WorldWideScience

Sample records for upward gradient-density transport

  1. Interfacial structures and area transport in upward and downward two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, S. S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out for upward and downward two-phase flow to study local interfacial structures and interfacial area transport. The flow studied, is an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, two-phase flow, in 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm ID test sections. Flow regime map is obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology. A four sensor conductivity probe is used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, in bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development reveal the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provides a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along a flow field. An interfacial area transport equation is used for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration are compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. The differences in the interfacial structures and interfacial area transport in co-current downward and upward two-phase flows are studied

  2. Method of online cleanliness control for upward-facing transport mirrors in integration test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Longbiao; Qin Lang; Zhou Guorui; Ye Yayun; Zhang Chuanchao; Miao Xinxiang; Wang Hongbin; Yuan Xiaodong; Wang Xiaohong; Cheng Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    An online cleanliness control method based on the online monitoring system was developed for controlling the particle pollution and damage of upward-facing transport mirrors in the integration test bed. By building up gas knife system, the online cleanliness processing was effectively achieved for the particle pollution on the mirror surface. By using the gas screen, the cleanliness of the mirror surface was effectively online maintained. The image processing system was applied to assessing the effect of online cleanliness processing. The experimental results indicate that the particle pollution was reduced by the gas knife and the gas screen was useful to avoid the settlement of particle pollution. (authors)

  3. Upward nitrate transport by phytoplankton in oceanic waters: balancing nutrient budgets in oligotrophic seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A. Villareal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In oceanic subtropical gyres, primary producers are numerically dominated by small (1–5 µm diameter pro- and eukaryotic cells that primarily utilize recycled nutrients produced by rapid grazing turnover in a highly efficient microbial loop. Continuous losses of nitrogen (N to depth by sinking, either as single cells, aggregates or fecal pellets, are balanced by both nitrate inputs at the base of the euphotic zone and N2-fixation. This input of new N to balance export losses (the biological pump is a fundamental aspect of N cycling and central to understanding carbon fluxes in the ocean. In the Pacific Ocean, detailed N budgets at the time-series station HOT require upward transport of nitrate from the nutricline (80–100 m into the surface layer (∼0–40 m to balance productivity and export needs. However, concentration gradients are negligible and cannot support the fluxes. Physical processes can inject nitrate into the base of the euphotic zone, but the mechanisms for transporting this nitrate into the surface layer across many 10s of m in highly stratified systems are unknown. In these seas, vertical migration by the very largest (102–103 µm diameter phytoplankton is common as a survival strategy to obtain N from sub-euphotic zone depths. This vertical migration is driven by buoyancy changes rather than by flagellated movement and can provide upward N transport as nitrate (mM concentrations in the cells. However, the contribution of vertical migration to nitrate transport has been difficult to quantify over the required basin scales. In this study, we use towed optical systems and isotopic tracers to show that migrating diatom (Rhizosolenia mats are widespread in the N. Pacific Ocean from 140°W to 175°E and together with other migrating phytoplankton (Ethmodiscus, Halosphaera, Pyrocystis, and solitary Rhizosolenia can mediate time-averaged transport of N (235 µmol N m-2 d-1 equivalent to eddy nitrate injections (242 µmol NO3− m

  4. The influence of the unsaturated zone on the upward transport of radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Lindgren, M.

    1993-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from the deep soil to the surface soil is an important part of biosphere modelling. In this study the effect of transient hydrological conditions on the upward transport of radionuclides through soils has been studied. The effect of varying soil properties, climate conditions have been considered as well as the effect of a fluctuating groundwater level. It was shown that the soil characteristics influences the radionuclide concentration; an increased hydraulic conductivity leads to increase in the concentration in the root zone. The climate conditions were shown to be of major importance. A dispersion dependent on both velocity and saturation leads to a more effective upward transport of radionuclides to the root zone than if dispersion is assumed to be dependent only on the saturation. The boundary condition used in the case with varying groundwater level may be more realistic than the boundary condition applied for the case with a constant groundwater level. All calculations with varying groundwater level gave lower radionuclide concentration in the root zone. Sorption is redox sensitive for many radionuclides and the redox potential in the soil will be affected by the degree of water saturation. The performed calculations did, however, not result in any significant change in the radionuclide concentration in the root zone due to variation in sorption. A comparison between the results of the two models show that the compartment model in all studied cases predicts a higher annual average radionuclide concentration in the root zone than the numerical model. Annual variation in soil water flow were not included in the compartment model. During the summer the concentration in the root zone may be several times higher than the annual average. This may be important for plant uptake, since this increased concentrations coincides with the plant growing season. The calculations made with the simple compartment model also show that these

  5. An investigation on near wall transport characteristics in an adiabatic upward gas-liquid two-phase slug flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Donghong; Che, Defu

    2007-08-01

    The near-wall transport characteristics, inclusive of mass transfer coefficient and wall shear stress, which have a great effect on gas-liquid two-phase flow induced internal corrosion of low alloy pipelines in vertical upward oil and gas mixing transport, have been both mechanistically and experimentally investigated in this paper. Based on the analyses on the hydrodynamic characteristics of an upward slug unit, the mass transfer in the near wall can be divided into four zones, Taylor bubble nose zone, falling liquid film zone, Taylor bubble wake zone and the remaining liquid slug zone; the wall shear stress can be divided into two zones, the positive wall shear stress zone associated with the falling liquid film and the negative wall shear stress zone associated with the liquid slug. Based on the conventional mass transfer and wall shear stress characteristics formulas of single phase liquid full-pipe turbulent flow, corrected normalized mass transfer coefficient formula and wall shear stress formula are proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The shear stress and the mass transfer coefficient in the near wall zone are increased with the increase of superficial gas velocity and decreased with the increase of superficial liquid velocity. The mass transfer coefficients in the falling liquid film zone and the wake zone of leading Taylor bubble are lager than those in the Taylor bubble nose zone and the remaining liquid slug zone, and the wall shear stress associated falling liquid film is larger than that associated the liquid slug. The mass transfer coefficient is within 10-3 m/s, and the wall shear stress below 103 Pa. It can be concluded that the alternate wall shear stress due to upward gas-liquid slug flow is considered to be the major cause of the corrosion production film fatigue cracking.

  6. Solute transport with time-variable flow paths during upward and downward flux in a heterogeneous unsaturated porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel; Vanderborght, Jan

    2014-05-01

    To acquire knowledge of solute transport through the unsaturated zone in the shallow subsurface is decisive to assess groundwater quality, nutrient cycling or to plan remediation strategies. The shallow subsurface is characterized by structural heterogeneity and strongly influenced by atmospheric conditions. This leads to changing flow directions, strong temporal changes in saturation and heterogeneous water fluxes during infiltration and evaporation events. Recent studies (e.g. Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al.,2011) demonstrated the importance of lateral flow and solute transport during evaporation conditions (upward flux). The heterogeneous structure in these studies was constructed using two types of sand with strong material contrasts and arranged in parallel with a vertical orientation. Lateral transport and redistribution of solute from coarse to fine media was observed deeper in the soil column and from fine to coarse close to the soil surface. However, if boundary conditions are reversed due to precipitation, the flow field is not necessarily reversed in the same manner, resulting in entirely different transport patterns for downward and upward flow. Therefore, considering net-flow rates alone is misleading when describing transport under those conditions. In this contribution we analyze transport of a solute in the shallow subsurface to assess effects resulting from the temporal change of heterogeneous soil structures due to dynamic flow conditions. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of unsaturated flow and transport are conducted using a coupled finite volume and random walk particle tracking algorithm to quantify solute transport and leaching rates. Following previous studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011), the chosen domain is composed of two materials, coarse and fine sand, arranged in parallel with a vertical orientation. Hence, one sharp interface of strong material heterogeneity is induced. During evaporation both sands are

  7. Interfacial area transport of vertical upward air-water two-phase flow in an annulus at elevated pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozar, Basar; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru; Euh, Dong-Jin

    2009-01-01

    The interfacial area transport of vertical, upward, air-water two-phase flows in an annular channel has been investigated at different system pressures. The inner and outer diameters of the annular channel were 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. Twenty three inlet flow conditions were selected, which coverED bubbly, cap-slug, and churn-turbulent flows. These flow conditions also overlapped with twelve conditions of our previous study for comparison. The local flow parameters, such as void fractions, interfacial area concentrations (IAC), and bubble interface velocities, were measured at nine radial positions for the three axial locations (z/D h =52, 149 and 230) and converted into area-averaged parameters. The axial evolutions of local flow structure was interpreted in terms of bubble coalescence, breakup, expansion of the gas-phase due to pressure drop and system pressure. An assessment of interfacial area transport equation (IATE) was made and compared with the experimental data. A discussion of the comparison between model prediction and the experimental results were made. (author)

  8. Bubble Clouds and their Transport within the Surf Zone as Measured with a Distributed Array of Upward-Looking Sonars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahl, Peter

    2000-01-01

    ... in the surf zone and the effects of these bubbles on acoustic propagation. This paper discusses data gathered by the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, using a set of four upward-looking sonars (frequency 240 kHz...

  9. Development of a nonlocal convective mixing scheme with varying upward mixing rates for use in air quality and chemical transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T; Alapaty, Kiran; Sakradzija, Mirjana

    2008-06-01

    Asymmetrical convective non-local scheme (CON) with varying upward mixing rates is developed for simulation of vertical turbulent mixing in the convective boundary layer in air quality and chemical transport models. The upward mixing rate form the surface layer is parameterized using the sensible heat flux and the friction and convective velocities. Upward mixing rates varying with height are scaled with an amount of turbulent kinetic energy in layer, while the downward mixing rates are derived from mass conservation. This scheme provides a less rapid mass transport out of surface layer into other layers than other asymmetrical convective mixing schemes. In this paper, we studied the performance of a nonlocal convective mixing scheme with varying upward mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer and its impact on the concentration of pollutants calculated with chemical and air-quality models. This scheme was additionally compared versus a local eddy-diffusivity scheme (KSC). Simulated concentrations of NO(2) and the nitrate wet deposition by the CON scheme are closer to the observations when compared to those obtained from using the KSC scheme. Concentrations calculated with the CON scheme are in general higher and closer to the observations than those obtained by the KSC scheme (of the order of 15-20%). Nitrate wet deposition calculated with the CON scheme are in general higher and closer to the observations than those obtained by the KSC scheme. To examine the performance of the scheme, simulated and measured concentrations of a pollutant (NO(2)) and nitrate wet deposition was compared for the year 2002. The comparison was made for the whole domain used in simulations performed by the chemical European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Unified model (version UNI-ACID, rv2.0) where schemes were incorporated.

  10. Investigation of one-dimensional interfacial area transport for vertical upward air–water two-phase flow in an annular channel at elevated pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozar, B.; Brooks, C.S.; Euh, D.J.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Interfacial area transport equation (IATE) for a rectangular duct is modified for an annulus. • IATE predicts interfacial area transport in bubbly-to-churn flow. • Scalability of IATE to elevated pressure conditions is validated. • Detailed 1D interfacial area transport data are presented. • Detailed interfacial area transport mechanisms are discussed. -- Abstract: The interfacial area transport of vertical, upward, air–water two-phase flows in an annular channel has been investigated at different system pressures. The inner and outer diameters of the annular channel were 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. Twenty three inlet flow conditions were selected, which covered bubbly, cap-bubbly, and churn-turbulent flows. These flow conditions also overlapped with twelve conditions of a previous study for comparison. The local flow parameters, such as void fractions, interfacial area concentrations (IAC), and bubble interface velocities, were measured at nine radial positions for the three axial locations and converted into area-averaged parameters. The axial evolutions of local flow structure were interpreted in terms of bubble coalescence, breakup, expansion of the gas-phase due to pressure drop and system pressure. An assessment of interfacial area transport equation (IATE) was made and compared with the experimental data. A discussion of the comparison between model prediction and the experimental results were made

  11. Investigation of one-dimensional interfacial area transport for vertical upward air–water two-phase flow in an annular channel at elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozar, B., E-mail: ozar@fauske.com [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Brooks, C.S. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Euh, D.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Interfacial area transport equation (IATE) for a rectangular duct is modified for an annulus. • IATE predicts interfacial area transport in bubbly-to-churn flow. • Scalability of IATE to elevated pressure conditions is validated. • Detailed 1D interfacial area transport data are presented. • Detailed interfacial area transport mechanisms are discussed. -- Abstract: The interfacial area transport of vertical, upward, air–water two-phase flows in an annular channel has been investigated at different system pressures. The inner and outer diameters of the annular channel were 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. Twenty three inlet flow conditions were selected, which covered bubbly, cap-bubbly, and churn-turbulent flows. These flow conditions also overlapped with twelve conditions of a previous study for comparison. The local flow parameters, such as void fractions, interfacial area concentrations (IAC), and bubble interface velocities, were measured at nine radial positions for the three axial locations and converted into area-averaged parameters. The axial evolutions of local flow structure were interpreted in terms of bubble coalescence, breakup, expansion of the gas-phase due to pressure drop and system pressure. An assessment of interfacial area transport equation (IATE) was made and compared with the experimental data. A discussion of the comparison between model prediction and the experimental results were made.

  12. Implementation of a one-group interfacial area transport equation in a CFD code for the simulation of upward adiabatic bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellacani, F.; Macian, R.; Chiva, S.; Pena, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper upward, isothermal and turbulent bubbly flow in tubes is numerically modeled by using ANSYS CFX 12.1 with the aim of creating a basis for the reliable simulation of the flow along a vertical channel in a nuclear reactor as long term goal. Two approaches based on the mono-dispersed model and on the one-group Interfacial Area Transport Equation (IATE) model are used in order to maintain the computational effort as low as possible. This work represents the necessary step to implement a two-group interfacial area transport equation that will be able to dynamically represent the changes in interfacial structure in the transition region from bubbly to slug flow. The drag coefficient is calculated using the Grace model and the interfacial non-drag forces are also included. The Antal model is used for the calculation of the wall lubrication force coefficient. The lift force coefficient is obtained from the Tomiyama model. The turbulent dispersion force is taken into account and is modeled using the FAD (Favre averaged drag) approach, while the turbulence transfer is simulated with the Sato's model. The liquid velocity is in the range between 0.5 and 2 m/s and the average void fraction varies between 5 and 15%.The source and sink terms for break-up and coalescence needed for the calculation of the implemented Interfacial Area Density are those proposed by Yao and Morel. The model has been checked using experimental results by Mendez. Radial profile distributions of void fraction, interfacial area density and bubble mean diameter are shown at the axial position equivalent to z/D=56. The results obtained by the simulations have a good agreement with the experimental data but show also the need of a better study of the coalescence and breakup phenomena to develop more accurate interaction models. (author)

  13. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY: The Office... considered public records. Title of Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance...) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department is requesting a new APR because of...

  14. Does urban sprawl hold down upward mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R.; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.; Wei, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the general perception, the United States has a much more class-bound society than other wealthy countries. The chance of upward mobility for Americans is just half that of the citizens of the Denmark and many other European countries. In addition to other influences, the built environment may contribute to the low rate of upward mobility in the U.S. This study tests the relationship between urban sprawl and upward mobility for commuting zones in the U.S. We examine potential pathways through which sprawl may have an effect on mobility. We use structural equation modeling to account for both direct and indirect effects of sprawl on upward mobility. We find that upward mobility is significantly higher in compact areas than sprawling areas. The direct effect, which we attribute to better job accessibility in more compact commuting zones, is stronger than the indirect effects. Of the indirect effects, only one, through the mediating variable income segregation, is significant.

  15. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  16. A Study of Upward Influence in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilit, Warren K.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers interviewed 83 subordinate employees and 70 supervisory employees to investigate the ways subordinates try to influence their supervisors. Supervisors and subordinates reported similar agents and methods of influence, causes of success, and outcomes of attempts at upward influence, but different causes of failure. (Author/RW)

  17. Are Millennials with Student Loans Upwardly Mobile?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Students have been amassing ever growing levels of debt to attend college. The situation has raised concerns about whether the debt is high enough that the benefits of borrowing—in terms of students’ future socioeconomic outcomes—are compromised. This Commentary investigates relationships between student debt, mobility, and upward social mobility. The findings suggest that student debts have not become so burdensome that they undo the advantages of higher skills. However, the advantages enjoy...

  18. Comparison of Conjugate Gradient Density Matrix Search and Chebyshev Expansion Methods for Avoiding Diagonalization in Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kevin R.; Daniels, Andrew D.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    1998-01-01

    We report a comparison of two linear-scaling methods which avoid the diagonalization bottleneck of traditional electronic structure algorithms. The Chebyshev expansion method (CEM) is implemented for carbon tight-binding calculations of large systems and its memory and timing requirements compared to those of our previously implemented conjugate gradient density matrix search (CG-DMS). Benchmark calculations are carried out on icosahedral fullerenes from C60 to C8640 and the linear scaling memory and CPU requirements of the CEM demonstrated. We show that the CPU requisites of the CEM and CG-DMS are similar for calculations with comparable accuracy.

  19. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  20. High Upward Fluxes of Formic Acid from a Boreal Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Lopez-Hilifiker, Felipe D.; Taipale, Ditte; Millet, Dylan B.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Rantala, Pekka; Mammarella, Ivan; Zhou, Putian; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Lee, Ben H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Eddy covariance fluxes of formic acid, HCOOH, were measured over a boreal forest canopy in spring/summer 2014. The HCOOH fluxes were bidirectional but mostly upward during daytime, in contrast to studies elsewhere that reported mostly downward fluxes. Downward flux episodes were explained well by modeled dry deposition rates. The sum of net observed flux and modeled dry deposition yields an upward gross flux of HCOOH, which could not be quantitatively explained by literature estimates of direct vegetative soil emissions nor by efficient chemical production from other volatile organic compounds, suggesting missing or greatly underestimated HCOOH sources in the boreal ecosystem. We implemented a vegetative HCOOH source into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to match our derived gross flux and evaluated the updated model against airborne and spaceborne observations. Model biases in the boundary layer were substantially reduced based on this revised treatment, but biases in the free troposphere remain unexplained.

  1. Evaluation of upward migration around a deep injection well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Yeeping; Chiu, J.

    1994-01-01

    The long-term containment of injected wastes in the deep subsurface is expected to be achieved under suitable geologic and hydrologic conditions and by the use of competent engineering practices. Field experiences, however, indicate that waste containment may be affected by hydrologic conduits around the injection well. To assess the potential effects of these conduits, upward migration of injected waste is examined through the use of numerical models under various conditions. Test results indicate that without any preferential hydrologic conduits, most of the injected waste moves laterally in the injection interval, whereas only a small amount of waste migrates upward into the containment interval. When vertical fractures in the disturbed zone or defects in the cement seal around the wellbore exist, the contaminant can move rapidly upward along these conduits to an overlying aquifer, from which it migrates in the lateral direction. The contamination of the overlying aquifer that results from the upward migration of injected waste through these conduits cannot be impeded by a thick, low-permeability containment interval. However, when permeable interbeds exist within the containment interval, a significant portion of the waste migrating upward can be diverted laterally before reaching the overlying aquifer. The front of built-up pressure can reach the aquifer or permeable interbed immediately overlying the injection interval through the preferential hydrologic conduits shortly after the injection starts, but it cannot move farther upward because of pressure dissipation in the permeable formation. This study suggests that the injected waste has the potential to migrate upward into overlying formations through preferential migration conduits around the wellbore

  2. Downstream lightening and upward heavying, sorting of sediments of uniform grain size but differing in density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Solari, L.; Hill, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Downstream fining, i.e. the tendency for a gradual decrease in grain size in the downstream direction, has been observed and studied in alluvial rivers and in laboratory flumes. Laboratory experiments and field observations show that the vertical sorting pattern over a small Gilbert delta front is characterized by an upward fining profile, with preferential deposition of coarse particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The present work is an attempt to answer the following questions. Are there analogous sorting patterns in mixtures of sediment particles having the same grain size but differing density? To investigate this, we performed experiments at the Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During the experiments a Gilbert delta formed and migrated downstream allowing for the study of transport and sorting processes on the surface and within the deposit. The experimental results show 1) preferential deposition of heavy particles in the upstream part of the deposit associated with a pattern of "downstream lightening"; and 2) a vertical sorting pattern over the delta front characterized by a pattern of "upward heavying" with preferential deposition of light particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The observed downstream lightening is analogous of the downstream fining with preferential deposition of heavy (coarse) particles in the upstream part of the deposit. The observed upward heavying was unexpected because, considering the particle mass alone, the heavy (coarse) particles should have been preferentially deposited in the lowermost part of the deposit. Further, the application of classical fractional bedload transport relations suggests that in the case of mixtures of particles of uniform size and different densities equal mobility is not approached. We hypothesize that granular physics mechanisms traditionally associated with sheared granular flows may be responsible for the observed upward heavying and for the

  3. A self-consistent upward leader propagation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Marley; Cooray, Vernon

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge of the initiation and propagation of an upward moving connecting leader in the presence of a downward moving lightning stepped leader is a must in the determination of the lateral attraction distance of a lightning flash by any grounded structure. Even though different models that simulate this phenomenon are available in the literature, they do not take into account the latest developments in the physics of leader discharges. The leader model proposed here simulates the advancement of positive upward leaders by appealing to the presently understood physics of that process. The model properly simulates the upward continuous progression of the positive connecting leaders from its inception to the final connection with the downward stepped leader (final jump). Thus, the main physical properties of upward leaders, namely the charge per unit length, the injected current, the channel gradient and the leader velocity are self-consistently obtained. The obtained results are compared with an altitude triggered lightning experiment and there is good agreement between the model predictions and the measured leader current and the experimentally inferred spatial and temporal location of the final jump. It is also found that the usual assumption of constant charge per unit length, based on laboratory experiments, is not valid for lightning upward connecting leaders

  4. Upwards Intensifiers in the English, German and Croatian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pavić Pintarić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the upwards intensifiers (adverbs of intensifying in the English, German and Croatian language. Intensity as an important human cognitive category, and language expressivity is differently treated in grammars and dictionaries of all three languages, especially with respect to different degrees of intensity. In this paper we argue that it is possible to model a typology of upwards adverb intensifiers in the three languages, according to their morphosyntactic and semantic aspects. When it comes to intensifiers, it is necessary to describe which collocates are modified by intensifiers and which semantic fields the collocates belong to. The results of the corpus analysis based on Harry Potter novels show that all the three languages express the category of the upwards intensity in the same way: the number of intensifiers is similar, the collocates mostly belong to the same semantic fields and word classes, they have similar syntactic functions.

  5. Two upward lightning at the Eagle Nest tower

    OpenAIRE

    Montañá Puig, Juan; Van der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Durán, David; March Nomen, Víctor; Solà de Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Soula, Serge; Hermoso Alameda, Blas

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument composed by a high speed camera, two high energy detectors, a E-field antenna and a VHF antenna were installed at the Eagle Nest tower (northeast of Spain) during summer 2011. With this equipment several lightning flashes to the tower and its vicinity have been observed. This paper presents two examples: the first was an upward negative leader triggered by a close c1oud-to-ground flash and the second was an upward negative flash not associated with previous lightning activity...

  6. Upward Pricing Pressure in Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affeldt, P.; Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Pricing pressure indices have recently been proposed as alternative screening devices for horizontal mergers involving differentiated products. We extend the concept of Upward Pricing Pressure (UPP) proposed by Farrell and Shapiro (2010) to two-sided markets. Examples of such markets are

  7. Upward pricing pressure in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affeldt, P.; Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring upward pricing pressure (UPP) has recently been proposed by Farrell and Shapiro (2010) as an alternative screening device for horizontal mergers. We extend the concept of UPP to two-sided markets. Examples of such markets are the newspaper market, where the demand for advertising is

  8. Upward Mobility Through Job Restructuring. Personnel Management Series No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC.

    The May, 1974, bulletin issued by the Civil Service Commission deals with job restructuring, the process of realigning job duties to develop technician-type or "bridge" jobs in Federal agencies, as a means to provide upward mobility for employees. Besides being highly beneficial to employees in dead end jobs at low grade levels, job restructuring…

  9. "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun": Getting Real in Upward Bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Barbara G.; Adkins, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a teacher found literature for Upward Bound students. Presents Geoffrey Canada's "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America" as a nonfiction work to provide clarity and connections that might not have been available in a fictional work, yet it had elements of literary fiction that made the text…

  10. Managing upwards: a guide for the foundation year doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Rachel

    2009-06-01

    The concept of managing your boss sounds peculiar, as people usually only think of managing staff under them. Nevertheless, adept management 'upwards' can reap dividends. It is not manipulative or sly - it is about good working relations. This article is mainly about dealing with consultants. However, the same principles can apply to other doctors more senior than you in the team.

  11. Leadership Behaviour and Upward Feedback: Findings from a Longitudinal Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); C. Haynes (Clare); C. Borrill (Carol); C. Stride (Chris)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA sample of 48 managers and 308 staff members of a community health care organization took part in a study to investigate the influence of participating in an upward feedback program on leadership behaviour, both as indicated be self-ratings and subordinates’ ratings. The research design

  12. Dynamics of rainwater lenses on upward seeping saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeman, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Fresh water is generally a limited resource in coastal areas which are often densely populated. In low-lying areas, groundwater is mostly saline and both agriculture and freshwater nature depend on a thin lens of rainwater that is formed by precipitation surplus on top of saline, upward seeping

  13. Upward counterfactual thinking and depression: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhall, Anne Gene; Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W; Loi, Natasha M

    2017-07-01

    This meta-analysis examined the strength of association between upward counterfactual thinking and depressive symptoms. Forty-two effect sizes from a pooled sample of 13,168 respondents produced a weighted average effect size of r=.26, pdesign (cross-sectional versus longitudinal). Significant effect size heterogeneity was observed across sample types, methods of assessing upward counterfactual thinking, and types of depression scale. Significant positive effects were found in studies that employed samples of bereaved individuals, older adults, terminally ill patients, or university students, but not adolescent mothers or mixed samples. Both number-based and Likert-based upward counterfactual thinking assessments produced significant positive effects, with the latter generating a larger effect. All depression scales produced significant positive effects, except for the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. Research and theoretical implications are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of depression and the functional theory of upward counterfactual thinking, and important gaps in the extant research literature are identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Upward swimming of a sperm cell in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are required to swim over long distances, typically around 1000-fold their own length. They must orient themselves and maintain a swimming motion to reach the ovum, or egg cell. Although the mechanism of long-distance navigation is still unclear, one possible mechanism, rheotaxis, was reported recently. This work investigates the mechanism of the rheotaxis in detail by simulating the motions of a sperm cell in shear flow adjacent to a flat surface. A phase diagram was developed to show the sperm's swimming motion under different shear rates, and for varying flagellum waveform conditions. The results showed that, under shear flow, the sperm is able to hydrodynamically change its swimming direction, allowing it to swim upwards against the flow, which suggests that the upward swimming of sperm cells can be explained using fluid mechanics, and this can then be used to further understand physiology of sperm cell navigation.

  15. Liquid velocity in upward and downward air-water flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaodong; Paranjape, Sidharth; Kim, Seungjin; Ozar, Basar; Ishii, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void-weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  16. Utility Assessment of Specificity in Upward Feedback Instruments for Leadership Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wardak, Theresa

    2003-01-01

    ...) and the other is the recently developed, non-proprietary Upward Feedback Instrument (2002). The Upward Feedback Instrument was designed to measure leadership behaviors at a more specific level...

  17. Mixing of high density solution in vertical upward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Hosogi, Nobuyoshi; Komada, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been performed in order to provide fundamental data and a numerical calculation model on the mixing of boric acid solution, injected from the standby liquid control system (SLCS), under a low natural circulation flow during an ATWS in a BWR. First, fundamental experiments on the mixing of high-density solution in vertically-upward water flow have been performed by using a small apparatus. Mixing patterns observed in the experiments have been classified to two groups, i.e. complete mixing (entrainment) and incomplete mixing (entrainment). In the complete mixing, the injected high-density solution is mixed (entrained) completely into the vertically-upward water flow. From the experiments, the minimum water flow rates in which the complete mixing (entrainment) is achieved have been obtained for various solution densities and solution injection rates. Secondly, two-dimensional numerical calculations have been performed. A continuity equation for total fluid, momentum equations in two directions and a continuity equation for solute are solved by using the finite difference method for discretization method and by following the MAC method for solution procedure. The calculations have predicted nearly the minimum water flow rate in which the complete mixing is achieved, while the calculations have been performed only for one combination of the solution density and solution injection rate until now. (author)

  18. Analysis of the atmospheric upward radiation in low latitude area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Wu, Zhensen; Lin, Leke; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing using THz wave has irreplaceable advantage comparing to the microwave and the infrared waves, and study on the THz remote sensing become more and more popular in recent years. The major applications of the remote sensing in THz wavelengths are the retrieval of the atmospheric parameters and the microphysical information of the ice cloud. The remote sensing of the atmosphere is based on the radiation of THz wave along the earth-space path of which the most significant part is the upward radiation of the atmosphere. The upward radiation of the atmosphere in sunny day in the low latitude area is computed and analyzed in this paper. The absorption of THz wave by the atmosphere is calculated using the formulations illustrated in the Recommendation ITU-R P.676 to save machine hour, the frequency range is then restricted below 1THz. The frequencies used for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water content are usually a few hundred GHz, at the lower end of THz wavelengths, so this frequency range is sufficient. The radiation contribution of every atmospheric layer for typical frequencies such as absorption window frequencies and peak frequencies are analyzed. Results show that at frequencies which absorption is severe, information about lower atmosphere cannot reach the receiver onboard a satellite or other high platforms due to the strong absorption along the path.

  19. Two-phase upward air water flow in a prismatic channel with rectangular base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Tofani, P. de

    1984-01-01

    Two-phase liquid-gas mixtures provide suitable means to simulate water-water vapor flows, which may occur in nuclear reactor cores. The mastery of physical transport phenomena is of great importance, as far as the analysis of such thermal systems is concerned. Within the framework of thermal-hydraulic programs, experiments have been carried out to investigate the two-phase upward air-water flow structure, in a rectangular test section, by using independent measuring techniques, which comprise direct viewing and photography, electrical probes and gamma-ray attenuation. In this paper, flow pattern maps and correlations for flow pattern transitions, void fraction profiles, liquid film thickness and superficial average void fraction are proposed and compared to available data. (Author) [pt

  20. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  1. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  2. Removal of heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Huang, X.-J.; Kao, Jimmy C.M.; Stabnikova, Olena

    2006-01-01

    An upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology was proposed to remove heavy metals from contaminated kaolin. Unlike conventional electrokinetic treatment that uses boreholes or trenches for horizontal migration of heavy metals, the UESR technology, applying vertical non-uniform electric fields, caused upward transportation of heavy metals to the top surface of the treated soil. The effects of current density, treatment duration, cell diameter, and different cathode chamber influent (distilled water or 0.01 M nitric acid) were studied. The removal efficiencies of heavy metals positively correlated to current density and treatment duration. Higher heavy metals removal efficiency was observed for the reactor cell with smaller diameter. A substantial amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the nearest to cathode 2 cm layer of kaolin when distilled water was continuously supplied to the cathode chamber. Heavy metals accumulated in this layer of kaolin can be easily excavated and disposed off. The main part of the removed heavy metals was dissolved in cathode chamber influent and moved away with cathode chamber effluent when 0.01 M nitric acid was used, instead of distilled water. Energy saving treatment by UESR technology with highest metal removal efficiencies was provided by two regimes: (1) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 mm, duration of 18 days, and constant voltage of 3.5 V (19.7 kWh/m 3 of kaolin) and (2) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 cm, duration of 6 days, and constant current density of 0.191 mA/cm 2 (19.1 kWh/m 3 of kaolin)

  3. The collective roots and rewards of upward educational mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokni, Shirin

    2018-02-02

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with descendants of North African working-class immigrants admitted to elite higher institutions in France, this paper investigates the under-researched role of family dynamics in facilitating upward educational mobility and informing the experience of social ascension. It shows that concrete mobility strategies, such as authoritative parenting and close mentorship from older siblings have been deployed to enable the respondents' educational attainment. Moreover, a set of moral resources transmitted through stories about family-rooted aspirations and stories about post-migration hardships and sacrifices have contributed to forging strong motivational dispositions that have facilitated school success among the respondents. These resources have further shaped the symbolic significance the interviewees associate with mobility. In contrast with the dominant individual-centred narrative of success, for second-generation North African immigrants, mobility represents a powerful way of 'giving back' to former-generation migrants whose mobility dreams often had to be relinquished. The respondents also position themselves as role-models for other youths of racially and socially disadvantaged backgrounds: their mobility pathways are described as vital for collective advancements particularly through the sense of minority empowerment these generate. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  4. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  5. Effects of intergroup upward comparison, trait self-esteem, and identity shift on state self-esteem and affect in upward comparison with in-group members

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Chikae; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated factors that protect people low in trait self-esteem (Low-SEs), who may be less skilled at constructing information in self-enhancing manners, from threats after interpersonal upward comparison with in-group members. We hypothesized that even Low-SEs can maintain their state self-esteem under intergroup upward comparison. Furthermore, this study explored the possibility that individuals used identity-shift, a strategy to maintain their personal identity, even in...

