WorldWideScience

Sample records for uprising al-aqsa intifadah

  1. The Current Palestinian Uprising: Al-Aqsa Intifadah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    demand for brand-name, easily-identifiable American products and franchises , including fast - food restaurants , bottled beverages, cigarettes, cleaning...products, and shoes. For instance, in Egypt, profits at American fast - food restaurants have CRS-14 33 “Egypt: Official Fatwa Boycotting Products of...at American fast - food restaurants has reportedly decreased by 64%.33 Although the Western media has tended to disparage the importance of

  2. La lucha de los servicios de inteligencia israelíes contra el terrorismo suicida palestino durante la Intifada de Al Aqsa (años 2001-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos María San Felipe Donlo

    2013-01-01

    The Palestinian suicidal terrorism was the greatest danger for Israel during the Intifada of Al Aqsa. The Israeli Intelligence Services, particularly the Shabak, worked with an enormous efficacy to defeat this suicidal terrorism. Since 2004, the Palestinian suicidal terrorism was defeated, but the Palestinian-Israeli conflict follows without a definitive solution.

  3. Pratiques discursives et enjeux du pathos dans la présentation de l’Intifada al-Aqsa par la presse écrite en France Discursive Practices and the Stakes of Pathos in the Presentation of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in the French Press

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    Claire Sukiennik

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mon étude porte sur les formes de mise en scène pratiquées par le discours qui construit les effets de pathos, et plus particulièrement sur la pitié et l’appel à la pitié. Mon cadre de recherche se limite à la mise en mots de l’Intifada al-Aqsa dans la presse écrite française. L’Intifada a éclaté en Israël et dans les « territoires occupés » en septembre 2000. Je me propose de problématiser ici la question paradoxale de la contribution au pathos de trois effets d’objectivité notoires : la citation ou le discours rapporté, les indications chiffrées et quelques effets de réel notoires, tels que les descriptions de paysages et les portraits de protagonistes palestiniens et israéliens. Il n’est pas rare en effet que les auteurs des articles de mon corpus utilisent l’instrument de la compassion en tant que procédé argumentatif alors que la déontologie de l’écriture de presse présente le devoir de neutralité rationnelle comme une obligation fondamentale.My study is based on the patterns of discourse which produce emotion and more particularly pity and the appeal to pity. My research is limited to the verbal description of Al-Aqsa Intifada in the French press, in Israel and in the “Occupied Territories” during September 2000. My purpose is to show how three effects of objectivity, namely quotation or direct speech, the appeal to numbers and some effects of reality such as the descriptions of landscapes and the portrayal of Palestinian and Israeli protagonists, actually contribute to the production of pathos. I will show that contrary to the code of ethics of the written press, which consists of presenting rational neutrality as a formal obligation of the press, compassion as an argumentative means is quite frequently used by the authors of the articles in question.

  4. Effects of prevailing conditions during second Palestinian uprising on solid waste management system in Nablus city in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Zahra, Abdulsalam Abu

    2006-08-01

    Since the start of the second Palestinian uprising (Al-Aqsa Intifada), and due to the Israeli activities, curfews, closures, and military checkpoints imposed since 2000, the quality of social services rendered by Nablus city has been gradually deteriorating. Solid waste management in Nablus city was badly affected by these conditions, and this situation is negatively affecting health and damaging the environment. Most of these cases were due to reasons beyond the capability of the municipality with its limited resources. This study revealed that some of the important municipal solid waste (MSW) equipment had been damaged during the uprising. The workforce in the MSW system was reduced and certain MSW-related development projects and activities have been frozen due to the current conditions. The city's medical waste incinerator had been phased out and the number of special medical containers had been reduced from 16 to 10. Some MSW compressing trucks had been out of use with no substitute. Another important figure is the number of waste collection workers which decreased from 420 to 301, although the city is growing in premises as well as population. The created unsanitary solid waste transfer station is now a pollution source on its own, causing an ugly scene at the eastern entrance of Nablus city. There should be a comprehensive and urgent solution for this problem and the needed resources should be invested.

  5. Uprising of Creation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Habes Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This research (Uprising of Creation in Education) aims at defining the importance of creativity in education, and its reflection on the elements of the educational process. Creativity is regarded an important element in the nations progress, which depends on the minds of their sons. Creativity became the language of the present age, after the…

  6. A New Generation of Uprisings – from Tunisia to Slovenia

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    Andrej Kurnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The uprising in Tunisia, the occupation of public squares in Spain, the Occupy Wall Street movement, the global uprising on 15 October 2011 and the recent widespread demonstrations in Slovenia can be understood as the new generation of uprisings following the eruption of financial crisis. Those multitudinal expressions of indignation and quests for real democracy are expressions of the irreversible crisis of neoliberalism and representative democracy. From an examination of the defining traits of uprisings from Tunisia to Slovenia, one can define basic theoretical and practical dilemmas in the new ways of doing political encounters. These include the relationship between the social and political dimensions of uprisings, the relationship between heterogeneity and forms of political organization, how resistance against financialization prefigures emerging forms of direct democracy, how emerging movements address the issue of direct democracy and minority rights, and what theoretical practices can prevent the attenuation of the discourse of uprisings and enable the free production of enunciations.

  7. Cyber Uprising: Al-Jazeera TV Channel and the Egyptian Uprising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnawi, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    This study will address the role of Arab transnational media in the Egyptian uprising. The main argument is that the emergence of the Arab satellite media in the region, such as al-Jazeera TV Channel and the Internet, has had a significant impact on the political and socio-cultural transformation in different Arab countries. It examines how the…

  8. Social media in the 2011 Egyptian uprising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brym, Robert; Godbout, Melissa; Hoffbauer, Andreas; Menard, Gabe; Zhang, Tony Huiquan

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses Gallup poll data to assess two narratives that have crystallized around the 2011 Egyptian uprising: (1) New electronic communications media constituted an important and independent cause of the protests in so far as they enhanced the capacity of demonstrators to extend protest networks, express outrage, organize events, and warn comrades of real-time threats. (2) Net of other factors, new electronic communications media played a relatively minor role in the uprising because they are low-cost, low-risk means of involvement that attract many sympathetic onlookers who are not prepared to engage in high-risk activism. Examining the independent effects of a host of factors associated with high-risk movement activism, the paper concludes that using some new electronic communications media was associated with being a demonstrator. However, grievances, structural availability, and network connections were more important than was the use of new electronic communications media in distinguishing demonstrators from sympathetic onlookers. Thus, although both narratives have some validity, they must both be qualified. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  9. Chun Doo Hwan's Manipulation of the Kwangju Popular Uprising

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sohn, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Many scholars and journalists point to the tragic events that occurred in the Kwangju Popular Uprising as a pronounced materialization of the dependent nature of the relationship between U.S. and South Korea...

  10. Manifestations of corruption in Serbia during Uprisings (1804-1815

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    Deretić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The statehood of the Serbian nation was manifested early (as early as the Middle Ages, but the modern Serbian state was built gradually, starting from the First and Second Serbian Uprising (1804-1815, through the self-governed Principality of Serbia (1830 to the international recognition of the independence of the Principality of Serbia (1878. The young Serbian state in the period of the First Serbian Uprising had all the attributes that constitute a state: the governing apparatus that included both central and local authorities, territory, and population. Having inherited nepotism and corruption (two major evil remnants of the Ottoman rule, the emerging state undertook a number of measures to curb them, so that the centralised administration should be able to strengthen the state apparatus. Instead of qadis and musellims, who had lived mainly on bribe, the developing state had to confront its own officials who tended to abuse their positions in order to achieve economic prestige and separate themselves from the general population of the Pashaluk. They took the best and the largest shares of the spoils won while combating the Turks, arbitrarily appropriated Turkish houses and other property, took over control the ferries and customs checkpoints, held a monopoly in trading and used the 'official toil' the forced labour that Serbian peasants were obliged to do for the spahijas (feudal lords before the uprising. Manifestations of corruptive practices inherited from the Turkish era still persisted, although with certain new habits emerging at the time of the creation of the Serbian state and reflecting the general belief that money could buy everything.

