WorldWideScience

Sample records for uranium industry regulatory

  1. Regulatory impacts on the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of environmental and safety regulation in Canada is described and the impacts of these developments on various phases of the uranium industry are examined. In the past 25 years, seven new uranium mining projects, major expansions to four projects, and five uranium refining/conversion projects have undergone environmental assessment in Canada. As regulations and the processes for applying them have developed, the size, complexity and cost of obtaining operating approvals for uranium projects have increased exponentially. Uranium projects are subject to a level of scrutiny that goes far beyond what can be justified by their potential for environmental damage, based primarily on a perceived degree of public concern, rather than any objective measure of environmental risk. The author believes that it is time to re-examine our priorities, to establish some balance between the risks of a project and the assessment effort required. Otherwise, we shall soon find ourselves in the position where smaller projects will never be developed because they cannot cover the regulatory costs. (author)

  2. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints

  3. The US uranium industry: Regulatory and policy impediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, T.E.; Glicken, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the DOE to develop recommendations and implement government programs to assist the domestic uranium industry in increasing export opportunities. In 1993, as part of that effort, the Office of Nuclear Energy identified several key factors that could (or have) significantly impact(ed) export opportunities for domestic uranium. This report addresses one of these factors: regulatory and policy impediments to the flow of uranium products between the US and other countries. It speaks primarily to the uranium market for civil nuclear power. Changes in the world political and economic order have changed US national security requirements, and the US uranium industry has found itself without the protected market it once enjoyed. An unlevel playing field for US uranium producers has resulted from a combination of geology, history, and a general US political philosophy of nonintervention that precludes the type of industrial policy practiced in other uranium-exporting countries. The US has also been hampered in its efforts to support the domestic uranium-producing industry by its own commitment to free and open global markets and by international agreements such as GATT and NAFTA. Several US policies, including the imposition of NRC fees and licensing costs and Harbor Maintenance fees, directly harm the competitiveness of the domestic uranium industry. Finally, requirements under US law, such as those in the 1979 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, place very strict limits on the use of US-origin uranium, limitations not imposed by other uranium-producing countries. Export promotion and coordination are two areas in which the US can help the domestic uranium industry without violating existing trade agreements or other legal or policy constraints.

  4. Uranium industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U 3 O 8 (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U 3 O 8 (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world's largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market

  5. Uranium industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  6. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. Uranium industry annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Uranium Industry Annual 1991, data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2. A feature article entitled ''The Uranium Industry of the Commonwealth of Independent States'' is included in this report

  8. Uranium industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  9. Uranium industry annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Uranium industry data collected in the EIA-858 survey provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of annual activities of the industry and include some information about industry plans over the next several years. This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities utility market requirements and related topics

  10. Uranium Industry. Annual 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, M.S.S.

    1985-01-01

    This report provides a statistical description of activities of the US uranium industry during 1984 and includes a statistical profile of the status of the industry at the end of 1984. It is based on the results of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) survey entitled ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (Form EIA-858). The principal findings of the survey are summarized under two headings - Uranium Raw Materials Activities and Uranium Marketing Activities. The first heading covers exploration and development, uranium resources, mine and mill production, and employment. The second heading covers uranium deliveries and delivery commitments, uranium prices, foreign trade in uranium, inventories, and other marketing activities. 32 figs., 48 tabs

  11. Australian uranium industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, R K

    1976-04-01

    Various aspects of the Australian uranium industry are discussed including the prospecting, exploration and mining of uranium ores, world supply and demand, the price of uranium and the nuclear fuel cycle. The market for uranium and the future development of the industry are described.

  12. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ''Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,'' is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2

  13. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  14. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  15. Uranium industry annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data collected on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ''Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,'' is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2

  16. Uranium industry annual 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and related topics. A glossary and appendices are included to assist the reader in interpreting the substantial array of statistical data in this report and to provide background information about the survey

  17. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  18. Ontario's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report traces the Ontario uranium mining industry from the first discovery of uranium north of Sault Ste. Marie through the uranium boom of the 1950's when Elliot Lake and Bancroft were developed, the cutbacks of the 1960s, the renewed enthusiasm in exploration and development of the 1970s to the current position when continued production for the domestic market is assured. Ontario, with developed mines and operational expertise, will be in a position to compete for export markets as they reopen. The low level of expenditures for uranium exploration and the lack of new discoveries are noted. The report also reviews and places in perspective the development of policies and regulations governing the industry and the jurisdictional relationships of the Federal and Provincial governments

  19. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration to provide the Secretary of Energy with basic data and analyses for ninth annual determination of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. A viability determination is required annually, for the years 1983 through 1992, by Section 170B of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1983, Public Law 97-415, which amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Topics include: evolution of the U.S. uranium industry; nuclear power requirements and uranium industry projections; and attributes of industry viability

  20. Uranium industry seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The tenth annual Uranium Industry Seminar, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Grand Junction Office, was held in Grand Junction, Colorado, on October 22 and 23, 1980. There were 700 registered attendees as compared to 833 attending the previous year. The attendees were drawn largely from uranium and other energy resource companies, electric utility firms, energy consultants and service companies, and governmental agencies. In addition, there were representatives present from Indian tribes, universities, the media, DOE laboratories, and foreign countries and organizations. There were 14 papers presented at the seminar by speakers from the Department of Energy, US Geological Survey, and Bendix Field Engineering Corporation which is the on-site prime contractor for DOE's Grand Junction Office. The topics the papers dealt with were uranium policies, exploration, respources, supply, enrichment, and market conditions. There also were papers describing the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program and international activities. All 14 papers in this Proceedings have been abstracted and indexed

  1. Uranium industry seminar: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The eleventh annual Uranium Industry Seminar, sponsored by the Grand Junction Area Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE), was held in Grand Junction, Colorado, on October 21 and 22, 1981. There were 491 registered attendees as compared to 700 attending the previous year. The attendees were largely from uranium and other energy resource companies, electric utility firms, energy consultants and service companies, and governmental agencies. In addition, there were representatives present from Indian tribes, universities, the media, DOE laboratories, and foreign countries and organizations. Papers presented at the seminar dealt with uranium policies, exploration, resources, supply, enrichment, and market conditions. There also were papers on the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program and international activities. Thirteen papers included in this report have been abstracted and indexed

  2. Technology and the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Continuing economic and regulatory pressures on the uranium industry can be countered only through advances in technology. Low prices, the 'ALARA' principle, and concerns about 'sustainability' require the industry to continually improve upon its already impressive record of performance. Technological improvement in the uranium industry is necessary in order to: 1) Maintain our resource base through the discovery of ever deeper deposits; 2) Improve the efficiency with which we may exploit - a) very high-grade deposits by remote underground mining methods - b) very low-grade deposits with environmentally-benign, in situ, leaching methods - and c) moderate-grade, near-surface deposits by open-pit mining methods; 3) Meet increasingly stringent and, in many cases, arbitrary and unrealistic environmental and safety requirements; and 4) Cope with increasing competition from an expanding number of sources of secondary supply. Manifestations of the uranium industry's ability to improve its performance through technology can be seen in many ways including: a continuing reduction in production costs; large gains in productivity; and a truly superior record of employee safety. Maintenance of these trends requires both innovation and the open sharing of information. (author)

  3. Technology and the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing economic and regulatory pressures on the uranium industry can be countered only through advances in technology. Low prices, the 'ALARA' principle, and concerns about 'sustainability' require the industry to continually improve upon its already impressive record of performance. Technological improvement in the uranium industry is necessary in order to: (a) Maintain our resource base through the discovery of ever deeper deposits; (b) Improve the efficiency with which we may exploit (i) very high-grade deposits by remote underground mining methods (ii) very low-grade deposits with environmentally-benign, in situ leaching methods - and (iii) moderate-grade, near-surface deposits by open-pit mining methods (c) Meet increasingly stringent and, in many cases, arbitrary and unrealistic environmental and safety requirements; and (d) Cope with increasing competition from an expanding number of sources of secondary supply. Manifestations of the uranium industry's ability to improve its performance through technology can be seen in many ways including: a continuing reduction in production costs; large gains in productivity; and a truly superior record of employee safety. Maintenance of these trends requires both innovation and the open sharing of information. (author)

  4. Regulatory harmonization of the Saskatchewan uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.; Moulding, T.; Alderman, G.

    2006-01-01

    The uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan produces approximately 30% of the world's production of uranium. The industry is regulated by federal and provincial regulators. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the principal federal regulator. The principal Saskatchewan provincial regulators are Saskatchewan Environment for provincial environmental regulations and Saskatchewan Labour for occupational health and safety regulations. In the past, mine and mill operators have requested harmonization in areas such as inspections and reporting requirements from the regulators. On February 14, 2003, Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan Labour and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission signed a historical agreement for federal/provincial co-operation called the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - Saskatchewan Administrative Agreement for the Regulation of Health, Safety and the Environment at Saskatchewan Uranium Mines and Mills. This initiative responds to a recommendation made by the Joint Federal-Provincial Panel on Uranium Mining Developments in Northern Saskatchewan in 1997 and lays the groundwork to co-ordinate and harmonize their respective regulatory regimes. The implementation of the Agreement has been very successful. This paper will address the content of the Agreement including the commitments, the deliverables and the expectations for a harmonized compliance program, harmonized reporting, and the review of harmonized assessment and licensing processes as well as possible referencing of Saskatchewan Environment and Saskatchewan Labour regulations in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The management and implementation process will also be discussed including the schedule, stakeholder communication, the results to date and the lessons learned. (author)

  5. Uranium industry framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, K.

    2008-01-01

    The global uranium market is undergoing a major expansion due to an increase in global demand for uranium, the highest uranium prices in the last 20 years and recognition of the potential greenhouse benefits of nuclear power. Australia holds approximately 27% of the world's uranium resources (recoverable at under US$80/kg U), so is well placed to benefit from the expansion in the global uranium market. Increasing exploration activity due to these factors is resulting in the discovery and delineation of further high grade uranium deposits and extending Australia's strategic position as a reliable and safe supplier of low cost uranium.

  6. Industrial realities: Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiron, H.

    1990-01-01

    In this special issue are examined ores and metals in France and in the world for 1988. The chapter on uranium gives statistical data on the uranium market: Demand, production, prices and reserves [fr

  7. The French natural uranium industry in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Marcel

    1987-01-01

    France has relatively large uranium deposits. This led to the creation of an internationally significant uranium mining industry. The structure of this industry is explained. In 1985 world supply of uranium was greater than world demand leading to an increase in uranium stocks. However, as demand is expected to increase, the industry is undertaking extensive uranium exploration, mainly abroad. (UK)

  8. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  9. The uranium industry of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    For 45 years, the Bulgarian uranium industry operated behind an impenetrable veil of secrecy. As this veil is slowly lifted, the breadth and structure of the industry are becoming apparent-and so are the problems. Bulgaria's uranium industry began in 1945 with the evaluation of several uranium mineral occurrences in the Balkan Mountains. These occurrences provided to be mineable deposits and became the foundation for a continuing program of exploration and development. Mining commenced in 1946, and all production was exported under contract to the Soviet Union in exchange for an eventual supply of fabricated nuclear fuel. In concert with most other countries of the COMECON block, Bulgaria's exploration and development program reached its zenith in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Like other COMECON countries, the contract with the Soviet Union was reduced during the 1980s and finally terminated. The Bulgarian uranium industry now is under substantial pressure to: (1) Maintain uranium production as a base of support for its 10,000 employees. (2) Develop mineral deposits other than uranium as a replacement for high-cost uranium production. (3) Clean up past and present production sites, most of which have significant environmental problems. The probability of successfully completing these three tasks without outside assistance is limited. Bulgaria's almost complete dependence for four and a half decades on Soviet aid, contracts, and technology has taken its toll

  10. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  11. The U.S. uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasier, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on the future of the U.S. uranium industry in light of potential embargo legislation and the uranium producers' lawsuit. The author discusses several possible resolutions which would lead to a more certain and possibly stable uranium market. The probability of one or more Six possible actions which would effect the uranium industry are addressed

  12. Uranium industry update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poissonnet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer of uranium. With stockpiles becoming depleted, new sources of production will soon be needed. Production in Ontario was expected to cease in 1996, leaving decommissioning as the main activity there. Present production in Canada is almost entirely from the Athabasca basin in Saskatchewan, and mainly from three mines, Key Lake and Rabbit Lake (both owned by Cameco and Uranerz), and Cluff Lake (owned by Cogema). Following hearings in 1993, extensions to Cluff Lake and Rabbit Lake, and a new project at McClean Lake (by Minatco) received environmental approval, while the Midwest project as presented by Denison was rejected, but Cogema was revising it (at the time of the conference). An environmental impact statement for Cigar Lake was due to be submitted to the Assessment panel in October 1994. The author regrets that discussion of 'natural analogues' has created confusion between uranium mining and nuclear waste disposal in the public mind. 2 ills

  13. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States: Inovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory program. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  14. Statistical data of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Historical facts and figures of the uranium industry through 1975 are compiled. Areas covered are ore and concentrate purchases; uranium resources; distribution of $10, $15, and $30 reserves; drilling statistics; uranium exploration expenditures; land holdings for uranium mining and exploration; employment; commercial U 3 O 8 sales and requirements; and processing mills

  15. Regulatory challenges of historic uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.H.; Stenson, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The radium and uranium mining industry began in Canada in 1930 with the discovery of the Port Radium deposit in the Northwest Territories. During the 1950s more uranium mines opened across Canada. Most of these mines ceased operation by the end of the 1960s. Some were remediated by their owners, while others were abandoned. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), predecessor to the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), was created in 1946. However, it was not until the mid-1970s that the AECB took an active role in regulating health, safety and environmental aspects of uranium mining; so many of the older mines have never been licensed. With the coming into force of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) in May 2000, this situation has been reviewed. The NSCA requires a licence for the possession of nuclear substances (including uranium mine tailings), or the decommissioning of nuclear facilities (including uranium mines and mills). Furthermore, governments (federal and provincial) are also subject to the NSCA, a change from the previous legislation. The CNSC has an obligation to assess these sites, regardless of ownership, and to proceed with licensing or other appropriate regulatory action. The CNSC has reviewed the status of the twenty sites in Canada where uranium milling took place historically. Eight are already licensed. Licensing actions are being pursued at the other sites. A review of nearly 100 small uranium mining or exploration sites is also underway to determine the most appropriate regulatory approach. This paper focuses on regulatory issues surrounding the historic mining and milling sites, and the regulatory approach being taken, including licensing provincial and federal government bodies who own some of the sites, and ensuring the safe management of sites that were abandoned. (author)

  16. Status of domestic uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry continues to operate at a reduced level, due to low prices and increased foreign competition. For four years (1984-1987) the Secretary of Energy declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected for 1988. Exploration and development drilling, at the rate of 2 million ft/year, continue in areas of producing mines and recent discoveries, especially in northwestern Arizona, northwestern Nebraska, south Texas, Wyoming, and the Paradox basin of Colorado and Utah. Production of uranium concentrate continues at a rate of 13 to 15 million lb of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) per year. Conventional mining in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Texas accounts for approximately 55% of the production. The remaining 45% comes from solution (in situ) mining, from mine water recovery, and as by-products from copper production and the manufacture of phosphoric acid. Solution mining is an important technique in Wyoming, Nebraska, and Texas. By-product production comes from phosphate plants in Florida and Louisiana and a copper mine in Utah. Unmined deposits in areas such as the Grants, New Mexico, district are being investigated for their application to solution mining technology. The discovered uranium resources in the US are quite large, and the potential to discover additional resources is excellent. However, higher prices and a strong market will be necessary for their exploitation

  17. Development of a stable uranium recovery regulatory framework for uranium recovery activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, M.C.; Abrams, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has historically regulated operations at all uranium and thorium recovery facilities under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Uranium recovery facilities are those plants, or portions of facilities that process uranium- or thorium-bearing material primarily for its source material content. The uranium recovery industry expressed some concerns over several aspects of the NRC's practices, as described in the NRC's guidance documents. In April 1998, the National Mining Association submitted a report to the Commission, that identified specific concerns with NRC's current position and guidance regarding concurrent jurisdiction at uranium mills; dual regulatory authority at in situ leach facilities; the use of mill tailings impoundments for disposal of radioactive material other than 11e.(2) byproduct material; and the ability to process alternate feed material at uranium mills. The NRC staff addressed most of these concerns in two SECY (staff recommendations) papers that were concurrently provided to the Commission, along with a SECY paper on a draft rulemaking plan relating to these and other issues. The issues addressed in these papers included a new rulemaking, disposal of materials other than 11 e.(2) byproduct material, processing of materials other than natural ores, and improved efficiency for regulating in situ leach uranium facilities. The Commission issued final policy decisions on these issues and directions for NRC staff to implement those decisions in July 2000. (author)

  18. The future of the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Galaud, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the state of natural Uranium market today. In a first part, the author gives a brief history about nuclear programs history in Usa and Europe and describes natural Uranium demand and supply (Uranium mines, recycling, excessive civil stocks, military stocks using). In a second part, evolutions and futures of Uranium industry is studied: using of excessive stocks in Western Europe, using of military stocks, recycling of Uranium from spent fuels reprocessing, uranium deposits, future natural uranium market. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 3 photos

  19. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry: 1986 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the fourth annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1982. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions, as well as projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports. 13 refs., 26 figs., 37 tabs

  20. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry. 1984 viability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the second annual assessment of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry's resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. The data and analysis in support of this assessment and the report itself have been developed pursuant to requirements set forth in Section 23(b) of Public Law 97-415, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act, which was enacted on January 4, 1983. The report provides information on recent uranium supply, demand, and marketing conditions and projections of the domestic uranium industry's ability to continue to supply the needs of the domestic nuclear power industry through the year 2000. Industry capability is assessed under a variety of assumed conditions with respect to hypothetical disruptions of uranium imports

  1. Uranium industry vs radioecological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchev, L.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium industry development on a worldwide scale accounts for a technological increase in the natural radiation background as a result of human activity. The higher radionuclide concentration leads to an increase of the radiological risk which is a basic criterion for environmental and human protection. Therefore its determination with regard to the uranium industry and particularly to the process of its closure is mandatory. Restoration and control of the environment is closely linked to a system of criteria and levels for assessment of the radionuclide contamination hazards. Annual individual effective dose of 2.3 mSv is accepted as anormal average level for radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population from the natural radiation background. The value of 3.5 mSv/y is accepted as the uppermost limit of the normal background exposure level. According to ICRP recommendations the additional overbackground exposure of the population should not exceed 1.0 mSv/y towards the background level for the region. This holds true also for areas neighbouring to the uranium mining sites

  2. The uranium industry: long term planning for short term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.

    2000-01-01

    Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. (authors)

  3. Radon problem in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Raghavayya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radon emission is invariably associated with the mining and processing of uranium ores. Radon (sup(222)Rn) enters mine atmosphere through diffusion from exposed ore body, fractures and fissures in the rocks and is also brought in by ground water. Being the progenitor of a series of short lived radioisotopes it contributes over 70% of the radiation dose to mine workers and thus accounts for nearly 30% of the total radiation doses received by workers in the whole nuclear industry. This paper summarises the data on radon emanation from the ore body, backfilled sands and mine water. Radon and its progeny concentrations in different haulage levels and stopes of the Jaduguda uranium mine are presented to emphasise the need for a well planned ventilation system to control radiation exposure of miners. Results of radon monitoring from a few exploratory uranium mines are included to indicate the need for a good ventilation system from inception of the mining operations. Relative contribution of mine exhaust and tailings surfaces to the environmental radon are also given. Some instruments developed locally for monitoring of radon and its progeny in mines and in the environment are briefly described to indicate the progress made in this field. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  4. The US uranium mining industry: 1980 and today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1980, 16 800 tonnes of uranium were produced in the United States, making it the largest producing nation with about 40% of Western World (WOCA) production. By 1990, US production had fallen to approximately 3500 tonnes U, representing only about 10% of WOCA production. Clearly the US uranium mining industry was strongly altered by the events of the intervening years. Widespread focus on declining prices overshadowed a second important set of events. Namely, the rapidly changing regulatory and environmental atmosphere in the United States which continues adversely to affect conventional uranium mining. As a result of these events, the size and structure of the US uranium mining industry was irrevocably changed. Within this altered industry is a rapidly maturing technology that provides a more efficient and lower-cost means of uranium production, in-situ leaching (ISL). By exploiting the advantages of relatively low capital investments, shorter development times, reduced labour costs, and increased production flexibility of ISL mining, the US uranium mining industry will be a competitive component of the world's uranium supply for the 1990s. (author)

  5. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  6. Wyoming's uranium industry: status, impacts, and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Mineral Division of the Wyoming Department of Economic Planning and Development (DEPAD) commissioned a study in July 1978 of the uranium industry in Wyoming. The study was conducted for the purposes of determining the status, impacts, and future activities of the uranium industry in the State; and to assist in establishing a data base for monitoring programs and related planning activities by State and federal agencies. Another objective of the study was to enhance understanding of the uranium industry in Wyoming by public officials, industrial leaders, and the general public

  7. Uranium industry annual 1990, September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and uranium marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry including utilities with nuclear-powered electric generating plants. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1990), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis within the US Department of Energy. 19 figs., 47 tabs

  8. Uranium industry in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikipelov, B.V.; Chernov, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A brief historical account of the Soviet production of natural and enriched uranium is given. The geological and geographical location of major uranium deposits are mentioned. The processing of natural ores including in-situ leaching (ISL) is also briefly described. Gas centrifuges play a large part in uranium enrichment. The role of Techsnabexport for the export of nuclear materials is explained

  9. The evolving regulation of uranium recovery operations in the United States of America: Innovative approaches are necessary for cost effective regulatory oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Lashway, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    The US domestic uranium industry is at a crossroads. Historic low prices for uranium, combined with stringent and often irrational regulatory requirements, pose a very real threat to the industry's continued viability. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has taken a number of innovative steps to reform and rationalize its regulatory programme. However, if the domestic uranium recovery industry is to remain viable, additional steps toward innovation and reform are needed, and effective implementation of reforms adopted by the Commission is essential. (author)

  10. Regulatory philosophy and requirements for radiation control in Canadian uranium mine-mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-10-01

    With the point made that radiation exposure is one of the health hazards of uranium mining and accordingly has to be controlled, the Canadian regulatory philosophy is outlined as it pertains to the uranium mining industry. Two extremes in regulatory approach are examined, and the joint regulatory process is explained. Two examples of poor management performance are given, and the role of mine unions in the regulatory process is touched upon. The development of new regulations to cover ventilation and employee training is sketched briefly. The author concludes with a general expression of objectives for the eighties which include improved personal dosimetry

  11. Restructuring of uranium industry in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, O; Meglea, C; Paraschiva, V.; Popescu, C.; Gheorghe, A.; Meglea, S.

    2001-01-01

    A project is described which aims at evaluation of uranium industry and assessment of the technical options for lowering production costs for uranium ore and, implicitly, for nuclear fuel. The main objective is defining the optimal technical and organisational solutions leading to a functional restructuring of this activity, as well as, to implementing modern techniques, technologies and procedures, and, at the same time to lowering the economical and environmental costs. This project is performed in co-operation with IAEA in the frame of TC-ROM/3/003, 'Restructuring the Uranium Mining Industry' project. The following results of carrying out this project are expected: refurbishment of processes and technological procedures, re-dimensioning uranium industry in accordance with the dimensions of nuclear power programme, reducing the environmental impact and lowering the uranium cost

  12. A view from the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    We should all be encouraged by what is emerging in terms of deregulation, consolidation, and privatization of the nuclear industry and in terms of an increasing public realization that nuclear technology is safe and environmentally clean. The greater transparency which flows out of the restructuring of our industry encourages accountability and promotes excellence in every way. There are early signs of a changing public attitude toward nuclear technology. Opponents find it more difficult to refute facts and for some, impossible to come up with credible alternatives. The uranium industry has undergone much of the restructuring which the electricity business faces today. Consolidation as a result of market forces and privatization, has been with the uranium industry for quite a while. Today the industry is dominated by only a few players. It is in this highly competitive arena of the uranium market place that the nuclear electricity producers meet the uranium suppliers. That interaction is played out in the familiar supply and demand scenario

  13. Retrospective - the beginnings of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a historical perspective of the uranium industry, from the discovery of uranium in 1789 to the discovery of fission in 1939. It is the first in a series of articles. In this part of the series, the initial discovery of uranium is mentioned. Early ore discoveries, especially in the USA, are also noted, and the market conditions at the end of the 19th century are reviewed. Shortly after the discovery of radium in 1898 and natural radioactivity, the connection between uranium and radium was noted, and this is outlined in the article. Due to the intimate relationship between the two elements, radium product and radium markets are also reviewed

  14. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia. (author)

  15. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia.

  16. Regulatory Office for Network Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the economic regulation of network industries is to ensure a balance between the interests of consumers and investors and to encourage providing high-quality goods and services. The task of the regulatory authority is to protect the interests of consumers against monopolistic behaviour of regulated enterprises. At the same time, the regulatory office has to protect the interests of investors by giving them an opportunity to achieve an adequate return on their investments. And last, but not least, the regulatory office has to provide regulated enterprises with appropriate incentives to make them function in an efficient and effective manner and to guarantee the security of delivery of energies and related services. All this creates an efficient regulatory framework that is capable of attracting the required amount and type of investments. This also means providing third party access to the grids, the opening of energy markets, the un-bundling of accounts according to production, distribution, transmission and other activities and the establishment of a transparent and stable legislative environment for regulated companies, investors and consumers. Otherwise, in the long run consumers may suffer from a serious deterioration of service quality, although in the short run they are protected against increased prices. Under the Act No. 276/2001 Coll. on Regulation of Network Industries and on amendment of some acts the Office for Regulation of Network Industries has been commissioned to implement the main objectives of regulation of network industries. By network industries the Act No. 276/2001 Coll. on Regulation means the following areas: (a) Production, purchase, transit and distribution of electricity; (b) Production, purchase, transit and distribution of gas; (c) Production, purchase and distribution of heat; (d) Water management activities relating to the operation of the public water supply system or the public sewerage system; (e) Water management

  17. Impacts of Canada's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.J.

    1982-05-01

    This study examines economic and environmental impacts of uranium mining in Canada and compares these impacts with those of other extractive and energy industries. The uranium industry generates taxes and royalties, income, employment, foreign exchange earnings, security of energy supply, and technological spinoffs. The indirect impacts of the industry as measured by employment and income multipliers are lower than those for other types of mining and comparable to oil and gas because of the high proportion of costs withdrawn from the economy in the form of taxes and operator margin. Social costs are primarily occupational hazards. Uranium mining probably has a lower non-health environmental impact than other mining industries due to much smaller throughputs and transportation requirements. Residents of the area surrounding the mine bear a disproportionate share of the social costs, while non-residents receive most of the benefits

  18. Regulatory aspects of uranium remediation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoevari, M.; Csicsak, J.; Lendvai, Zs.; Varhegyi, A.; Nam, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Hungary, there are numerous acts and decrees concerning the uranium ore mining remediation, including the aspects of radiation protection and release limits. The most important ones are: Mining Act, Atomic Energy Act, Environmental Protection Act, Water Management Act, Government Decrees No. 115/1993 and 152/1995. For radiation protection regulation the baselines are codified in the Hungarian National Standard MSZ 62/1-1989, while the release limits are prescribed in the order No. 3/1984 of Hungarian Water Authority (OVH), and in the standard MSZ 450/1-1989. According to the above documents, the limits for annual effective dose-equivalent are: (a) 50 mSv for persons occupied in nuclear industry or working with radioactive isotopes, this is relevant to mining and processing of uranium ore, (b) 5 mSv for the critical group of members of the public, in the case of long exposure this value could not exceed 1 mSv/a. In accordance to the EC directives, it is expected that the limit for the public will be decreased soon to 1 mSv/a. Release limits for discharge of natural radionuclides (U, Th, Ra, Rn) in surface water: (a) for uranium maximum 2 mg/dm 3 , (b) for radium-226 maximum 1.1 Bq/dm 3 . There are no general discharge limits for other pollutants in waste water, but the competent authorities may give individual limits if asked. Detailed limits are given only for drinking water for toxic and chemical components. Release limits for discharge of heavy metals are listed in order No. 3/1984 OVH. Of course, numerous licenses and permissions have to be obtained for remediation. The most important ones are the Environmental Protection Permission, based on a detailed environmental impact assessment, and the technical reclamation plans. Numerous authorities are involved in the licensing procedures (e.g. Mining Authority, Environmental Protection Authority, Water Authority, National Municipal Health Authority, etc.). (author)

  19. Industrial types of uranium deposits in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The main industrial uranium deposits of Kazakhstan that can be commercially mined, are located in two ore regions and are represented by two types of the uranium deposits. The first region is named Chu-Syrdarya (75.6% of total resources of Kazakhstan) and is located in the South of Kazakhstan and this one is the largest in the world among the regions of the deposits connected with the bed oxidation zone, localized in the permeable sediments and amenable for in-situ leach mining. The second region is named Kokshetau (16% of total resources) and is located in the North of Kazakhstan at the north edge of Kazak Shield and is characterized by the vein-stockwork type of deposit. Other industrial deposits (8.4% of total resources) are grouped in two regions that have been determined and are retained as reserves for economical and ecological reasons. These are: Pricaspian region with the organic phosphate type of uranium deposits; and Ili-Balkhash region with mainly the coal-uranium type. There are 44 industrial uranium deposits with resources ranging from 1000 t to 100000 t U and more in each of them, in all, in Kazakhstan. Seven of them are completely mined now. Total uranium resources in Kazakhstan are determined at 1670000 t U. (author)

  20. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  1. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  2. The uranium producing industry - its capital structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    The uranium mining industry has undergone a substantial change over the past decade. A few rather informal statistics relevant to this change have been gathered together, with particular emphasis on the corporate and capital structures which existed in the industry in the 1970s and 1980s. These data offer interesting insights on the availability of capital for new uranium mining ventures, and lead to a sketch of the finances of a hypothetical new venture. The results of this work suggest that there may be few producers likely to start work on a greenfield site in the next few years, even if the market recovers from its present doldrums. (author)

  3. Prospects for the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Canada became the world's largest uranium producer in 1984. That leadership position is likely to be maintained for many years into the future because of a firm production base, many undeveloped known deposits with commercial promise, and a large geological potential for new discoveries. There are some uncertainties on the horizon, principally because of restrictive actions in process within the USA, which are aimed at preserving a deteriorating domestic uranium industry. Should such actions result in import restriction, for example, there would be a negative effect on foreign producers at least in the short term. Canada may avoid such difficulties under a tentative U.S.-Canada free-trade agreement where restrictions on the import of Canadian uranium into the United States would be eliminated. Over the longer term, demand for Canada's uranium resources will grow because of the foreseen growth in the world's installed nuclear power capacity

  4. Recommendations for a coordinated approach to regulating the uranium recovery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, K.; Thompson, A.J.; Lehrenbaum, W.U.; Gormley, P.; Kim, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    A number of regulatory positions that are of central importance to the uranium recovery industry today have their origins in regulatory interpretations that were developed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) staff almost two decades ago, shortly after Congress first granted the Commission the direct authority to regulate uranium mill tailings and related wastes by enacting the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) as an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA). Consequently, several key regulatory positions that govern uranium recovery activities today were developed at a time when the regulatory programme for uranium milling operations, including the management and disposition of uranium mill tailings and related wastes, was in the earliest stages of conception, and when the uranium recovery industry was at or near peak levels of production. Often, the policies and positions that were developed by the Commission staff dining this period, and subsequently, were developed in an ad hoc manner, rather than being formulated as part of a deliberate, coordinated regulatory strategy. Moreover, many of these positions and policies were based on assumptions that would later turn out to be completely incorrect regarding the future development of the uranium recovery industry and of the regulatory programme governing the industry. In the twenty years that have elapsed since Congress first enacted UMTRCA, a robust programme has been created for the comprehensive regulation of uranium recovery activities. At the same time, the nature of the uranium recovery industry has changed dramatically. As a result, some of the policies and positions that were developed by Commission staff almost two decades ago, that may have seemed reasonable at the time they were developed, appear increasingly unreasonable and inappropriate today, given the current regulatory framework and the realities of the modern uranium recovery industry. This raises concerns

  5. Development of uranium industry in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, Tiberiu

    2000-01-01

    The management of the uranium resources is performed in Romania by the National Uranium Company. The tasks to be done are: 1. management and protection of rare and radioactive metal ores in the exploitation areas; 2. mining, preparation, refining and trading the radioactive ores, as well as reprocessing the uranium stock from the uranium concentrate in the national reserve; 3. performing geologic and technologic studies in the exploitation areas; 4. performing studies and projects concerning the maintenance of the present facilities and unearthing new ores; 5. building industrial facilities; 6. carrying out technological transport; 7. importation-exportation operations; 8. performing micro-production activity in experimental research units; 9. personnel training; 10. medical assistance for the personnel; 11. environment protection. The company is organized as follows: 1.three branches for uranium ore mining, located at Suceava, Bihor and Banat; 2. one branch for geologic survey, located at Magurele; 3. one branch for uranium ore preparation and concentration and for refining uranium concentrates, located at Feldioara; 4. One group for mine conservation, closure and ecology, located at Bucuresti. The final product, sintered powder of UO 2 produced at Feldioara plant, was tested in 1994 by the Canadian partner and met successfully the required standards. The Feldioara plant was certified as supplier of raw material for CANDU nuclear fuel production and as such, Romania is the only authorized producer of CANDU nuclear fuel in Europe and the second in the world, after Canada. Maintaining the uranium production in Romania is justified by the existence of uranium ore resources, the declining of natural gas resources, lower costs per kWh for electric nuclear power as compared to fossil-fuel power production, the possibility for Romania to become an important supplier of CANDU nuclear fuel, the low environmental impact and high costs for total shutdown of activity, high

  6. Achieving order in a chaotic uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The current preoccupation with the spot market is a source of continuing instability in the uranium industry. It is in the interest of producers and consumers alike that utilities should be prepared to carry excess stocks and to enter into long term contracts at prices consistent with future world cost patterns. (author)

  7. The uranium industry of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper was originally published in 1954 and is reproduced in this centenary issue of the journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. South Africa's economy was (and is) based on mining. The early history of the uranium mining industry (until 1954) is discussed in detail, together with its status and economy. The first quantitative assessment of the uranium potential of the Witwatersrand goldfield was made in 1945 when it was reported that South Africa had one of the largest low-grade uranium fields in the world. The first metallurgical plants brought considerable benefit to the area. The process of uranium extraction was basically similar to that employed in the recovery of gold. It could be divided into the same three main headings: agitation, filtration and precipitation. It was predicted that the program, in full swing, would possibly consume as much as 20,000 tons of manganese ore a month, as the extraction process requires dioxide. It was for this reason that manganese recovery plants have been incorporated in the process. Other materials that were to be used in large quantities were lime, limestone, animal glue and water. Considering the increasing importance of uranium in the economy of the country, the question of secrecy was becoming a problem. At that time the demand for South African uranium was guaranteed by a ten-year agreement with the British and American authorities. 3 figs

  8. New development stage of China's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong

    2001-01-01

    From the early 1980s China adjusted its uranium industry to better meet the market economy requirements. Until 1997, the adjustment has been completed. The technical and managerial improvements result in a more efficient uranium production. In 1996 a series of events related to the nuclear power development of China manifests very favorable situation for the uranium industry. The first two nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 2100 MW in the mainland of China have been operating safely and steadily for several years. The additional nuclear power projects to be constructed for the rest of this century are implemented in an all-round way. Four plants with eight reactors of a total of 6900 MW have entered their construction period in succession. In 1996 a commercial ISL mine in Xinjiang with annual capacity 100 tU was completed, and the larger scale of ISL mine is expected to be constructed by 2000. The Benxi uranium mine in northeast China was put into production. It applies some new mining and processing technologies and improved management, which might serve as a new model of uranium mines in China. (author)

  9. The potential for an Australian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.

    1982-06-01

    The production of uranium and its part upgrading to enriched uranium for export could be equivalent to 20-25 per cent of Australia's future export income from coal. Australia could be supplying 15,000 tonnes U/yr. and enrichment services of 2.5 million SWU/yr. by 2000. The principles of nuclear energy, nuclear power reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle are described and the relationship between nuclear power and the requirements for uranium and the other steps in the fuel cycle is discussed. Estimates are given of the future world supply-demand balance for each step in the fuel cycle. A survey is made of world uranium resources and fuel cycle upgrading facilities. The costs of production and pricing are assessed in relation to the potential for an Australian industry. Comments are made on the possibility that Australia could provide the repository for both low-level radioactive waste from small countries and the bulk of the world's high level waste. The impact of a uranium industry on the Australian economy is discussed

  10. Uranium mining industry: the challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, B.B.

    2009-01-01

    In the global power generation nuclear industry plays a vital role in this modern era which is wholly energy driven. While the demand for nuclear power generation has been growing worldwide, concerns about supply of critical nuclear equipment is one of the key areas which supports the growth of the nuclear industry. As the reemergence of nuclear industry in the global energy arena indicates a significant growth of nuclear power, forecasting the demand for various critical equipment components is critical to industry's growth together with the supply of enriched/processed uranium and related services. India is stepping in this industry in a big way and with Indo-US Nuclear deal, it is going to be a world player in its own right. The basic raw material for nuclear energy is the uranium which has the potential to be highly dangerous substance when not treated in the proper manner, remaining radioactive for hundreds and thousand of years. Uranium mining could permanently damage the environment for tens of thousand of years, if not properly mined and managed

  11. Russian Experience in the Regulatory Supervision of the Uranium Legacy Sites - 12441

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.F.; Romanov, V.V. [Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Seregin, V.A.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khokhlova, E.A. [Regional Management-107 under FMBA of Russia, Krasnokamensk (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Management of the uranium legacy is accompanied with environmental impact intensity of which depends on the amount of the waste generated, the extent of that waste localization and environmental spreading. The question is: how hazardous is such impact on the environment and human health? The criterion for safety assurance is adequate regulation of the uranium legacy. Since the establishment of the uranium industry, the well done regulatory system operates in the FMBA of Russia. Such system covers inter alia, the uranium legacy. This system includes the extent laboratory network of independent control and supervision, scientific researches, regulative practices. The current Russian normative and legal basis of the regulation and its application practice has a number of problems relating to the uranium legacy, connected firstly with the environmental remediation. To improve the regulatory system, the urgent tasks are: -To introduce the existing exposure situation into the national laws and standards in compliance with the ICRP system. - To develop criteria for site remediation and return, by stages, to uncontrolled uses. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary storage of SNF and RW. - To consider possibilities and methods of optimization for the remediation strategies under development. - To separate the special category - RW resulted from uranium ore mining and dressing. The current Russian RW classification is based on the waste subdivision in terms of the specific activities. Having in mind the new RW-specific law, we receive the opportunity to separate some special category - RW originated from the uranium mining and milling. Introduction of such category can simplify significantly the situation with management of waste of uranium mining and milling processes. Such approach is implemented in many countries and approved by IAEA. The category of 'RW originated

  12. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Section 170B of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended by Public Law 97-415, requires that the Secretary of Energy submit to Congress an annual assessment of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned the responsibility to develop the criteria for use in estimating the viability of the industry. These criteria include four major attributes of industry viability - resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. Having established these criteria, the Secretary of Energy is required to monitor the industry and make an annual assessment of its viability for 1983 through 1992. The first six assessments were issued in the years 1984 through 1989 based on information available for 1983 through 1988, respectively. The current report provides the data and analyses, based on the information available through the end of the calendar year 1989, supporting the seventh annual assessment of the uranium industry's viability. It presents information on the four major attributes. Data on past and present industry behavior, as well as projections of the future status of the industry (assuming current market conditions), were used to examine the industry's ability to respond, over a 10-year period, to two hypothetical supply disruption scenarios. 20 figs., 23 tabs

  13. The chemical industry of uranium in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1955-01-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  14. The regulatory process for uranium mines in Canada -general overview and radiation health and safety in uranium mine-mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    This presentation is divided into two main sections. In the first, the author explores the issues of radiation and tailings disposal, and then examines the Canadian nuclear regulatory process from the point of view of jurisdiction, objectives, philosophy and mechanics. The compliance inspection program is outlined, and the author discussed the relationships between the AECB and other regulatory agencies, the public and uranium mine-mill workers. The section concludes with an examination of the stance of the medical profession on nuclear issues. In part two, the radiological hazards for uranium miners are examined: radon daughters, gamma radiation, thoron daughters and uranium dust. The author touches on new regulations being drafted, the assessment of past exposures in mine atmospheres, and the regulatory approach at the surface exploration stage. The presentation concludes with the author's brief observations on the findings of other uranium mining inquiries and on future requirements in the industry's interests

  15. The crisis in the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballery, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    For over ten years, the uranium mining industry within the OECD and elsewhere has been undergoing its worst ever crisis. At a time when it seemed assured of a promising future, the economic recession of the 1980s took the wind out of its sails. This paper describes the factors causing the crisis, strikes the balance of production, demand and stocks and gives forecasts for the next years. 3 figs., 9 refs

  16. Industry Presentation to Regulatory Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treasure, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Mark Treasure from EDF NGL gave a presentation on industry perspectives on safety culture oversight. Mr. Treasure is the Nuclear Inspection and Oversight Manager within the Safety and Regulation Division. The presentation started with an explanation of the role of the nuclear inspection and oversight group (internal regulator), and their current approach to internal oversight of safety culture. A key element of the current internal regulatory oversight program is Management and Leadership Assessments. These are carried out by a team including management peers from other plants to enhance credibility. Findings can be linked to safety performance, and typically identify issues in areas such as accountability arrangements and strategic focus of the leadership team. Safety indicators have also been introduced to show trends in safety management and safety performance for each EDF UK nuclear power plant. A periodic nuclear safety culture survey is also carried out to identify focus areas and progress. The presentation included discussion on views of the role of the nuclear regulator. Important aspects were identified as: - Supporting the internal regulator by seeking to understand before taking enforcement action, maintaining an open dialogue and recognising that this area is complex and that there is rarely a 'silver bullet' solution. - Communication: being visible and actively discussing safety improvement, and use of language which emphasises nuclear safety rather than legal compliance. - Positive reinforcement to recognise efforts and encourage further improvement

  17. Treatment of effluents in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium processing technology in India has matured in the last 50 years and is able to meet the country's requirement. Right from mining of the ore to milling and refining, effluents are generated and are being processed for their safe disposal. While the available technology is able to meet the regulatory limits of the effluents, the same may not be enough to meet the increased demand of uranium in the future. The increased population, urbanization and climate change are not only going to decrease the supply of process water but will also place increased restrictions on disposal to environment. This demands technologies that will generate less effluent for disposal and enable reuse and recycle concept to the extent possible. Presently used conventional physical-chemical methods, to contain the contaminants would, therefore, require further refinements. Contaminants like sulfates, chlorides etc in the effluent of uranium mill based on acid leach process are the concerns for the future plants. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of suitable methods for maximum recycle of the process effluents, which will also enable in minimizing the consumption of process water. A suitable membrane based process can be an option leaving a concentrated brine for reuse or for further treatment and disposal

  18. Corporate citizenship and the Saskatchewan uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Saskatchewan has vast and rich uranium deposits which in 1994 contributed almost 30% to world uranium production. There are only two mining operators in the province which is subject to the overlapping jurisdictions of the provincial and federal governments. The sparse population consists of two distinct groups, a minority population of people of native ancestry in the north and people typical of most North American rural communities living in the south. Each has its own concerns and expectations with respect to the mining operations and nuclear power. The comprehensive community relations programme set up by the mining industry against this background is described. It includes trying to address concerns, offering training, employment and business opportunities, and supporting the social and cultural aspects of community life. (UK)

  19. Evolution of the uranium industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maget, P.; Vertes, P.

    1964-01-01

    The main feature in the development of the French uranium industry during the last few years is the completion of the programme, already started in 1958, for the equipment of mining units and treatment plants. It was thus possible by 1961, to reach a production capacity of about 2000 T of metal contained in concentrates, and about 1800 T of metal of nuclear purity. The prospecting and research carried on in France by the Commissariat and by private Industry have brought about not only a satisfactory renewal of the reserves under exploitation but also the development of two new uranium-producing regions: one of the usual type in France, in the crystalline formations to the South-East of the Massif Central, the other in the Permian sedimentary formations in the department of l'Herault. Uraniferous concentrates are produced in two forms: -on the one hand two chemical plants run by a combined Commissariat-private industry firm, the Societe Industrielle des Minerais de l'Ouest, produce magnesium uranates by a conventional process, in the Vendee and at la Crouzille; - on the other hand two Commissariat plants, one managed by the same Society in the Forez, the other run directly by the Commissariat at Gueugnon in the Grury mining district, at present inactive, produce uranyl nitrate: the former from ore extracted in the Forez region, the latter from magnesium uranate pre-concentrates imported from Gabon. Two Commissariat plants convert the concentrates into a product of nuclear purity: - one at le Bouchet, run by the C.E.A., which also deals with development studies, - the other at Malvesi, managed by a Commissariat-private industry combine, the Societe de Raffinage de l'Uranium. This latter has a production capacity about double that of le Bouchet and uses the same manufacturing processes. The bulk of the uranium metal is still produced by calcium reduction, but the le Bouchet plant is already equipped for magnesium reduction and is using this process. Uranium fluoride

  20. Legal and regulatory framework of Uranium's enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antelo, Josefina; Figueredo, Micaela S.; Mangone, Gisela P.; Manin, Maria L.; Pota, Luciana F.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop the legal aspects referred to the activities of uranium's enrichment, in order to achieve the pacific use of nuclear energy and to obey treatments, agreements and international conventions in which Argentine is party and through them assumes the non proliferation's commitment. In this context, we will develop the rights and obligations established in those legal instruments, as well as the juridical concerns of the eventual subscription of Argentine to the Additional Protocol approved by the Board of Governors in 1997. (author)

  1. Production capability of the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deVergie, P.C.; Anderson, J.R.; Miley, J.W.; Frederick, C.J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Demand for U 3 O 8 through the late 1990s could be met at the grades and costs represented by the $30 resources, although for the next 3 or 4 years, production will probably be from the lower cost portions of these resources if prices remain low. However, to meet currently projected uranium requirements beyond the year 2000, there will have to be a transition by the mid-1990s to higher cost and lower grade production in order to include supply from the additional increment of resources available between the $30 and $50 levels. Plans and financial commitments required to accomplish such a transition must be initiated y the mid-1980s, since lead times are increasing for exploration and for mill licensing and construction. Engineering planning and feasibility analyses would have to be carried out under a more advanced time frame than previously required. The importance of the potential resources can easily be seen. In meeting the high-case demand during the years 2005 through 2019 more than 50% of the production would be from resources assigned to the $50 probable potential resource category. By about the year 2006, there will have had to be considerable development of the possible, and perhaps, some of the speculative resources to assure continued production expansion; by 2020, more than 50% of the production would depend on the previous successes in finding and developing such resources. The continuation of the current trend in production curtailment and decreasing exploration will significantly lessen the domestic uranium industry's ability to respond quickly to the projected increases in uranium requirements. The industry's future will be unsettled until it preceives clear indications of demand and price incentives that will justify long-term capital investments

  2. The uranium industry: long-term planning for short-term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.; Georges Capus, G.