  6. Representing or defecting ? : the pursuit of individual upward mobility in low status groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the conditions under which the individual upward mobility of mem-bers of low status groups is likely to succeed and when it is likely to meet resistance. In addition, it examines how upwardly mobile individuals can create such beneficial conditions. The results

  7. 34 CFR 645.1 - What is the Upward Bound Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... participants the skills and motivation necessary to complete a program of secondary education and to enter and... the following three types of projects: (1) Regular Upward Bound projects. (2) Upward Bound Math and... Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY...

  8. Dual-Polarization Radar Observations of Upward Lightning-Producing Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, R.; Helsdon, J. H.; Warner, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) seeks to determine how upward lightning, which originates from the tips of tall objects, is triggered by nearby flash activity. As a component of this study we analyze standard and dual-polarization weather radar data. The Correlation Coefficient (CC) in particular can be used to identify and quantify the melting layer associated with storms that produce upward lightning. It has been proposed that positive charge generation due to aggregate shedding at the melting layer results in a positive charge region just above the cloud base. This positive charge region may serve as a positive potential well favorable for negative leader propagation, which initiate upward positive leaders from tall objects. We characterize the horizontal coverage, thickness and height of the melting layer in addition to cloud base heights when upward lightning occurs to determine trends and possible threshold criteria relating to upward lightning production. Furthermore, we characterize storm type and morphology using relevant schemes as well as precipitation type using the Hydrometer Classification Algorithm (HCA) for upward lightning-producing storms. Ice-phase hydrometeors have been shown to be a significant factor in thunderstorm electrification. Only a small fraction of storms produce upward lightning, so null cases will be examined and compared as well.

  9. A case study of lightning attachment to flat ground showing multiple unconnected upward leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Krider, E. Philip; Olbinski, Mike; Holle, Ronald L.

    2018-04-01

    On 10 July 2015, a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash that produced two ground terminations was photographed from inside the safety of a truck in southern New Mexico. An analysis of archived NLDN data verified that this was a two-stroke flash, and a close-up view of the first stroke shows that it also initiated at least 12 unconnected, upward leaders (or "streamers") near the ground termination. No unconnected upward leaders were seen near the second ground attachment. After combining an analysis of the photograph with information provided by the NLDN, we infer that the first stroke was of negative (normal) polarity, had modest peak current, and struck about 460 m (± 24%) from the camera. Attachment occurred when an upward-propagating positive leader reached an inferred height of about 21 m above local ground. The second stroke struck ground about 740 m from the camera, and the height of its attachment leader is estimated to be 15 m. The estimated lengths of the unconnected upward leaders in the two-dimensional (2-D) plane of the first stroke range from 2 to 8 m, and all appear to be located within 15 m (2-D) of the main ground termination, with 24% uncertainty. Many of the unconnected upward leaders (inferred to be positive) exhibit multiple upward branches, and most of those branches have upward-directed forks or splits at their ends. This is the first report showing such extensive branching for positive upward leaders in natural lightning strikes to ground. None of the upward leaders can be seen to emanate from the tops of tall, isolated, or pointed objects on the ground, but they likely begin on small plants and rocks, or flat ground. In terms of lightning safety, this photo demonstrates that numerous upward leaders can be produced near a lightning strike point and have the potential to damage or cause injury at more than one specific point on the ground.

  10. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  11. Integrated Design for Geoscience Education with Upward Bound Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, T. J.; Hogsett, M.; Ensign, T. I.; Hemler, D.

    2009-05-01

    Capturing the interest of our students is imperative to expand the conduit of future Earth scientists in the United States. According to the Rising Above the Gathering Storm report (2005), we must increase America's talent pool by improving K-12 mathematics and science education. Geoscience education is uniquely suited to accomplish this goal, as we have become acutely aware of our sensitivity to the destructive forces of nature. The educational community must take advantage of this heightened awareness to educate our students and ensure the next generation rebuilds the scientific and technological base on which our society rests. In response to these concerns, the National Science Foundation advocates initiatives in Geoscience Education such as IDGE (Integrated Design for Geoscience Education), which is an inquiry-based geoscience program for Upward Bound (UB) students at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia. The UB program targets low-income under-represented students for a summer academic-enrichment program. IDGE builds on the mission of UB by encouraging underprivileged students to investigate science and scientific careers. During the two year project, high school students participated in an Environmental Inquiry course utilizing GLOBE program materials and on-line learning modules developed by geoscience specialists in land cover, soils, hydrology, phenology, and meteorology. Students continued to an advanced course which required IDGE students to collaborate with GLOBE students from Costa Rica. The culmination of this project was an educational expedition in Costa Rica to complete ecological field studies, providing first-hand knowledge of the international responsibility we have as scientists and citizens of our planet. IDGE was designed to continuously serve educators and students. By coordinating initiatives with GLOBE headquarters and the GLOBE country community, IDGE's efforts have yielded multiple ways in which to optimize positive

  12. How does the architecture of a fault system controls magma upward migration through the crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrieta, P. C.; Cembrano, J. M.; Stanton-Yonge, A.; Hurtado, D.

    2017-12-01

    The orientation and relative disposition of adjacent faults locally disrupt the regional stress field, thus enhancing magma flow through previous or newly created favorable conduits. Moreover, the brittle-plastic transition (BPT), due to its stronger rheology, governs the average state of stress of shallower portions of the fault system. Furthermore, the BPT may coincide with the location of transient magma reservoirs, from which dikes can propagate upwards into the upper crust, shaping the inner structure of the volcanic arc. In this work, we examine the stress distribution in strike-slip duplexes with variable geometry, along with the critical fluid overpressure ratio (CFOP), which is the minimum value required for individual faults to fracture in tension. We also determine the stress state disruption of the fault system when a dike is emplaced, to answer open questions such as: what is the nature of favorable pathways for magma to migrate? what is the architecture influence on the feedback between fault system kinematics and magma injection? To this end, we present a 3D coupled hydro-mechanical finite element model of the continental lithosphere, where faults are represented as continuum volumes with an elastic-plastic rheology. Magma flow upon fracturing is modeled through non-linear Stoke's flow, coupling solid and fluid equilibrium. A non-linear sensitivity analysis is performed in function of tectonic, rheology and geometry inputs, to assess which are the first-order factors that governs the nature of dike emplacement. Results show that the CFOP is heterogeneously distributed in the fault system, and within individual fault segments. Minimum values are displayed near fault intersections, where local kinematics superimpose on regional tectonic loading. Furthermore, when magma is transported through a fault segment, the CFOP is now minimized in faults with non-favorable orientations. This suggests that these faults act as transient pathways for magma to

  13. Preparation of TiC/Ni3Al Composites by Upward Melt Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TiC/Ni3Al composites have been prepared using upward infiltration method. The densificstion was performed by both Ni3Al melt filling and TiC sintering during the infiltration. The dissolution of TiC in liquid Ni3Al has been evidenced by finding Ni3(Al,Ti)C after fast cooling in the TiC/Ni3Al composites. The dissolution may be responsible for the infiltration and sintering. Compared with downward infiltration, the upward infiltration brought about higher strength and fracture toughness and shorter infiltration time. TiC/20 vol. pct Ni3Al composite processed by upward infiltration had a flexural strength of 1476 Mpa with a statistic Weibull modulus of 20.2 and a fracture toughness of 20.4 Mpa(m). Better mechanical properties may be attributed to melt unidirectional movement in upward infiltration.

  14. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations from upward throughgoing muon multiple scattering in MACRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kumar, A.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R

    2003-07-24

    The energy of atmospheric neutrinos detected by MACRO was estimated using multiple Coulomb scattering of upward throughgoing muons. This analysis allows a test of atmospheric neutrino oscillations, relying on the distortion of the muon energy distribution. These results have been combined with those coming from the upward throughgoing muon angular distribution only. Both analyses are independent of the neutrino flux normalization and provide strong evidence, above the 4{sigma} level, in favour of neutrino oscillations.

  15. Simulation of upward flux from shallow water-table using UPFLOW model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The upward movement of water by capillary rise from shallow water-table to the root zone is an important incoming flux. For determining exact amount of irrigation requirement, estimation of capillary flux or upward flux is essential. Simulation model can provide a reliable estimate of upward flux under variable soil and climatic conditions. In this study, the performance of model UPFLOW to estimate upward flux was evaluated. Evaluation of model performance was performed with both graphical display and statistical criteria. In distribution of simulated capillary rise values against observed field data, maximum data points lie around the 1:1 line, which means that the model output is reliable and reasonable. The coefficient of determination between observed and simulated values was 0.806 (r = 0.93, which indicates a good inter-relation between observed and simulated values. The relative error, model efficiency, and index of agreement were found as 27.91%, 85.93% and 0.96, respectively. Considering the graphical display of observed and simulated upward flux and statistical indicators, it can be concluded that the overall performance of the UPFLOW model in simulating actual upward flux from a crop field under variable water-table condition is satisfactory. Thus, the model can be used to estimate capillary rise from shallow water-table for proper estimation of irrigation requirement, which would save valuable water from over-irrigation.

  16. 34 CFR 645.13 - What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are they...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional services do Upward Bound Math and... Program? § 645.13 What additional services do Upward Bound Math and Science Centers provide and how are... provided under § 645.11(b), an Upward Bound Math and Science Center must provide— (1) Intensive instruction...

  17. Look Up for Healing: Embodiment of the Heal Concept in Looking Upward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Leitan

    Full Text Available Conceptual processing may not be restricted to the mind. The heal concept has been metaphorically associated with an "up" bodily posture. Perceptual Symbol Systems (PSS theory suggests that this association is underpinned by bodily states which occur during learning and become instantiated as the concept. Thus the aim of this study was to examine whether processing related to the heal concept is promoted by priming the bodily state of looking upwards.We used a mixed 2x2 priming paradigm in which 58 participants were asked to evaluate words as either related to the heal concept or not after being primed to trigger the concept of looking up versus down (Direction--within subjects. A possible dose-response effect of priming was investigated via allocating participants to two 'strengths' of prime, observing an image of someone whose gaze was upward/downward (low strength and observing an image of someone whose gaze was upward/downward while physically tilting their head upwards or downwards in accord with the image (high strength (Strength--between subjects.Participants responded to words related to heal faster than words unrelated to heal across both "Strength" conditions. There was no evidence that priming was stronger in the high strength condition.The present study found that, consistent with a PSS view of cognition, the heal concept is embodied in looking upward, which has important implications for cognition, general health, health psychology, health promotion and therapy.

  18. Technique of the biomechanical analysis of execution of upward jump piked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Batieieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the biomechanical analysis of execution of upward jump piked. Material & Methods: the following methods of the research were used: theoretical analysis and synthesis of data of special scientific and methodical literature; photographing, video filming, biomechanical computer analysis, pedagogical observation. Students (n=8 of the chair of national choreography of the department of choreographic art of Kiev national university of culture and art took part in carrying out the biomechanical analysis of execution of upward jump piked. Results: the biomechanical analysis of execution of upward jump piked is carried out, the kinematic characteristics (way, speed, acceleration, effort of the general center of weight (GCW and center of weight (CW of biolinks of body of the executor are received (feet, shins, hips, shoulder, forearm, hands. Biokinematic models (phases are constructed. Power characteristics are defined – mechanical work and kinetic energy of links of legs and hands at execution of upward jump piked. Conclusions: it is established that the technique of execution of upward jump piked considerably influences the level of technical training of the qualified sportsmen in gymnastics (sports, in aerobic gymnastics (aerobics, diving and dancing sports.

  19. Sky glint correction in measurements of upward radiance above the sea surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been performed to determine the upward water-leaving radiance by non-contact measurement of the total upward and downward radiance above the sea surface from a moving ship. The method for achieving this aim is described: the radiance meters are both tilted in such a way that the upward radiance meter can 'see' that part of the measured downward radiance which would be reflected if the water surface were smooth and which is not derived directly from solar glitter. Both meters are firmly fixed in a special frame, which ensures that the required orientation is the most probable one. Time records of the measured parameters are analysed. The results are presented in several forms: frequency (histogram analysis appears to be the most promising one.

  20. Upward lightning attachment analysis on wind turbines and correlated current parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Ishii, M.; Saito, M.

    2017-01-01

    This work provides insight in the attachment characteristics of upward initiated lightning discharges to wind turbines and their possible consequences for the lightning protection of wind turbine blades. All discharges were recorded at the Japanese coast of the Sea of Japan which is known...... for intense upward lightning activity. 172 video recordings of lightning discharges on rotating wind turbines are analysed and attachment angle, detachment angle, and the resulting angular displacement were determined. A classification between self-initiated and other-triggered upward lightning events...... is performed by means of video analysis. The results reveal that the majority of discharges are initiated on vertical blades; however, also attachments to horizontal blades are reported. Horizontal attachment (or a slightly inclined blade state) is often related with a triggered lightning event prior...

  1. New data on two-phase water-air hydrodynamics in vertical upward and downward tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, V [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Rezkallah, K S [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon (Canada). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The three key parameters involved in the analysis of the hydrodynamic characteristics of a two-phase system (i.e. pressure drop, void fraction, and flow pattern associated with the flow) are taken in vertical upward and downward tubes, using water-air mixture at atmospheric pressure. The acquired data set covers a wide range of liquid and gas flow rates, as well as void fractions. Using the acquired data set, two sets of flow pattern maps, for both upward and downward flows, are developed in the present study. Furthermore, a set of correlations for predicting the frictional pressure drop in both upward and downward flow were also developed. (author). 16 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Matter effects in upward-going muons and sterile neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bisi, V; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J E; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, Enzo; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E T; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lammanna, E; Lane, C; Levins, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Mikheyev, S P; Miller, L; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2001-01-01

    The angular distribution of upward-going muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos in the rock below the MACRO detector shows anomalies in good agreement with two flavor nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / oscillations with maximum mixing and Delta m/sup 2/ around 0.0024 eV/sup 2/. Exploiting the dependence of magnitude of the matter effect on the oscillation channel, and using a set of 809 upward-going muons observed in MACRO, we show that the two flavor nu /sub mu / to nu /sub s/ oscillation is disfavored with 99% C.L. with respect to nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /. (29 refs).

  3. On the Upward Bias of the Dissimilarity Index and Its Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Angelo; Punzo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The dissimilarity index of Duncan and Duncan is widely used in a broad range of contexts to assess the overall extent of segregation in the allocation of two groups in two or more units. Its sensitivity to random allocation implies an upward bias with respect to the unknown amount of systematic segregation. In this article, following a multinomial…

  4. Upward Feedback and Its Contribution to Employees' Feeling of Self-Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Johannes; Mulder, Regina H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The paper seeks to show that self-determination is a widely regarded motivational variable in educational research that relates to intrinsically motivated, self-directed learning at work. This study aimed to find out whether the possibility to provide upward feedback to supervisors contributes to employees' feelings of self-determination.…

  5. UPWARD MOVEMENT OF PLUTONIUM TO SURFACE SEDIMENTS DURING AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.; Beals, D.; Cadieux, J.; Halverson, J.

    2010-01-25

    An 11-y lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  6. Summer Upward Bound, Terre Haute, Indiana. Secondary Program in Compensatory Education, 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    Upward Bound was a precollege program geared for high school students with potential who had been handicapped by economic, cultural, and educational deprivation. It involved a full-time summer program and follow-up programs (counseling, cultural activities, and physical education) during the academic year. Students stayed in the program for three…

  7. 77 FR 37016 - Applications for New Awards: Upward Bound Math and Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards: Upward Bound Math and Science Program AGENCY... Bound Math and Science Program. Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2012.... There are three types of grants under the UB Program: regular UB grants, Veterans UB grants, and UB Math...

  8. Species interactions slow warming-induced upward shifts of treelines on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Yafeng; Piao, Shilong; Lu, Xiaoming; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Zhu, Haifeng; Zhu, Liping; Ellison, Aaron M; Ciais, Philippe; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-04-19

    The alpine treeline is commonly regarded as being sensitive to climatic warming because regeneration and growth of trees at treeline generally are limited by low temperature. The alpine treelines of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) occur at the highest elevations (4,900 m above sea level) in the Northern Hemisphere. Ongoing climatic warming is expected to shift treelines upward. Studies of treeline dynamics at regional and local scales, however, have yielded conflicting results, indicating either unchanging treeline elevations or upward shifts. To reconcile this conflict, we reconstructed in detail a century of treeline structure and tree recruitment at sites along a climatic gradient of 4 °C and mean annual rainfall of 650 mm on the eastern TP. Species interactions interacted with effects of warming on treeline and could outweigh them. Densification of shrubs just above treeline inhibited tree establishment, and slowed upward movement of treelines on a time scale of decades. Interspecific interactions are major processes controlling treeline dynamics that may account for the absence of an upward shift at some TP treelines despite continued climatic warming.

  9. UPWARD POWER TENDENCIES IN A HIERARCHY - POWER DISTANCE THEORY VERSUS BUREAUCRATIC RULE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILKE, HAM

    1993-01-01

    Two contrasting notions concerning upward power tendencies within hierarchically structured groups are investigated. Power Distance Theory assumes that people have a desire for power that results in a tendency to reduce the power distance towards a more powerful other, and this tendency is assumed

  10. Upward Appraisal: A Tool for the Continuous Improvement of Library Managers' Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joan E.

    Effective management and the importance of feedback in relation to improvement are becoming critical issues for libraries. Upward appraisal evaluates managers' performance based on input from their staff, rather than the traditional top-down evaluation format in which a manager is evaluated solely by their superior. This paper discusses the…

  11. AIMING AT THE TOP - UPWARD SOCIAL-COMPARISON OF ABILITIES AFTER FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YBEMA, JF; BUUNK, BP

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects of feedback on a task on information seeking and partner preferences as forms of social comparison. It was predicted that subjects who experienced failure and perceived control over future performance would, for reasons of self-improvement, choose more strongly upward

  12. Species interactions slow warming-induced upward shifts of treelines on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Yafeng; Piao, Shilong; Lu, Xiaoming; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Zhu, Haifeng; Zhu, Liping; Ciais, Philippe; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The alpine treeline is commonly regarded as being sensitive to climatic warming because regeneration and growth of trees at treeline generally are limited by low temperature. The alpine treelines of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) occur at the highest elevations (4,900 m above sea level) in the Northern Hemisphere. Ongoing climatic warming is expected to shift treelines upward. Studies of treeline dynamics at regional and local scales, however, have yielded conflicting results, indicating either unchanging treeline elevations or upward shifts. To reconcile this conflict, we reconstructed in detail a century of treeline structure and tree recruitment at sites along a climatic gradient of 4 °C and mean annual rainfall of 650 mm on the eastern TP. Species interactions interacted with effects of warming on treeline and could outweigh them. Densification of shrubs just above treeline inhibited tree establishment, and slowed upward movement of treelines on a time scale of decades. Interspecific interactions are major processes controlling treeline dynamics that may account for the absence of an upward shift at some TP treelines despite continued climatic warming. PMID:27044083

  13. Doing worse, but feeling happy : Social comparison and identification in response to upward and downward targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothof, H.; Siero, F.W.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2007-01-01

    We investigated people's responses to exposure to downward and upward targets. In Study 1, among 197 participants, it was predicted and found that such exposure led to a contrast effect on self-evaluation, and to an assimilation effect on affect. In Study 2, among 148 participants, it was predicted

  14. Lifting the Veil: A Realist Critique of Sistema's Upwardly Mobile Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    El Sistema sits somewhere between a social project and a classical music initiative. However, its promise of delivering upward mobility has not been sufficiently examined as a structural phenomenon which dovetails with critical policy issues in taxation, educational provision, human rights, and welfare. This article argues that Sistema-style…

  15. Upwardly Mobile: Attitudes toward the Class Transition among First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    First-generation, working-class college students are on the path to upward mobility and may have social and psychological problems related to cultural differences between the working class and the middle class. In her study, Hurst (2007, 2010) reports that students of working-class origin often choose loyalty to one class. However, I revise…

  16. Feeling bad, but satisfied : the effects of upward and downward comparison upon mood and marital satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, B.P.; Ybema, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 135 women from rural areas, the effects of social comparison with the marriage of another woman upon mood, identification and relationship evaluation were examined. Upward targets evoked a more positive mood, and a less negative mood than downward targets, while, in contrast, the

  17. Physical mechanism and numerical simulation of the inception of the lightning upward leader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingmin; Lu Xinchang; Shi Wei; Zhang Li; Zou Liang; Lou Jie

    2012-01-01

    The upward leader is a key physical process of the leader progression model of lightning shielding. The inception mechanism and criterion of the upward leader need further understanding and clarification. Based on leader discharge theory, this paper proposes the critical electric field intensity of the stable upward leader (CEFISUL) and characterizes it by the valve electric field intensity on the conductor surface, E L , which is the basis of a new inception criterion for the upward leader. Through numerical simulation under various physical conditions, we verified that E L is mainly related to the conductor radius, and data fitting yields the mathematical expression of E L . We further establish a computational model for lightning shielding performance of the transmission lines based on the proposed CEFISUL criterion, which reproduces the shielding failure rate of typical UHV transmission lines. The model-based calculation results agree well with the statistical data from on-site operations, which show the effectiveness and validity of the CEFISUL criterion.

  18. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  19. A Diary Study of Self-Compassion, Upward Social Comparisons, and Body Image-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Dodos, Louisa; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2017-07-01

    Self-compassion may protect individuals experiencing poor body image and associated maladaptive outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine within-person associations (whilst controlling for between-person differences) between appearance-related self-compassion, appearance-related threats (operationalised as upward appearance comparisons), and body image-related variables, namely, social physique anxiety, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. A diary methodology was used whereby young women (n = 126; M age = 21.26) responded to brief online surveys three times per day (11am, 3pm, and 7pm) every second day for one week (i.e. a total of 12 measurement points). Results of mixed linear modeling revealed that both state appearance-related upward comparisons and self-compassion independently predicted all three outcomes in a positive and negative fashion, respectively. No significant interaction effects between state appearance-related upward comparisons and self-compassion were found. The results suggested that appearance-based self-compassion was important, not just when there was a potential threat to body image via upward appearance comparisons. The findings highlight the importance of fostering self-compassion on a daily level. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  20. Upward migration of radio-cesium and strontium in a sand-filled lysimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, W.E.; Larsen, I.L.; McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The upward migration of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr was observed in a silica sand-filled lysimeter at the Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low Level Waste Data Base Development experiment site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The source of the radionuclides first observed on the surface was identified from isotopic analysis as being from the buried waste. Cores of the sand were collected and analyzed for the vertical distribution of the radionuclides. Results of analyses revealed that pulses (elevated levels) in the activity of the Cs and Sr radioisotopes occurred at the same depths. During the sectioning of the sand core collected from directly above the buried waste form it was discovered that a fine root from an unidentified plant was present throughout all but the upper few centimeters of the core. Because the upward migration was unexpected, information that may lead to the determination of a definitive mechanism of migration was not preserved. The distribution of the radionuclides coupled with the presence of the root suggest that Cs and Sr migrated upward in the evapotranspiration stream of the root. Further study must be undertaken to confirm this phenomenon. Upward migration of radionuclides as observed here could result in direct exposures and offsite releases from underground storage facilities. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. An Extreme-ultraviolet Wave Generating Upward Secondary Waves in a Streamer-like Solar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Song, Hongqiang

    2018-05-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves, spectacular horizontally propagating disturbances in the low solar corona, always trigger horizontal secondary waves (SWs) when they encounter the ambient coronal structure. We present the first example of upward SWs in a streamer-like structure after the passing of an EUV wave. This event occurred on 2017 June 1. The EUV wave happened during a typical solar eruption including a filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection (CME), and a C6.6 flare. The EUV wave was associated with quasi-periodic fast propagating (QFP) wave trains and a type II radio burst that represented the existence of a coronal shock. The EUV wave had a fast initial velocity of ∼1000 km s‑1, comparable to high speeds of the shock and the QFP wave trains. Intriguingly, upward SWs rose slowly (∼80 km s‑1) in the streamer-like structure after the sweeping of the EUV wave. The upward SWs seemed to originate from limb brightenings that were caused by the EUV wave. All of the results show that the EUV wave is a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave, likely triggered by the flare impulses. We suggest that part of the EUV wave was probably trapped in the closed magnetic fields of the streamer-like structure, and upward SWs possibly resulted from the release of slow-mode trapped waves. It is believed that the interplay of the strong compression of the coronal shock and the configuration of the streamer-like structure is crucial for the formation of upward SWs.

  2. Does upward mobility result in greater well-being? Evidence from a pre-registered study on a large population-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Felix; Jackson, Joshua; Hill, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Income inequality gained increasing attention in public discourse. Promoting upward mobility is a potential solution to income inequality. The current study tested whether upward mobility predicts greater well-being, whether upward mobility attenuates the negative effects of income inequality, and whether gender differences in upward mobility differentially predict well-being for men and women. Upward mobility was operationalized as changes in income rank across generations for families in th...

  3. 34 CFR 645.20 - How many applications for an Upward Bound award may an eligible applicant submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many applications for an Upward Bound award may an eligible applicant submit? 645.20 Section 645.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Does One Apply for An Award? § 645.20 How many applications for an Upward Bound award may an eligible...

  4. 77 FR 21089 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Application for Grants Under the Upward Bound Math and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Upward Bound Math and Science Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. SUMMARY: The Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) program provides grants to institutions of higher... for success in a program of postsecondary education that lead to careers in math and science. DATES...

  5. Measurement of the rate of droplet deposition in vertical upward and downward annular flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Toshihiro; Okawa, Tomio; Takei, Rei

    2008-01-01

    The deposition rate of droplets was measured for vertical annular two-phase flows in a small diameter tube by means of the double film extraction technique. The test section was a round tube of 5 mm in inside diameter, air and water were used as test fluids, and the flow direction was set to upward and downward; the system pressure and the flow rates of gas and liquid phases were changed parametrically. If the droplet velocity relative to the continuous gas phase is in the equilibrium state, the shear induced lift force acting on droplets is directed toward the tube centerline in upflow while toward the tube wall in downflow. Particular attention was therefore paid to the effect of flow direction. It was shown experimentally that the deposition rate of droplets in downward flow is greater than that in upward flow. The difference in the measured deposition rate may be attributed to the direction of lift force acting on droplets. (author)

  6. Freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, D.; Moeschke, M.; Werle, H.

    1983-10-01

    The freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes has been studied in a series of experiments. Several tubes were used in the same test. This demonstrated a good reproducibility and allowed systematic parameter variations, especially of the channel diameter. The time-dependance of the penetration was observed with a film camera and these date provide a good basis for a detailed check of sophisticated models which are in development. (orig.) [de

  7. Air-water upward flow in prismatic channel of rectangular base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Tofani, P. de.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments had carried out to investigate the two-phase upward air-water flow structure, in a rectangular test section, by using independent measuring techniques, which comprise direct viewing and photography, electrical probes and gamma-ray attenuation. Flow pattern maps and correlations for flow pattern transitions, void fraction profiles, liquid film thickness and superficial average void fraction are proposed and compared to available data. (Author) [pt

  8. The transition from flooding to upwards cocurrent annular flow in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, G.B.

    1962-02-01

    The limits of countercurrent flow in a vertical pipe are related to the onset of cocurrent upwards annual flow. The results are confirmed by evidence from several sources and lead to the criterion v g =(0.8→0.9)p g -1/2 [D g (p f -p g )] 1/2 for the minimum gas superficial velocity which will support a liquid film in concurrent flow. (author)

  9. Warming-induced upward migration of the alpine treeline in the Changbai Mountains, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haibo; Liu, Jie; Li, Mai-He; Büntgen, Ulf; Yang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Wu, Zhengfang; He, Hong S

    2018-03-01

    Treeline responses to environmental changes describe an important phenomenon in global change research. Often conflicting results and generally too short observations are, however, still challenging our understanding of climate-induced treeline dynamics. Here, we use a state-of-the-art dendroecological approach to reconstruct long-term changes in the position of the alpine treeline in relation to air temperature at two sides in the Changbai Mountains in northeast China. Over the past 160 years, the treeline increased by around 80 m, a process that can be divided into three phases of different rates and drives. The first phase was mainly influenced by vegetation recovery after an eruption of the Tianchi volcano in 1702. The slowly upward shift in the second phase was consistent with the slowly increasing temperature. The last phase coincided with rapid warming since 1985, and shows with 33 m per 1°C, the most intense upward shift. The spatial distribution and age structure of trees beyond the current treeline confirm the latest, warming-induced upward shift. Our results suggest that the alpine treeline will continue to rise, and that the alpine tundra may disappear if temperatures will increase further. This study not only enhances mechanistic understanding of long-term treeline dynamics, but also highlights the effects of rising temperatures on high-elevation vegetation dynamics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Experimental study on liquid velocity in upward and downward two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.; Paranjape, S.; Kim, S.; Ozar, B.; Ishii, M.

    2003-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  11. Clinical Assessment of Scapula Motion: Scapula Upward Rotation and Relationship with Injury in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal scapulothoracic mechanics and scapulohumeral rhythm are implicated in shoulder pathologies, including glenohumeral impingement and rotator cuff tears. Upward scapula rotation, specifically asymmetry of scapula motion and associations of patterns through range with injury, was investigated in dominant and non-dominant limbs of nationally ranked junior and Paralympic swimmers during competition season. The static and throughout phases measures of upward scapula rotation were: Phase I (start position, 45°, Phase II (45° to 90°, Phase III (90° to 135° and Phase IV (135° to max. Injury was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Differences between side (dominant and non-dominant, group (junior and Paralympic, and phase were examined. Significant differences (P < 0.05 between groups were identified for dominant side at rest, 45° and 135°, and in phases II and IV (including range. Scapulohumeral rhythm was higher in the non-dominant limb of Paralympic swimmers but in the dominant limb of junior swimmers. Greatest differences in upward rotation between injured and non-injured swimmers were found in Phase 1: 43.6% (3.3° Paralympic; 73.1% (8° junior. Results suggest asymmetry of movement in both limbs, through all phases, and at single points in range, should be investigated for assessing injury and developing preventive strategies and rehabilitation protocols.