  11. Bahrain’s Uprising: Regional Dimensions and International Consequences

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    Kristian Coates Ulrichsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The uprising in Bahrain that began on 14 February 2011 has been contained but not resolved. While the immediate period of danger to the position of the ruling Al-Khalifa family has passed, positions on all sides have hardened, and there is little prospect of a political settlement to Bahrain's deep-rooted social and economic inequalities. As the Bahraini government has failed to offer meaningful concessions to political reform, it has splintered and radicalised an opposition unsure what to do next, but also undermined its own constituency of support among the island's Sunni communities. These trajectories have set in motion a radical reconfiguring of the island's political landscape in ways that do not augur well for longer-term prospects for reconciliation and recovery.

  12. A REASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 1948 MADIUN UPRISING TO THE COLD WAR IN INDONESIA

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    Katharine McGregor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which the Madiun Uprising of 1948 shaped the Cold War in Indonesia. The uprising resulted in severe and lasting antagonisms between the Indonesian Communist Party and members of the Islamic Party Masyumi due to reprisals against Masyumi members after the failure of the uprising and the death of key members of the Communist Party at the hands of the Republic. Although 1948 can be seen as an important flash point in the Cold War for Indonesia, it was not a significant turning point because the communist party recovered from this episode. After surveying a range of interpretations of the Madiun uprising and its significance internationally, this paper provides an overview of the ongoing significance of the Madiun uprising to the image of the Indonesian Communist Party in the 1950s and 1960s. The paper examines an early history war between the Communist Party and Masyumi over how the events at Madiun would be remembered. These debates signal continuing and intense hostility towards the communist party from Masyumi supporters, which endured throughout and even after the 1965–1966 anti-communist killings.

  13. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

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    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  14. Do African Lives Matter to Black Lives Matter? Youth Uprisings and the Borders of Solidarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Krystal

    2018-01-01

    Despite experiencing a proliferation of youth-led mobilizations in recent years, Africa remains peripheral to the analysis of the U.S.-centered Movement for Black Lives (M4BL). This article explores points of convergence and tension between African uprisings and the M4BL, with a focus on two movements at the intersection of education and activism:…

  15. Media Spectacle, Insurrection and the Crisis of Neoliberalism from the Arab Uprisings to Occupy Everywhere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    I argue that 2011 witnessed a series of challenges to neoliberalism on a global scale perhaps not seen since the political upheavals of 1968, and that media spectacle provided the form of a series of global insurgences from the North African Arab Uprisings to the Occupy movements. Crises of neoliberalism also generated movements in Italy, Spain,…

  16. The seals of Karadjordje and of other most prominent leaders in the First Serbian uprising

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    Atlagić Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The seals which carry the symbols of the First Serbian Uprising appeared quite early, only a few months after its breakout. The seals with the Uprising symbols have a distinct West-European heraldic form. According to their main symbols, these seals belong to either the monogram or the coat-of-arms type. In this paper, the seals of Vozd Karadjordje Proviteljstvujušči Sovjet [Rulling Council], Mladen Milanović, Stojan Čupić Voivode Marko Katić, as well as of Luka Lazarević have been analysed. The central symbols of their seals are a reflection of the then Serbian society (the Serbian lands, the Serbian army, war and justness.

  17. Enfranchised Minors: Women as People in the Middle East after the 2011 Arab Uprisings

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    Rania Maktabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The civic status of female citizens in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region is conceptualized as “enfranchised minorhood” which reflects the confined position of adult women as legal minors under the trusteeship of male kin in family law, criminal law, and nationality law. During and in the aftermath of the Uprisings that erupted throughout MENA in 2011, female lawyers in Morocco, Lebanon, and Kuwait allied with women’s groups and pressured for reforms in patriarchal state laws. By 2015, reforms were manifest in criminal law; incremental in family law; and absent in nationality law. Theoretical conclusions based on comparative analysis of societal pressures in three states indicate that long historical trajectories are imperative for substantiating the expansion of female citizenship following the 2011 Uprisings. Additionally, the civic status of women in the MENA region is being strengthened under authoritarian monarchical rule in Kuwait and Morocco. A third finding is that pressures for reform have more visible reverberations in legal spheres with a clerical imprint such as family law and criminal law, while strengthened pressures in a secular legal sphere such as nationality law have been opposed more forcefully five years after the Uprisings.

  18. A Balkan-style French revolution?: The 1804 Serbian Uprising in European perspective

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    Bataković Dušan T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian uprising of 1804-13, initially a peasant rebellion against abuses of power by local janissaries, turned into a national and social revolution from 1806. During its second phase (late 1806 - early 1807, Serbian insurgents openly proclaimed their demand for independence. Encouraged by their military achievements, the insurgent leaders began to seek wider Balkan support for their struggle against Ottoman domination. Although its political claims were a mixture of modern national and romantic historic rights, the uprising gave hope to all Balkan Christians that the Ottoman defeat was an achievable goal. For the Balkan nations it was a French Revolution adapted to local conditions: the principle of popular sovereignty was opposed to the principle of legitimism; a new peasant-dominated society was created in which, due to the lack of the aristocracy and well-established middle classes, agrarian egalitarianism was combined with the rising aspirations of a modern nation. Its long-term effects on the political and social landscape of the whole region justified the assessment of the eminent German historian Leopold von Ranke who described the uprising, by analogy with the French example, as the Serbian Revolution.

  19. Sword of Christ. Christian inspirations of Polish socialism before the January Uprising

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    Piotr Kuligowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the history of the Christian fraction of Polish socialism against the background of the era, from the very beginning until its end after the January Uprising. On the basis of the texts from the era the understanding of socialism, the principles of the program of Clusters of the Polish People and the anatomy of Fr. Piotr Ściegienny’s conspiracy have been reconstructed. The text reproduces the utopian ideas of social reconstruction by Zenon Świętosławski and Ludwik Królikowski and based on these the text also shows the place of Christian socialism in the Polish socialist thought.

  20. Evidence of soil radon as tracer of magma uprising in Mt. Etna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, D.; Martino, S. Di; Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at one fixed site located in the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a possible link between magma uprising and soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements were performed since July 2001. Comparison between the in-soil radon trend and the acquired meteorological series (Temperature, Humidity and Pressure) seems to confirm a general seasonal correlation; nevertheless some anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics, as confirmed by the volcanic tremor and strain-release analysis

  1. Effects of Israeli Press Restrictions on Coverage of the Palestinian Uprising and on U.S. Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jeffrey L.

    Comparing United States television news coverage of the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli-occupied territories before and after press restrictions were introduced in March 1988, a study examined whether Israel's press clampdown (restricting particularly the activities of camera crews, and apparently begun in response to negative foreign opinion…

  2. THE PKI-FDR UPRISING OF 1948 AND US POLICY REGARDING THE DUTCH-INDONESIAN DISPUTE

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    Richard Mason

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that the abortive PKI-FDR uprising in Indonesia during the last quarter of 1948 marked an important turning point in the American policy toward the Indonesian struggle for independence against the Dutch. Before 1948, American policy toward Southeast Asia was almost exclusively dictated by the imperatives of European considerations, hence was pro-Dutch. The outbreak of the PKI-FDR not only raised the scepter of Communism in Indonesia but also underscored the belief Indonesian nationalism had to be settled in a just and practical way as a precondition to fight communism. In the final analysis, however, it cannot be said that the PKI-FDR revolt was ultimately responsible for the American decision to support the Indonesians. When threat of sanction was finally instituted against the Dutch, it was again European considerations which dictate the move.