    2001-01-01

    Long term planning for short term competition Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. Firstly, the risk of investing in new mining projects in western countries is growing because, on the one hand, of very erratic market conditions and, on the other hand, of increasingly lengthy, complex and unpredictable regulatory conditions. Secondly, the supply of other sources of uranium (uranium derived from nuclear weapons, uranium produced in CIS countries, ...) involve other risks, mainly related to politics and commercial restrictions. Consequently, competitive uranium supply requires not only technical competence but also financial strength and good marketing capabilities in order to anticipate long-term market trends, in terms of both demand and supply. It also requires taking into account new parameters such as politics, environment, regulations, etc. Today, a supplier dedicated to the sustainable production of nuclear electricity must manage a broad range of long-term risks inherent to the procurement of uranium. Taking into account all these parameters in a context of short-term, fast-changing market is a great challenge for the future generation. World Uranium Civilian Supply and Demand. (authors)

  3. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  4. Spatial distribution of uranium in Subarnarekha river and its correlation with industrial activities in its coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Gupta, Anil; Patra, A.C.; Ravi, P.M.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Jha, V.N.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sethy, N.K.

    2018-01-01

    Subamarekha river is one of the major river flowing in the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha. It originates from the Piskanagri, in the outskirt of Ranchi city, Jharkhand and finally discharges to Bay of Bengal at Chandrabali, Balasore, Odisha. The river is a perennial one that has flowing water all over year. Uranium is present in groundwater and surface water naturally and the anthropogenic activities may enhance the levels. The treated liquid effluents are discharged in the river from many industries including uranium mining industry in the state of Jharkhand. The uranium mining industry in the Jaduguda region of Singhbhum east district of Jharkand process the liquid effluent for removal of natural radionuclides and chemicals and monitor to conform the regulatory limits before discharging to the local streams which finally discharges to Subamarekha river. The uranium mining activities in the region are for the last five decades and regularly the river water was analysed to check the levels of uranium and its series radionuclides. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyse the river water from its origin to estuary and compare the uranium level in upstream and downstream of the river with respect to uranium mining activities in Jaduguda region

  5. The US uranium and enrichment industries: their fall and rise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Strong government influence, monopolistic practices, free market forces and market orientation to customer needs are the conflicting forces which have shaped the evolution of the uranium and the uranium enrichment industries in the United States. These same factors are likely to continue to dictate to a large extent the future for each of these industries. Both the uranium and the uranium enrichment industries in the USA enjoyed the benefits and suffered the consequences of a monopolistic environment until the dynamics of a free market became prevalent in the 1980s. This resulted in the deterioration of both industries with respect to market share, sales and supply capacity needs. The history and environment of the two industries, the road to recovery for both, and the status and scope of legal and legislative initiatives to address the problems of each industry, are reviewed. (author)

  6. Projections on the future of the natural uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishido, Akio

    1995-01-01

    This discussion looks at the future of the uranium industry and considers what type of procurement policy should be adopted. Viewing the future as an extension of the present, it is possible that supplies of natural uranium will begin to run short around 2015. However, natural uranium will have more resources available than petroleum. If rising uranium prices reinvigorate exploration and lead to the discovery of new uranium deposits, future shortages will be unlikely. Nonetheless, with structural changes expected in the world economy, the nature of natural uranium transactions will no doubt change, thereby increasing the present element of uncertainty that much more. At the same time, the oligopolistic situation created by today's major producers will intensify. Based on these projections, the author has reassessed Japan's past procurement policy of government exploration/development support combined with private-sector uranium purchasing and finds this shared risk approach to be the best. (author)

  7. Uranium industry in the CSFR - Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubant, J.; Bezdek, Z.; Marek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Czechoslovak uranium industry is at present going through principal reorganization and reconstruction. The supplies to the USSR have finished and the principal partners to the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry (CSUP) have become the Czechoslovak utilities. CSUP is gradually decreasing the output of mined uranium by closing the old mines with the aim to enhance the effectiveness of its activity. It is entering the uranium world market and there is an interest under acceptable conditions to increase the purchase of Czechoslovak uranium aboard to some extent, in the first place on the basis of the long-term contracts. On the other side together with the purchase of Czechoslovak uranium on the world market also the area of Czechoslovak nuclear energy opens to the world including the nuclear fuel cycle

  8. 76 FR 20759 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., 2011, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange.... For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008...

  9. 76 FR 40412 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... a more limited application by their terms. For more information about the rulebook consolidation...

  10. 75 FR 60157 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook...

  11. 75 FR 71164 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate..., 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange.... For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008...

  12. 76 FR 12380 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1..., the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook...

  13. 76 FR 66344 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change... 31, 2011, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a National Association of... consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook Consolidation Process). For convenience...

  14. 75 FR 17456 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... terms. For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12...

  15. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The development, prospecting, research, processing and marketing of South Africa's uranium industry and the national policies surrounding this industry form the headlines of this work. The geology of South Africa's uranium occurences and their positions, the processes used in the extraction of South Africa's uranium and the utilisation of uranium for power production as represented by the Koeberg nuclear power station near Cape Town are included in this publication

  16. Bibliography on Saskatchewan uranium inquiries and the northern and global impact of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, J.; Forgay, B.; Gianoli, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years Saskatchewan, Canada has become the major site for the expansion of the world-wide uranium industry. Largely due to the higher concentration of ore in the province and reduced exploitation elsewhere, by 1984 Canada had become the world's leading non-communist producer of uranium. This expansion has remained one of the most controversial political and ecological issues in Saskatchewan for nearly a decade. What follows is a comprehensive bibliography on the Saskatchewan uranium mining inquiries that paralleled the growth of this industry in the province and on the northern and global impact of the uranium industry. It is the culmination of more than three years of research including in-depth content analysis of transcripts of uranium mining inquiries held in Saskatchewan between 1977-1980

  17. The economic future of the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In the past decade, the US uranium industry has been reduced from the position of world leader to that of an ordinary supplier. This reduction can be measured in a number of ways: reduced production; reduced exploration activity; and reduced employment. Are there prospects for any increases in the US uranium industry? If so, what, when, and to what degree? This paper addresses some of those questions

  18. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.

    1981-03-01

    The geological setting of uranium resources in the world can be divided in two basic categories of resources and are defined as reasonably assured resources, estimated additional resources and speculative resources. Tables are given to illustrate these definitions. The increasing world production of uranium despite the cutback in the nuclear industry and the uranium requirements of the future concluded these lecture notes

  19. South African uranium industry plans for expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, H.E.; Boydell, D.W.; Simonsen, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    Resources and production of uranium in South Africa are discussed. The cost of mining and extraction from gold ores is considered. An outline is presented of the extraction and recovery of uranium and of new developments in sorting, milling, and preconcentration. (U.K.)

  20. 76 FR 21932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... statement therein, as follows: I. Introduction On February 4, 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a... Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') to amend Rule 13806 of the Code of Arbitration...

  1. Occupational dermatoses in the uranium mining and processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevcova, M [Zavodni Ustav Narodniho Zdravi Uranoveho Prumyslu, Pribram (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-04-01

    Experience gained so far by the Department of Dermatovenerology in the uranium industry discloses that the incidence of occupational dermatoses is relatively low in this industry. It represents about 1% of all newly ascertained skin diseases per year. Allergic contact eczemas after having been in contact with rubber products, chiefly rubber boots, predominate. Under the working conditions in mining and preparing uranium ore, ionizing radiation cannot induce non-stochastic effects of the type of radiation dermatitis on the skin. A higher incidence was, however, ascertained in uranium miners of basaliomas, which agrees with the estimation of the dose of external alpha radiation in the basal epidermis layer.

  2. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the contribution made by various energy sources in the production of electricity. Estimates are made of the future nuclear contribution, the future demand for uranium and future sales of Australian uranium. Nuclear power growth in the United States, Japan and Western Europe is discussed. The present status of the six major Australian uranium deposits (Ranger, Jabiluka, Nabarlek, Koongarra, Yeelerrie and Beverley) is given. Australian legislation relevant to the uranium mining industry is also outlined

  3. Australia's uranium industry: where does it go from here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradfield, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The uranium industry in Australia is now reaching a first phase of maturity. Politically, the incumbent Australian Labor Party (ALP) Government's 'three-mine' policy remains, a policy that has allowed sequential development of uranium orebodies without disturbing the basic nexus between supply and demand. Over the last 18 months the Government has shown signs of more flexibility. It is becoming aware of the industry's requirements and this has been reflected in the implementation of its policies. In general, economic trends have forced the Government to maximize the development of Australian industry. The present state of the industry and possible future trends are reviewed. (author)

  4. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's economic, demonstrated resources of uranium (U) at the end of 1996 amounted to 622,000 tonnes U, the largest of any country. Uranium is currently produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. Improved market conditions and recent changes to Government policies have encouraged Australian companies to commit to the expansion of existing operations and the development of new uranium mines. Australia's annual production is likely to increase from its present level of 6000 tonncs (t) U 3 O 8 to approximately 12 000 t U 3 O 8 by the year 2000. (author)

  5. Instrumentation for the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Brief descriptions are presented concerning instruments used in uranium mining, including R meter, radon daughter working level counter, radon gas detectors, alpha contamination monitors, air samplers, ore grade evaluators and gamma energy analyzers

  6. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the Canadian uranium industry during 1980 are reviewed. Mine and mill expansions and exploration activity are described, as well as changes in governmental policy. Although demand for uranium is weak at the moment, the industry feels optimistic about the future. (LL)

  7. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poty, B.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Virlogeux, D.; Capus, G.

    2010-01-01

    With the worldwide revival of nuclear energy comes the question of uranium reserves. For more than 20 years, nuclear energy has been neglected and uranium prospecting has been practically abandoned. Therefore, present day production covers only 70% of needs and stocks are decreasing. Production is to double by 2030 which represents a huge industrial challenge. The FBR-type reactors technology, which allows to consume the whole uranium content of the fuel, is developing in several countries and will ensure the long-term development of nuclear fission. However, the implementation of these reactors (the generation 4) will be progressive during the second half of the 21. century. For this reason an active search for uranium ores will be necessary during the whole 21. century to ensure the fueling of light water reactors which are huge uranium consumers. This dossier covers all the aspects of natural uranium production: mineralogy, geochemistry, types of deposits, world distribution of deposits with a particular attention given to French deposits, the exploitation of which is abandoned today. Finally, exploitation, ore processing and the economical aspects are presented. Contents: 1 - the uranium element and its minerals: from uranium discovery to its industrial utilization, the main uranium minerals (minerals with tetravalent uranium, minerals with hexavalent uranium); 2 - uranium in the Earth's crust and its geochemical properties: distribution (in sedimentary rocks, in magmatic rocks, in metamorphic rocks, in soils and vegetation), geochemistry (uranium solubility and valence in magmas, uranium speciation in aqueous solution, solubility of the main uranium minerals in aqueous solution, uranium mobilization and precipitation); 3 - geology of the main types of uranium deposits: economical criteria for a deposit, structural diversity of deposits, classification, world distribution of deposits, distribution of deposits with time, superficial deposits, uranium

  8. The Australian uranium industry in the post-Fukushima environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angwin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Evolving events and trends overseas are shaping the immediate and longer term direction of the Australian uranium industry. As an entirely export-oriented sector, the broad economic and commercial conditions to which the industry responds are set outside our country. Governments in Australia set policy and implement regulations which determine how easily, or otherwise, uranium companies here can respond to overseas drivers of demand for their product. Since mid - March the unfolding events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have been preoccupying many of those who run and observe the uranium industry. This article discusses whether the emergency at Fukushima has stopped the expansion of the nuclear energy industry and will it send the sector into decline, as a number of anti-nuclear activists are hoping?

  9. 75 FR 21686 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... to pay arbitration awards to remain in the securities industry presents regulatory risks and is...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or...

  10. Innovative industry alignment at RMIT to develop skills for uranium industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' RMIT University has recently introduced new teaching and research training programs on uranium processing technology at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. These programs have been implemented to improve young scientists and engineers' awareness of Australia's uranium processing industry, and to help provide future employees with improved background knowledge to the industry. The teaching program involves joint course development and lectures delivered by the leading scientists from ANSTO (Dr Suzanne Burling and Dr Chris Griffith) and Rio Tinto (Dr Stephen Grocott). This lecture series, which is offered to final year applied science and chemical engineering students, covers a range of topics and issues related to uranium processing including uranium mining, methods for chracterising uranium ores, extraction of uranium, the nuclear fuel cycle, waste and safety. The research training program involves honours and PhD students undertaking research projects on uranium mineralogy and uranium extraction. Research students are also provided with extensive training on how to conduct research safely using radioactive materials. The research programs are undertaken in RMIT's new EPA approved, low level radiation laboratory which has been dedicated to research projects on uranium processing. An extended overview of both of these new programs will be presented. This program is unique in Australia and is designed to address the issue of skill shortage in the ever growing Uranium industry world wide. International collaborators in this program will be most welcomed. (author)

  11. Kazakhstan uranium industry: towards the XXI century with clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhakishev, M.E.; Yazikov, V.G.; Dujsebaev, B.O.; Zabaznov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    Kazakhstan is a leading country of the world by uranium resources, and in the it Earth's interior 19 % of world proved resources are concentrated. At present the National Atomic Company (NAC) Kazatomprom is responsible for uranium mining and production of natural uranium and its compounds in the Republic. The company activity covers the exploring, mining and export of natural uranium; production of slightly enriched uranium compounds and fuel pellets production for nuclear reactors. In the company there are three Uranium Ore Mining Departments in the South Kazakhstan, VolgovGeology Geological Exploration Enterprise and Ulba Metallurgical Plant. Mining is carrying out by technologically progressive ecologically clean technology of in-situ well leaching. The key importance the company pays to environment protection activities. NAC Kazatomprom sees perspectives of Kazakhstan uranium industry in formation of general all-sufficient technological cycle from uranium mining to fuel supply on the nuclear plants. The missing links - enrichment by U-235 isotope and fuel assemblies production - should be replaces by formation of steady partnership cooperation with foreign enterprises

  12. Pollution control -- Recovery of uranium from phosphatic fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, R.N.; Pachaiyappan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Various uranium recovery processes, viz. Brazilian process (HCL leaching), selective extraction of U, Japanese process, ORNL process and the Indian methods, recently developed, pertaining to the fertilizer industry are reviewed and their relative merits are discussed. Special attention has been paid to the recovery of uranium from the Indian and imported phosphatic rocks, showing the advantages, both from the pollution control and nuclear energy aspects. (K.B.)

  13. Radiation safety needs for the resurgent uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full text: After many years in the economic doldrums the world's uranium industry is undergoing a renaissance. The recent rapid price increase for the product and the anticipated market shortfalls in supply of yellowcake have are responsible for this. There is now a rush of new activity: abandoned mines from a previous era are being re-examined for their potential to be re-opened; planning for exploitation of known but undeveloped uranium deposits is proceeding at a rapid pace in many countries new to uranium mining; and finally worldwide exploration activity for uranium is expanding at a great rate with more than 400 companies now claiming to be involved in the uranium mining market. All of there activities have significant implications the radiation protection profession. At every stage of the uranium production cycle, from exploration to mining and processing through to remediation there are requirements for proper radiation protection procedures and regulation. The long period of reduced activity in uranium mining has meant that few young people have been joining the industry over the past 20 years. There is now a shortage of trained and experienced radiation protection professionals associated with the mining industry that cannot be overcome overnight. The paper discusses the development of this situation and the various strategies that are being put in place around the world to improve the situation. In particular the International Atomic Energy Agency has been working with radiation protection authorities and uranium mining industry representatives from around the world to address the issue. The latest developments in this project will be described and the future plans described. (author)

  14. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U 3 O 8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U 3 O 8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U 3 O 8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U 3 O 8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U 3 O 8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U 3 O 8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U 3 O 8

  15. 75 FR 41254 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... registered capacity, may work in other investment-related industries, such as financial planning, or may seek...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule..., 2010, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and...

  16. Uranium enrichment: a vital new industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    The energy problem facing the nation and the need for nuclear power are pointed out. Uranium enrichment and the demand for it are discussed. Reasons for, and obstacles to, private enrichment are outlined. The President's plan (including the Nuclear Fuel Assurance Act) is summarized

  17. Australia's uranium and the international nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1983-11-01

    A disposal strategy for high-level radioactive waste is presented. The waste is incorporated in SYNROC which is then buried in deep drill holes in a stable geological environment. It is suggested that acceptance of the safety of this strategy would remove a primary objection to the mining of Australian uranium. Further Australian involvement in the fuel cycle is advocated

  18. Enriched uranium sales: effect on supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (combined effect of low-enriched uranium (LEU) inventory sales and utility services enrichment contract terms); enrichment market overview; enrichment market dynamics; the reaction of the US Department of Energy; elimination of artificial demand; draw down of inventories; purchase and sale of LEU inventories; tails assay option; unfulfilled requirements for U 3 O 8 ; conclusions. (U.K.)

  19. Effect of a adjustment and integration of worldwide uranium industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The industries that verified faithfully the relation of price drop to market integration as uranium industry did in the past 10 years are few. For example, the number of production enterprises in USA decreased from 16 in 1988 to only 6 in 1993. The spot price of natural uranium fell from 17 dollars to 7 dollars per lb in the same period. The yearly production in USA lowered from 5384 tU to 1154 tU. As years passed, the state that small number of the production enterprises took more proportion became conspicuous. It is doubtless that the supply from the former USSR disturbed the market, but it did not exert the effect to slow down the adjustment and integration of the market. It became clear that only 3 enterprises of the former USSR can survive as the suppliers of uranium in future. The adjustment and integration were carried out through the contracts of share acquisition, merger, selling and others. The installed production capacity in the world is 67,305 tU, but the production in 1993 was 32,114 tU, 48%. The capacity of low cost production facilities, the amount of uranium resources being estimated at 3.077 million tU, and the power of controlling uranium industries of respective major enterprises are discussed. (K.I.)

  20. Hazard visibility and occupational health problem solving the case of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence from European research challenges the adequacy of current US exposure guidelines for underground mine radiation. This study traces the history of government regulatory agency and industry response to the hazard of excessive mine radiation in the uranium industry in Colorado some 30 years ago. Problem-solving activity by government agencies and companies is shown to coincide with how visible the health hazard to uranium miners becomes. Hazard visibility and key problem-solving variables are defined and measured. The article also discusses a number of social factors that affect societal response to evidence of an occupational health hazard. Those factors include the elusiveness of the disease and its symptoms, the social class of the victim, the level of medical and scientific interest in its cause and cure, and the economic costs of the disease

  1. The uranium enrichment industry and the SILEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsworthy, M.

    1999-01-01

    Silex Systems Limited has been developing a new laser isotope separation process since 1992. The principle application of the SILEX Technology is Uranium Enrichment, the key step in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants. The Uranium Enrichment industry, today worth ∼ US$3.5 Billion p.a., is dominated by four major players, the largest being USEC with almost 40% of the market. In 1996, an agreement was signed between Silex and USEC to develop SILEX Technology for potential application to Uranium Enrichment. The SILEX process is a low cost, energy efficient scheme which may provide significant commercial advantage over current technology and competing laser processes. Silex is also investigating possible application to the enrichment of Silicon, Carbon and other materials. Significant markets may develop for such materials, particularly in the semiconductor industry

  2. Application of some advanced technologies in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenshi

    2004-01-01

    This presentation sets forth a brief survey of some current technologies (including exploration, mining, processing, tailings disposal, uranium mine reclamation, health and safety, etc.) in the uranium industry, relates that technology to economic, environmental and social concerns, and attempts to provide a projection of current trends into the future. Advances in technology are very important to the uranium industry because they provide various means to maintain future resource base through the discovery of new deposits; exploitation of lower-grade resources; and application of new technology to the known, but undeveloped resources. The application of advanced technology results in a continuing reduction in production costs; greatly increases in productivity; decreases or eliminates the adverse impacts on environment; as well as increases safety and well-being for employees. Thus, the sustainable development has been obtained in such aspects as resource base, economic exploitation, environmental protection and the ability to meet social obligations. (author)

  3. Uranium enrichment. Industrial and commercial aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorlette, G.

    1983-01-01

    The uranium enrichment, a key stage in the fuel cycle of light-water nuclear power stations, applies sophisticated and protected techniques in installations on a very large scale. This article shows how there was a sudden change from a monopoly position in production to a severe competition in a market which is depressed today but offers good prospects for the future. It indicates how the enrichment industrialist have adapted themselves to the fluctuations of the demand, while safeguarding the reliability of the rendered service and the necessary security of supplies for the proper development of the nuclear electric power [fr

  4. 75 FR 59771 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving the Proposed Rule.... I. Introduction On July 27, 2010, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k... pertinent distribution-related information from its members in a timely fashion to facilitate its Regulation...

  5. 77 FR 7218 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on January 30, 2012, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.... For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008...

  6. 75 FR 2897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... hereby given that on December 23, 2009, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a... consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook Consolidation Process). NASD Rule 2450...

  7. 76 FR 60106 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate... 14, 2011, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a National Association of.... For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008...

  8. 75 FR 27606 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on April 27, 2010, the Financial Industry... restated following the formation of FINRA through the consolidation of NASD and the member regulatory...

  9. 75 FR 5157 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change... Consolidated FINRA Rulebook January 25, 2010. On December 2, 2009, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority... later in the rulebook consolidation process. It is therefore ordered, pursuant to Section 19(b)(2) of...

  10. 77 FR 47470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2231 (Customer Account Statements) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook August 2, 2012. On April 22, 2009, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a...

  11. 76 FR 21084 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Securities April 8, 2011. I. Introduction On March 3, 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-64283; File No. SR-FINRA-2011-012] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer...

  12. 78 FR 62784 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer... 5210 (Publication of Transactions and Quotations) October 4, 2013. I. Introduction On August 15, 2013, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  13. 76 FR 50796 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Increase the Position Limit for Options on the Standard and Poor's... Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  14. Radiological impacts of uranium recovery in the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This article characterizes the occupational and public radiological health impacts associated with phosphate mining and milling. These impacts are related to the phosphate industry's uranium production potential and are compared with those associated with conventional uranium mining and milling. The radiological impacts resulting from occupational and nonoccupational exposures are assessed. Occupational exposures in phosphate facilities are compared to background exposures and radiological population dose assessments, which characterize important radionuclides and exposure pathways. The following conclusions were reached: (1) public consequences of phosphate mining will occur whether or not uranium is recovered as a by-product, (2) radiological consequences of phosphate mining may be comparable to those associated with uranium mining and milling per unit uranium production, (3) radiological impacts via surface waterways and crops fertilized with uranium-bearing phosphates are of minor consequence, and (4) major radiological public health problems associated with phosphate mining are related to radon and radon progeny exposures in structures built on reclaimed lands or with phosphate mining residues, although the magnitudes of these impacts are difficult to evaluate with current data

  15. 75 FR 62153 - Notice of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuance of Materials License SUA-1596 for Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Commission Issuance of Materials License SUA-1596 for Uranium One Americas, Inc. Moore Ranch In Situ Recovery.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a license to Uranium One Americas, Inc. (Uranium One) for its Moore Ranch uranium in situ recovery (ISR) facility in Campbell County...

  16. Investment in exploration by the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, W.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines investment in domestic uranium exploration by US companies. In addition to examining the influence of typically considered variables such as expected price of output, expected cost of production, cost of capital, and reserve holdings, the analysis also considers the influence of selected attributes of the corporations involved, including cash flow, exploration expertise, and corporate investment strategy. This latter class of variables (i.e., corporate variables) has never been considered in the analysis of the determination of industry investment behavior. The sample includes observations of 25 firms' behavior over a period of 7 years, 1973 through 1979. In addition to supporting the energy Information Administration's more comprehensive uranium market modelling efforts, an interesting question this study addresses is the role of major oil companies in the uranium exploration field. The results suggest that expected profit and level of reserve holdings significantly affect exploration effort. It is also found that firms with greater cash flow and depth of in-house exploration expertise will explore more than firms with less. On the other hand, the results do not suggest that firms' diversification strategies differentiate their exploration in the short run. For instance, in the uranium industry, mineral firms do not behave differently from energy (e.g., oil) firms, once the other determinants of investment in exploration are considered. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that corporate variables should be considered in models of uranium exploration. Their consideration will enhance the ability to model exploration behavior accurately. 10 tables

  17. 78 FR 54502 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule... Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or ``Commission... or manipulative motivation for the trading activity at issue.\\4\\ Specifically, proposed Supplementary...

  18. Educational requirements in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Education of inspection and operating personnel is essential to protection from radiation hazards in the mining industry. For over 10 years, MSHA has presented the only formal course on radiation measurements and control available to the mining community. Course objectives and content are described in this paper

  19. The regulatory role of the Hungarian Geological Survey in the closure of Mecsek uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamor, T.; Gombor, L.

    2001-01-01

    Under Mining Act XLIII established in 1993, the Hungarian Geological Survey was given a wide range of authority related to the environment, mining, nuclear and general constructions. In implementing these task the Survey will be supported by the well established Geological Institute of Hungary and the Eoetvoes Lorand Geophysical Institute. The Survey's role in the nuclear field includes the licensing of plans and reports on geologically related research to any nuclear facilities. The Hungarian Geological Survey is also co-authority on matters related to the establishment, construction, modification and closure, environmental protection of nuclear facilities in general and all matter related to uranium mining. The Survey's regulatory activity in radioactive waste management follows the Decree of the Minister of Industry and Tourism 62/1997 which is based on the Atomic Energy Act CXVI of 1966. These regulations were prepared in harmony with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency conventions, standards and guides and those of other countries. Case histories on the applications of these regulations to the closure of Mecsek uranium mine and the operation of the research laboratory tunnel for long-lived, high level radioactive waste are presented here. (author)

  20. The chemical industry of uranium in France; L'industrie chimique de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  1. The US uranium industry's operations and financial performance during 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the operating and financial statistics collected from the U.S. uranium industry by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Uranium concentrate production probably is the most important indicator of overall activity in the domestic raw materials industry. Production in 1988 of 13.1 million pounds U 3 O 8 was only slightly higher than 1987 production, however it was about 70 percent less than the peak production level of 43.7 million pounds recorded in 1980. Production in 1988 from conventional milling was 7.0 million pounds, a decrease of 18 percent from the 8.5 million pounds produced in 1987. Production from nonconventional facilities in 1988 was 6.1 million pounds U 3 O 8 , and increase of 37 percent above the level for 1987. This is the highest level for production from nonconventional facilities since 1981

  2. 75 FR 53998 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... characteristics and risks of security futures. \\6\\ 15 U.S.C. 78o-3(b)(6). B. Self-Regulatory Organization's...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Security Futures Risk Disclosure Statement August 27, 2010...

  3. State of competition and petroleum firm participation in the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrieri, U.; Hogarty, T.

    1980-01-01

    This report analyzes the state of competition in the US uranium industry and the effects of petroleum firm participation on that competition. The analysis is based primarily on data derived from a 1979 API survey of uranium producers. Pior work on the subject was performed by API, the Federal Trade Commission, the Department of Justice, and National Economic Research Associates. The uranium industry principally serves electric utilities. The three phases of this industry studied in this report are exploration, ore mining, and uranium concentrate production. The major findings with respect to the state of competition in the uranium industry are discussed

  4. New technology of bio-heap leaching uranium ore and its industrial application in Ganzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Baotuan; Meng Yunsheng; Liu Jian; Meng Jin; Li Weicai; Xiao Jinfeng; Chen Sencai; Du Yuhai; Huang Bin

    2006-10-01

    Bioleaching mechanism of uranium ore is discussed. Incubation and selection of new strain, biomembrane oxidizing tank--a kind of new equipment for bacteria culture and oxidation regeneration of leaching agent are also introduced. The results of industrial experiment and industrial production are summarized. Compared with conventional heap leaching, bioleaching period and acid amount are reduced, oxidant and leaching agent are saved, and uranium concentration in leaching solution is increased. It is the first time to realize industrial production by bio-heap leaching in Chinese uranium mine. New equipment-biomembrane oxidizing tank give the basis of bio-heap leaching industrial application. Bio-heap leaching process is an effective technique to reform technique of uranium mine and extract massive low-content uranium ore in China. (authors)

  5. 75 FR 80556 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on December 13, 2010, Financial Industry... application by their terms. For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information...

  6. Ionic flotation of uranium contained in industrial phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jdid; Blazy; Bessiere

    1983-01-01

    A new process for uranium recovery from industrial phosphoric acid at 30% of P 2 O 5 is applied by the ionic flotation process. Research is carried out on determination of the nature of ionic species of U in H 3 PO 4 5.5 M and the behavior of reagents from CECA Co. in very acid media. Reagents able to form complexes directly with uranium and stable in phosphoric acid selected are: potassium ethylene diamine tetra (methylene phosphonate) (INIPOL AD32) and sodium dialkyldiphosphonate (34S). Uranium IV, obtained by reduction of uranium VI with iron powder, is precipitated by these reagents. Flotation of the precipitate obtained with INIPOL AD 32 is realized by addition of hexylamino bis (methylene phosphonic acid). A recovery of 80 wt% is obtained. Flotation of the coprecipitate 34S-U(IV) is obtained without any other additions because 34S is a surfactant. Metal recovery is better than 90% and the coprecipitate contains more than 10% U. The process is fast precipitation 10 minutes and flotation 5 minutes and is efficient even at 60 0 C [fr

  7. About possibility of uranium industry wastes reprocessing in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Barotov, B.B.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Barotov, A.M; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main basic fields of economy in Tajikistan is mining industry. Its development in the past lead to accumulation of huge amount of wastes basically from uranium reprocessing enterprises, containing radionuclides in anthropogenic highly concentrations (basically uranium-thorium chain) and other harmful substances. They are located in zones very close to residential as well as in upper course of water inflow of such main rivers of the region as Amudarya and Syrdarya. Sulphates, heavy metals, cyanides and others (basically with water flow) released to the environment besides uranium reprocessing wastes and other mining enterprises. This makes it necessary to restore in the region the complex coordinated monitoring programs with the purpose of their actual assessment and potential impact on environment as well as priority justification of possible remediation measures. One of the important are balance assessment and trans-boundary radionuclide re-deposition of uranium-thorium chain and other toxic elements in Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers with the purpose of regional formation character revealing of radiation and other ecological risks for saving the normal vital activity in the region.

  8. Firm heterogeneity, investment, and industry expansion: a theoretical framework and the case of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of this investment analysis is its consideration of firm-specific variables. The theoretical section proposes that firm investment and, in turn, industry expansion are determined by firm-specific corporate variables in addition to the typically considered variables characterizing the firm's experience and expected conditions in a given market, such as rate of growth of demand, price, cost of capital, degree of utilization of capacity, etc. The framework is applied to the uranium mining and milling industry. Descriptive analysis is used to trace the history of the uranium industry in aggregate terms and also as an evolving roster of participating firms with different attributes. The market structure of the industry is also examined. The corporate variables framework is tested statistically in a single-equation, fixed-effects model of uranium exploration behavior, estimated on pooled cross section and time-series data. The postulated corporate variables, except internal firm structure, are combined with market variables in a model which attempts to explain the exploration behavior of 24 firms in the uranium industry from 1973 through 1979. The results indicate that cash flow and exploration expertise influence firms' level of exploration effort. However, differences among firms' intermarket investment strategies do not differentiate the magnitude of their exploration programs

  9. Occupational control of the uranium mine industrial facility in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, C.A.; Figueiredo, N.; Py, J.; Azevedo, D. de; Torrico, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This Occupational Radiation Protection Plan is applied to uranium ore mining and milling, for uranium concentrate production in form of ammonium diuranate (DUA), in 'Complexo Minero-industrial do Planalto de Pocos de Caldas' - CIPC, in 'Caldas', sited in the southwest of Minas Gerais State. The aims of this program are: to estimate the exposure doses of workers by applying dose calculation models; to control the workplace conditions based on monitoring results, variation studies, and to minimize the radiological risks, with available radiation protection resources optimization. The utilized techniques are: talks, area and individual monitoring, individual protection clothes and equipment, use and application of proper conducts in the workplace, according to the radiation protection norms. (authors)

  10. The Atomic Energy Control Board and the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.M.

    The Atomic Energy Control Board controls prescribed substances and nuclear facilities through a licensing system. It is only recently that this system has been applied to the uranium industry. There are four stages in the licensing procedure before a Mine-Mill Facility Operating Licence is issued: exploration requires an underground exploration permit; site approval is needed before the start of the development stage; development approval is required before the construction of the mill and waste management facilities and depends on the information in a preliminary safety report; the granting of a final operating licence occurs after the Board is satisfied with the final safety report, operating policies and principles, tailings management, and decommissioning plans. The Board has resource management policies designed to ensure that uranium reserves are available to meet Canada's needs. The administration of safeguards is also the Board's responsibility. (LL)

  11. Decommissioning of uranium mines and mills - Canadian regulatory approach and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, W.

    1986-09-01

    At the time of the recent closures of the Agnew Lake, Beaverlodge and Madawaska Mines Limited uranium mining and milling facilities, several relevant regulatory initiatives, including the development of decommissioning criteria, were underway, or contemplated. In the absence of precedents, the regulatory agencies and companies involved adopted approaches to the decommissioning of these facilities that reflected site specific circumstances, federal and provincial regulatory requirements, and generally accepted principles of good engineering practice and environmental protection. This paper summarizes related historical and current regulatory policies, requirements and guidelines; including those implemented at the three decommissioned sites

  12. Humeca Uranium Mill. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The Humeca Uranium Mill is a carbonate-leach uranium ore refining plant with a capacity of about 500 tons of ore per day. Although the present licensing action does not extend to mining, the statement considers the environmental impact of the combined mining and milling project to be conducted by Rio Algom Corporation. The environmental impact, including adverse and beneficial environmental effects of the Rio Algom Uranium Mill, is as follows. (1) Temporary (about 10 years) reassignment of use of about 120 acres of land out of the total 2,573 acres controlled by Rio Algom Corporation. (2) The removal of an estimated 8.4 million pounds of uranium concentrates as a natural resource. This material will eventually be used to produce approximately 6.09 x 10 6 megawatt-days of electricity. (3) Removal and diversion of approximately 100 gallons per minute of local groundwater. (4) Stimulation of the local economy through payment of taxes and direct employment of about 200 persons in San Juan County over the next 10 years. Rio Algom estimates they will pay out over $11 million in salaries over this period of time. (5) The creation of stabilized tailings piles covering about 45 acres involving approximately 1,850,000 tons of solids containing solidified waste chemical and radioactive uranium and its daughter products. (6) Discharge of small quantities of chemicals and radioactive materials (that are not expected to produce discernible effects) into the local environs

  13. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelman, J.W.; Chenoweth, W.L.; Ingerson, E.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium production industry is well into its third recession during the nuclear era (since 1945). Exploration is drastically curtailed, and many staffs are being reduced. Historical market price production trends are discussed. A total of 3.07 million acres of land was acquired for exploration; drastic decrease. Surface drilling footage was reduced sharply; an estimated 250 drill rigs were used by the uranium industry during 1980. Land acquisition costs increased 8%. The domestic reserve changes are detailed by cause: exploration, re-evaluation, or production. Two significant discoveries of deposits were made in Mohave County, Arizona. Uranium production during 1980 was 21,850 short tons U 3 O 8 ; an increase of 17% from 1979. Domestic and foreign exploration highlights were given. Major producing areas for the US are San Juan basin, Wyoming basins, Texas coastal plain, Paradox basin, northeastern Washington, Henry Mountains, Utah, central Colorado, and the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon. 3 figures, 8 tables

  14. TVA on competition in the coal and uranium industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Guerrieri, U.A.

    1979-01-01

    A critique of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) review of competition in the two industries reviews several versions and updates of the report and compares them with the Wilson report. The authors find inconsistencies and errors in TVA's arguments and evidence. They argue that the reports do not demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between oil company entry into coal and uranium markets and rising prices and concentration. Instead the reports merely assert such a relationship, then use their assertion as the sole basis for policy recommendations. 1 figure, 6 tables

  15. 77 FR 23770 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...: The financial markets as a whole should benefit from [limit order display] because the price discovery... revised tier sizes and corresponding liquidity minimum amounts are in the best interest of the market for...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1...

  16. 78 FR 68893 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... that the size of the BBO equals the minimum quote size. Number of market makers actively quoting...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Extend the Tier Size Pilot of FINRA Rule 6433 (Minimum Quotation Size...

  17. 78 FR 69732 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend FINRA Rule 8312 (FINRA BrokerCheck Disclosure) To Include Information About Members and Their Associated Persons of Any Registered National Securities Exchange That Uses the CRD System for...

  18. 76 FR 67236 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... a foreign financial institution, and as part of the corporate control transaction, the foreign... subsidiaries, both of which are U.S. non-broker-dealer financial institutions, and as part of the corporate...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  19. 75 FR 29793 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate... (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 4, 2010, Financial.... For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008...

  20. 75 FR 43588 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule... FINRA Rule 4320 in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook July 20, 2010. On May 21, 2010, the Financial... application by their terms. For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information...

  1. 77 FR 38694 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... matrix will be an effective means of assessing related fees. For instance, the proposed fee structure...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Organization's Statement of the Terms of the Substance of the Proposed Rule Change FINRA is proposing to amend...

  2. 76 FR 63969 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 1 to Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2231 (Customer Account Statements) in the Consolidated... Account Statements) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook (``Notice''). The Notice contained incorrect...

  3. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U 3 O 8 production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U 3 O 8 production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U 3 O 8 respectively. U 3 O 8 production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future 222 Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that 222 Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total 222 Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total 222 Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate

  4. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  5. A guide to ventilation requirements for uranium mines and mills. Regulatory guide G-221

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of G-221 is to help persons address the requirements for the submission of ventilation-related information when applying for a Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) licence to site and construct, operate or decommission a uranium mine or mill. This guide is also intended to help applicants for a uranium mine or mill licence understand their operational and maintenance obligations with respect to ventilation systems, and to help CNSC staff evaluate the adequacy of applications for uranium mine and mill licences. This guide is relevant to any application for a CNSC licence to prepare a site for and construct, operate or decommission a uranium mine or mill. In addition to summarizing the ventilation-related obligations or uranium mine and mill licensee, the guide describes and discusses the ventilation-related information that licence applicants should typically submit to meet regulatory requirements. The guide pertains to any ventilation of uranium mines and mills for the purpose of assuring the radiation safety of workers and on-site personnel. This ventilation may be associated with any underground or surface area or premise that is licensable by the CNSC as part of a uranium mine or mill. These areas and premises typically include mine workings, mill buildings, and other areas or premises involving or potentially affected by radiation or radioactive materials. Some examples of the latter include offices, effluent treatment plants, cafeterias, lunch rooms and personnel change-rooms. (author)

  6. Regulatory trends in the battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of regulations in the battery industry is extensive and also complex. In the future, regulations will become more demanding and will encompass issues not currently considered. Increased focus on environmental issues by government bodies, environmental groups, local communities will result in more strict compliance standards. The USA is currently leading the world's battery industries in the scope and compliance level of regulations. By studying trends in the USA, the rest of the battery industry can prepare itself for the future operating environment. This paper reviews the most critical areas of air pollution, blood-lead levels and recycling. The paper concludes that the battery industry must adopt a culture of exceeding current compliance standards. (orig.)