  12. Human disturbance and upward expansion of plants in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainese, Matteo; Aikio, Sami; Hulme, Philip E.; Bertolli, Alessio; Prosser, Filippo; Marini, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is expected to trigger an upward expansion of plants in mountain regions and, although there is strong evidence that many native species have already shifted their distributions to higher elevations, little is known regarding how fast non-native species might respond to climate change. By analysing 131,394 occurrence records of 1,334 plant species collected over 20 years in the European Alps, we found that non-natives are spreading upwards approximately twice as fast as natives. Whereas the spread of natives was enhanced by traits favouring longer dispersal distances, this was not the case for non-natives. This was due to the non-native species pool already being strongly biased towards species that had traits facilitating spread. A large proportion of native and non-native species seemed to be able to spread upwards faster than the current velocity of climate change. In particular, long-distance dispersal events and proximity to roads proved to be key drivers for the observed rapid spread. Our findings highlight that invasions by non-native species into native alpine communities are a potentially significant additional pressure on these vulnerable ecosystems that are already likely to suffer dramatic vegetation changes with ongoing warming and increasing human activity in mountain regions.

  13. Modeling on bubbly to churn flow pattern transition for vertical upward flows in narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanlin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping; Wang Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to predict the bubbly to churn flow pattern transition for vertical upward flows in narrow rectangular channel. The model was developed based on the imbalance theory of Helmholtz and some reasonable assumptions. The maximum ideal bubble in narrow rectangular channel and the thermal hydraulics boundary condition leading to bubbly flow to churn flow pattern transition was calculated. The model was validated by experimental data from previous researches. Comparison between predicted result and experimental result shows a reasonable good agreement. (author)

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2014-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the suing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer is implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer is produced an inverse buoyant force make the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow - open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 M watt) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against Gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2015-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the swing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer produced an inverse buoyant force making the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow-open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 Mw) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability conditions from

  16. Emerging psychopathology moderates upward social mobility: The intergenerational (dis)continuity of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is relatively stable across generations, but social policies may create opportunities for upward social mobility among disadvantaged populations during periods of economic growth. With respect to expanded educational opportunities that occurred in Québec (Canada) during the 1960s, we hypothesized that children's social and academic competence would promote upward mobility, whereas aggression and social withdrawal would have the opposite effect. Out of 4,109 children attending low-SES schools in 1976-1978, a representative subsample of 503 participants were followed until midadulthood. Path analyses revealed that parents' SES predicted offspring's SES through associations with offspring's likeability, academic competence, and educational attainment. Interaction effects revealed individual risk factors that moderated children's ability to take advantage of intrafamilial or extrafamilial opportunities that could enhance their educational attainment. Highly aggressive participants and those presenting low academic achievement were unable to gain advantage from having highly educated parents. They reached lower educational attainment than their less aggressive or higher achieving peers who came from a similarly advantaged family background. Growing up with parents occupying low-prestige jobs put withdrawn boys and outgoing girls at risk for low educational attainment. In conclusion, social policies can raise SES across generations, with great benefits for the most disadvantaged segments of the population. However, children presenting with emerging psychopathology or academic weaknesses do not benefit from these policies as much as others, and should receive additional, targeted services.

  17. Evaluation of upward heat flux in ex-vessel molten core heat transfer using MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to share experiences of MELCOR application to resolve the molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) issue in the Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In the evaluation of concrete erosion, the heat transfer modeling from the molten corium internal to the corium pool surface is very important and uncertain. MELCOR employs Kutateladze or Greene's bubble-enhanced heat transfer model for the internal heat transfer. The phenomenological uncertainty is so large that the model provides several model parameters in addition to the phenomenological model for user flexibility. However, the model parameters do not work on Kutateladze correlation at the top of the molten layer. From our experience, a code modification is suggested to match the upward heat flux with the experimental results. In this analysis, minor modification was carried out to calculate heat flux from the top molten layer to corium surface, and efforts were made to find out the best value of the model parameter based on upward heat flux of MACE test M1B. Discussion also includes its application to KNGR. (author)

  18. Influence of Mining Thickness on the Rationality of Upward Mining in Coal Seam Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of mining thickness on the rationality of upward mining in coal seam group. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of the mining thicknesses of initial mining seam on the destruction and pressure relief effect of the upper coal seam in a high-gas coal seam group. The mechanical model of the roof failure based on the mining thickness was established by assuming that the gob formed after adjacent panels have fully been caved is the infinite plane. On the basis of this model, an equation was derived to calculate the roof failure height of the panel. Considering the geological conditions of No. 9 and No. 12 coal seams of Zhaogezhuang Coal Mine, economic effectiveness, and proposed techniques, we concluded that the top layer (4 m of the No. 12 coal seam should be mined first. The top layer of the No. 9 coal seam should be subsequently mined. The topcaving technique was applied to the exploitation of the lower layer of the No. 12 coal seam. Practically monitored data revealed that the deformation and failure of the No. 2699 panel roadway was small and controllable, the amount of gas emission was reduced significantly, and the effect of upward mining was active. The results of this study provide theory basics for mine designing, and it is the provision of a reference for safe and efficient coal exploitation under similar conditions.

  19. Underlying mechanism of precursory activity from analysis of upward earthquake migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Molchanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the upward earthquake hypocentral migration in the ten known subduction zones and discuss a possible mechanism of such migration. The total time of the migration appears to range from 2.5 to 10 years. It leads to the estimation of the average velocity Vz~ 60−300 km yr−1. It probably corresponds to the movement of the forcing agent like stress or deformation wave from depths of the upper mantle (600–700 km to the level of the lithosphere with subsequent initiation of fluid migration inside the crust to trigger shallow earthquakes. Averaged over all zones upward migration travel time is about 5 years (< Vz > ≈120 km yr−1 that coincides approximately with the period of characteristic temperature variation (El Nino and crustal seismic periodicity in the Pacific region. These findings are helpful for the study of the seismic precursors and analysis of earthquake triggering.

  20. Far-zone contributions of airborne gravity anomalies' upward/downward continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne gravimetry has become a vital technique in local gravity field approximation, and upward/downward continuation of gravity data is a key process of airborne gravimetry. In these procedures, the integral domain is divided into two parts, namely the near-zone and the far-zone. The far-zone contributions are approximated by the truncation coefficients and a global geo-potential model, and their values are controlled by several issues. This paper investigates the effects of flight height, the size of near-zone cap, and Remove-Compute-Restore (RCR technique upon far-zone contributions. Results show that at mountainous area the far-zone contributions can be ignored when EIGEN-6C of 360 degree is removed from the gravity data, together with a near-zone cap of 1° and a flight height less than 10 km, while at flat area EIGEN-6C of 180 degree is feasible.

  1. A study of upward going particles with the Extreme Energy Events telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, Bari (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Ferroli, R. Baldini [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (RM) (Italy); Batignani, G. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bencivenni, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (RM) (Italy); Bossini, E. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN Gruppo Collegato di Siena and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Siena (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cicalo, C. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cifarelli, L. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Coccia, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Corvaglia, A. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Roma (Italy); INFN and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); and others

    2016-04-21

    In this paper the first study of the upward going events detected by the telescopes of the Extreme Energy Event (EEE) project is reported. The EEE project consists of a detector array of Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers located at selected sites on the Italian territory. During autumn 2014 the first coordinated data taking period took place and around one billion candidate tracks were collected. Among them, of particular interest is the sample of particles which cross the telescopes from below. The results obtained demonstrate that the EEE telescopes can distinguish the electrons produced as decay products of cosmic muons stopped in the ground, or in the last chamber of the telescopes themselves, confirming the excellent performance of the system for the investigation of intriguing cosmic phenomena.

  2. A Heat Transfer Correlation in a Vertical Upward Flow of CO2 at Supercritical Pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2006-01-01

    Heat transfer data has been collected in the heat transfer test loop, named SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), in KAERI. The facility primarily aims at the generation of heat transfer data in the flow conditions and geometries relevant to SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). The produced data will aid the thermohydraulic design of a reactor core. The loop uses carbon dioxide, and later the results will be scaled to the water flows. The heat transfer data has been collected for a vertical upward flow in a circular tube with varying mass fluxes, heat fluxes, and operating pressures. The results are compared with the existing correlations and a new correlation is proposed by fine-tuning the one of the existing correlations

  3. Heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure waster in vertical upward annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Han; Bi Qincheng; Yang Zhendong; Wu Gang

    2013-01-01

    Within the range of pressure from 23 to 28 MPa, mass flux from 350 to 1000 kg/(m 2 · s), and outside wall heat flux from 200 to 1000 kW/m 2 , experimental investigation was conducted on the heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure water in vertical upward annular channels. The effects of heat flux, pressure, mass flux and spiral spacer on heat transfer were analyzed, and two types of heat transfer deterioration occurred in the experiments were compared. The experimental results show that the heat transfer of water can be enhanced by increasing the mass flux or decreasing the wall heat flux. The effect of pressure on heat transfer is not uniform and depends on heat transfer form. It was found that the spiral spacer not only enhances the heat transfer of water, but also delays the heat transfer deterioration which occurs in high heat flux and low mass flux conditions. (authors)

  4. CrossRef A study of upward going particles with the Extreme Energy Events telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Baldini, L; Ferroli, R Baldini; Batignani, G; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; Corvaglia, A; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D׳Incecco, M; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F L; Fattibene, E; Ferraro, A; Forster, R; Frolov, V; Galeotti, P; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Grazzi, S; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadu, D; La Rocca, P; Maggiora, A; Maron, G; Mazziotta, M N; Miozzi, S; Nania, R; Noferini, F; Nozzoli, F; Panareo, M; Panetta, M P; Paoletti, R; Perasso, L; Pilo, F; Piragino, G; Riggi, F; Righini, G C; Rodriguez, A R; Sartorelli, G; Scapparone, E; Schioppa, M; Scribano, A; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Squarcia, S; Stori, L; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Vistoli, M C; Votano, L; Williams, M C S; Zani, S; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the first study of the upward going events detected by the telescopes of the Extreme Energy Event (EEE) project is reported. The EEE project consists of a detector array of Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers located at selected sites on the Italian territory. During autumn 2014 the first coordinated data taking period took place and around one billion candidate tracks were collected. Among them, of particular interest is the sample of particles which cross the telescopes from below. The results obtained demonstrate that the EEE telescopes can distinguish the electrons produced as decay products of cosmic muons stopped in the ground, or in the last chamber of the telescopes themselves, confirming the excellent performance of the system for the investigation of intriguing cosmic phenomena.

  5. Internal causes of radon and its daughters upward migration and cluster phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Qiu Yuande; Hou Xinsheng; Wu Yunping; Zu Xiulan; Wang Xiaoqin

    1999-01-01

    Radon and its daughters have a very big specific gravity. But under laboratory conditions, they have the ability to migrate upward. The phenomenon can't be interpreted by an external cause but by an internal cause. The mechanism is that radon and most of its daughters and parents are decaying bodies able to radiate α-particles. After deceleration, 4He can combine with radon and its daughters and parents to form clusters. When the buoyancy of air is greater than the gravity of the clusters, self-ascending occurs. Accordingly, the distance that Rn covered during 3.825 days (Rn half-life) should not be regarded as Rn and its daughters migrating distance, but should be calculated according to all effects. That clusters can be formed by 4He, Rn and its daughters are valuable to study because of the similarity between Rn and heavy metal particles

  6. A study of upward going particles with the Extreme Energy Events telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the first study of the upward going events detected by the telescopes of the Extreme Energy Event (EEE) project is reported. The EEE project consists of a detector array of Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers located at selected sites on the Italian territory. During autumn 2014 the first coordinated data taking period took place and around one billion candidate tracks were collected. Among them, of particular interest is the sample of particles which cross the telescopes from below. The results obtained demonstrate that the EEE telescopes can distinguish the electrons produced as decay products of cosmic muons stopped in the ground, or in the last chamber of the telescopes themselves, confirming the excellent performance of the system for the investigation of intriguing cosmic phenomena.

  7. Peritoneal catheter fixation combined with straight upward tunnel and low implant position to prevent catheter malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyan; Jiang, Chunming; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Cheng; Xia, Yangyang; Tang, Tianfeng; Wan, Cheng; Shao, Qiuyuan; Liu, Jing; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Miao

    2018-03-01

    Catheter malfunction is the main reason for early peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique failure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a new surgery technique with catheter fixation to the lower abdominal wall combined with straight upward tunnel and low implant position in reducing catheter malfunction. Patients with end stage renal disease who received PD in our centre from January 2013 to December 2015 were involved in this study. They were randomly divided into three groups according to surgical technique: traditional open surgery group, modified open surgery group and modified open surgery with catheter fixation group. All patients were followed up for six months after surgery. Catheter- related complications were analyzed. A total of 152 patients were involved. Among them, 49 received traditional open surgery (TOS group), 49 received modified open surgery (MOS group), and 54 received modified open surgery with catheter fixation (MOS-F group). During follow-up, no patients (0%) in MOS-F group developed catheter malfunction which was significantly lower than that of the TOS group (0 vs 16.33%, P = 0.002). Although not statistically significant, the incidence of catheter malfunction was lower in MOS-F group than that in MOS group (0 vs 4.08%, P = 0.134). No significant difference was observed in the episodes of infection, bleeding, leakage, inflow or outflow pain, hernia and delayed wound healing among the three groups (all P > 0.05). Catheter fixation combined with straight upward tunnel and low implant position can effectively prevent catheter malfunction in PD catheter placement. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. Experimental heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide flowing upward vertical tube with highly conducting surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Hyung M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performed experiment for the upward SCO 2 flow surrounded by highly conducting metal. ► Selected dimensionless groups representing the property variations and buoyancy. ► Developed the heat transfer correlation for the mixed thermal boundary condition. ► Wrote a finite element heat transfer code to find the appropriate correlation. ► Coupled the 1D convection and 2D heat conduction via heat transfer coefficient. - Abstract: This paper presents heat transfer characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide flow inside vertical circular pipe surrounded by highly conducting material, and develops an adequate tool to test the performance of available heat transfer correlations with. The possible situations are illustrated for the nuclear power plant to which the above-mentioned geometric configuration might be applicable. An experimental loop with vertical circular geometry is designed and constructed to test the upward flow in supercritical state when the axial heat transfer is enhanced by the surrounding metals, resulting in a wall boundary condition between the constant heat flux and temperature. The set of correlations and important findings are critically reviewed from extensive literature survey. Incorporating nondimensional groups resorting to past insights from the available literature, a convective heat transfer correlation is proposed. The optimization procedure is described which utilizes a random walk method along with the in-house finite element heat transfer code to determine the coefficients of the proposed heat transfer correlation. The proposed methodology can be applied to evaluation of heat transfer when the heat transfer coefficient data cannot directly be determined from the experiment.

  9. Upward creep of the heart: A frequent source of false-positive reversible defects during thallium-201 stress-redistribution SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.; Van Train, K.; Maddahi, J.; Rozanski, A.; Prigent, F.; Bietendorf, J.; Waxman, A.; Berman, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A new cause of artifactual 201 Tl defects on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) termed upward creep of the heart is described. In 102 consecutive patients undergoing 201 Tl SPECT, 30 (29%) demonstrated upward creep defined by an upward movement of the heart of greater than or equal to 2 pixels during acquisition. In 45 consecutive patients with a less than 5% likelihood of coronary artery disease, 17 (38%) had upward creep. Of these nine had reversible 201 Tl defects localized to the inferior and basal inferoseptal walls, while none of the 28 without upward creep had defects. The 17 low likelihood patients with upward creep had longer exercise duration and higher peak heart rate than those without upward creep. In five additional low likelihood patients with upward creep in whom imaging was immediately repeated, the upward creep pattern disappeared on the repeated images. After we changed our test protocol to begin imaging 15 min postexercise, only five (14%) of 36 low likelihood patients tested demonstrated upward creep. Upward creep is probably related to a transient increase in mean total lung volume early following exhaustive exercise, resulting in a mean lower position of the diaphragm (and thus the heart) at the beginning of imaging. The frequency of this source of false-positive 201 Tl studies can be reduced by delaying SPECT acquisition until 15 min postexercise

  10. Upward translocation of 14C-amino compounds in xylem and phloem of citrus trees (citrus unshiu marc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tadashi; Yamagata, Makoto; Tsukahara, Sadao

    1985-01-01

    Upward and lateral movements of 14 C-amino compounds in intact trees and excised shoots, and upward translocation of major amino compounds in intact shoots were examined in the early stage of new shoot development. The results were summarized as follows. 1. Uniformly 14 C-labelled arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid and proline were steadily taken up by roots of intact trees, translocated to old leaves and new shoots, and appeared in the fed compound and its metabolized products in these organs. 2. 14 C-arginine, asparagine and proline were translocated upward not only via the xylem but also via the phloem. Lateral movements, from the xylem to the pholoem and from the phloem to the xylem, also occurred. These compounds showed different patterns in their movements. 14 C-arginine and its metabolic products tended to accumulate in the xylem and translocate upward in the xylem. This was in contrast to 14 C-proline and its metabolic products, which tended to accumulate in the phloem and translocate upward in the phloem. These findings were supported by the results obtained in intact shoots. 3. The 14 C-amino compounds were metabolized to soluble and insoluble compounds during the translocation and in the new shoots. However, they differed significantly in the extent of metabolic conversion during translocation; proline was hardly metabolized, arginine and asparagine were moderately metabolized, and aspartic acid was almost completely metabolized. (author)

  11. High-speed and supersonic upward plasma drifts: multi-instrumental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.; Hairston, M. R.; Huba, J.; Coley, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Since the pioneering observations by Aggson et al. (1992, JGR, doi: 10.1002/92JA00644), there have been several reports of the occurrence of high-speed (Vz>800 m/s) and supersonic plasma flows in the post-sunset (e.g., Hysell et al., 1994, JGR, doi: 10.1029/94JA00476; Hanson et al., 1997, JGR, doi: 10.1029/96JA03376) and the pre-dawn sector (Astafyeva and Zakharenkova, 2015, GRL, doi:10.1002/2015GL066369). However, despite this observational evidence, these events remain rare and are not well understood. The main issue is to determine the background conditions leading to the occurrence of these high-speed plasma drifts. In this work, we perform a multi-instrumental study of high-speed and supersonic upward plasma drift events/structures. For this purpose, we analyze data from several ground-based and space-borne instruments, including data from the DMSP, Swarm and C/NOFS (IVM instrument) satellites. In addition to the space-borne instruments, we use data from ground-based GPS-receivers and ionosondes to further investigate the background ionosphere conditions, as well as the effects produced by the plasma bubbles and ionospheric irregularities. Besides the observations, we add the SAMI3/ESF modeling results on plasma bubble simulations and high-speed drifts inside plasma bubbles. TIE-GCM runs (from the CCMC, https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) are used to define the background atmospheric/ionospheric and electrodynamical conditions leading to the occurrence of the high-speed and supersonic plasma drift events. Our search of events with upward plasma drift exceeding 800 m/s in the data of DMSP for the years 2002-2016 shows that such high-speed events are extremely rare. During this period of time, only 6 events were found, two of them occurred during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm, while the other four were detected during geomagnetically quiet conditions. Concerning the generation of such events, our preliminary results show that enhanced electric fields are

  12. Numerical Simulation on Forced Convective Condensation of Steam Upward Flow in a Vertical Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dong Qiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A transient three-dimensional volume of fluid (VOF simulation on condensation of upward flow of wet steam inside a 12 mm i.d. vertical pipe is presented. The effect of gravity and surface tension are taken into account. A uniform wall temperature has been fixed as boundary conditions. The mass flux is 130~6400 kg m−2's−1 and the turbulence inside the vapor phase and liquid phase have been handled by Reynolds stress model (RSM. The vapor quality of fluid is 0~0.4. The numerical simulation results show that, in all the simulation conditions, the bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, wispy annular flow, and annular flow are observed; in addition, the results of flow pattern are in good agreement with the regime map from Hewitt and Roberts. The typical velocity field characteristic of each flow pattern and the effect of velocity field on heat transfer of condensation are analyzed, indicating that the slug flow and churn flow have obvious local eddy. However, no obvious eddy is observed in other flow patterns and the streamlines are almost parallel to the flow direction. The simulation results of heat transfer coefficients and frictional pressure drop show good agreement with the correlations from existing literatures.

  13. Surface tension effects on vertical upward annular flows in a small diameter pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadatomi, Michio, E-mail: sadatomi@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Systems, Kumamoto Univ., 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawahara, Akimaro [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Systems, Kumamoto Univ., 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Aruta [Plant Design & Engineering Dept., Environment, Energy & Plant Headquarters, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 7-89, Nankokita 1-chome, Suminoe-ku, Osaka, 559-8559 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface tension effects were clarified on annular flow in a small diameter pipe. • The mean liquid film thickness became thinner with decreasing of surface tension. • The liquid droplet fraction and the interfacial shear stress became higher with it. • New prediction methods for the above parameters were developed and validated. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the surface tension effects on vertical upward annular flows in a 5 mm I.D. pipe using water and low surface tension water with a little surfactant as the test liquid and air as the test gas. Firstly, the experimental results on the mean liquid film thickness, the liquid droplet fraction and the interfacial shear stress in annular flows together with some flow pictures are presented to clarify the surface tension effects. From these, the followings are clarified: In the low surface tension case, the liquid film surface becomes rough, the liquid film thickness thin, the liquid droplet fraction high, and the interfacial shear stress high. Secondary, correlations in literatures for the respective parameters are tested against the present data. The test results show that no correlation for the respective parameters could predict well the present data. Thus, correlations are revised by accounting for the surface tension effects. The results of the experiments, the correlations tests and their revisions mentioned above are presented in the present paper.

  14. Global change and upward shift of treeline in the Alps: genetic consequences of pastures colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotti A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Alps global warming and change in land use, in particular the drastic reduction in cattle grazing, are causing a progressive treeline ecotone upwards shift. The colonization dynamics of woody species are modulated by high selective pressure on seedlings due to the extreme ecological conditions of this habitat. We studied the colonization dynamics of Norway spruce in a treeline plot, at the upper limit of the Paneveggio forest (Trentino, Italy. We have exhaustively sampled the study stand, collecting needle tissue from all the adults and the juveniles detected, and we have genotyped all the samples (376 with 4 SSR markers. Parentage relationships between the few adults presents in the stand (23 and the juveniles were established. Our results indicate that, in spite of extreme ecological condition of the treeline environment, local adaptations do not seem to favour local parents: only 4% of juveniles have both parents among local adult trees, while 96% of juveniles are completely or partially sired outside the sampling area. Assessing parentage relationship also allowed the estimation of relative reproductive success of local adult trees. Out of a total of 23 adult trees, 5 trees were involved in the 59% of successful reproductive events detected inside the sampling area.

  15. On the One-Dimensional Modeling of Vertical Upward Bubbly Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Peña-Monferrer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional two-fluid model approach has been traditionally used in thermal-hydraulics codes for the analysis of transients and accidents in water–cooled nuclear power plants. This paper investigates the performance of RELAP5/MOD3 predicting vertical upward bubbly flow at low velocity conditions. For bubbly flow and vertical pipes, this code applies the drift-velocity approach, showing important discrepancies with the experiments compared. Then, we use a classical formulation of the drag coefficient approach to evaluate the performance of both approaches. This is based on the critical Weber criteria and includes several assumptions for the calculation of the interfacial area and bubble size that are evaluated in this work. A more accurate drag coefficient approach is proposed and implemented in RELAP5/MOD3. Instead of using the Weber criteria, the bubble size distribution is directly considered. This allows the calculation of the interfacial area directly from the definition of Sauter mean diameter of a distribution. The results show that only the proposed approach was able to predict all the flow characteristics, in particular the bubble size and interfacial area concentration. Finally, the computational results are analyzed and validated with cross-section area average measurements of void fraction, dispersed phase velocity, bubble size, and interfacial area concentration.

  16. An assessment of void fraction correlations for vertical upward steam-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Maruthi Ramesh, N.; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Saha, D.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of sixteen void fraction correlations have been carried out using experimental void fraction data compiled from open literature for vertical upward steam-water flow. Nearly 80% of all the data pertained to natural circulation flow. This assessment showed that best prediction is obtained by Chexal et al. (1996) correlation followed by Hughmark (1965) and the Mochizuki and Ishii (1992) correlations. The Mochizuki-Ishii correlation is found to satisfy all the three limiting conditions whereas Chexal et al. (1996) correlation satisfies all the limiting conditions at moderately high mass fluxes (greater than 140 kg/m 2 s) while Hughmark correlation satisfies only one of the three limiting conditions. The available void fraction data in the open literature for steam-water two-phase flow lies predominantly in the low quality region. This is the reason why correlations like Hughmark which do not satisfy the upper limiting condition (i.e. at x=1, α=1) perform rather well in assessments. Additional work is required for the generation of high quality (greater than 40%) void fraction data. (author)

  17. Sea ice draft in the Weddell Sea, measured by upward looking sonars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrendt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented database contains time-referenced sea ice draft values from upward looking sonar (ULS measurements in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The sea ice draft data can be used to infer the thickness of the ice. They were collected during the period 1990–2008. In total, the database includes measurements from 13 locations in the Weddell Sea and was generated from more than 3.7 million measurements of sea ice draft. The files contain uncorrected raw drafts, corrected drafts and the basic parameters measured by the ULS. The measurement principle, the data processing procedure and the quality control are described in detail. To account for the unknown speed of sound in the water column above the ULS, two correction methods were applied to the draft data. The first method is based on defining a reference level from the identification of open water leads. The second method uses a model of sound speed in the oceanic mixed layer and is applied to ice draft in austral winter. Both methods are discussed and their accuracy is estimated. Finally, selected results of the processing are presented. The data can be downloaded from doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.785565.

  18. Theory and observations of upward field-aligned currents at the magnetopause boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Simon; Johnson, Jay R

    2015-11-16

    The dependence of the upward field-aligned current density ( J ‖ ) at the dayside magnetopause boundary layer is well described by a simple analytic model based on a velocity shear generator. A previous observational survey confirmed that the scaling properties predicted by the analytical model are applicable between 11 and 17 MLT. We utilize the analytic model to predict field-aligned currents using solar wind and ionospheric parameters and compare with direct observations. The calculated and observed parallel currents are in excellent agreement, suggesting that the model may be useful to infer boundary layer structures. However, near noon, where velocity shear is small, the kinetic pressure gradients and thermal currents, which are not included in the model, could make a small but significant contribution to J ‖ . Excluding data from noon, our least squares fit returns log( J ‖,max_cal ) = (0.96 ± 0.04) log( J ‖_obs ) + (0.03 ± 0.01) where J ‖,max_cal = calculated J ‖,max and J ‖_obs = observed J ‖ .

  19. Drift-flux parameters for upward gas flow in stagnant liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Murase, Michio

    1987-01-01

    The drift-flux model is widely used for gas-liquid two phase flow analysis, because it is applicable to various flow patterns and a wide range of void fractions. The drift-flux parameters for upward gas flow in stagnant liquid, however, have not been well examined. In this study, the distribution parameter C o and the drift velocity V gj for stagnant liquid were derived from the void fraction correlation and boundary conditions of drift-flux parameters, and then compared with C o and V gj for high liquid velocities. Also using the two region model where a circular flow area was divided into an inner region of cocurrent up-flow and an outer annulus region of liquid down flow, C o and V gj for stagnant liquid and for high liquid velocity were compared. The results showed that C o values for stagnant liquid were larger than values for high liquid velocity, while V gj values were almost the same for both cases. (author)

  20. Ethnic diversity and social capital in upward mobility systems: Problematizing the permeability of intra-organizational career boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkop, C.; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Ghorashi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationship between ethnic diversity, social capital, and objective career success in upward mobility systems over time. The authors conceptualize the underlying process of why intra-organizational career

  1. Education as Literacy for Freedom: Implications for Latin America and the Caribbean from an Upward Bound Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottin, Erskine S.

    The Upward Bound Project for low income youth in Florida emphasizes humanistic education rather than education based on the capitalistic model of production, consumption, and competition. The project, which can serve as a model for education in developing countries, focuses on creating self-concepts and values to counteract those of an acquisitive…

  2. Mindfulness training promotes upward spirals of positive affect and cognition : Multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory modeling analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garland, Eric L.; Geschwind, Nicole; Peeters, Frenk; Wichers, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that positive psychological processes integral to health may be energized through the self-reinforcing dynamics of an upward spiral to counter emotion dysregulation. The present study examined positive emotion-cognition interactions among individuals in partial remission from

  3. Upward continuation of Dome-C airborne gravity and comparison with GOCE gradients at orbit altitude in east Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, Hasan; Forsberg, René; Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2017-01-01

    spherical harmonic models confirmed the quality of the airborne data and that they contain more high-frequency signal than the global models. First, the airborne gravity data were upward continued to GOCE altitude to predict gravity gradients in the local North-East-Up reference frame. In this step...

  4. Self Induced Buoyant Blow Off in Upward Flame Spread on Thin Solid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael C.; T'ien, James S.; Muff, Derek E.; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Upward flame spread experiments were conducted on a thin fabric cloth consisting of 75% cotton and 25% fiberglass. The sample is sandwiched symmetrically with stainless steel plates with the exposed width varying between 2 to 8.8 cm from test to test and >1.5m tall. The bottom edge was ignited resulting in a symmetric two sided flame. For the narrower samples (. 5cm), two sided flame growth would proceed until reaching some limiting value (15-30 cm depending on sample width). Fluctuation or instability of the flame base on one side would initially become visible and then the flame base would retreat downstream and cause extinguishment on one side. Detailed examination of the still images shows that the fuel continues to vaporize from the extinguished side due to the thermally thin nature of the fuel. But, due to the remaining inert fiberglass mesh, which acts as a flashback arrestor, the extinguished side was not able to be reignited by the remaining flame. The remaining flame would then shrink in length due to the reduced heat transfer to the solid to a shorter length. The one-sided flame will spread stably with a constant speed and a constant flame length to the end of the sample. A constant length flame implies that the pyrolysis front and the burnt out fronts move at the same speed. For the wider samples (. 7cm), no one-sided extinction is observed. Two-sided flames spread all the way to the top of the sample. For these wider widths, the flames are still growing and have not reached their limiting length if it exists. Care was taken to minimize the amount of non-symmetries in the experimental configuration. Repeated tests show that blow-off can occur on either side of the sample. The flame growth is observed to be very symmetric during the growth phase and grew to significant length (>10cm) before extinction of the flame on one side. Our proposed explanation of this unusual phenomenon (i.e. stronger two ]sided flame cannot exist but weaker one-sided flame can

  5. Review of Critical Heat Flux Correlations for Upward Flow in a Vertical Thin Rectangular Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gil Sik; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    From the view point of safety, this type of fuel has higher resistance to earthquake and external impact. The cross section of coolant flow channel in the reactor core composed with the plate fuel is a thin rectangular shape. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of this thin rectangular channel are different with those of general circular rod fuel bundle flow channel. Accordingly it could be thought that the CHF correlation in a thin rectangular channel is different with that in a circular channel, for which a large number of researches on CHF prediction have been carried out. The objective of this paper is to review previous researches on CHF in a thin rectangular channel, summarize the important conclusion and propose the new simple CHF correlation, which is based on the data set under high pressure and high flow rate condition. The researches on CHF in rectangular channel have been partially carried out according to the pressure, heated surface number, heated surface wettability effect, flow driving force and flow direction conditions. From the literature researches on CHF for upward flow in a vertical thin rectangular channel, some CHF prediction methods were reviewed and compared. There is no universal correlation which can predict CHF at all conditions, but generally, Katto empirical correlation is known to be useful at high pressure and high flow rate. The new simple correlation was developed from the restricted data set, the CHF prediction capacity of which is better than that of Katto. Even though the prediction consistency of the new simple correlation is lower, MAE and RMS error decreased quite. For the more development of the new simple CHF correlation, the more advanced regression analysis method and theoretical analysis should be studied in future.