  3. The Arab Uprisings and Euro-Mediterranean Security: The Regional Security Agenda of the European Union

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    Schima Viktoria Labitsch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Arab uprisings led to profound changes in the political landscape of the Southern Mediterranean, and came at a time of staggering Euro-Mediterranean relations. With prevailing turmoil and violence in Europe’s closest proximity, the Euromed relationship – heavily dominated by security objectives and concerns in the past – is facing new social, political and economic challenges. This work analyses what challenges have made it onto the security agenda of the European Union in response to the uprisings in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt between December 2010 and 2013. It does so by analysing the discourse of three institutions: the European Commission, the European Council and the Council of Ministers. Accordingly, it argues that security in the Euro-Mediterranean context may be analysed in the framework of the wider constructivist Copenhagen school of security studies, treating threats as politically constructed in the process of securitization. It emphasizes the different degrees of institutional involvement in framing the regional security agenda, and the vast application of security logic to migration and mobility as well as its absence in areas of biological and chemical weapons, extremism and weapons of mass destruction. This work’s final argument is that whilst the overall level of securitization throughout the three years remains low and partially inconsistent with the security priorities before 2010, the EU exhibited a particularly strong regional focus on Libya as well as a thematic one on migration and external borders.

  4. Reorientalizing the Middle East: The Power Agenda Setting Post-Arab Uprisings

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    Karim Malak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Claims to new or critical knowledge can often be non-performative. Building off of this assumption, this paper demonstrates the ways in which the 2010-2011 uprisings across the Middle East and North Africa have been analysed through approaches that claim to be critical and post-Orientalist and yet reproduce problematic assumptions about the region, revealing their connection to a longer genealogy dating back to Orientalism. This serves to sanitize the uprisings by virtue of a neoliberal agenda that reproduces the ‘Middle East’ straitjacket, in turn creating a typology not too different from realist analysis in the region that (reposits ‘Arab exceptionalism.’ Claims to being critical, or making a critical turn, are thus questioned in this paper through an analysis that shows how theory has been in the interest of power through the appropriation of native informants into the academic complex of think-tanks, Western donor institutions, and foreign media.Taking our cue from Edward Said, we explore how new approaches have presented themselves as critical and have disrobed themselves of their exotic and explicit racist discourse, despite the fact that the same assumptions continue to lurk in the background. Using Sara Ahmed’s notion of the non-performativity of claims to being critical, we survey how the Middle East is being reshaped through these ‘new’ and ‘critical’ approaches that in essence are apologetic to neoliberalism and liberal governmentality at large. We show how minorities continue to be an intervention mechanism under the so-called ‘freedom of belief’ agenda, how the ‘democracy paradigm’ advances electoralism as freedom, and how rights-based approaches with their underlying (neoliberal assumptions continue to determine gender politics and analysis despite postcolonial interventions.By creating a contemporary genealogy of Middle East area studies and surveying calls for proposals for journal articles, media

  5. The path towards universal health coverage in the Arab uprising countries Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M; Mataria, Awad; Sabri, Belgacem; Nasher, Jamal; Zeiton, Moez; Ahmad, Shaimaa; Siddiqi, Sameen

    2014-01-25

    The constitutions of many countries in the Arab world clearly highlight the role of governments in guaranteeing provision of health care as a right for all citizens. However, citizens still have inequitable health-care systems. One component of such inequity relates to restricted financial access to health-care services. The recent uprisings in the Arab world, commonly referred to as the Arab spring, created a sociopolitical momentum that should be used to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). At present, many countries of the Arab spring are considering health coverage as a priority in dialogues for new constitutions and national policy agendas. UHC is also the focus of advocacy campaigns of a number of non-governmental organisations and media outlets. As part of the health in the Arab world Series in The Lancet, this report has three overarching objectives. First, we present selected experiences of other countries that had similar social and political changes, and how these events affected their path towards UHC. Second, we present a brief overview of the development of health-care systems in the Arab world with regard to health-care coverage and financing, with a focus on Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen. Third, we aim to integrate historical lessons with present contexts in a roadmap for action that addresses the challenges and opportunities for progression towards UHC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconsidering the Image of the Blue Bra: Photography, Conflict, and Cultural Memory in the 2011–2013 Egyptian Uprising

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    Dalia Habib Linssen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of photography and social media have been seen as pivotal to the Egyptian political uprisings of 2011 where icons of the revolution circulated widely, helped galvanize protesters, and documented key events against the backdrop of a rapidly shifting discourse of photojournalism. By examining the citizen-produced image of the ‘girl with the blue’ in its capacity to reflect the spatial-temporal dynamics of the revolution, to mediate complex social issues of gender and political visibility, and to contribute to the development of cultural memory role through contemporary street art, this essay uncovers the significance of an icon in the digital age.

  7. The emergence of the political voice of Syria’s civil society from within the non-violent movements of the Syrian uprising

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Om, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    In The Emergence of The Political Voice of Syria’s Civil Society from within the Non-violent Movements of the Syrian Uprising, Tamara Al-Om address one of the most important aspects and ironically least addressed, of the Syrian Uprising. As Al-Om points out in her article, we are far more tempted to focus on the sensational, i.e. war, than we are on the far less dramatic, i.e. a non-violent civil society movement. Further complicating the attempt to focus ion Syria’s civil society within the ...

  8. Geographical Proximity is not Enough: How Culture Shaped Placement, Spatiality, and the Outcomes of the Arab Spring's Uprising

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    Olesya Venger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the phenomenon of the Arab Spring against the background of cultural traditions and attitudes that sustained these protests and carried them across borders of more than twenty countries in the Middle East in a move of cultural contagion of conflict (Gelfand et al. 2012. Tracing the placement and spatiality of the Arab Spring uprisings, their media and ideascapes (Appadurai 1990, this paper draws upon theoretical frameworks of Homi Bhabha’s (2004 third space, Margaret Kuhn’s (2003 radical space, and Geert Hofstede’s (2014 cultural indicators. Given the information about self-immolations as the events that stirred the uprisings in the Arab Spring’s countries in 2010-2012, it explores how patterns of contagion of conflict have been operating through specific cultural conditions during successful protests that led to the change of regime as opposed to failed protests that did not. The paper offers a cultural profile of the Arab Spring countries, discussing its implications for the countries’ governance regarding the existence of inter-networked places of protests, significance of their cultural traditions, and their linkage to success or failure of the protests.

  9. Trust and Tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A Comparative Perspective on the Impact of the Arab Uprisings

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    Niels Spierings

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are rare. This contribution theorizes the uprisings’ impact and presents new society-level measurements of trust and tolerance for the MENA, synchronizing over 40 Arab Barometer and World Values Survey surveys on Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Yemen, from before and after the uprisings. The analyses firstly show political-institutional trust falling in the uprisings’ aftermath in countries that went through democratic reform or regime change. It appears that politicians misbehaving and reforms not resolving social problems hurt people’s trust in politics. Secondly, in democratic transition countries Egypt and Tunisia, a decrease in social trust reflected the pattern of political-institutional trust indicating a spill-over effect. Thirdly, ethno-religious tolerance dropped region-wide after the uprisings, indicating that the aftermath of religious conflict impacted the entire Arab region. These results support rational-choice institutionalist theories, while at the same time refining them for the MENA context.

  10. Retelling Old Stories with New Media: National Identity and Transnationalism in the “Russian Spring” Popular Uprisings

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    Ivan Kozachenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing armed conflict in Ukraine was preceded by pro-Russian uprisings in major cities in the east and south of the country. These uprisings, sometimes referred to as the “Russian Spring,” were a reaction to the success of the Euromaidan, which ousted President Viktor Ianukovych. The downfall of his pro-Russian regime, coupled with aggressive propaganda, created an outrage that culminated in thousands of protesters taking to the streets. Their demands were justified by distinct “imaginings” of Ukraine’s and Russia’s national identities. The Anti-Maidan—a pro-Russian movement—actively utilized social media in order to promote its vision of Ukraine’s future, past, and present. This paper investigates articulations of national belonging by the Anti-Maidan. Its findings reveal that the Anti-Maidan’s national “imagination” is represented by a bricolage of Soviet and Slavic symbols and advocates non-progressive changes.