  7. Control of radioactive sources in industry through regulatory inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leocadio, J.C.; Ramalho, A.T.; Pinho, A.S.; Lourenco, M.M.J.; Nicola, M.S.; D'Avila, R.L.; Melo, I.F.; Cucco, A.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, the applications of ionizing radiation in industry are accomplished about 900 radioactive facilities, which handle approximately 3.000 radiation sources. The control of radioactive sources used in industrial installations authorized by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is accomplished by Servico de Radioprotecao na Industria Radiativa (SERIR) of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. This service carries out regulatory inspections in the practices of industrial radiography, nuclear gauges, industrial irradiators and oil wells logging. The frequency of inspections depends on the type of practice, ranging from a year to 5 years, depending on the risk involved. This paper presents a brief description of the situation of radiation safety in the use of radioactive sources in the industries of the country. The results obtained with regulatory inspections at industrial installations demonstrate that the conditions of safety and radiation protection in these facilities are satisfactory when compared with the technical regulations, both national and international

  8. Environmental regulatory reform in Poland: lessons for industrializing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.S.; Angel, D. [Clark University, Worcester, MA (USA). George Perkins Marsh Institute

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the environmental regulatory reform in Poland during the 1990s and uses the findings to consider the extent to which elements of successful regulatory systems are transferable across national boundaries. Drawing on five case studies of privatized firms, a mailed questionnaire, and policy and institutional analysis, it investigates how Poland developed an effective system for managing industrial pollution while also achieving considerable socioeconomic progress. The fundamental legitimacy of the regulators and regulatory process, the availability of information about firms and regulatory intents, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making are among the key explanatory factors. The study also shows how in Poland a good 'fit' between regulatory institutions and policies on one hand and their social context on the other hand has evolved, and how it contributes to the effectiveness of the regulatory system. Industrializing economies can indeed simultaneously pursue environmental protection and socioeconomic welfare, but elements of a proven regulatory system cannot be automatically adopted among countries and cultures. Learning from each other's experience must be sensitive to the cultural and institutional context of each regulatory system. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Study of the Utah uranium-milling industry. Volume I. A policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turley, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    This is the first volume of a two volume study of the Utah Uranium Milling Industry. The study was precipitated by a 1977 report issued by the Western Interstate Nuclear Board entitled Policy Recommendations on Financing Stabilization. Perpetual Surveillance and Maintenance of Uranium Mill Tailings. Volume I of this study is a policy analysis or technology assessment of the uranium milling industry in the state of Utah; specifically, the study addresses issues that deal with the perpetual surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of uranium tailings piles at the end of uranium milling operations, i.e., following shutdown and decommissioning. Volume II of this report serves somewhat as an appendix. It represents a full description of the uranium industry in the state of Utah, including its history and statements regarding its future. The topics covered in volume I are as follows: today's uranium industry in Utah; management of the industry's characteristic nuclear radiation; uranium mill licensing and regulation; state licensing and regulation of uranium mills; forecast of future milling operations; policy needs relative to perpetual surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of tailings; policy needs relative to perpetual oversight; economic aspects; state revenue from uranium; and summary with conclusions and recommendations. Appendices, figures and tables are also presented

  10. Situation and development trend of nuclear power and uranium industry in the united states and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the situation, trend of nuclear electrical and uranium industry in the United States and Russia. The United States and Russia are the two biggest countries in the world which generated nuclear power earliest. After 40 years' development, nuclear power in the United States and Russia are approximately 20%, 11% respectively of the total generation capacity in 2001. In the United States, only 6% of the nuclear power consumed uranium resource is domestic, in Russia about half of its uranium production is for export. Due to the collision between the energy development and environment protection, nuclear power in USA is still strong, but the uranium industry declines. In the future, uranium production for nuclear power in the United States will depend on the international market and the uranium storage of different levels. On the basis of pacifying people and making the country prosper, Russia has established their great plans for nuclear power with their substantial uranium resources. The author considers the supply and demand of uranium industry will remain balanced in the future decade on the whole, despite the United States and Russia's trend of uranium industry could take a major effect on uranium industry to the world. (authors)

  11. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkin, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments in the Australian uranium industry during 1980 are reviewed. Mine production increased markedly to 1841 t U 3 O 8 because of output from the new concentrator at Nabarlek and 1131 t of U 3 O 8 were exported at a nominal value of $37.19/lb. Several new contracts were signed for the sale of yellowcake from Ranger and Nabarlek Mines. Other developments include the decision by the joint venturers in the Olympic Dam Project to sink an exploration shaft and the release of an environmental impact statement for the Honeymoon deposit. Uranium exploration expenditure increased in 1980 and additions were made to Australia's demonstrated economic uranium resources. A world review is included

  12. Methods of supervision in the uranium industry; Les methodes de controle dans l'industrie de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prugnard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In its broad sense the supervision applied to uranium refining is not appreciably different from that found in ordinary industry. It should be noted however that the main preoccupation will be exceptional purity in the final product, and constant vigilance must be directed towards conforming with the accepted safety standards in such an organisation. The various problems at issue and the steps taken to solve them will be discussed successively. (author) [French] L'aspect general du controle dans le raffinage de l'uranium ne differe pas sensiblement de celui que l'on peut rencontrer dans les industries classiques. Il conviendra cependant de remarquer que le souci dominant visera plus a l'obtention d'un produit final de purete exceptionnelle et qu'une vigilance de tous les instants sera necessaire pour respecter les normes de securite dans une telle entreprise. On etudiera successivement les divers objectifs a atteindre et l'organisation mise en oeuvre pour les realiser. (auteur)

  13. The structure of Canada's uranium industry and its future market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Production of uranium in Canada began in the 1940s to supply the needs of US weapons development. After 1966 a growing demand for uranium for nuclear power production stimulated exploration, and since then the health of the Canadian uranium industry has been tied to the state of the nuclear power industry. Uranium exploration in Canada is carried out mainly by private enterprise, although the federal and two provincial governments compete through crown corporations. Seven companies produce ore, and six have processing plants. Expansion is underway at several existing operations, and some new projects are underway. The industry is strongly dependent on export markets; only about 15 percent of Canadian production is used in the country. There is one uranium refinery which produces UO 2 powder for CANDU reactor fuel and UF 6 for export. The uranium hexafluoride facility is being expanded. Federal government policy affects the uranium industry in the fields of regulation, ownership, safeguards, protection of the domestic industry, and international marketing. The short-term outlook for the industry is deteriorating, with declining uranium prices, but prospects seem considerably brighter in the longer term. Canada has about 12 percent of the world's uranium reserves, and is the second-largest producer. Discovery potential is believed to be excellent

  14. Evolution of the uranium industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maget, P; Vertes, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bazile, F [Societe industrielle des minerais de l' ouest (France)

    1964-07-01

    The main feature in the development of the French uranium industry during the last few years is the completion of the programme, already started in 1958, for the equipment of mining units and treatment plants. It was thus possible by 1961, to reach a production capacity of about 2000 T of metal contained in concentrates, and about 1800 T of metal of nuclear purity. The prospecting and research carried on in France by the Commissariat and by private Industry have brought about not only a satisfactory renewal of the reserves under exploitation but also the development of two new uranium-producing regions: one of the usual type in France, in the crystalline formations to the South-East of the Massif Central, the other in the Permian sedimentary formations in the department of l'Herault. Uraniferous concentrates are produced in two forms: -on the one hand two chemical plants run by a combined Commissariat-private industry firm, the Societe Industrielle des Minerais de l'Ouest, produce magnesium uranates by a conventional process, in the Vendee and at la Crouzille; - on the other hand two Commissariat plants, one managed by the same Society in the Forez, the other run directly by the Commissariat at Gueugnon in the Grury mining district, at present inactive, produce uranyl nitrate: the former from ore extracted in the Forez region, the latter from magnesium uranate pre-concentrates imported from Gabon. Two Commissariat plants convert the concentrates into a product of nuclear purity: - one at le Bouchet, run by the C.E.A., which also deals with development studies, - the other at Malvesi, managed by a Commissariat-private industry combine, the Societe de Raffinage de l'Uranium. This latter has a production capacity about double that of le Bouchet and uses the same manufacturing processes. The bulk of the uranium metal is still produced by calcium reduction, but the le Bouchet plant is already equipped for magnesium reduction and is using this process. Uranium fluoride

  15. The industrial application of a uranium dioxide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needes, C.R.S.; Nicol, M.J.; Finkelstein, N.P.; Ormrod, G.T.W.

    1975-01-01

    A correlation between the potential of a UO 2 electrode and the rate of recovery of uranium has been proved in laboratory and plant trials. When the recovery rates change because of variation in the concentrations of Fe(III), Fe(II), SO 2- 4 , and H + , a positive correlation is observed. However, an increase in the concentration of phosphate in solution produces an increase in the UO 2 electrode potential but a decrease in the rate of leaching of UO 2 . The correlation between the UO 2 electrode potential and the rate of leaching of UO 2 is then negative. It is concluded that, as a control device, the electrode cannot compete with the platinum electrode for use on certain plants. Nevertheless, the UO 2 electrode will act as a useful warning device if the total concentration of iron in solution decreases to below a level concomitant with the economic recovery of uranium. Furthermore, because of the positive correlation between the UO 2 electrode potential and the phosphate concentration, the electrode will also be of value in the detection of an increase in the phosphate level in solution. When it was incorporated in a suitable industrial probe, the electrode was found to be able to withstand the rigours of the leaching conditions in a large pilot-plant pachuca, and only failed after six weeks operation [af

  16. Classification of the emergency conditions in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchev, L.

    1999-01-01

    The exploration, production and treatment of uranium ores in Bulgaria have a half century history. The end was its shutdown in 1992 by a Decree of the Council of Ministers. The technological processes as well as the shutdown procedures lead to emergency situations. As a result a technogenic increase of the natural background radiation takes place. The assessment of already happened or possible emergency situations reveals their reiteration which determines the limits of a phenomenon. Thus a classification of all its elements into a binding system becomes possible, also a definition of the notion 'emergency' for the uranium sub sector of the mining industry. There are two main groups: radiation emergencies and geo-technological ones with subsequent radiological contamination, both of them in determined interrelation. The radiation emergencies could be a result of geological ones or to occur independently. They have no catastrophic character but a chronic effect on the adjacent population. The proposed classification gives a possibility to predict an emergency situation

  17. An overview of uranium industries in countries of completed market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is an important energy mineral and strategic resources, in countries of completed market economy, energy mineral exploration belongs to commercial mineral exploration. Because uranium exploration is higher in investment risk and rebound, the countries of completed market economy regulate uranium exploration by using laws, paying taxes and protecting environment. China will put the exploration of coal, oil and gas, uranium, oil shale, gas in coalbed in the first place in commercial mineral exploration. Therefore, it is quite necessary to understand uranium exploration industries in countries of completed market economy. (authors)

  18. The remainders of the uranium industry. Conflicts over their care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The mining industry of the uranium expanded on the metropolitan territory between 1948 and 2001, is over half a century. The region of Limousin was the zone of the most important production, the extraction of the ore in its on-the-spot concentration yellow cake. It resulted from this industry three types of remnants: the sterile, the residues and mine water. The very important mass of these remnants, sterile and residues, is bound to the wealth of extracted and handled ore. They are radioactive with one very low activity. But, considering the diminution of their radioactivity, their impact on the environment can be considered as infinity on the scale of human time. From a survey realized between 1996 and 2002, then in a more punctual way until today, the article examines the evolution of management of these remnants. It takes one's stand the notion of carrying capacity and on a socio-historic method adapted. This articulation allows the sociological analysis to show the plasticity of the carrying capacity of these remnants through the long and not discontinuous time since the exploitation until the post-exploitation. The analysis expand over three periods, which are so many different social configurations since 1948 until today: the blessed time of uranium, the nuclear discord time and the nuclear uncertainty of radioactivity time. It shows that the carrying capacity of these remnants is slowly transformed, crossing as the modality of attribution to the nature in the modality of arrangement to, completely human matter. This processing is the expression of the evolution of the social relationships which shake each of the social configurations. These relationships are formed in particular around the identification and the management of this remnants as radioactive waste, tightened between the regulations quarry and nuclear powers. To a certain extent, the preservation of this confliction which crosses these social relationships is a guarantor for a memory power

  19. Regulation and information in the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis investigates the government control of the uranium industry, to see if any social inefficiencies induced by socially suboptimal exploration levels were reduced. The investigation develops a model of firm behavior where exploration yields discoveries of ore, and also produces information that may be used to predict future successes. Based on this model, it is shown that socially inefficient levels of exploration may result. A method for controlling such an industry is suggested: regulating future prices. A natural characterization of successful regulation is provided, to allow the testing of the question posed above. A statistical learning model is developed to characterize the incorporation of new information in agents' formations of their beliefs. Exploration and production cost functions are estimated from available data: together the model of industry behavior, and the statistical learning model, these estimates allow the testing of the main question of the thesis. The results of the test suggest that the government's actions did not induce firms to choose socially optimal levels of exploration. Firms tended to explore more than society would have liked, suggesting that firms were attempting to use exploration information to speculate on future markets

  20. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission regulatory process for decommissioning a uranium mining facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scissons, K.; Schryer, D.M.; Goulden, W.; Natomagan, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates uranium mining in Canada. The CNSC regulatory process requires that a licence applicant plan for and commit to future decommissioning before irrevocable decisions are made, and throughout the life of a uranium mine. These requirements include conceptual decommissioning plans and the provision of financial assurances to ensure the availability of funds for decommissioning activities. When an application for decommissioning is submitted to the CNSC, an environmental assessment is required prior to initiating the licensing process. A case study is presented for COGEMA Resources Inc. (COGEMA), who is entering the decommissioning phase with the CNSC for the Cluff Lake uranium mine. As part of the licensing process, CNSC multidisciplinary staff assesses the decommissioning plan, associated costs, and the environmental assessment. When the CNSC is satisfied that all of its requirements are met, a decommissioning licence may be issued. (author)

  1. Canadian uranium mines and mills evolution of regulatory expectations and requirements for effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClair, J.; Ashley, F.

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of uranium mining in Canada has changed over time as our understanding and concern for impacts on both human and non-human biota has evolved. Since the mid-1970s and early 1980s, new uranium mine and mill developments have been the subject of environmental assessments to assess and determine the significance of environmental effects throughout the project life cycle including the post-decommissioning phase. Water treatment systems have subsequently been improved to limit potential effects by reducing the concentration of radiological and non-radiological contaminants in the effluent discharge and the total loadings to the environment. This paper examines current regulatory requirements and expectations and how these impact uranium mining/milling practices. It also reviews current water management and effluent treatment practices and performance. Finally, it examines the issues and challenges for existing effluent treatment systems and identifies factors to be considered in optimizing current facilities and future facility designs. (author)

  2. Regulatory and legal aspects in industrial mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Maisa Haiidamus

    2016-01-01

    The regulation between the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN performance and the mineral industries that produces NORM is presented. Besides the legal aspects, some comments from the point of view of the supervisory and licensing body about their performance in the radiation protection area are pointed out

  3. The U.S. regulatory framework for long-term management of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, C.; Bierley, D.; Bradshaw, M.

    1995-01-01

    The US established the regulatory structure for the management, disposal, and long-term care of uranium mill tailings in 1978 with the passage of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Pub. L. 95-604). This legislation has governed the cleanup and disposal of uranium tailings at both inactive and active sites. The passage of the UMTRCA established a federal regulatory program for the cleanup and disposal of uranium mill tailings in the US. This program involves the DOE, the NRC, the EPA, various states and tribal governments, private licensees, and the general public. The DOE has completed surface remediation at 14 sites, with the remaining sites either under construction or in planning. The DOE's UMTRA Project has been very successful in dealing with public and agency demands, particularly regarding disposal site selection and transportation issues. The active sites are also being cleaned up, but at a slower pace than the inactive sites, with the first site tentatively scheduled for completion in 1996

  4. Intercomparison run for uranium and tritium determination in urine samples, organised by Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Serdeiro, N H; Equillor, H E

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), Argentina, has carried out an intercomparison run for tritium and uranium determination in urine, in November 2002. The aim of this exercise was to assess the performance of the laboratories that usually inform these radionuclides and to provide technical support in order to have an appropriate occupational monitoring in vitro. In the present work, the results of the intercomparison and the assessment of each laboratory are published.

  5. Intercomparison run for uranium and tritium determination in urine samples, organised by Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdeiro, Nelida H.; Equillor, Hugo E.; Bonino, Nestor O.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), Argentina, has carried out an intercomparison run for tritium and uranium determination in urine, in November 2002. The aim of this exercise was to assess the performance of the laboratories that usually inform these radionuclides and to provide technical support in order to have an appropriate occupational monitoring in vitro. In the present work, the results of the intercomparison and the assessment of each laboratory are published. (author)

  6. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Recent decisions by the Australian Government will ensure a significant expansion of the uranium industry. Development at Roxby Downs may proceed and Ranger may fulfil two new contracts but the decision specifies that apart from Roxby Downs, no new mines should be approved. The ACTU maintains an anti-uranium policy but reaction to the decision from the trade union movement has been muted. The Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC) has been asked by the Government to conduct an inquiry into a number of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle. The inquiry will examine in particular Australia's nuclear safeguards arrangements and the adequacy of existing waste management technology. In two additional decisions the Government has dissociated itself from a study into the feasibility of establishing an enrichment operation and has abolished the Uranium Advisory Council. Although Australian reserves account for 20% of the total in the Western World, Australia accounts for a relatively minor proportion of the world's uranium production

  7. Regulatory preparations towards commencement of uranium mining and processing of radioactive ores in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurisha, M.; Kim, C-L.

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory preparatory work undertaken by the government of the United Republic of Tanzania through the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) following the Mkuyu River Uranium Project definitive feasibility study is discussed. The project, which has been taken over by ARMZ Uranium One, acquired a construction permit in April 2013, where by 345 km"2 of land inside the 50,000 km"2 world heritage Selous Game Reserve was allocated for the purpose. The project has been realized through the government effort to strengthen the regulatory framework via the revised Atomic Energy Act No.7 of 2003, preparations of Radiation Safety in Mining and Radioactive Ores Regulations of 2011, and the human resource capacity development in areas related to inspection and licensing. Sample collection in Bahi and Manyoni areas in the central part of the country to investigate uranium uptake from the plants and radioactivity from water and plant samples is ongoing. The regulatory preparatory work will provide an opportunity to the public to comprehend the measures undertaken by TAEC to protect human health and the environment. (author)

  8. The utilization of uranium industry technology and relevant chemistry to leach uranium from mixed-waste solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for the chemical extraction of uranium from a number of refractory uranium-containing minerals found in nature have been in place and employed by the uranium mining and milling industry for nearly half a century. These same methods, in conjunction with the principles of relevant uranium chemistry, have been employed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to chemically leach depleted uranium from mixed-waste sludge and soil. The removal of uranium from what is now classified as mixed waste may result in the reclassification of the waste as hazardous, which may then be delisted. The delisted waste might eventually be disposed of in commercial landfill sites. This paper generally discusses the application of chemical extractive methods to remove depleted uranium from a biodenitrification sludge and a storm sewer soil sediment from the Y-12 weapons plant in Oak Ridge. Some select data obtained from scoping leach tests on these materials are presented along with associated limitations and observations which might be useful to others performing such test work. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  9. The utilization of uranium industry technology and relevant chemistry to leach uranium from mixed-waste solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for the chemical extraction of uranium from a number of refractory uranium-containing minerals found in nature have been in place and employed by the uranium mining and milling industry for nearly half a century. These same methods, in conjunction with the principles of relevant uranium chemistry, have been employed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to chemically leach depleted uranium from mixed-waste sludge and soil. The removal of uranium from what is now classified as mixed waste may result in the reclassification of the waste as hazardous, which may then be delisted. The delisted waste might eventually be disposed of in commercial landfill sites. This paper generally discusses the application of chemical extractive methods to remove depleted uranium from a biodenitrification sludge and a storm sewer soil sediment from the Y-12 weapons plant in Oak Ridge. Some select data obtained from scoping leach tests on these materials are presented along with associated limitations and observations which might be useful to others performing such test work. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Uranium mining: industry performance will continue to be driven by trends in the output and price or uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Industry revenue, which rose very strongly in the mid 2000s on the back of higher prices and higher production, is expected to retreat during the outlook i period. Indications are that a small gain in real industry revenue will be made in 2007-08, reflecting slightly higher output and some- what higher Australian dollar contract prices. However, real industry revenue is then expected to fall over the remaining years of the out- , look period, as output and exports edge lower and prices ease. Production from Ranger is expected to ease as mining winds down and the operation becomes ore processing only, and no new mines or mine expansions will come on stream over this relatively short period. Large increases in spot uranium prices in the mid 2000s were driven by falling uranium stocks, increased concern over future uranium supplies and growing speculative demand for uranium. Despite very large price rises, world uranium production responded only slowly, reflect-ing the long lead-time required to either expand existing operations or bring new developments on stream

  11. Strategic behavior and regulatory styles in the Netherlands energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuit, M.

    2002-01-01

    Network-based industries, such as the telecommunications industry, the energy industry and the public transport industry, are in motion. Changes in these industries as well as their consequences - disastrous, in some cases - have received considerable media coverage in recent years. Examples include the failed, or partly, liberalization or privatization processes in the electricity industry and public rail transport. Examples are the long and frequent interruptions in California's electricity supply and the problems in British rail transport, several of which had fatal consequences. Other examples are the behavior of organizations in the industries. Driven either by increasing competitive pressure or by their exclusive position in the industry, some organizations exhibit hardly acceptable behavior. They bar new organizations from joining the industry or face their customers with improper terms of delivery or inflated prices; this is commonly referred to as strategic behavior. This study focuses on strategic behavior or potentially strategic behavior in the Netherlands energy industry and on the link between the way regulators operate in the industry and the strategic behavior observed. All forms of strategic behavior are discussed in this thesis. It seeks to present the richest possible collection of strategic behavior, making it a substantial extension to existing research into strategic behavior in network-based industries, most of which is confined to describing particular strategic behavior and its effects. Examples of such in-depth research are that into predatory pricing, regulatory capture, entry deterrence and the use of price caps in setting rates. Most of this research comprises detailed economic studies covering the design of alternative models to explain strategic behavior and the prevention of such behavior. The present study will not copy the format of these economic studies. It does not present a complete picture of potential strategic behavior in

  12. Generic antibiotic industries: Challenges and implied strategies with regulatory perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20 th century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. This review article is focused on the scenario depicting current global Pharma industries based on generic antibiotics. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.

  13. Generic antibiotic industries: Challenges and implied strategies with regulatory perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, M.; Bairavi, V. G.; Sasikumar, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of antibiotics, the quality of human life greatly improved in the 20th century. The discovery of penicillin transformed the medicine industry and initiated a search for a better antibiotic every time resulting in several synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics. Beginning with the 1937 sulfa drug tragedy, the drug regulations had a parallel growth along with the antibiotics and the antibiotic-based generic Pharma industries. This review article is focused on the scenario depicting current global Pharma industries based on generic antibiotics. Several regulatory aspects involved with these industries have been discussed along with the complexity of the market, issues that could affect their growth, their struggle for quality, and their compliance with the tightened regulations. With the skyrocketing commercialization of antibiotics through generics and the leveraging technologic renaissance, generic industries are involved in providing maximum safer benefits for the welfare of the people, highlighting its need today.. PMID:21430959

  14. OECD/NEA WGFCS Workshop: Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities - Regulatory Approaches and Industry Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is produced, processed, and stored mainly in industrial-scale facilities. Uranium ores are processed and refined to produce a pure uranium salt stream, Uranium is converted and enriched, nuclear fuel is fabricated (U fuel and U/Pu fuel for the closed cycle option); and spent fuel is stored and reprocessed in some countries (close cycle option). Facilities dedicated to the research and development of new fuel or new processes are also considered as Fuel Cycle Facilities. The safety assessment of nuclear facilities has often been led by the methodology and techniques initially developed for Nuclear Power Plants. As FCFs cover a wide diversity of installations the various approaches of national regulators, and their technical support organizations, for the Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities are also diverse, as are the approaches by their industries in providing safety justifications for their facilities. The objective of the Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety is to advance the understanding for both regulators and operators of relevant aspects of nuclear fuel cycle safety in member countries. A large amount of experience is available in safety assessment of FCFs, which should be shared to develop ideas in this field. To contribute to this task, the Workshop on 'Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities - Regulatory Approaches and Industry Perspectives' was held in Toronto, on 27 - 29 September 2011. The workshop was hosted by Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The current proceedings provide summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  15. 77 FR 24748 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Traded TBA April 18, 2012. I. Introduction On March 1, 2012, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority... (``MBS'') traded ``to be announced'' or ``TBA.'' The proposed rule change was published for comment in... TBA (``MBS TBA'') are a specific type of Asset-Backed Security.\\6\\ FINRA has proposed to amend its...

  16. Deactivation of waste waters in the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priban, V.

    1978-01-01

    Deactivation techniques are described used for the treatment of waste waters from uranium mines and uranium chemical treatment plants. With treatment plant waters this is done either by precipitation of radium with barium sulfate or using multistage evaporating units. Mine waste waters are deactivated by sorption on ion exchangers; strongly basic anion exchangers, mostly Wofatit SBW, Varion AP or Ostion AU are used for uranium, while the strongly acidic Ostion KS is used for radium. (Z.M.)

  17. 77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0115] Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics..., ``Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing and Fuel Fabrication'' was issued with a... specifically with the following aspects of an acceptable occupational health physics program that are closely...

  18. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    The article includes a historical preface about uranium, discovery of portability of sequential fission of uranium, uranium existence, basic raw materials, secondary raw materials, uranium's physical and chemical properties, uranium extraction, nuclear fuel cycle, logistics and estimation of the amount of uranium reserves, producing countries of concentrated uranium oxides and percentage of the world's total production, civilian and military uses of uranium. The use of depleted uranium in the Gulf War, the Balkans and Iraq has caused political and environmental effects which are complex, raising problems and questions about the effects that nuclear compounds left on human health and environment.

  19. Adaptation of Regulatory Systems in Schoolchildren, Residing in Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman E. Konkabaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of heart rate variability (HRT in apparently healthy volunteers of both sexes without bad habits, aged 16-18, residing in industrial region (Temirtau and the ones, studying under innovative technologies. HRT was registered with the help of computer-controlled devices “Varikard” (Russia. The changes of HRT spectral indexes towards integral impact of vegetative regulation mechanisms and parasympathetic activity decrease and regulatory systems overexertion, demanding correction methods implementation

  20. Foreword - Physicochemical and technological aspects of processing of uranium industry wastes in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, the attention of many researchers has turned to decontamination of the territories where radioactive substance extraction took place in the past. As of today, radioactive waste has not been utilized, but now they can be secondarily reprocessed, for the purpose of uranium extraction and waste utilization, since uranium prices are increasing. There is a lack of data in the literature on secondary reprocessing technologies of uranium industry wastes in Tajikistan. Each uranium tailing pile requires an individual secondary reprocessing waste technology, since they were formed as a result of different reprocessing methods (acid, soda leaching) and from different ore compositions. Their ph medium and storage conditions are different. This fact led the authors to publish the present edition of this book. The basic direction of the book is in developing manufacturing fundamentals of uranium industry waste reprocessing in Tajikistan, with specific attention on practical applications of technological investigation results. (author)

  1. Regulatory inspection: a powerful tool to control industrial radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da; Leocadio, J.C.; Ramalho, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    An important contribution for Brazilian development, especially for the quality control of products, is the use of radiation sources by conventional industries. There are in Brazil roughly 3,000 radioactive sources spread out among 950 industries. The main industrial practices involved are: industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, industrial accelerators, well logging petroleum and nuclear gauges. More than 1,800 Radiation Protection Officers (RPOs) were qualified to work in these practices. The present work presents a brief description of the safety control over industrial radioactive installations performed by the Brazilian Regulatory Authority, i.e. the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). This paper also describes the national system for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure and the national inventory of industrial installations. The inspections are based on specific indicators, and their periodicity depends on the risk and type of installation. The present work discusses some relevant aspects that must be considered during the inspections, in order to make the inspections more efficient in controlling the sources. One of these aspects regards the evaluation of the storage place for the sources, a very important parameter for preventing future risky situations. (author)

  2. Product Stewardship in Uranium: A Way for the Industry to Demonstrate its High Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Product stewardship is an means for communicating the high performance on health, safety and environment of the nuclear fuel cycle including uranium mining. • It has been effective with other products and is appropriate for uranium. • Can be a vehicle for addressing public concerns across the industry. • Due to uranium’s unique characteristics it has the potential to be a best practice example of product stewardship. • Work is underway in the international arena to progress uranium product stewardship and it represent a unique opportunity to provide whole of industry benefits

  3. Determination of uranium in industrial and environmental samples. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, F H; Shehata, M K; Metwally, E M; El-Shazly, E A.A.; El-Naggar, H A [Nuclear Chemistry Department, Hot Laborities Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The phosphate ores used at `Abu zaabal fertilizer and chemical company` for the production of some chemicals and fertilizers contain detectable amounts of uranium. In this study, the content of uranium in samples of different products of fertilizers, gypsum, and phosphate ore were determined using NAA, and gamma ray spectroscopy of the irradiated samples. Another method based on measuring the natural radioactivity of {sup 238} U series for non-irradiated samples using gamma-ray spectroscopy was also used for determine uranium content in the samples. In the NAA method, the content of U(ppm) in the samples was been computed from the photopeak activity of the lines = 106.1, 228.2, and 277.5 KeV of {sup 239} Np induced in the irradiated samples, and the uranium standard simultaneously irradiated. the gamma-ray spectra, and the decay curves are given. In the second method the gamma-ray spectra of the natural radioactivity of the samples and uranium standard were measured. The gamma-transition of energies 295.1, 251.9 KeV for {sup 214} Pb; 609.3, 768.4, 1120.3, 1238.1 KeV for {sup 214} Bi were determined. The uranium {sup 23U} traces in drainage water was also determined spectrophotometrically using arsenazo-III after preconcentration of uranium from the pretreated drainage water in column packed with chelex-100 resin. The recovery was found to be 90 {+-} 5%. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Radiation protection in uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavayya, M.

    2005-01-01

    The first phase of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle is exploration for uranium and the next is mining and milling of uranium ore. This phase is mostly characterised by low levels of radioactivity and radiation exposure of the workers involved. Yet it is a paradoxical truth that incidence of cancer among the work force, especially miners, due to occupational radiation exposure (from radon and decay products) has been proved only in uranium mines in the entire Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Of course such incidence occurred before the detrimental effect of radiation exposure was realised and understood. Therefore it is important to familiarise oneself with the radiation hazards prevalent in the uranium mining and milling facilities so as to take appropriate remedial measures for the protection of not only the workers but also the public at large. There are both open cast and underground uranium mines around the world. Radiation hazards are considerably less significant in open cast mines than in underground mines unless the ore grade is very high. By default therefore the discussion which ensues relates mainly to radiation hazards in underground uranium mines and associated milling operations. The discussion gives a brief outline of typical uranium mine and mining and milling operations. This is followed by a description of the radiation hazards therein and protection measures that are to be taken to minimise radiation exposure. (author)

  5. Report of Sectional Committee on Industrialization of Uranium Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In order to accelerate the development and utilization of atomic energy which is the core of the substitute energies for petroleum, it is indispensable requirement to establish independent fuel cycle as the base. In particular, the domestic production of enriched uranium is necessary to eliminate the obstacles to secure the energy supply in Japan. The construction and operation of the pilot plant for uranium enrichment by centrifugal separation method have progressed smoothly, and the technical base for the domestic production of enriched uranium is being consolidated. For the time being, the service of uranium enrichment is given by USA and France, but it is expected that the short supply will arise around 1990. The start of operation of the uranium enrichment plant in Japan is scheduled around 1990, and the scale of the plant will be expanded stepwise thereafter. The scale of production is assumed as 3000 t SWU/year in 2000. Prior to this commercial plant, the prototype plant of up to 250 t SWU/year capacity will be operated in 1986, starting the production of centrifugal separators in 1983. The production line for centrifugal separators will have the capacity of up to 125 t SWU/year. The organization for operating these plants, the home production of natural uranium conversion, the uranium enrichment by chemical method and others are described. (Kako, I.)

  6. Romanian regulatory framework for uranium mining and milling (present and future)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodna, A.L.; Dumitrescu, N.

    2002-01-01

    In Romania, all operations in the nuclear field, including uranium mining and milling, are regulated by Law no. 111/1996 (republished in 1998), regarding the safe conduct of nuclear activities. These activities can be performed only on the basis of an authorization released by the national regulatory authority, i.e. the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control. The specific requirements which must be carried out by the owner of an operating licence for a uranium mining and milling operation are stipulated by the Republican Nuclear Safety Norms for Geological Research, Mining and Milling of Nuclear Raw Materials. These regulatory requirements have been in force since 1975. The regulatory norms include provisions that the effective dose limit for workers should not exceed 50 mSv/year and also that liquid effluents released into surface waters must have a content of natural radioactive elements that meets the standards for drinking water. The norms do not contain provisions concerning the conditions under which the mining sites and the uranium processing facilities can be shut down and decommissioned. The norms also do not contain requirements regarding either the rehabilitation of environments affected by abandoned mining and milling activities, nor criteria for the release of the rehabilitated sites for alternative uses. To implement the provisions of Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM in Romania, new Fundamental Radiological Protection Norms have been approved and will soon be published in the 'Monitorul Official' (Official Gazette of Romania). One of the main provisions of these norms is the reduction of the effective dose limit for the workers to 20 mSv/year. Changes in the Republican Nuclear Safety Norms for Geological Research, Mining and Milling of Nuclear Raw Materials, are also planned; these changes will be consistent with the Fundamental Radiological Protection Norms. To cover existing gaps, the new norms for uranium mining and milling will include

  7. On sustainable development of uranium mining industry in China based on the concept of ecological security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shali; Tai Kaixuan

    2011-01-01

    Ecological security is an important issue for sustainable development of mining industry, on which the development of nuclear industry and nuclear power is based. But uranium mining and processing has larger effect on ecological environment which mainly include tailings, waste rock, waste water, and radiation effects. In this paper, the dialectical relationship between ecological security and sustainable relationship is analyzed, the ecological safety concept at home and abroad is compared and the role that ecological safety plays in the sustainable development of uranium mining based on analysis of restricting factors on uranium mining in China from the perspective of ecological security is also probed into. To achieve sustainable development of the uranium mining industry in China, an ecological security concept from four aspects must be established: 1) the concept of ecological security management; 2) the scientific concept of ecological security; 3) the concept of ecological security investment; and 4) the concept of ecological security responsibility. (authors)

  8. Radiation protection in uranium mining and metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie.

    1988-01-01

    The main radioactive contaminants in uranium mines are radon and its daughters, while in uranium plants the dust produced in crushing operation is the main source of contamination. In this paper the radiation protection levels and the problems present in China's uranium mines and plants are described and analyzed. 15 protective measures are presented by the auther. The main measurements are: to increase mechanization and automation levels in technology, to reduce the direct contact of man's body with radioactive materials, to strongthen the ventilation for removing radon, to establish a complete ventilation system, and so on

  9. Uranium 2000 : International symposium on the process metallurgy of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozberk, E.; Oliver, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The International Symposium on the Process Metallurgy of Uranium has been organized as the thirtieth annual meeting of the Hydrometallurgy Section of the Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM). This meeting is jointly organized with the Canadian Mineral Processors Division of CIM. The proceedings are a collection of papers from fifteen countries covering the latest research, development, industrial practices and regulatory issues in uranium processing, providing a concise description of the state of this industry. Topics include: uranium industry overview; current milling operations; in-situ uranium mines and processing plants; uranium recovery and further processing; uranium leaching; uranium operations effluent water treatment; tailings disposal, water treatment and decommissioning; mine decommissioning; and international regulations and decommissioning. (author)

  10. Participation of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the uranium urinalysis intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, Nestor O.; Palacios, Miguel A.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work the results of the participation of Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) Argentina, in the Uranium Urinalysis Intercomparison Program administered by the National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay, Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, are detailed. This work is referred to the three participations of NRA in 1995, 1996, and 1997. The number of laboratories that have participated was 14, 12 and 12. A statistical analysis is presented. The performance criteria used for assessing the acceptability of results are those given in the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) 1989, N13.30. In addition, the applied radiochemical technique and the methodology are described. (author)

  11. Environmental aspects of the Canadian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yourt, G.R.

    This paper covers a brief history of uranium mining in Canada, environmental problems, control measures, monitoring of various contaminants in air and water, the development and adherence to standards and limited information on cancer incidence and effects of smoking. (author)

  12. The uranium industry in the history of the Czech Republic and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suran, J.; Vesely, P.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium industry in Czech Republic was established on January 1, 1946 at the old Jachymov silver and uranium deposit under the name Jachymov Mines. Following its start in 1946, exploration and mining grew rapidly and developed into a significant branch of industry. During 50 years of uranium industry activities 194 uranium deposits and occurrences have been explored and 74 of them have been extracted. Due to the geochemical properties of uranium, U accumulations occur in the whole crystalline basement of the Bohemian Massif and in all stages of its platform cover. The Variscan tectogenesis was significant for the formation of the U ore deposits. The uranium resources of the Czech republic can be assigned to the following 2 ore types: vein deposits and sandstone deposits. The peak production of about 3000 t U was reached in about 1960 in the Czech Republic and production remained between 2500 and 3000 t U/year from 1960 until 1989, when it began to decline. During the period 1946-1996 a cumulative production of 104 748 tU was produced in the Czech Republic. 86 per cent of the total was produced by conventional mining methods while the remainder was recovered using in situ leaching (ISL). Eighty-one per cent of the known uranium resources (RAR + EAR-I) are tributary to existing production centres in Rozna, Hamr and Straz, remainder occurs in Brzkov and Osecna-Kotel deposits. EAR-II are associated with the Rozna, Brzkov and Hvzzdov deposits. (author)

  13. General trends in the use of uranium in the nuclear industry; Tendances generales d'emploi de l'uranium dans les industries nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It can be seen from a consideration of the development of the military and civil needs for uranium that, in the long run, the main outlet for the metal will be provided by its industrial applications. The technical uncertainties concerning the best method of producing atomic energy are still numerous and in fact reflect the hesitation in choosing one of two classes of fuel: that based on the metal and that based on the oxide. Four main factors should influence the choice: - the neutron reactivity and the enrichment of the uranium; - the operating temperature; - the resistance to radiation effects; - the chemical stability; but in actual fact, when the choice for a particular use has to be made, it will be another type of factor, such as the cost price, and weight and space considerations which will determine the choice of either metallic uranium or uranium oxide reactors. (author) [French] D'apres le developpement des besoins militaires ou civils en uranium, on voit que les usages industriels de ce metal constituent, a long terme, le debouche essentiel. Les incertitudes techniques, sur le procede optimum pour faire de l'energie nucleaire, restent nombreuses, et se traduisent finalement par une hesitation entre deux grandes classes de combustibles: ceux a base de metal et ceux a base d'oxyde: la preference a l'une ou l'autre de ces deux categories doit s'inspirer de quatre considerations: - la reactivite neutronique et l'enrichissement de l'uranium; - la temperature de fonctionnement; - la resistance aux effets du rayonnement; - la stabilite chimique; mais en definitive, lorsqu'il s'agira d'une application determinee, ce seront des considerations d'un autre ordre, comme le prix de revient, le poids et l'encombrement, qui determineront le choix entre piles a uranium metallique et piles a oxyde d'uranium. (auteur)

  14. Regulatory philosophy and requirements for radiation control in Canadian uranium mine-mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-10-01

    The approach the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board takes in licensing uranium mine/mill facilities is based on a minimum of rigidly set regulatory requirements. The regulations state only the basic objectives: the obligation to acquire a licence, some administrative and reporting requirements, and exposure limits. The regulations are supported by a set of regulatory guides. The operator always has the option of following different procedures if he can demonstrate that they will produce the same or better results. Good relationships exist between the AECB and mine management as well as trade unions. Under this approach, however, it is difficult to take action against uncooperative parties. The Board has decided that a somewhat more formalized system is necessary. New regulations are being drafted, giving more detailed licensing and administrative requirements and covering the areas of ventilation and worker and supervisor education more thoroughly

  15. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.; Pagel, M.; Leroy, J.

    1992-01-01

    First, this book presents the physico-chemical properties of Uranium and the consequences which can be deduced from the study of numerous geological process. The authors describe natural distribution of Uranium at different scales and on different supports, and main Uranium minerals. A great place in the book is assigned to description and classification of uranium deposits. The book gives also notions on prospection and exploitation of uranium deposits. Historical aspects of Uranium economical development (Uranium resources, production, supply and demand, operating costs) are given in the last chapter. 7 refs., 17 figs

  16. Independent regulatory control and monitoring of the environment at the uranium legacy sites under reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Isaev, D.V.; Aladova, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Radiation safety at areas affected by the natural uranium mining and milling facilities is very important for the environment protection and human health. For this purpose the close operator-regulator contact is required during remedial operations. One of the key mechanisms of the operating regulatory supervision of radiation safety at uranium legacy sites is organization of independent radiation control and monitoring in the course of reclamation and after its completion. The main stages of this strategy include: detailed radiation survey at the area and in the vicinity of the former uranium mining sites; threat assessment in order to identify the regulatory priorities; environmental radiation control and monitoring. Tailings and shallow disposal sites of the uranium mining wastes are the most critical areas in terms of potential hazard for the environment. Tailings are the source of contamination of the near-land air due to the radionuclide dust resuspension from the tailing surface; surface and ground water due to washing out from by precipitation and surface streams of toxic and radioactive elements. Frequently, contamination of surface and ground waters results in some problems, especially when using the leaching fluids for the solution mining and draining hydraulic fluids. Radiation risk for the residents of areas near not operating uranium mining and milling facilities depends on the following factors: radon exhalation from the surface of dumps and tailing; radioactive dust transfer; using radioactive material in building; contamination of surface water streams and aquifers used for drinking water supply; contamination of open ponds used for fish breeding and catching; contamination of foodstuffs grown in the nuclear legacy areas. Radiation monitoring is necessary for the up-to-date response to changing radiation situation during reclamation and arrangement of adequate countermeasures. We mean here comprehensive dynamic surveillance including long

  17. Introduction - Physicochemical and technological aspects of processing of uranium industry wastes in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2011-01-01

    The uranium deposits of Tajikistan played an immensely significant role in the practical solution of a radioactive raw materials problem which appeared during the post-World War II years in the USSR. The pioneer in this field became complex №6 (currently known as 'Vostokredmet'). The first soviet uranium was produced from the ores extracted from the republic's deposits. For 50 years (1945-1995 y.) , uranium bearing raw materials from all over the former USSR were delivered to Tajikistan, and uranium oxide was produced, which was later delivered back to Russia for further production of enriched uranium. The total volume of uranium produced in Tajikistan plants was approximately 100 thousands tons. In Soghd region, during that period, more than 55 million tons of uranium waste was accumulated. The total activity of the waste, according to different calculations, is approximately 240-285 TBq. The total amount of waste in dumps and tailings piles is estimated to be more than 170 million tons, most of which are located in the neighborhoods of hydrometallurgical plants and heap leaching locations. Uranium industry wastes in Northern Tajikistan have become attractive for different investors and commercial companies, from secondary reprocessing of mines and tailings' point of view, since the uranium price is increasing. In this regard, research on developing uranium extraction methods from wastes is broadening. The study of the possibility and economic reasonability of reprocessing former year's dumps requires comprehensive examination, and relates not only to uranium extraction but to safe extraction of dumps from tailings as well.