  6. On the Specification of Upward-Propagating Tides for ICON Science Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Hagan, Maura E.; England, Scott L.; Liu, Guiping; Gasperini, Federico

    2017-10-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) will provide a physics-based context for the interpretation of ICON measurements. To optimize the realism of the model simulations, ICON wind and temperature measurements near the ˜97 km lower boundary of the TIEGCM will be used to specify the upward-propagating tidal spectrum at this altitude. This will be done by fitting a set of basis functions called Hough Mode Extensions (HMEs) to 27-day mean tidal winds and temperatures between 90 and 105 km altitude and between 12 °S and 42 °N latitude on a day-by-day basis. The current paper assesses the veracity of the HME fitting methodology given the restricted latitude sampling and the UT-longitude sampling afforded by the MIGHTI instrument viewing from the ICON satellite, which will be in a circular 27° inclination orbit. These issues are investigated using the output from a reanalysis-driven global circulation model, which contains realistic variability of the important tidal components, as a mock data set. ICON sampling of the model reveals that the 27-day mean diurnal and semidiurnal tidal components replicate well the 27-day mean tidal components obtained from full synoptic sampling of the model, but the terdiurnal tidal components are not faithfully reproduced. It is also demonstrated that reconstructed tidal components based on HME fitting to the model tides between 12 °S and 42 °N latitude provide good approximations to the major tidal components expected to be encountered during the ICON mission. This is because the constraints provided by fitting both winds and temperatures over the 90-105 km height range are adequate to offset the restricted sampling in latitude. The boundary conditions provided by the methodology described herein will greatly enhance the ability of the TIEGCM to provide a physical framework for interpreting atmosphere-ionosphere coupling in ICON observations

  7. Review of Critical Heat Flux Correlations for Upward Flow in a Vertical Thin Rectangular Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gil Sik; Chang, Soon Heung

    2014-01-01

    From the view point of safety, this type of fuel has higher resistance to earthquake and external impact. The cross section of coolant flow channel in the reactor core composed with the plate fuel is a thin rectangular shape. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of this thin rectangular channel are different with those of general circular rod fuel bundle flow channel. Accordingly it could be thought that the CHF correlation in a thin rectangular channel is different with that in a circular channel, for which a large number of researches on CHF prediction have been carried out. The objective of this paper is to review previous researches on CHF in a thin rectangular channel, summarize the important conclusion and propose the new simple CHF correlation, which is based on the data set under high pressure and high flow rate condition. The researches on CHF in rectangular channel have been partially carried out according to the pressure, heated surface number, heated surface wettability effect, flow driving force and flow direction conditions. From the literature researches on CHF for upward flow in a vertical thin rectangular channel, some CHF prediction methods were reviewed and compared. There is no universal correlation which can predict CHF at all conditions, but generally, Katto empirical correlation is known to be useful at high pressure and high flow rate. The new simple correlation was developed from the restricted data set, the CHF prediction capacity of which is better than that of Katto. Even though the prediction consistency of the new simple correlation is lower, MAE and RMS error decreased quite. For the more development of the new simple CHF correlation, the more advanced regression analysis method and theoretical analysis should be studied in future

  8. Upward migration of Vesuvius magma chamber over the past 20,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaillet, B; Pichavant, M; Cioni, R

    2008-09-11

    Forecasting future eruptions of Vesuvius is an important challenge for volcanologists, as its reawakening could threaten the lives of 700,000 people living near the volcano. Critical to the evaluation of hazards associated with the next eruption is the estimation of the depth of the magma reservoir, one of the main parameters controlling magma properties and eruptive style. Petrological studies have indicated that during past activity, magma chambers were at depths between 3 and 16 km (refs 3-7). Geophysical surveys have imaged some levels of seismic attenuation, the shallowest of which lies at 8-9 km depth, and these have been tentatively interpreted as levels of preferential magma accumulation. By using experimental phase equilibria, carried out on material from four main explosive events at Vesuvius, we show here that the reservoirs that fed the eruptive activity migrated from 7-8 km to 3-4 km depth between the ad 79 (Pompeii) and ad 472 (Pollena) events. If data from the Pomici di Base event 18.5 kyr ago and the 1944 Vesuvius eruption are included, the total upward migration of the reservoir amounts to 9-11 km. The change of preferential magma ponding levels in the upper crust can be attributed to differences in the volatile content and buoyancy of ascending magmas, as well as to changes in local stress field following either caldera formation or volcano spreading. Reservoir migration, and the possible influence on feeding rates, should be integrated into the parameters used for defining expected eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius.

  9. Critical heat flux in a vertical annulus under low upward flow and near atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoesse, T.; Aritomi, Masanori; Lee, Sang-Ryoul; Kataoka, Yoshiaki; Yoshioka, Yuzuru; Chung, Moon-Ki.

    1997-01-01

    As future boiling water reactors (BWR), concepts of evolutional ABWR (ABWR-IER) and natural circulation BWR (JSBWR) have been investigated in order to reduce their construction cost and simplify their maintenance and inspection procedures. One of the promised features of the design of the evolutional ABWR is to reduce the number of internal pumps and to remove the Motor Generation (MG) sets. These design changes may induce boiling transition in the fuel rods of reactor core during a pump trip transient due to the more rapid flow coastdown characteristics than these of the present design. In addition, the understanding of critical heat flux (CHF) is one important subject to grasp safety margin during the start-up for the natural circulation BWR and to establish the rational start-up procedure in which thermo-hydraulic instabilities can be suppressed. The present study is to clarify CHF characteristics under low velocity conditions. CHF measurements were conducted in a vertical upward annulus channel composed of an inner heated rod and an outer tube made of glass. CHF data were obtained repeatedly under the condition of stable inlet flow to examine statistically their reproducibility. The flow regime was investigated from flow observation and measurement of differential pressure fluctuation. The CHF data are correlated with the flow regime transition. It was clear from the obtained flow pattern and the CHF data that the CHF behavior could be classified into specified regions by the mass flux and inlet subcooling conditions. A CHF correlation was developed and agreed with other researchers' data within acceptable error. (author)

  10. Pattern recognition techniques for horizontal and vertically upward multiphase flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arubi, Tesi I. M.; Yeung, Hoi

    2012-03-01

    The oil and gas industry need for high performing and low cost multiphase meters is ever more justified given the rapid depletion of conventional oil reserves that has led oil companies to develop smaller and marginal fields and reservoirs in remote locations and deep offshore, thereby placing great demands for compact and more cost effective solutions of on-line continuous multiphase flow measurement for well testing, production monitoring, production optimisation, process control and automation. The pattern recognition approach for clamp-on multiphase measurement employed in this study provides one means for meeting this need. High speed caesium-137 radioisotope-based densitometers were installed vertically at the top of a 50.8mm and 101.6mm riser as well as horizontally at the riser base in the Cranfield University multiphase flow test facility. A comprehensive experimental campaign comprising flow conditions typical of operating conditions found in the Petroleum Industry was conducted. The application of a single gamma densitometer unit, in conjunction with pattern recognition techniques to determine both the phase volume fractions and velocities to yield the individual phase flow rates of horizontal and vertically upward multiphase flows was investigated. The pattern recognition systems were trained to map the temporal fluctuations in the multiphase mixture density with the individual phase flow rates using statistical features extracted from the gamma counts signals as their inputs. Initial results yielded individual phase flow rate predictions to within ±5% relative error for the two phase airwater flows and ±10% for three phase air-oil-water flows data.

  11. Upward Altitudinal Shifts in Habitat Suitability of Mountain Vipers since the Last Glacial Maximum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Yousefi

    Full Text Available We determined the effects of past and future climate changes on the distribution of the Montivipera raddei species complex (MRC that contains rare and endangered viper species limited to Iran, Turkey and Armenia. We also investigated the current distribution of MRC to locate unidentified isolated populations as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of the current network of protected areas for their conservation. Present distribution of MRC was modeled based on ecological variables and model performance was evaluated by field visits. Some individuals at the newly identified populations showed uncommon morphological characteristics. The distribution map of MRC derived through modeling was then compared with the distribution of protected areas in the region. We estimated the effectiveness of the current protected area network to be 10%, which would be sufficient for conserving this group of species, provided adequate management policies and practices are employed. We further modeled the distribution of MRC in the past (21,000 years ago and under two scenarios in the future (to 2070. These models indicated that climatic changes probably have been responsible for an upward shift in suitable habitats of MRC since the Last Glacial Maximum, leading to isolation of allopatric populations. Distribution will probably become much more restricted in the future as a result of the current rate of global warming. We conclude that climate change most likely played a major role in determining the distribution pattern of MRC, restricting allopatric populations to mountaintops due to habitat alterations. This long-term isolation has facilitated unique local adaptations among MRC populations, which requires further investigation. The suitable habitat patches identified through modeling constitute optimized solutions for inclusion in the network of protected areas in the region.

  12. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  13. Prediction, analysis and solution of flow inversion phenomenon in a typical MTR reactor with upward core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din

    2010-01-01

    Research reactors of power greater than 20 MW are usually designed to be cooled with upward coolant flow direction inside the reactor core. This is mainly to prevent flow inversion problems following a pump coast down. However, in some designs and under certain operating conditions, flow inversion phenomenon is predicted. In the present work, the best-estimate Material Testing Reactors Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis program (MTRTHA) is used to simulate a typical MTR reactor behavior with upward cooling under a hypothetical case of loss of off-site power. The flow inversion phenomenon is predicted under certain decay heat and/or pool temperature values below the design values. The reactor simulation under loss of off-site power is performed for two cases namely; two-flap valves open and one flap-valve fails to open. The model results for the flow inversion phenomenon prediction is analyzed and a solution of the problem is suggested. (orig.)

  14. Simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Huang, X.-J.; Kao, Jimmy C.M.; Stabnikova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Kaolins contaminated with heavy metals, Cu and Pb, and organic compounds, p-xylene and phenanthrene, were treated with an upward electrokinetic soil remediation (UESR) process. The effects of current density, cathode chamber flushing fluid, treatment duration, reactor size, and the type of contaminants under the vertical non-uniform electric field of UESR on the simultaneous removal of the heavy metals and organic contaminants were studied. The removal efficiencies of p-xylene and phenanthrene were higher in the experiments with cells of smaller diameter or larger height, and with distilled water flow in the cathode chamber. The removal efficiency of Cu and Pb were higher in the experiments with smaller diameter or shorter height cells and 0.01 M HNO 3 solution as cathode chamber flow. In spite of different conditions for removal of heavy metals and organics, it is possible to use the upward electrokinetic soil remediation process for their simultaneous removal. Thus, in the experiments with duration of 6 days removal efficiencies of phenanthrene, p-xylene, Cu and Pb were 67%, 93%, 62% and 35%, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals from kaolin using the upward electrokinetic soil remediation process

  15. Phase distribution phenomena in upward cocurrent bubbly flows. A critical review of the experimental and theoretical works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, C.

    1992-09-01

    The most important and challenging problems in two-phase bubbly flow today are related to the physical understanding and the modeling of multidimensional phenomena such as the distribution of phases in space. We present here a critical review of the available experimental and theoretical studies in gas-liquid adiabatic and non-reactive upward bubbly flows which have been carried out to define and improve the physical models needed to close the three-dimensional two-fluid model equations. It appears that: so far, the axial development of two-phase upward bubbly flows has not been handled thoroughly. Little is known about the way the pressure gradient as well as the gas-liquid mixing conditions affect the distribution of phases, the problems related to the closing of the two-fluid model equations are far from being solved. The physical models proposed seem often to be too much complex considering how little we know about the mechanisms involved, there are still very few multidimensional numerical models whose results have been compared with experimental data on bubbly flows. The boundary conditions introduced in the codes as well as the sensitivity of the results to the parameters of the codes are never precisely stated. To bridge some of those gaps, we propose to perform an experimental and numerical study of the axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly flows in vertical pipes

  16. Openness to Experience as a Predictor and Outcome of Upward Job Changes into Managerial and Professional Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieß, Christiane; Zacher, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In industrial and organizational psychology, there is a long tradition of studying personality as an antecedent of work outcomes. Recently, however, scholars have suggested that personality characteristics may not only predict, but also change due to certain work experiences, a notion that is depicted in the dynamic developmental model (DDM) of personality and work. Upward job changes are an important part of employees’ careers and career success in particular, and we argue that these career transitions can shape personality over time. In this study, we investigate the Big Five personality characteristics as both predictors and outcomes of upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. We tested our hypotheses by applying event history analyses and propensity score matching to a longitudinal dataset collected over five years from employees in Australia. Results indicated that participants’ openness to experience not only predicted, but that changes in openness to experience also followed from upward job changes into managerial and professional positions. Our findings thus provide support for a dynamic perspective on personality characteristics in the context of work and careers. PMID:26110527

  17. Experimental detection of upward-going cosmic particles and consequences for correction of density radiography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourde, Kevin; Gibert, Dominique; Marteau, Jacques; de Bremond d'Ars, Jean; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe; Carbone, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    Muon tomography measures the flux of cosmic muons crossing geological bodies to determine their density. Three acquisitions with different sights of view were made at la soufrière de Guadeloupe. All of them show important density fluctuations and reveal the volcano phreatic system. The telescopes used to perform these measurements are exposed to noise fluxes with high intensities relative to the tiny flux of interest. We give experimental evidences ofa so far never described source of noise caused by a flux of upward-going particles. Data acquired on La soufrière of Guadeloupe and Mount Etna reveal that upward-going particles are detected only when the rear side of the telescope is exposed to a wide volume of atmosphere located below the altitude of the telescope and with a rock obstruction less than several tens of meters. Biases produced on density muon radiographies by upward-going fluxes are quantified and correction procedures are applied to radiographies of la soufrière.

  18. Modeling of bubble coalescence and disintegration in confined upward two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaodong; Kim, Seungjin; Ishii, Mamoru; Beus, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of bubble interaction mechanisms in the two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) for confined gas-liquid two-phase flow. The transport equation is applicable to bubbly, cap-turbulent, and churn-turbulent flow regimes. In the two-group IATE, bubbles are categorized into two groups: spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. Thus, two sets of equations are used to describe the generation and destruction rates of bubble number density, void fraction, and interfacial area concentration for the two groups of bubbles due to bubble expansion and compression, coalescence and disintegration, and phase change. Five major bubble interaction mechanisms are identified for the gas-liquid two-phase flow of interest, and are analytically modeled as the source/sink terms for the transport equation in the confined flow. These models include both intra-group and inter-group bubble interactions

  19. Estimate of the soil water retention curve from the sorptivity and β parameter calculated from an upward infiltration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret-Fernández, D.; Latorre, B.

    2017-01-01

    The water retention curve (θ(h)), which defines the relationship between the volumetric water content (θ) and the matric potential (h), is of paramount importance to characterize the hydraulic behaviour of soils. Because current methods to estimate θ(h) are, in general, tedious and time consuming, alternative procedures to determine θ(h) are needed. Using an upward infiltration curve, the main objective of this work is to present a method to determine the parameters of the van Genuchten (1980) water retention curve (α and n) from the sorptivity (S) and the β parameter defined in the 1D infiltration equation proposed by Haverkamp et al. (1994). The first specific objective is to present an equation, based on the Haverkamp et al. (1994) analysis, which allows describing an upward infiltration process. Secondary, assuming a known saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, calculated on a finite soil column by the Darcy's law, a numerical procedure to calculate S and β by the inverse analysis of an exfiltration curve is presented. Finally, the α and n values are numerically calculated from Ks, S and β. To accomplish the first specific objective, cumulative upward infiltration curves simulated with HYDRUS-1D for sand, loam, silt and clay soils were compared to those calculated with the proposed equation, after applying the corresponding β and S calculated from the theoretical Ks, α and n. The same curves were used to: (i) study the influence of the exfiltration time on S and β estimations, (ii) evaluate the limits of the inverse analysis, and (iii) validate the feasibility of the method to estimate α and n. Next, the θ(h) parameters estimated with the numerical method on experimental soils were compared to those obtained with pressure cells. The results showed that the upward infiltration curve could be correctly described by the modified Haverkamp et al. (1994) equation. While S was only affected by early-time exfiltration data, the β parameter had a

  20. Upward Bound: An Untapped Fountain Of Youth Wanting To Learn About Math And Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, L. C.; Svelling, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a two-phased curricula aimed at high school students in Hawaii’s Upward Bound (UB) programs. The course, called “Tour Through the Solar System”, was tested in the summer 2008-2009 programs of two of the four Hawaii UB programs. Authorized by Congress in 1965, UB is a federal program funded by the U.S. Department of Education to serve students underrepresented in higher education. Students enrolled in UB are predominantly low income, or from families in which neither parent holds a bachelor’s degree. UB programs make a measurable improvement in retaining high school students in the education pipeline in part by using innovative educational and outreach programs to spark students’ interest in learning while building academic self-confidence. Curricula developed for UB are sustainable because there are 964 programs in the United States, and U territories. Education and outreach products can be presented at regional and national meetings, which directors of the UB programs attend. Broad regulations and varied instruction formats allow curriculum developers a flexible and creative framework for developing classes. For instance, regulations stipulate that programs must provide participants with academic instruction in mathematics, laboratory sciences, composition, literature, and foreign languages in preparation for college entrance. UB meets these guidelines through school-year academic activities and a six-week summer school program. In designing our curricula the primary goals were to help students learn how to learn and encourage them to develop an interest in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math using NASA planetary data sets in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) environment. Our focus on planetary science stems from our familiarity with the data sets, our view that NASA data sets are a naturally inspirational tool to engage high school students, and its cross-disciplinary character: encompassing geology, chemistry, astronomy

  1. How Upward Moral Comparison Influences Prosocial Behavioral Intention: Examining the Mediating Role of Guilt and the Moderating Role of Moral Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been shown that exceptional good deeds exert influences on people's prosocial behavior and intention, we have known little about how common moral actions in our daily life. The present study aimed to examine how upward moral comparison influenced prosocial behavioral intention as well as to explore the mediating role of guilt and the moderating role of moral identity in the focal relationship. An experimental study was conducted with 162 Chinese undergraduates (103 women, 59 men randomly assigned to an upward moral comparison condition, an upward competence comparison condition or a control condition. Results indicated that participants in the upward moral comparison condition experienced higher levels of guilt and exhibited stronger motivation to act prosocially, relative to participants in the other two conditions. That is to say, upward moral comparison induces guilty experience, and then increases people's prosocial behavioral intention. Moreover, we have found that moral identity internalization moderates the upward moral comparison-guilt relationship, and the indirect effect of upward moral comparison on prosocial behavioral intention via guilt. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  2. How Upward Moral Comparison Influences Prosocial Behavioral Intention: Examining the Mediating Role of Guilt and the Moderating Role of Moral Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heyun; Chen, Sisi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang; Xu, Yan; Zhao, Huanhuan

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been shown that exceptional good deeds exert influences on people's prosocial behavior and intention, we have known little about how common moral actions in our daily life. The present study aimed to examine how upward moral comparison influenced prosocial behavioral intention as well as to explore the mediating role of guilt and the moderating role of moral identity in the focal relationship. An experimental study was conducted with 162 Chinese undergraduates (103 women, 59 men) randomly assigned to an upward moral comparison condition, an upward competence comparison condition or a control condition. Results indicated that participants in the upward moral comparison condition experienced higher levels of guilt and exhibited stronger motivation to act prosocially, relative to participants in the other two conditions. That is to say, upward moral comparison induces guilty experience, and then increases people's prosocial behavioral intention. Moreover, we have found that moral identity internalization moderates the upward moral comparison-guilt relationship, and the indirect effect of upward moral comparison on prosocial behavioral intention via guilt. The implications of these findings were discussed.

  3. How Upward Moral Comparison Influences Prosocial Behavioral Intention: Examining the Mediating Role of Guilt and the Moderating Role of Moral Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heyun; Chen, Sisi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang; Xu, Yan; Zhao, Huanhuan

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been shown that exceptional good deeds exert influences on people's prosocial behavior and intention, we have known little about how common moral actions in our daily life. The present study aimed to examine how upward moral comparison influenced prosocial behavioral intention as well as to explore the mediating role of guilt and the moderating role of moral identity in the focal relationship. An experimental study was conducted with 162 Chinese undergraduates (103 women, 59 men) randomly assigned to an upward moral comparison condition, an upward competence comparison condition or a control condition. Results indicated that participants in the upward moral comparison condition experienced higher levels of guilt and exhibited stronger motivation to act prosocially, relative to participants in the other two conditions. That is to say, upward moral comparison induces guilty experience, and then increases people's prosocial behavioral intention. Moreover, we have found that moral identity internalization moderates the upward moral comparison-guilt relationship, and the indirect effect of upward moral comparison on prosocial behavioral intention via guilt. The implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:28959221

  4. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The invisible minority: revisiting the debate on foreign-accented speakers and upward mobility in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomolafe, Soji

    2013-01-01

    Of some of the major types of discrimination, the one that gets the least attention is national origin discrimination and in particular, accent discrimination, especially when it comes to upward mobility in the workplace. Yet, unlike other forms of discrimination, accent discrimination is rarely a subject of any robust public debate. This paper is a modest attempt to help establish a framework for understanding the relative neglect to which the discourse on accent discrimination has been subjected vis-a-vis the overall national debate on diversity. Hopefully, in the process, it will stimulate a more robust conversation on the plight of foreign-accented speakers.

  6. Upward Trend in Catalytic Efficiency of Rare-Earth Triflate Catalysts in Friedel-Crafts Aromatic Sulfonylation Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Fritz; Le, Thach Ngoc; Nguyen, Vo Thu An

    2014-01-01

    A series of 14 lanthanide (Ln) triflates were investigated as sustainable catalysts for aromatic sulfonylation reactions under microwave irradiation. The catalytic efficiency of the early triflates La(OTf)3–Eu(OTf)3 is good for long irradiation times. For the later lanthanides, yields reaching over...... 90 % were achieved for short irradiation periods. This was the case especially for Tm(OTf)3, Yb(OTf)3, and Lu(OTf)3, of which Yb(OTf)3 was the most efficient. The upward trend in catalytic efficiency therefore correlates with the lanthanide sequence in the periodic table. The results can be explained...

  7. An improved model to determine the inception of positive upward leader–streamer system considering the leader propagation during dark period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shijun; He Junjia; Chen Weijiang

    2013-01-01

    Stem–leader transition and front-streamer inception are two essential conditions for the inception of positive upward leader–streamer system (LSS). Previous models have not considered the initial-leader propagation during dark period and have not been verified systematically. In this paper, a series of positive upward discharge simulation experiments was designed and carried out. Characteristic parameters of the discharge process related to the inception of positive upward LSS, namely, the first-corona inception voltage, the first-corona charge, the dark period, and the LSS inception voltage, were obtained. By comparing these experiment results with simulation results calculated using previous models, it was found that it is improper to assume that the length of the initial leader is a fixed value. Finally, an improved inception model of positive upward LSS considering the leader propagation during dark period was developed and verified with experiment results.

  8. Dry-out heat fluxes of falling film and low-mass flux upward-flow in heated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Teruyuki; Miyota, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    Dry-out heat fluxes were investigated experimentally for a film flow falling down on the inner surface of vertical heated-tubes and for a low mass flux forced-upward flow in the tubes using R 113. This work followed the study on those for a two-phase natural circulation system. For the falling film boiling, flow state observation tests were also performed, where dry-patches appearing and disappearing repeatedly were observed near the exit end of the heated section at the dry-out heat flux conditions. Relation between the dry-out heat flux and the liquid film flow rate is analyzed. The dry-out heat fluxes of the low mass flux upflow are expressed well by the correlation proposed in the previous work. The relation for the falling film boiling shows a similar trend to that for the upflow boiling, however, the dry-out heat fluxes of the falling film are much lower, approximately one third, than those of the upward flow. (author)

  9. Mixed convection heat transfer to carbon dioxide flowing upward and downward in a vertical tube and an annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Yoon Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Experimental results of heat transfer at a supercritical pressure for a tube with an inner diameter of 4.57 mm and a corresponding annular channel (8 mm x 10 mm, 1 mm gap) were compared each other. → Effect of various parameters such as pressure, flow direction, diameter, channel shape, was investigated. → Existing correlation for supercritical heat transfer were evaluated against the experimental data. → Some unusual characteristics of supercritical heat transfer, such as overshoot and non-monotonic behavior against buoyancy parameter, were discussed. → New correlations were proposed based on the experimental data. - Abstract: This paper addresses three main subjects in supercritical heat transfer: (1) difference in thermal characteristics between upward and downward flows; (2) effect of simulating flow channel shape; (3) evaluation of the existing supercritical heat transfer correlations. To achieve the objectives, a series of experiments was carried out with CO 2 flowing upward and downward in a circular tube with an inner diameter of 4.57 mm and an annular channel created between a tube with an inner diameter of 10 mm and a heater rod with an outer diameter of 8 mm. The working fluid, CO 2 , has been regarded as an appropriate modeling fluid for water, primarily because of their similarity in property variations against reduced temperatures. The mass flux ranged from 400 to 1200 kg/m 2 s. The heat flux was varied between 30 and 140 kW/m 2 so that the pseudo-critical point was located in the middle of the heated section at a given mass flux. The measurements were made at a pressure of 8.12 MPa, which corresponds to 110% of the critical pressure of CO 2 . The difference between the upward and downward flows was observed clearly. The heat transfer deterioration was observed in the downward flow through an annular subchannel over the region beyond the critical point. Several well-known correlations were evaluated against the experimental

  10. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation), dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution) and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state). The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem-focused coping will most

  11. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schalk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation, dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state. The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem

  12. Actively Coping with Violation: Exploring Upward Dissent Patterns in Functional, Dysfunctional, and Deserted Psychological Contract End States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René; De Ruiter, Melanie; Van Loon, Joost; Kuijpers, Evy; Van Regenmortel, Tine

    2018-01-01

    Recently, scholars have emphasized the importance of examining how employees cope with psychological contract violation and how the coping process contributes to psychological contract violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Recent work points to the important role of problem-focused coping. Yet, to date, problem-focused coping strategies have not been conceptualized on a continuum from constructive to destructive strategies. Consequently, potential differences in the use of specific types of problem-focused coping strategies and the role these different strategies play in the violation resolution process has not been explored. In this study, we stress the importance of focusing on different types of problem-focused coping strategies. We explore how employee upward dissent strategies, conceptualized as different forms of problem-focused coping, contribute to violation resolution and post-violation psychological contracts. Two sources of data were used. In-depth interviews with supervisors of a Dutch car lease company provided 23 case descriptions of employee-supervisor interactions after a psychological contract violation. Moreover, a database with descriptions of Dutch court sentences provided eight case descriptions of employee-organization interactions following a perceived violation. Based on these data sources, we explored the pattern of upward dissent strategies employees used over time following a perceived violation. We distinguished between functional (thriving and reactivation), dysfunctional (impairment and dissolution) and deserted psychological contract end states and explored whether different dissent patterns over time differentially contributed to the dissent outcome (i.e., psychological contract end state). The results of our study showed that the use of problem-focused coping is not as straightforward as suggested by the post-violation model. While the post-violation model suggests that problem-focused coping will most

  13. A Heat Transfer Correlation in a Vertical Upward Flow of CO{sub 2} at Supercritical Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Heat transfer data has been collected in the heat transfer test loop, named SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), in KAERI. The facility primarily aims at the generation of heat transfer data in the flow conditions and geometries relevant to SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). The produced data will aid the thermohydraulic design of a reactor core. The loop uses carbon dioxide, and later the results will be scaled to the water flows. The heat transfer data has been collected for a vertical upward flow in a circular tube with varying mass fluxes, heat fluxes, and operating pressures. The results are compared with the existing correlations and a new correlation is proposed by fine-tuning the one of the existing correlations.

  14. Multivariate multiscale complex network analysis of vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow in a small diameter pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Dang, Wei-Dong; Yu, Jia-Liang; Jin, Ning-De

    2016-02-02

    High water cut and low velocity vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow is a typical complex system with the features of multiscale, unstable and non-homogenous. We first measure local flow information by using distributed conductance sensor and then develop a multivariate multiscale complex network (MMCN) to reveal the dispersed oil-in-water local flow behavior. Specifically, we infer complex networks at different scales from multi-channel measurements for three typical vertical oil-in-water flow patterns. Then we characterize the generated multiscale complex networks in terms of network clustering measure. The results suggest that the clustering coefficient entropy from the MMCN not only allows indicating the oil-in-water flow pattern transition but also enables to probe the dynamical flow behavior governing the transitions of vertical oil-water two-phase flow.

  15. Mechanism of jet-flutter: self-induced oscillation of an upward plane jet impinging on a free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Iida, Masao

    1998-01-01

    An upward plane jet impinging on the free surface of a shallow rectangular tank oscillates without any external periodic force. The movement of the impinging point leaves additional fluid mass on the surface behind the point, which does not balance the momentum supplied by the jet. The imbalance generates propagating waves, and a surface level gap appears there. The level gap is flattened not by the waves but by the vertical motion of water columns. The imbalance causes lateral displacement of jet, which in turn causes the imbalance, forming a positive feedback loop. The above model explains well why the frequency corresponds to that of water column oscillation in a partitioned tank with the same water depth, and the oscillation region has a wide range above a certain velocity limit determined by the water depth. (author)

  16. Upward Shift and Steepening of the Blood Pressure Response to Exercise in Hypertensive Subjects at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Sergio; Faini, Andrea; Baratto, Claudia; Bilo, Grzegorz; Macarlupu, Josè Luis; Lang, Morin; Revera, Miriam; Lombardi, Carolina; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-06-09

    Acute exposure to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia induces a blood pressure rise in hypertensive humans, both at rest and during exercise. It is unclear whether this phenomenon reflects specific blood pressure hyperreactivity or rather an upward shift of blood pressure levels. We aimed at evaluating the extent and rate of blood pressure rise during exercise in hypertensive subjects acutely exposed to high altitude, and how these alterations can be counterbalanced by antihypertensive treatment. Fifty-five subjects with mild hypertension, double-blindly randomized to placebo or to a fixed-dose combination of an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan 80 mg) and a calcium-channel blocker (nifedipine slow release 30 mg), performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test at sea level and after the first night's stay at 3260 m altitude. High-altitude exposure caused both an 8 mm Hg upward shift ( P blood pressure/oxygen consumption relationship during exercise, independent of treatment. Telmisartan/nifedipine did not modify blood pressure reactivity to exercise (blood pressure/oxygen consumption slope), but downward shifted ( P blood pressure and oxygen consumption by 26 mm Hg, both at sea level and at altitude. Muscle oxygen delivery was not influenced by altitude exposure but was higher on telmisartan/nifedipine than on placebo ( P blood pressure response to exercise. The effect of the combination of telmisartan/nifedipine slow release outweighed these changes and was associated with better muscle oxygen delivery. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01830530. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. A rapid upward shift of a forest ecotone during 40 years of warming in the Green Mountains of Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckage, Brian; Osborne, Ben; Gavin, Daniel G; Pucko, Carolyn; Siccama, Thomas; Perkins, Timothy

    2008-03-18

    Detecting latitudinal range shifts of forest trees in response to recent climate change is difficult because of slow demographic rates and limited dispersal but may be facilitated by spatially compressed climatic zones along elevation gradients in montane environments. We resurveyed forest plots established in 1964 along elevation transects in the Green Mountains (Vermont) to examine whether a shift had occurred in the location of the northern hardwood-boreal forest ecotone (NBE) from 1964 to 2004. We found a 19% increase in dominance of northern hardwoods from 70% in 1964 to 89% in 2004 in the lower half of the NBE. This shift was driven by a decrease (up to 76%) in boreal and increase (up to 16%) in northern hardwood basal area within the lower portions of the ecotone. We used aerial photographs and satellite imagery to estimate a 91- to 119-m upslope shift in the upper limits of the NBE from 1962 to 2005. The upward shift is consistent with regional climatic change during the same period; interpolating climate data to the NBE showed a 1.1 degrees C increase in annual temperature, which would predict a 208-m upslope movement of the ecotone, along with a 34% increase in precipitation. The rapid upward movement of the NBE indicates little inertia to climatically induced range shifts in montane forests; the upslope shift may have been accelerated by high turnover in canopy trees that provided opportunities for ingrowth of lower elevation species. Our results indicate that high-elevation forests may be jeopardized by climate change sooner than anticipated.

