Four themes emerged from the data analysis: practical aspects of implementation and adherence to intervention programmes; participants' expectations of intervention programmes; aspects influencing participants' acceptance of interventions; and their preferences for health message dissemination. The results of this study will be used to inform CNCDs intervention programmes. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that although participants found current methods of health message dissemination in CNCDs intervention acceptable, they faced real challenges with implementing and adhering to CNCDs to these messages.

  7. Family food purchases of high- and low-calorie foods in full-service supermarkets and other food retailers by Black women in an urban US setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Chrisinger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions to increase supermarket access assume that shopping in supermarkets is associated with healthier food purchases compared to other store types. To test this assumption, we compared purchasing patterns by store-type for certain higher-calorie, less healthy foods (HCF and lower-calorie, healthier foods (LCF in a sample of 35 black women household shoppers in Philadelphia, PA. Data analyzed were from 450 food shopping receipts collected by these shoppers over four-week periods in 2012. We compared the likelihood of purchasing the HCF (sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet/salty snacks, and grain-based snacks and LCF (low-fat dairy, fruits, and vegetables at full-service supermarkets and six other types of food retailers, using generalized estimating equations. Thirty-seven percent of participants had household incomes at or below the poverty line, and 54% had a BMI >30. Participants shopped primarily at full-service supermarkets (55% or discount/limited assortment supermarkets (22%, making an average of 11 shopping trips over a 4-week period and spending mean (SD of $350 ($222. Of full-service supermarket receipts, 64% included at least one HCF item and 58% at least one LCF. Most trips including HCF (58% and LCF (60% expenditures were to full-service or discount/limited assortment supermarkets rather than smaller stores. Spending a greater percent of total dollars in full-service supermarkets was associated with spending more on HCF (p = 0.03 but not LCF items (p = 0.26. These findings in black women suggest a need for more attention to supermarket interventions that change retailing practices and/or consumer shopping behaviors related to foods in the HCF categories examined. Keywords: Obesity, Store choice, Food choice, Food shopping, Supermarkets, African Americans

  8. Family food purchases of high- and low-calorie foods in full-service supermarkets and other food retailers by Black women in an urban US setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Hillier, Amy E; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2018-06-01

    Public health interventions to increase supermarket access assume that shopping in supermarkets is associated with healthier food purchases compared to other store types. To test this assumption, we compared purchasing patterns by store-type for certain higher-calorie, less healthy foods (HCF) and lower-calorie, healthier foods (LCF) in a sample of 35 black women household shoppers in Philadelphia, PA. Data analyzed were from 450 food shopping receipts collected by these shoppers over four-week periods in 2012. We compared the likelihood of purchasing the HCF (sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet/salty snacks, and grain-based snacks) and LCF (low-fat dairy, fruits, and vegetables) at full-service supermarkets and six other types of food retailers, using generalized estimating equations. Thirty-seven percent of participants had household incomes at or below the poverty line, and 54% had a BMI >30. Participants shopped primarily at full-service supermarkets (55%) or discount/limited assortment supermarkets (22%), making an average of 11 shopping trips over a 4-week period and spending mean (SD) of $350 ($222). Of full-service supermarket receipts, 64% included at least one HCF item and 58% at least one LCF. Most trips including HCF (58%) and LCF (60%) expenditures were to full-service or discount/limited assortment supermarkets rather than smaller stores. Spending a greater percent of total dollars in full-service supermarkets was associated with spending more on HCF (p = 0.03) but not LCF items (p = 0.26). These findings in black women suggest a need for more attention to supermarket interventions that change retailing practices and/or consumer shopping behaviors related to foods in the HCF categories examined.

  9. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.

  10. How youth get engaged: grounded-theory research on motivational development in organized youth programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were conducted with 100 ethnically diverse youth (ages 14–21) in 10 urban and rural arts and leadership programs. Qualitative analysis focused on narrative accounts from the 44 youth who reported experiencing a positive turning point in their motivation or engagement. For 38 of these youth, this change process involved forming a personal connection. Similar to processes suggested by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), forming a personal connection involved youth's progressive integration of personal goals with the goals of program activities. Youth reported developing a connection to 3 personal goals that linked the self with the activity: learning for the future, developing competence, and pursuing a purpose. The role of purpose for many youth suggests that motivational change can be driven by goals that transcend self-needs. These findings suggest that youth need not enter programs intrinsically engaged--motivation can be fostered--and that programs should be creative in helping youth explore ways to form authentic connections to program activities.