  18. The legal and regulatory framework relative to safety and environment in the uranium mines in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahamane, S.

    2001-01-01

    The mining sector holds an important position in Niger economy. Considerable funds have been invested for the promotion, exploration and exploitation of mineral resources since the colonial period. This has resulted in the discovery of numerous deposits among which are those of uranium. Today, uranium represents more than 3/4 of Niger export revenues. The mining sector is supervised by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. The Ministry applies the mining policy as defined by the government. It elaborates legislative and regulatory texts and sees to their implementation. Regarding uranium, mining activities have been governed since 1961 by various orientation laws and implementation decrees. However, to face up to the harmful consequences on national economy of successive drops of price and sales of its major export product, and taking into account the new international requirements relating to economy globalization and sustainable development, Niger set up a diversification strategy of its mining productions as part of which a new mining code particularly incentive has been established in 1993. The new mining code provides significant advantages to investors. These advantages insure them a great cost effectiveness of their investments in Niger and easy and less onerous respect of regulations regarding safety and protection of environment. Tremendous efforts have been, thus, provided by the IAEA, the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the uranium companies for an optimal protection of workers and the public, especially against the hazards of ionizing radiations. This will to improve the situation has resulted in the adoption of several laws and their application decrees as well as various sectorial laws designed by various Ministry departments concerned with environmental issues and risks prevention. Among these texts are the renewal of the order No 31 M/MH which has defined since 1979 the main axis of the Niger regulations as regards to radioprotection and the design of

  19. The development of the uranium and nuclear industry in South Africa, 1945 - 1970 : a historical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janson, E.J.G.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis traces the historical development of nuclear research in South Africa between 1945 and 1970, starting with the efforts of metallurgists of South Africa and the Allied Nations to extract uranium from the gold ores of the Witwatersrand. During the 1950's seventeen uranium extraction plants formed a very important part of the country's industrial activity. The prospect of using South African uranium for nuclear power production (in the Western Cape area), led to the Atomic Energy Research and Development Programme investigation into nuclear energy production in South Africa. The programme provided for the refining of uranium for nuclear fuel, the establishment of a nuclear research centre at Pelindaba, the acquisition of a research reactor, and facilities for nuclear reactor research and uranium enrichment experiments. The two major projects that were initiated in the 1960's were the Pelinduna nuclear reactor project and experimentation on the vortex tube method for uranium enrichment (the Gas Cooling Project). An Investigation Committee was appointed by the Government to assess the viability of a pilot uranium enrichment plant. In 1970 it was announced that a process had been developed that was a combination of the separating element using uranium hexafluoride in hydrogen as the process fluid and a new cascade technique. 331 refs., 19 figs

  20. A review of present research, research needs, and research capabilities related to the uranium mining and milling industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report surveys the views of those associated with uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan on the research needs of the industry. Research resources, both human and material, available in the province are outlined. The author makes recommendations that would lead to a viable uranium research program. Appendices list information on current uranium-related research in Saskatchewan and available research resources

  1. Development and industrial application of gas centrifuges to uranium enrichment in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbakumov, E.I.; Bazhenov, V.A.; Verbin, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    Review of state and studies in the field of gaseous diffusion technology and centrifugal method of uranium enrichment in the USSR is given. Domestic industrial gas centrifuges, forming to-day the main part of separation capacities in the USSR, are noted for low specific energy consumption and high reliability. Centrifugal technology in the USSR is applied both to uranium enrichment (including one for export) and to separation of isotopes of other chemical elements

  2. 78 FR 24754 - Guidance for Industry on Regulatory Classification of Pharmaceutical Co-Crystals; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Regulatory Classification of Pharmaceutical Co-Crystals; Availability AGENCY: Food... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Regulatory Classification of Pharmaceutical... on the appropriate regulatory classification of pharmaceutical co-crystal solid-state forms. This...

  3. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article briefly discusses the Australian government policy and the attitude of political party factions towards the mining and exporting of the uranium resources in Australia. Australia has a third of the Western World's low-cost uranium resources

  4. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, E.D.J.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion is given of uranium as an energy source in The Australian economy. Figures and predictions are presented on the world supply-demand position and also figures are given on the added value that can be achieved by the processing of uranium. Conclusions are drawn about Australia's future policy with regard to uranium (R.L.)

  5. Legislative, executive branch, regulatory and judicial developments in the USA affecting trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    International commerce in uranium continues to be dominated by a complex network of trade barriers and nuclear non-proliferation controls. Nowhere are these barriers and controls more complex than in the United States, or more subject to frequent change. Many in the uranium and utility industries had hoped that the major uranium trade related uncertainties in the United States would be resolved during the summer of 1988. As of mid July 1988, this hope had faded as a much-heralded legislative compromise crumbled and the US Supreme Court's long awaited decision in the Western Nuclear case resolved some issues but opened new avenues of judicial inquiry. This paper distills the main unresolved trade issues and assesses the major ways in which they could be resolved. Pending legislation is reviewed at the outset, followed by a discussion of implications of the USA-Canada Free Trade Agreement and its implementing legislation. The uncertainties remaining after the Supreme Court's decision in the Western Nuclear case are next evaluated. Finally, this paper surveys pending proposals for US governmental controls over some types of national origin and obligation transfers, sometimes referred to as 'flag swaps'. (author)

  6. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Environmental, socioeconomic, regulatory impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume characterizes the major baseline environmental features of the Chattanooga Shale study and projects the effects which may accrue from implementation of a large scale development to recover uranium from the shale. Environmental, socioeconomic, and regulatory impacts are covered. The prototype project is located in Dekalb County in Tennessee. (DLC)

  7. Review of environmental aspects of uranium mill operations: industry's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Problems faced by uranium mill operators in complying with new environmental regulations and guidelines are discussed. It is pointed out that valid data must be available in order to evaluate impacts on the environment, to determine background radiation levels, to measure the effectiveness of control techniques, and to determine compliance with standards and regulations. Specific problem areas facing mill operators today and some of the unresolved questions include: sampling methods and equipment for radon in ambient air, measurements of radon and radon daughter exposures of people, radon emanation rate meaurements applicable to monitoring mill tailings, the calibration of γ counters, measurements of population doses, regulations concerning mill tailings reclamation nd stabilization, and the comparative value of in-vivo counting and uranium urinary excretion measurements for monitoring personnel

  8. Industrial and commercial considerations affecting future uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostuik, J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines the available evidence relating to the balance of supply and demand for uranium, with particular reference to factors which are likely to affect commercial decisions. The physical constraints limiting the rate of expansion of production are examined, both in the short term, based on known ore-bodies, and in the longer term, as a result of exploration. The scale of the uncertainties in estimated demand, and the consequential need for a determined effort to improve the data base on which commercial judgements have to be made is stressed. The powerful influences which governmental actions can have on commercial decision-making, and on the freedom to produce and export uranium, are illustrated

  9. Industrial and commercial considerations affecting future uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostuik, J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines the available evidence relating to the balance of supply and demand for uranium, with particular reference to factors which are likely to affect commercial decisions. The physical constraints limiting the rate of production expansion are examined, both in the short term, based on known ore-bodies, and in the longer term, as a result of exploration. The scale of the uncertainties in estimated demand are stressed, and the consequential need for a determined effort to improve the data-base on which commercial judgements have to be made. The powerful influences which governmental actions can have on commercial decision-making and on the freedom to produce and export uranium, are mentioned. (author)

  10. General trends in the use of uranium in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesse, M.

    1960-01-01

    It can be seen from a consideration of the development of the military and civil needs for uranium that, in the long run, the main outlet for the metal will be provided by its industrial applications. The technical uncertainties concerning the best method of producing atomic energy are still numerous and in fact reflect the hesitation in choosing one of two classes of fuel: that based on the metal and that based on the oxide. Four main factors should influence the choice: - the neutron reactivity and the enrichment of the uranium; - the operating temperature; - the resistance to radiation effects; - the chemical stability; but in actual fact, when the choice for a particular use has to be made, it will be another type of factor, such as the cost price, and weight and space considerations which will determine the choice of either metallic uranium or uranium oxide reactors. (author) [fr

  11. Prospects of development of the uranium industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhakishev, M.Ye.

    2002-01-01

    The main directions of the uranium industry activity in Kazakhstan are the uranium mining and processing and manufacturing of fuel pellets for the nuclear reactors. Currently, the National Atomic Company 'Kazatomprom' is dealing with mining and production of natural uranium and its compounds in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The company comprises three uranium mining groups in South Kazakhstan, the geological survey company of Volkovgeology and OJSC Ulba Metallurgical Plant (city of Ust-Kamenogorsk). At the end of the year 2001, more than 10,000 employees worked for the company. As one of the key states in terms of uranium reserves, Kazakhstan intends to present itself and work in the world market as a reliable supplier of uranium products. A feature of the Kazakhstan uranium deposits is that 70 % of their reserves are suitable to in-situ leaching resulting in low prime cost of the Kazakhstan production. In 2001, the uranium output rose by 15 % compared to the previous year and amounted to over 2000 tons that is about 5.5 % of the world production. For the next decade, a noticeable increase of consumption of uranium products in the world is expected. Today, we can see slow but stable growth of uranium prices (from US$ 7.0/lbs U 3 O 8 at the beginning of the year to US$ 9.50/lbs in December 2001). NAC Kazatomprom plans an increase in production output by developing the existing ISL mines and constructing new ones and also by establishing uranium mining joint ventures with companies which have the high level of vertical integration to end consumption of uranium product, such as Cogema, Cameca, Minatom of Russia, Chinese National Atomic Corporation. OJSC Ulba Metallurgical Plant, which is incorporated in NAC Kazatomprom, has well established and operating production of uranium dioxide power and fuel pellets for nuclear reactors. In 2000-2001, OJSC UMP developed and introduced the technology for manufacturing fuel pellets with burnable absorber - erbium oxide. An

  12. The MCP Altona incident: the Canadian regulatory response and framework for the export of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    On 23 December 2010, a cargo ship carrying 350 000 kilograms (kg) of uranium ore concentrates (U 3 O 8 ) belonging to the Canadian resource corporation Cameco left Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and encountered severe weather conditions between Hawaii and the Midway Islands in international waters en route to Zhanjiang, People's Republic of China (PRC). The ship, the MCP Altona, suffered some damage to its hull but was able to continue to operate through the storm. Once the sea had calmed, the crew noticed that some of the containers on the ship had shifted and had been damaged. The captain, however, was unable to secure the necessary authorizations to obtain safe harbour in the area as there were no signs of immediate risk to the health and safety of the ship's crew. On Cameco's recommendation, the ship returned to British Columbia. This article describes the response of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to this incident. The article also discusses the Canadian policy and regulatory framework for controls on the export of uranium

  13. Regulatory Oversight of the Legacy Gunner Uranium Mine and Mill Site in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada - 13434

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenson, Ron; Howard, Don [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, P.O. Box 1046, Station B, 280 Slater Street, Ottawa ON K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    As Canada's nuclear regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is responsible for licensing all aspects of uranium mining, including remediation activities at legacy sites. Since these sites already existed when the current legislation came into force in 2000, and the previous legislation did not apply, they present a special case. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), was written with cradle-to- grave oversight in mind. Applying the NSCA at the end of a 'facilities' life-cycle poses some challenges to both the regulator and the proponent. When the proponent is the public sector, even more challenges can present themselves. Although the licensing process for legacy sites is no different than for any other CNSC license, assuring regulatory compliance can be more complicated. To demonstrate how the CNSC has approached the oversight of legacy sites the history of the Commission's involvement with the Gunnar uranium mine and mill site provides a good case study. The lessons learned from the CNSC's experience regulating the Gunnar site will benefit those in the future who will need to regulate legacy sites under existing or new legislation. (authors)

  14. Responding to business pressures and politics: What's ahead for US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouldis, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Faced with ever-declining spot market prices and overabundant inventories, US producers must determine if the uranium industry warrants continuing investment. The years of optimism that have kept the industry alive with hope, if not actual production, are giving way to a more realistic, albeit pessimistic, assessment of the future of the industry into the mid-1990s. Much of the past US production has been based not on the reality of the market but on the hope of improvement in the future. Without this hope for improvement, the planned production levels may be curtailed accordingly. As excess inventories are used, the demand for uranium should cause sufficient price increases necessary to allow the US industry to once again expand profitably. However, without legislative or judicial relief, today's low prices could continue for several more years. If low prices prevail, as would be expected without restrictions on the import of foreign uranium, US production levels will no doubt continue to fall from the present level of approximately 12 million lb annually to the range of 8 million lb annually. The realization that the fate of the US uranium industry is inexorably tied to the action (or inaction) of political and legislative leaders is inherent in the current reality of an unrestricted market

  15. Regulatory reform in Turkish energy industry: An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Turkey has initiated an ambitious reform program in the most important segments of her energy market; which requires privatization, liberalization as well as a radical restructuring of these industries. However, there is no consensus that the measures introduced are optimal. The present article attempts, first, to evaluate the regulatory framework created by the laws of 2001 in terms of economic efficiency considerations; and second, to determine what still needs to be done to improve the current situation. The paper not only provides an analysis of these reforms but also lists some policy suggestions. The study concludes that despite relatively good legislative framework, in practice, the reforms in Turkey are far from ideal as they are mainly in the form of 'textbook reforms'; and therefore a significant amount of work still lies ahead of Turkey to set up a fully fledged energy market

  16. The Uranium Recovery Industry and the Current Nuclear Renaissance — A Health Physicists Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.H., E-mail: sbrown@senes.ca [SENES, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Concurrent with the recognition that nuclear generated electricity must play an increasing role in worldwide energy supply and in consideration of the new nuclear power plants ordered or planned, the demand for uranium needed to fuel these reactors has already outpaced supplies. Accordingly, the price of uranium (typically expressed as US$ per pound U{sub 3}O{sub 8} equivalent) had increased significantly in recent years. As a result, numerous new and reconstituted uranium recovery projects are being developed in the United States and in other countries that possess considerable uranium ore reserves (e.g., Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Namibia, and others). It should be noted that in the United States, the current reactor fleet of 104 operating units, which generate 20 percent of the US’s base-load electricity, requires approximately 55 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year, but only about 4–5 million pounds per year is produced domestically. That is, over 90 percent of current demand, ignoring anticipated increase in requirements in the near future as new plants come online, must come from foreign sources. Domestic uranium production over the last 10 years reached a low of about two million pounds in 2003 and has been increasing steadily since then. Uranium recovery as defined in this paper encompasses conventional uranium mining and milling as well as in situ recovery techniques and the recovery of uranium as a byproduct from other processes, such as phosphoric acid production. Following a brief history of uranium recovery in the US, the paper describes the basic methods and technologies associated with conventional uranium mining, conventional uranium milling and In Situ Recovery (ISR). The “health physicists perspective” is introduced into these discussions by providing summaries of the various radiological environmental monitoring and operational health physics programs that are required for these facilities. Applicable regulatory

  17. Uranium exports could match oil imports. [status and prospects of the Canadian uranium industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, H C

    1977-04-01

    Apart from a temporary embargo while safeguards are negotiated, the Canadian government limits uranium exports so as to guarantee fuel for every Canadian reactor built or planned for 30 years. On the basis of present known reserves of 172 Gg of 'cheap' U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and 33 of 'dear', that would mean phasing out exports after the mid 1980's, but probably much more 'dear' uranium remains to be discovered. Provincial taxation and restrictions on foreign ownership may be limitations. Discoveries range over eleven areas, but production capacity at present is 14190 Mg/d from Ontario and 3400 from Saskatchewan, with 8800 mothballed and 4860 planned or being rehabilitated. The price has jumped to $95/kg, so that uranium exports may cover half the cost of oil imports. All producers use sulfuric acid leaching, except Eldorado, which uses carbonate leaching; a process using tertiary amine is being developed. Development of the organic-cooled Th//sup 233/U fuelled reactor may greatly extend fuel resources.

  18. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability(LWRS) Program conducts a vigorous engagement strategy with the U.S. nuclear power industry, including the nuclear operating companies, major support organizations, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and suppliers. The goal of this engagement strategy is to develop a shared vision and common understanding across the nuclear industry of the need for II&C modernization, the performance improvement that can be obtained, and the opportunities for collaboration to enact this vision. The primary means of engaging the nuclear operating companies is through a Utility Working Group (UWG), composed of utility representatives that participate in formal meetings and bi-monthly phone calls to provide input on nuclear plant needs and priorities for II&C technologies. Two working groups were initiated during FY 2015 to provide a means for UWG members to focus on particular technologies of interest. The Outage Improvement Working Group consists of eight utilities that participate in periodic conference calls and have access to a share-point web page for acccess to project materials developed in the Advanced Outage Control Center pilot project. In the area of computer-based procedures and automated work packages, the II&C Pathway has worked with the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) to set up a monthly conference call with interested utility members to discuss various aspects of mobile worker technologies. Twenty one technical and project reports were delivered to the UWG during FY 2015, reflecting the work of the II&C Pathway pilot projects during the year. Distribution of these reports is one of the primary means of transferring to the nuclear industry the knowledge and experience gained during the development of advanced II&C technologies in support of LWR sustainability. Site visits to discuss pilot project

  19. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability(LWRS) Program conducts a vigorous engagement strategy with the U.S. nuclear power industry, including the nuclear operating companies, major support organizations, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and suppliers. The goal of this engagement strategy is to develop a shared vision and common understanding across the nuclear industry of the need for II&C modernization, the performance improvement that can be obtained, and the opportunities for collaboration to enact this vision. The primary means of engaging the nuclear operating companies is through a Utility Working Group (UWG), composed of utility representatives that participate in formal meetings and bi-monthly phone calls to provide input on nuclear plant needs and priorities for II&C technologies. Two working groups were initiated during FY 2015 to provide a means for UWG members to focus on particular technologies of interest. The Outage Improvement Working Group consists of eight utilities that participate in periodic conference calls and have access to a share-point web page for acccess to project materials developed in the Advanced Outage Control Center pilot project. In the area of computer-based procedures and automated work packages, the II&C Pathway has worked with the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) to set up a monthly conference call with interested utility members to discuss various aspects of mobile worker technologies. Twenty one technical and project reports were delivered to the UWG during FY 2015, reflecting the work of the II&C Pathway pilot projects during the year. Distribution of these reports is one of the primary means of transferring to the nuclear industry the knowledge and experience gained during the development of advanced II&C technologies in support of LWR sustainability. Site visits to discuss pilot project

  20. Recovery of uranium and accompanying metals from various types of industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Gajda, D.; Zakrzewska, G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Bieluszka, P.

    2014-01-01

    On January 28"t"h 2014 the Program of Polish Nuclear Energy was signed by Polish Government. According to this program Poland has to secure a constant supply of uranium for Polish NPPs in the future. Uranium in Poland occurs in Vistula Spit area in sandstone rocks and Podlasie Depression area in black dictyonema shales, which are low grade ores. Scarce uranium resources stimulate interest in its recovery from secondary resources as potential raw materials. Industrial wastes and by-products were considered as a source of uranium in this studies. Apart from uranium other valuable metals (e.g. vanadium, molybdenum or lanthanides) were recovered to improve the economy of the process. Three types of industrial wastes were examined: flotation tailings from the copper industry, phosphoric acid from the fertilizer industry and fracturing fluid from shale gas exploitation. Metals from flotation tailings were separated in two steps: 1) acidic leaching of the flotation waste using sulfuric acid solution and 2) separation of metals by ion-exchange chromatography. All the liquid samples were analyzed by ICP-MS method to determine the separation efficiency of the process. Uranium was recovered from phosphoric acid by high-pressure membrane filtration or by extraction/stripping integrated processes applying membrane modules Liquid-Cel® Extra-Flow (Celgard). Aqueous solutions after hydraulic fracturing are very diverse in terms of chemical composition, depending on borehole and fracturing technology applied. The content of various substances in backflow fluid depends on mechanical behavior and chemical composition of shale. Organic matter content in this type of waste did not exceed 1% usually, but the salinity is high. Initially, organic pollutants were removed and next the fluid was purified by combined various ion-exchangers. Individual metals were selectively eluted from ion-exchanger by combination of different eluents. The content of metals in samples was analyzed by ICP

  1. Radiation safety consideration in uranium industry in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.T.; El-Assaly, F.M.; El-Naggar, A.M.; Gomaa, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection measures are essential in mining and milling of uranium and thorium. The basic concept of radiation protection is that all exposures should be kept as low as it is reasonably achievable (ALARA). Most potential hazards arise from exposures to radioactive gases of radon and thoron and their daughter products. Thus new limits were derived by the ICRP integrating both the internal and external exposures to radon daughters. The present study evaluates the radiation protection measures carried out at three Egyptian mines (Massikat, Aradia North and South). Different recommendations were presented complying with optimization of radiation protection in accordance with the ICRP system of dose limitation

  2. Recent technical progress in the French uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, H.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reviews the present-day uranium production situation in France. The various stages of the treatment the concentrates receive, leading to the final production of the metal, are described briefly: dissolution, purification by extraction with a mixture of tributyl phosphate and white spirit, precipitation with ammonia, drying and calcination of the trioxide, reduction with hydrogen, cracked ammonia or preferably pure ammonia gas, fluorination with anhydrous hydrofluoric acid, and production of the metal by the calcium thermite process. Recent work of an original nature is discussed in greater detail. (author) [fr

  3. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities

  4. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.; Hartley, J.N.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities.

  5. Historical development and future trends in the uranium industry and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, D.M.; Leamon, G.E.; Stobbs, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The historical development of the uranium industry in general and of uranium prices in particular over the last 30 years is reviewed with the aim of defining: how the industry has evolved into its present position, how the industry responds to various market conditions, and implications for the assurance of future supplies. The industry's early history and the commercial market that began in the late 1960s are reviewed. A price history is shown in constant dollars and in year-of-delivery dollars. Since the beginning of the commercial market the uranium market has experienced large price variations. The specific causes for the cycles are discussed, including normal market responses of buyers and sellers and the impact of government policies. Expected market conditions and price levels for the next decade are presented. Current market conditions and price levels reflect the bottom of a downward price cycle. Although world-wide reserves are more than adequate to meet estimated uranium demand for the remainder of the century, prices will have to approach mid-1970 levels in constant-dollar terms to ensure the timely availability of production capability in the late 1980s. An upward price cycle should begin by the mid-1980s as buyers seek additional contract commitments and supply expands from currently reduced levels. (author)

  6. The industrial types of uranium deposits of Ukraine and their resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakarjiev, A. Ch.; Makhivchuk, O.F.; Popov, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial uranium deposits of Ukraine are represented by two types. Their origin is related to the processes of alkali metasomatism in areas of proto-activization that took place at the late orogenic stage of the formation of the Ukrainian shield. Deposits are located in large cataclatic zones that are formed at the intersection of deep fractures. (author). 5 figs

  7. Government policy uncertainty and stock prices: The case of Australia's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, Andrew; Lam, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate effects of government policy uncertainty on stock prices, reflecting tension between ‘private interest’ (economic benefits) and ‘public interest’ arguments over uranium mining. Using a sample of Australian-listed uranium firms from January 2005 through June 2008, we document a positive contemporaneous correlation between stock returns and volatility and two measures of government policy uncertainty, proxied by the spread in voters' opinion polls between the two major political parties and a news-based sentiment index. Event-study results show significant stock price reactions to key uranium-related policy events, with cross-sectional variation in event returns predicted by models incorporating firm- and project-level characteristics. Our research design and findings may inform future research on the capital market effects of government policy uncertainty in other regulated industries. - Highlights: • Government policy uncertainty has direct effects on stock prices of uranium explorers. • Stock returns are positively related to the spread in two-party-preferred voting intention. • Stock volatility is positively related to a uranium news-based sentiment index. • Event-study results show significant market reaction to key uranium policy events.

  8. Electrodeposition in molten salts of metals used in nuclear industry: hafnium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the electrodeposition in molten salts of metals used in nuclear industry: hafnium and uranium. The experiment is carried out in a molten alkaline halogenide medium in a temperature range between 670 and 750 degrees Celsius. The first part of this work concerns more particularly the electrochemical behaviour of the hafnium and uranium ions in the electrolytic solution. The reduction mechanisms of these ions have been studied by the use of three methods: cyclic voltametry, chrono-potentiometry and square wave voltametry. Results have shown that the process of metal deposition is difficult to explain because secondary reactions (as for instance: adsorption phenomena or cathodic deposit dissolution) occur. The uranium germination has then been studied by modelling of chrono-amperograms. The experiments have shown that the deposition is the result of the initial uranium crystal growth and depends on the electrolyte diffusion. The second part of this work deals with the implementation of hafnium and uranium deposition taking into account the preceding mechanistic studies. Depositions have all been observed by physical methods as for instance scanning electron microscopy. Particular experimental solutions (soluble anode, addition of fluoride ions to the electrolyte) have been used. The obtained deposition of hafnium is smooth and adheres very well to the substrate. The uranium depositions have been implemented with the use of a soluble anode. Uranium is deposited in a dendritic shape to the cathode. It has also been shown that the electro-kinetic parameters (temperature, uranium ions concentration, current density) have not an important influence on the dendritic morphology of the deposition. This morphology could be the consequence of particular convection movements to the surface of the cathode. (O.M.)

  9. Some environmental challenges which the uranium production industry faces in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lisheng

    2004-01-01

    Some of the environmental challenges which the uranium production industry faces in the 21st century have been discussed in the paper. They are: the use of the linear non-threshold (LNT) model for radiation protection, the concept of 'controllable dose' as an alternative to the current International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of dose limitation, the future of collective dose and the ALARA (As low As Reasonably Achievable) principle and the application of a risk-based framework for managing hazards. The author proposes that, the risk assessment/risk management framework could be used for managing the environmental, safety and decommissioning issues associated with the uranium fuel cycle. (author)

  10. Overview of the technological enhancement of natural radiation in the Brazilian non-uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Pires do Rio, M.A.; Rosa, R.; Veiga, L.H.S.; Amaral, E.C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The mining and milling of ores with significant amounts of uranium and thorium associated to the main ore has the potential to pose undue health risks to members of the general public and workers. In order to assess the status of this problem in the Brazilian non-uranium mining industries a comprehensive investigation project has been undertaken. The adopted methodology was based on the detailed analysis of each investigated industry operational flowplan, mass balance calculations, risk assessment (operational and post-operational scenarios taken into account) and environmental management principles. This papers addresses the main issues arising from the investigation effort, reports the most relevant conclusions and states the future studies to be implemented. It could be observed that these industries have the potential to cause relevant radiological impacts and must be regulated/controlled as to avoid these problems. (author)

  11. Evaluation of NORM in facility Venezuelan oil industry to establish regulatory criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Lozada, D. J.; Rivas, I.; Davila, L.; Flores, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The present work shows the need to identify, in the Venezuelan oil industry, the existence of exposure to natural sources of radiation should be considered as occupational. As Regulatory Authority in the area of ionizing radiation the need for regulatory processes and ensure radiation protection of personnel involved in these practices arises, as well as personal and environmental monitoring. NORM identifying an installation of the Venezuelan oil industry to establish regulatory processes and take steps to ensure occupational radiation protection. (Author)

  12. Uranium and thorium recovery from a sub-product of monazite industrial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomiero, L.A.; Ribeiro, J.S.; Scassiotti Filho, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the monazite alkaline leaching industrial process for the production of rare earth elements, a by-product is formed, which has a high concentration of thorium and a lower but significant one of uranium. A procedure for recovery of the thorium and uranium contents in this by-product is presented. The first step of this procedure is the leaching with sulfuric acid, followed by uranium extraction from the acid liquor with a tertiary amine, stripping with a Na Cl solutions and precipitation as ammonium diuranate with N H 4 O H. In order to obtain thorium concentrates with higher purity, it is performed by means of the extraction of thorium from the acid liquor, with a primary amine, stripping by a Na Cl solution and precipitation as thorium hydroxide or oxalate. (author)

  13. Assessment of internal dose caused by uranium isotopes for workers in the phosphatic industry using alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Sakhita, Kh.; Al-Dallal, Z.

    2007-04-01

    There is probability of exposure to uranium for workers in the phosphate industry (Internal exposure) by inhalation, and the deposition of this uranium in organs and tissues, and the consequence excretion out of the body by perspiration or urine. This study focuses on the determination of uranium in urine samples of workers .some results seem to be higher than the detection limit of the method, therefore routine monitoring is required for those workers.(Author)

  14. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-11-01

    Factors considered by the author to be responsible for the image crisis being experienced by all types of mining are discussed. The additional problems introduced by the presence of radiation in uranium mining are detailed along with the associated regulatory concerns. The Canadian regulatory system as it pertains to uranium mining is outlined very generally, followed by the author's views on improving the image of both uranium mining and the nuclear industry as a whole

  15. The creation of a uranium oxide industry, from the laboratory stage to a pilot plant (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Delange, M.; Sauteron, J.

    1961-01-01

    The qualities of uranium oxide, in particular its good in-pile characteristics and its resistance to corrosion by the usual heat-exchange fluids, have led to this material being chose at the present time as a nuclear fuel in many power reactors, either planned or under construction. A great effort has been made these last few years in France in studying processes for transforming powdered uranium oxide into a dense material with satisfactory behaviour in a neutron flux. The laboratories at Saclay have studied the physico-chemical features of the phenomena accompanying the calcination of uranium peroxide or ammonium uranate to give uranium trioxide, and the subsequent reduction of the latter to dioxide as well as the sintering of the powders obtained. This work has made it possible on one hand to prepare powder of known specific surface area, and on the other to show the overriding influence of this factor, all other things being equal, on the behaviour of powders during sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere. The work has led to defining two methods for sintering stoichiometric uranium oxide of high density. The technological study of the preparation of the powder and its industrial production are carried out at the plant of Le Bouchet which produces at the moment powders of known characteristics suitable for sintering in hydrogen at 1650 deg. C without prior grinding. The industrial sintering is carried out by the Compagnie industrielle des Combustibles Atomiques Frittes who has set up a pilot plant having a capacity of 25 metric tons/year, for the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique and has been operating this plant since May 1958. This plant is presented by a film entitled 'uranium oxide'. (author) [fr

  16. Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R M

    1976-01-01

    Evidence of expanding markets, improved prices and the short supply of uranium became abundantly clear in 1975, providing the much needed impetus for widespread activity in all phases of uranium operations. Exploration activity that had been at low levels in recent years in Canada was evident in most provinces as well as the Northwest Territories. All producers were in the process of expanding their uranium-producing facilities. Canada's Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) by year-end had authorized the export of over 73,000 tons of U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ all since September 1974, when the federal government announced its new uranium export guidelines. World production, which had been in the order of 25,000 tons of U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ annually, was expected to reach about 28,000 tons in 1975, principally from increased output in the United States.

  17. 77 FR 60482 - Regulatory Guide 5.67, Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities Authorized To Produce Special Nuclear Material of Low Strategic... Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities Authorized to Produce Special Nuclear Material of Low Strategic... and is applicable to the Paducah GDP and other uranium enrichment facilities that have been licensed...

  18. Challenges of development of regulatory control infrastructure for uranium mining in developing countries (Tanzania) to achieve regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kileo, A.; Mwalongo, D.; Mkilaha, I.; Mwaipopo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Managing radiation and waste in uranium mining is of paramount importance for the protection of occupational workers, the public and the environment. Responsibilities of the parties which are involved in the part of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle are outlined in the legislations and regulations governing uranium prospecting, mining and processing. The Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, as the regulator for radiation and atomic energy, has developed regulations for exploration, construction, mining, milling, packaging, transport of yellow cake and decommissioning of uranium mine site in Tanzania. This paper outlines the development of these regulations and compares with the international standards. The paper also reviews and analyses gaps and shortcomings for safe uranium mining in United Republic of Tanzania. (author)

  19. 77 FR 12098 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule... FINRA and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the..., and C below, of the most significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's...

  20. 76 FR 9838 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    .... 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance..., and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... in sections A, B, and C below, of the most significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory...

  1. 76 FR 9840 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    .... 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance... Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory..., and C below, of the most significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's...

  2. Dose constraint for Industrial gammagraphy developed by regulatory authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas Mariaca, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    Aware that the dose limitation established by the Basic Safety Standards, is one of the radiation protection requirements necessary but not sufficient; and also aware that given the characteristics of the different practices and the culture of security already achieved in such practices, the workers occupationally exposed are far below from the respective limits. It becomes imperative to improve and exploit another of the requirements established by the referred standards, which is the Dose Constraint. This job takes as a basis the dose history having in the Bolivian Authority in nuclear issues, referred to the practices related to Nuclear Gauges, Well Logging, Radiotherapy and Industrial Gammagraphy (practices considered dangerous). This analysis is intended to be the pivot for the remainder practices and had as its goal, the establishment of a specific dose constraint value. The dose constraint suggested for every practices studied, were determined considering the percentile 95 and with the logic that if that 95% are able to achieve certain values of effective dose, the other 5% should be able to adapt their working conditions in order to decrease their doses. The spread of this work is intended not only aware, to other regulatory bodies to achieve a symbiosis between the different requirements of the Standard, but basically emphasize the fact that it is not convenient let the requirement of dose constraint exclusively in the hands of the regulated institutions and associated workers; making it, very subjective among those institutions according to their analysis (many times with no statistical support). Furthermore these dose constraint values should be determined previously to a new practice authorization or failing shortly after its implementation. (author)

  3. The costs of uncertainty: regulating health and safety in the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.

    1982-04-01

    Federalism, and particularly federal/provincial jurisdictional relationships, have led to considerable uncertainty in the regulation of occupational health and safety and of environmental protection in the Canadian uranium mining industry. The two principal uranium producing provinces in Canada are Saskatchewan and Ontario. Since 1978, in an attempt to avoid constitutional issues, both these provinces and the federal government as well have proceeded unilaterally with health and safety reforms for the industry. In Saskatchewan this has resulted in areas of overlapping jurisdiction, which have led to uncertainty over the legal enforceability of the provincial regulations. In Ontario, the province has left significant gaps in the protection of both workers and the environment. Little progress can be expected in eliminating these gaps and overlaps until the current administrative and jurisdictional arrangements are understood

  4. Reconnaissance geochemical survey for uranium and related industrial minerals in Cebu Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.Y.; Ramos, A.F.; Magsambol, W.N.; Hernandez, E.

    1989-03-01

    Consistent with the program of evaluating the nuclear mineral resource potential and related industrial minerals of the Philippines, a reconnaissance geochemical survey was conducted in Cebu with considerable success. The total area covered by the survey was about 5,088 sq. kms. The survey consisted of systematic collection of 857 geochemical stream and water and heavy mineral samples, and measurement of radioactivity in over 352 stations. The average sampling density was about one set of samples per 15 to 30 sq. kms. All solid samples were analyzed for U, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ag, Co and Ni. Uranium, radon and conductivity were measured on most water samples collected. A total of 4,518 elemental determinations were involved. All field and analytical data were treated by statistics, and the computed parameters data were correlated with the geology of the area to establish anomalous zones. Four areas were delineated for possible uranium mineralization. Of the areas, the Mandaue river area is the most interesting for uranium. The contact zone between the diorite and the sedimentary rocks in this area appears to be a favorable geological environment for uranium mineralization. The other anomalous uranium values were found to be related with the guano and phosphate deposits. Uranium was also shown to be independent of the other seven elements in the geologic environment of Cebu. No definite elemental association could be established at present. This study also marks the thorough utilization of Q'GAS, Cadplot and Autocad, all microcomputer-based programs/systems, in the evaluation and interpretation of exploration-oriented geochemical and geological data, and with more significance in the sense that computer generated quality geochemical maps were produced, a first in the country. (Author). Appendices (23); 23 figs; 13 refs.; 4 tabs

  5. Responding to non-technical challenges in the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpyth, A.

    1997-01-01

    The modern uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan has been working with northerners, governments, and educational institutions for nearly 20 years to bring about one of the highest levels of northern and aboriginal participation in an industrial sector in Canada. It has accomplished this in the face of challenges - those arising from the demographics of the north, continuously rising expectations, and the at times difficult demands from evolving aboriginal political institutions. Every second apprenticeship vacancy at Key Lake is to be awarded to an employee of aboriginal ancestry. Saskatchewan dominates uranium mining because of the high grade of its deposits. Even though Key Lake, Rabbit Lake and Cluff Lake are coming near the end of their lives, they will be replaced by: McArthur River (with average grade 15% U 3 O 8 ), Cigar Lake (9%), McClean Lake (3.5), Midwest (4.5). Without doubt, the grade and size of these new deposits will contribute to the competitiveness of the Saskatchewan uranium mining industry; but so too will the workforce

  6. Impact of pulling down regulatory state barriers on uranium in Australia: Is there a need in order to maintain and increase Australia’s global market share of uranium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlaas Gurrib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets a prospective framework to study the impact of opening more mines to meet future growing demand on Australia’s economy. The structure is aimed at decomposing investments and exports variables into Uranium exports and Uranium Exploration expenditure and analyse their impacts on each State GSP (Goods State Product and for Australia as a nation. The demand and supply factors affecting the uranium market are defragmented before providing the research methodology and data specifics. Later analysis is expected to have policy implications by serving as a guide to pull down State Regulatory barriers like those imposed currently in Queensland, which is rich with uranium deposits and allow only uranium exploration but no uranium mining. Empirical findings would suggest whether exporting the carbon free energy would add value to Australia’s different competing states and as a whole globalized economy.

  7. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  8. From USA operation experience of industrial uranium-graphite reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdakov, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The review on materials, presented by a group of the USA specialists at the seminar in Moscow on October 9-11, 1995 is considered. The above specialists shared their experience in operation of the Hanford industrial reactors, aimed at plutonium production for atomic bombs. The purpose of the above visit consisted in providing assistance to the Russian specialists by evaluation and modernization of operational conditions safety improvement of the RBMK type reactors. Special attention is paid to the behaviour of the graphite lining and channel tubes with an account of possible channel power interaction with the reactor structural units. The information on the experience of the Hanford reactor operation may be useful for specialists, operating the RBMK type reactors

  9. Analytical strategies for uranium determination in natural water and industrial effluents samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Juracir Silva

    2011-01-01

    The work was developed under the project 993/2007 - 'Development of analytical strategies for uranium determination in environmental and industrial samples - Environmental monitoring in the Caetite city, Bahia, Brazil' and made possible through a partnership established between Universidade Federal da Bahia and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Strategies were developed to uranium determination in natural water and effluents of uranium mine. The first one was a critical evaluation of the determination of uranium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) performed using factorial and Doehlert designs involving the factors: acid concentration, radio frequency power and nebuliser gas flow rate. Five emission lines were simultaneously studied (namely: 367.007, 385.464, 385.957, 386.592 and 409.013 nm), in the presence of HN0 3 , H 3 C 2 00H or HCI. The determinations in HN0 3 medium were the most sensitive. Among the factors studied, the gas flow rate was the most significant for the five emission lines. Calcium caused interference in the emission intensity for some lines and iron did not interfere (at least up to 10 mg L -1 ) in the five lines studied. The presence of 13 other elements did not affect the emission intensity of uranium for the lines chosen. The optimized method, using the line at 385.957 nm, allows the determination of uranium with limit of quantification of 30 μg L -1 and precision expressed as RSD lower than 2.2% for uranium concentrations of either 500 and 1000 μg L -1 . In second one, a highly sensitive flow-based procedure for uranium determination in natural waters is described. A 100-cm optical path flow cell based on a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) was exploited to increase sensitivity of the arsenazo 111 method, aiming to achieve the limits established by environmental regulations. The flow system was designed with solenoid micro-pumps in order to improve mixing and minimize reagent consumption, as well as

  10. Reduction of uranium compounds to uranium dioxide in semi-industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogaca Filho, N.; Freitas, C.T. de; Ambrozio Filho, F.

    1982-01-01

    Developments leading to nuclear grade UO 2 production output in the hundreds of kilograms per day level have been presented. Details of the batch type;, semi-continuous and continuous furnaces utilized have been indicated and their respective operational behaviour evaluated in the context of impuritity pick-up during processing. Also described are the quality control procedures that assured consistence in the high purity grade of UO 2 produced, satisfying internationally adopted criteria. The proposed objective of attaining semi-industrial scale production capability was reached, with procedures and equipment preponderantly developed in Brazil; which will permit the expansion of production in the near future. (Author) [pt

  11. Derived surface contamination limits for the uranium mining and milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, S.H.