  18. HYPE: a WFD tool for the identification of significant and sustained upward trends in groundwater time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Croiset, Nolwenn; Laurence, Gourcy

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2006/11/CE (WFD) on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration asks Member States to identify significant and sustained upward trends in all bodies or groups of bodies of groundwater that are characterised as being at risk in accordance with Annex II to Directive 2000/60/EC. The Directive indicates that the procedure for the identification of significant and sustained upward trends must be based on a statistical method. Moreover, for significant increases of concentrations of pollutants, trend reversals are identified as being necessary. This means to be able to identify significant trend reversals. A specific tool, named HYPE, has been developed in order to help stakeholders working on groundwater trend assessment. The R encoded tool HYPE provides statistical analysis of groundwater time series. It follows several studies on the relevancy of the use of statistical tests on groundwater data series (Lopez et al., 2011) and other case studies on the thematic (Bourgine et al., 2012). It integrates the most powerful and robust statistical tests for hydrogeological applications. HYPE is linked to the French national database on groundwater data (ADES). So monitoring data gathered by the Water Agencies can be directly processed. HYPE has two main modules: - a characterisation module, which allows to visualize time series. HYPE calculates the main statistical characteristics and provides graphical representations; - a trend module, which identifies significant breaks, trends and trend reversals in time series, providing result table and graphical representation (cf figure). Additional modules are also implemented to identify regional and seasonal trends and to sample time series in a relevant way. HYPE has been used successfully in 2012 by the French Water Agencies to satisfy requirements of the WFD, concerning characterization of groundwater bodies' qualitative status and evaluation of the risk of non-achievement of

  19. Identification of retinal ganglion cells and their projections involved in central transmission of information about upward and downward image motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Yonehara

    Full Text Available The direction of image motion is coded by direction-selective (DS ganglion cells in the retina. Particularly, the ON DS ganglion cells project their axons specifically to terminal nuclei of the accessory optic system (AOS responsible for optokinetic reflex (OKR. We recently generated a knock-in mouse in which SPIG1 (SPARC-related protein containing immunoglobulin domains 1-expressing cells are visualized with GFP, and found that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the medial terminal nucleus (MTN, the principal nucleus of the AOS, are comprised of SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells distributed in distinct mosaic patterns in the retina. Here we examined light responses of these two subtypes of MTN-projecting cells by targeted electrophysiological recordings. SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells respond preferentially to upward motion and downward motion, respectively, in the visual field. The direction selectivity of SPIG1+ ganglion cells develops normally in dark-reared mice. The MTN neurons are activated by optokinetic stimuli only of the vertical motion as shown by Fos expression analysis. Combination of genetic labeling and conventional retrograde labeling revealed that axons of SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells project to the MTN via different pathways. The axon terminals of the two subtypes are organized into discrete clusters in the MTN. These results suggest that information about upward and downward image motion transmitted by distinct ON DS cells is separately processed in the MTN, if not independently. Our findings provide insights into the neural mechanisms of OKR, how information about the direction of image motion is deciphered by the AOS.

  20. Cover Image Innate or learned preference for upward-facing flowers?: implications for the costs of pendent flowers from experiments on captive bumble bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator preferences for phenotypic characters, including floral orientation, can affect plant reproductive success. For example, hawkmoths and syrphid flies prefer upward- over downward-facing flowers in field experiments. Although such preferences suggest a cost of pendent flowers in terms of pollinator attraction, we cannot rule out the possibility that the preferences have been affected by prior experience: pollinators might choose the same type of flowers to which they have already become accustomed. To test for innate preference, we observed bumble bees foraging on an array of upward- and downward-facing artificial flowers. Without any prior experience with vertical flowers, 91.7% bees chose an upward-facing flower at the very first visit. In addition to this innate preference, we also found that the preference was strengthened by experience, which suggests that the bees learned upward-facing flowers were easier to handle. Although bumble bees may concentrate on pendent flowers in the field, such learned preferences are evidently imposed on a template of upward-facing preference. Because bee-pollinated pendent flowers face particular difficulties in attracting visits, therefore, we expect them to compensate through other means, such as greater floral rewards.

  1. Investigation of forced convection heat transfer of supercritical pressure water in a vertically upward internally ribbed tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianguo; Li Huixiong; Guo Bin; Yu Shuiqing; Zhang Yuqian; Chen Tingkuan

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, the forced convection heat transfer characteristics of water in a vertically upward internally ribbed tube at supercritical pressures were investigated experimentally. The six-head internally ribbed tube is made of SA-213T12 steel with an outer diameter of 31.8 mm and a wall thickness of 6 mm and the mean inside diameter of the tube is measured to be 17.6 mm. The experimental parameters were as follows. The pressure at the inlet of the test section varied from 25.0 to 29.0 MPa, and the mass flux was from 800 to 1200 kg/(m 2 s), and the inside wall heat flux ranged from 260 to 660 kW/m 2 . According to experimental data, the effects of heat flux and pressure on heat transfer of supercritical pressure water in the vertically upward internally ribbed tube were analyzed, and the characteristics and mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement, and also that of heat transfer deterioration, were also discussed in the so-called large specific heat region. The drastic changes in thermophysical properties near the pseudocritical points, especially the sudden rise in the specific heat of water at supercritical pressures, may result in the occurrence of the heat transfer enhancement, while the covering of the heat transfer surface by fluids lighter and hotter than the bulk fluid makes the heat transfer deteriorated eventually and explains how this lighter fluid layer forms. It was found that the heat transfer characteristics of water at supercritical pressures were greatly different from the single-phase convection heat transfer at subcritical pressures. There are three heat transfer modes of water at supercritical pressures: (1) normal heat transfer, (2) deteriorated heat transfer with low HTC but high wall temperatures in comparison to the normal heat transfer, and (3) enhanced heat transfer with high HTC and low wall temperatures in comparison to the normal heat transfer. It was also found that the heat transfer deterioration at supercritical pressures was

  2. Experimental investigation on flow patterns of gas-liquid two-phase upward flow through packed channel with spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nan; Sun Zhongning; Zhao Zhongnan

    2011-01-01

    Experiments of visualized two-phase upward flow were conducted in the packed channel, which filled with 3, 5, 8 mm in diameter of glass sphere respectively. The gas superficial velocity ranges from 0.005 to 1.172 m/s. The liquid superficial velocity ranges from 0.004 to 0.093 m/s. Four representative flow patterns were observed as bubbly flow, cluster flow, liquid-pulse flow and churn-pulse flow, and corresponding flow pattern maps were also presented. It is found that the pulse flow region is dominant. The comparisons of flow pattern map between packed channel and non-packed channel show that the bubbly flow region in packed channel is narrower than that of non-packed channel due to the packing. The comparisons of flow pattern maps for three different packing sizes show that the cluster flow region expands with the increase of the packing diameter. In the low liquid superficial velocity, the cluster flow directly changes to churn-pulse flow in the packed channel with 8 mm packing. (authors)

  3. Churn-annular flow pattern transition in a vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in various conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Tadanobu; Asano, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Void fraction was measured by neutron radiography for a vertical upward gas-water two-phase flow in a concentric annular tube with and with out a spacer, 4x4 rod bundle with and without a spacer and a tight rod bundle with and without a wrapping wire for various gas and liquid flow rates. The flow patterns of these two-phase flows were determined by the Mishima-Ishii flow pattern map and void fraction was calculated by the Ishii's drift flux model. The predicted values were compared with the experimental results. The void fraction was well predicted by the Mishima-Ishii flow pattern map and the Ishii's drift flux model except the annular flow region with void fraction lower than 0.8 for conduits with small equivalent diameter. A new churn-annular flow pattern transition condition of the void fraction equal to 0.8 was added. The void fraction for the present experimental condition was successful predicted with the new transition model. (author)

  4. Dryout-type critical heat flux in vertical upward annular flow: effects of entrainment rate, initial entrained fraction and diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zan; Wadekar, Vishwas; Wang, Chenglong; Sunden, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the effects of liquid entrainment, initial entrained fraction and tube diameter on liquid film dryout in vertical upward annular flow for flow boiling. Entrainment and deposition rates of droplets were included in mass conservation equations to estimate the local liquid film mass flux in annular flow, and the critical vapor quality at dryout conditions. Different entrainment rate correlations were evaluated using flow boiling data of water and organic liquids including n-pentane, iso-octane and R134a. Effect of the initial entrained fraction (IEF) at the churn-to-annular flow transition was also investigated. A transitional Boiling number was proposed to separate the IEF-sensitive region at high Boiling numbers and the IEF-insensitive region at low Boiling numbers. Besides, the diameter effect on dryout vapor quality was studied. The dryout vapor quality increases with decreasing tube diameter. It needs to be pointed out that the dryout characteristics of submillimeter channels might be different because of different mechanisms of dryout, i.e., drying of liquid film underneath long vapor slugs and flow boiling instabilities.

  5. Study of void fraction and mixing of immiscible liquids in a pool configuration by an upward gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.C.; Corradini, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, investigations are performed to study the mixing between immiscible liquids in a pool configuration due to an upward gas flow. A water-R113 system is sued in the bubbly/churn-turbulent regimes to determine the effects of the unagitated pool depth on layer mixing. The superficial gas velocity at which full mixing is attained is observed to increase with the pool depth, although it is concluded that this is a weak dependency. Mixing in the churn-turbulent regime is studied with Wood's metal-water and Wood's metal-silicone fluid (100 cS) as pairs of fluids. Additional past mixing data from six other fluids are also included in the data base. A criterion is proposed to determine if two liquids will entrain in bubbly or churn-turbulent flow. Correlations are derived that, for a set of given conditions, allow prediction of the mixing state (mixed or segregated) of a system. Because of the indirect method of measuring the mixed layer thickness, pool void fraction experiments are also performed. For the case of water and R113, the effect of unagitated pool depth on the void fraction is studied

  6. Observations and Modeling of Thermal Structure in the Lower Atmosphere and the Upward Propagation of Tides into the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. J.; Kahre, M.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal tides are the atmospheric response to diurnally varying thermal forcing resulting from radiative and convective heat transfer from the surface and from aerosol and gaseous heating within the atmosphere. Tides include sun-synchronous (migrating) waves driven in response to solar heating and additional non-migrating waves resulting from longitudinal variations in the distributions of topography, dust aerosol and water ice clouds. The systematic spatial mapping of temperature over 5 Mars years by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) has yielded a well-defined climatology of seasonally-varying temperature structures in the lower atmosphere, from 5 to 80 km. Tide theory and Mars global circulation model (MGCM) simulations are a fruitful framework for relating temperature observations to thermal forcing by aerosol fields [1]. The analysis of density and temperature fields derived from MAVEN IUVS and NGIMS observations have revealed the presence of predominantly zonal wave 2 and 3 features at altitudes of 100-170 km that are almost certainly non-migrating tides propagating upward from the lower atmosphere [2,3]. In this presentation we will use the MCS climatology and MGCM simulations to relate the density variations seen by MAVEN with the seasonally varying tide activity in the lower atmosphere. Large amplitude perturbations in density are most sensitive to the tide components with the longest vertical wavelengths in temperature, which are well resolved in MCS observations.

  7. Opportunities for making ends meet and upward mobility: differences in organizational deprivation across urban and suburban poor neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexandra K; Wallace, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Given the recent rise of poverty in U.S. suburbs, this study asks: What poor neighborhoods are most disadvantageous, those in the city or those in the suburbs? Building on recent urban sociological work demonstrating the importance of neighborhood organizations for the poor, we are concerned with one aspect of disadvantage—the lack of availability of organizational resources oriented toward the poor. By breaking down organizations into those that promote mobility versus those that help individuals meet their daily subsistence needs, we seek to explore potential variations in the type of disadvantage that may exist.Methods. We test whether poor urban or suburban neighborhoods are more likely to be organizationally deprived by breaking down organizations into three types: hardship organizations, educational organizations, and employment organizations. We use data from the 2000 U.S. County Business Patterns and the 2000 U.S. Census and test neighborhood deprivation using logistic regression models.Results. We find that suburban poor neighborhoods are more likely to be organizationally deprived than are urban poor neighborhoods, especially with respect to organizations that promote upward mobility. Interesting racial and ethnic composition factors shape this more general finding.Conclusion. Our findings suggest that if a poor individual is to live in a poor neighborhood, with respect to access to organizational resources, he or she would be better off living in the central city. Suburban residence engenders isolation from organizations that will help meet one's daily needs and even more so from those offering opportunities for mobility.

  8. Moving inwards, moving outwards, moving upwards: the role of spirituality during the early stages of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinton, J; Bain, V; Ingram, S; Heys, S D

    2011-09-01

    The paper reflects on a study which explored the role of spirituality in the lives of women during the first year after being diagnosed with breast cancer. The study utilised a qualitative method (hermeneutic phenomenology) designed to provide rich and thick understanding of women's experiences of breast cancer and to explore possible ways in which spirituality may, or may not, be beneficial in enabling coping and enhancing quality of life. The paper draws on the thinking of David Hay and Viktor Frankl to develop a model of spirituality that includes, but is not defined by, religion and that has the possibility to facilitate effective empirical enquiry. It outlines a threefold movement - inwards, outwards and upwards - that emerged from in-depth interviews with women who have breast cancer. This framework captures something of the spiritual movement that women went through on their cancer journeys and offers some pointers and possibilities for better and more person-centred caring approaches that include recognition of the spiritual dimension of women's experiences for the management of those with breast cancer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Mud extrusion and ring-fault gas seepage - upward branching fluid discharge at a deep-sea mud volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loher, M; Pape, T; Marcon, Y; Römer, M; Wintersteller, P; Praeg, D; Torres, M; Sahling, H; Bohrmann, G

    2018-04-19

    Submarine mud volcanoes release sediments and gas-rich fluids at the seafloor via deeply-rooted plumbing systems that remain poorly understood. Here the functioning of Venere mud volcano, on the Calabrian accretionary prism in ~1,600 m water depth is investigated, based on multi-parameter hydroacoustic and visual seafloor data obtained using ship-borne methods, ROVs, and AUVs. Two seepage domains are recognized: mud breccia extrusion from a summit, and hydrocarbon venting from peripheral sites, hosting chemosynthetic ecosystems and authigenic carbonates indicative of long-term seepage. Pore fluids in freshly extruded mud breccia (up to 13 °C warmer than background sediments) contained methane concentrations exceeding saturation by 2.7 times and chloride concentrations up to five times lower than ambient seawater. Gas analyses indicate an underlying thermogenic hydrocarbon source with potential admixture of microbial methane during migration along ring faults to the peripheral sites. The gas and pore water analyses point to fluids sourced deep (>3 km) below Venere mud volcano. An upward-branching plumbing system is proposed to account for co-existing mud breccia extrusion and gas seepage via multiple surface vents that influence the distribution of seafloor ecosystems. This model of mud volcanism implies that methane-rich fluids may be released during prolonged phases of moderate activity.

  10. A study on the upward and downward facing pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of graphene-modified surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Ji Min

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene, carbon in two dimensions, were highlighted as a good heat transfer materials, according to its high thermal conductivity. Lateral conduction and water absorption into the structure helped graphene films to inhibit the formation of hot spots, which means increasing of critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient (BHTC) performances. In this study, we report a promising increase of CHF and BHTC results with 2D graphene films. Furthermore, we tried to observe bubble behavior via high-speed visualization to investigate a relationship between bubble behavior and pool boiling performances in downward facing boiling. The effect of graphene film coating on the pool boiling performances of upward and downward facing heater surface were examined. 2D- and 3D- graphene film showed good enhancement results on the CHF (by 111% and 60%) and BHTC (by 40% and 20-25%) performances. Bubble behavior change was significant factor on the CHF and BHTC performances in downward facing boiling. The amount of evaporation heat flux was calculated from the velocity, bubble diameter, frequency, orientation angle and superheat that the post-products of the high-speed visualization

  11. CFD modelling and validation of upward bubbly flow in an adiabatic vertical pipe using the quadrature method of moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña-Monferrer, C.; Passalacqua, A.; Chiva, S.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A population balance equation solved with QMOM approximation is implemented in OpenFOAM. • Available models for interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence are analyzed. • A vertical pipe flow is simulated for different bubbly flow conditions. • Two-phase flow characteristics in vertical pipes are properly predicted. - Abstract: An Eulerian–Eulerian approach was investigated to model adiabatic bubbly flow with CFD techniques. In the framework of the OpenFOAM"® software, a two-fluid model solver was modified to include a population balance equation, solved with the quadrature method of moments approximation to predict upward bubbly flow in vertical pipes considering the polydisperse nature of two-phase flow. Some progress have been made recently solving population balance equations in OpenFOAM"® and this research aims to extend its application to the case of vertical pipes under different conditions of liquid and gas velocities. In order to test the solver for nuclear applications, interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence models were included to provide to this solver the capability to correctly predict the behavior of the continuous and disperse phases. Two-phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and liquid are used to validate the model and its implementation. Radial profiles of void fraction, gas and liquid velocities, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity are compared to the computational results. These results are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, showing the capability of the solver to predict two-phase flow characteristics.

  12. Heat transfer to sub- and supercritical water flowing upward in a vertical tube at low mass fluxes: numerical analysis and experimental validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odu, Samuel Obarinu; Koster, P.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Heat transfer to supercritical water (SCW) flowing upward in a vertical heated tube at low mass fluxes (G ≤ 20 kg/m2 s) has been numerically investigated in COMSOL Multiphysics and validated with experimental data. The turbulence models, essential to describing local turbulence, in COMSOL have been

  13. The multiplier effect : how the accumulation of cultural and social capital explains steep upward social mobility of children of low-educated immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, Maurice; Schneider, Jens; Keskiner, Elif; Lelie, Frans

    2017-01-01

    We introduce what we have coined the multiplier effect. We explain the steep upward mobility of children of low-educated immigrants by studying how they overcome obstacles on their regular pathway, via alternative routes or through loopholes in the education and labour market system. The idea of the

  14. Prediction of the critical heat flux for saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gil Sik; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A study, on the theoretical method to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) of saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels, has been conducted. For the assessment of this CHF prediction method, 608 experimental data were selected from the previous researches, in which the heated sections were uniformly heated from both wide surfaces under the high pressure condition over 41 bar. For this purpose, representative previous liquid film dryout (LFD) models for circular channels were reviewed by using 6058 points from the KAIST CHF data bank. This shows that it is reasonable to define the initial condition of quality and entrainment fraction at onset of annular flow (OAF) as the transition to annular flow regime and the equilibrium value, respectively, and the prediction error of the LFD model is dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive equations of droplet deposition and entrainment. In the modified Levy model, the CHF data are predicted with standard deviation (SD) of 14.0% and root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.1%. Meanwhile, in the present LFD model, which is based on the constitutive equations developed by Okawa et al., the entire data are calculated with SD of 17.1% and RMSE of 17.3%. Because of its qualitative prediction trend and universal calculation convergence, the present model was finally selected as the best LFD model to predict the CHF for narrow rectangular channels. For the assessment of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels, effective 284 data were selected. By using the present LFD model, these data are predicted with RMSE of 22.9% with the dryout criterion of zero-liquid film flow, but RMSE of 18.7% with rivulet formation model. This shows that the prediction error of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels is similar with that for circular channels.

  15. Void fraction and interfacial velocity in gas-liquid upward two-phase flow across tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, T.; Tomomatsu, K.; Takamatsu, H.; Nishikawa, H.

    1997-01-01

    Tube failures due to flow-induced vibration are a major problem in heat exchangers and many studies on the problem of such vibration have been carried out so far. Most studies however, have not focused on two-phase flow behavior in tube bundles, but have concentrated mainly on tube vibration behavior like fluid damping, fluid elastic instability and so on. Such studies are not satisfactory for understanding the design of heat exchangers. Tube vibration behavior is very complicated, especially in the case of gas-liquid two-phase flow, so it is necessary to investigate two-phase flow behavior as well as vibration behavior before designing heat exchangers. This paper outlines the main parameters that characterize two-phase behavior, such as void fraction and interfacial velocity. The two-phase flow analyzed here is gas-liquid upward flow across a horizontal tube bundle. The fluids tested were HCFC-123 and steam-water. HCFC-123 stands for Hydrochlorofluorocarbon. Its chemical formula is CHCl 2 CF 3 , which has liquid and gas densities of 1335 and 23.9 kg/m 3 at a pressure of 0.40 MPa and 1252 and 45.7 kg/m 3 at a pressure of 0.76 MPa. The same model tube bundle was used in the two tests covered in this paper, to examine the similarity law of two-phase flow behavior in tube bundles using HCFC-123 and steam-water two-phase flow. We also show numerical simulation results for the two fluid models in this paper. We do not deal with vibration behavior and the relationship between vibration behavior and two-phase flow behavior. (author)

  16. Electrical Resistivity Tomography Reveals Upward Redistribution of Soil-Water by Coyote Brush in a Shrub-Grassland Ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J. E.; Schulz, M. S.; Lambrecht, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Species imbalance within many California plant assemblages may arise due to more intense wildfires as well as climate warming. Given this, coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis DC), a native evergreen shrub known as a ready colonizer of disturbed soil, may become more dominant. While prolonged spring soil moisture is required for seedling establishment, 1+ year-old coyote brush can withstand low soil water potentials (-1.2 MPa). Beyond this, little is known about its soil-water dynamics. Hydraulic redistribution of water within the soil profile by plant roots has been established in numerous species in the past 20 years. Recent quantification of the water quantity re-distributed by root systems are beginning to provide detail that could inform ET, weathering, and carbon cycling models. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been used to study soil hydraulics in natural as well as cropland settings. This study is the first known to use ERT to investigate hydraulic redistribution in coyote brush. One mid-size shrub surrounded by open grassland was selected at the study site, located on a coastal marine terrace west of Santa Cruz, CA. The soil profile, previously characterized with ERT and auger-based soil-water sampling, includes a clay-rich B horizon and is texturally non-uniform due to bioturbation to 0.6 meter. The 12-m ERT survey transect had 48 semi-permanent electrodes, with the 4-m wide shrub canopy at probes 16 to 32. Five repeats of evening and morning surveys were conducted. Heterogeneous texture and severe soil drying necessitated qualitative comparison across time. Overnight resistivity changes using differences plots of the modelled data revealed increased moisture beneath the shrub canopy during the night. Areas beyond the canopy—presumably outside the root zone—experienced variable overnight changes, with moisture increasing in the clay-rich horizon. Preliminary analysis suggests that coyote brush roots redistribute water upward within the soil

  17. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in upward flows of supercritical water in circular tubes and tight fuel rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jue; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu Jie; Yoo, Jaewoon

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer in upward flows of supercritical water in circular tubes and in tight fuel rod bundles is numerically investigated by using the commercial CFD code STAR-CD 3.24. The objective is to have more understandings about the phenomena happening in supercritical water and for designs of supercritical water cooled reactors. Some turbulence models are selected to carry out numerical simulations and the results are compared with experimental data and other correlations to find suitable models to predict heat transfer in supercritical water. The comparisons are not only in the low bulk temperature region, but also in the high bulk temperature region. The two-layer model (Hassid and Poreh) gives a better prediction to the heat transfer than other models, and the standard k-ε high Re model with the standard wall function also shows an acceptable predicting capability. Three-dimensional simulations are carried out in sub-channels of tight square lattice and triangular lattice fuel rod bundles at supercritical pressure. Results show that there is a strong non-uniformity of the circumferential distribution of the cladding surface temperature, in the square lattice bundle with a small pitch-to-diameter ratio (P/D). However, it does not occur in the triangular lattice bundle with a small P/D. It is found that this phenomenon is caused by the large non-uniformity of the flow area in the cross-section of sub-channels. Some improved designs are numerically studied and proved to be effective to avoid the large circumferential temperature gradient at the cladding surface

  18. CFD modelling and validation of upward bubbly flow in an adiabatic vertical pipe using the quadrature method of moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Monferrer, C., E-mail: cmonfer@upv.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain); Passalacqua, A., E-mail: albertop@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chiva, S., E-mail: schiva@emc.uji.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, 12080 Castelló de la Plana (Spain); Muñoz-Cobo, J.L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A population balance equation solved with QMOM approximation is implemented in OpenFOAM. • Available models for interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence are analyzed. • A vertical pipe flow is simulated for different bubbly flow conditions. • Two-phase flow characteristics in vertical pipes are properly predicted. - Abstract: An Eulerian–Eulerian approach was investigated to model adiabatic bubbly flow with CFD techniques. In the framework of the OpenFOAM{sup ®} software, a two-fluid model solver was modified to include a population balance equation, solved with the quadrature method of moments approximation to predict upward bubbly flow in vertical pipes considering the polydisperse nature of two-phase flow. Some progress have been made recently solving population balance equations in OpenFOAM{sup ®} and this research aims to extend its application to the case of vertical pipes under different conditions of liquid and gas velocities. In order to test the solver for nuclear applications, interfacial forces and bubble induced turbulence models were included to provide to this solver the capability to correctly predict the behavior of the continuous and disperse phases. Two-phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and liquid are used to validate the model and its implementation. Radial profiles of void fraction, gas and liquid velocities, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity are compared to the computational results. These results are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments, showing the capability of the solver to predict two-phase flow characteristics.

  19. Earthtech, Dig-Texas and Upward Bound: Outreach to At-Risk Students with Interdisciplinary STEM Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgin, J. G.; Güereque, M.; Pennington, D. D.; Everett, A.; Dixon, J. G.; Reyes, A.; Houser, P. I. Q.; Baker, J. A.; Stocks, E.; Ellins, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Geological Sciences department at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) hosted the EarthTech outreach program - a one-week intensive summer camp for low-income, at-risk high school students. The EarthTech program engaged students in STEM activities from geological and environmental sciences. Developed and led by university student-mentors with guidance from a supervising faculty member, the course engaged Upward Bound students with lectures, interactive projects, and excursions to local ecological preserves and geological sites around El Paso, Texas. Topics covered plant and animal distribution and diversity, water and soil dynamics, evolution and paleontology, geohazards, and planetary science. Field trips were combined with hands-on activities, including activities from DIG Texas teaching modules. The NSF-funded DIG Texas Instructional Blueprints project is organizing vetted, high quality online educational resources and learning activities into teaching modules. The modules follow a storyline and demonstrate congruency with the Next Generation Science Standards. Selected DIG Texas resources were included in the daily curriculum to complement the field trip and other hands-on activities. EarthTech students created ESRI Online GIS story maps in which they showed the locations of the field trips, incorporated photographs they had taken, and provided written reflections about their camp experiences. The DIG Texas project evaluation collected survey and interview data from the university student mentors throughout the week to ascertain the efficacy of the program. This poster presentation will include an overview of the program, including examples of work and evaluation results.

  20. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  1. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  2. A study on the characteristics of upward air-water two-phase flow in a large pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakamura, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical large pipe (inner diameter, D: 0.2 m, ratio of pipe length to diameter, L/D: 60.5.) was experimentally investigated under various inlet conditions. Flow regime was observed and void fraction, bubble frequency, Sauter mean diameter, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and interfacial direction were measured with optical four-sensor probe. Characteristics of various flow regimes were analyzed carefully. Both the void fraction and the IAC demonstrated radial wall-peak and core-peak distributions in the undisturbed bubbly flow and the other flow regimes, respectively. The existence of bubbly secondary flow accounts for the core-peak distribution in the agitated bubbly, churn bubbly, churn slug and churn froth flow. The bubble frequency showed a wall-peak radial distribution only when the bubbles were small in diameter and the flow was in the undisturbed bubbly flow. The Sauter mean diameter of bubbles did not change much in the main flow of undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly and churn bubbly flow regimes and showed a core peak radial distribution in the churn slug flow. In the latter flow regime, the secondary flow disintegrated the bubbles, resulting in the decrease of the Sauter mean diameter. The measurements of the interfacial direction showed that the bubbly main flow and secondary flow can be displayed by the main flow peak and the secondary flow peak, respectively, in the PDF of the interfacial directional angle between the interfacial direction and the z-axis, η zi . The local average η zi at the bubble front hemispheres reflects the local bubble movement and is in direct connection with the flow regimes. Based on the analysis, the authors classified the flow regimes in the vertical large pipe quantitatively by the local average η zi . Bubbles in the liquid phase moved in a zigzag line with no inclination toward any direction in the plane vertical to z-axis in the pipe core. The axial differential

  3. Leapfrogging of tree species provenances? Interaction of microclimate and genetics on upward shifts in tree species' range limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K.; Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The elevation limit of tree growth (alpine treeline) is considered to be constrained by environmental (i.e., thermal) and genetic (i.e., inability to adapt to climatic conditions) limitations to growth. Warming conditions due to climate change are predicted to cause upward shifts in the elevation of alpine treelines, through relief of cold-induced physiological limitations on seedling recruitment beyond current treeline boundaries. To determine how genetics and climate may interact to affect seedling establishment, we transplanted recently germinated seedlings from high- and low-elevation provenances (HI and LO, respectively) of Pinus flexilis in common gardens arrayed along an elevation and canopy gradient from subalpine forest into the alpine zone at Niwot Ridge, CO. We compared differences in microclimate and seedling ecophysiology among sites and between provenances. During the first summer of growth, frequently cloudy skies resulted in similar solar radiation incidence and air and soil temperatures among sites, despite nearly a 500 m-span in elevation across all sites. Preliminary findings suggest that survival of seedlings was similar between the lowest and highest elevations, with greater survival of LO (60%) compared to HI (40%) seedlings at each of these sites. Photosynthesis, carbon balance (photosynthesis/respiration), and conductance increased more than 2X with elevation for both provenances, and were 35-77% greater in LO seedlings compared to HI seedlings. There were no differences in dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) among sites or between provenances. However, in a common-garden study at low elevation, we observed no differences in carbon or water relations between two naturally-germinated mitochondrial haplotypes of P. flexilis (of narrow and wide-ranging distributions). We did observe water-related thresholds on seedling carbon balance and survival that occurred when soil volumetric water content dropped below 10% and seedling water

  4. Heat Transfer Characteristics for an Upward Flowing Supercritical Pressure CO{sub 2} in a Vertical Circular Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Deog Ji

    2008-02-15

    The SCWR(Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor) is one of the feasible options for the 4th generation nuclear power plant, which is being pursued by an international collaborative organization, the Gen IV International Forum(GIF). The major advantages of the SCWR include a high thermal efficiency and a maximum use of the existing technologies. In the SCWR, the coolant(water) of a supercritical pressure passes the pseudo-critical temperature as it flows upward through the sub-channels of the fuel assemblies. At certain conditions a heat transfer deterioration occurs near the pseudo-critical temperature and it may cause an excessive rise of the fuel surface temperature. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the heat transfer coefficient is necessary for the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor core. A test facility, SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for the Next Generation), dedicated to produce heat transfer data and study flow characteristics, uses supercritical pressure CO{sub 2} as a surrogate medium to take advantage of the relatively low critical temperature and pressure: and similar physical properties with water. The produced data includes the temperature of the heating surface and the heat transfer coefficient at varying mass fluxes, heat fluxes, and operating pressures. The test section is a circular tube of ID 6.32 mm: it is almost the same as the hydraulic diameter of the sub-channel in the conceptional design presented by KAERI. The test range of the mass flux is 285 to 1200 kg/m{sup 2}s and the maximum heat flux is 170 kW/m{sup 2}. The tests were mainly performed for an inlet pressure of 8.12 MPa which is 1.1 times of critical pressure. With the test results of the wall temperature and the heat transfer coefficient, effects of mass flux, heat flux, inlet pressure, and the tube diameter on the heat transfer were studied. And the test results were compared with the existing correlations of the Nusselt number. In addition, New

  5. Evidence for Upward Flow of Saline Water from Depth into the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D.; Paul, J.