  11. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  12. The Black Hole in Science Ranks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    This paper reviews four decades of research on race and education in Great Britain and discusses the deficit theories of underachievement that serve as the structure of most of the studies. Focus is placed on black youth of Caribbean origin and how they perform in British schools. Consideration is also given to constructive frameworks from gender…

  13. Youth and Tourism Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Kalantari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.

  14. Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

  15. Streaming weekly soap opera video episodes to smartphones in a randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV risk in young urban African American/black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2012-07-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.

  16. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  17. Continuums of Precarity: Refugee Youth Transitions in American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Julia Ann; Bonet, Sally Wesley

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how the pre-migratory experiences of 90 Bhutanese, Burmese, and Iraqi refugee youth shape their aspirations, needs and capabilities as they transition to postsecondary education and work in the American urban context. It further explores how their schooling experiences in precarious urban school districts influence their…

  18. Towards Food Security and Youth Participation in Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling implications were raised to ensure food security in the two States, Cross River and Akwa Ibom and the nation at large such as reversing rural-urban migration to urban-rural migration, providing more social amenities in the rural areas, giving interest free loans and giving the youths adequate political education ...

  19. Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlerum, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

  20. Youth and the Cult of Youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Smolík, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This text deals with one of the neglected topics of contemporary social pedagogy which extends to developmental psychology and sociology. This topic is so-called cult of youth which is often mentioned in the academic literature, but has not been precisely conceptualized. This text was therefore focused on the definition of basic category, i.e. youth, and then discussed the relationship to the cult of youth and the individual elements that helps to form it. The cult of youth is associate...

  1. Youth and Shopping Malls: A Case Study about Youth Preference in Mall Use

    OpenAIRE

    Güliz MUĞAN AKINCI

    2013-01-01

    Shopping malls demonstrate the growth of consumption culture in contemporary urban life. After the 1980s, a liberalized economy and changing global factors made shopping malls important components of Turkish urban identity. As shopping malls have become such a significant part of the social world of youth in the last twenty years, it seems crucial to concentrate on ‘malls and youth’ as a subject of study. In this context, this study aims to analyze the leisure time activities and preferred le...

  2. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.

  3. Hip-Hop, the "Obama Effect," and Urban Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher; Lee, Okhee

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: With the ever increasing diversity of schools, and the persistent need to develop teaching strategies for the students who attend today's urban schools, hip-hop culture has been proposed to be a means through which urban youth can find success in school. As a result, studies of the role of hip-hop in urban education have grown…

  4. DSM-defined anxiety disorders symptoms in South African youths: Their assessment and relationship with perceived parental rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  5. Street based self-employment : a poverty trap or a stepping stone for migrant youth in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Bezu, Sosina; Holden, Stein Terje

    2015-01-01

    A significant percentage of youth in urban Africa is employed in the informal sector. The informal sector is more accessible than the formal sector for people with low human and financial capital, such as youth migrants from rural areas. But the sector is also generally considered to provide a subsistence livelihood. This study examines whether street based selfemployment in Africa offer a stepping stone towards a better livelihood or an urban poverty trap for youth migrants. The ana...

  6. Analysis of the sources and dynamic processes leading to the increase of atmospheric CO2, black carbon and other trace species during recent urban pollution events in the Paris megacity region : a synergy of resources provided by the IPSL OCAPI platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Foret, G.; Beekmann, M.; Brégonzio-Rozier, L.; Favez, O.; Gros, V.; Moreau-Guigon, E.; Vogel, F. R.; Belviso, S.; Ghersi, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Bodichon, R.; Cailteau-Fischbach, C.; Baisnee, D.; Peinado, F.; Haeffelin, M.; DeCola, P.; Turnbull, J. C.; Chelin, P.; Te, Y. V.; Formenti, P.; Doussin, J. F.; Gratien, A.; Desboeufs, K. V.; Ramage, K.; Jeseck, P.; Delmotte, M.; Ramonet, M.; Michoud, V.; Ravetta, F.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, more than 50% of the global population leave in urban centers which activities generate large anthropogenic emissions of CO2 (more than 70% of fossil fuel CO2 comes from urbanized/industrialized areas) and reactive gases that endanger our climate, the health of human beings and surrounding ecosystems. The worst situations are encountered during urban pollution events that usually form under anticyclonic conditions. Analyzing the contribution of the local and regional sources of urban CO2 and co-emitted species vs the remote ones, as well as the nature of these sources and the dynamical processes that lead to the building of such events can provide interesting knowledge for helping urban policy makers to better identify the role of anthropogenic/biogenic sources on the urban air composition and to take proper decisions in matter of CO2 and pollutants sources mitigation. With 12 million of people, Paris (France) is the second megacity in Europe. In 2016, two pollution events occured in the Paris region during which the instrumental platform OCAPI (http://observations.ipsl.fr/composition-atmospherique-en-idf.html) from IPSL (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) was mobilized in collaboration with air quality governing actors (AIRPARIF, INERIS) to collect a bunch of observations. Five sites located in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Paris were equiped with in-situ analyzers (CO2, CO, black carbon, 13CO2, COS) ; Fourier transform spectrometers for column measurements (XCO2, XCO, XCOS), particle filters (for aerosols size and content analysis) ; air samples (levoglucosan, 14CO2, VOCs) ; and Lidar profilers (boundary layer height ; wind profiles). These data, combined with a backtrajectories analysis, give information about the dynamical processes that lead to the formation of the pollution events and on the contribution of local, regional and remote sources. The analysis of the correlations between the trace species and of the isotopic content of carbon in