    1984-10-01

    Derived Surface Contamination Limits (DSCL) are proposed for the control of surface contamination at the work place for the uranium mining and milling industry. They have been derived by a method incorporating recent ICRP recommendations and consideration of the radiation exposure pathways of ingestion, inhalation and external irradiation of the basal layer of skin. A generalized DSCL of 10 5 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is recommended for all contaminants likely to be found in uranium mine and mill workplaces except for fresh uranium concentrates. In the latter case, the DSCL is expressed in terms of alpha activity because the ratio of beta to alpha activities for fresh uranium concentrates is variable; the beta activity increases with the ingrowth of U-238 daughter products (Th-234 and Pa-234m) until secular equilibrium is re-established in about six months. A surface contamination limit of 10 4 Bq/m 2 of beta activity is proposed for the release of non-porous materials and equipment with no detectable loose contamination to the public domain

  12. The role of SMDC in the Saskatchewan uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, David

    1979-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Mining Development Corporation (SMDC) is a Crown Corporation owned by the Government of Saskatchewan. It engages in all phases of the mineral industry from exploration to development, and finally production and sale of minerals. SMDC participates in joint ventures of two types - voluntary and crown equity participation. To date, SMDC has entered into 27 voluntary ventures, five of which have been abandoned. Crown equity participation is more common. Companies acquiring mineral depositions after Mar. 1, 1975, are required to offer the Crown up to a 50 per cent joint venture when it is first intended to spend more than $10,000 in any one year on a particular disposition. To date, participation has been offered in about 75 programs and an interest has been taken in 70 of these. More than 50 per cent of SMDC joint venture expenditures are with partners from Germany, France, Japan, Italy, Great Britian and Sweden. SMDC hired an exploration manager in May of 1976 and commenced an active exploration program almost immediately. A total of 20 projects are currently underway. (LL)

  13. A regulatory perspective on the radiological impact of NORM industries: the case of the Spanish phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Matarranz, J.L.M.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive and chemical risks coexist in NORM industries although they are usually addressed separately by regulations. The European Union (EU) has developed extensive legislation concerning both matters, which has been diversely reflected in national policies. We consider the case of the Spanish phosphate industry and analyse to which extent regulatory mandates have reduced the historical and ongoing radiological impact on the environment of phosphate facilities. Although no specific radiological constraints on effluent monitoring and release or on waste disposal have yet been imposed on NORM industries in Spain, other environmental regulations have achieved a substantial reduction on the phosphate industry impact. Nevertheless, a more efficient control could be established by eliminating the current conceptual and practical separation of chemical and radioactive risks in NORM industries. We highlight research needs to accomplish so and propose shorter-term measures that require active cooperation among the regulatory bodies involved. - Research highlights: → The radiological impact of the Spanish phosphate industry has substantially decreased as a side result of environmental regulations on chemical pollution.→ A more efficient control of NORM industries could be established by eliminating the current conceptual and practical separation of chemical and radioactive risks.→ Further research is needed on how interactions between radiation and chemicals might affect regulatory limits and on a systematic way to input stakeholder preferences in MCDA.→ On shorter-term, administrative measures that require active cooperation among the regulatory bodies involved can be taken.

  14. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The French Government has decided to freeze a substantial part of its nuclear power programme. Work has been halted on 18 reactors. This power programme is discussed, as well as the effect it has on the supply of uranium by South Africa

  15. Review of the uranium industry in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The 145 000 MWe of nuclear capacity that will be operational in the U.S.A. by 1985 will demand an annual production of U 3 O 8 of 39 000 tons (the 1976 figure is 17 000 tons). The short term pressures on the uranium industry to expand mining and milling capacity and the long-term pressures to discover more uranium and to increase basic reserves are therefore readily apparent. Milling capacity, for example, must grow from 28 000 tons of ore per day at present to 145 000 ton/day by 1985. In the face of these estimated requirements it is clear that changes in traditional exploration, mining and milling methods must take place. Current and possible future developments in exploration, mining and processing in the U.S.A. are outlined, as are the effects of increasingly important political and environmental considerations. Finally, mention is made of the governmental programme which is designed to provide industry with the data and technology needed for exploration and mining and to assess American uranium resources. (author)

  16. Fluorimetric determination of uranium in certain refractory minerals, environmental samples and industrial waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Saravanakumar, G.

    2005-01-01

    A simple sample decomposition and laser fluorimetric determination of uranium at trace level is reported in certain refractory minerals, like ilmenite, rutile, zircon and monazite; environmental samples viz. soil and sediments; industrial waste materials, such as, coal fly ash and red mud. Ilmenite sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium fluoride. Rutile, zircon and monazite minerals are decomposed by fusion using a mixture of potassium bifluoride and sodium fluoride. Environmental and industrial waste materials are brought into solution by treating with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids. The laser induced fluorimetric determination of uranium is carried out directly in rutile, zircon and in monazite minerals and after separation in other samples. The determination limit was 1 μg x g -1 for ilmenite, soil, sediment, coal fly ash and red mud samples, and it is 5 μg x g -1 for rutile, zircon and monazite. The method is also developed for the optical fluorimetric determination of uranium (determination limit 10 μg x g -1 ) in ilmenite, rutile, zircon and monazite minerals. The methods are simple, accurate, and precise and they require small quantity of sample and can be applied for the routine analysis. (author)

  17. Ion flotation of uranium contained in industrial phosphoric acid with collector recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jdid, E.; Blazy, P.; Bessiere, J.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium has been recovered from wet-process phosphoric acid (30% P 2 O 5 ) by ion flotation with an anionic organophosphorous collector. Recoveries greater than 90% were obtained even at temperatures of about 60 C, the uranium concentrate, which was collected in the froth as a precipitate, containing 7 to 10% U. Collector consumption without recycling of the surface-active reagent was about 12 kg/kg U. Much of the reagent, however, can be recovered for recycling by attack with sodium hydroxide on the floated phase after filtration. This enables a precipitate containing about 30% U to be produced and decreases collector consumption to about 3 kg/kg U. The results were obtained in laboratory-scale experiments on industrial wet-process acid. (author)

  18. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheeseman, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The international uranium market appears to be currently over-supplied with a resultant softening in prices. Buyers on the international market are unhappy about some of the restrictions placed on sales by the government, and Canadian sales may suffer as a result. About 64 percent of Canada's shipments come from five operating Ontario mines, with the balance from Saskatchewan. Several other properties will be producing within the next few years. In spite of the adverse effects of the Three Mile Island incident and the default by the T.V.A. of their contract, some 3 600 tonnes of new uranium sales were completed during the year. The price for uranium had stabilized at US $42 - $44 by mid 1979, but by early 1980 had softened somewhat. The year 1979 saw the completion of major environmental hearings in Ontario and Newfoundland and the start of the B.C. inquiry. Two more hearings are scheduled for Saskatchewan in 1980. The Elliot Lake uranium mining expansion hearings are reviewed, as are other recent hearings. In the production of uranium for nuclear fuel cycle, environmental matters are of major concern to the industry, the public and to governments. Research is being conducted to determine the most effective method for removing radium from tailings area effluents. Very stringent criteria are being drawn up by the regulatory agencies that must be met by the industry in order to obtain an operating licence from the AECB. These criteria cover seepages from the tailings basin and through the tailings retention dam, seismic stability, and both short and long term management of the tailings waste management area. (auth)

  19. 75 FR 72850 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    .... FINRA has been advised by insurance industry representatives that the proposed rule change does not... Act Rule 17a-4(b)(4). FINRA has been advised by insurance industry representatives that the proposed... providers, may be impacted by bond renewal cycles and changes required by the insurance industry. FINRA will...

  20. 76 FR 9028 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... Duvall-Miller, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire... to provide the following: (1) Firsthand exposure to industry's drug development processes and (2) a...

  1. 75 FR 10806 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... INFORMATION CONTACT: Beth Duvall-Miller, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration... to provide the following: (1) First hand exposure to industry's drug development processes and (2) a...

  2. 77 FR 10538 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...] Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... Brum, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave...) Firsthand exposure to industry's drug development processes and (2) a venue for sharing information about...

  3. 78 FR 8544 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...] Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... Brum, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave... to industry's drug development processes and (2) a venue for sharing information about project...

  4. A Review of International Telecommunications Industry Issues, Structure, and Regulatory Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jack E.; And Others

    Industry structure studies prior to 1968 are briefly reviewed, and an overview of industrial and technological developments up to the present is provided through synopses of more recent studies. Areas covered include overseas telephone and record carriers; the creation of the Communications Satellite Corporation; the current regulatory and…

  5. Analysis of regulatory structure for a potential fusion reactor industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The report is divided into eight sections. The preface describes the authors of the report, the methodology used in its preparation, and some basic legal terms. The summary describes the principal features of the proposed regulatory system and also includes two flow charts comparing our model with present NRC practices and a summary table briefly outlining the reasoning behind our recommendations. The main body of the report is divided into six sections. This part of the report discusses the existing federal and state programs for regulating electric energy, describes NRC operations and the criticisms of that agency, discusses the features of our proposed regulatory model, recommends certain steps for implementing the proposed model, and states the conclusions of the report.

  6. International Commission On Radiological Protection: recommendations relevant to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an independent, international organization that advances for the public benefit the science of radiological protection, in particular by providing recommendations and guidance on all aspects of protection against ionizing radiation. This presentation touches on aspects of The 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP, a fundamental document that lays out the system of radiological protection for all exposure situations and types, and focuses on other recent publications relevant to the uranium industry. Of particular relevance are the 2009 ICRP Statement on Radon and the accompanying report on lung cancer risk from radon. (author)

  7. Radon in uranium mining industry and application of SSNTD in monitoring and dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Radon is present everywhere and accounts for a globally major share of natural radiation exposure of the population. Though it is present in most of the underground workings it is a source of concern in uranium mining and ore processing industry as well as in many other operations carried out in confined spaces below the ground, like railway tunnels and non-uranium underground mines. Many monitoring techniques are available for evaluation of radon and its short-lived progeny concentrations. Scintillation cell techniques, also called Lucas cell, is one of the earliest developed methods of radon monitoring still widely used in mines where appreciable concentrations of radon above about 40-50 Bq.m -3 are expected. For low concentration of radon as observed in the atmosphere, dwellings and other workplaces, the radon absorption in charcoal followed by gamma counting, two filter method and electrostatic techniques are available. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are now widely used for a variety of situations for monitoring of low level of radon over an extended period of time. It is now extensively used in radon monitoring in dwellings and also in radon dosimetry in mines. Radon daughters being the more important contributors to the internal radiation exposure are also being monitored using conventional techniques as well as SSNTD. Various monitoring techniques for radon and its progeny and the concentrations observed at different stages of uranium mining, ore processing and tailings management are discussed in this presentation. (author)

  8. REGULATORY FUNDAMENTALS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS IN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Gubich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the existing regulatory basis for the development of IIST. The features of IT projects management and a brief description of methodological recommendations on implementation of IT projects of the State scientific and technical Program «Electronic enterprise resource planning (CALS-ERP-technology» for 2011–2015 are considered.

  9. The Crouzille (Haute-Vienne, France) uranium ores. Half a century of human and industrial adventure in Limousin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavoux, B.; Guiollard, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The 16 uranium deposits of the Crouzille (Haute-Vienne, France) have produced 25000 tons of uranium between 1950 and 1995. The uranium content of the ores ranges from 1 to 10/1000. The main production came from the underground exploitation up to 300 m of depth. This book presents the historical aspects of this industrial and human epopee and describes with details the underground exploitation of the ore, its processing and the rehabilitation of the site after the mines have closed down. (J.S.)

  10. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  11. 75 FR 52380 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... recent outsourcing of surveillance and other regulatory functions to FINRA.\\8\\ Specifically, to have... with NASD IM-1013-1 or NASD IM-1013-2, including limiting its business operations to ``permitted floor... NASD IM-1013-2 establish a waive-in membership application process for certain firms to become FINRA...

  12. 78 FR 4186 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... securities offered or sold pursuant to crowdfunding.\\5\\ Intermediaries in transactions involving the offer or sale of securities for the account of others pursuant to the crowdfunding exemption must, among other...- regulatory organization.\\7\\ \\4\\ Public Law 112-106, 126 Stat. 306 (2012). \\5\\ In general, crowdfunding refers...

  13. 75 FR 75529 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... advance notice of the new Verification of Assets rule. \\8\\ 15 U.S.C. 78o-3(b)(6). B. Self-Regulatory... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63383; File No. SR-FINRA-2010-062] Self... in SR-FINRA-2010-042 (Verification of Assets) November 29, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  14. 75 FR 15470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change FINRA is proposing... (Disclosure of Price and Concessions in Selling Agreements) and the deletion of NASD Rule 2770 (Disclosure of Price in Selling Agreements). FINRA Rule 5160 was approved by the Commission on January 25, 2010 \\5\\ and...

  15. 77 FR 8938 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... expenses as ``other'' (miscellaneous), a very general categorization that provides FINRA limited visibility... supplemental filing would play with respect to a broker-dealer's annual audit.\\28\\ \\26\\ CAI. \\27\\ Id. \\28\\ Id... any future schedules or reports be done through the more typical self- regulatory organization (``SRO...

  16. [The regulatory regime and the health insurance industry in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory regime for health insurance and prepayment schemes in Brazil. It describes the ideas that have influenced the creation of the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar-ANS (National Agency of Supplementary Health) in 2000, showing that the independent agency model was a direct result of the privatization process and of the induction of new competition mechanisms in a natural state monopoly. The paper concludes that the prepayment firms in Brazil are facing a new institutional environment as refers to their market entry or exit conditions.

  17. 76 FR 13442 - Joint Industry Plan; Order Approving Amendment No. 25 to the Joint Self-Regulatory Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ..., Consolidation and Dissemination of Quotation and Transaction Information for Nasdaq-Listed Securities Traded on... Exchange, Inc., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., International Securities Exchange LLC...-Regulatory Organization Plan Governing the Collection, Consolidation, and Dissemination of Quotation and...

  18. 78 FR 58352 - Joint Industry Plan; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 30 to the Joint Self-Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Collection, Consolidation and Dissemination of Quotation and Transaction Information for Nasdaq-Listed... Exchange, Inc., EDGX Exchange, Inc., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., International... ``Committee'') \\3\\ of the Joint Self-Regulatory Organization Plan Governing the Collection, Consolidation, and...

  19. 78 FR 66788 - Joint Industry Plan; Order Approving Amendment No. 30 to the Joint Self-Regulatory Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ..., Consolidation and Dissemination of Quotation and Transaction Information for Nasdaq-Listed Securities Traded on... Exchange, Inc., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., International Securities Exchange LLC...-Regulatory Organization Plan Governing the Collection, Consolidation, and Dissemination of Quotation and...

  20. 76 FR 5224 - Joint Industry Plan; Notice of Filing of Amendment No. 25 to the Joint Self-Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Collection, Consolidation and Dissemination of Quotation and Transaction Information for Nasdaq-Listed... Exchange, Inc., EDGX Exchange, Inc., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., International... Joint Self-Regulatory Organization Plan Governing the Collection, Consolidation, and Dissemination of...

  1. 75 FR 71479 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Consolidated FINRA Rulebook November 17, 2010. I. Introduction On July 30, 2010, the Financial Industry....finra.org/web/groups/industry/@ip/@reg/@rulfil/documents/rulefilings/p122318.pdf , at the principal... available under the plan; Asset allocation models that are (i) based on generally accepted investment theory...

  2. Recent initiatives to improve tailings and water management in the expanding Australian uranium milling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, R.J.; Woods, P.H.; Muller, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental and safety related changes that have recently occurred, or are about to be implemented in the Australian uranium milling industry. There are several drivers for these changes. The most important are the significant expansions to the Ranger and Olympic Dam uranium mills, the mining of a new orebody at Ranger and Government permission for the development of the Jabiluka deposit. The major changes in the operation of mines relate to the conservation and recycle of water, an important environmental issue in the arid country surrounding the Olympic Dam deposit, and tailings disposal strategies recently adopted or under consideration. These strategies include methods such as central thickened discharge, and cemented paste-fill for both underground and above ground disposal. The new ICRP 60 recommendations concerning radiation exposure have not been of major concern to the Australian industry, as dose rates have been historically less than the new limits. Current and expected dose rates are discussed in the context of these recommendations. (author)

  3. Uranium ore waste management of the CIPC (Mining Industrial Complex of Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiikmann, Luiz Oide; Figueiredo, Nestor; Taddei, Jose Fernando Aguiar Carrazedo; Valente, Sergio Mozart Coutinho; Chilelli Junior, Vicente; Souza, Vicente Paulo de

    1995-01-01

    Since 1982, the facilities in CIPC has been producing a uranium concentrate under ammonium diuranate form, from uranium ore. The CIPC,s Waste Management System is responsible for monitoring and controlling the mining and milling effluents, in accordance with norms established by government regulatory agencies. Here we are concerned with this system's efficiency, costs and, with necessary procedures for waste rock piles'stabilization in physical, chemical and biological aspects with aim of environmentally restoring these areas. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; McKay, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Production for 1986 was 4899 t U 3 O 8 (4154 t U), 30% greater than in 1985, mainly because of a 39% increase in production at Ranger. Exports for 1986 were 4166 t U 3 O 8 at an average f.o.b. unit value of $40.57/lb U 3 O 8 . Private exploration expenditure for uranium in Australia during the 1985-86 fiscal year was $50.2 million. Plans were announced to increase the nominal capacity of the processing plant at Ranger from 3000 t/year U 3 O 8 to 4500 t and later to 6000 t/year. Construction and initial mine development at Olympic Dam began in March. Production is planned for mid 1988 at an annual rate of 2000 t U 3 O 8 , 30 000 t Cu, and 90 000 oz (2800 kg) Au. The first long-term sales agreement was concluded in September 1986. At the Manyingee deposit, testing of the alkaline solution mining method was completed, and the treatment plant was dismantled. Spot market prices (in US$/lb U 3 O 8 ) quoted by Nuexco were generally stable. From January-October the exchange value fluctuated from US$17.00-US$17.25; for November and December it was US$16.75. Australia's Reasonably Assured Resources of uranium recoverable at less than US$80/kg U at December 1986 were estimated as 462 000 t U, 3000 t U less than in 1985. This represents 30% of the total low-cost RAR in the WOCA (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economy Areas) countries. Australia also has 257 000 t U in the low-cost Estimated Additional Resources Category I, 29% of the WOCA countries' total resources in this category

  5. Legal and regulatory education and training needs in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Steve W; Burke, Debra; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    As in any other industry, laws and regulations significantly impact the functioning of the healthcare industry. Some laws, such as those relating to malpractice and social insurance systems, affect the manner in which the industry operates. Other laws, such as those regulating antitrust and employment practices, affect the organization and the environment in which the industry operates. It is increasingly important that practitioners and managers be cognizant of this complex and dynamic legal minefield. This study examined healthcare managers and executives' knowledge of 9 key issues in the legal and regulatory environment of the healthcare industry. Specifically, the study focused on knowledge concerning tort and contract liability, insurance law, labor and employment regulation, criminal and ethical responsibility, antitrust regulation, the law governing business associations and recent developments. Findings suggest that the levels of knowledge required to manage legal and regulatory issues are much greater than the existing levels of knowledge.

  6. 75 FR 48731 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62655; File No. SR-FINRA-2010-042] Self... Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 4160 (Verification of Assets) August 5, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of... rule change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory...

  7. Regulatory policy and structural change in the natural gas industry: A transaction cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently promoted policy initiatives designed to substitute market responsive industry practices for the micro-management regulatory practices previously employed. These new policies are expected to generate a flexible gas pricing policy that more accurately reflects market supply and demand conditions. Historically, much of the regulation of this industry was enacted to ensure that pipeline companies would be able to recover the very large up-front investments in immobile equipment that characterize the production, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas. The institutional detail available from historical accounts of the development of the industry are used to describe structural change over time. Regulatory policy, the level of asset specificity, and the extent of secondary environmental uncertainty are all shown to exert significant effects on the level of integration into production, storage and marketing

  8. Security practices and regulatory compliance in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Juhee; Johnson, M Eric

    2013-01-01

    Securing protected health information is a critical responsibility of every healthcare organization. We explore information security practices and identify practice patterns that are associated with improved regulatory compliance. We employed Ward's cluster analysis using minimum variance based on the adoption of security practices. Variance between organizations was measured using dichotomous data indicating the presence or absence of each security practice. Using t tests, we identified the relationships between the clusters of security practices and their regulatory compliance. We utilized the results from the Kroll/Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society telephone-based survey of 250 US healthcare organizations including adoption status of security practices, breach incidents, and perceived compliance levels on Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Red Flags rules, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and state laws governing patient information security. Our analysis identified three clusters (which we call leaders, followers, and laggers) based on the variance of security practice patterns. The clusters have significant differences among non-technical practices rather than technical practices, and the highest level of compliance was associated with hospitals that employed a balanced approach between technical and non-technical practices (or between one-off and cultural practices). Hospitals in the highest level of compliance were significantly managing third parties' breaches and training. Audit practices were important to those who scored in the middle of the pack on compliance. Our results provide security practice benchmarks for healthcare administrators and can help policy makers in developing strategic and practical guidelines for practice adoption.

  9. Bark, a suitable bio-sorbent for the removal of uranium from wastewater - From laboratory to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauberty, L.; Delpech, V.; Gloaguen, V.; Astier, C.; Krausz, P.; Berland, A.; Granger, V.; Niort, I.; Royer, A.; Decossas, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that natural materials such as barks can successfully replace synthetic resins for industrial purposes. Evaluated in batch conditions, bio-sorption of uranium on suitably prepared Douglas fir barks took place in less than 10 min and appeared to be optimum at pH>4. The bio-sorption process of uranium (uranyl form UO 2 2+ ) was characterized in the optimal physico-chemical conditions and could be mathematically modeled as a Langmuir isotherm. With a maximum uranium specific uptake q max value of 1.16 meq.g -1 (138 mgU.g -1 ) it was found that the sorption capability of Douglas fir barks was at least five times higher for uranium than for other heavy metals such as lead. Adsorption of uranium contained in water leached from a former uranium mine was then monitored over a one-month period in a laboratory-scale chromatography column. The fixation capacity remained fairly constant throughout the whole testing period. Water radioactivity decreased from 1500 mBq.L -1 (0.12 mgU.L -1 ) to -1 (0.4 μgU.L -1 ) at the column exit. This technology was successfully transferred and tested through a pilot project under industrial conditions with the support of AREVA NC. (authors)

  10. 75 FR 44033 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... the allowance for research in straightforward and streamlined fashion. Proposed FINRA Rule 5141.03 is... NASD provisions in more straightforward and streamlined fashion and accordingly render them obsolete... and reports concerning issuers, industries, securities, economic factors and trends, portfolio...

  11. Deliberations on nuclear safety regulatory system in a changing industrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety concern, which may accompany such external environmental factors as privatization and restructuring of the electric power industry, is emerging as an international issue. In order to cope with the concern about nuclear safety, it is important to feedback valuable experiences of advanced countries that restructured their electric power industries earlier and further to reflect the current safety issues, which are raised internationally, fully into the nuclear safety regulatory system. This paper is to review the safety issues that might take place in the process of increasing competition in the nuclear power industry, and further to present a basic direction and effective measures for ensuring nuclear safety in response thereto from the viewpoint of safety regulation. It includes a political direction for a regulatory body's efforts to rationalize and enforce efficiently its regulation. It proposes to ensure that regulatory specialty and regulatory cost are stably secured. Also, this paper proposes maintaining a sound nuclear safety regulatory system to monitor thoroughly the safety management activities of the industry, which might be neglected as a result of focusing on reduction of the cost for producing electric power. (author)

  12. Environmental regulatory framework for the upstream petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide its member companies with a useful reference document in environmental analysis and compliance, CAPP compiled a list of Canadian legislation, regulations and guidelines which relate to the upstream petroleum industry. Text of all federal, Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan legislation, regulations, guidelines and related documents were provided. Pending legislation, regulations and government policy have been identified. Annual updates will be provided to all subscribers

  13. Regulatory reforms and productivity: An empirical analysis of the Japanese electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Makiko; Managi, Shunsuke

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese electricity industry has experienced regulatory reforms since the mid-1990s. This article measures productivity in Japan's steam power-generation sector and examines the effect of reforms on the productivity of this industry over the period 1978-2003. We estimate the Luenberger productivity indicator, which is a generalization of the commonly used Malmquist productivity index, using a data envelopment analysis approach. Factors associated with productivity change are investigated through dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation of panel data. Our empirical analysis shows that the regulatory reforms have contributed to productivity growth in the steam power-generation sector in Japan

  14. National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info'2000. Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry. Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, Ion; Comsa, Olivia

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings published in two volumes contain materials presented at the National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info'2000, Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry, held on 5. September to 8. September 2000 at Baita Bihor, Romania. As the name of Symposium indicates, this manifestation is addressed not only to specialists but rather to the public at large. The proceedings are structured in 4 sections: 1. Management of radioactive waste arising from uranium mining, milling and decommissioning; 2. Uranium mine close-down; 3. Environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites; 4. Management of radioactive waste arising from nuclear applications. The first volume also contains an inaugural session dedicated to nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and development of uranium industry in Romania. The contributions in the first volume deal with the management of radioactive waste arising from uranium mining, milling and decommissioning and uranium mine close-out

  15. Development opportunities for northern aboriginal communities from Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, A.

    2003-01-01

    A. Richards, a public relations specialist from Cogema Resources Inc., discussed the programmes for human resource and community development in northern Saskatchewan. This region has the world's largest known high-grade deposits of uranium as well as a high level of provincial, public and northern community support. A mainly Aboriginal population of around 35 000 with a very high proportion of young persons entering the work force, lives in small, dispersed communities in a landscape of forest and lakes. All of the uranium mines are in remote locations with 'local impact' communities often several hundred kilometres away. In the late 1970's a public board of inquiry set none operating conditions that included maximizing opportunities for northern business and employment. Dozens of joint initiatives have since been developed and resulted in innovative hiring, training and transportation programmes, as well as support programmes to improve health, education, professional and business development and quality of life in the communities. Residents of northern Saskatchewan, like all other Canadians, are not prepared to accept environmental risks in return for economic opportunities. Three regional Environmental Quality Committees, with representatives froth all of the northern communities, work with Provincial agencies and the uranium mining industry to ensure community concerns are included in decisions. Northern hunters and fishermen, whose close links with the land are respected, provide relevant data to the Environmental Monitoring Program. Mutual trust is developed through constant interaction and dialogue in one-to-one relationships. Traditional activities like trapping are given their full importance. A Community Vitality Project jointly monitors social well being as defined by northern interests and culture. Compensations and company donations in some cases provide resources for community activities. (author)

  16. 75 FR 12584 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ..., Managing Director and Associate General Counsel, Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association, to... the price of the bid or offer displayed by the market maker, or (2) improves the size of its bid or... respect to comments that market makers should retain discretion over display of the size of a customer's...

  17. 78 FR 55322 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... FINRA committees, industry groups and member firms the logistical impracticalities, costs and other... costs, where the concerns to be avoided were remote. As a result, FINRA determined that a wholesale..., Mesirow, MFA 1 and MFA 2. \\17\\ See Mesirow. \\18\\ See Mesirow. Commenters also discussed the logistical...

  18. 77 FR 22374 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...), or the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA) from being arbitrated under the Industry Code. Specifically, the...'' or ``Commission''), pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Exchange Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposal to amend Rule 13204 of the Code of Arbitration...

  19. 77 FR 38690 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... when the securities industry has faced declining revenues as a result of the economic downturn, it is... cause some firms to go out of business and will serve as a further disincentive to other firms to.... With respect to the commenters' concerns about the TAF's disproportionate impact on covered equity...

  20. 76 FR 12390 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Committees represent the industry less effectively than more ``independent'' petition candidates. Proposed... accounting of ballots to be administered solely by an Independent Agent; and Make other procedural and... candidate profile form to the applicable FINRA District Director.\\18\\ \\17\\ See FINRA Regulation By-Laws...

  1. 75 FR 35105 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... the allowance for research in straightforward and streamlined fashion. Proposed FINRA Rule 5141.03 is... streamlined fashion and accordingly render them obsolete.\\23\\ \\22\\ Corresponding interpretive material in the... concerning issuers, industries, securities, economic factors and trends, portfolio strategy, and performance...

  2. Development of industrial-scale fission {sup 99}Mo production process using low enriched uranium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Kon; Lee, Jun Sig [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Beyer, Gerd J. [Grunicke Strasse 15, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) is the most important isotope because its daughter isotope, technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc), has been the most widely used medical radioisotope for more than 50 years, accounting for > 80% of total nuclear diagnostics worldwide. In this review, radiochemical routes for the production of {sup 99}Mo, and the aspects for selecting a suitable process strategy are discussed from the historical viewpoint of {sup 99}Mo technology developments. Most of the industrial-scale {sup 99}Mo processes have been based on the fission of {sup 235}U. Recently, important issues have been raised for the conversion of fission {sup 99}Mo targets from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (LEU). The development of new LEU targets with higher density was requested to compensate for the loss of {sup 99}Mo yield, caused by a significant reduction of {sup 235}U enrichment, from the conversion. As the dramatic increment of intermediate level liquid waste is also expected from the conversion, an effective strategy to reduce the waste generation from the fission {sup 99}Mo production is required. The mitigation of radioxenon emission from medical radioisotope production facilities is discussed in relation with the monitoring of nuclear explosions and comprehensive nuclear test ban. Lastly, the {sup 99}Mo production process paired with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's own LEU target is proposed as one of the most suitable processes for the LEU target.

  3. Development of Industrial-Scale Fission 99Mo Production Process Using Low Enriched Uranium Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kon Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-99 (99Mo is the most important isotope because its daughter isotope, technetium-99m (99mTc, has been the most widely used medical radioisotope for more than 50 years, accounting for > 80% of total nuclear diagnostics worldwide. In this review, radiochemical routes for the production of 99Mo, and the aspects for selecting a suitable process strategy are discussed from the historical viewpoint of 99Mo technology developments. Most of the industrial-scale 99Mo processes have been based on the fission of 235U. Recently, important issues have been raised for the conversion of fission 99Mo targets from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (LEU. The development of new LEU targets with higher density was requested to compensate for the loss of 99Mo yield, caused by a significant reduction of 235U enrichment, from the conversion. As the dramatic increment of intermediate level liquid waste is also expected from the conversion, an effective strategy to reduce the waste generation from the fission 99Mo production is required. The mitigation of radioxenon emission from medical radioisotope production facilities is discussed in relation with the monitoring of nuclear explosions and comprehensive nuclear test ban. Lastly, the 99Mo production process paired with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's own LEU target is proposed as one of the most suitable processes for the LEU target.

  4. Radon exposure in uranium mining industry vs. exposure in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos Poncela, L.; Fernandez Navarro, P.; Sainz Fernandez, C.; Gomez Arozamena, J.; Bordonoba Perez, M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a fairly general consensus among health physicists and radiation professionals that exposure to radon progeny is the largest and most variable contribution to the population's exposure to natural sources of radiation. However, this exposure is the subject of continuing debate concerning the validity of risk assessment and recommendations on how to act in radon-prone areas. The purpose of this contribution is to situate the radon issue in Spain in two very different settings. The first is a uranium mining industry located in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca), which is under strict control of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). We have measured radon concentrations in different workplaces in this mine over a five-year period. The second setting comprises four tourist caves, three of which are located in the province of Cantabria and the fourth on the Canary Island of Lanzarote. These caves are not subject to any administrative control of radiation exposure. Measured air 222 Rn concentrations were used to estimate annual effective doses due to radon inhalation in the two settings, and dose values were found to be from 2 to 10 times lower in the uranium mine than in the tourist caves. These results were analysed in the context of the new European Basic Safety Standards Directive (EU-BSS, 1996). (authors)

  5. National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info' 2000. Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, Ion; Comsa, Olivia

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings published in two volumes contain materials presented at the National Public Information Symposium on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, NUC Info' 2000. Radioactive Waste Management and Site Restoration in Uranium Industry - held on 5th September to 8th September 2000 at Baita - Bihor, Romania. The proceedings are structured in 4 sections: 1. Management of radioactive wastes arising from uranium mining, milling and decommissioning; 2. Uranium mine closing down; 3. Environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites; 4. Management of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear applications. The contributions in this volume debate the issues of environment restoration at uranium ore mining and management of radioactive wastes resulted from nuclear applications

  6. Improvement in Cuba of the regulatory mark in the industrial X-ray practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Forteza; Yamil; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.; Dumenigo Gonzalez, Cruz; De la Fuente Puch, Andres; Diaz Guerra, Pedro

    2003-01-01

    The Cuban regulatory mark as regards nuclear and radiological security until the year 2002 had not had a Guide of Security linked to the practice of Industrial X-ray. The improvement of the national regulatory mark, by the light of the international recommendations and the national experience of the inspection and licensing regulatory activity of this practice took to necessity of the existence of a Guide of Security that allowed in an effective way to make complete the established approaches of security in the Basic Norms of Security (NBS), during the operation of the teams of Industrial X-ray. The present work exposes and they expose the main aspects that are included in this document that they constitute from an or another way precision to that settled down in the NBS

  7. Argentine regulatory experience concerning radiation protection in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermacora, Marcela G.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to workload pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the Argentine Regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author) [es

  8. Argentine regulatory experience on industrial gammagraphy in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermacora, Marcela G.

    2006-01-01

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to work load pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the argentine regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author) [es

  9. Process engineering challenges of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouriya, Govind; Singh, Dhirendra; Nath, A.K.; Majumdar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Water Board (HWB) is a constituent unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. One of the diversified activities undertaken by HWB is pursuing exploitation of non-conventional resources for recovery of uranium from wet phosphoric acid being the most prominent one. Amongst the feasible processes for recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid is solvent extraction. Use of in-house solvent produced by HWB, is another key driver. To garner necessary information for developing the industrial scale facilities, the process has been studied in the laboratory scale, mini scale, bench scale at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher. The process was subsequently scaled up to an industrial prototype scale unit and was set up as a Technology Demonstration Plant coupled with a commercial phosphoric acid plant. The plant has successfully processed more than 2 lakh m 3 of wet phosphoric acid and all the parameters including the product, Yellow Cake have been qualified. No adverse effect has been observed in the fertilizer produced. The main characteristics of the process and subsequent process innovations are discussed in this paper. These innovations have been carried out to overcome hurdles faced during commissioning and subsequent operations of the Plant. The innovations include improved pretreatment of the wet phosphoric acid for feeding to the extraction cycle, improved control of the first cycle chemical environment, reducing the strength of the phosphoric acid used for stripping, reducing the number of equipment and machineries, alteration in solvent composition used in the first and second cycle in the solvent extraction units of the plant. (author)

  10. Regulatory view of the close-out of the uranium ore mine Zirovski Vrh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrankar, L.

    2005-01-01

    The production of the uranium mine Zirovski Vrh ceased in 1990. The main remaining problem of the remadiation are mine and mill tailings. The uranium mine Zirovski Vrh has one mill tailings site Borst and one waste pile Jazbec. According to the Act on protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety which was adopted by the Parliament in 2002, they are classified as radiation facilities. Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) is authorised for issuing a mandatory consent to mining work. The SNSA prepared the initial proposal of content of the safety report for the mine waste pile Jazbec. In 2005, according to the detailed content of this document, the public company Zirovski Vrh Ltd prepared the safety report which was examined by an authorised expert for radiation and nuclear safety. After a careful revision of the safety evaluation report, the consensus for mining work shall be issued by the SNSA. After finishing the mining works the SNSA shall also issue a licence for the closure of waste pile Jazbec. The main goal of this article is to present the Slovenian regulations which cover also mining work in the field of close-out of the uranium ore mine. (author)

  11. Uranium - what role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, T.; Gaul, J.; Crooks, P.; Robotham, R.

    1980-01-01

    Opposing viewpoints on the future role of uranium are presented. Topics covered include the Australian Government's uranium policy, the status of nuclear power around the world, Australia's role as a uranium exporter and problems facing the nuclear industry

  12. Introducing the Australian Uranium Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angwin, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument

  13. 76 FR 66078 - Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-0087] Notice of Industry Workshop on Technical and Regulatory Challenges in Deep and Ultra-Deep Outer... discussions expected to help identify Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) challenges and technologies associated... structured venue for consultation among offshore deepwater oil and gas industry and regulatory experts in...

  14. Joint ANSI-INMM 8.1: Nuclear Regulatory Commission study of uranium hexafluoride cylinder material accountability bulk measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontius, P.E.; Doher, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports the progress to date in a demonstration of the procedures in ANSI N15.18-1975, ''Mass Calibration Techniques for Nuclear Material Control,'' sponsored and funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The philosophy of mass measurement as a production process, as promulgated in ANSI N15.18-1975, is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the use of artifact Reference Mass Standards (RMS) as references for uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) calibration and bulk measurement processes. The history of the creation of the artifact concept and its adoption by ANSI N15.18-1975 and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is narrated. The program now under way is specifically described; including descriptions of the RMS, their calibration, and the assignment of uncertainties to them by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Instrument tests, in-house standards (IHS), and assignment of values relative to the RMS-NBS values at nuclear facilities which measure UF 6 cylinders are described. Comparisons and the data base are detailed to provide realistic measurement process parameters associated with accountable transfer of UF 6 . The as yet uncompleted part of the demonstration is described, that is, to further close the measurement loop by verification both between and within facilities

  15. Uranium hexafluoride handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF 6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

  16. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. A clean environment approach to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grancea, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    A global and multi-faceted response to climate change is essential if meaningful and cost-effective progress is to be made in reducing the effects of climate change around the world. There is no doubt that the uranium mining sector has an important role to play in such a goal. Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for long-lived nuclear facilities, necessary for the generation of significant amounts of baseload low-carbon electricity for decades to come. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity and the associated uranium demand, enhancing awareness of leading practices in uranium mining is indispensable. Actors in the uranium mining sector operate in a complex world, throughout different geographies, and involving global supply chains. They manage climate-sensitive water, land and energy resources and balance the interests of various stakeholders. Managed well, uranium mining delivers sustainable value for economic growth, employment and infrastructure, with specific attention given to the preservation of the environment. In the early phases of the industry, however, downside risks existed, which created legacy environmental and health issues that still can be recalled today. This article addresses key aspects of modern uranium mining operations that have been introduced as regulations and practices have evolved in response to societal attitudes about health, safety and environmental protection. Such aspects of mine management were seldom, if ever, respected in the early stages of uranium mining. With the implementation of modern mine lifecycle parameters and regulatory requirements, uranium mining has become a leader in safety and environmental management. Today, uranium mining is conducted under significantly different circumstances and is now the most regulated and one of the safest forms of mining in the world. Experiences from modern uranium mines show that successful companies develop innovative strategies to manage all the

  18. Mining industry and explorations for uranium ore - the situation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, G

    1976-05-01

    A survey is given of the present state of knowledge on uranium ore reserves, uranium production and uranium consumption. The supply with uranium of the various European countries is explained in brief sections. The results of the exploration efforts so far indicate that in the future, too, the demand can only be met partially by European deposits, and that the dependence on uranium imports cannot be deleted. Secure supply can be fortified by acquiring a share in overseas deposits and by geographic diversification. Activities in this direction have been started already.

  19. Legacies of the uranium ore mining industry and their restoration. A survey of Africa, Asia and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.

    2008-01-01

    Management of the environment in the uranium mining industry has an eventful history of more than 50 years. In addition to examples of successful restoration of mining and preparation sites in some countries there are also numerous cases, in which no or defective restoration left behind serious waste deposits. In the course of the renaissance of the uranium industry there is increasing interest in the rehabilitation of such waste sites. There is still an urgent requirement to eradicate the environmental effects of the old mining industry. Previous deposits could be of interest for renewed working under the present economic boundary conditions. Restoration as an integral part of the current and future uranium mining industry with the application of modern international safety standards is extremely important. The contribution provides a survey of restoration projects of the old mining industry in various parts of the world and shows how the International Atomic Energy Agency, the national supervisory and approval authorities as well as the mining companies collaborate closely at many sites on solution of the difficult problems. (orig.)

  20. Preliminary evaluations of social and environmental impacts from mine-industrial project - uranium of Lagoa Real, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrao, F.I.; Oliveira, G.G. de; Zanetti, J.C.; Cunha, R.P.P. da.

    1990-01-01

    The Uranium Province of Lagoa Real is situated in the central south of the State of Bahia and constitutes at the moment the second uranium resource of Brazil, containing, in several anomalies, as available resource, 93.850 ton. of U sub(3) O sub(8). The Uranio do Brasil S.A. develops a mine-industrial complex in this Province with the aim to extract and benefit uranium and intending to improve in 1992. The project is considered with high hazard, because involves te management of radioactive material, and becomes necessary an available of environmental impact, in accordance with CONAMA 001/86 and an active participation of the society. This paper aims to indentify the social and environmental impacts of this process, as a contribution of this important discussion. (author)

  1. Regulatory considerations and quality assurance of depleted uranium based radiography cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapkal, Jyotsna A.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Amrota, C.T.; Singh, Pratap; GopaIakrishanan, R.H.; Patil, B.N.; Mane, Nilesh

    2016-01-01

    Radiography cameras with shielding material as Depleted Uranium (DU) are used for containment of Iridium ( 192 Ir) source. DU shielding surrounds the titanium made 'S' tube through which the encapsulated 192 Ir source along with the pigtail travels. As per guidelines, it is required to check periodically the shielding integrity of DU shielding periodically by monitoring for alpha transferable contamination inside the 'S' tube. This paper describes in brief the method followed for collection of samples from inside the 'S' tube . The samples were analysed for transferable contamination due to gross alpha using alpha scintillation (ALSCIN) counter. The gross alpha contamination in the 'S' tube was found to be less than the recommended USNRC value for discarding the radiography camera. IAEA recommendations related to transferable contamination and AERB guidelines on the quality assurance (QA) requirements of radiography camera were studied

  2. The creation of a uranium oxide industry, from the laboratory stage to a pilot plant (1961); Creation d'une industrie de l'oxyde d'uranium du laboratoire a l'usine pilote (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R.; Delange, M.; Sauteron, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hauser, R. [Compagnie Industrielle des Combustibles atomiques frittes (France)

    1961-07-01

    The qualities of uranium oxide, in particular its good in-pile characteristics and its resistance to corrosion by the usual heat-exchange fluids, have led to this material being chose at the present time as a nuclear fuel in many power reactors, either planned or under construction. A great effort has been made these last few years in France in studying processes for transforming powdered uranium oxide into a dense material with satisfactory behaviour in a neutron flux. The laboratories at Saclay have studied the physico-chemical features of the phenomena accompanying the calcination of uranium peroxide or ammonium uranate to give uranium trioxide, and the subsequent reduction of the latter to dioxide as well as the sintering of the powders obtained. This work has made it possible on one hand to prepare powder of known specific surface area, and on the other to show the overriding influence of this factor, all other things being equal, on the behaviour of powders during sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere. The work has led to defining two methods for sintering stoichiometric uranium oxide of high density. The technological study of the preparation of the powder and its industrial production are carried out at the plant of Le Bouchet which produces at the moment powders of known characteristics suitable for sintering in hydrogen at 1650 deg. C without prior grinding. The industrial sintering is carried out by the Compagnie industrielle des Combustibles Atomiques Frittes who has set up a pilot plant having a capacity of 25 metric tons/year, for the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique and has been operating this plant since May 1958. This plant is presented by a film entitled 'uranium oxide'. (author) [French] Les qualites de l'oxyde d'uranium, en particulier son bon comportement en pile et sa resistance a la corrosion par les fluides caloporteurs habituels, font choisir aujourd'hui ce materiau comme combustible de nombreux reacteurs de

  3. The creation of a uranium oxide industry, from the laboratory stage to a pilot plant (1961); Creation d'une industrie de l'oxyde d'uranium du laboratoire a l'usine pilote (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Delange, M; Sauteron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hauser, R [Compagnie Industrielle des Combustibles atomiques frittes (France)

    1961-07-01

    The qualities of uranium oxide, in particular its good in-pile characteristics and its resistance to corrosion by the usual heat-exchange fluids, have led to this material being chose at the present time as a nuclear fuel in many power reactors, either planned or under construction. A great effort has been made these last few years in France in studying processes for transforming powdered uranium oxide into a dense material with satisfactory behaviour in a neutron flux. The laboratories at Saclay have studied the physico-chemical features of the phenomena accompanying the calcination of uranium peroxide or ammonium uranate to give uranium trioxide, and the subsequent reduction of the latter to dioxide as well as the sintering of the powders obtained. This work has made it possible on one hand to prepare powder of known specific surface area, and on the other to show the overriding influence of this factor, all other things being equal, on the behaviour of powders during sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere. The work has led to defining two methods for sintering stoichiometric uranium oxide of high density. The technological study of the preparation of the powder and its industrial production are carried out at the plant of Le Bouchet which produces at the moment powders of known characteristics suitable for sintering in hydrogen at 1650 deg. C without prior grinding. The industrial sintering is carried out by the Compagnie industrielle des Combustibles Atomiques Frittes who has set up a pilot plant having a capacity of 25 metric tons/year, for the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique and has been operating this plant since May 1958. This plant is presented by a film entitled 'uranium oxide'. (author) [French] Les qualites de l'oxyde d'uranium, en particulier son bon comportement en pile et sa resistance a la corrosion par les fluides caloporteurs habituels, font choisir aujourd'hui ce materiau comme combustible de nombreux reacteurs de puissance en construction ou en

  4. Regulatory issues associated with exclusion, exemption, and clearance related to the mining and minerals processing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.; Woude, S. van der; Keenan, N.; Guy, S.