    2017-12-01

    crustal He production. Our model for the system invokes upward migration of Smackover pore fluids and other deep groundwater along faults in SE AR, whereby the saline fluids intrude and mix with dilute water in the MRVA aquifer to create saline conditions. Other processes, such as infiltration of saline irrigation runoff, may also be contributing to the problem.

  6. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  7. Final work plan : supplemental upward vapor intrusion investigation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-12-15

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contaminant level [MCL] of 5.0 {micro}g/L) were detected in two private wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In 2007, the CCC/USDA conducted near-surface soil sampling at 61 locations and also sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former Hanover facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. The results were submitted to the KDHE in October 2007 (Argonne 2007). On the basis of the results, the KDHE requested sub-slab sampling and/or indoor air sampling (KDHE 2007). This Work Plan describes, in detail, the proposed additional scope of work requested by the KDHE and has been developed as a supplement to the comprehensive site investigation work plan that is pending (Argonne 2008). Indoor air samples collected previously from four homes at Hanover were shown to contain the carbon tetrachloride at low concentrations (Table 2.1). It cannot be concluded from these previous data that the source of the detected carbon tetrachloride is vapor intrusion attributable to former grain storage operations of the CCC/USDA at Hanover. The technical objective of the vapor intrusion investigation described here is to assess the risk to human health due to the potential for upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and

  8. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  9. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  10. Interfacial area transport in a confined Bubbly flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering; Lincoln, F. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, Bechtel Bettis, Inc., PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired in an adiabatic air-water upward two-phase flow loop with a test section of 20 cm in width and 1 cm in gap. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of {+-}10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. (author)

  11. Visualization of gas dissolution following upward gas migration in porous media: Technique and implications for stray gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Ven, C. J. C.; Mumford, Kevin G.

    2018-05-01

    The study of gas-water mass transfer in porous media is important in many applications, including unconventional resource extraction, carbon storage, deep geological waste storage, and remediation of contaminated groundwater, all of which rely on an understanding of the fate and transport of free and dissolved gas. The novel visual technique developed in this study provided both quantitative and qualitative observations of gas-water mass transfer. Findings included interaction between free gas architecture and dissolved plume migration, plume geometry and longevity. The technique was applied to the injection of CO2 in source patterns expected for stray gas originating from oil and gas operations to measure dissolved phase concentrations of CO2 at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data set is the first of its kind to provide high resolution quantification of gas-water dissolution, and will facilitate an improved understanding of the fundamental processes of gas movement and fate in these complex systems.

  12. Momentum and scalar transport within a vegetation canopy following atmospheric stability and seasonal canopy changes: the CHATS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dupont

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Momentum and scalar (heat and water vapor transfer between a walnut canopy and the overlying atmosphere are investigated for two seasonal periods (before and after leaf-out, and for five thermal stability regimes (free and forced convection, near-neutral condition, transition to stable, and stable. Quadrant and octant analyses of momentum and scalar fluxes followed by space-time autocorrelations of observations from the Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study's (CHATS thirty meter tower help characterize the motions exchanging momentum, heat, and moisture between the canopy layers and aloft.

    During sufficiently windy conditions, i.e. in forced convection, near-neutral and transition to stable regimes, momentum and scalars are generally transported by sweep and ejection motions associated with the well-known canopy-top "shear-driven" coherent eddy structures. During extreme stability conditions (both unstable and stable, the role of these "shear-driven" structures in transporting scalars decreases, inducing notable dissimilarity between momentum and scalar transport.

    In unstable conditions, "shear-driven" coherent structures are progressively replaced by "buo-yantly-driven" structures, known as thermal plumes; which appear very efficient at transporting scalars, especially upward thermal plumes above the canopy. Within the canopy, downward thermal plumes become more efficient at transporting scalars than upward thermal plumes if scalar sources are located in the upper canopy. We explain these features by suggesting that: (i downward plumes within the canopy correspond to large downward plumes coming from above, and (ii upward plumes within the canopy are local small plumes induced by canopy heat sources where passive scalars are first injected if there sources are at the same location as heat sources. Above the canopy, these small upward thermal plumes aggregate to form larger scale upward thermal plumes. Furthermore, scalar

  13. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  14. Off-line algorithm for calculation of vertical tracer transport in the troposphere due to deep convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, D.A.; Maksyutov, S.; Krol, M.C.; Fraser, A.; Rigby, M.; Bian, H.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Bergmann, D.; Bousquet, P.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M.P.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Gloor, E.; Haynes, K.; Hess, P.; Houweling, S.; Kawa, S.R.; Law, R.M.; Loh, Z.; Meng, L.; Palmer, P.I.; Patra, P.K.; Prinn, R.G.; Saito, R.; Wilson, C.

    2013-01-01

    A modified cumulus convection parametrisation scheme is presented. This scheme computes the mass of air transported upward in a cumulus cell using conservation of moisture and a detailed distribution of convective precipitation provided by a reanalysis dataset. The representation of vertical

  15. Internal Architecture of Meteorite Impact Crater at Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong – Perak, Malaysia Inferred from Upward Continuation of Magnetic Field Intensity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, S. B.; Saad, R.; Saidin, M.; Yusoh, R.; Sabrian, T. A.; Samuel, Y. M.

    2018-04-01

    2–D upward continuation of magnetic field data acquired at Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong – Perak, Malaysia, with the objective to ascertain the impact crater and possible rebounds, has be carried out and interpreted in this study. Ground magnetic survey was conducted first as regional study in the entire area followed by a detailed study at the suspected crater region. Data from both studies were compiled, corrected and separated (regional – residual). The residual magnetic data ranged between -272 and +134.2 nT. 2–D upward continuation at various planes of observation was carried out on the gridded residual magnetic field data after coordinates were converted (from degrees to meters) to understate anomalies due to shallow features. The planes were at 250 m, 500 m and 750 m above the ground level. The continuation at 500 m revealed a low magnetic region, believed to be an impact crater, which is now filled with sediments, surrounded by a high magnetic shallow bedrock. Other high magnetic key features interpreted as rebounds (R) also remained after filtering out the ambiguous anomalies.

  16. Robust upward dispersion of the neutron spin resonance in the heavy fermion superconductor Ce1−xYbxCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Van Dyke, John; Lum, I. K.; White, B. D.; Jang, Sooyoung; Yazici, Duygu; Shu, L.; Schneidewind, A.; Čermák, Petr; Qiu, Y.; Maple, M. B.; Morr, Dirk K.; Dai, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    The neutron spin resonance is a collective magnetic excitation that appears in the unconventional copper oxide, iron pnictide and heavy fermion superconductors. Although the resonance is commonly associated with a spin-exciton due to the d(s±)-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter, it has also been proposed to be a magnon-like excitation appearing in the superconducting state. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to demonstrate that the resonance in the heavy fermion superconductor Ce1−xYbxCoIn5 with x=0, 0.05 and 0.3 has a ring-like upward dispersion that is robust against Yb-doping. By comparing our experimental data with a random phase approximation calculation using the electronic structure and the momentum dependence of the -wave superconducting gap determined from scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) for CeCoIn5, we conclude that the robust upward-dispersing resonance mode in Ce1−xYbxCoIn5 is inconsistent with the downward dispersion predicted within the spin-exciton scenario. PMID:27677397

  17. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-01-01

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam

  18. Fault-Related Controls on Upward Hydrothermal Flow: An Integrated Geological Study of the Têt Fault System, Eastern Pyrénées (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Taillefer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The way faults control upward fluid flow in nonmagmatic hydrothermal systems in extensional context is still unclear. In the Eastern Pyrénées, an alignment of twenty-nine hot springs (29°C to 73°C, along the normal Têt fault, offers the opportunity to study this process. Using an integrated multiscale geological approach including mapping, remote sensing, and macro- and microscopic analyses of fault zones, we show that emergence is always located in crystalline rocks at gneiss-metasediments contacts, mostly in the Têt fault footwall. The hot springs distribution is related to high topographic reliefs, which are associated with fault throw and segmentation. In more detail, emergence localizes either (1 in brittle fault damage zones at the intersection between the Têt fault and subsidiary faults or (2 in ductile faults where dissolution cavities are observed along foliations, allowing juxtaposition of metasediments. Using these observations and 2D simple numerical simulation, we propose a hydrogeological model of upward hydrothermal flow. Meteoric fluids, infiltrated at high elevation in the fault footwall relief, get warmer at depth because of the geothermal gradient. Topography-related hydraulic gradient and buoyancy forces cause hot fluid rise along permeability anisotropies associated with lithological juxtapositions, fracture, and fault zone compositions.

  19. Study of Streamers in Gradient Density Air: Table Top Modeling of Red Sprites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaits, D. F.; Shneider, M. N.; Howard, P. J.; Miles, R. B.; Milikh, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    Sprites and blue jets develop in the upper atmosphere where ambient density changes drastically over their lengths. Theoretical analysis of Red Sprites [1] and Blue Jets [2,3] are based on the streamer tip parameters’ functional dependence on a local gas density N(h). At the moment there is a lack of experimental data for streamer propagation in a non-uniform ambient gas density. Small scale experiments in controllable conditions are important for validation of analytical models as well as numerical simulations, which can be used for the investigation of real scale plasma phenomena that develop above thunderclouds. Controllable, non-uniform gas density can be achieved in laboratory conditions in super sonic nozzles, fast centrifuges or gas filled tubes with a non-uniform temperature distribution along the axis. The latter approach was used in the present work. A quartz tube, approximately one foot in length, was filled with air at different pressures. A density gradient was created by heating up the top of the tube while keeping the bottom at room temperature. The discharge was initiated by applying a high voltage pulse to a pin electrode at the top of the tube while a flat electrode was grounded at the bottom. Similar to Red Sprites, the streamer propagates downwards into a region of higher density and stops before reaching the lower electrode while the top electrode remains under high potential. This work will present results of streamer propagation at different pressures and voltages. Measurements of current-voltage characteristics as well as integral images will be presented. 1. Y. P.Raizer, G. M. Milikh, M. N. Shneider, and S. V. Novakovski (1998), J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 31, 3255-3264. 2. Y. P.Raizer, G. M. Milikh, and M. N. Shneider (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23801 3. Y .P.Raizer, G. M. Milikh, and M. N. Shneider (2007), J. Atmos. & Solat-Terr. Phys, 69, 925-938

  20. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  1. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  2. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  3. Experimental study of the self-evaporation of an adiabatic upward flow of water in a duct of uniform cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barois, Guy

    1969-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to a better knowledge of the expansion process in a flow, by studying the formation of vapour in an upward adiabatic vertical flow. This self-evaporation occurs in a duct with a large cross section (10 x 10 cm) in order to make neglectable pressure losses due to friction on the wall with respect to other pressure losses. After a presentation of the characteristics of the experimental installation, the author describes the flow, outlines the influence of dissolved air on vapour bubble nucleation. He describes the method used to measure the difference between the liquid temperature and that it would have had in thermal equilibrium under a vapour pressure equal to the cross section static pressure. Different theoretical analytical studies proposed by other authors are presented, and the author proposes a model for the calculation of pressure loss associated with this self-evaporation [fr

  4. Multi-Scale Long-Range Magnitude and Sign Correlations in Vertical Upward Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, An; Jin, Ning-de; Ren, Ying-yu; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In this article we apply an approach to identify the oil-gas-water three-phase flow patterns in vertical upwards 20 mm inner-diameter pipe based on the conductance fluctuating signals. We use the approach to analyse the signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and extracting their scaling properties. We find that the magnitude series relates to nonlinear properties of the original time series, whereas the sign series relates to the linear properties. The research shows that the oil-gas-water three-phase flows (slug flow, churn flow, bubble flow) can be classified by a combination of scaling exponents of magnitude and sign series. This study provides a new way of characterising linear and nonlinear properties embedded in oil-gas-water three-phase flows.

  5. Mitigation of upward and downward vertical displacement event heat loads with upper or lower massive gas injection in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, N.; Eidietis, N. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Parks, P. B.; Shiraki, D.

    2015-10-01

    Intentionally triggered upward and downward vertical displacement events (VDEs) leading to disruptions were pre-emptively mitigated with neon massive gas injection (MGI) coming from either above or below the plasma. Global indicators of disruption mitigation effectiveness (conducted heat loads, radiated power, and vessel motion) do not show a clear improvement when mitigating with the gas jet located closer to the VDE impact area. A clear trend of improved mitigation is observed for earlier MGI timing relative to the VDE impact time. The plasma edge magnetic perturbation is seen to lock to a preferential phase during the VDE thermal quench, but this phase is not clearly matched by preliminary attempts to fit to the conducted heat load phase. Clear indications of plasma infra-red (IR) emission are observed both before and during the disruptions. This IR emission can affect calculation of disruption heat loads; here, the time decay of post-disruption IR signals is used to correct for this effect.

  6. Mitigation of upward and downward vertical displacement event heat loads with upper or lower massive gas injection in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B.; Lasnier, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Intentionally triggered upward and downward vertical displacement events (VDEs) leading to disruptions were pre-emptively mitigated with neon massive gas injection (MGI) coming from either above or below the plasma. Global indicators of disruption mitigation effectiveness (conducted heat loads, radiated power, and vessel motion) do not show a clear improvement when mitigating with the gas jet located closer to the VDE impact area. A clear trend of improved mitigation is observed for earlier MGI timing relative to the VDE impact time. The plasma edge magnetic perturbation is seen to lock to a preferential phase during the VDE thermal quench, but this phase is not clearly matched by preliminary attempts to fit to the conducted heat load phase. Clear indications of plasma infra-red (IR) emission are observed both before and during the disruptions. This IR emission can affect calculation of disruption heat loads; here, the time decay of post-disruption IR signals is used to correct for this effect

  7. The upward trend is continuing. Booming wind power creates hundreds of new jobs; Aufwind haelt weiter an. Windkraft-Boom schafft hunderte neue Arbeitsplaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinsch, C.

    1999-08-01

    During the first half of 1999, installers of wind energy systems erected more than 600 wind turbines in all parts of Germany with a total capacity of approximately 515 megawatts. The upward trend of the last years is thus continuing. It shows in the employment sector, too: manufacturers alone created more than 500 new jobs during the first half year. A mid-term valuation is given. (orig.) [German] Im ersten Halbjahr 1999 errichteten die Windkraft-Monteure bundesweit ueber 600 Windturbinen mit einer Gesamtleistung von rund 515 Megawatt. Damit setzt sich der Aufschwung der letzten Jahre fort. Das zeigt sich auch bei der Beschaeftigung: Allein die Hersteller stellten im ersten Halbjahr ueber 500 neue Mitarbeiter ein. Eine Halbzeitbilanz wird praesentiert. (orig.)

  8. An experimental comparison between forced convection burn-out in freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.F.; Elliott, D.F.; Wood, R.W.

    1965-05-01

    Some correlations of forced convection burn-out data are based on the approximate linearity of the relationship between burn-out heat flux and the channel-averaged quality at the burn-out point. These correlations perform satisfactorily on data obtained from uniformly heated configurations. Therefore the further inference is sometimes made that the burn-out heat flux is uniquely related to the quality, and that the burn-out in non-uniformly heated configurations can be calculated from measurements made with uniform heating. This report presents burn-out data for Freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through both uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes. This data shows that the quality at burn-out does depend on the heat flux profile, and that the inference mentioned above is not justified. (author)

  9. Mechanical interaction buffer/backfill. Finite element calculations of the upward swelling of the buffer against both dry and saturated backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Hernelind, Jan (5T-Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The mechanical interaction between the buffer material in the deposition hole and the backfill material in the deposition tunnel is an important process in the safety assessment since the primary function of the backfill is to keep the buffer in place and not allow it to expand too much and thereby loose too much of its density and barrier properties. In order to study the upwards swelling of the buffer and the subsequent density reduction a number of finite element calculations have been performed. The calculations have been done with the FE-program Abaqus with 3D-models of a deposition hole and the deposition tunnel. In order to refine the modelling only the two extreme cases of completely un-wetted (dry) and completely water saturated (wet) backfill have been modelled. For the wet case the influence of different factors has been studied while only one calculation of the dry case has been done. The calculated upwards swelling of the buffer varied between 2 and 15 cm for the different wet cases while it was about 10 cm for the dry case. In the wet reference case the E-modulus of the block and pellets fillings was 50 MPa and 3.24 MPa respectively, the friction angle between the buffer and the rock and canister was 8.7 deg and there were no swelling pressure from the backfill. There is a strong influence of the friction angle on both the upwards swelling and the canister heave. The friction is important for preventing especially canister displacements. The unrealistic case of no friction yielded strong unacceptable influence on the buffer with an upwards swelling of 15 cm and a strong heave of 5 cm of the canister. The influence of the backfill stiffness is as expected strong. Both buffer swelling and canister heave are twice as large at the E-modulus E = 25 MPa than at the E-modulus E = 100 MPa. The influence of the stiffness of the pellets filling is not strong since there are no pellets on the floor in the model used. The influence of the swelling pressure of the

  10. On the occurrence of burnout downstream of a flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Tominaga, Akira; Fukano, Tohru

    2004-01-01

    If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some case the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the burnout mechanism near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discus the influence of the flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout downstream of the flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel. (author)

  11. On the occurrence of burnout downstream of the flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some cases the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the thermo-fluid dynamic mechanism to cause burnout near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discuss the influence of the flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout downstream of the flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel. (author)

  12. Mechanical interaction buffer/backfill. Finite element calculations of the upward swelling of the buffer against both dry and saturated backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan

    2009-10-01

    The mechanical interaction between the buffer material in the deposition hole and the backfill material in the deposition tunnel is an important process in the safety assessment since the primary function of the backfill is to keep the buffer in place and not allow it to expand too much and thereby loose too much of its density and barrier properties. In order to study the upwards swelling of the buffer and the subsequent density reduction a number of finite element calculations have been performed. The calculations have been done with the FE-program Abaqus with 3D-models of a deposition hole and the deposition tunnel. In order to refine the modelling only the two extreme cases of completely un-wetted (dry) and completely water saturated (wet) backfill have been modelled. For the wet case the influence of different factors has been studied while only one calculation of the dry case has been done. The calculated upwards swelling of the buffer varied between 2 and 15 cm for the different wet cases while it was about 10 cm for the dry case. In the wet reference case the E-modulus of the block and pellets fillings was 50 MPa and 3.24 MPa respectively, the friction angle between the buffer and the rock and canister was 8.7 deg and there were no swelling pressure from the backfill. There is a strong influence of the friction angle on both the upwards swelling and the canister heave. The friction is important for preventing especially canister displacements. The unrealistic case of no friction yielded strong unacceptable influence on the buffer with an upwards swelling of 15 cm and a strong heave of 5 cm of the canister. The influence of the backfill stiffness is as expected strong. Both buffer swelling and canister heave are twice as large at the E-modulus E = 25 MPa than at the E-modulus E = 100 MPa. The influence of the stiffness of the pellets filling is not strong since there are no pellets on the floor in the model used. The influence of the swelling pressure of the

  13. Measurement of air distribution and void fraction of an upwards air–water flow using electrical resistance tomography and a wire-mesh sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerni, Claudio; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Measurements on an upwards air–water flow are reported that were obtained simultaneously with a dual-plane electrical resistance tomograph (ERT) and a wire-mesh sensor (WMS). The ultimate measurement target of both ERT and WMS is the same, the electrical conductivity of the medium. The ERT is a non-intrusive device whereas the WMS requires a net of wires that physically crosses the flow. This paper presents comparisons between the results obtained simultaneously from the ERT and the WMS for evaluation and calibration of the ERT. The length of the vertical testing pipeline section is 3 m with an internal diameter of 50 mm. Two distinct sets of air–water flow rate scenarios, bubble and slug regimes, were produced in the experiments. The fast impedance camera ERT recorded the data at an approximate time resolution of 896 frames per second (fps) per plane in contrast with the 1024 fps of the wire-mesh sensor WMS200. The set-up of the experiment was based on well established knowledge of air–water upwards flow, particularly the specific flow regimes and wall peak effects. The local air void fraction profiles and the overall air void fraction were produced from two systems to establish consistency for comparison of the data accuracy. Conventional bulk flow measurements in air mass and electromagnetic flow metering, as well as pressure and temperature, were employed, which brought the necessary calibration to the flow measurements. The results show that the profiles generated from the two systems have a certain level of inconsistency, particularly in a wall peak and a core peak from the ERT and WMS respectively, whereas the two tomography instruments achieve good agreement on the overall air void fraction for bubble flow. For slug flow, when the void fraction is over 30%, the ERT underestimates the void fraction, but a linear relation between ERT and WMS is still observed. (paper)

  14. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  15. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users' subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users' subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users' social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users' subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users' upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  16. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1 whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2 whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  17. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ. PMID:28553256

  18. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  19. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  20. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  1. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  2. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  3. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  4. The Effect of an Electromagnetic Pulse Strike on the Transportation Infrastructure of Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    infrastructure citing high congestion in urban areas wasting fuel and time. The cost from these inefficiencies is upwards of $101 billion dollars...rail transport grows creating increased congestion on the rail network. As freight volumes increase the contributing congestion is costing the U.S...trucks were disabled during the time frame of Starfish Prime. Observations and reports did not suggest any vehicular accidents as a result of the

  5. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  6. Evaporation as the transport mechanism of metals in arid regions

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2014-09-01

    Soils of arid regions are exposed to drought and drastic temperature oscillations throughout the year. Transport mechanisms in these soils are therefore very different from the ones in temperate regions, where rain dictates the fate of most elements in soils. Due to the low rainfall and high evaporation rates in arid regions, groundwater quality is not threatened and all soil contamination issues tend to be overlooked. But if soil contamination happens, where do contaminants go? This study tests the hypothesis of upward metal movement in soils when evaporation is the main transport mechanism. Laboratory evaporation tests were carried out with heavy metal spiked Saudi soil, using circulation of air as the driving force (Fig. 1). Main results show that loamy soil retains heavy metals quite well while evaporation drives heavy metals to the surface of a sandy soil. Evaporation transports heavy metals upward in sandy soils of arid regions, making them accumulate at the soil surface. Sand being the dominating type of soil in arid regions, soils can then be a potential source of contaminated aerosols and atmospheric pollution - a transboundary problem. Some other repercussions for this problem are foreseen, such as the public ingestion or inhalation of dust. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Age-of-Air, Tape Recorder, and Vertical Transport Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.-J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A numerical-analytic investigation of the impacts of vertical transport schemes on the model simulated age-of-air and the so-called 'tape recorder' will be presented using an idealized 1-D column transport model as well as a more realistic 3-D dynamical model. By comparing to the 'exact' solutions of 'age-of-air' and the 'tape recorder' obtainable in the 1-D setting, useful insight is gained on the impacts of numerical diffusion and dispersion of numerical schemes used in global models. Advantages and disadvantages of Eulerian, semi-Lagrangian, and Lagrangian transport schemes will be discussed. Vertical resolution requirement for numerical schemes as well as observing systems for capturing the fine details of the 'tape recorder' or any upward propagating wave-like structures can potentially be derived from the 1-D analytic model.

  8. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  9. Void fraction development in gas-liquid flow after a U-bend in a vertically upwards serpentine-configuration large-diameter pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almabrok, Almabrok A.; Aliyu, Aliyu M.; Baba, Yahaya D.; Lao, Liyun; Yeung, Hoi

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a return U-bend on flow behaviour in the vertical upward section of a large-diameter pipe. A wire mesh sensor was employed to study the void fraction distributions at axial distances of 5, 28 and 47 pipe diameters after the upstream bottom bend. The study found that, the bottom bend has considerable impacts on up-flow behaviour. In all conditions, centrifugal action causes appreciable misdistribution in the adjacent straight section. Plots from WMS measurements show that flow asymmetry significantly reduces along the axis at L/D = 47. Regime maps generated from three axial locations showed that, in addition to bubbly, intermittent and annular flows, oscillatory flow occurred particularly when gas and liquid flow rates were relatively low. At this position, mean void fractions were in agreement with those from other large-pipe studies, and comparisons were made with existing void fraction correlations. Among the correlations surveyed, drift flux-type correlations were found to give the best predictive results.

  10. CFD analysis using two-equation turbulence models for the vertical upward flow of water in a heated tube at supercritical pressure(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. I.; Kim, S. H.; Bae, Y. Y.; Cho, B. H.

    2003-12-01

    Numerical simulation was performed referring to the Yamagata's experiment on the heat transfer in a vertical tube where water flows upward at supercritical pressure. Numerical simulation was performed for the conditions of tube diameter of 7.5 mm, heated tube length of 2 m, operation pressure at 245 bar, bulk temperatures from 300 to 420 .deg. C, heat fluxes from 465 to 930 kW/m 2 and mass velocity 1,260 kg/m 2 s, by Fluent code and compared with the Yamagata's experiments. At the heat flux 465 kW/m 2 , the maximum difference between calculated results and Yamagata's experiment were less than 20% and the difference between the results using different turbulence models was not so significant. But at the heat flux, 930 kW/m 2 , the difference between the calculations and Yamagata's experiment increased to about 25%, and the difference between the results using different turbulence models increased significantly. The case with RNG κ-ε and enhanced wall treatment predicted the Yamagata's experiment best

  11. Experimental investigation of the liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient for upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in rectangular microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Ji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The gas-liquid two-phase mass transfer process in microchannels is complicated due to the special dynamical characteristics. In this work, a novel method was explored to measure the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa. Pressure transducers were utilized to measure the pressure variation of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in three vertical rectangular microchannels and the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa was calculated through the Pressure-Volume-Temperature correlation of the gas phase. Carbon dioxide-water, carbon dioxide-ethanol and carbon dioxide-n-propanol were used as working fluids, respectively. The dimensions of the microchannels were 40 µm×240 µm (depth×width, 100 µm×800 µm and 100 µm×2000 µm, respectively. Results showed that the channel diameter and the capillary number influence kLa remarkably and that the maximum value of kLa occurs in the annular flow regime. A new correlation of kLa was proposed based on the Sherwood number, Schmidt number and the capillary number. The predicted values of kLa agreed well with the experimental data.

  12. Kerosene-water separation in T-junction with orientation upward branch with a 60° angle: Variation of diameter ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Dewi; Indarto, Purnomo, Khasani

    2016-06-01

    Research on the T-junction is still underway for the flow of liquid-liquid (kerosene-water). Some research on the characteristics of kerosene-water separation was performed using T-junction oriented upward branch with a 60° angle. To observe the effect of diameters ratio on the phase separation that produced T-junction then made a test section with a horizontal pipe diameter 36 mm, while the side arm 36 mm diameter, 26 mm and 19 mm (diameters ratio of 1, 0.7 and 0.5) by using plexiglass pipe type. Based on experimental results and visualization of data flow in the test section, to the value obtained 60% water cut, the maximum separation efficiency of 94%, FK = 0.94 and FW = 0.001 with a diameter ratio of 1. For other diameter ratio of 0.7 and 0.5 respectively separation efficiency of 66%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.34 for 0.7 and separation efficiency of 84%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.16 for 0.5, the best value is obtained at a water cut 60% too. All the best conditions to achieve the above-stratified flow pattern.

  13. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  14. In search of the big fish: investigating the coexistence of the big-fish-little-pond effect with the positive effects of upward comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Marjorie; Marsh, Herbert W; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Régner, Isabelle; Blanton, Hart; Buunk, Abraham P; Gibbons, Frederick X; Kuyper, Hans; Suls, Jerry; Wheeler, Ladd

    2008-03-01

    Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that children nominated a social comparison target who slightly outperformed them in class with a beneficial effect on course grades - an assimilation effect, but with no effects on self-evaluation. However, big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) research has shown that attending a high-ability school has a negative effect on academic self-concept--a contrast effect. To resolve this apparent conflict, the present investigation (1) tested the BFLPE in the Netherlands and France, using nationally representative samples (Study 1) and (2) further analysed (using more sophisticated analyses) the Dutch (Blanton et al.) study (Study 2) and the French (Huguet et al.) study including new French data (Study 3), to examine whether the BFLPE coexisted with, or was moderated by, the beneficial impact of upward comparisons. In support of the BFLPE, all studies found the negative effects of school- or class-average ability on self-evaluation, demonstrating that these assimilation and contrast effects can coexist.

  15. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  16. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  17. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  18. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  19. Setting the Record Straight: Strong Positive Impacts Found from the National Evaluation of Upward Bound. Re-Analysis Documents Significant Positive Impacts Masked by Errors in Flawed Contractor Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Margaret; Goodwin, David

    2014-01-01

    In January 2009, in the last week of the Bush Administration, the U.S. Department of Education (ED), upon orders from the departing political appointee staff, published the final report in a long running National Evaluation of Upward Bound (UB). The study was conducted by the contractor, Mathematica Policy Research. After more than a year in…

  20. Limiting oxygen concentration for extinction of upward spreading flames over inclined thin polyethylene-insulated NiCr electrical wires with opposed-flow under normal- and micro-gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Longhua; Lu, Yong; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Zhang, Yangshu; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Chung, Suk-Ho; Fujita, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    . The experiments reported here used polyethylene (PE)-insulated (thickness of 0.15 mm) Nichrome (NiCr)-core (diameter of 0.5 mm) electrical wires. Limiting oxygen concentrations (LOC) at extinction were measured for upward spreading flame at various forced opposed-flow

  1. Dynamic modeling of interfacial structures via interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seungjin, Kim; Mamoru, Ishii

    2005-01-01

    The interfacial area transport equation dynamically models the two-phase flow regime transitions and predicts continuous change of the interfacial area concentration along the flow field. Hence, when employed in the numerical thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, it eliminates artificial bifurcations stemming from the use of the static flow regime transition criteria. Accounting for the substantial differences in the transport phenomena of various sizes of bubbles, the two-group interfacial area transport equations have been developed. The group 1 equation describes the transport of small-dispersed bubbles that are either distorted or spherical in shapes, and the group 2 equation describes the transport of large cap, slug or churn-turbulent bubbles. The source and sink terms in the right-hand-side of the transport equations have been established by mechanistically modeling the creation and destruction of bubbles due to major bubble interaction mechanisms. In the present paper, the interfacial area transport equations currently available are reviewed to address the feasibility and reliability of the model along with extensive experimental results. These include the data from adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in round tubes of various sizes, from a rectangular duct, and from adiabatic co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in round pipes of two sizes. (authors)

  2. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  3. Two-phase flow characteristics of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward 0.5 and 1.0 mm micro-tubes: Visualization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Fu, X.