  11. «There’s no more Progressive Party in Barcelona». Social experience and workers protest into the 1869 republican up-rising

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    Albert García Balañà

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the 1869 Republican up-rising in Barcelona by adding an evidence unknown to the historiography of republicanism: its confluence with a massive cotton workers strike that paralyzed the first industry of the city from august to October in the aftermath of the armed fighting. So, the 1869 Republican up-rising in Barcelona can be seen as a relevant case study in order to understand some major issues on 1868-1874 Spain: the nature of the rank-and-file/leadership relationship into the republican movement; the social (and not only political sources of popular or plebeian unrest; and the so many faces of the «cuestión obrera» in industrial and liberal societies, as Barcelona had been since the 1830s.

  12. Syria in the Arab Spring: The integration of Syria’s conflict with the Arab uprisings, 2011–2013

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    Marc Lynch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available How did Syria’s conflict interact with the broader wave of regional protest known as the Arab Spring? This article uses a unique, complete Twitter dataset of tweets including the word “Syria” in English or Arabic to empirically test how Syria’s conflict was discussed online. The analysis shows a high level of interaction between Syria and other Arab countries through 2011. Other Arab countries experiencing popular protests (“Arab Spring countries” were referenced far more often in 2011 than were Syria’s immediate neighbors, while keyword analysis shows the framing of the conflict in terms of Syria’s “regime” aligned the conflict with other Arab uprisings. In 2012–2013 this changed sharply, with significantly fewer mentions of other Arab countries, particularly Arab Spring countries, more fundraising and political appeals across the Gulf, and growing Islamization. These findings offer one of the first empirical demonstrations of the integration and disintegration of a unified Arab discourse from 2011 to 2013, with significant implications for theories of the diffusion of protest and ideas.

  13. Altering Courses in Unknown Waters: Interaction between Traditional and New Media during the first Months of the Syrian Uprising

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    Lorenzo Trombetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This papers aims at investigating the relationship between traditional and social media during the first six months of the Syrian uprising. Thanks to direct testimony made available to the author by various cyber activists inside and outside Syria and through constant monitoring of the official propaganda and the coverage of the Syrian events by the two main pan-Arab satellite TVs, this article intends to investigate how both the regime and the activists attempt to represent the “real events on the ground”. In a country where the foreign and pan-Arab press have been mostly expelled since the beginning of the protests and the consequent repression, these two opposite poles heavily fight on the media level. On the one hand, the propaganda dominates traditional media and has sought to show familiarity with new methods, while maintaining the same content and rhetorical tone. On the other hand, the activists, masters of the new media, attempted to overcome the limitations of their tools, aiming at more traditional forms of communication. In both cases, the Internet has emerged as the main weapon of this media confrontation.

  14. انتفاضة مدينة الحي عام 1956 The Uprising Of The Alhay City 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Qasim Mohsen الباحث سعد قاسم محسن

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available the uprising of the alhay city Were not known through depth academic study . And it's knowledge is an important aspect contributing to a deeper understanding of the struggle of the Iraqi people in contemporary history, there is justification made me to study the subject of the importance of the uprising residents of the alhay city and their position on the 1956 uprising, which has invested to express their position on national issues, national, and they responded with the political parties, and the demand for change in order to achieve social justice. The research on a variety of sources was in the forefront of the documents published and unpublished in the Library and Archives in particular the files of the Ministry of Interior, and contributed Alatarih and theses in the promotion of research information, as well as to that adopted research surveys, personal interviews to a group of people, whether they are contemporary to the events of the uprising , and they had the posts or from within championed parties or organizations with members of the party. It must be said that the response to the theme of the uprising require a great effort in order to learn a lot of facts that were kept secret.

  15. H.arb al-Ma‘lūmāt: geopolitics of the Arab Information Channels After the Uprisings of 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Di Rico

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The popular uprisings in the Middle East represented a moment of change in all Arab countries both at the national level and in terms of the regional geopolitical balance. In the analysis of these events particular importance was given to the influence of traditional and new digital media. The satellite news channel Al Jazeera in Arabic played an important role in the propagation of the uprising in the different countries of the region, both for its extensive coverage of the events, as well as for the credibility it had gained among the population since its establishment in 1996. But the position of the channel regarding the protests, and the use of different approaches according to the country, led it to lose an important part of its audience. For this reason, the upheavals, as well as the relevant geopolitical changes, also led to a reconfiguration of the region’s media ecosystem, with the establishment of new media and a more heterogeneous space where different satellite news channels, mainly linked to countries or political actors in the region, struggle to promote their views to an Arab audience. This new condition has led to the configuration of a new geopolitics of the information, parallel to the changing power balances at political level. A reflection on the relationship between geopolitics and information opens questions about the future role of these channels as foreign policy tools of the main actors in the geopolitical disputes.

  16. The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria Die Boko-Haram-Unruhen und die Wiederbelebung des Islam in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Adesoji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980 Maitatsine uprising to the 2009 Boko Haram uprising, Nigeria was bedevilled by ethno-religious conflicts with devastating human and material losses. But the Boko Haram uprising of July 2009 was significant in that it not only set a precedent, but also reinforced the attempts by Islamic conservative elements at imposing a variant of Islamic religious ideology on a secular state. Whereas the religious sensitivity of Nigerians provided fertile ground for the breeding of the Boko Haram sect, the sect’s blossoming was also aided by the prevailing economic dislocation in Nigerian society, the advent of party politics (and the associated desperation of politicians for political power, and the ambivalence of some vocal Islamic leaders, who, though they did not actively embark on insurrection, either did nothing to stop it from fomenting, or only feebly condemned it. These internal factors coupled with growing Islamic fundamentalism around the world make a highly volatile Nigerian society prone to violence, as evidenced by the Boko Haram uprising. Given the approach of the Nigerian state to religious conflict, this violence may remain a recurring problem. This paper documents and analyses the Boko Haram uprising, as well as its links with the promotion of Islamic revivalism and the challenges it poses to the secularity of the Nigerian state. Vom Maitatsine-Aufstand 1980 bis zu den Boko-Haram-Unruhen 2009 hat die nigerianische Bevölkerung unter den verheerenden menschlichen und materiellen Kosten ethnisch-religiöser Konflikte gelitten. Die Boko-Haram-Unruhen (Juli 2009 markierten allerdings eine qualitative Veränderung, denn sie stellten einen Präzedenzfall dar und verstärkten Versuche konservativer Anhänger des Islam, im säkularen nigerianischen Staat Elemente islamischer Ideologie einzuführen. Angesichts der Empfänglichkeit der Nigerianer für religiöses Denken konnte sich die Boko-Haram-Sekte schnell ausbreiten, erleichtert

  17. Uprising: An examination of sit-stand workstations, mental health and work ability in sedentary office workers, in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Rochelle; Leavy, Justine; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-10-17

    Office-based staff spend around three quarters of their work day sitting. People who sit for long periods while at work are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes. The pilot study aimed to determine the effect of sit-stand workstations on office-based staff sedentary and physical activity behaviors, work ability and self-reported physical and mental health outcomes. A two-group pre-post study design assessed changes in sedentary and physical activity behaviors (time spent sitting, standing and stepping and sit-stand transitions and number of steps taken) work ability and physical and mental health. Physical activity behaviors were measured using activPAL activity monitors and self-reported data on work ability and physical and mental health were collected using an online questionnaire. Relative to the controls (n=19), the intervention group (n=18) significantly decreased time spent sitting by 100 minutes (pwork ability when compared to lifetime best (p=0.008). There were no significant differences for all other sedentary behavior, other workability outcomes, physical health or mental health outcomes at follow-up. The Uprising Study found that sit-stand workstations are an effective strategy to reduce occupational sitting time in office-based workers over a one month period.