    1997-01-01

    The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance have been established in international recommendations and, standards for radiation protection and the management of radioactive waste in recent years. The consistent application of these concepts has given rise to various problems in different spheres of use. This is particularly the case in the mining and minerals processing industries dealing with materials exhibiting elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. This paper takes the South African mining industry as an example and highlights some of the issues that have arisen in applying these concepts within a regulatory control regime. (author)

  5. Regulatory reform in the Spanish electricity industry: a missed opportunity for competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, P.; Kuhn, Kai-Uwe; Regibeau, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the reform of the Spanish electricity industry, and argues that the reform is a lost opportunity for the rapid introduction of competition. The evolution of the Spanish electrical power industry is traced, and the basic characteristics of the Spanish electricity market, the regulatory regime before liberalisation, and the liberalisation process and its shortcomings are discussed. Some policy suggestions are raised including the facilitating of competitive entry in generation, the liberalisation of supply activities, the regulation of distribution, and increasing the power, independence and transparency of the regulator. The capacity, generation, and distribution shares of Spanish electric companies as of 1996 are tabulated. (UK)

  6. Review of uranium in the Jordanian phosphorites: distribution genesis and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    ppm while the average of the lower horizon (A1-3) average is 70 ppm. Obviously, if the U is to be extracted from the phosphorite, the horizons with higher concentraction s of U should be explored and used. Uranium sticks to flacitran in its behavior from precipitin in the marine environment, through mining and beneficiation, and the fertilizer industry. 1) there is a significant high correlation coe relation between Ca O and P 2 O 5 in the hundreds of samples analyzed. 2) Fines (clays) produced when washing the ore have very little U and consequently, washing water for the last 45 years has not contaminated groundwater with U in central Jordan. 3) Uranium is concentrated in the phosphoric acid then into diammonium phosphate (Dap) in the fertilizer industry and not in the phosphogypsum. (author).

  7. Microcontroller based, ore grade measuring portable instruments for uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ore Face Scanning and Bore Hole Logging are important essential activities which are required to be carried out in any Uranium mining industry. Microcontroller based, portable instruments with built-in powerful embedded code for data acquisition (of Radiation counts) and Ore Grade calculations will become a handy measuring tool for miners. Nucleonix Systems has recently developed and made these two portable instruments available to UCIL, which are under use at Jaduguda and Narvapahar mines. Some of the important features of these systems are compact, light weight, portable, hand held, battery powered. Modes of Data Acquisition: CPS, CPM and ORE GRADE. Detector: Sensitive GM Tube. Choice of Adj. TC (Time Constant) in 'ORE GRADE', acquisition mode. Built-in automatic BG (Background) recording and subtraction provided to indicate net CPS, CPM or ore GRADE in PPM. Can store 1000 readings at users choice. Built-in RS232 serial port facilitates data downloading into PC. This paper focuses on design concepts and technical details for the above two products. (author)

  8. Application of (n, f)-radiography for assessment of environmental impact by uranium due to industrial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertman, E.B.; Vasidov, A.; Tsipin, V.Z.; Tillaev, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron induced (n, f)-radiography has been used for assessment of radioactive impact on biota by industrial wastes and exhalation. The objects analyzed were tree leaves which can serve the natural seasonal microelements collectors. Sampling was made in the urban area with two main industrial plants - on the processing of atomic raw material and production of mineral fertilizer. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and neutron induced (n, f)-radiography. The latter technique was used for the study of uranium distribution in a leaf surface. A procedure of the technique was that a detector foil (LEXAN) in a tied contact with a sample surface was subject to thermal neutron exposure in our WWR-SM nuclear reactor. Fission fragments from the 235U(n, f) reaction form radiation damages - tracks - in the surface layer of the detector. Due to close contact of the detector to the sample surface, location of tracks is consistent to location of the determined element. This makes it possible to get a picture of surface distribution of the element and, thus, to get an idea on genesis of pollution with this element. There are two principal ways for intake of pollutant elements in plants, namely, through the root system from the soil, and through the aerosol, dust and/or rain deposition on leaves. Presence of dense track spots like clusters or stars in the produced radiographs asserts their genesis was due to industrial disposal and exhalation. The average uranium concentrations in the leaves cover the range of 0.026 to 0.83 ppm. Based on the experimental data, uranium mapping of the explored territory has been made. Epicenter of the highest uranium level field was spatially consistent to location of the industrial plants, and, therefore, most probably, was generated by their activity

  9. The value of a mature, stable, and transparent regulatory framework in facilitating ER programs lessons learned in decommissioning of uranium recovery and other facilities in the USA - 59411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Keith I.; Camper, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The history of decommissioning activities in the United States has demonstrated the value of a mature, stable and transparent regulatory framework in facilitating the timely completion of environmental remediation. Two examples are given as case studies. The first example relates to the history of uranium concentrate (yellowcake) production in the U.S. to support the initial development of civilian nuclear power in the U.S. in the 1950's, 60's, 70's and 80's. This yellowcake production, which took place mostly in the western U.S., was undertaken before laws and regulations to prevent contamination and protect public health and safety were fully developed. Significant contamination occurred in terms of both surface and ground water contamination. Although most conventional mills producing uranium during these early years entered decommissioning in the 70's and 80's, the vast majority are still remediating their sites because of persistent contamination in ground water. Had an effective regulatory framework been in place, much of this contamination would have been prevented and remediation accomplished more effectively. In contrast to this experience, a second example is provided related to development of the regulatory framework for decommissioning of non-uranium recovery facilities in the U.S. in the late 1990's and early 2000's

  10. Analysis for making a regulatory decision to equipment of industrial gammagraphy in Argentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermacora, Marcela G.; Vidal, Dora N.; Alonso, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Industrial gammagraphy is a practice widely used as a nondestructive testing technique in Argentina. Experience worldwide has shown the need for an improvement in the intrinsic safety of the equipment used in this lab. In response to this reason, the board of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has considered a proposal to withdraw service movement and much of the equipment inventory scan belonging to industrial facilities nationwide. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of the analysis performed to support the above proposal. The main elements of evaluation can be summarized as follows: I) the teams that do not conform to international recommendations regarding compliance with key safety requirements of international standards such as ISO 3999:2004 (E) R adiation protection - Industrial Apparatus for gamma radiography - Specifications for performance, design and tests ; II) the decision by some manufacturers to discontinue production of certain models of equipment and the provision of spare parts, and III) the validity of certificates bulk type B (U) for transport. In conclusion, it highlights the importance of a regulatory decision supplementary to the Standard AR 7.9.1 concerning the operation of scan equipment industry, based on current international recommendations and Argentina's commitment to good practice and safety culture which can lead to a positive impact on radiation safety in this art

  11. The regulatory control over radiation sources: the Brazilian experience and some lessons learned from industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.L.C.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D.; Instituto Militar de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    This study gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority. These activities are described, especially those related to management of orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal considering the actions already put into place by CNEN during the licensing and controlling of radioactive sources in the industry and other facilities. In Brazil, there is not yet an effective system for controlling the scrap metal and recycling industry, thus a coordinated approach to achieve a harmonized and effective response with the involvement of third parties is needed, especially the metal industries and ores facilities. These practices call for stringent regulatory control, in order to reduce the occurrence of orphan sources, and consequently, radioactive material appearing in scrap metal. Some challenges of managing the national radiation sources register systems will be discussed, in order to cover effectively all the radiation source history (in a 'from the cradle to the grave' basis), and the dynamic maintenance and update of these data. The main industrial applications considered in this work are those dealing with constant movement of sources all over the country, with geographical issues to be considered in the managing and controlling actions, such as gammagraphy and well-logging. This study aims to identify and promote good practices to prevent inadvertent diversion of radioactive material, taking into account existing international recommendations and some lessons learned in national level. (author)

  12. The regulatory control over radiation sources: the Brazilian experience and some lessons learned from industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E.L.C.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, M.L.L.; Thomé, Z.D., E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: zielithome@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear; Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    This study gives an overview of the activities of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), as the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority. These activities are described, especially those related to management of orphan sources and radioactive material in scrap metal considering the actions already put into place by CNEN during the licensing and controlling of radioactive sources in the industry and other facilities. In Brazil, there is not yet an effective system for controlling the scrap metal and recycling industry, thus a coordinated approach to achieve a harmonized and effective response with the involvement of third parties is needed, especially the metal industries and ores facilities. These practices call for stringent regulatory control, in order to reduce the occurrence of orphan sources, and consequently, radioactive material appearing in scrap metal. Some challenges of managing the national radiation sources register systems will be discussed, in order to cover effectively all the radiation source history (in a 'from the cradle to the grave' basis), and the dynamic maintenance and update of these data. The main industrial applications considered in this work are those dealing with constant movement of sources all over the country, with geographical issues to be considered in the managing and controlling actions, such as gammagraphy and well-logging. This study aims to identify and promote good practices to prevent inadvertent diversion of radioactive material, taking into account existing international recommendations and some lessons learned in national level. (author)

  13. Biotechnology based opportunities for environmental protection in the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glombitza, F.; Iske, U.; Bullmann, M.; Ondruschka, J.

    1992-01-01

    Fluorides and a sodium paraffin sulfonate were used as biocidial substances for blocking microbial oxidation reactions due to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms and tested in a laboratory and pilot plant scale. A treatment of uranium containing effluents by means of a biosorption process for reducing the uranium concentration was demonstrated in a pilot plant scale too. (orig.)

  14. Influence of industrial dust of uranium ore on rats' lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumasheva, R.T.

    2010-01-01

    Under the conditions of radiotoxic influence of uranium ore dust (UOD), the respiratory organs are the main system specifically responsible for adaptation to this factor. At the same time, there are not sufficient studies regarding the morphological aspects of structural lung distortions due to inhalational influence by UOD. To identify the nature of morphological changes in the animals' lung tissue at the cellular and subcellular levels under the influence of industrial dust of uranium ore in a dose of 50 MPC. Experimental studies were conducted on 80 white rats (tom) with a body mass of 120-180 g. The experimental animals were subjected to chronic inhalation of UOD in a dose of 50 MPC (107.75 mg/m 3 ). The animals that were kept in similar chambers but that were not exposed to UOD served as control animals. Material from the animals for research was withdrawn in 3, 7, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of the experiment. The animals were withdrawn from the experiment by decapitation after a brief ether anesthesia. The lung tissue was subjected to conventional histological processing. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin according to van Gieson's method. For electronic microscopic examination the lung tissue slices were fixed and embedded by conventional methods. Obtained blocks were used to prepare ultrathin sections. An impact of UOD in a dose of 50 MPC was accompanied by the development of acute focal serous inflammation in the wall of the small bronchi and lung parenchyma in the early stages of the experiment (3-7 days), pneumonic foci of fibrosis, and the development of marked sclerotic changes in the peribronchial lymphoid tissue by the 30-th day. By the 60-th day, an increase of sclerotic changes in the bronchial wall accompanied by inhibition of the reaction on the part of interstitial macrophages and bronchus associated lymphoid tissue were reported. These indicate the intense course of the compensatory processes. Conducted electron

  15. Uranium oxide catalysts: environmental applications for treatment of chlorinated organic waste from nuclear industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, Svetlana; Ismagilov, Zinfer; Kuznetsov, Vadim; Shikina, Nadezhda; Kerzhentsev, Mikhail

    2018-02-05

    Huge amounts of nuclear waste, including depleted uranium, significantly contribute to the adverse environmental situation throughout the world. An approach to the effective use of uranium oxides in catalysts for the deep oxidation of chlorine-containing hydrocarbons is suggested. Investigation of the catalytic activity of the synthesized supported uranium oxide catalysts doped with Cr, Mn and Co transition metals in the chlorobenzene oxidation showed that these catalysts are comparable with conventional commercial ones. Physicochemical properties of the catalysts were studied by X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen (H 2 -TPR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The higher activity of Mn- and Co-containing uranium oxide catalysts in the H 2 -TPR and oxidation of chlorobenzene in comparison with non-uranium catalysts may be related to the formation of a new disperse phase represented by uranates. The study of chlorobenzene adsorption revealed that the surface oxygen is involved in the catalytic process.

  16. Development of regulatory technologies of key issues of radiation sources in the medical and industrial fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Byung Soo; Ku, Bon Chul

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this research is to provide with rational bases to address the key issues raising up during the expansion of RI/RG usage in the medical and industrial fields, thus eventually contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of national regulatory systems. Related key issues that are introduced in the medical and industrial fields are analyzed and some outcomes are produced. The following results are attained. - Estimation Methodology Development of Regulatory Effects for the Use of Radioactive Substances, - Survey on Domestic Status of Nuclear Materials and Review on Domestic/Foreign Regulatory System for Nuclear Materials Regulation, - Comparative Analysis of KSTAR and Fusion Facilities of Advanced Countries, - Radiological Characteristics of Proton Therapy and Analysis of Foreign Cases and Systems, - Detection and Safety Analysis of Leak Radiation of High Energy Medical Generators, - Survey and Analysis on Usage and Requirements of Sealed Sources, - Incidents/Accidents Reporting System for RI-related Facilities, - Development of Audio-Visual Education Materials for Radiation Workers, - Development of Major Safety Procedures for Portable RIs, - Expansion of Existing DB for Radiation Devices including New Domestic Ones, - Survey of Foreign Status of Quality Maintenance System for Radiation equipment

  17. Depleted and enriched uranium exposure quantified in former factory workers and local residents of NL Industries, Colonie, NY USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnason, John G.; Pellegri, Christine N.; Moore, June L.; Lewis-Michl, Elizabeth L.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Between 1958 and 1982, NL Industries manufactured components of enriched (EU) and depleted uranium (DU) at a factory in Colonie NY, USA. More than 5 metric tons of DU was deposited as microscopic DU oxide particles on the plant site and surrounding residential community. A prior study involving a small number of individuals (n=23) indicated some residents were exposed to DU and former workers to both DU and EU, most probably through inhalation of aerosol particles. Objectives: Our aim was to measure total uranium [U] and the uranium isotope ratios: 234 U/ 238 U; 235 U/ 238 U; and 236 U/ 238 U, in the urine of a cohort of former workers and nearby residents of the NLI factory, to characterize individual exposure to natural uranium (NU), DU, and EU more than 3 decades after production ceased. Methods: We conducted a biomonitoring study in a larger cohort of 32 former workers and 99 residents, who may have been exposed during its period of operation, by measuring Total U, NU, DU, and EU in urine using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Results: Among workers, 84% were exposed to DU, 9% to EU and DU, and 6% to natural uranium (NU) only. For those exposed to DU, urinary isotopic and [U] compositions result from binary mixing of NU and the DU plant feedstock. Among residents, 8% show evidence of DU exposure, whereas none shows evidence of EU exposure. For residents, the [U] geometric mean is significantly below the value reported for NHANES. There is no significant difference in [U] between exposed and unexposed residents, suggesting that [U] alone is not a reliable indicator of exposure to DU in this group. Conclusions: Ninety four percent of workers tested showed evidence of exposure to DU, EU or both, and were still excreting DU and EU decades after leaving the workforce. The study demonstrates the advantage of measuring multiple isotopic ratios (e.g., 236 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U) over a single ratio ( 235 U/ 238 U

  18. Depleted and enriched uranium exposure quantified in former factory workers and local residents of NL Industries, Colonie, NY USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnason, John G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Pellegri, Christine N. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Moore, June L.; Lewis-Michl, Elizabeth L. [Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology, Center for Environmental Health, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Parsons, Patrick J., E-mail: patrick.parsons@health.ny.gov [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Between 1958 and 1982, NL Industries manufactured components of enriched (EU) and depleted uranium (DU) at a factory in Colonie NY, USA. More than 5 metric tons of DU was deposited as microscopic DU oxide particles on the plant site and surrounding residential community. A prior study involving a small number of individuals (n=23) indicated some residents were exposed to DU and former workers to both DU and EU, most probably through inhalation of aerosol particles. Objectives: Our aim was to measure total uranium [U] and the uranium isotope ratios: {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U; {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U; and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U, in the urine of a cohort of former workers and nearby residents of the NLI factory, to characterize individual exposure to natural uranium (NU), DU, and EU more than 3 decades after production ceased. Methods: We conducted a biomonitoring study in a larger cohort of 32 former workers and 99 residents, who may have been exposed during its period of operation, by measuring Total U, NU, DU, and EU in urine using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Results: Among workers, 84% were exposed to DU, 9% to EU and DU, and 6% to natural uranium (NU) only. For those exposed to DU, urinary isotopic and [U] compositions result from binary mixing of NU and the DU plant feedstock. Among residents, 8% show evidence of DU exposure, whereas none shows evidence of EU exposure. For residents, the [U] geometric mean is significantly below the value reported for NHANES. There is no significant difference in [U] between exposed and unexposed residents, suggesting that [U] alone is not a reliable indicator of exposure to DU in this group. Conclusions: Ninety four percent of workers tested showed evidence of exposure to DU, EU or both, and were still excreting DU and EU decades after leaving the workforce. The study demonstrates the advantage of measuring multiple isotopic ratios (e.g., {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U

  19. Economic regulation of Canada's natural gas delivery industry : policy and regulatory principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormley, B.

    2006-03-01

    This policy paper demonstrated how restoring balance and clarity to Canada's regulatory environment will ensure the continued strength of the economy, environment, and communities. It was noted that regulatory outcomes that reflect the broad public interest can be achieved if 4 basic principles for economic regulation are pursued. These principles include strength, balance, efficiency, and clarity. In particular, this paper addressed the challenge facing Canada's natural gas delivery industry in terms of increased energy demand, tight supply, ageing infrastructure and increasing cost pressures on the energy system. It emphasized that transparent, efficient energy policy developed through informed debate can provide the foundation for a reliable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable energy future. It was suggested that immediate attention be given to rebalancing the regulatory processes that have placed short term considerations above the longer term strength of the natural gas system; improving the support for new natural gas supply development; reconsidering pricing in some energy markets where information has been distorted; and revisiting the regulatory processes that have become inefficient

  20. Impact Of Low Grade Uranium Ores On The Echo System and the Workers of Phosphate Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of uranium present in phosphate rocks as an environmental factor in the ccho system and on the workers of Abu-Zaabal Phosphate Company subjected to the inhalation of big quantities of rock phosphate dust during the benefication of the ore and the production of the fertilizers. Besides. extra amount of uranium reach the workers also through two path ways.The first is direct through eating contaminated planted grown in the near by area.The second is indirect through eating animals fed with contaminated plants. The uranium content is estimated in the soil samples at different depths, water (irrigation and drainage), air samples and plant samples (shoot and root) in Berseem from the four directions, urine samples from twenty workers in charge of the processing of phosphate compared to twenty volunteers far from the contaminated area.The results showed an elevated values for phosphorus and uranium in the air, water. soil and plant (Berseem) around Abu Zaabal Factory and extending to about 2 km from all directions. Urine may be considered as a biological indicator medium for the uptake of uranium in uranium miners and the workers in charge of ore processing and can represent the major route of excretion for the absorbed metal. Significant differences were shown between the uranium level in the urine of workers group and the control group

  1. A study of electrochemical precipitation as a possible method of removing radium from uranium industry liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, M.I.F. de

    1996-09-01

    Of the various dissolved species contained in the effluents from the mining and milling of uranium ores, the one which is of particular concern for environmental protection is Radium-226. The literature shows that, in recent years, considerable efforts have been made to develop treatment systems that can achieve the stricter effluent discharge standards imposed by the regulatory bodies. There has also been a concern to treat the already existent sludges from previous treatments. The main priority is to limit, as much as possible, the arising of sludge from future treatment systems. The most common treatment used is the addition of lime and limestone to raise the pH followed by barium chloride to form a very finely divided Ba(Ra)SO 4 precipitate which is then settled in large ponds or basins. In spite of the high decontamination factors obtained with this technique, these may not be satisfactory in terms of environmental protection. In addition, the industry is increasingly aware of the economical benefits resulting from treatment processes that allow water reuse to the process. The main objectives of this work were to carry out a fundamental study of a new technique, Electrochemical Precipitation, and assess its viability to remove undesirable ions from liquid solutions, in this particular case, radium from liquid wastes resulting from the milling of uranium ores. To achieve the proposed objectives, research was carried out using strontium sulphate precipitative membranes combined with an electrical field. Barium was used as a target ion due to its similarity to radium and no radioactive characteristics. The process studied, combines electrical ionic transport and selective precipitation, which relies on a solubility difference between the inorganic membrane and the ions to be separated. This study investigated different parameters involved in the process such as flowrate, current density, different cell geometries and the gap between half cells (internal volume of

  2. Ethics on the TEPCO bankruptcy, nuclear power plants and regulatory reform in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Shigeaki

    2013-01-01

    Although regulatory reform in the electric power industry had been considered as part of social system reform like in the finance and communications to liberalize the market, there still continued to exist regional monopoly, integrated system for power generation, transmission and distribution, and lack of competition. The Fukushima accident showed such electric power system was unethical as social system compared to ordinary industries, because electric power company getting profit could not be prepared for nuclear damage liability and would burden third unrelated parties with risk. Electric power company should be forced to insure nuclear power plants for nuclear accidents. Otherwise restart of nuclear power plant operation should not be allowed. Nuclear power had been justified to be entitled grant or subsidy from the government for public good, which would be unfair to people. This article presented speeding-up scheme of Fukushima accident treatment leading to TEPCO bankruptcy and discussed measures against concerns or comments about bankruptcy procedures, major part of which might be mitigation of fund-raising fear by government support. At the proceeding of bankruptcy procedure including spinning off of separate companies, regulatory reform in the electric power industry could be taken in advanced. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Environmental management plan of the mining and industrial uranium complex in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figuereido, N.; Hilton, M.; Wiikman, L.; Oliveira, M.; Taddei, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Mining and Industrial Complex of the Pocos de Caldas Plateau (CIPC) is located at Caldas, county in the southwest of Minas Gerais state. It is a plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. -INB, the only installation in Brazil for the production of uranium concentrate (yellow-cake) as ammonium diuranate (Adu). The Environmental protection and control program in practice assures the environmental management plan, in operation, maintaining the Complex within technology standards required by updated environmental concepts. The mine is an open pit operation with a surface diameter of 1000 m and an actual average depth of 120 m. Some 44 x 10 6 m 3 of the overburden material were used in embankments structures to civil engineering works in the implantation of several installations in CIPC, and the other portion of the removed material was deposited in two pre-selected areas having both an upper area of about 2,0 x 10 6 m 2 . The annual average volume of waters transported to chemical treatment is about 9,0 x 10 5 m 3 . The mill, in its full operation, processes 2500 t of ore per day and the solid and liquid tailings are directed to a waste pond system where are contained approximately 2,0 x 10 6 m 3 (2,2 x 10 6 t) of solid wastes with an estimation of further 70 x 10 5 m 3 to be disposed. The upper surface of tailings pond is about 2,0 x 10 5 m 2 . Nowadays, the environmental protection and control program aims to the development of potential pollutant areas stabilization reintegrating them into their original features or adjusting them to other forms of laudable restoration. (authors). 1 fig

  4. REGULATORY POLICY AND OPTIMIZATION OF INVESTMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN THE MODEL OF FUNCTIONING OF RECREATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Shevchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is the rationale of the theoretical and methodical approach concerning the improvement of regulatory policy as well as the process of distribution of financial investments using the model of the functioning of a recreational sector of the national economy. The methodology of the study includes the use of optimal control theory for the model formation of the functioning of the recreational industry as well as determining the behaviour of regulatory authorities and capabilities to optimize the allocation of investment resources in the recreational sector of the national economy. Results. The issue of equilibration of regulatory policy in the recreational sector of the national economy is actualized, including the question of targeted distribution of state and external financial investments. Also, it is proved that regulatory policy should establish the frameworks that on the one hand, do not allow public authorities to exercise extra influence on the economy of recreation, on the other hand, to keep the behaviour of the recreational business entities within the limits of normal socio-economic activity – on the basis of analysis of the continuum “recreation – work” by means of modified Brennan-Buchanan model. It is revealed that even with the condition of the tax reduction, the situation when the population resting less and works more than in the background of a developed economy is observed. However, according to the optimistic forecast, eventually on condition when the economy is emerging from the shade, we will obtain an official mode of the work in which, while maintaining taxes on proposed more advantageous for the population level, ultimately the ratio leisure and work will be established which is corresponding to the principles of sustainable development. Practical value. On the basis of methodical principles of the theory of optimal control, the model of the functioning of the recreational industry under the

  5. The regulatory treatment of adverse outcomes: Empirical evidence from the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two essays, both of them empirical studies using data from the US electric utility industry. Part I focuses on utilities' investment behavior, while Part II examines regulatory policy toward the industry. The first paper presents an analysis of utilities' decisions about whether to continue or cancel nuclear construction projects. During the seventies and eighties, changes in economic conditions and regulatory policy radically altered the costs and benefits of nuclear power. This study seeks to determine whether regulators pursued policies which induced utilities to employ socially efficient criteria in re-evaluating ongoing projects. The analysis also yields insights into regulators' distributional goals. Results based on data for 1978-84 are consistent with the capture theory hypothesis, which holds that regulators weigh industry interests more heavily than consumer interests. A test for structural change provides no support for the contention that the relative importance of consumer interests increased over this period. These empirical findings are inconsistent with a standard (and essential) assumption of theoretical principal-agent models of rate-of-return regulation, that regulators value consumers' payoffs more than utility profits. The second paper examines regulatory policy toward generating facilities that entered commercial service during the years 1983-88. In a significant departure from past practice, state public utility commissions often denied utilities full recovery of their investments in new plants. Although such ex post disallowances have an important efficiency rationale, they also provide a means for opportunistic regulators to effect transfers between utilities' ratepayers and shareholders. A probit model was used to assess the impact on the probability of a disallowance of firm and project characteristics as well as attributes of a state's political and institutional environment

  6. Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team. UPSAT. An international peer review service for uranium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA Uranium Production Safety Assessment Team (UPSAT) programme is designed to assist Member States to improve the safe operation of uranium production facilities. This programme facilitates the exchange of knowledge and experience between team members and industry personnel. An UPSAT mission is an international expert review, conducted outside of any regulatory framework. The programme is implemented in the spirit of voluntary co-operation to contribute to the enhancement of operational safety and practices where it is most effective, at the facility itself. An UPSAT review supplements other facility and regulatory efforts which may have the same objective

  7. Uranium and plutonium distribution in unirradiated mixed oxide fuel from industrial fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, D.; Kleykamp, H.

    1982-01-01

    Different process variants developed in the last few years by the firm ALKEM to manufacture FBR and LWR mixed oxide fuel are given. The uranium and plutonium distribution is determined on the pellets manufactured with the help of the electron beam microprobe. The stepwise improvement of the uranium-plutonium homogeneity in the short-term developed granulate variants and in the long-term developed new processes are illustrated starting with early standard processes for FBR fuel. An almost uniform uranium-plutonium distribution could be achieved for the long-term developed new processes (OKOM, AuPuC). The uranium-plutonium homogeneity are quantified in the pellets manufactured according to the considered process variants with a newly defined quality number. (orig.)

  8. Recent technical progress in the French uranium industry; Les recents progres techniques dans l'industrie de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper reviews the present-day uranium production situation in France. The various stages of the treatment the concentrates receive, leading to the final production of the metal, are described briefly: dissolution, purification by extraction with a mixture of tributyl phosphate and white spirit, precipitation with ammonia, drying and calcination of the trioxide, reduction with hydrogen, cracked ammonia or preferably pure ammonia gas, fluorination with anhydrous hydrofluoric acid, and production of the metal by the calcium thermite process. Recent work of an original nature is discussed in greater detail. (author) [French] L'expose fait le point de la technique actuelle en ce qui concerne la fabrication de l'uranium en France. Il retrace brievement les diverses etapes du traitement des concentres pour aboutir au metal: mise en solution, purification par extraction au melange phosphate de tributylo-white spirit, precipitation par l'ammoniaque, sechage et calcination du trioxyde, reduction a l'hydrogene, a l'ammoniac craque ou mieux au gaz ammoniac pur, fluoruration par l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre et elaboration du metal par calciothermie. De plus amples details sont donnes sur les realisations recentes d'un caractere original. (auteur)

  9. Recent technical progress in the French uranium industry; Les recents progres techniques dans l'industrie de l'uranium en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper reviews the present-day uranium production situation in France. The various stages of the treatment the concentrates receive, leading to the final production of the metal, are described briefly: dissolution, purification by extraction with a mixture of tributyl phosphate and white spirit, precipitation with ammonia, drying and calcination of the trioxide, reduction with hydrogen, cracked ammonia or preferably pure ammonia gas, fluorination with anhydrous hydrofluoric acid, and production of the metal by the calcium thermite process. Recent work of an original nature is discussed in greater detail. (author) [French] L'expose fait le point de la technique actuelle en ce qui concerne la fabrication de l'uranium en France. Il retrace brievement les diverses etapes du traitement des concentres pour aboutir au metal: mise en solution, purification par extraction au melange phosphate de tributylo-white spirit, precipitation par l'ammoniaque, sechage et calcination du trioxyde, reduction a l'hydrogene, a l'ammoniac craque ou mieux au gaz ammoniac pur, fluoruration par l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre et elaboration du metal par calciothermie. De plus amples details sont donnes sur les realisations recentes d'un caractere original. (auteur)

  10. Issues in uranium availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, J.J. Jr.; Adams, S.S.; Gordon, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to show the process by which information about uranium reserves and resources is developed, evaluated and used. The following three papers in this volume have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base: (1) uranium reserve and resource assessment; (2) exploration for uranium in the United States; (3) nuclear power, the uranium industry, and resource development

  11. Uranium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreyra, Mariana D.; Suarez Mendez, Sebastian

    1997-01-01

    In this paper are presented the methods and procedures optimized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) for the determination of: natural uranium mass, activity of enriched uranium in samples of: urine, mucus, filters, filter heads, rinsing waters and Pu in urine, adopted and in some cases adapted, by the Environmental Monitoring and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory. The analyzed material corresponded to biological and environmental samples belonging to the staff professionally exposed that work in plants of the nuclear fuel cycle. For a better comprehension of the activities of this laboratory, it is included a brief description of the uranium radiochemical toxicity and the limits internationally fixed to preserve the workers health

  12. Czechoslovak uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluskal, O.

    1992-01-01

    Data and knowledge related to the prospecting, mining, processing and export of uranium ores in Czechoslovakia are presented. In the years between 1945 and January 1, 1991, 98,461.1 t of uranium were extracted. In the period 1965-1990 the uranium industry was subsidized from the state budget to a total of 38.5 billion CSK. The subsidies were put into extraction, investments and geologic prospecting; the latter was at first, ie. till 1960 financed by the former USSR, later on the two parties shared costs on a 1:1 basis. Since 1981 the prospecting has been entirely financed from the Czechoslovak state budget. On Czechoslovak territory uranium has been extracted from deposits which may be classified as vein-type deposits, deposits in uranium-bearing sandstones and deposits connected with weathering processes. The future of mining, however, is almost exclusively being connected with deposits in uranium-bearing sandstones. A brief description and characteristic is given of all uranium deposits on Czechoslovak territory, and the organization of uranium mining in Czechoslovakia is described as is the approach used in the world to evaluate uranium deposits; uranium prices and actual resources are also given. (Z.S.) 3 figs

  13. Westinghouse electric company, LLC regulatory trends in the USA nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, C. M.; Cheung, A. C.; Gresham, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The United States (US) nuclear industry is in a dynamic, exciting, and challenging time. On one hand, since the mid 90s, the US nuclear utilities have continued to demonstrate improved safety, efficient and reliable operation for the whole nuclear fleet, thus making generation costs for nuclear energy extremely attractive. On the other hand the US utilities are projecting the need to add significant new generation capacities to replace the aging fleet and to sustain the expected economic growth. In addition to the demonstrated improved operation and financial performance, the financial incentives offered in the federal energy bill passed in 2005 enticed many utilities to actively consider the purchase of new nuclear power plants. This paper will highlight the regulatory trends in the USA, the major initiatives and improvements undertaken as well as other operation support issues faced by the US nuclear power industry

  14. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  15. Australia's uranium - greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world: a case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    The terms of reference for the case study were to inquire into and report on the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources. The Committee was asked to give particular attention to the: global demand for Australia's uranium resources and associated supply issues; potential implications for global greenhouse emission reductions from the further development and export of Australia's uranium resources; and the current regulatory environment of the uranium mining sector. The Committee indicated in its letters inviting submissions that it would also welcome comments in relation to six additional issues, relating to: whole of life cycle waste management; adequacy of social impact assessment, consultation and approval processes with traditional owners; health risks to workers and to the public from exposure to radiation; adequacy of regulation of uranium mining by the Commonwealth; the extent of federal subsidies and other mechanisms to facilitate uranium mining; and the effectiveness of safeguards regimes in addressing proliferation. These matters are addressed in the Committee's report, which consists of 12 chapters. The contents, findings and recommendations of each chapter are summarised as follows. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations are also summarised in a key messages section at the beginning of each chapter and in the conclusions section at the end of each chapter.

  16. Australia's uranium - greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world: a case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The terms of reference for the case study were to inquire into and report on the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources. The Committee was asked to give particular attention to the: global demand for Australia's uranium resources and associated supply issues; potential implications for global greenhouse emission reductions from the further development and export of Australia's uranium resources; and the current regulatory environment of the uranium mining sector. The Committee indicated in its letters inviting submissions that it would also welcome comments in relation to six additional issues, relating to: whole of life cycle waste management; adequacy of social impact assessment, consultation and approval processes with traditional owners; health risks to workers and to the public from exposure to radiation; adequacy of regulation of uranium mining by the Commonwealth; the extent of federal subsidies and other mechanisms to facilitate uranium mining; and the effectiveness of safeguards regimes in addressing proliferation. These matters are addressed in the Committee's report, which consists of 12 chapters. The contents, findings and recommendations of each chapter are summarised as follows. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations are also summarised in a key messages section at the beginning of each chapter and in the conclusions section at the end of each chapter

  17. Acid leaching of uranium present in a residue from mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braulio, Walace S.; Ladeira, Ana C.Q. [Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mineral Technology

    2011-07-01

    The acid mine drainage is one of the most important environmental problems associated with mining of ores containing sulfides. The treatment of these acid effluents, which contains high concentrations of dissolved metals and anions, is generally by liming. The wastes generated in the liming process may present significant toxicity and their storage in inappropriate places waiting for treatment is a common issue that requires solution. Osamu Utsumi Mine located in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, has been facing this problem. The residue of this mine consists of an alkaline sludge generated from the neutralization of the pH of acid mine drainage and is rich in various metals, including uranium. The main concern is the long term stability of this residue, which is in permanent contact with the acid water in the open pit. The recovery of uranium by hydrometallurgical techniques, such as acid leaching, can be a viable alternative on the reuse of this material. This study aimed at establishing a specific leaching process for the recovery of uranium present in the sludge from Caldas uranium mine. Some parameters such as solid/liquid ratio (0.09 to 0.17), time of leaching (1 to 24 hours) and concentration of sulfuric acid (pH from 0 to 3.0) were assessed. The results showed that it is possible to extract 100% of uranium present in the sludge. The concentration of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the residue was 0.25%, similar to the content of the vein ores which is around 0.20% to 1.0%. The best experimental leaching condition is solid/liquid ratio of 0.17, pH 1.0 and 2 hours of reaction at room temperature (25 deg C). The content of uranium in the liquor is around 440 mgL{sup -1}. The recovery of the uranium from the liquor is under investigation by ionic exchange. (author)

  18. Acid leaching of uranium present in a residue from mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braulio, Walace S.; Ladeira, Ana C.Q.

    2011-01-01

    The acid mine drainage is one of the most important environmental problems associated with mining of ores containing sulfides. The treatment of these acid effluents, which contains high concentrations of dissolved metals and anions, is generally by liming. The wastes generated in the liming process may present significant toxicity and their storage in inappropriate places waiting for treatment is a common issue that requires solution. Osamu Utsumi Mine located in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, has been facing this problem. The residue of this mine consists of an alkaline sludge generated from the neutralization of the pH of acid mine drainage and is rich in various metals, including uranium. The main concern is the long term stability of this residue, which is in permanent contact with the acid water in the open pit. The recovery of uranium by hydrometallurgical techniques, such as acid leaching, can be a viable alternative on the reuse of this material. This study aimed at establishing a specific leaching process for the recovery of uranium present in the sludge from Caldas uranium mine. Some parameters such as solid/liquid ratio (0.09 to 0.17), time of leaching (1 to 24 hours) and concentration of sulfuric acid (pH from 0 to 3.0) were assessed. The results showed that it is possible to extract 100% of uranium present in the sludge. The concentration of U 3 O 8 in the residue was 0.25%, similar to the content of the vein ores which is around 0.20% to 1.0%. The best experimental leaching condition is solid/liquid ratio of 0.17, pH 1.0 and 2 hours of reaction at room temperature (25 deg C). The content of uranium in the liquor is around 440 mgL -1 . The recovery of the uranium from the liquor is under investigation by ionic exchange. (author)

  19. French experience in the field of internal dosimetry assessment at a nuclear workplace. Methods and results on industrial uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Rannou, A.; Pihet, P.; Dewez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of the new ICRP recommendations and the diversity of industrial exposure materials make it necessary to modify our approach of assessing internal dosimetry. This paper describes a methodology developed to asses different parameters such as activity concentration and particle size distribution at the workplace; physico-chemical characteristics of industrial dust handled; and in vitro and in vivo solubility in order to determine the absorption rate blood. The determination of such specific parameters will lead to dose calculation in terms of committed effective Dose Per Unit of Intake (DPUI). Results obtained for an industrial uranium dioxide, UO 2 , at a French nuclear facility are presented. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. 10 CFR 34.67 - Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. 34.67 Section 34.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL... Requirements § 34.67 Records of leak testing of sealed sources and devices containing depleted uranium. Each...

  1. A Glance on the Safety Culture in Industrial Gamma Radiography in the Philippines: Regulatory Body Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Code of PNRI Regulations (CPR) Part 11 was published in the Official Gazette on 2010. It is just a year ahead of the publication of the IAEA Specific Safety Guide No. 11. In view of these, radiation safety culture in the practice of industrial gamma radiography was not yet fully introduced in the said national regulations in the country. However, it should not be a reflection that the radiation workers in the country specifically in the said field of practice do not exercise positive safety culture. The Nuclear Regulatory Division (NRD)—regulatory arm, although not yet separated from the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI0) as mandated by law — the promotional organization, has a well established and systemic regulatory infrastructure. It is attested by several studies and reports, among others. This study aims to assess the status of the existing safety culture in the conduct of industrial gamma radiography in the country through personnel perception survey of the radiation workers, i.e., managers, radiation safety officers, radiographers and radiographer’s assistants, based on the IAEA five characteristics of safety culture stipulated in the IAEA Safety Guide No. GS-G-3.5, “The Management System for Nuclear Installations”. It is assessed by the NRD of the PNRI. Also, the study determines the existence of safety culture as to the perspective of NRD through observations on the conduct of radiographic operations and walk-through of the facility while using the three-level Schein Model, i.e., “artefacts”, “espoused values” and “basic assumptions” and document reviews, among others

  2. Waste management and environmental controls in the Australian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.; Morison, I.W.

    1983-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of the waste management and related environmental controls currently applied to uranium mining and processing in Australia, reflecting three decades of experience. The Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry of the mid-1970s was, inter alia, a focus for the expression of public concerns over the environmental effects of uranium mining. The report of the Inquiry established a framework for controls over uranium mining in the Northern Territory and, by association, in other States of the Commonwealth. The interaction between Federal and State jurisdictions, and the establishment of Codes of Practice and their implications are briefly described. Current procedures are based on the experience of other countries but are much influenced by studies of the environmental impact of uranium production in Australia during the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, laboratory investigations have been made of specific processes, such as the impact of heavy metal contaminants on biota and the uptake of radium in the human food cycle. Such studies are continuing and research is being expanded, particularly in relation to Northern Territory developments. Australia is contributing the results of this work to appropriate international forums. (author)

  3. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry

  4. A preliminary study on financial risk management of the uranium enrichment company, given China's fast development of nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wumei

    2010-01-01

    In market economy, control and prevention of financial risk is a factual and urgent issue of financial management. As an independent legal identity, the enterprise strives to achieve business operations and developments while bearing risks. In an era of fast growth of China's nuclear power industry, uncertainties facing uranium enrichment companies are inevitable. Without being aware of financial risks, the enterprise could be driven to hopeless situation when catastrophe comes. Recognizing financial risk factors, knowing the cause and effect of risk events, building a mechanism to prevent and control financial risks, are the right approaches for building a robust enterprise. (author)

  5. Uranium availability for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, S.M.; Hogerton, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities are encouraged to participate in the effort to explore and develop adequate supplies of uranium in order to assure a high level of effort and have some control over production rates. Regulatory commissions are likewise encouraged to be receptive to utility initiatives by granting assurances of favorable rate treatment to cover investments. Confusion arises over the difference between forward coverage based on proven reserves of commercial-grade uranium and long-range availability based on potential resources. Cancellations and delays in the licensing of nuclear power plants have made it difficult for uranium suppliers to proceed with confidence. Drilling difficulties and the short productive life of most uranium mines will probably keep proven reserve levels lower than long-term plant requirements. Several approaches are outlined for developing uranium reserve estimates. ERDA projections are based on ''favorable ground'' areas where uranium deposits are most probable. It is assumed that, where a market exists, minerals will be extracted and traditional procurement methods will evolve. Since utilities are the only industry committed to a viable fuel cycle, they are justified in joining in the search for supplies

  6. Waste management and environmental controls in the Australian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.; Morison, I.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the waste management and related environmental controls applied to uranium mining and processing in Australia is described. Major uranium deposits occur in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, a world heritage tropical wetland area with deep significance to Aboriginal people. The formulation of environmental controls took into consideration the unique features of the region in addition to experiences from earlier uranium mining operations. A description is given of the operations at Rum Jungle, the pollutants released and their effects on the environment. Commonwealth and State responsibilities for waste management and environmental control and the establishment of Codes of Practice are noted and proposed water management and tailings management programs at the four Alligator Rivers sites are described

  7. The protection and compensation of workers employed in the uranium mining industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, P.