    2009-10-01

    Application of liquid nitrogen to cooling is widely employed in many fields, such as cooling of the high temperature superconducting devices, cryosurgery and so on, in which liquid nitrogen is generally forced to flow inside very small passages to maintain good thermal performance and stability. In order to have a full understanding of the flow and heat transfer characteristics of liquid nitrogen in micro-tube, high-speed digital photography was employed to acquire the typical two-phase flow patterns of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward micro-tubes of 0.531 and 1.042 mm inner diameters. It was found from the experimental results that the flow patterns were mainly bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow. And the confined bubble flow, mist flow, bubble condensation and flow oscillation were also observed. These flow patterns were characterized in different types of flow regime maps. The surface tension force and the size of the diameter were revealed to be the major factors affecting the flow pattern transitions. It was found that the transition boundaries of the slug/churn flow and churn/annular flow of the present experiment shifted to lower superficial vapor velocity; while the transition boundary of the bubbly/slug flow shifted to higher superficial vapor velocity compared to the results of the room-temperature fluids in the tubes with the similar hydraulic diameters. The corresponding transition boundaries moved to lower superficial velocity when reducing the inner diameter of the micro-tubes. Time-averaged void fraction and heat transfer characteristics for individual flow patterns were presented and special attention was paid to the effect of the diameter on the variation of void fraction.

  4. On the occurrence of burnout downstream of a flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Tominaga, Akira; Fukano, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    If a flow obstacle, such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions, a spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions, the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface. The burnout mechanism, which always occurs upstream of a spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper [Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90], we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout and burnout occurrence and that a spacer greatly affects the behavior of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. In the present study, we examined in detail the influences of a spacer on the heat transfer and film thickness characteristics downstream of the spacer by considering the result in steam-water and air-water systems. The main results are summarized as follows: (1)The spacer averages the liquid film in the disturbance wave flow. As a result, dryout tends not to occur downstream of the spacer. This means that large temperature increases do not occur there. However, traces of disturbance waves remain, even if the disturbance waves are averaged by the spacer. (2)There is a high probability that the location at which burnout occurs is upstream of the downstream spacer, irrespective of the spacer spacing. (3)The newly proposed burnout occurrence model can explain the phenomena that burnout does occur upstream of the downstream spacer, even if the liquid film thickness t Fm is approximately the same before and behind the spacer

  5. AN UPWARD TREND IN DNA P16INK4A METHYLATION PATTERN AND HIGH RISK HPV INFECTION ACCORDING TO THE SEVERITY OF THE CERVICAL LESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Nahoum Carestiato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV infection is necessary but not sufficient for cervical cancer development. Recently, P16INK4A gene silencing through hypermethylation has been proposed as an important cofactor in cervical carcinogenesis due to its tumor suppressor function. We aimed to investigate P16INK4A methylation status in normal and neoplastic epithelia and evaluate an association with HPV infection and genotype. This cross-sectional study was performed with 141 cervical samples from patients attending Hospital Moncorvo Filho, Rio de Janeiro. HPV detection and genotyping were performed through PCR and P16INK4A methylation by nested-methylation specific PCR (MSP. HPV frequency was 62.4% (88/141. The most common HPV were HPV16 (37%, HPV18 (16.3% and HPV33/45(15.2%. An upward trend was observed concerning P16INK4A methylation and lesion degree: normal epithelia (10.7%, low grade lesions (22.9%, high grade (57.1% and carcinoma (93.1% (p < 0.0001. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate an association between methylation, age, tobacco exposure, HPV infection and genotyping. A correlation was found concerning methylation with HPV infection (p < 0.0001, hr-HPV (p = 0.01, HSIL (p < 0.0007 and malignant lesions (p < 0.0001. Since viral infection and epigenetic alterations are related to cervical carcinoma, we suggest that P16INK4A methylation profile maybe thoroughly investigated as a biomarker to identify patients at risk of cancer.

  6. On the occurrence of burnout downstream of a flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Shoji [Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: morisho@ynu.ac.jp; Tominaga, Akira [Ube National College of Technology, Ube 755-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: tominaga@ube-k.ac.jp; Fukano, Tohru [Kurume Institute of University, Fukuoka 830-0052 (Japan)], E-mail: fukanot@cc.kurume-it.ac.jp

    2007-12-15

    If a flow obstacle, such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions, a spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions, the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface. The burnout mechanism, which always occurs upstream of a spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper [Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90], we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout and burnout occurrence and that a spacer greatly affects the behavior of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. In the present study, we examined in detail the influences of a spacer on the heat transfer and film thickness characteristics downstream of the spacer by considering the result in steam-water and air-water systems. The main results are summarized as follows: (1)The spacer averages the liquid film in the disturbance wave flow. As a result, dryout tends not to occur downstream of the spacer. This means that large temperature increases do not occur there. However, traces of disturbance waves remain, even if the disturbance waves are averaged by the spacer. (2)There is a high probability that the location at which burnout occurs is upstream of the downstream spacer, irrespective of the spacer spacing. (3)The newly proposed burnout occurrence model can explain the phenomena that burnout does occur upstream of the downstream spacer, even if the liquid film thickness t{sub Fm} is approximately the same before and behind the spacer.

  7. Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of cloud convection and tracer transport in a global off-line 3-D chemical transport model. Various model simulations are performed using different meteorological (reanalyses (ERA-40, ECMWF operational and ECMWF Interim to diagnose the updraft mass flux, convective precipitation and cloud top height.

    The diagnosed upward mass flux distribution from TOMCAT agrees quite well with the ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim below 200 hPa. Inclusion of midlevel convection improves the agreement at mid-high latitudes. However, the reanalyses show strong convective transport up to 100 hPa, well into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, which is not captured by TOMCAT. Similarly, the model captures the spatial and seasonal variation of convective cloud top height although the mean modelled value is about 2 km lower than observed.

    The ERA-Interim reanalyses have smaller archived upward convective mass fluxes than ERA-40, and smaller convective precipitation, which is in better agreement with satellite-based data. TOMCAT captures these relative differences when diagnosing convection from the large-scale fields. The model also shows differences in diagnosed convection with the version of the operational analyses used, which cautions against using results of the model from one specific time period as a general evaluation.

    We have tested the effect of resolution on the diagnosed modelled convection with simulations ranging from 5.6° × 5.6° to 1° × 1°. Overall, in the off-line model, the higher model resolution gives stronger vertical tracer transport, however, it does not make a large change to the diagnosed convective updraft mass flux (i.e., the model results using the convection scheme fail to capture the strong convection transport up to 100 hPa as seen in the archived convective mass fluxes. Similarly, the resolution of the forcing winds in the higher resolution CTM does not make a

  8. Ecological vectors of radionuclide transport at a solid radioactive waste disposal facility in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.J.; Markham, O.D.

    1983-01-01

    Radioecological research conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) has estimated the quantity of radionuclides transported by various ecosystem components and evaluated the impact of subsurface disposal of radioactive waste on biotic species inhabiting the area. Radiation dose rates received by small mammals ranged from 0.4 to 41790 mrad/day. Small mammal soil burrowing was an upward transport mechanism for transuranic radionuclides. Seventy-seven uCi of radioactivity occurred in SDA vegetation annually. None of these ecological vectors contributed appreciable quantities of radioactive contamination to the environment surrounding the SDA

  9. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  10. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  11. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  12. Fate and Transport of Shale-derived, Biogenic Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, M Jim; Schmeling, Erin E; Barbour, S Lee; Huang, M; Mundle, Scott O C

    2017-07-07

    Natural gas extraction from unconventional shale gas reservoirs is the subject of considerable public debate, with a key concern being the impact of leaking fugitive natural gases on shallow potable groundwater resources. Baseline data regarding the distribution, fate, and transport of these gases and their isotopes through natural formations prior to development are lacking. Here, we define the migration and fate of CH 4 and δ 13 C-CH 4 from an early-generation bacterial gas play in the Cretaceous of the Williston Basin, Canada to the water table. Our results show the CH 4 is generated at depth and diffuses as a conservative species through the overlying shale. We also show that the diffusive fractionation of δ 13 C-CH 4 (following glaciation) can complicate fugitive gas interpretations. The sensitivity of the δ 13 C-CH 4 profile to glacial timing suggests it may be a valuable tracer for characterizing the timing of geologic changes that control transport of CH 4 (and other solutes) and distinguishing between CH 4 that rapidly migrates upward through a well annulus or other conduit and CH 4 that diffuses upwards naturally. Results of this study were used to provide recommendations for designing baseline investigations.

  13. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-02

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  14. Mineral dust transport toward Hurricane Helene (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendike, Juliane; Jones, Sarah C.; Vogel, Bernhard; Vogel, Heike

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the transport of mineral dust from its source regions in West Africa toward the developing tropical cyclone Helene (2006) and diagnoses the resulting properties of the air influencing the tropical cyclonegenesis. The model system COSMO-ART (Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling-Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) in which the emission and transport of mineral dust as well as the radiation feedback are taken into account, was used. The emission of mineral dust between 9 and 14 September 2006 occurred in association with the relatively strong monsoon flow and northeasterly trade winds, with gust fronts of convective systems over land, and with the Atlantic inflow. Additionally, increased surface wind speed was linked to orographical effects at the Algerian Mountains, Atlas Mountains, and the Hoggar. The dust, as part of the Saharan air layer, is transported at low levels by the monsoon flow, the Harmattan, the northeasterly trade winds, and the monsoon trough, and is transported upward in the convergence zone between Harmattan and monsoon flow, in the baroclinic zone along the West African coastline, and by convection. At around 700 hPa the dust is transported by the African easterly jet. Dry and dust-free air is found to the north-northwest of the developing tropical depression due to descent in an anticyclone. Based on the model data, it was possible to distinguish between dry (from the anticyclone), dry and dusty (from the Harmattan and northeasterly trade winds), and dusty and moist air (from the monsoon flow and in the tropical depression due to convection).

  15. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  16. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  17. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  18. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  19. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  20. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  1. Sulfur isotopic study of sulfate in the aquifer of Costa de Hermosillo (Sonora, Mexico) in relation to upward intrusion of saline groundwater, irrigation pumping and land cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szynkiewicz, Anna; Medina, Miguel Rangel; Modelska, Magdalena; Monreal, Rogelio; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater from the Costa de Hermosillo aquifer has been used extensively for irrigation over the past 60 a in the Sonora region of northwestern Mexico resulting in salinization of fresh groundwater resources. Salinization of groundwater is most pronounced on the western/coastal side of the aquifer, with an aerial extent of 26.7 km 2 , where maximum values are reported for conductivity (31 mS/cm) and Cl - concentrations (16,271 mg/L). Salinization is likely to increase if groundwater pumping continues at levels comparable to the present time. Upward incursion of marine water into the aquifer is inferred from δ 2 H (-7.2 per mille ) and δ 18 O (+1.6 per mille ) compositions of groundwater samples with the highest conductivity. Compared to modern seawater in the Gulf of California, ratios of SO 4 /Cl and Cl/Br are small (0.01 and 33, respectively) and the S isotopic composition of SO 4 2- is high (+32.7%) in the most saline portions of the Costa de Hermosillo. This saline groundwater is inferred to result from an earlier phase of dissimilatory bacterial SO 4 2- reduction coupled to decomposition of organic matter in marine blue clays deposited during the Miocene/Pliocene transgression. The isotopic composition of present-day surface discharge from agricultural fields is substantially enriched in 32 S due to widespread application of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 fertilizers and potential mobilization of S from mineral resources. Surface water discharging from irrigated fields has δ 34 S values ranging from -2.1 to 3.3 per mille which are distinctly different from groundwater and surface water in adjacent non-agricultural areas with δ 34 S values ranging from 5.2 to 13.5 per mille . Prolonged irrigation pumping that promotes the incursion of air to the subsurface could enhance the weathering of S-bearing minerals such as magmatic sulfides, producing 32 S-enriched SO 4 2-

  2. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an

  3. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  4. Sediment transport via needle ice: a new method for diffusive transport on laboratory-scale hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.

    2012-12-01

    Convex hilltops formed by diffusive sediment transport are a fundamental feature of soil-mantled landscapes worldwide. Additionally, the competition and interaction between hillslopes and valleys control basic topographic metrics, such as relief, drainage density, and breaks in slope-area scaling. Despite recent progress in erosive landscape experiments, no published work has explored the competition of hillslope diffusion and channel advection experimentally. Here, we present preliminary findings on the plausibility of needle ice driven frost creep as a mechanism for laboratory hillslope transport of wet sediment. In nature, needle ice is a diurnal form of ice segregation, whereby liquid water held in sediment pore space is driven upward toward a near-surface freezing front by a temperature-controlled liquid pressure gradient. As needles grow perpendicular to the surface, sediment is incorporated in the growing needle ice by temperature perturbations and associated downward shifts in the freezing front. Sediment then moves downslope due to melting or sublimation of the ice needles. We constructed a slope of saturated sediment in a freezer to constrain the temperature, grain size, and soil moisture limits on laboratory needle ice growth and sediment transport. Surficial sediment transport is measured during experimentation by tracking the movement of colored grains. Additionally, at the end of each run we measure depth-dependent sediment transport by taking slices of the experimental slope and observing the displacement of buried columns of colored grains. In agreement with past work, we find that with temperatures just below freezing, soil moisture above 35%, and silt-sized sediment, the moisture migration induced by freezing releases enough latent heat to maintain the location of the freezing front and encourage needle ice growth. Our experiments demonstrate that the amount of sediment incorporated during needle growth, i.e., the transport efficiency, can be

  5. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  6. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  7. Active water transport in unicellular algae: where, why, and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Doblin, Martina A

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of active water transport (net transport against a free energy gradient) in photosynthetic organisms has been debated for several decades. Here, active water transport is considered in terms of its roles, where it is found, and the mechanisms by which it could occur. First there is a brief consideration of the possibility of active water transport into plant xylem in the generation of root pressure and the refilling of embolized xylem elements, and from an unsaturated atmosphere into terrestrial organisms living in habitats with limited availability of liquid water. There is then a more detailed consideration of volume and osmotic regulation in wall-less freshwater unicells, and the possibility of generation of buoyancy in marine phytoplankton such as large-celled diatoms. Calculations show that active water transport is a plausible mechanism to assist cells in upwards vertical movements, requires less energy than synthesis of low-density organic solutes, and potentially on a par with excluding certain ions from the vacuole. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  9. Sequential Subterranean Transport of Excavated Sand and Foraged Seeds in Nests of the Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R Tschinkel

    Full Text Available During their approximately annual nest relocations, Florida harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex badius excavate large and architecturally-distinct subterranean nests. Aspects of this process were studied by planting a harvester ant colony in the field in a soil column composed of layers of 12 different colors of sand. Quantifying the colors of excavated sand dumped on the surface by the ants revealed the progress of nest deepening to 2 m and enlargement to 8 L in volume. Most of the excavation was completed within about 2 weeks, but the nest was doubled in volume after a winter lull. After 7 months, we excavated the nest and mapped its structure, revealing colored sand deposited in non-host colored layers, especially in the upper 30 to 40 cm of the nest. In all, about 2.5% of the excavated sediment was deposited below ground, a fact of importance to sediment dating by optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL. Upward transport of excavated sand is carried out in stages, probably by different groups of ants, through deposition, re-transport, incorporation into the nest walls and floors and remobilization from these. This results in considerable mixing of sand from different depths, as indicated in the multiple sand colors even within single sand pellets brought to the surface. Just as sand is transported upward by stages, incoming seeds are transported downward to seed chambers. Foragers collect seeds and deposit them only in the topmost nest chambers from which a separate group of workers rapidly transports them downward in increments detectable as a "wave" of seeds that eventually ends in the seed chambers, 20 to 80 cm below the surface. The upward and downward transport is an example of task-partitioning in a series-parallel organization of work carried out by a highly redundant work force in which each worker usually completes only part of a multi-step process.

  10. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  11. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  12. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  13. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  14. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  15. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  16. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  17. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  18. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  19. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  20. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  1. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  2. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  3. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  4. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  5. Modeling solute transport in a heterogeneous unsaturated porous medium under dynamic boundary conditions on different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Understanding transport of solutes/contaminants through unsaturated soil in the shallow subsurface is vital to assess groundwater quality, nutrient cycling or to plan remediation projects. Alternating precipitation and evaporation conditions causing upward and downward flux with differing flow paths, changes in saturation and related structural heterogeneity make the description of transport in the unsaturated zone near the soil-surface a complex problem. Preferential flow paths strongly depend, among other things, on the saturation of a medium. Recent studies (e.g. Bechtold et al., 2011) showed lateral flow and solute transport during evaporation conditions (upward flux) in vertically layered sand columns. Results revealed that during evaporation water and solute are redistributed laterally from coarse to fine media deeper in the soil, and towards zones of lowest hydraulic head near to the soil surface. These zones at the surface can be coarse or fine grained depending on saturation status and evaporation flux. However, if boundary conditions are reversed and precipitation is applied, the flow field is not reversed in the same manner, resulting in entirely different transport patterns for downward and upward flow. Therefore, considering net-flow rates alone is misleading when describing transport in the shallow unsaturated zone. In this contribution, we analyze transport of a solute in the shallow subsurface to assess effects resulting from the superposition of heterogeneous soil structures and dynamic flow conditions on various spatial scales. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of unsaturated flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media under changing boundary conditions are carried out using a finite-volume code coupled to a particle tracking algorithm to quantify solute transport and leaching rates. In order to validate numerical simulations, results are qualitatively compared to those of a physical experiment (Bechtold et al., 2011). Numerical

  6. Transport of pesticides and artificial tracers in vertical-flow lab-scale wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Romy; Imfeld, Gwenaël.; Lange, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Wetland systems can be hydrologically connected to a shallow aquifer and intercept upward flow of pesticide-contaminated water during groundwater discharge. However, pesticide transport and attenuation through wetland sediments (WSs) intercepting contaminated water is rarely evaluated quantitatively. The use of artificial tracers to evaluate pesticide transport and associated risks is a fairly new approach that requires evaluation and validation. Here we evaluate during 84 days the transport of two pesticides (i.e., isoproturon (IPU) and metalaxyl (MTX)) and three tracers (i.e., bromide (Br), uranine (UR), and sulforhodamine B (SRB)) in upward vertical-flow vegetated and nonvegetated lab-scale wetlands. The lab-scale wetlands were filled with outdoor WSs and were continuously supplied with tracers and the pesticide-contaminated water. The transport of IPU and UR was characterized by high solute recovery (approximately 80%) and low retardation compared to Br. The detection of desmethylisoproturon in the wetlands indicated IPU degradation. SRB showed larger retardation (>3) and lower recovery (approximately 60%) compared to Br, indicating that sorption controlled SRB transport. MTX was moderately retarded (approximately 1.5), and its load attenuation in the wetland reached 40%. In the vegetated wetland, preferential flow along the roots decreased interactions between solutes and sediments, resulting in larger pesticide and tracer recovery. Our results show that UR and IPU have similar transport characteristics under the tested subsurface-flow conditions, whereas SRB may serve as a proxy for less mobile and more persistent pesticides. Since UR and SRB are not significantly affected by degradation, their use as proxies for fast degrading pollutants may be limited. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for considering artificial tracers for investigating pesticide transport in environments at groundwater/surface-water interfaces.

  7. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  8. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  9. Monotonous and oscillation instability of mechanical equilibrium of isothermal three-components mixture with zero-gradient density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhavrin, Yu.I.; Kosov, V.N.; Kul'zhanov, D.U.; Karataev, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Presence of two types of instabilities of mechanical equilibrium of a mixture experimentally is shown at an isothermal diffusion of multicomponent system with zero gradient of density/ Theoretically is proved, that partial Rayleigh numbers R 1 , R 2 having different signs, there are two areas with monotonous (R 1 2 < by 0) instability. The experimental data confirm presence of these areas and satisfactory are described by the represented theory. (author)

  10. A continuum self organized critically model of turbulent heat transport in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangri, V; Das, A; Kaw, P; Singh, R [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2003-09-01

    Based on the now well known and experimentally observed critical gradient length (R/L{sub Te} = RT/{nabla}T) in tokamaks, we present a continuum one dimensional model for explaining self organized heat transport in tokamaks. Key parameters of this model include a novel hysteresis parameter which ensures that the switch of heat transport coefficient {chi} upwards and downwards takes place at two different values of R/L{sub Te}. Extensive numerical simulations of this model reproduce many features of present day tokamaks such as submarginal temperature profiles, intermittent transport events, 1/f scaling of the frequency spectra, propagating fronts, etc. This model utilises a minimal set of phenomenological parameters, which may be determined from experiments and/or simulations. Analytical and physical understanding of the observed features has also been attempted. (author)

  11. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  12. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  13. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Strategic regulation of gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2005-02-01

    The basis of the article has been the growing focus on competition within the natural gas markets particularly in the EU. Increased competition whether upstream or downstream may influence the distribution of profit between producing and consuming countries. For Norway as a large exporter of natural gas to the European market this would be an important problem. The chain of values in the gas market consists of three complementary parts (production, problem definition and distribution). With this in mind it is studied how the countries would use strategic availability pricing for transport and distribution systems for moving as large a part of the total profit as possible to the parts of the chain of value they control themselves. The focus has been on how increased competition in the market for natural gas influence the authority incentives for stipulating a high or low availability price and to what extent increased competition influence the welfare level in the producing and consuming countries when they use strategic availability pricing. The analysis builds on a theoretical model developed by the company Nese and Straume (2005). Finally some of the more interesting results as to the Norwegian position as a gas producer are presented. One of the more surprising results was that for an exporting country and an importing country increased competition upwards may be an advantage for the exporting country while negative for the importing country. The result was valid also when a competing export country was included when this country did not use strategic availability pricing. If the competing country also acted strategically the result inverted. However, if the gas exporting countries were capable of perfect coordination of their availability pricing the case would revert to the situation with only one exporting country and the result would be valid. If a future formation of a ''gas-OPEC'' is considered where for example Norway and Russia cooperate in a gas

  15. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  16. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  17. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  18. Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  19. Coordinated Development between Urban Tourism Economy and Transport in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By selecting the panel data from 2005 to 2014 of 9 cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD in China, this paper respectively establishes the evaluation index system of tourism economy and transport. It also applies a synthetic evaluation model and coupling coordination model to estimate comprehensive indices of tourism economy and transport system and their coordinated relationships. The results show that: (1 during 2005–2014, the synthetic indices of tourism economy generally presented constantly upward tendency and the synthetic indices of transport represented wave-like raising trend in the PRD region; (2 during 2005–2014, the 9 cities in the PRD region gradually tended to have coordinated development between tourism economy and transport, and the central area of the PRD region developed faster than the flanks; (3 the correlations between the tourism economy and transport of the cities with abundant tourism resources, developed economy, and advanced transport facilities were more remarkable, and the coordination degrees were higher. Besides, macro-policies, mega-events, and locations also impacted on coordinated development between the tourism economy and transport in the PRD region.

  20. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  1. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  2. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  3. Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Drone Integration Pilot Program MEET THE SECRETARY TRANSPORTATION TUESDAY FEATURED NEWS The Briefing Room Connect With ... Carriers - Get a DOT Number Find Your State Transportation Department 5 Star Automobile Crash Test Ratings Office ...

  4. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  5. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC TRENDS 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The report has eight chapters: - Chapter 1 introduces the Transportation Services Index, a monthly summary of freight and passenger movement. - Chapter 2 explains what transportation contributes to the American economy. - Chapter 3 examines the costs...

  6. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  7. Transport not as others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhier, Fabien.

    1979-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials will increase with the development of nuclear power station. Problems arising are examined. Some examples of past accidents are given. Thermal and impact tests of containers and categories of transport are recalled [fr

  8. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification

  9. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  10. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  11. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, I.R.; Carr, M.

    1997-01-01

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  12. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  13. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; Dijohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  14. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  15. Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Transport safety depends on the packaging, and the degree of safety must be adapted to the potential hazards of the substance carried. The various kinds of packagings and their strength are examined and the transport of irradiated fuels from the safety angle is taken as example and a comparison is made with the transport of conventional dangerous substances [fr

  16. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  17. Transportation in African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  18. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  19. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  20. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  1. Experimental analysis of upward vertical two-phase flow in four-cusp channels simulating the conditions of a typical nuclear reactor channel, degraded by a loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, A.C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with an experimental analysis of upward vertical two-phase flow in channels with circular and four-cusp cross-sections. The latter simulates the conditions of a typical nuclear reactor channel, degraded by a loss of coolant accident. Simultaneous flow of air and water has been employed to simulate adiabatic steam-water flow. The installation of air-water separators helped eliminate instabilities during pressure-drop measurements. The gamma ray attenuation was utilized for the void fraction determination. For the four-cusp geommetry, new criteria for two-phase flow regime transitions have been determined, as well as new correlatins for pressure drop and void fraction, as function of the Lockhart-Martinelli factor and vapour mass-fraction, respectively. (Author) [pt

  2. Study of the instability of a film streaming on a vertical plane plate and submitted to a gas counter-current. Transition towards the co-current upward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachir, Aziz

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of a liquid film flowing on a vertical wall in presence of a counter-current gas flow, and of its transition towards an upward co-current flow due to the increase of gas rate, such transition being herein called flooding. In the first part, the author addresses this flooding phenomenon and reports a bibliographical study of experimental and theoretical works. In the second part, he proposes an original theoretical approach to the modelling of a counter-current flow evolving towards a co-current flow: main methods of study of liquid film stability without gas flow, elaboration of the proposed model, study of the linear stability, numerical resolution, and presentation of an original theoretical criterion defining the limits of counter-current flow. The next part reports the experimental works: visualisations of mechanisms resulting in flooding in a rectangular duct, development of an experimental installation, comparison between theoretical and experimental results [fr

  3. Dynamic modeling of interfacial structures via interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seungjin, Kim; Mamoru, Ishii

    2004-01-01

    bubbles due to surface instability. In the present paper, the interfacial area transport equations currently available are reviewed to address the feasibility and reliability of the model. Results from extensive benchmark experiments for the model evaluation are also present. These include the data from adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in round tubes of various sizes, from a rectangular duct, and from adiabatic co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in round pipes of two different sizes. Furthermore, some guidelines for the future study on interfacial area transport equation are discussed. (authors)

  4. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  5. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  6. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  7. Theory of contributon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi + , where phi and phi + are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations

  8. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  9. Proton transport model in the ionosphere. 2. Influence of magnetic mirroring and collisions on the angular redistribution in a proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Galand

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of magnetic mirroring and elastic and inelastic scattering on the angular redistribution in a proton/hydrogen beam by using a transport code in comparison with observations. H-emission Doppler profiles viewed in the magnetic zenith exhibit a red-shifted component which is indicative of upward fluxes. In order to determine the origin of this red shift, we evaluate the influence of two angular redistribution sources which are included in our proton/hydrogen transport model. Even though it generates an upward flux, the redistribution due to magnetic mirroring effect is not sufficient to explain the red shift. On the other hand, the collisional angular scattering induces a much more significant red shift in the lower atmosphere. The red shift due to collisions is produced  by <1 -keV protons and is so small as to require an instrumental bandwidth <0.2 nm. This explains the absence of measured upward proton/hydrogen fluxes in the Proton I rocket data because no useable data concerning protons <1 keV are available. At the same time, our model agrees with measured ground-based H-emission Doppler profiles and suggests that previously reported red shift observations were due mostly to instrumental bandwidth broadening of the profile. Our results suggest that Doppler profile measurements with higher spectral resolution may enable us to quantify better the angular scattering in proton aurora.Key words. Auroral ionosphere · Particle precipitation

  10. Transportation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  12. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  13. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  14. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  15. Polarization-induced transport in organic field-effect transistors: the role of ferroelectric dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Suchismita; Laudari, Amrit

    2017-08-01

    The ferroelectric nature of polymer ferroelectrics such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been known for over 45 years. However, its role in interfacial transport in organic/polymeric field-effect transistors (FETs) is not that well understood. Dielectrics based on PVDF and its copolymers are a perfect test-bed for conducting transport studies where a systematic tuning of the dielectric constant with temperature may be achieved. The charge transport mechanism in an organic semiconductor often occurs at the intersection of band-like coherent motion and incoherent hopping through localized states. By choosing two small molecule organic semiconductors - pentacene and 6,13 bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) - along with a copolymer of PVDF (PVDF-TrFe) as the dielectric layer, the transistor characteristics are monitored as a function of temperature. A negative coefficient of carrier mobility is observed in TIPS-pentacene upwards of 200 K with the ferroelectric dielectric. In contrast, TIPS-pentacene FETs show an activated transport with non-ferroelectric dielectrics. Pentacene FETs, on the other hand, show a weak temperature dependence of the charge carrier mobility in the ferroelectric phase of PVDF-TrFE, which is attributed to polarization fluctuation driven transport resulting from a coupling of the charge carriers to the surface phonons of the dielectric layer. Further, we show that there is a strong correlation between the nature of traps in the organic semiconductor and interfacial transport in organic FETs, especially in the presence of a ferroelectric dielectric.

  16. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  17. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  18. The impact of non-isothermal soil moisture transport on evaporation fluxes in a maize cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Judge, Jasmeet; Zeng, Yijian; Su, Ye

    2018-06-01

    The process of evaporation interacts with the soil, which has various comprehensive mechanisms. Multiphase flow models solve air, vapour, water, and heat transport equations to simulate non-isothermal soil moisture transport of both liquid water and vapor flow, but are only applied in non-vegetated soils. For (sparsely) vegetated soils often energy balance models are used, however these lack the detailed information on non-isothermal soil moisture transport. In this study we coupled a multiphase flow model with a two-layer energy balance model to study the impact of non-isothermal soil moisture transport on evaporation fluxes (i.e., interception, transpiration, and soil evaporation) for vegetated soils. The proposed model was implemented at an experimental agricultural site in Florida, US, covering an entire maize-growing season (67 days). As the crops grew, transpiration and interception became gradually dominated, while the fraction of soil evaporation dropped from 100% to less than 20%. The mechanisms of soil evaporation vary depending on the soil moisture content. After precipitation the soil moisture content increased, exfiltration of the liquid water flow could transport sufficient water to sustain evaporation from soil, and the soil vapor transport was not significant. However, after a sufficient dry-down period, the soil moisture content significantly reduced, and the soil vapour flow significantly contributed to the upward moisture transport in topmost soil. A sensitivity analysis found that the simulations of moisture content and temperature at the soil surface varied substantially when including the advective (i.e., advection and mechanical dispersion) vapour transport in simulation, including the mechanism of advective vapour transport decreased soil evaporation rate under wet condition, while vice versa under dry condition. The results showed that the formulation of advective soil vapor transport in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer continuum can

  19. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  20. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  3. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  4. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  5. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  6. Astrocytic GABA Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models. As proof of concept of the validity of this drug development approach, one GABA-transport inhibitor, tiagabine, has been developed as a clinically active antiepileptic drug......Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might...... be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation...