  18. Investigating the Rule of Brigadier Khazaee in Lorestan (1304-1305, 1926-1927 and his Role in the Uprising of the Lorestani Tribes in 1306/1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Qajar era, during the Reza Khan’s Ministry of War, the plan of calming down and settling the Lorestani tribes was put into the attention of the government. Following this, the West Army commanded by Amir Ahmadi, attacked Lorestan by the order of Reza Khan in 1302/1923. Amir Ahmadi conquered Borujerd and Khorramabad and other areas under the influence of the leaders of the rebellious tribes. After that, in order to protect Republicanism, Reza Khan went to Tehran, and handed over the command of the West Army to Colonel Shahbakhti. At the time of Shahbakhti’s command, the leaders of the tribal tribes of Lorestan rebelled and surrounded him in Khorramabad; with the reappearance of Amir Ahmadi, the leaders of the rebellion fled. After Shahbakhti, the commander of the West Army was handed over to Brigadier Khazaee. The question in this research is regarding the influence of Brigadier Khazaee’s type of rule on the uprising of the tribes of Lorestan in 1927. The hypothesis of the research in answering this question is that Brigadier Khazaee applied a more rigorous policy to deal with the tribes than his predecessors, which caused a sharp reaction from the tribes. The research findings showed that he executed about thirteen tribal leaders from Lorestan to play a significant role in overcoming their traditional influence. Khazaee’s performance, like Amir Ahmadi, led to the escape of many Khans to Tarhan and their seeking support from the ruling there, Ali Mohammad Khan Ghazanfari, led to the recent mass rebellion of the tribes of Lorestan under the leadership of Tarhan’s governor. The study of Khazaee's rule in Lorestan and how his actions led to the massive rebellion are important in this article.

  19. Eine Provokation und ihre Folgen. Zum “deutschen Trauerspiel” «Die Plebejer proben den Aufstand» von Günter Grass[A Provocation and its Consequences. On the “German Tragic Drama” «The Plebeians Rehearse the Uprising» by Günter Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Sprenger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Plebejer proben den Aufstand. Ein deutsches Trauerspiel (1966 by Günter Grass aroused great scandal, because the play denounces the tactics of Bertolt Brecht with regard to the workers’ uprising in East Germany on June 17, 1953. However, Grass always rela­tivized this and claimed to have shown the problematic relationship between artist and politics in general. The present contribution argues that Grass actually attacked frontally none other than Brecht and that he exploited the debate in the leftist student magazine konkret, the West-German mouthpiece of the 1968 revolt.

  20. Insurgent Uprising: An Unconventional Warfare Wargame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Cleveland, Charles T. Connett, and Will Irwin. “Unconventional Warfare in the Gray Zone.” Joint Forces Quarterly 80, no. 1 (2016). Work, Robert O...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Today, and in the future, unconventional solutions will present U.S. policymakers with options for dealing...training objectives and will complement existing training exercises. 14. SUBJECT TERMS unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct

  1. How to support the Syrian uprising?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohns, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria.......The events in Syria have led to mounting calls in the EU to impose an embargo on Syrian oil. This commentary discusses the possible impact of such sanctions on the balance of power between the regime and the protest movement in Syria....

  2. Africa uprising: Popular protest and political change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    political change can be advanced concretely by going beyond civil society, and rallying what is defined in the book as political society. Secondly, this theoretical lens is followed by a very enriching historical account of what the authors frame as three different periods ('waves') of protests in Africa: the anti-colonial protests of ...

  3. June Four: A Chronicle of the Chinese Democratic Uprising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989

    This book presents more than 200 photographs along with a chronological record from the "Ming Pao News," covering the events in People's Republic of China from the death of Hu Yaobang on April 15, 1989, which precipitated the Chinese student democratic movement, to the crushing of the movement at Tiananmen Square by the Chinese army on…

  4. Video and the uprisings in Egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 كانون الثاني (يناير) 2013 ... Since I was a computer scientist, I thought that all the hype - calling ... Your background is in Computer Science, how did you come to work with the IDRC? .... doers recently demonstrated how changing language in family laws ...

  5. The 1951 Harvard student uprising against the intern match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Don K; Hendren, W Hardy

    2017-06-01

    In the fall of 1951, a group of Harvard medical students led by W. Hardy Hendren, III organized a national movement against the newly instituted match that would assign graduating seniors to hospital internship programs. Before then, hospitals with intern positions to fill rushed to secure commitments from students, who in turn accepted the first decent offer that came their way. Knowing that students could not risk waiting for a better offer, hospitals pushed them into making early commitments. When some students began getting offers in their junior and sophomore years, medical schools, professional groups, and hospitals organized the National Inter-association Committee on Internships to deal with the issue. The intern match was thus organized and scheduled to take place in 1952. When the plan was announced in mid-October 1951, Hendren recognized that the proposed algorithm placed students at a disadvantage if they did not get their first choice of hospitals. Facing resistance at every step from the National Inter-association Committee on Internships and putting his standing at Harvard Medical School at risk, Hendren led a nationwide movement of medical students to change the procedure to one that favored students' choices. Their success <1 month later established in the inaugural match the fundamental ethic of today's National Resident Matching Program to favor students' preferences at every step of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IT Education as an Opportunity for Uprising of Serbian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Radenković

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of IT market in Serbia indicates an increase in exports of IT services. Consequently, the need for experts with competitive skills in modern information and communication technologies rises. International priorities related to the application of IT in business and science until the year 2020 include: e-education, cloud computing, mobile technologies, internet of things, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, social media, virtual reality, and big data. Designing environment for providing IT services in these fields can be an opportunity for the development of Serbian economy, because it does not require high infrastructural investments, only investments in education. This paper gives a proposal for leveraging higher education and lifelong learning in Serbia, with respect to the demands of the IT market.

  7. Transnational NGOs between Popular Uprising and Authoritarian Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2013-01-01

    Scholars differentiate the concepts of internationalism and transnationalism. While the first refers to the connectivity between macro institutions such as states, multinational corporations and other institutionalized actors within and beyond national boundaries, the second term emphasizes publi...

  8. IT Education as an Opportunity for Uprising of Serbian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Božidar Radenković; Marijana Despotović-Zrakić; Zorica Bogdanović; Dušan Barać; Aleksandra Labus

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of IT market in Serbia indicates an increase in exports of IT services. Consequently, the need for experts with competitive skills in modern information and communication technologies rises. International priorities related to the application of IT in business and science until the year 2020 include: e-education, cloud computing, mobile technologies, internet of things, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, social media, virtual reality, and big data. Designing environment for prov...

  9. «God save us from more revolutions»: the Aranjuez Mutiny and the Dos de Mayo uprising in the light of Count Fernán Núñez’s widow | «Dios nos libre de más revoluciones»: el Motín de Aranjuez y el Dos de Mayo vistos por la condesa viuda de Fernán Núñez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Calvo Maturana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay’s objective is to analyse a direct and unpublished testimony of the two biggest Spanish historical events of 1808: the Mutiny of Aranjuez and Dos de Mayo Uprising. With this purpose we present to the public a collection of letters written by Maria Esclavitud Sarmiento, Countess of Fernan Nuñez, and found in the French National Archives of Paris. In this lady’s correspondence we can appreciate the fears, the hopes and the speculations lived and suffered by the people from Madrid during this period. Thanks to this source we have access to the impressions of an eyewitness (a woman, something even more interesting and unusual who was in constant relation with the current situation, gathering news and rumours, sometimes already obsolete in the next letter because of the frenetic political situation. By her contacts with well-informed people (such as her son, the count of Fernan Nuñez, or members of government like Pedro Cevallos or Eusebio Bardaji, the widow countess offers interesting information about the most important figures and events of this year: Ferdinand VII (his rise to the throne and the preparation for his trip to Bayonne, Napoleon (his arrival to Spain and his recognition, or not, of the new king, Manuel Godoy (his imprisonment and his delivery to French authorities, Charles IV (the renounce of his claim and his posterior regret and Marie Louise of Parme (many rumours related to her dark legend. | El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer al lector un testimonio directo e inédito de lo acontecido en Madrid durante los dos grandes hitos históricos españoles de 1808: el Motín de Aranjuez y el Dos de Mayo. Para ello utilizaremos principalmente unas cartas de María Esclavitud Sarmiento, condesa viuda de Fernán Núñez, encontradas en los Archivos Nacionales de París. Esta dama de la alta nobleza reflejó en su correspondencia los miedos, esperanzas y especulaciones que asaltaron a la sociedad madrileña del momento. De