    1983-01-01

    The hazards associated with uranium mining are outlined. The extent to which the law has provided for the protection of Australian uranium mine and mill workers from avoidable injury is examined. The single most significant step taken towards adequate protection of workers from the dangers of excessive exposure to ionising radiation was the approval of the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (1980). The extent to which existing compensatory mechanisms, both common law and statutory, provide for the compensation of uranium mine and mill workers who sustain diseases peculiar to their employment is also examined. The capacity of the law to deal with cancers and other diseases of long latency periods is discussed

  8. Determination of uranium content in phosphoric and sulfuric acids used by the phosphatized fertilizers industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.M.O.

    1984-05-01

    Uranium content in phosphoric and sulfuric acids is determined. The uranium was measured through the fission track registration technique, using Makrofol KG, 10 μg thick, as detector. The so-called 'wet' method was adopted and the acid samples were used directly as irradiation medium. This proceeding showed the advantages of simple sample preparation and avoided the need of changing the acid samples media to nitric medium, as commonly used. The analysis of the sulfuric acid samples showed uranium contents under the detection limit of the technique (4 ppb). The results found for phosphoric acid samples ranged from 31 to 845 ppm, with experimental errors between 7.9 and 9.7%. (Author) [pt

  9. Changes to Regulatory Systems for more Efficient Nuclear Energy Deployment: An Industry Viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelin, H.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is required to play a much larger role in the energy mix in most credible energy scenarios that address climate change (680 GW additional capacity by 2050 according to IEA, 1000 GW according to World Nuclear Association). To reach these ambitious targets, a concerted effort will be required involving industry, governments and regulators. Changes to regulatory systems and processes – including licensing (design, site, operation), export control, security and waste - is one important area that can stimulate faster and more cost effective development of nuclear capacity. In the past, regulators were mainly concerned with authorizing a limited number of reactors from a limited number of designs under a national standard. Today regulators need resources to assess a wider range of designs, while each licensee needs to complete a thorough safety assessment even if the design has been assessed and approved elsewhere. These developments are the inevitable consequence of globalization and competition within the industry. This paper examines the current state of nuclear regulation in relation to the main attributes of good regulation as defined by the OECD. It further looks at ongoing efforts among regulators to share experience or harmonize requirements, such as within MDEP, or to agree common safety levels, such as in WENRA, in order to reach common positions and improve their regulatory approaches. Finally, it will assess the work of industry to demonstrate the benefits – both in terms of efficiency as well as safety – of harmonised regulations notably through the activities of the World Nuclear Association/CORDEL Working Group. (author)

  10. Characterisation of electrodeposited polycrystalline uranium dioxide thin films on nickel foil for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamska, A.M.; Bright, E. Lawrence; Sutcliffe, J.; Liu, W.; Payton, O.D.; Picco, L.; Scott, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline uranium dioxide thin films were grown on nickel substrates via aqueous electrodeposition of a precursor uranyl salt. The arising semiconducting uranium dioxide thin films exhibited a tower-like morphology, which may be suitable for future application in 3D solar cell applications. The thickness of the homogenous, tower-like films reached 350 nm. Longer deposition times led to the formation of thicker (up to 1.5 μm) and highly porous films. - Highlights: • Electrodeposition of polycrystalline UO_2 thin films • Tower-like morphology for 3D solar cell applications • Novel technique for separation of heavy elements from radioactive waste streams

  11. Uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poty, B.; Roux, J.

    1998-01-01

    The processing of uranium ores for uranium extraction and concentration is not much different than the processing of other metallic ores. However, thanks to its radioactive property, the prospecting of uranium ores can be performed using geophysical methods. Surface and sub-surface detection methods are a combination of radioactive measurement methods (radium, radon etc..) and classical mining and petroleum prospecting methods. Worldwide uranium prospecting has been more or less active during the last 50 years, but the rise of raw material and energy prices between 1970 and 1980 has incited several countries to develop their nuclear industry in order to diversify their resources and improve their energy independence. The result is a considerable increase of nuclear fuels demand between 1980 and 1990. This paper describes successively: the uranium prospecting methods (direct, indirect and methodology), the uranium deposits (economical definition, uranium ores, and deposits), the exploitation of uranium ores (use of radioactivity, radioprotection, effluents), the worldwide uranium resources (definition of the different categories and present day state of worldwide resources). (J.S.)

  12. Uranium - the world picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.; Wright, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The world resources of uranium and the future demand for uranium are discussed. The amount of uranium available depends on the price which users are prepared to pay for its recovery. As the price is increased, there is an incentive to recover uranium from lower grade or more difficult deposits. In view of this, attention is drawn to the development of the uranium industry in Australias

  13. Uranium price reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the systems for uranium price reporting currently available to the uranium industry. The report restricts itself to prices for U 3 O 8 natural uranium concentrates. Most purchases of natural uranium by utilities, and sales by producers, are conducted in this form. The bulk of uranium in electricity generation is enriched before use, and is converted to uranium hexafluoride, UF 6 , prior to enrichment. Some uranium is traded as UF 6 or as enriched uranium, particularly in the 'secondary' market. Prices for UF 6 and enriched uranium are not considered directly in this report. However, where transactions in UF 6 influence the reported price of U 3 O 8 this influence is taken into account. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms uranium and natural uranium used here refer exclusively to U 3 O 8 . (author)

  14. Provision by the uranium and uranium products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    International uranium market is converted from the buyer market into the seller market. The prices of uranium are high and the market attempts to adapt to changing circumstances. The industry of uranium enrichment satisfies the increasing demands but should to increase ots capacities. On the whole the situation is not stable and every year may change the existing position [ru

  15. A regulatory perspective of the role of construction in revitalizing the United States nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, V. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Technical and managerial experience in nuclear power plant construction is presented from the perspective of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In the context of actions that would contribute to revitalizing the nuclear industry in the United States of America, greater effectiveness of utility management during construction is proposed. The reasons why management effectiveness is so important are developed beginning with summaries of defects that were built into several US plants under construction. The root causes of these significant defects were management failures. In terms of benefits, effective management is important because of its effects on nuclear safety, project construction costs, and future reliability of the plant after commissioning. Actions that would enhance good management include emphasizing the inseparable nature of production and quality, that quality cannot be inspected into a plant, and that a strong construction management staff and exchanges of experience and information are essential. Techniques that have been used successfully in construction management are discussed. NRC and industry initiatives are in progress to improve management responsibility and learning from experience. Projects include Owner's Certification, assessments of licensee performance, fostering good practices across the industry, and improving the NRC inspection programme. Revitalization will not be easy, but it is achievable. (author)

  16. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  17. Regularities of uranium distribution in groundwater of ChNPP industrial site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Panasyuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Observed significant increase of migration properties of uranium from groundwater happens when pH rises above 9 - 10 against significant increases in the concentrations of major ions: Na+, K+, СО32-, NO2-, NO3-. Herewith, strongly alkaline reducing or transitional environment in groundwater is formed.

  18. Evaluation of Heat Shields from RTS Wright Industries Magnesium and Uranium Beds

    CERN Document Server

    Korinko, P S

    2002-01-01

    Heat shields from a factory test of the furnaces that will be used to heat the magnesium and uranium beds for the tritium extraction facility (TEF) were examined to determine the cause of discoloration. The samples were examined using visual, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy.

  19. Paradigmatic Shifts in Exploration Process: The Role of Industry-Academia Collaborative Research and Development in Discovering the Next Generation of Uranium Ore Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlatt, J., E-mail: jmarlatt5@cogeco.ca [Raven Minerals Corp.,Toronto (Canada); Kyser, K. [Queen’s Facility for Isotope Research, Queen’s University, Kingston (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium exploration increased over the past decade in a sympathetic response to a rapid increase in the price of uranium, inspired by fuel supply-demand and stock market dynamics. Exploration activity likely peaked during this cycle in 2008 with in excess of 900 companies engaged in the global exploration of a portfolio of over 3000 projects. Global uranium exploration expenditures for the period 2004–2008 are estimated at US$3.2 billion — from US$130 million in 2004 to an estimated peak of US$1.2 billion in 2008. A major focus of the exploration effort has been on brown-fields exploration in historical uranium districts. Less effort has been devoted to exploration at green-field frontiers. A significant reduction in global exploration expenditures in 2009 and beyond is anticipated concurrent with the global recession. There is not much evidence to indicate that brand-new, large, and higher grade, uranium deposits have been discovered during this uranium exploration cycle. It is likely that future uranium explorers will need to be more efficient and effective in their efforts and to adopt new and innovative business strategies for their survival and success. This paper addresses some of the fundamental reasons why major economic discoveries of uranium ore bodies have been elusive over the past two decades, through a cyclical model know as the ‘learning curve’, using the prolific Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, as an exemplar. This model relates exploration expenditure, quantities of discovered uranium, and the sequence of uranium deposit discoveries, to reveal that discovery cycles are epochal in nature and that they are also intimately related to the development and deployment of new exploration technologies. The history of uranium exploration is parsed into the early ‘prospector’ exploration phase (1960–1980) and the current ‘model driven’ phase (1981–present). The future of successful uranium exploration is envisaged as

  20. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of uranium conversion facilities where the possibility of exposure...

  1. Remediation and upgrading of old, inadequate waste management facilities. Integrated waste management system for rare earth and rare metal industry at Sillamaee, Estonia, former uranium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, Tonis; Siinmaa, Anti

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Sillamaee Metallurgical Plant was built in 1946-1948 at Sillamaee, in North-East Estonia, ca 190 km from Tallinn. Target product was uranium, mostly in form of yellow cake (U 3 O 8 ) for Soviet nuclear program. Uranium ore processing continued from 1948 to 1977, totally 4,013,000 tons of uranium ore were processed at Sillamaee plant. In early 1970s the plant introduced a new production line - rare earth elements. Rare earths were until 1991 produced from loparite (later from semi-processed loparite) - rare earths, niobium, tantalum and NORM-containing ore for Kola peninsula, Russia; later. All wastes were, as typical to hydrometallurgical processing all over the world, discharged to a large, 40 ha liquid waste depository - tailings pond, what in Sillamaee case was designed to discharge all liquid constituents slowly to the Baltic Sea. All uranium related activities were stopped in 1990, when only rare earth and rare metal production lines remained operational. The plant was 100 % privatized in 1997 and is today operated by Silmet Ltd., processing annually up to 8 000 tons of rare earth and 2000 tons of niobium and tantalum ores. Like all industries, inherited from Soviet times, Silmet plant is today facing a serious challenge to upgrading technologies towards waste minimizations process efficiency. The historical tailings pond, containing ca 1800 tons of natural uranium and ca 800 tons of thorium, was found geotechnically unstable and leaking to the Baltic Sea, in mid 90s. Being a problem of common Baltic concern, an international remediation project was initiated by Estonian Government and plant operator in 1998. In cooperation with Estonian, Finnish, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian Governments and with assistance by the European Union, the tailings pond will be environmentally remediated - dams stabilized and surface covered, by end of 2006. Close-down and environmental remediation of the tailings pond provides plant an ultimate challenge of

  2. Solar repowering/industrial retrofit systems study: Gulf Mt. Taylor Uranium Mill solar retrofit. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report covers the efforts in a nine month study to develop a site-specific conceptual design for solar industrial process heat retrofit of the Gulf Mt. Taylor Uranium Mill. This has resulted in preparation of a System Requirements Specification, conduct of trade studies leading to selection of a system concept, and conceptual design, performance, cost estimating and economic analysis of the selected concept. A baseline system with no storage and an alternative system with extended storage were evaluated. The baseline system with no storage was selected because it provides the best overall opportunity for fuel displacement, operating experience in industrial application and successful demonstration in the near term for both DOE and the user

  3. Assessment of the Main Deviations Found during Regulatory Inspections in Industrial Gamma Radiography in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Jimenez, M.T.; Ermacora, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper shows the regulatory work made through inspections concerning radiation safety and security in the area of industrial gamma radiography. An account is shown of the items which should be available in the storage facility where the equipment and radioactive sources are placed as well as in site radiography and which are required to the users of the equipment meant for this practice, in order to ensure compliance with the regulations in force. The objective of this paper is to assess the most frequent deviations to the regulatory standards found during this type of inspections, such as lack of complete and operable radiation protection equipment, lack of available elements bound to act in case of emergency, no delimitation of controlled areas, gamma radiography equipment stored in unlocked position, wear gauge unavailable, record of movements of equipment and radioactive sources not updated, anomalous monthly or annual personal dose values, among the main findings. In particular, in connection with dose reports, some cases of occupational exposed workers exceeding the annual dose limits or investigation levels are highlighted. In addition, the explanations provided by the person responsible for radiation protection of companies in regard to the possible causes or circumstances which might have given rise to such dose values, the conclusions reached and the preventive and corrective measures implemented by these companies are analysed. Finally, an assessment of the annual dose distributions of the occupational exposed workers concerned with this kind of practice in the period 2004-2007 is shown. As a conclusion, the relevance of these deviations according to degradation in safety and security performance and the role of the regulatory work as a promoter of the implementation of safety culture will be emphasized. (authors)

  4. Assessment of the main deviations found during regulatory inspections in industrial gamma radiography in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Jimenez, Maria T.; Ermacora, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    The present paper shows the regulatory work made through inspections concerning radiation safety and security in the area of industrial gamma radiography. An account is shown of the items which should be available in the storage facility where the equipment and radioactive sources are placed as well as in site radiography and which are required to the users of the equipment meant for this practice, in order to ensure compliance with the regulations in force. The objective of this paper is to assess the most frequent deviations to the regulatory standards found during this type of inspections, such as lack of complete and operable radiation protection equipment, lack of available elements bound to act in case of emergency, no delimitation of controlled areas, gamma radiography equipment stored in unlocked position, wear gauge unavailable, record of movements of equipment and radioactive sources not updated, anomalous monthly or annual personal dose values, among the main findings. In particular, in connection with dose reports, some cases of occupational exposed workers exceeding the annual dose limits or investigation levels are highlighted. In addition, the explanations provided by the person responsible for radiation protection of companies in regard to the possible causes or circumstances which might have given rise to such dose values, the conclusions reached and the preventive and corrective measures implemented by these companies are analysed. Finally, an assessment of the annual dose distributions of the occupational exposed workers concerned with this kind of practice in the period 2004-2007 is shown. As a conclusion, the relevance of these deviations according to degradation in safety and security performance and the role of the regulatory work as a promoter of the implementation of safety culture will be emphasized. (author)

  5. Uranium: one utility's outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The perspective of the Arizona Public Service Company (APS) on the uncertainty of uranium as a fuel supply is discussed. After summarizing the history of nuclear power and the uranium industries, a projection is made for the future uranium market. An uncrtain uranium market is attributed to various determining factors that include international politics, production costs, non-commercial government regulation, production-company stability, and questionable levels of uranium sales. APS offers its solutions regarding type of contract, choice of uranium producers, pricing mechanisms, and aids to the industry as a whole. 5 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  6. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  7. Accounting for water in the minerals industry: Capitalising on regulatory reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikki A. Garstone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia has been rapidly advancing the field of water accounting as a tool to improve water management across the country. Water accounting is the application of a consistent and structured approach to identify, measure and report water resource information. The Bureau of Meteorology (the Bureau has developed Australian Water Accounting Standards for General Purpose Water Accounting Reports.Following collaboration between the Bureau and the Newmarket Gold Mining Company, this paper investigates how General Purpose Water Account Reporting can be applied and used in the minerals industry to simplify and improve aspects of regulatory reporting. This case study demonstrates how General Purpose Water Accounting Reports and the lessons learned from the ongoing development of the Australian National Water Account can be practically applied to regulatory reporting and corporate data management for a mining operation in the Australian Northern Territory. This paper also demonstrates the benefits of aligning a standardised water account with data that is already routinely collected as part of mining operations environmental compliance.

  8. An investment-production-regulatory model for firms in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Di.

    1991-01-01

    This tripartite study examines the economic consequences of proposed environmental regulations on firms in the OCS oil and gas industry. The background part reviews the major issues associated with OCS oil and gas development and relevant environmental regulatory proposals. In the theoretical part, models are developed using optimal control theory and the theory of nonrenewable resources to analyze the impact of rising compliance cost on firm's behavior in terms of the investment and production rates over time. Finally, in the simulation part, an integrated investment-production-regulatory model is developed to simulate OCS development with and without the proposed environmental regulations. Effects of regulations are measured in terms of an increase in compliance costs and the associated reduction in net profits from oil and gas production. The theoretical results indicate that an increase in compliance costs will alter exploration, development and production rates. The total investments in exploration and development, and oil production will decrease as a result of rising compliance costs for exploration, development and production over the entire planning period

  9. Consideration of sky-shine radiation effects for the development of Korean regulatory guidance about industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Ki Chi; Bokyun Seo; Wantae Kim

    2015-01-01

    Although most of the sky-shine radiation levels in industrial radiography are below regulatory limits, sky-shine radiation could make a valuable contribution to the total radiation level near shielding facility with little shielding and open field without shielding. Therefore sky-shine radiation should be thoroughly predicted and supervised with the ALARA principle. In this study, we simulated sky-shine radiation for mobile irradiators using MCNP and newly suggested the equation for calculating sky-shine radiation. Also these results were applied to developing Korean regulatory guidance about industrial radiography and to recommending the requirement of the facility design, controlled or supervised area at work places. (author)

  10. Chest wall thickness measurements and the dosimetric implications for male workers in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Gary H.; Hauck, Barry M.; Allen, Steve A.

    2000-01-01

    The Human Monitoring Laboratory has measured the chest wall thickness and adipose mass fraction of a group of workers at three Canadian uranium refinery, conversion plant, and fuel fabrication sites using ultrasound. A site specific biometric equation has been developed for these workers, who seem to be somewhat larger than other workers reported in the literature. The average chest wall thickness of the seated persons measured at the uranium conversion plant and refinery was about 3.8 cm, and at the fuel fabrication facility was 3.4 cm. These values are not statistically different. Persons measured in a seated geometry had a thinner chest wall thickness than persons measured in a supine geometry - the decrease was in the range of 0.3 cm to 0.5 cm. It follows that a seated geometry will give a lower MDA (or decision level) than a supine geometry. Chest wall thickness is a very important modifier for lung counting efficiency and this data has been put into the perspective of the impending Canadian dose limits that will reduce the limit of occupationally exposed workers to essentially 20 mSv per year. Natural uranium must be measured based on the 235 U emissions at these type of facilities. The refining and conversion process removes 234 Th and the equilibrium is disturbed. This is unfortunate as the MDA values for this nuclide are approximately a factor of three lower than the values quoted below. The sensitivity of the germanium and phoswich based lung counting system has been compared. Achievable MDA's (30 minute counting time) with a four-phoswich-detector array lie in the range of 4.7 mg to 13.5 mg of natural uranium based on the 235 U emissions over a range of chest wall thicknesses of 1.6 cm to 6.0 cm. The average achievable MDA is about 8.5 mg which can be reduced to about 6.2 mg by doubling the counting time. Similarly, MDA's (30 minute counting time) obtainable with a germanium lung counting system will lie in the range of 3 mg to 28 mg of natural uranium

  11. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2004-12-01

    To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities.

  12. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  13. H.R. 4934: A Bill to provide for a viable domestic uranium industry. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, June 28, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The bill H.R. 4934 is aimed to provide a viable domestic uranium industry, to establish a program to fund reclamation and other remedial actions with respect to mill tailings at active uranium and thorium sites, and to establish a wholly-owned Government corporation to manage the Nation's uranium enrichment enterprise, operating as a continuing, commercial enterprise on a profitable and efficient basis. The contents of the bill are divided into four sections entitled: Introduction, Uranium Revitalization, Remedial Action Performed by the Owner or Licensee of Active Sites, and United States Enrichment Corporation. The section on the United States Enrichment Corporation further amends the previously amended Atomic Energy Act of 1954 to detail exactly how the corporation shall be established, funded, and managed. The bill was referred jointly to the Committee on Energy and Commerce, Interior and Insular Affairs, Science, Space and Technology, and Ways and Means

  14. Shutdown and cleanup of the East German uranium ore mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, W.; Boettcher, J.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1991, the company was changed from SDAG Wismut into a private company (GmbH under German law) with the sole purpose of cleaning up the decommissioned uranium ore mining and dressing plants in such a way that pollutants, contaminated soil, water and air, and other damage to the environment will be removed both from the plant premises and from associated real estate. (orig./HP) [de

  15. A study of industrial exposure to uranium aerosols from the laser enrichment procedure - methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Claraz, M.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Metivier, H.

    1995-01-01

    Comprehensive studies of the radiotoxicological risk at new uranium enrichment processing facilities using laser isotopic separation, were particularly motivated by the generation of a uranium oxide aerosol identified as UO 2 + U metal . Taking the new ICRP 66 recommendations into account, the following study on this uranium oxide mixture, was aimed at determining the physico-chemical and biokinetic specific parameters required in order to calculate the effective dose. The activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) ranged between 5.2 and 10 μm with, in some cases, up to 20% of submicron size particles, while concentration values at the workplace ranged from 1.8 to 125 Bq m -3 and biological half-time calculations gave a 48 d period with in vitro dissolution test and a 77 d period with in vivo inhalation experiments. Transfer rates and dissolution rates obtained from both in vitro and vivo experiments intend to emphasize a class W behaviour in term of ICRP 30 and M in term of ICRP 66. (authors). 3 figs., 4 tabs., 22 refs

  16. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols I. Physical chemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the fabrication of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuel, large quantities of dry powders are processed, causing dusty conditions in glove box enclosures. Inadvertent loss of glove box integrity or failure of air filter systems can lead to human inhalation exposure. Powdered samples and aerosol samples of these materials obtained during two fuel fabrication process steps have been obtained. A regimen of physical chemical tests of properties of these materials has been employed to identify physical chemical properties which may influence their biological behavior and dosimetry. Materials to be discussed are 750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the ball milling operation and 1750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Results of x-ray diffraction studies have shown that the powder generated by the centerless grinding of fuel pellets is best described as a solid solution of UO x and PuO x consistent with its temperature history. In vitro dissolution studies of both mixed oxide materials indicate a generally similar dissolution rate for both materials. In one solvent, the material with the higher temperature history dissolves more rapidly. The x-ray diffraction and in vitro dissolution results as well as preliminary results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses will be compared and the implications for the associated biological studies will be discussed. (author)

  17. Relationship between Saskatchewan government regulatory agencies and the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, L.J.; Mathieson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The roles and responsibilities of various government agencies as they interact with the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were described. The regulatory agencies featured in this paper were Saskatchewan Energy and Mines (SEM), Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM), and Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food (SAF). The management of land sales, seismic activities, exploration and oil and gas production activities were reviewed. While each of the agencies has a different mandate, they have a common goal regarding petroleum resources, and that is to ensure that the oil and gas industry carries out its activities in a sustainable manner while protecting and conserving the environment. The mandate of SEM is to facilitate the discovery, development and use of Saskatchewan's energy and mineral resources. SERM's mandate is to manage, enhance and protect Saskatchewan's natural and environmental resources such as fish, wildlife, lands, forests, parks, air, water and soil, for conservation, recreation, social and economic purposes. The mandate of SAF is to manage crown land in the province and to control surface access to these lands

  18. Effects of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry on electricity prices in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Electric power sector reforms in the electricity supply industry have had an impact on industrial and household prices in developing countries in Latin America, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Using original panel data for 83 countries during the period from 1985 to 2002, we examine how each policy instrument of the reform measures influenced electricity prices for countries in the above regions. We found that variables such as entry of independent power producers (IPP), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of a regulatory agency, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market have had a variety of impacts on electricity prices, some of which were not always consistent with expected results. The research findings suggest that neither unbundling nor introduction of a wholesale pool market on their own necessarily reduces the electric power price. In fact, contrary to expectations, there was a tendency for the price to rise. However, coexistent with an independent regulator, unbundling may work to reduce electricity prices. Privatization and the introduction of foreign IPP and retail competition lower electricity prices in some regions, but not all

  19. The Belgian regulatory framework for NORM industries : test-case of a phosphate production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, Stephane; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, Andre; Michel Sonck

    2008-01-01

    According to the Belgian radiation protection regulatory framework, some categories of NORM industries must register to the competent Belgian radiation protection authority (FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control). The facilities must provide a set of information which allows the authority to assess the radiological impact of the industrial activity on the workers, the population and the environment. If the dose exceeds or is likely to exceed 1 mSv/y, corrective measures have to be implemented. FANC has issued a methodology in order to define more precisely the data needed to evaluate the radiological impact. The methodology lists also the exposure pathways which have to be taken into account and the relevant parameters for the evaluation of the doses. The case of a phosphate production plant is discussed in more details: although the exposure of the workers in the production process as such is rather limited, the specific activity of some residues (calcium fluoride sludge) reaches around 10 kBq/kg of Ra-226. This sludge is disposed off in a specific landfill for which a program of radiological monitoring has been implemented. It includes periodic measurements of dose rate and radon concentration on the landfill. (author)

  20. Challenges in waste management and environmental restoration in the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, J.

    2011-01-01

    Two components dominate the waste management efforts at conventional Canadian uranium mining and milling operations. These are the waste rock generated in the mining of ore as well as the mill tailings -- which are the residue solids remaining after uranium extraction. Much has changed in the management of these wastes over the years. Visually, current sites are generally more compact than those developed earlier, due to higher grade ores and less land disturbance. However, the more significant strides being made to better manage uranium mining wastes deal more with improved chemical and physical controls rather than those changes which are visible. Segregation of waste rock to separate out potentially problematic material within the more weakly mineralized halo surrounding the ore is now a core strategy. This segregation is based on both the waste rock's chemical and radiological characteristics. Better controls have also been introduced on tailings physical properties to minimize their permeability, along with better chemical controls to minimize tailings contaminant solubility. Efforts to engineer tailings properties are coupled with contrasting hydraulic conductivity between the consolidated tailings mass and surrounding geologic materials. This creates the necessary long-term containment controls built into modern tailings management facilities. Current challenges include selecting the correct decommissioning assumptions such as future land use and required environmental acceptance criteria, along with decisions as to when to carry out reclamation work in the life cycle of the mine and mill. Public discussion of restoration plans throughout the life of the facility is essential to build acceptable solutions. Along with challenges come successes. Most recently, improvements have been made in reducing treated water molybdenum and selenium levels. Other successes include the application of reverse osmosis technology on a large scale, recycling of uranium

  1. Challenges in waste management and environmental restoration in the uranium mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, J. [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Two components dominate the waste management efforts at conventional Canadian uranium mining and milling operations. These are the waste rock generated in the mining of ore as well as the mill tailings -- which are the residue solids remaining after uranium extraction. Much has changed in the management of these wastes over the years. Visually, current sites are generally more compact than those developed earlier, due to higher grade ores and less land disturbance. However, the more significant strides being made to better manage uranium mining wastes deal more with improved chemical and physical controls rather than those changes which are visible. Segregation of waste rock to separate out potentially problematic material within the more weakly mineralized halo surrounding the ore is now a core strategy. This segregation is based on both the waste rock's chemical and radiological characteristics. Better controls have also been introduced on tailings physical properties to minimize their permeability, along with better chemical controls to minimize tailings contaminant solubility. Efforts to engineer tailings properties are coupled with contrasting hydraulic conductivity between the consolidated tailings mass and surrounding geologic materials. This creates the necessary long-term containment controls built into modern tailings management facilities. Current challenges include selecting the correct decommissioning assumptions such as future land use and required environmental acceptance criteria, along with decisions as to when to carry out reclamation work in the life cycle of the mine and mill. Public discussion of restoration plans throughout the life of the facility is essential to build acceptable solutions. Along with challenges come successes. Most recently, improvements have been made in reducing treated water molybdenum and selenium levels. Other successes include the application of reverse osmosis technology on a large scale, recycling of uranium

  2. Reclamation plans at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term stability of waste impoundments is of concern because of the long time periods over which various types of waste may remain active. Over the past decade much technology has been developed specifically for reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Aspects of this technology will be discussed here and is presented as also being directly applicable to reclamation of industrial waste impoundments in general. The paper discusses Title I and Title II sites which represent two different generations in uranium tailings impoundment construction. The comparison between the two represent differences in philosophies as well as in impoundment type. Reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments in the U.S. is controlled by Federal legislation, which has set forth the regulatory framework for reclamation plan approval. Title I requirements govern government owned inactive sites and Title II requirements govern active tailings impoundments or those operated by private industries. While the Title I and Title II designation may result in a slightly different regulatory process, reclamation of uranium tailings sites has the same. Differences between Title I and Title II reclamation plans to achieve surface stability relate primarily to the embankment and surface covers. The differences in the cover designs result from site-specific conditions, rather than from differences in engineering approaches or the regulatory process. This paper discusses the site-specific conditions that affect the selection of cover designs, and provides a comparative example to illustrate the effect of this condition

  3. Corporate Political Strategies related to Decisions of European Competition Commission on Regulatory Issues in the European Telecommunications Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.L. van; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    The European regulatory institution has the tasks to protect fair competition and equal opportunities for all companies in the European telecommunications industry and to protect the welfare of the consumers. This regulator is responsible for the adherence of telecommunications companies to

  4. Uranium mining and production: A legal perspective on regulating an important resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The importance of uranium can be examined from several perspectives. First, natural uranium is a strategic energy resource because it is a key ingredient for the generation of nuclear power and, therefore, it can affect the energy security of a state. Second, natural uranium is also a raw material in relative abundance throughout the world, which can, through certain steps, be transformed into nuclear explosive devices. Thus, there is both an interest in the trade of uranium resources and a need for their regulatory control. The importance of uranium to the worldwide civilian nuclear industry means that its extraction and processing - the so-called 'front end' of the nuclear fuel cycle - is of regulatory interest. Like 'ordinary' metal mining, which is generally regulated within a country, uranium mining must also be considered from the more particular perspective of regulation and control, as part of the international nuclear law regime that is applied to the entire nuclear fuel cycle. The present overview of the regulatory role in overseeing and controlling uranium mining and production will outline the regulation of this resource from an international level, both from early days to the present day. Uranium mining is not regulated internationally; rather, it is a state responsibility. However, developments at the international level have, over time, led to better national regulation. One can note several changes in the approach to the uranium industry since the time that uranium was first mined on a significant scale, so that today the mining and trade of uranium is a well-established and regulated industry much less marked by secrecy and Cold War sentiment. At the same time, it is informed by international standards and conventions, proliferation concerns and a modern regard for environmental protection and the health and safety of workers and the public. (author)

  5. Comparison of physical chemical properties of powders and respirable aerosols of industrial mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize physical and chemical properties which may be important in determining the metabolism of accidentally released, inhaled aerosols of industrial mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuels and to compare the properties of bulk powders and the respirable fraction they include. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that analysis of mixed-oxide powders from four process steps served to characterize their respirable fractions. IR spectroscopy was useful as a method to detect organic binders that were not observed by X-ray diffraction methods. Both X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy methods can be used in combination to identify the sources of a complex aerosol that might be released from more than one fabrication step. Isotopic distributions in powders and aerosols showed that information important for radiation dose to tissue calculations or Pu lung burden estimates can be obtained by analysis of powders. (U.K.)

  6. Regulatory principles, criteria and guidelines for site selection, design, construction and operation of uranium tailings retention systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coady, J.R.; Henry, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Principles, criteria and guidelines developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for the management of uranium mill tailings are discussed. The application of these concepts is considered in relation to site selection, design and construction, operation and decommissioning of tailings retention facilities

  7. Uranium energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkes, P.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium supply and demand as projected by the Uranium Institute is discussed. It is concluded that for the industrialized countries, maximum energy independence is a necessity. Hence it is necessary to achieve assurance of supply for uranium used in thermal power reactors in current programs and eventually to move towards breeders

  8. Australian uranium today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  9. Evaluation of NORM in facility Venezuelan oil industry to establish regulatory criteria; Evaluacion de NORM en una instalacion de la industria petrolera venezolana para establecer los criterios reguladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo Lozada, D. J.; Rivas, I.; Davila, L.; Flores, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The present work shows the need to identify, in the Venezuelan oil industry, the existence of exposure to natural sources of radiation should be considered as occupational. As Regulatory Authority in the area of ionizing radiation the need for regulatory processes and ensure radiation protection of personnel involved in these practices arises, as well as personal and environmental monitoring. NORM identifying an installation of the Venezuelan oil industry to establish regulatory processes and take steps to ensure occupational radiation protection. (Author)

  10. Uranium: a basic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crull, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    All energy sources and technologies, including uranium and the nuclear industry, are needed to provide power. Public misunderstanding of the nature of uranium and how it works as a fuel may jeopardize nuclear energy as a major option. Basic chemical facts about uranium ore and uranium fuel technology are presented. Some of the major policy decisions that must be made include the enrichment, stockpiling, and pricing of uranium. Investigations and lawsuits pertaining to uranium markets are reviewed, and the point is made that oil companies will probably have to divest their non-oil energy activities. Recommendations for nuclear policies that have been made by the General Accounting Office are discussed briefly

  11. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. DOE responses to comments from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report contains responses by the US Department of Energy to comments from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment on the Naturita remedial action plan. This was done in an attempt to clarify information. The site is an inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado

  12. TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS IN USING FREIGHT CONTAINERS AS INDUSTRIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opperman, E; Mark Hawk, M; Ron Natali, R

    2007-10-16

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programs. EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer-term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up program. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low-level waste (LLW) materials in a safe and cost-effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation Final Rule issued January 26, 2004, included a new provision authorizing the use of Freight Containers (e.g., 20 and 40-foot ISO Containers) as Industrial Packages Type 1, 2, or 3 (IP-1, IP-2, and IP-3). This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorized and large packages for the packaging and transportation of LLW materials.

  13. Technical and Regulatory Considerations in Using Freight Containers as Industrial Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programmes. The EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up programme. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low level waste materials in a safe and cost effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation issued on 26 January 2004, included a new provision authorising the use of freight containers (e.g. 20 and 40 ft ISO containers) as industrial packages type 2 or 3. This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorised and large packages for the packaging and transportation of low level waste materials.

  14. Regulatory inspection practices for industrial safety (electrical, mechanical, material handling and conventional aspects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory Inspection (RI) of BARC facilities and projects are carried out under the guidance of BARC Safety Council (BSC) Secretariat. Basically facilities and projects have been divided into two board categories viz. radiological facilities and non-radiological facilities. The Rls of radiological facilities should be carried out under OPSRC and of non-radiological facilities under CFSRC. Periodicity of inspection shall be at least once in a year. The RI of projects is carried out under concerned DSRC. RI practices with industrial safety which includes electrical, mechanical, material handling and conventional aspect for these facilities starts with check lists. The inspection areas are prepared in the form of checklists which includes availability of approved documents, compliance status of previous RIT and various safety committee's recommendations, radiological status of facilities, prompt reporting of safety related unusual occurrences, major incident, site visit for verification of actual status of system/plant. The practices for inspection in the area of electrical safety shall include checking of maintenance procedure for all critical class IV system equipment's such as HT panel, LT panel, transformer and motors. Load testing of Class III system such as D.G. set etc. shall be carried out as technical specification surveillance schedule. Status of aviation lights, number of qualified staff, availability of qualified staff etc. shall be form of inspection

  15. The roles of antitrust law and regulatory oversight in the restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazer, C.A.; Little, M.B.

    1999-05-01

    The introduction of retail wheeling is changing the roles of regulators and the courts. When states unbundle the vertically integrated investor-owned utility (IOU) into generation companies, transmission companies, and distribution companies, antitrust enforcement and policy setting by the state public utility/service commissions (PUCs) will be paramount. As was seen in the deregulation of the airline industry, vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws by the courts and proper policy setting by the regulators are the keys to a successful competitive market. Many of the problems raised in the airline deregulation movement came about due to laxity in correcting clear antitrust violations and anti-competitive conditions before they caused damage to the market. As retail wheeling rolls out, it is critical for state PUCs to become attuned to these issues and, most of all, to have staff trained in these disciplines. The advent of retail wheeling changes the application of the State Action Doctrine and, in turn, may dramatically alter the role of the state PUC--meaning antitrust law and regulatory oversight must step in to protect competitors and consumers from monopolistic abuse.

  16. Economic impact of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry: a panel data analysis for OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toru; Tsutsui, Miki

    2004-01-01

    This paper re-examines the impact of the regulatory reforms on price in the electricity supply industry, using panel data for 19 OECD countries for the period 1987-1999, and compares the results with those found in an earlier study by Steiner (Regulation, industry structure and performance in the electricity supply industry, OECD Economics Department Working Paper, ECO/WKP, 2000, p. 11). We found that expanded retail access is likely to lower the industrial price and increase the price differential between industrial customers and household customers, as expected. We also found that the unbundling of generation and the introduction of a wholesale spot market did not necessarily lower the price and may possibly have resulted in a higher price. This finding is not consistent with expectations and differs from Steiner (2000), but it is plausible in the light of recent experiences in many countries. (author)

  17. The impact of non-proliferation policies on the uranium market - an industry view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephany, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is concluded that from an economic point of view, the impact of the present political discussions on non-proliferation (referring particularly to U.S. and Canadian initiatives) on the uranium market (through the choice of reactor programmes in different countries, and other parts of the fuel cycle, such an enrichment, reprocessing, the use of plutonium and the disposal of radioactive waste) cannot be assessed quantitatively. It is believed, however, that in general terms the non-proliferation issue will lead to an increase in the cost of nuclear energy and of all energy. It is also considered that it will tend to strengthen nationalism and thereby to restrict international trade. (U.K.)

  18. Lichens and mosses as monitors of industrial activity associated with uranium mining in northern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieboer, E.; Boileau, L.J.R.; Beckett, P.J.; Lavoie, P.; Padovan, D.

    1982-01-01

    Strong linear regressions (P < 0.001) were observed between background concentrations of iron and titanium in lichens and mosses. For these same samples, the Fe/Ti content ratio was remarkably constant: 8.7 +- 1.8 for fifty-four lichen samples and 10.5 +- 1.5 for thirty-eight mosses. The Fe/Ti concentration ratio for cryptogams collected near uranium mine-exhaust vents accurately reflected the values of this same ratio for the rocks characterising the local ore body. Plant samples exhibiting the largest levels of Fe and Ti also had high mineral ash contents. The various associations and observations reported were interpreted as evidence that particulate trapping is an important elemental accumulation mechanism for lichens and mosses. (author)

  19. Metal Pollution of Forest Phytomass from Uranium Industry in Czech Republic and Its Ecological Management Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Juřička

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of metals migration within the forest environment affected by deep mining of metals and the possibility how to immobilize them using an environment-friendly method. First, the paper presents the information about metal content in the tree leaves in alluvial recipients polluted by metals from uranium deep mining at Dolní Rožínka, the Czech Republic. X-ray fluorescence analysis of dried leaves results showed the increased content of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zn and U; it corresponds to the most seriously polluted areas in the world comparing with the scientific literature. However, statistically, we did not succeed to demonstrate in none of areas of interest the element heterogeneity between the upper, middle and lower streams segments. Element habitat homogeneity can be caused by current stand species composition where Picea abies L. dominates and this fact results in the negative impact on the soil pH since it is a primary factor of metals immobilization in the ecosystem and their transformation into toxic variations. Within the area of interest, there is demonstrated positive effect of reconstruction of forest stands, which are close to the dominating deciduous trees, especially Fagus silvatica L. This management change in the selected interested forest stands can result in Ca supply of up to 39 kg.ha-1 from strictly natural sources, which might be a perspective alternative to liming.

  20. The application of sanctions for violations of the regulatory standards in the industrial uses of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, Walter Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This work describe the mechanisms used for to apply the penalties in industrial uses of radioactive materials, the experience gained in recent years in various administrative steps, as well as relevant aspects of some cases and / or exceptional situations that were detected by the ARN during regulatory inspections by complaints or other means, and that led to the imposition of administrative penalties in such industrial applications. This scheme covers various types of sanctions that depending on the severity of the fault may be: warnings, fines, suspension or cancellation of permits or permissions, and if necessary arrest and / or decommissioning of radioactive material

  1. Radiological protection principles concerning the release for industrial use of areas contaminated from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    With regard to uses of contaminated grounds as industrial sites, generally all exposure pathways relevant during stays outdoors have to be evaluated. Assuming conditions as realistic as possible, but sufficiently conservative, the dose estimates reveal that radiation exposure from inhalation of both contaminated dust particles and Rn-decay products is lower by almost one order of magnitude than external radiation exposure. The gamma dose rate above the contaminated areas and the potential input of radioactivity into the ground water therefore are relevant exposure pathways during the use of contaminated grounds as mere industrial sites. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Analysis for making a regulatory decision to equipment of industrial gammagraphy in Argentin; Analisis para la toma de decision regulatoria sobre equipos de gammagrafia industrial en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermacora, Marcela G.; Vidal, Dora N.; Alonso, Maria T., E-mail: mermacora@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: dvidal@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: malonso@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    Industrial gammagraphy is a practice widely used as a nondestructive testing technique in Argentina. Experience worldwide has shown the need for an improvement in the intrinsic safety of the equipment used in this lab. In response to this reason, the board of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has considered a proposal to withdraw service movement and much of the equipment inventory scan belonging to industrial facilities nationwide. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of the analysis performed to support the above proposal. The main elements of evaluation can be summarized as follows: I) the teams that do not conform to international recommendations regarding compliance with key safety requirements of international standards such as ISO 3999:2004 (E) {sup R}adiation protection - Industrial Apparatus for gamma radiography - Specifications for performance, design and tests {sup ;} II) the decision by some manufacturers to discontinue production of certain models of equipment and the provision of spare parts, and III) the validity of certificates bulk type B (U) for transport. In conclusion, it highlights the importance of a regulatory decision supplementary to the Standard AR 7.9.1 concerning the operation of scan equipment industry, based on current international recommendations and Argentina's commitment to good practice and safety culture which can lead to a positive impact on radiation safety in this art.