  7. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  8. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  9. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  10. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  11. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  12. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  13. Climate Change and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Yevdokimov, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    As stated at the beginning of this chapter, the relationship between transportation and climate is two-directional. Based on our statistical analysis performed for Canada, we can make some general conclusions about this relationship. On the one hand, transportation is one of the largest contributors to GHG emissions which, in turn, cause various changes in climate. On the other hand, these climate changes negatively affect transportation in terms of its infrastructure and operations. Therefor...

  14. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  15. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  16. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  17. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  18. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  19. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  20. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  1. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  2. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.) [de

  3. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group of proteins. However, given the complexity of heme trafficking pathways, current knowledge of heme transporters is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This review seeks to focus on recent studies on heme transporters with specific emphasis on their functions during erythropoiesis. PMID:23415705

  4. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  5. RIVER-RAD, Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RIVER-RAD assesses the potential fate of radionuclides released to rivers. The model is simplified in nature and is intended to provide guidance in determining the potential importance of the surface water pathway, relevant transport mechanisms, and key radionuclides in estimating radiological dose to man. 2 - Method of solution: A compartmental linear transfer model is used in RIVER-RAD. The river system model in the code is divided into reaches (compartments) of equal size, each with a sediment compartment below it. The movement of radionuclides is represented by a series of transfers between the reaches, and between the water and sediment compartments of each reach. Within each reach (for both the water and sediment compartments), the radionuclides are assumed to be uniformly mixed. Upward volatilization is allowed from the water compartment, and the transfer of radionuclides between the reaches is determined by the flow rate of the river. Settling and resuspension velocities determine the transfer of absorbed radionuclides between the water and sediment compartments. Radioactive decay and decay-product buildup are incorporated into all transport calculations for all radionuclide chains specified by the user. Each nuclide may have unique input and removal rates. Volatilization and radiological decay are considered as linear rate constants in the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  6. Uranium prices continue their upward climb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This article is the uranium market overview for the month of February 1996. Prices were up in the spot market for U3O8, while conversion market prices and SWU prices remained steady. There were six trades in the U3O8 spot market, ten deals in the long-term U3O8 market, three deals in the conversion market, and a single deal in the SWU market

  7. LS1 Report: onwards and upwards

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    For the first time since 2008, engineers have taken most of the LHC’s electromagnetic circuits up to the current needed for magnets to guide beams around the machine at the design energy of 7 TeV. This first phase of intensive tests has been instrumental for the planning of upcoming machine interventions.   All of the circuits in Sector 67 were powered to a 7 TeV equivalent current, with the main circuits (to be consolidated during LS1) powered at 4 TeV. Around 1700 magnet circuits are needed to circulate beams in the LHC. Come 2015, each and every one of these circuits will have to be able to accept their 7 TeV equivalent current. For the LHC’s 24 main dipole and quadrupole circuits, this will mean the consolidation of all their interconnections. But what about the rest of the LHC’s circuits that had been mostly operating at around 60% of the nominal value? How will they handle the ramp-up to design energy? Those questions were asked and answered during the rec...

  8. Heating-Business - The upward trend continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wartburg, L. von

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of interviews carried out with eight leading heating experts on current developments in the heating business in Switzerland. The author comments on how the installers of heating systems are profiting from the good situation to be found in the building industry in general. Apart from refurbishment projects, the increasing interest in renewable forms of energy is commented on. New developments are covered, as are the interviewee's opinions on further market developments. Also the effects on market structure caused by increasing prices for heating oil are discussed. Finally the interviewee's opinions on future technological developments are presented

  9. Sustainable development: downwards and upwards strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claval, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The idea of sustainable development, which was officialised by the Brundtland Report in 1987, was born from the will to reconcile the defence of ecological equilibria with the necessity to offer better conditions of life to the developing countries. It was supported from the start by the most important ecological NGOs. Following Solow, economists showed that, under specific conditions, economic growth was not conducive to environmental degradation. In 1992, the Rio de Janeiro Conference transformed sustainable growth into a political obligation for political authorities, whatever their scale. Because of the urgency created by climatic change, targets were fixed at the top level, and then applied to every State. Other procedures, which give more initiative to the local and national levels, are also used

  10. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  11. Passenger transport research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, airport and airline services epitomise what many would like to see in everyday public transport. The CSIR investigates what it will take to provide a commercial public transport service in South Africa which resembles commercial air...

  12. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of

  13. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  14. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  15. Trajectory structures and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport

  16. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Nathan; Lill, H

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma

  17. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  18. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  19. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  20. Electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of the electron transport properties of liquid alkali metals is described. Conductivity coefficients, Boltzmann theory, Ziman theory, alkali form factors, Ziman theory and alkalis, Faber-Ziman alloy theory, Faber-Ziman theory and alkali-alkali methods, status of Ziman theory, and other transport properties, are all discussed. (UK)

  1. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  2. Macropores and macropore transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent

    2012-01-01

    Preferential transport of water through soil macropores is a governing process in the facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between macropore density and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and to test the sampling...

  3. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  4. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  5. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N; Lill, H

    1994-11-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma membrane transporters are driven by an electrochemical gradient of sodium generated by a Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Two distinct families of transporters were identified in this group. One cotransports sodium with glutamate and other amino acids and requires additionally an outwardly directed potassium gradient. The second cotransports sodium, chloride and a variety of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and monoamines. Genes and cDNA encoding several members of the latter family have been cloned and studied in detail. The structure and function as well as the evolutionary relationships among these neurotransmitter transporters are discussed.

  6. Fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Hirozo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a liquid-metal cooled reactor, to reduce the waiting time of fuel handling apparatuses and shorten the fuel exchange time. Constitution: A fuel transporting machine is arranged between a reactor vessel and an out-pile storage tank, thereby dividing the transportation line of the pot for contracting fuel and transporting the same. By assuming such a construction, the flow of fuel transportation which has heretofore been carried out through fuel transportation pipes is not limited to one direction but the take-out of fuels from the reactor and the take-in thereof from the storage tank can be carried out constantly, and much time is not required for fuel exchange. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  8. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  9. Experimental analysis of ultrasonic signals in air-water vertical upward for void fraction measurement using neural networks; Analise experimental dos sinais ultra-sonicos em escoamentos verticais bifasicos para medicao da fracao de vazios atraves de redes neurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Milton Y.; Massignan, Joao P.D.; Daciuk, Rafael J.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rheology of emulsion mixtures and void fraction measurements of multiphase flows requires proper instrumentation. Sometimes it is not possible to install this instrumentation inside the pipe or view the flow. Ultrasound technology has characteristics compatible with the requirements of the oil industry. It can assist the production of heavy oil. This study provides important information for an analysis of the feasibility of developing non-intrusive equipment. These probes can be used for measurement of multiphase void fraction and detect the flow pattern using ultrasound. Experiments using simulated upward air-water vertical two-phase flow show that there is a correlation between the acoustic attenuation and the concentration of the gas phase. Experimental data were obtained through the prototype developed for ultrasonic data acquisition. This information was processed and used as input parameters for a neural network classifier. Void fractions ({proportional_to}) were analyzed between 0% - 16%, in increments of 1%. The maximum error of the neural network for the classification of the flow pattern was 6%. (author)

  10. Relation between the occurrence of Burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a flow obstacle in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Shoji [Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: morisho@ynu.ac.jp; Fukano, Tohru [Kurume Institute of University, Fukuoka 830-0052 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukanot@cc.kurume-it.ac.jp

    2006-05-15

    If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions the spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface, resulting in burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper (Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90), we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout occurrence. Therefore, in the present paper, the relation between dryout, burnout occurrence, and interval between two successive disturbance waves obtained from the differential pressure fluctuation caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer, is further discussed in detail.

  11. Relation between the occurrence of Burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a flow obstacle in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru

    2006-01-01

    If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions the spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface, resulting in burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper (Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90), we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout occurrence. Therefore, in the present paper, the relation between dryout, burnout occurrence, and interval between two successive disturbance waves obtained from the differential pressure fluctuation caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer, is further discussed in detail

  12. Bioturbation as a mechanism for radionuclide transport in soil: relevance of earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lemans, H.; Dorp, F. van

    1996-01-01

    In the context of safety analyses performed for radioactive waste repositories, one important group of scenarios assumes that radionuclides escaping from a repository will reach the biosphere via groundwater. Consequently, when calculating radionuclide migration in the biosphere, most of the models used to date concentrate on transport in the liquid phase. In the soil, however, transport in the solid phase can also be important, particularly when burrowing animals displace the soil together with sorbed and low-solubility radionuclides. Given the conditions prevailing in agricultural areas of central Europe, it is mainly earthworms which play a significant role in material displacement and these will be the subject of this report. A numerical example is used to present the equations which, for given distribution coefficients, can be applied to calculate the portions of the transfer coefficient which can be attributed to transport in the liquid and solid phases. The results demonstrate that material transport by soil fauna, and particularly by earthworms, is a relevant mechanism in many cases, especially for the upward transport of strongly sorbing radionuclides. It should therefore be considered in biosphere models. (Author)

  13. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  14. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  15. Characterization of contaminant transport by gravity, capilliarity and barometric pumping in heterogeneous vadose regimes. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    'Vadose regimes can be the sites of complex interactions between the atmosphere and groundwater. When a volatile contaminant exists as free product or in dissolved form in the vadose environment, upward transport can occur with the contaminant ultimately being vented as a vapor into the atmosphere. This transport happens naturally and can be enhanced by anisotropy resulting from heterogenities in the vadose regime. Several stages in the transport process are involved in going from a volatile, liquid state contaminant to a contaminant vapor vented at the surface. In a three-year effort, called the Vadose Zone Transport Study, the authors are investigating, with the aid of existing data, new field studies involving dissolved tracer gases and 3-D diagnostic computer simulations that provide a framework to interpret the observations, the detailed nature of each of these stages of transport in several different kinds of vadose regimes. They are emphasizing the impact of features specific to a site, that is, the local geology and hydrology, on each stage of the transport process. In particular they want to better understand how the time scales for (1) partitioning contaminants from the liquid to the vapor states and then (2) transporting the vapor out of the vadose regime are dependent on the specific character of a site. Such time-scale information will be important for evaluating the potential of contaminant sources as well as remediation strategies including natural remediation approaches.'

  16. Children and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-12-09

    This issue of the 'Sustainable Transportation Monitor', published by the Centre for Sustainable Transportation located in Mississauga, Ontario, reports on key findings from a project involving children and transportation in the Halton and Peel regions of Ontario, recently completed by the Centre. Excerpts from the report summarized in this issue include data on children's travel in Halton and Peel, and a discussion on possible contribution of transport practices to the growing incidence of obesity among Canadian children. Results of the study indicate that until about age 18, travel by children on schooldays is dominated by the journey to and from school. School bus is the choice of 28 per cent, and passenger car by 23 per cent among 11-to-14- year-olds; the share of travel by car is larger for older young people and also likely larger among 6-to-10-year-olds. Physical inactivity has been highlighted as the contributing factor to excess body weight and obesity in this, and other studies. Data collected for this study corroborates the findings of other studies by showing a positive correlation between obesity and transport energy use in 18 affluent countries, suggesting that a high level of use of motorized transport contributes to inactivity and body weight gain. Several alternate means of transportation, with the potential to combat obesity, are proposed. 46 refs.

  17. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  18. Transports and environment; Transports et environnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases reduction, this study proposes many advices to control the fuel consumption of the vehicles and to change habits in the transportation sector. It presents also the alternatives to the pollutant today vehicles in the domain of the vehicles and buses fuels but also the new motors. Many Internet addresses are provided to complete the presentation. (A.L.B.)

  19. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  20. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  1. Transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Gasparino, U.; Grigull, P.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Stroth, U.; Weller, A.

    1993-01-01

    The local electron and ion heat transport as well as the particle and impurity transport properties in stellarators are reviewed. In this context, neoclassical theory is used as a guideline for the comparison of the experimental results of the quite different confinement concepts. At sufficiently high temperatures depending on the specific magnetic configuration, neoclassical predictions are confirmed by experimental findings. The confinement properties in the LMFP collisionality regime are discussed with respect to the next stellarator generation, for which at higher temperatures the neoclassical transport is expected to become more important. (orig.)

  2. CNG transport opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The recent announcement by the Australian Government of funding for a dramatic increase in supply infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles has shored up predictions that natural gas will achieve a thirty-fold increase in its share of the Australian transport energy market by 2015. This projection, would put sales of natural gas for transport fuel in the year 2014/15 at about 10% of current retail sales across the nation. In the general transport sector, the lower particulate and noise pollution, compared with diesel-powered vehicles, is a significant advantage

  3. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    The car is probably one of the most central signifiers of modern scientific and technological progress. Not only did its introduction in early 20th century America quite literally move scientific progress into the street, it also provided its increasing number of users with new and technologically....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...

  4. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  7. Ring waves as a mass transport mechanism in air-driven core-annular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camassa, Roberto; Forest, M Gregory; Lee, Long; Ogrosky, H Reed; Olander, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Air-driven core-annular fluid flows occur in many situations, from lung airways to engineering applications. Here we study, experimentally and theoretically, flows where a viscous liquid film lining the inside of a tube is forced upwards against gravity by turbulent airflow up the center of the tube. We present results on the thickness and mean speed of the film and properties of the interfacial waves that develop from an instability of the air-liquid interface. We derive a long-wave asymptotic model and compare properties of its solutions with those of the experiments. Traveling wave solutions of this long-wave model exhibit evidence of different mass transport regimes: Past a certain threshold, sufficiently large-amplitude waves begin to trap cores of fluid which propagate upward at wave speeds. This theoretical result is then confirmed by a second set of experiments that show evidence of ring waves of annular fluid propagating over the underlying creeping flow. By tuning the parameters of the experiments, the strength of this phenomenon can be adjusted in a way that is predicted qualitatively by the model.

  8. Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models – Part 2: Tracer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The tropical transport processes of 14 different models or model versions were compared, within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere project. The tested models range from the regional to the global scale, and include numerical weather prediction (NWP, chemical transport, and chemistry-climate models. Idealised tracers were used in order to prevent the model's chemistry schemes from influencing the results substantially, so that the effects of modelled transport could be isolated. We find large differences in the vertical transport of very short-lived tracers (with a lifetime of 6 h within the tropical troposphere. Peak convective outflow altitudes range from around 300 hPa to almost 100 hPa among the different models, and the upper tropospheric tracer mixing ratios differ by up to an order of magnitude. The timing of convective events is found to be different between the models, even among those which source their forcing data from the same NWP model (ECMWF. The differences are less pronounced for longer lived tracers, however they could have implications for modelling the halogen burden of the lowermost stratosphere through transport of species such as bromoform, or short-lived hydrocarbons into the lowermost stratosphere. The modelled tracer profiles are strongly influenced by the convective transport parameterisations, and different boundary layer mixing parameterisations also have a large impact on the modelled tracer profiles. Preferential locations for rapid transport from the surface into the upper troposphere are similar in all models, and are mostly concentrated over the western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and the Indian Ocean. In contrast, models do not indicate that upward transport is highest over western Africa.

  9. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  10. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2013 (NTAD2013) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  11. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2015 (NTAD2015) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  12. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2012 (NTAD2012) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  13. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2011 (NTAD2011) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  14. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2009 (NTAD2009) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  15. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2014 (NTAD2014) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  16. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2010 (NTAD2010) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  17. Development of Indian passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1998-05-01

    The Indian transport sector has been studied using logistic substitution. The share of rail transport is declining, while road and air transport are increasing. These developments are not desirable from an energy-efficiency perspective. (author)

  18. Transportation statistics annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information compiled by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) Research and Innovative Technology Admini...

  19. Transportation statistics annual report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information selected by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT's) Research and Innovative Technology Administra...

  20. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration produces the Pocket Guide to Transportation as a compact resource that provides snapshots of the U.S. transportation system and highlights major tr...

  1. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  2. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  3. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  4. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and : published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of : Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicl...

  5. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  6. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Transport and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C; Jennings, T

    1976-01-01

    This book examines the impact of transport operations on the environment. Noise, air pollution, vibration, accidents, delays caused by slow-moving vehicles, road wear, visual intrusion, the severance of communities--all these social costs of transport are studied, together with policies that might reduce them. The difficulties in measuring costs and benefits and the value judgments that may guide transport policy are reviewed. Specific problems examined include the journey to work, traffic-free shopping streets, urban motor-ways, and inter-change depots for goods vehicles. The role of central and local government is considered, particular attention being given to methods of allowing for environmental benefits when planning new transport investment; the implications of EEC policy are also noted.

  8. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  9. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  10. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  11. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  12. Remote controlled transport device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Sato, Masaki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for transporting equipments for maintenance and parts between a maintenance port and a facility for maintenance by remote control in a radioactive material handling facility such as a nuclear power plant. Namely, a power supply bus bar is disposed along a transferring path in order to supply power to a transporting means, and is divided into every region having a predetermined length. Each of the power supply bus bar regions is controlled for the power supply by a control device. Accordingly, the transporting means can be moved and driven successively being independent on every power supply bus bar region. Accordingly, a plurality of transporting means can be operated independently in a transferring path without laying around power cables and control signal cables. (I.S.)

  13. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  14. Transportation and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This project explored the link between transportation and tourism in Texas. A session on transit and tourism was organized and conducted as part of the 2012 Texas Transit Conference. Speakers at the session described public transit services oriented ...

  15. Risicobeheersing transport diervoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Ipema, A.H.; Boekhoff, M.

    2007-01-01

    Welke knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen bestaan in de praktijk van het transport diervoeders met betrekking tot de implementatie van de diervoederhygiëneverordening, toegespitst op informatievoorziening over wettelijke en bovenwettelijke eisen, naleving, controle en handhaving?

  16. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  17. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  18. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  19. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  20. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  1. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  2. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  3. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  4. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  5. CHARTB multigroup transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.

    1979-03-01

    The physics and numerical implementation of the radiation transport routine used in the CHARTB MHD code are discussed. It is a one-dimensional (Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical symmetry), multigroup,, diffusion approximation. Tests and applications will be discussed as well

  6. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  7. On linear transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The equations. governing the transport of radiation in plane media of finite thickness are formulated and solved in terms reflection and extintion of radiation inthe case of semi infinite media. 13 refs

  8. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  9. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  10. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  11. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Suzana K; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Beuthe, Michel; Gasca, Jorge; Greene, David; Lee, David S.; Muromachi, Yasunori; Newton, Peter J.; Plotkin, Steven; Sperling, Daniel; Wit, Ron; Zhou, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Transport activity, a key component of economic development and human welfare, is increasing around the world as economies grow. For most policymakers, the most pressing problems associated with this increasing transport activity are traffic fatalities and injuries, congestion, air pollution and petroleum dependence. These problems are especially acute in the most rapidly growing economies of the developing world. Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can take its place among these other ...

  12. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  13. Tape transport mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, E.F.; McDowell, W.; Modjeski, N.S.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for transporting, in a stepwise manner, tape between a feed reel and takeup reel. An indexer moves across the normal path of the tape displacing it while the tape on the takeup reel side of the indexer is braked. After displacement, the takeup reel takes up the displaced tape while the tape on the feed reel side of the indexer is braked, providing stepwise tape transport in precise intervals determined by the amount of displacement caused by the indexer

  14. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  15. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  16. Spin transport in nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...

  17. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  18. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  19. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  20. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  1. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  2. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the classical transport theory in plasmas. Ch. 1 is a chapter of 'pure' hamiltonian mechanics and starts with the study of the motion of an individual charged particle in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Ch. 2 introduces the tools of statistical mechanics for the study of large collections of charged particles. A kinetic theory is derived as a basic tool for transport theory. In ch. 3 the hydro-dynamic - or plasmadynamic - balance equations are derived. The macroscopic dynamical equations have the structure of an infinite hierarchy. This introduces the necessity of construction of a transport theory, by which te infinite set of equations can be reduced to a finite, closed set. This can only be done by a detailed analysis of the kinetic equation under well defined conditions. The tools for such nan analysis are developed in ch. 4. In ch. 5 the transport equations, relating the unknown fluxes of matter, momentum, energy and electricity to the hydrodynamic variables, are derived and discussed. In ch. 6 the results are incorporated into the wider framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics by connecting the transport processes to the central concept of entropy production. In ch. 7 the results of transport theory are put back into the equations of plasmadynamics

  3. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  4. Limiting oxygen concentration for extinction of upward spreading flames over inclined thin polyethylene-insulated NiCr electrical wires with opposed-flow under normal- and micro-gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Longhua

    2016-10-02

    Materials, such as electrical wire, used in spacecraft must pass stringent fire safety standards. Tests for such standards are typically performed under normal gravity conditions and then extended to applications under microgravity conditions. The experiments reported here used polyethylene (PE)-insulated (thickness of 0.15 mm) Nichrome (NiCr)-core (diameter of 0.5 mm) electrical wires. Limiting oxygen concentrations (LOC) at extinction were measured for upward spreading flame at various forced opposed-flow (downward) speeds (0−25 cm/s) at several inclination angles (0−75°) under normal gravity conditions. The differences from those previously obtained under microgravity conditions were quantified and correlated to provide a reference for the development of fire safety test standards for electrical wires to be used in space exploration. It was found that as the opposed-flow speed increased for a specified inclination angle (except the horizontal case), LOC first increased, then decreased and finally increased again. The first local maximum of this LOC variation corresponded to a critical forced flow speed resulted from the change in flame spread pattern from concurrent to counter-current type. This critical forced flow speed correlated well with the buoyancy-induced flow speed component in the wire\\'s direction when the flame base width along the wire was used as a characteristic length scale. LOC was generally higher under the normal gravity than under the microgravity and the difference between the two decreased as the opposed-flow speed increases, following a reasonably linear trend at relatively higher flow speeds (over 10 cm/s). The decrease in the difference in LOC under normal- and microgravity conditions as the opposed-flow speed increases correlated well with the gravity acceleration component in the wire\\'s direction, providing a measure to extend LOC determined by the tests under normal gravity conditions (at various inclination angles and opposed

  5. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  6. Paleoclassical transport explains electron transport barriers in RTP and TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Callen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The recently developed paleoclassical transport model sets the minimum level of electron thermal transport in a tokamak. This transport level has proven to be in good agreement with experimental observations in many cases when fluctuation-induced anomalous transport is small, i.e. in (near-) ohmic

  7. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  8. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  9. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  10. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  11. Sustainable Urban Transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor Melania R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection has become a common issue in every area, but extremely important for the domains which deal with intensive energy consumption as it is the case of the transportation. Achieving the sustainable cities on the other hand, is also focused on the protection of the environment in order to provide a higher quality of life for the population. Therefore it is considered that by improving the urban transportation planning additional benefits could be provided for both the environment and the sustainable development of the cities. One possibility is to supplement the traditionally land-use plans with the transportrelated zones analysis, where the city is divided in public transport, pedestrian and caroriented zones. Analyzing the transport-related zones of a city is important as it provides additional information in the assessment of the development trend. The process of zoning was conducted for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In this paper, the outcome of the zoning was analyzed for a more comprehensive review of the urban transport in order to attain a sustainable-oriented approach of the urban area development.

  12. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  13. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Hydrogen and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsons, E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 43 PJ, which makes up 23% of the total priMary resources used in the country. On the world scale this latter figure was 17.6% in 2003. On the 1st October of 2005 in Latvia 808.6 thous. of cars, 119.9 thous. of lorries, 10,7 thous. of buses and 27.1 thous. of motorcycles were registred. The annual growth in the number of light motor cars in the last years was 5.5% on the average. In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 335 thous. tons of petrol and 542 thous. tons of diesel fuel, which makes up 87.4% of the total resources used (in terms of the combustion heat). In the period of 2002-2005 the annual growth of energy resources consumed by transport was 4.87% on the average. According to forecasts, in 2015 the transports of our country will spend 1.64 times more energy resources as compared with 2005. If the transport of 2015 uses hydrogen, then for Latvia 270 thous. tons of this product will be needed. To obtain 270 thous. tons of hydrogen from water using the up-to-date equipment for electrolysis a considerable amount of electric energy is required. Such amount can be produced by generating stations of the total capacity of 1680 MWe(net). This figure is close to that for the total installed capacity of electric energy production already existing in Latvia. (Author)

  15. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  16. Transport in Stochastic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.

    1998-01-01

    Classical transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, stochastic media is discussed. It is assumed that the cross-sections of the constituent materials and their volume fractions are known. The inner structure of the media is stochastic, but there exist a statistical knowledge about the lump sizes, shapes and arrangement. The transmission through the composite media depends on the specific heterogeneous realization of the media. The current research focuses on the averaged transmission through an ensemble of realizations, frm which an effective cross-section for the media can be derived. The problem of one dimensional transport in stochastic media has been studied extensively [1]. In the one dimensional description of the problem, particles are transported along a line populated with alternating material segments of random lengths. The current work discusses transport in two-dimensional stochastic media. The phenomenon that is unique to the multi-dimensional description of the problem is obstacle bypassing. Obstacle bypassing tends to reduce the opacity of the media, thereby reducing its effective cross-section. The importance of this phenomenon depends on the manner in which the obstacles are arranged in the media. Results of transport simulations in multi-dimensional stochastic media are presented. Effective cross-sections derived from the simulations are compared against those obtained for the one-dimensional problem, and against those obtained from effective multi-dimensional models, which are partially based on a Markovian assumption

  17. Thermal Transport in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Hu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorene, a novel elemental 2D semiconductor, possesses fascinating chemical and physical properties which are distinctively different from other 2D materials. The rapidly growing applications of phosphorene in nano/optoelectronics and thermoelectrics call for comprehensive studies of thermal transport properties. In this Review, based on the theoretical and experimental progresses, the thermal transport properties of single-layer phosphorene, multilayer phosphorene (nanofilms), and bulk black phosphorus are summarized to give a general view of the overall thermal conductivity trend from single-layer to bulk form. The mechanism underlying the discrepancy in the reported thermal conductivity of phosphorene is discussed by reviewing the effect of different functionals and cutoff distances on the thermal transport evaluations. This Review then provides fundamental insight into the thermal transport in phosphorene by reviewing the role of resonant bonding in driving giant phonon anharmonicity and long-range interactions. In addition, the extrinsic thermal conductivity of phosphorene is reviewed by discussing the effects of strain and substrate, together with phosphorene based heterostructures and nanoribbons. This Review summarizes the progress of thermal transport in phosphorene from both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements, which would be of significance to the design and development of efficient phosphorene based nanoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  19. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  20. Transport Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortúzar, Juan de Dios; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Transport is a large, multidisciplinary and fascinating field, encompassing vastly different areas of research. In fact transport interests span from not very well understood (in fieldwork) issues related with survey methods to highly complex questions associated with the dynamic equilibration...... of supply and demand in strategic planning contexts; the latter involving large zoning systems, huge multimodal networks and highly complex dynamic modelling approaches (Mahmassani, 2001). But questions also arise at a more macro level (and in a different time span) regarding the interaction of transport....... For these reasons, in this chapter we will just concentrate on issues related with modelling the demand for travel in the relatively short term. In particular, we will refer to modelling discrete short-term choices, such as mode, route and/or trip timing; although in our analysis we will pay attention to research...

  1. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  2. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  5. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  6. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  7. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  8. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  9. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  10. Transportable hyperpolarized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao; Bornet, Aurélien; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Gajan, David; Rossini, Aaron J.; Emsley, Lyndon; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-labelled metabolites by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can enhance the NMR signals of metabolites by several orders of magnitude, which has enabled in vivo metabolic imaging by MRI. However, because of the short lifetime of the hyperpolarized magnetization (typically <1 min), the polarization process must be carried out close to the point of use. Here we introduce a concept that markedly extends hyperpolarization lifetimes and enables the transportation of hyperpolarized metabolites. The hyperpolarized sample can thus be removed from the polarizer and stored or transported for use at remote MRI or NMR sites. We show that hyperpolarization in alanine and glycine survives 16 h storage and transport, maintaining overall polarization enhancements of up to three orders of magnitude. PMID:28072398

  11. LNG in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Mike; White, Nick; Le Fevre, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the content of a 402 p. study published by CEDIGAZ, the International Center for Natural Gas Information. According to this study, LNG as a fuel will capture a significant market share in the transport sector by 2035. The greatest potential is seen in road transport, were annual demand is projected to reach 96 million tons per year (mtpa) in CEDIGAZ' base scenario while demand in the marine sector could grow to an estimated 77 mtpa. The rail sector could add another 6 mtpa to global demand. However, the development of LNG as a transport fuel faces a number of challenges, and will have to go hand in hand with the development of fueling infrastructure

  12. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  13. Bæredygtig transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de; Søndergaard, Mads

    2009-01-01

    I denne artikel sættes fokus på bæredygtighed og transport. Baggrunden for artiklen er en undersøgelse af status for bæredygtig transport i et antal danske virksomheder i samarbejde med DHL. Indledningen giver en baggrund for fokus på bæredygtighed, efterfølgende sættes der fokus på "Green SCM......" for at afklare hvad det indeholder, definitioner mv. Dette er udgangspunktet for en præsentation af resultaterne fra undersøgelsen af bæredygtig transport. Undersøgelsen opsummeres og leder frem til en række implikationer for henholdsvis kunder (transportkøberne) og transportleverandørerne....

  14. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  15. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  16. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  17. The Trojan. [supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Trojan is the culmination of thousands of engineering person-hours by the Cones of Silence Design Team. The goal was to design an economically and technologically viable supersonic transport. The Trojan is the embodiment of the latest engineering tools and technology necessary for such an advanced aircraft. The efficient design of the Trojan allows for supersonic cruise of Mach 2.0 for 5,200 nautical miles, carrying 250 passengers. The per aircraft price is placed at $200 million, making the Trojan a very realistic solution for tomorrows transportation needs. The following is a detailed study of the driving factors that determined the Trojan's super design.

  18. Constrained Optimal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Ibrahim; Soner, H. Mete

    2018-03-01

    The classical duality theory of Kantorovich (C R (Doklady) Acad Sci URSS (NS) 37:199-201, 1942) and Kellerer (Z Wahrsch Verw Gebiete 67(4):399-432, 1984) for classical optimal transport is generalized to an abstract framework and a characterization of the dual elements is provided. This abstract generalization is set in a Banach lattice X with an order unit. The problem is given as the supremum over a convex subset of the positive unit sphere of the topological dual of X and the dual problem is defined on the bi-dual of X. These results are then applied to several extensions of the classical optimal transport.

  19. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  20. Transporte de equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, Diego

    2012-01-01

    El transporte de caballos es una actividad muy frecuente que se realiza por distintos motivos: competencias de equitación, cría, subastas, tratamientos, etc. En todos los casos, una de las principales preocupaciones de los propietarios es procurar un traslado seguro y confortable. Esto sucede porque si el medio de transporte no es el adecuado puede provocar en los equinos un importante distrés, que se manifiesta en patologías de origen respiratorio, así como traumatismos en los miembros, lo q...