  10. وقف قراءة القران في المسجد الاقصي من أوائل القرن السادس عشر حتى منتصف القرن الثامن عشر الميلادي / The Awqaf Endowments for Quranic recitation in Al-Aqsa Mosque

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Latif, Zuhair

    2007-01-01

    وقف قراءة القران في المسجد الاقصي من أوائل القرن السادس عشر حتى منتصف القرن الثامن عشر الميلادي ,زهير غنايم عبد اللطيف , باللغة العربية

  11. New Security and Justice Sector Partnership Models: Implications of the Arab Uprisings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    contributions of several of our RAND colleagues. Emma Davies Cutrufello was instrumental collect- ing and analyzing the data for Chapter Two. Beth...Light of the Financial Crisis: A Critical Review, Development Centre Studies, OECD Publications, 2009, pp. 43–45. 3 Paul Collier, “Is Aid Oil? An...represent signifi- cant opportunities for burden sharing. Another area where there is potential for enhanced multilateral - ism and local ownership of SJSP

  12. Introduction: The West Asian and North African uprisings and the limits of liberal governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullin, C.; Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2015-01-01

    This special section brings together scholars working in divergent disciplines and locations. By focusing on agency and politics from below in addition to the structural and discursive contexts that condition wider relations between the West Asian and North African (WANA) region and the European

  13. Lawyers Mobilizing in the Tunisian Uprising: A Matter of “Generations”?

    OpenAIRE

    Gobe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    International audience; If the young lawyers from the lower-level legal profession joined in massive numbers the marches, protests, and sit-ins that fed the protest movement, it was the professionals with experience in political activism that were the organizers of the lower-level lawyers mobilization. From this point of view, political engagement by the lawyers appears as “transgenerational.” But their participation in the protest movement was mainly due to its young segment, which followed ...

  14. To the Issue of the Influence of Islam in Chechen Uprising in 1825 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Lobanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors analyze the causes, course and results of the rebellion of the highland plains of Chechnya and Dagestan in 1825. The special attention is given to the Muslim religion, which acted as an ideological factor in the formation of military-political confrontation of mountain peoples of the Caucasus and the Russian Empire. Analyzing the role of the leaders of the movement, such as Bay-Bulat Taimiev, the authors come to the conclusion that at this stage of confrontation with Russia, the mountaineers were able to rally not only the strong hand of military leader, but also islam. The relatively recent adoption of islam Vainakh tapes, and therefore low religiosity has led to the fact that the Muslim clergy were in a subordinate position in relation to the military-political leadership. The authors also share the concept of «Jihad» and «Gazavat» and conclude that for the highlanders Chechnya this movement had the character for «Gazavat» or struggle under religious banners in defense of its own territory, while Jihad must be understood as a struggle for the spread of Islam. The important issue is the formation of the foundations of statehood of the Chechens in the military-political events, the organization of institutions of local administrative authorities. These measures have helped Bay-Bulat to consolidate disparate and often warring highland society a common goal, and islam helped to overcome the intergeneric and intertribal tensions and marked the beginning of the folding of the Chechen nation. All this the authors parse based on the extensive material, including unpublished archival sources.

  15. "Postponed Endings": Youth Music and Affective Politics in Post-Uprisings Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sprengel, Darci

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines how Egyptian youth use “do-it-yourself” (DIY) music to produce social change under conditions of authoritarianism. DIY music is made by youth, who use low-budget home studios and Internet software to produce innovative new styles that mix Arab musical aesthetics with globally-circulating genres such as hip-hop, rock, jazz, metal, and electronic music. Building from approximately 30 months of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt since 2010, it demons...

  16. Time for a Sport Sex-Discrimination Uprising of a Different Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopiano, Donna A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the frequency of athlete sexual abuse in the United States is almost nonexistent. However, anecdotal data from news reports abound. This article offers an advocacy agenda of strong steps that can be taken to protect athletes from coach sexual abuse, especially female athletes.

  17. Decentralization, Counterinsurgency and Conflict Recurrence: A Study of the Tuareg Uprisings in Mali and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Accord d’Alger: Une remise en cause selon un journal malien,” Algeria watch: informations sur la situation des droits humain en Algérie, last updated...affected by the rebellion and imposed a curfew in the regional capital . On August 24 67 “Niger Human...prior to the MNLA assault.96 The central government in Bamako must capitalize on the MNLA’s current situation, enlisting their assistance in

  18. The Arab Uprisings and Social Rights: Asian Migrant Workers in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Picard , Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Arab spring of 2011 first reverberated in Lebanon in the form of political protest against the rule, not of one despotic autocrat but of a clique of collusive confessional leaders. Soon, however, demands and demonstrations in favor of reform and secularization fizzled out, engulfed by the 8 March - 14 March dispute exacerbated by the spilling over of the Syrian crisis. Democratization forces and anti-system groups appeared divided along confessional and clannish lines. Hope for political ...

  19. he sacrificial emplotment of national identity. Pádraic Pearse and the 1916 Easter uprising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Colm Hogan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A sense of national identification remains amorphous and inert unless it is cognitively structured and motivationally oriented. Perhaps the most consequential way of structuring and orienting nationalism is through emplotment (organizing in the form of a story. Emplotment commonly follows one of a few cross-culturally recurring genres. In nationalist contexts, the heroic genre—treating military conflict, loss or potential loss, and reasserted sovereignty–is the default form. However, this default may be overridden in particular circumstances. When social devastation precludes heroic achievement, a sacrificial emplotment—treating collective sin, punishment, sacrifice, and redemption—is often particularly salient. Earlier work has examined cases of sacrificial emplotment in its most extreme varieties (treating Hitler and Gandhi. The following essay considers a more ordinary case, the sacrificial nationalism of the prominent Irish anti-colonial revolutionary, Pádraic Pearse, as represented in his plays.

  20. Intellectuals and the People. Portrayals of the Rebel in the 2011 Egyptian Uprising

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šabasevičiūtė, Giedrė

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Spring (2016), s. 23-32 E-ISSN 2196-629X Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : 25th of January revolution * Egypt * Abd al-Fatah al-Sisi Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://meta-journal.net/article/view/3791/4989

  1. Trust and tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A comparative perspective on the impact of the Arab uprisings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.

    2017-01-01

    The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are

  2. International support for the Arab Uprisings: Understanding sympathy protests using theories of social identity and social dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, A.L.; Pratto, F.; Bou Zeineddine, F.; Sweetman, J.; Eicher, V.; Licata, L.; Morselli, D.; Saab, R.; Aiello, A.; Chryssochoou, X.; Cichocka, A.; Cidam, A.; Foels, R.; Giguére, B.; Li, L.; Prati, F.; van Stekelenburg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the popular Arab protests against oppressive regimes that began in 2010, people around the world protested in sympathy with the Arab peoples. The present research draws on two major theories of intergroup relations to develop an initial integrative model of sympathetic collective action.

  3. When Art Is the Weapon: Culture and Resistance Confronting Violence in the Post-Uprisings Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark LeVine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This articles explores the explosion of artistic production in the Arab world during the so-called Arab Spring. Focusing on music, poetry, theatre, and graffiti and related visual arts, I explore how these “do-it-yourself” scenes represent, at least potentially, a “return of the aura” to the production of culture at the edge of social and political transformation. At the same time, the struggle to retain a revolutionary grounding in the wake of successful counter-revolutionary moves highlights the essentially “religious” grounding of “committed” art at the intersection of intense creativity and conflict across the Arab world.