  3. Definition of prospective terrains for industrial polymineralic placers in the Mississippi embayment region by use of uranium exploration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosz, A.E.; Greenwood, W.J.; Schruben, P.G.; Grossman, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Titanium, Zr, Hf, rare-earth element (REE), Th, and U data from the Hydrogeochemical Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) database, and Th and U from the airborne spectral gamma-ray radiation data base of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are diagnostic of, and may predict the presence of, commercially important concentrations of industrial heavy minerals. An analysis of these data from the Mississippi embayment region shows that regionally anomalous concentrations of these elements in sediment samples and intensifies in airborne radiation surveys can indicate the presence and relative abundance of important industrial heavy minerals such as ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and monazite. Plots of samples with statistically anomalous concentrations of these elements coincide with known placer deposits of industrial heavy minerals. Cretaceous and younger sediments are indicated as likely hosts to undiscovered economic deposits. Volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks are the sources of the minerals found in these sediments, and thus valley-fill sediments within the crystalline terranes may also host concentrations of placer minerals. Fe/Ti ratios ≤ 1.17 in sediment samples are shown to be sensitive indicators of weathered ilmenite (> 52.7 wt% TiO 2 ); locations of such samples are coincident with Cretaceous and younger sediments in the study area. The data outline large areas suitable for Ti-Hf-REE-bearing placer exploration. Evidence for potential Ti-Hf-REE placer deposits is given for unconsolidated sediments in the floodplain of the Mississippi River. Good correlations between the abundances of Ce and La, Ce and Th, and Th and U in the sediment samples show how the geographically more extensive NURE airborne spectral gamma-ray data base can be used to outline areas favorable for monazite-bearing placer exploration. (author)

  4. The participation of the Experimental Design Factory of the Uranium Industry of Czechoslovakia in the design of a tunneling machine with disk bits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, P

    1983-01-01

    A tunneling machine, two prototypes of which were designed and built jointly on the basis of scientific and technical cooperation between the Experimental Design Factory of the Uranium Industry of Czechoslovakia and the VEB-Schachtbau enterprise (East Germany), is described. The experimental design operations were conducted under the methodological leadership of the Mine Construction in the Uranium Industry (Czechoslovakia) enterprise. The experimental design factory developed a general design system for the machine and its individual subassemblies. The detailed technical documentation for the machine units was developed by both enterprises. Each enterprise made two complexes of specific units and spare parts. The prototypes were assembled in both countries with the technical assistance of the producer enterprise of the appropriate subassembly. Industrial tests were conducted by each enterprise independently with technical assistance and delivery of spare parts on the part of the producer enterprise. A machine under the title of VM 24-27 was used to drill more than 2,300 meters of water supply tunnel in East Germany in 1982 and a machine called the RS 24-27 (29) was used in Prague in the same year to drill approximately 1,400 meters of cable collectors. The machine is designed for the passage of rounded mine drifts with a diameter of 2.4 to 2.7 (2.9) meters) to the full cross section in stable rocks. Its overall length is 32.5 meters, while the total weight is 85 tons. The shift productivity was 9.55 meters. Since 1979 the Mining Construction in the Uranium Industry and the Experimental Design Plant of the Uranium Industry Enterprises of Czechoslovakia have supplied disk bits for the TVM Demag tunnel drilling machines (West Germany) and RS 24-27 and the HG 210 Wirth (West Germany) cross cut drills.

  5. Nuclear and uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNabb, G.M.; Uranium Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario)

    The background of the uranium industry in Canada is described. Government policies with respect to ownership of the uranium mining industry, price stabilization, and especially reservation of sufficient supplies of nuclear fuels for domestic utilities, are explained. Canadian policy re nuclear exports and safeguards is outlined. (E.C.B.)

  6. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  7. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U 3 O 8 to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington

  8. The uranium production cycle and the environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Within the international community it is widely recognized that the responsibility for management of uranium production and all related activities should be independent of the organizations providing for the oversight and regulatory function. An important role of the IAEA is establishing international safety standards for protection of health and environment against exposure to ionizing radiation. Once legally binding laws, regulations and standards are established,either through national and international programmes, it becomes the responsibility of the management and operators of uranium production projects for carrying our all activities to meet these requirements. The major emphasis of the IAEA's Project on Raw Materials for Reactor Fuels is to improve and strengthen the practice of preventive measures by establishing guidelines for environmental impact assessment and mitigation and the recognition and promotion of good practice and modern technology. The Waste Technology programme provides advice on the cleanup and remediation of old production sites and wastes. One important mechanism for recognizing and promoting best practice in environmental management of uranium production is fostering information exchange among specialists. The IAEA exercises this mechanism, for examples though publications, electronic information exchange and, particularly, through large gatherings of specialists and decision makers at international conferences, symposia and seminars. The topics covered at the symposium were: Energy needs and challenges for the 21{sup st} Century; uranium supply for the short and long term; sustainable development, energy resources and nuclear energy's role in greenhouse gas abatement; economic impact of world mining; impacts of mining on developed and developing countries; environmental and social impacts of uranium mining in several countries; examples of positive and negative impacts of uranium mining projects on local communities; environmental

  9. The uranium production cycle and the environment. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Within the international community it is widely recognized that the responsibility for management of uranium production and all related activities should be independent of the organizations providing for the oversight and regulatory function. An important role of the IAEA is establishing international safety standards for protection of health and environment against exposure to ionizing radiation. Once legally binding laws, regulations and standards are established,either through national and international programmes, it becomes the responsibility of the management and operators of uranium production projects for carrying our all activities to meet these requirements. The major emphasis of the IAEA's Project on Raw Materials for Reactor Fuels is to improve and strengthen the practice of preventive measures by establishing guidelines for environmental impact assessment and mitigation and the recognition and promotion of good practice and modern technology. The Waste Technology programme provides advice on the cleanup and remediation of old production sites and wastes. One important mechanism for recognizing and promoting best practice in environmental management of uranium production is fostering information exchange among specialists. The IAEA exercises this mechanism, for examples though publications, electronic information exchange and, particularly, through large gatherings of specialists and decision makers at international conferences, symposia and seminars. The topics covered at the symposium were: Energy needs and challenges for the 21 st Century; uranium supply for the short and long term; sustainable development, energy resources and nuclear energy's role in greenhouse gas abatement; economic impact of world mining; impacts of mining on developed and developing countries; environmental and social impacts of uranium mining in several countries; examples of positive and negative impacts of uranium mining projects on local communities; environmental issues

  10. Strong demand for natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, P.

    1975-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum and the task group 'fuel elements' of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft had organized an international two-day symposium in Mainz on natural uranium supply which was attended by 250 experts from 20 countries. The four main themes were: Demand for natural uranium, uranium deposits and uranium production, attitude of the uranium producing countries, and energy policy of the industrial nations. (orig./AK) [de

  11. Experience of regulatory body functioning in energy industry of Ukraine: Prospects for future development of state regulation of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruskaya, M.

    2002-01-01

    Materials collected (presented) in the paper introduce to (familiarise) the audience with the main forms, methods and phases of the state regulation of energy industry in Ukraine in the period of transition to market economy. Special attention was paid to the following aspects: 1. Necessity and history of establishment of special regulatory body in Ukraine - The National Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC); 2. The main tasks and authorities of NERC according to the Ukraine Law on Energy Sector; 3. Regulation mechanisms of the main processes in the energy industry used by the Commission on the current level of energy sector development and economic results of its introduction; 4. Problems with functioning of the wholesale energy market specifically as the main component of the Ukraine energy industry and trends of future development (improvement of energy industry's financial situation, intensification of competition between energy producers and suppliers, improvement of tariff and investment policies, etc.); 5. Necessity and ways of future improvement of the standards and legal basis for regulation in Ukraine. (author)

  12. Uranium of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalyuk, Yu.; Gurevich, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over 25 % of the world's uranium reserves are concentrated in Kazakhstan. So, the world's largest Shu-Sarysu uranium province is situated on southern Kazakhstan, with resources exceeding 1 billion tonnes of uranium. No less, than 3 unique deposits with resources exceeding 100,000 tonnes are situated here. From the economic point of view the most important thing is that these deposits are suitable for in-situ leaching, which is the cheapest, environmentally friendly and most efficient method available for uranium extracting. In 1997 the Kazatomprom National Joint-Stock Company united all Kazakhstan's uranium enterprises (3 mine and concentrating plants, Volkovgeologiya Joint-Stock Company and the Ulbinskij Metallurgical plant). In 1998 uranium production came to 1,500 tonnes (860 kg in 1997). In 1999 investment to the industry were about $ 30 million. Plans for development of Kazakhstan's uranium industry provide a significant role for foreign partners. At present, 2 large companies (Comeco (Canada), Cogema (France) working in Kazakhstan. Kazakatomprom continues to attract foreign investors. The company's administration announced that in that in next year they have plan to make a radical step: to sell 67 % of stocks to strategic investors (at present 100 % of stocks belongs to state). Authors of the article regard, that the Kazakhstan's uranium industry still has significant reserves to develop. Even if the scenario for the uranium industry could be unfavorable, uranium production in Kazakhstan may triple within the next three to four years. The processing of uranium by the Ulbinskij Metallurgical Plant and the production of some by-products, such as rhenium, vanadium and rare-earth elements, may provide more profits. Obviously, the sale of uranium (as well as of any other reserves) cannot make Kazakhstan a prosperous country. However, country's uranium industry has a god chance to become one of the most important and advanced sectors of national economy

  13. The gas industry in Brazil and the new regulatory framework; L'industrie du gaz au Bresil et le nouveau cadre des reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwyter, A.A. [Comgas, Cia. de Gas de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    In the last tem years many things have changes in the economic and political environment in the world, especially in Brazil. The new federal government elected in 1994 has started a new economic program and one of the most important points is to reduce government interference in the economy. For this reason, the Federal Constitution was changed and now private companies can operate in the natural gas upstream and downstream sectors. The aim of this policy is to increase efficiency in the energy sector with more investment and better prices. Brazil is now facing a new challenge, which is to establish a complete regulatory framework for the gas industry, for its development, with private as well as state owned companies. The purpose of this work is to study the main characteristics of the Brazilian natural gas sector and how to set up regulatory issues to service it. The Brazilian Natural Gas Industry has specific characteristics, very different from other countries', even from those in Latin America. It is necessary, in order to more adequately develop the industry: new suppliers, guaranty of supply, definition of open access, definition of concession models, setting the role of the state and federal powers, transportation systems and the development of a gas network, definition of exports and imports, production, safety, product quality and service, principle of tariffs and prices and all those aspects which are not regulated yet. (author)

  14. Industry petition for rulemaking on the disposal of below-regulatory-concern wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Management and Resources Council, Inc., in conjunction with the Edison Electric Institute, plans to submit a petition for rulemaking entitled Petition for Rulemaking Regarding Disposal of Below Regulatory Concern Wastes from commercial Nuclear Power Plants to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This petition for rulemaking, which is being filed pursuant to 10CFR2.802 and 10CFR2, Appendix B of the Code of Federal Regulations, requests the NRC to promulgate a rule authorizing the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) determined to be below regulatory concern (BRC) in other than licensed LLW disposal facilities. The proposed rule will apply only to LLW generated at commercial nuclear power plants. The petition is based on detailed scientific and technical data derived through an extensive research program conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. It addresses the 14 decision criteria that the NRC will employ in judging whether to grant the petition. The petition also provides an environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact and regulatory analysis. The purpose of the environmental assessment is to discuss alternatives, consequences, and impacts analyzed to support the recommendation of the proposed rule. The regulatory analysis addresses the need for and consequences of the proposed regulatory action as it relates to the protection of public health and safety

  15. Radioactivity and the French uranium bearing minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiollard, P.Ch.; Boisson, J.M.; Leydet, J.C.; Meisser, N.

    1998-01-01

    This special issue of Regne Mineral journal is entirely devoted to the French uranium mining industry. It comprises 4 parts dealing with: the uranium mining industry in France (history, uranium rush, deposits, geologic setting, prosperity and recession, situation in 1998, ore processing); radioactivity and the uranium and its descendants (discovery, first French uranium bearing ores, discovery of radioactivity, radium and other uranium descendants, radium mines, uranium mines, atoms, elements and isotopes, uranium genesis, uranium decay, isotopes in an uranium ore, spontaneous fission, selective migration of radionuclides, radon in mines and houses, radioactivity units, radioprotection standards, new standards and controversies, natural and artificial radioactivity, hazards linked with the handling and collecting of uranium ores, conformability with radioprotection standards, radioactivity of natural uranium minerals); the French uranium bearing minerals (composition, crystal structure, reference, etymology, fluorescence). (J.S.)

  16. Variation of solubility, biokinetics and dose coefficient of industrial uranium oxides according to the specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazel, V.; Houpert, P.; Ansorbolo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Paquet, F.

    2000-01-01

    The in vitro solubility, absorption to blood, lung retention and dose coefficient of industrial UO 2 samples were studied as a function of the specific surface area (SSA) of the particles. An in vitro study has been carried out on two samples of industrial UO 4 to compare the results with those obtained with UO 2 . Ten UO 2 samples supplied by different fuel factories or research laboratories, presented specific surface areas from 1.00 to 4.45 m 2 .g -1 . The wide range of values of SSA was due to the different conditions of fabrication. Dissolution tests in cell culture medium made on these ten samples have shown that the solubility increased 2.5-fold when the SSA increased 1.7-fold. The same tendency has been found for UO 4 , a soluble compound, and for U 3 O 8 , a moderately soluble compound. Four in vivo experiments carried out on rats by intratracheal instillation of dust suspensions of UO 2 , have highlighted the decrease in lung retention and the increase of absorption to blood with the SSA. The experimental absorption parameters calculated from the in vivo data allowed specific dose coefficients to be obtained which decreased from 6.6 to 4.3 μSv.Bq -1 when the SSA increased from 1.60 to 3.08 m 2 .g -1 . Thus, the medical monitoring of workers at the workplace has to take into account any change in the fabrication process of the uranium compound which can affect the physiochemical properties and consequently the dose coefficient. (author)

  17. Characterizing costs and benefits of uncertain future regulatory requirements on the U.S. natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.L.; Smith, G.E.; Fitzgibbon, T.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental regulatory requirements at both the state and federal level are constantly changing, making it difficult for industry and R ampersand D program managers to project future compliance requirements and costs. Even if a company is trying to keep abreast of various proposed regulatory initiatives, the number of possible combinations of initiatives that could occur in the future seems virtually limitless. Uncertainty associated with potential future environmental compliance requirements makes the identification and evaluation of future investment and R ampersand D opportunities exceedingly difficult, and makes the process of systematic strategic planning increasingly complex. This paper describes a methodology for accounting for uncertain future environmental compliance costs in a systematic, comprehensive manner. Through analysis of proposed initiatives for making future environmental requirements more stringent, forecasting the likelihood of occurrence and potential timing of each initiative, and estimating potential future compliance costs associated with each initiative, a thorough process for incorporating regulatory uncertainty into strategic planning and project evaluation is described. This approach can be used for evaluating R ampersand D opportunities to determine where development of new technologies or assessment of risks posed by industry operations may have the greatest impact on future industry costs of compliance. This approach could also be used to account for the uncertainty of future environmental costs in corporate strategic planning or for factoring future compliance costs into project evaluation. This approach could also be enhanced through use in conjunction with other modeling and forecasting systems that could consider a broad range of impacts, including impacts on gas production, industry activity levels, and tax revenues

  18. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols II. Deposition, retention and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Mo, T.

    1978-01-01

    A series of studies has been initiated in which powdered fuel materials obtained at industrial sites have been aerosolized in the dry state for the inhalation exposure of Fischer-344 rats, Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys to evaluate the potential biological hazard of such accidents. The materials chosen for study were 750 deg. C heat-treated mixed PuO 2 and UO 2 obtained from a ball milling process and 1750 deg. C heat-treated (U,Pu)O 1.97 powder obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Care was taken to insure that the regenerated aerosols used in animal inhalation exposures had similar particle size and size distribution characteristics to those measured during glove box sampling at the industrial plant. The deposition, retention, distribution and excretion of these materials are being studied, using serial sacrifice of animals at times from 4 hours to several years after inhalation exposure. Periodic excreta samples are collected on all animals. Biological samples are analyzed to yield data on Pu, Am and U content. Data from animals sacrificed up to one year will be presented. The retention of 239 Pu and 241 Am in the lung and their subsequent clearance and translocation to other tissues such as liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes will be discussed in relation to the influence of species and of the physical chemical properties of the exposure aerosol. (author)

  19. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. I t is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  20. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  1. Analytical strategies for uranium determination in natural water and industrial effluents samples; Estrategias analiticas para determinacao de uranio em amostras de aguas e efluentes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Juracir Silva

    2011-07-01

    The work was developed under the project 993/2007 - 'Development of analytical strategies for uranium determination in environmental and industrial samples - Environmental monitoring in the Caetite city, Bahia, Brazil' and made possible through a partnership established between Universidade Federal da Bahia and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Strategies were developed to uranium determination in natural water and effluents of uranium mine. The first one was a critical evaluation of the determination of uranium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) performed using factorial and Doehlert designs involving the factors: acid concentration, radio frequency power and nebuliser gas flow rate. Five emission lines were simultaneously studied (namely: 367.007, 385.464, 385.957, 386.592 and 409.013 nm), in the presence of HN0{sub 3}, H{sub 3}C{sub 2}00H or HCI. The determinations in HN0{sub 3} medium were the most sensitive. Among the factors studied, the gas flow rate was the most significant for the five emission lines. Calcium caused interference in the emission intensity for some lines and iron did not interfere (at least up to 10 mg L{sup -1}) in the five lines studied. The presence of 13 other elements did not affect the emission intensity of uranium for the lines chosen. The optimized method, using the line at 385.957 nm, allows the determination of uranium with limit of quantification of 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} and precision expressed as RSD lower than 2.2% for uranium concentrations of either 500 and 1000 {mu}g L{sup -1}. In second one, a highly sensitive flow-based procedure for uranium determination in natural waters is described. A 100-cm optical path flow cell based on a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) was exploited to increase sensitivity of the arsenazo 111 method, aiming to achieve the limits established by environmental regulations. The flow system was designed with solenoid micro-pumps in order to improve mixing and

  2. Radiation monitoring of uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    In order to manage radiological hazards in the workplace, it is necessary to have reliable measurements of workplace radiation levels and estimates of exposures and doses to workers. Over the past several years there have been many changes not only to the science of monitoring and dose assessment, but also to the regulatory framework. New International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations on dose in ICRP Publication 60 (1991) and the implications of the ICRP's new respiratory tract model in ICRP Publication 66 (1994) are of particular importance. In addition, triggered by the act establishing the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which will replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), there is considerable activity in the review and development of regulatory guidance. Concurrent with these activities is the introduction of innovative mining procedures in Saskatchewan in order to extract uranium ore of particularly high grade. In view of these developments, the ACRP considered that a formal review of current monitoring practices would benefit both the CNSC and its licensees. In this report, 'uranium workers' refers to workers at uranium mines and mills, and workers at natural-uranium refineries, conversion, and fuel fabrication facilities; issues relating to long-term tailings management and to the handling of enriched materials are not addressed in this document. The report will have some relevance to workers in non-uranium mines and in industries handling naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) since, in some circumstances, these activities can present similar workplace radiation hazards. The report outlines the radiological hazards encountered in the Canadian uranium industry, and reviews current radiological monitoring practices and options; appendices include a glossary, a more technical discussion of monitoring methods, and an examination of errors and uncertainties in measurements of radon progeny and long

  3. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  4. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  5. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  6. Development of uranium mining in France and the French Union; Developpement de l'industrie miniere de l'uranium en France et dans l'Union francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabile, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The decision taken by the French government as early as 1946 to pursue an extensive atomic energy development program laid immediate stress on the importance of finding adequate raw materials sources. The effort expended in this direction, as it is known through various publications on the subject, has culminated in very definite success: by the end of the present mining program, that is to say in 1961, France will occupy a significant position amongst world producers of uranium, and will be entirely independent in satisfying her requirements in uranium and thorium. Most of the uranium is mined within her own frontiers, which places the country in a very fortunate position. The types of deposits discovered and the methods of working them will be discussed in further reports. The present report looks back briefly over the discoveries themselves and outlines the situation to data, with an indication of the future development planned for these resources, completely unknown and unsuspected until a few years ago. (author) [French] La volonte de l'Etat fran is affirmee des 1946, de developper un programme notable d'energie atomique mit des cette epoque l'accent sur le probleme de l'approvisionnement en matieres premieres. Des efforts durent donc etre entrepris et l'on sait par diverses publications que ceux-ci ont obtenu un indeniable succes puisque la France se classera a l'achevement de ses proiets miniers actuels, c'est-a-dire vers 1961, a un rang honorable parmi les grands producteurs mondiaux et pourra ainsi s'approvisionner en uranium, et dans la mesure de ses besoins en thorium, sur ses propres mines, sans avoir a recourir a l'importation etrangere. On sait que la majeure partie de cet uranium provient du territoire metropolitain de la France, ce qui incontestablement est une grande chance pour elle. D'autres communications decriront les types de gisement et le detail des methodes employees. Il est propose ici, apres un bref historique sur les decouvertes, de

  7. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A.; Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2011-01-01

    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 μg/g U 3 O 8 for ores with an initial content of 2,700 μg/g U 3 O 8 . With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 μg/g U 3 O 8 for flotation in one column and 1,100 μg/g U 3 O 8 for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  8. Survey of past base isolation applications in nuclear power plants and challenges to industry/regulatory acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malushte, S.R.; Whittaker, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic base isolation provides many benefits that can facilitate the standardization of future nuclear power plant structures and equipment while reducing the initial/life-cycle cost and construction schedule. This paper presents a survey of past seismic base isolation applications and studies related to nuclear applications and provides a discussion of the challenges that need to be overcome to gain industry and regulatory acceptance for deployment in future US nuclear power plants. Issues related to design, codes/standards/regulations, procurement, and construction, have been identified. (authors)

  9. 77 FR 50172 - Expert Forum on the Use of Performance-Based Regulatory Models in the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) invite interested parties to...] Expert Forum on the Use of Performance-Based Regulatory Models in the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry, Offshore... and gas industry. The meeting will take place at the College of the Mainland, and hosted by the Gulf...

  10. Uranium soils integrated demonstration, 1993 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhfer, K.

    1994-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), operated by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) for the DOE, was selected as the host site for the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration. The Uranium Soils ID was established to develop and demonstrate innovative remediation methods which address the cradle to grave elements involved in the remediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium. The participants in the ID are from FERMCO as well as over 15 other organizations from DOE, private industry and universities. Some of the organizations are technology providers while others are members of the technical support groups which were formed to provide technical reviews, recommendations and labor. The following six Technical Support Groups (TSGs) were formed to focus on the objective of the ID: Characterization, Excavation, Decontamination, Waste Treatment/Disposal, Regulatory, and Performance Assessment. This paper will discuss the technical achievements made to date in the program as well as the future program plans. The focus will be on the realtime analysis devices being developed and demonstrated, the approach used to characterize the physical/chemical properties of the uranium waste form in the soil and lab scale studies on methods to remove the uranium from the soil

  11. Analysis of regulatory structure for a potential fusion-reactor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The report is divided into eight sections. The preface describes the authors of the report, the methodology used in its preparation, and some basic legal terms. The summary describes the principal features of the proposed regulatory system and also includes two flow charts comparing our model with present NRC practices and a summary table briefly outlining the reasoning behind our recommendations. The main body of the report is divided into six sections. This part of the report discusses the existing federal and state programs for regulating electric energy, describes NRC operations and the criticisms of that agency, discusses the features of our proposed regulatory model, recommends certain steps for implementing the proposed model, and states the conclusions of the report

  12. Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs

  13. Coordination among industry, academic society and regulatory body in the research on aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Hiroki; Osaki, Toru; Kanno, Masanori; Miyano, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Many activities for the coordinated research on aging management are reviewed, and examples of fruitful results are introduced according to the technical strategy map. Industry-Academia-Government exchanging system of the information each other on aging management was established for autonomy, diversity, collaboration. To clarify the concept of the role of industry, government and academia to address aging management without duplication algorithm is for the overall coordination of industrial and academic information and response issues, technological strategy map for aging management formulated. (author)

  14. Launching a new food product or dietary supplement in the United States: industrial, regulatory, and nutritional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John Weldon; Finley, John Wescott; Ellwood, Kathleen; Hoadley, James

    2014-01-01

    Launching a new food/dietary supplement into the US market can be a confusing process to those unfamiliar with the food industry. Industry capability and product specifications are initial determinants of whether a candidate product can be manufactured in a reproducible manner and whether pilot production can be brought up to the market scale. Regulatory issues determine how a product can be produced and marketed; the primary federal institutions involved in regulations are the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission. A primary distinction is made between food and drugs, and no product may enter the food market if it is in part or whole a drug. Product safety is a major concern, and myriad regulations govern the determination of safety. New foods/dietary supplements are often marketed by health claims or structure/function claims, and there are specific regulations pertaining to claims. Not understanding the regulatory issues involved in developing a new product or failing to comply with associated regulations can have legal and financial repercussions.

  15. Uranium mines of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A; Gusakov, E.G.; Marushenko, A.A.; Botov, A.Yu.; Yunusov, M.M.

    2002-12-01

    The book describes location laws, the main properties of geological structure and industrial perspectives for known uranium mines of the Republic of Tajikistan. Used methods of industrial processing of uranium mines are described. The results of investigations of technological properties of main types of uranium ores and methods of industrial processing of some of them are shown. Main properties of uranium are shortly described as well as problems, connected with it, which arise during exploitation, mining and processing of uranium ores. The main methods of solution of these problems are shown. The book has interest for specialists of mining, geological, chemical, and technological fields as well as for students of appropriate universities. This book will be interested for usual reader, too, if they are interested in mineral resources of their country [ru

  16. Uranium: Memories of the Little Big Horn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    In this work the author discusses the future of the uranium industry. The author believes that uranium prices are unlikely to rise to a level that predicates the rebirth of the uranium industry, and doubts that U.S. production of uranium will exceed 30 to 35 percent of U.S. requirements. The author doubts that the U.S. government will take any action toward protecting the U.S. uranium production industry, but he does believe that a U.S. uranium production industry will survive and include in-situ and by product producers and producers with higher grades and rigorous cost control

  17. Managing environmental and health impacts of uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.E.; Cameron, R., E-mail: robert.vance@oecd.org, E-mail: ron.cameron@oecd.org [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (France)

    2014-07-01

    As the raw material that fuels nuclear power plants that generate significant amounts of electricity with full life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources, uranium is a valuable commodity. Yet uranium mining remains controversial, principally because of environmental and health impacts created when mining was undertaken by governments to meet Cold War strategic requirements. Uranium mining is conducted under significantly different circumstances today. Since the era of military production, societal expectations of environmental protection and the safety of workers and the public have evolved as the outcomes of the early era of mining became apparent, driving changes in regulatory oversight and mining practices. Key aspects of leading practice uranium mining are presented (conventional worker health and safety, worker radiation protection, public health and safety, water quality, tailings and waste rock management) and compared with historic practices to demonstrate the scale of differences. The application of additional aspects of uranium mine life cycle management (public consultation, environmental impact assessment, analysis of socio-economic impacts/benefits, environmental monitoring, financial assurance, product transport, security and safeguards, emergency planning and knowledge transfer), introduced as the industry matured, enhance overall management practices for the long term. Results from several case studies show that improved management of key aspects of uranium mining, combined with the incorporation of new life cycle parameters, have transformed the industry into the most regulated and arguably one of the safest and environmentally responsible types of mining in the world. (author)

  18. Implementing of a system of industrial regulatory management in the Almaraz and Trillo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yague, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants are complex facilities, which in addition to nuclear safety standards, apply a large number of general industrial regulations. they refer to issues such as design, construction, in-service inspection and decommissioning in various technical areas, affecting numerous equipment. Almaraz-Trillo NPP, has decided to address systematically the fulfilment of such regulations, by implementing a Management System of Industrial Regulation, aimed at continuous improvement and integrated in the organization ser of management mechanisms. (Author)

  19. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of uranium isotopes in order to enrich the fuel for light water reactors with the light isotope U-235 is an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle. After the basic principals of isotope separation the gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process are explained. Both these techniques are employed on an industrial scale. In addition a short review is given on other enrichment techniques which have been demonstrated at least on a laboratory scale. After some remarks on the present situation on the enrichment market the progress in the development and the industrial exploitation of the gas centrifuge process by the trinational Urenco-Centec organisation is presented. (orig.)

  20. Argentine regulatory experience concerning radiation protection in industrial gammagraphy; Experiencia regulatoria argentina en gammagrafia industrial en materia de radioproteccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermacora, Marcela G [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to workload pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the Argentine Regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author) [Spanish] La gammagrafia industrial siempre fue responsable de los mayores indices de accidentes radiologicos en casi todo el mundo. Esto se debe principalmente a las altas actividades de las fuentes radiactivas utilizadas, las cuales son transportadas constantemente en los equipos que las contienen entre el deposito y las areas de trabajo, y a presiones de carga de trabajo que pueden inducir a descuidos en el seguimiento de los procedimientos de operacion, si no existe una Cultura de la Seguridad arraigada. El proposito de este trabajo es presentar los aspectos principales de la reglamentacion argentina en materia de radioproteccion para controlar esta practica y de esta manera contribuir a reducir los riesgos asociados. Asimismo, se describen algunos incidentes ocurridos en argentina durante los ultimos anios, las causas que condujeron a dichos sucesos y su relacion con el incumplimiento

  1. A framework for regulatory requirements and industry standards for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Felicia A.; Camp, Allen L.; Apostolakis, George E.; Golay, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a framework for risk-based regulation and design for new nuclear power plants. Probabilistic risk assessment methods and a rationalist approach to defense in depth are used to develop a framework that can be applied to identify systematically the regulations and standards required to maintain the desired level of safety and reliability. By implementing such a framework, it is expected that the resulting body of requirements will provide a regulatory environment that will ensure protection of the public, will eliminate the burden of requirements that do not contribute significantly to safety, and thereby will improve the market competitiveness of new plants. (author)

  2. Recent Regulatory Trends in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and their Impact on the Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabersky, Daniel; Woelfle, Michael; Ruess, Juan-Antonio; Brem, Simon; Brombacher, Stephan

    2018-03-30

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most regulated industries in Switzerland. Though the concept of good manufacturing practises (GMP) was implemented for chemical production in the early 1990s, the rules and regulations for our industry are in constant evolution. In this article we will highlight the impact of these changes to the industry using three recent guideline up-dates as examples: the implementation of ICH Q3D 'Guideline for elemental impurities', the EU-GMP Guideline Part III Chapter 'Guideline on setting health based exposure limits for use in risk identification in the manufacture of different medicinal products in shared facilities' from 01. June 2015, and the new guidelines to data integrity such as 'PIC/S 041-1 Good Practices for Data Management and Integrity in regulated GMP/GDP environments'. These examples show how scientific approaches help to modernize the control strategies for our products and increase product quality for a better patient safety. The requirements of data integrity regulations are also of interest to industries and universities not working under GxP requirements as they also support the business to improve data quality (traceability) for patent applications, and reduce risk of data falsification.

  3. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A., E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gomiero, Luiz A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for ores with an initial content of 2,700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in one column and 1,100 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  4. Environmental Impacts and Health Aspects in the Mining Industry. A Comparative Study of the Mining and Extraction of Uranium, Copper and Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Jenny-Ann; Randhem, Johan

    2008-07-01

    This thesis work has analysed environmental impacts and health aspects in the mining industry of copper, uranium and gold with the aim of determining the relative performance, in a given set of parameters, of the uranium mining industry. A selection of fifteen active mining operations in Australia, Canada, Namibia, South Africa, and the United States of America constitute the subject of this study. The project includes detailed background information about mineral extraction methods, the investigated minerals and the mining operations together with descriptions of the general main health hazards and environmental impacts connected to mining. The mineral operations are investigated in a cradle to gate analysis for the year of activity of 2007 using the economic value of the product at the gate as functional unit. Primary data has been collected from environmental reports, company web pages, national databases and through personal contact with company representatives. The subsequent analysis examines the collected data from a resource consumption, human health and ecological consequences point of view. Using the Life Cycle Impact Assessment methodology of characterisation, primary data of environmental loads have been converted to a synoptic set of environmental impacts. For radiation and tailings issues, a more general approach is used to address the problem. Based on the collected data and the investigated parameters, the results indicate a presumptive relative disadvantageous result for the uranium mining industry in terms of health aspects but an apparent favourable relative result in terms of environmental impacts. Given the prerequisites of this study, it is not feasible to draw any unambiguous conclusions. Inabilities to do this are mainly related to inadequate data availability from mine sites (especially in areas concerning tailings management), and difficulties concerned with the relative valuation of specific performance parameters, in particular radiation

  5. Environmental Impacts and Health Aspects in the Mining Industry. A Comparative Study of the Mining and Extraction of Uranium, Copper and Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Jenny-Ann; Randhem, Johan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work has analysed environmental impacts and health aspects in the mining industry of copper, uranium and gold with the aim of determining the relative performance, in a given set of parameters, of the uranium mining industry. A selection of fifteen active mining operations in Australia, Canada, Namibia, South Africa, and the United States of America constitute the subject of this study. The project includes detailed background information about mineral extraction methods, the investigated minerals and the mining operations together with descriptions of the general main health hazards and environmental impacts connected to mining. The mineral operations are investigated in a cradle to gate analysis for the year of activity of 2007 using the economic value of the product at the gate as functional unit. Primary data has been collected from environmental reports, company web pages, national databases and through personal contact with company representatives. The subsequent analysis examines the collected data from a resource consumption, human health and ecological consequences point of view. Using the Life Cycle Impact Assessment methodology of characterisation, primary data of environmental loads have been converted to a synoptic set of environmental impacts. For radiation and tailings issues, a more general approach is used to address the problem. Based on the collected data and the investigated parameters, the results indicate a presumptive relative disadvantageous result for the uranium mining industry in terms of health aspects but an apparent favourable relative result in terms of environmental impacts. Given the prerequisites of this study, it is not feasible to draw any unambiguous conclusions. Inabilities to do this are mainly related to inadequate data availability from mine sites (especially in areas concerning tailings management), and difficulties concerned with the relative valuation of specific performance parameters, in particular radiation

  6. Mathematical Modeling for the Extraction of Uranium and Molybdenum with Emulsion Liquid Membrane, Including Industrial Application and Cost Evaluation of the Uranium Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kris Tri Basuki

    2008-01-01

    Emulsion liquid membrane systems are double emulsion drops. Two immiscible phases are separated by a third phase which is immiscible with the other two phases. The liquid membrane systems were classified into two types: (1) carrier mediated mass transfer, (2) mass transfer without any reaction involved. Uranium extraction, molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction were used as purposed elements for each type of the membrane systems in the derivation of their mathematical models. Mass transfer in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems has been modeled by several differential and algebraic equations. The models take into account the following : mass transfer of the solute from the bulk external phase to the external phase-membrane interface; an equilibrium reaction between the solute and the carrier to form the solute-carrier complex at the interface; mass transfer by diffusion of the solute-carrier complex in the membrane phase to the membrane-internal phase interface; another equilibrium reaction of the solute-carrier complex to release the solute at the membrane-internal phase interface into the internal phase. Models with or without the consideration of film resistances were developed and compared. The models developed in this study can predict the extraction rate through emulsion liquid membranes theoretically. All parameters required in the models can be determined before an experimental extraction run. Experimental data from literature (uranium extraction) and (molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction) were used to test the models. The agreements between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data were very good. The advantages of emulsion liquid membrane systems over traditional methods were discussed. The models developed in this research can be used directly for the design of emulsion liquid membrane systems. The results of this study represent a very significant step toward the practical applications of the emulsion liquid membrane

  7. Ranger uranium environmental enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The submission is divided into three sections. Section A considers the international implications of the development of uranium resources including economic and resource aspects and environmental and social aspects. Section B outlines the government's position on export controls over uranium and its effect on the introduction of nuclear power in Australia. Section C describes the licensing and regulatory functions that would be needed to monitor the environmental and health aspects of the Ranger project. (R.L.)

  8. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corneli, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  9. Flight crew fatigue management in a more flexible regulatory environment: an overview of the New Zealand aviation industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, T Leigh; Ratieta, Denise; Gander, Philippa H

    2008-04-01

    of more flexible regulatory options has not greatly changed fatigue management practices, although some operators have implemented innovative strategies. The findings suggest a need to raise the level of knowledge within the industry regarding the causes and consequences of fatigue and of processes for its management. This is further supported by the discrepancies between the responses of line pilots and managers, which raise doubts about the effectiveness of some strategies nominally being employed. The regulator and other relevant industry groups should consider how to move the industry toward a mature safety culture and solid knowledge base because these are fundamental to more flexible fatigue management regimes, as is adequate regulatory knowledge, support, and oversight.

  10. Uranium market 1986-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The report on the uranium market describes the technical and economic factors influencing the nuclear fuel industry in mid-1986. The contents of the report includes a discussion of: the nuclear generating capacity, the demand for uranium (requirements and procurements), supplies of uranium, and the interaction between supply and demand. The report does not study in depth the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the uranium market.

  11. Uranium resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  12. The economics of uranium demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The major characteristics of the demand for uranium are identified, and a number of factors which determine the actual level of uranium requirements of the nuclear power industry are discussed. Since the role of inventories is central to the process of short-term price formation, by comparing projections of uranium production and apparent consumption, the relative level of total inventories is calculated and an assessment is made of its likely impact on the uranium market during the 1980s. (author)

  13. Management of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategy depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider. (authors)

  14. Ministry of Industry and Energy - Regulatory Decree No. 7/93 of 19 March

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Decree reorganizes the General Directorate for Energy within the Ministry of Industry and Energy. Its services include a Nuclear Energy Division which is responsible for keeping under review the technical and economic tendencies in the development of fuel and equipment for nuclear power plants and the problems in the field of radioactive waste management. (NEA)

  15. Regulatory and institutional developments in the Ontario wine and grape industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Carew,1 Wojciech J Florkowski21Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada; 2Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA, USAAbstract: The Ontario wine industry has undergone major transformative changes over the last two decades. These have corresponded to the implementation period of the Ontario Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA Act in 1999 and the launch of the Winery Strategic Plan, "Poised for Greatness," in 2002. While the Ontario wine regions have gained significant recognition in the production of premium quality wines, the industry is still dominated by a few large wine companies that produce the bulk of blended or "International Canadian Blends" (ICB, and multiple small/mid-sized firms that produce principally VQA wines. This paper analyzes how winery regulations, industry changes, institutions, and innovation have impacted the domestic production, consumption, and international trade, of premium quality wines. The results of the study highlight the regional economic impact of the wine industry in the Niagara region, the success of small/mid-sized boutique wineries producing premium quality wines for the domestic market, and the physical challenges required to improve domestic VQA wine retail distribution and bolster the international trade of wine exports. Domestic success has been attributed to the combination of natural endowments, entrepreneurial talent, established quality standards, and the adoption of improved viticulture practices.Keywords: Ontario, wine, quality standards

  16. Glances on uranium. From uranium in the earth to electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsardieu, C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is a technical, scientific and historical analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle from the origin of uranium in the earth and the exploitation of uranium ores to the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes. It comprises 6 chapters dealing with: 1) the different steps of uranium history (discovery, history of uranium chemistry, the radium era, the physicists and the structure of matter, the military uses, the nuclear power, the uranium industry and economics), 2) the uranium in nature (nuclear structure, physical-chemical properties, radioactivity, ores, resources, cycle, deposits), 3) the sidelights on uranium history (mining, prospecting, experience, ore processing, resources, reserves, costs), 4) the uranium in the fuel cycle, energy source and industrial product (fuel cycle, fission, refining, enrichment, fuel processing and reprocessing, nuclear reactors, wastes management), 5) the other energies in competition and the uranium market (other uranium uses, fossil fuels and renewable energies, uranium market), and 6) the future of uranium (forecasting, ecology, economics). (J.S.)

  17. Determination of elemental impurities and U and O isotopic compositions with a view to identify the geographical and industrial origins of uranium ore concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, A.; Hubert, A.; Pointurier, F.; Aupiais, J.; Pili, E.; Richon, P.; Fauré, A.; Diallo, S.

    2012-12-01

    First events of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials occurred 50 years ago. Nuclear forensics expertise are aiming at determining the use of seized material, its industrial history and provenance (geographical area, place of production or processing), at assisting in the identification and dismantling of illicit trafficking networks. This information is also valuable in the context of inspections of declared facilities to verify the consistency of operator's declaration. Several characteristics can be used to determine the origin of uranium ore concentrates such as trace elemental impurity patterns (Keegan et al., 2008 ; Varga et al., 2010a, 2010b) or uranium, oxygen and lead isotopic compositions (Tamborini et al., 2002a, 2002b ; Wallenius et al., 2006; Varga et al., 2009). We developed analytical procedures for measuring the isotopic compositions of uranium (234U/238U and 235U/238U) and oxygen (18O/16O) and levels of elemental impurities (e.g. REE, Th) from very small amounts of uranium ore concentrates (or yellow cakes). Micrometer particles and few milligrams of material are used for oxygen isotope measurements and REE determination, respectively. Reference materials were analyzed by mass spectrometry (TIMS, SF-ICP-MS and SIMS) to validate testing protocols. Finally, materials of unknown origin were analyzed to highlight significant differences and determine whether these differences allow identifying the origin of these ore concentrates. References: Keegan, E., et al. (2008). Applied Geochemistry 23, 765-777. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002a). Analytical Chemistry 74, 6098-6101. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002b). Microchimica Acta 139, 185-188. Varga, Z., et al. (2009). Analytical Chemistry 81, 8327-8334. Varga, Z., et al. (2010a). Talanta 80, 1744-1749. Varga, Z., et al. (2010b). Radiochimica Acta 98, 771-778 Wallenius, M., et al. (2006). Forensic Science International 156, 55-62.

  18. Uranium resources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.

    1973-01-01

    The future supply of uranium has to be considered against a background of forecasts of uranium demand over the next decades which show increases of a spectacular nature. It is not necessary to detail these forecasts, they are well known. A world survey by the Joint NEA/IAEA Working Party on 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand', completed this summer, indicates that from a present production level of just over 19,000 tonnes uranium per year, the demand will rise to the equivalent of an annual production requirement of 50,000 tonnes uranium by 1980, 100,000 by 1985 and 180,000 by 1990. Few, if any, mineral production industries have been called upon to plan for a near tenfold increase in production in a space of about 15 years as these forecasts imply. This might possibly mean that, perhaps, ten times the present number of uranium mines will have to be planned and engineered by 1990

  19. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed mainly to introduce the methods and techniques of uranium geochemical exploration to exploration geologists who may not have had experience with geochemical exploration methods in their uranium programmes. The methods presented have been widely used in the uranium exploration industry for more than two decades. The intention has not been to produce an exhaustive, detailed manual, although detailed instructions are given for a field and laboratory data recording scheme and a satisfactory analytical method for the geochemical determination of uranium. Rather, the intention has been to introduce the concepts and methods of uranium exploration geochemistry in sufficient detail to guide the user in their effective use. Readers are advised to consult general references on geochemical exploration to increase their understanding of geochemical techniques for uranium

  20. Uranium purchases report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B ''Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data