  7. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  8. 'Men value their dignity': securing respect and identity construction in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Urban informal settlements remain sites of high HIV incidence and prevalence, as well as violence. Increasing attention is paid on how configurations of young men's masculinities shape these practices through exploring how men build respect and identity. In this paper, we explore how young Black South Africans in two urban informal settlements construct respect and a masculine identity. Data are drawn from three focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews. We suggest that while young men aspire to a 'traditional' masculinity, prioritising economic power and control over the household, we suggest that a youth masculinity emerges which, in lieu of alternative ways to display power, prioritises violence and control over men's sexual partners, men seeking multiple sexual partners and men's violence to other men. This functions as a way of demonstrating masculinity and their position within a public gender order. We suggest there are three implications of the findings for working with men on violence and HIV-risk reduction. First, there exist a number of contradictions in men's discourses about masculinity that may provide spaces and opportunities for change. Second, it is important to work on multiple issues at once given the way violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk are interlinked in youth masculinity. Finally, engaging with men's exclusion from the capitalist system may provide an important way to reduce violence.

  9. Embarking on College and Career: Interim Evaluation of Urban Alliance. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodos, Brett; Pergamit, Michael R.; Hanson, Devlin; Edelstein, Sara; Daniels, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Urban Alliance serves at-risk youth through its high school internship program, which provides training, mentoring, and work experience to high school seniors from distressed communities. The program aims to help youth move on to higher education or employment after graduation. The Urban Institute is conducting a six-year, randomized controlled…

  10. Assessing urban forest effects and values, Scranton's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Vincent. Cotrone

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of trees in the urbanized portion of Scranton, PA, reveals that this area has about 1.2 million trees with canopies that cover 22.0 percent of the area. The most common tree species are red maple, gray birch, black cherry, northern red oak, and quaking aspen. Scranton's urban forest currently store about 93,300 tons of carbon valued at $1.9 million. In...

  11. Differences in beta-cell function and insulin secretion in Black vs. White obese adolescents: Do incretin hormones play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black youth are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) than their White peers. Previously we demonstrated that for the same degree of insulin sensitivity, Black youth have an upregulated beta-cell function and insulin hypersecretion, in response to intravenous (IV) glucose, compared with Whites. T...

  12. Post-Secondary Education and Rural-Urban Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synge, J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined education and career plans of Scottish rural youth who entered post-secondary education in order to determine the extent to which the educational system offers rural youth not only specific training but only entry to the urban labour market. (Author/RK)

  13. Gender, Location and Rural-Urban Differences in the Goal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to identify critical factors necessary to improve the mandate attainment of the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) Scheme informed this study on gender, location and rural-urban differences in the goal attainment of NYSC in South West Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling procedure, 120 outgoing youth corps ...

  14. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  15. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  16. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  17. Creating Inclusive Youth Programs for LGBTQ+ Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Soule

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vital for youth to experience inclusive programming that is welcoming. Extension has a responsibility and an obligation to provide youth with programs and spaces that are inclusive of all sexes, gender identities, gender expressions, and sexual orientations. This article provides an overview of appropriate terminology, as well as steps for creating inclusive Extension spaces and programs for youth who identify as members of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer/questioning (LGBTQ+ communities. With a focus on urban Extension audiences, this article uses accessible language, self-reflective prompts, and supporting visual aids to share lessons learned from ongoing inclusivity trainings with Extension personnel across the nation, as well as from research activities and inclusive programming.

  18. Catholic Media and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Stephen A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the impact of media on youth and suggests some possible directions for the Catholic media, especially in the areas of textbooks, magazines, television, movies, and radio, in responding to the needs of youth. (Author/FM)

  19. Introduction: Ideologies of Youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... target all age groups in their youth-oriented programmes. If the donor- ... van Dijk, de Bruijn, Cardoso, Butter: Introduction – Ideologies of Youth ...... Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures', American Anthropologist, vol. 104,.

  20. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.