  4. Revival of Political Islam in the Aftermath of the Arab Uprisings: Implications for the Region and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    it is a consid- erable issue… not only for Tunisians but for the whole Mediterranean space and thus for France .26 Ideological Opposition of...political power.34 The “Islamic Bourgeoisie ,” referring to the Anatolian en- trepreneurs, is considered the backbone of the AKP’s economic and political...strategic relations with emerging global pow- ers? For a country like France , the dramatic changes in the political landscape sowed doubts in politi- 27

  5. Uprisings In An Age Of Uncertainty: A Look At The Potential For US Sponsored Social Movements To Achieve Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Seminar Leader Kevin P. Romano, COL , Director, School of Advanced Military Studies Henry A. Arnold III, COL Accepted this 10th...Romano, my seminar leader , for his support and guidance through the research process. Third, I would like to thank Dr. John Breen. His knowledge and...states and influence autocratic regimes.65 White asserts that direct confrontation, or conventional war, has become impractical, and that a turn to

  6. Strategy of adaptation in the management system at the Egyptian Universities after Arab Spring Uprising - revolution and aftermath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowski Piotr F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł prezentuje wyniki badań dotyczące doboru odpowiedniej strategii rozwoju przez uniwersytety egipskie, w dobie kryzysu politycznego. W Egipcie, po rewolucji roku 2011 i obaleniu prezydenta Mubaraka, nastąpił okres nieprzewidywalnych zmian politycznych, których efektem są ciągłe demonstracje i zamieszki na ulicach dużych miast. W lipcu 2013 roku miały miejsce kolejne niepokoje społeczne, które doprowadziły do upadku prezydentury Morsiego i wprowadzeniu kontroli przez armię. W tak niestabilnym, burzliwym i nieprzewidywalnym otoczeniu uniwersytety poszukują dla siebie właściwej ścieżki rozwoju. Jednym z przyjętych rozwiązań jest stosowana przez Uniwersytety strategia adaptacji, która w Egipcie spotyka się jednakże z silnymi uwarunkowaniami kulturowo-społecznymi

  7. The Arab Spring in Egypt: What are the Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    that hangs in Morsi’s childhood bedroom. The poster is of the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem . Emblazed on it is the slogan, “We will return, oh Aqsa.”9...Arabs and the Jews and we will regain Jerusalem .” People can certainly change, but these glimpses into President Morsi’s past create apprehension...consensus, and judicial opinion. 7 "Mohamed Morsi." 2013. The Biography Channel website. Dec 17 2012, 07:50 http://www.biography.com/people/mohamed-morsi

  8. The Association of Exposure, Risk, and Resiliency Factors With PTSD Among Jews and Arabs Exposed to Repeated Acts of Terrorism in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Varley, Joseph D.; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Israel has faced ongoing terrorism since the beginning of the Al Aqsa Intifada in September 2000. The authors examined risk and resiliency factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 1,117 Jews and 394 Arab adult citizens of Israel during August and September 2004 through telephone interviews. Probable PTSD was found among 6.6% of Jews and 18.0% of Arabs. Predictors of probable PTSD in a multivariate model for Jews were refusal to report income, being traditionally religious, economic and psychosocial resource loss, greater traumatic growth, and lower social support. For Arabs, predictors were low education and economic resource loss among those exposed to terrorism. Findings for only those directly exposed to terrorism were similar to those for the overall national sample. PMID:18302179

  9. THE FARTHEST MOSQUE OR THE ALLEGED TEMPLE AN ANALYTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Hassan Wazeri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Farthest Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem has been associated in the consciousness of the Muslims, with The Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah through a spiritual bond since the event of Isra’ (Night Journey and Mi`raj (Ascension to Heaven. The objective of this study is to determine the orientation of the Farthest Mosque and illustrate the similarity in geometric shape (plan and proportions, between the Farthest Mosque in Jerusalem and the sacred mosque (Al-Ka`bah in Makkah, in the first part of the research. The second part of the research involves a study of some texts from the Old Testament that address the architectural and structural descriptions of the alleged temple, with the purpose of exposing whether glaring contradictions exist between the texts of the Old Testament themselves or between them and the real architectural and structural facts acknowledged by specialists in this field. Keywords: The Farthest mosque, the Alleged Temple, Al-Ka`bah, geometric similarity     Abstrak Masjid tertua (Masjid al-Aqsa di Jarusalem telah dihubungkan dalam kesadaran umat muslim, dengan masjid suci (Masjidil Haram di Mekah melalui ikatan spiritual sejak kejadian Isra’ (perjalanan malam dan Mi’raj (kenaikan  ke  surga.  Tujuan  dari  kajian  ini  adalah  untuk  menentukan  orientasi  masjid  tertua  and menggambarkan kesamaan bentuk geometri (denah dan proporsi, antara masjid tertua di Jarusalem dan masjid suci (Ka’bah di Mekah, di bagian pertama penelitian. Bagian kedua penelitian melibatkan kajian beberapa tulisan dari surat wasiat kuno yang mengarah kepada deskripsi arsitektural dan struktural kuil, dengan tujuan mengekspos baik kontradiksi yang mencolok antara tulisan surat wasiat kuno itu sendiri maupun di antara mereka, dan fakta arsitektural dan struktural yang nyata diakui oleh spesialis di lapangan   Kata kunci: masjid tertua, kuil, ka’bah, kesamaan geometri

  10. EL SURGIMIENTO DE LO TRÁGICO Y NUEVAS FORMAS DE INSURRECCIÓN SOCIAL SURGIMENTO DA COISA TRÁGICA: AS NOVOS FORMAS DA EXPRESSÃO SOCIAL TRAGIC UPRISING AND NEW FORMS OF SOCIAL INSURRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el medio urbano se manifiesta una insurrección latente y manifiesta, con expresiones múltiples y cada vez más variadas e imaginativas. La violencia se muestra con su expresión física y también con una expresión de odiosidad contra lo instituido y contra el tipo de relaciones sociales e interpersonales vigentes. Es necesario reflexionar sobre lo impensable, sobre aquello que creíamos impenetrable desde lo no-racional. Pensar el no-racional está muy lejos de ser irracional. El gran fantasma de la asepsia social ha pretendido expulsar la sombra que roe el cuerpo individual y colectivo. El análisis, en términos de contrato social, de ciudadanía, de ideal democrático, ha sido incapaz de explicar los estallidos de pasión y emociones tribales. La pregunta es cómo enfrentar esta realidad social en ebullición, con las limitaciones normativas y moralesNo meio urbano manifesta-se uma insurreição latente com expressões múltiplas de formas cada vez mais variadas e imaginativas. A violência urbana apresenta-se como expressão física, ódio contra o instituído e contra o modelo de relações sociais e interpessoais vigentes. É necessário refletir sobre o impensável, sobre aquilo que julgávamos indecifrável desde o não-racional. Pensar o não-racional está muito distante de ser irracional. O grande fantasma da assepsia social pretendeu expulsar a sombra que corroe o corpo individual e coletivo. A análise, em termos de contrato social,cidadania e ideal democrático foi incapaz de explicar as explosões de paixão e emoções tribais. A pergunta que se apresenta é de como enfrentar esta realidade social em ebulição com as limitações normativas e moraisUrban areas are experiencing a latent rebellion, which is manifesting itself in numerous forms; each wave the culmination of increasing variety and imagination. Violence, a physical expression of this rebellion captures the hatred felt towards the establishment, in particular towards the prevailing social networks and societal relationships currently in force. It is therefore necessary to reflect upon the unthinkable, over that which we have considered unthinkable since the non-rational: to think that the non-rational is far from being irrational. The spirit of this great social asepsis has sought to expel the darkness, which corrodes both the body of the individual and society as a whole. Analysis, in terms of social contract, citizenship, and a democratic ideal has been incapable of explaining the aforementioned detonation of tribal passion and emotion. The question that we now face is how must we confront this flammable reality within the bounds of normative ethics and morality

  11. "More human than human": instrumentalización y sublevación de los sujetos artificiales / «More Human than Human»: Instrumentalization and Uprising of Artificial Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Escudero Pérez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La vida sintética, orgánica y mixta creada artificialmente tiene siempre como fin satisfacer algún tipo de necesidad de su creador, el ser humano. La inteligencia de estos engendros, así como su interacción con el medio, puede ser muy variable proporcionándoles distintos grados de conciencia. Desde los robots de limpieza hasta los clones, pasando por cíborgs y replicantes o por superordenadores que toman el mando, el inventario de sujetos artificiales autoconscientes en el cine de ciencia ficción es prácticamente inagotable. En el presente artículo abordaremos algunas de sus representaciones más icónicas e influyentes para el género, así como el impacto que estas han tenido sobre nuestra concepción de la propia naturaleza humana.Palabras clave: artificial, sujeto, identidad, instrumentalización, robot, clon, cíborg, consciencia, humanidad, creación.AbstractArtificially created life, whether it is synthetic, organic or mixed, always has the purpose of fulfilling some need of its creator, human kind. The intelligence of these beings as well as their interaction with the environment can vary widely, providing them with different degrees of consciousness. From maintenance robots to clones, through cyborgs and replicants or supercomputers that take control, the inventory of self-conscious artificial subjects in science fiction is almost endless. In this article we will take a look at some of the most iconic and influential manifestations of artificial identities in Sci Fi and see how they have moulded our perception of human nature itself.Keywords: artificial, subject, identity, instrumentalization, robot, clone, cyborg, consciousness, humanity, creation.

  12. Militærets betydning for demokratisering under det arabiske forar-tilfældene Tunesien, Egypten og Syrien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Popular uprising against authoritarian regimes is not enough to allow transition towards democracy to begin. The military has the final word on whether such an uprising will be successful or the uprising will be repressed in order to preserve the incumbent dictatorship. The military supported...

  13. Re-evaluating the Disengagement Process: the Case of Fatah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Clubb

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a number of studies have looked at the disengagement/de-radicalisation of terrorist groups and individuals. This article critically assesses part of this literature in relation to the process of voluntary collective disengagement, using the case of the Palestinian Fatah organization as an example. It questions the specific focus of most de-radicalisation studies upon solely ending the use of the terrorist tactic, arguing that the disengagement process should be studied in conjunction with groups ceasing to use other forms of political violence as well. Although the article favours an objective definition of terrorism, it also recognises the salience of the term's normative power and argues that both perspectives can play a role in the disengagement process. This process can be divided into a number of stages: (i declarative disengagement, (ii behavioural disengagement, (iii organisational disengagement, and (iv de-radicalisation. Fatah's disengagement process demonstrates that the process can be conditional, reversible, and selective. Consequently, a number of problems arise in terms of defining when an organisation has actually ceased to use terrorism and other forms of political violence. The article argues that Fatah represents a case of mixed disengagement; it was selective, conditional and mostly only behavioural. However, despite the disengagement process only being partially successful during the Oslo period - and reversed considerably during the al-Aqsa Intifada - it has had some lasting effects on the organisation, making it less likely to re-engage in terrorism.

  14. The Impact of the Dimensions of the Administrative Decision Support Systems on the Re-engineering of the Systems of the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip from the Employees’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Jehad I. Al Shobaki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the impact of the dimensions of the administrative decision support systems on the re-engineering of the systems of the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip from the standpoint of employees. A descriptive approach was used through which a questionnaire was developed and distributed to a stratified random sample. (500 questionnaires were distributed and (449 were returned, with (89.8% response rate. The study revealed these results: There was an effect for the potentials (physical, human, technical, and organizational design available for the decision support systems and re-engineering of the systems in the Palestinian higher education institutions in Gaza Strip.There were significant differences between the assessment means of the study sample about the impact of decision support systems to re-engineer the systems in the Palestinian higher education institutions in Gaza Strip due to the gender variable in favor of males. There also differences due to the name of the university variable in favor of the Islamic University, Al Azhar University, Al Aqsa University, respectively. It was recommended that Palestinian higher education institutions which intend to start re-engineering the systems should be encouraged immediately start the process. These institutions should also develop the infrastructure of the decisions support systems when re-engineering their operations. Keywords: Decision support systems, Re-engineering, Palestinian higher education institutions.

  15. The Role of the Temple Mount / Al-Haram Al-Sharif in the Deterioration of Muslim–Jewish Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Ma'oz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For both Jews and Muslims the Temple Mount and the Old City of Jerusalem constitute highly important religious, cultural, political and national centres. For centuries Jews in the diaspora prayed in the direction of Jerusalem, vowed never to forget it (‘If I forget thee Jerusalem, may my right arm wither’; and blessed one another ‘Next year in Jerusalem’. The Zionist-Jewish movement (since the 1880s – although predominantly secular – has considered Jerusalem (Zion as the political and cultural centre of the Jewish people.By comparison, the Palestinian-Arab national movement has, since the 1920s established its national and political-cultural centre in East Jerusalem, while the Haram al Sharif, particularly the Al-Aqsa Mosque, has continued to be a top religious shrine for Muslims. They termed it Awla Al-Qiblatayn (the first prayer direction before Mecca; Thani Masjidayn (the second mosque after Mecca; a place where Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven (Isra’ and Mi’raj.This article will examine the changes in Muslim–Jewish mutual relations, especially since 1967, at both government and public levels. Special attention will be given to the development of both Islamic Judeophobia and Jewish Islamophobia, which have been associated with the dispute over the Temple Mount and East Jerusalem.

  16. RUSSIAN PEASANTRY IN THE CIVIL WAR: ISTORIOGRAPHY ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Grehova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of the peasantry during the civil war of 1918-1920 Soviet History. The article is an analysis of the nature of peasant uprisings by historians. It's attention is turned towards the reasons, causes and extent of the uprisings.

  17. Will politics be tweeted? New media use by Iranian youth in 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Smith, B.

    2014-01-01

    The uprisings after the 2009 elections in Iran generated debate on new media’s potential to affect dissent in authoritarian countries. We surveyed 2800 young, educated, metropolitan, and technologically savvy Iranians over a year after the election and during the uprisings in the Middle East and

  18. Christian activism and the fallists : What about reconciliation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headley, Selena; Kobe, Sandiswa L.

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand what role Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement, and the Soweto Uprising, played in Christian activism between the early 1970s and late 1980s. The question is: did the Black Consciousness Movement and the Soweto Uprising influence Christian activists to

  19. Psychological obstacles to peace-making in the Middle East and proposals to overcome them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bar-Tal

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the relations between the Israeli Jews and the Palestinians, in the context of the Al Aqsa Intifada, suggests a sad paradox. On the one hand, the majority of people in both societies are ready for far-reaching compromises in order to resolve the Palestinian-Israeli conflict peacefully. But, on the other hand, the majority of people in both societies stereotype their opponents with extremely negative characteristics and feel a profound mistrust that prevents any possible negotiation and solution of the conflict. The paper explains the described paradox on the basis of the theory of transitional context, focusing on the Israeli Jewish society. The transitional context consists of observable and well-defined physical, social, political, economic, military and psychological conditions that are of a temporary nature and construct the environment in which individuals and collectives function. These conditions arise as a result of major events and major information that are perceived and apprehended by society members, and then they affect their behavior and functioning. In the case of the Israeli Jewish society, the context consisted of major events and provided major information that shed light on them, related to the Camp David summit and the beginning of the Al Aqsa Intifada in 2000. This context served as a basis for the emergence of fear, delegitimization of the Palestinians and a self-collective view as a victim, which became major obstacles that prevented any meaningful negotiation towards the achievement of a peaceful solution. They in turn led to support for violent acts against the Palestinians, support of a leader who projects a determination to deal harshly with the rival, feelings of irreconcilability and support for unilateral separation from the Palestinians. The last part of the paper describes in general terms the psychological state that both societies should strive to reach in the present situation of violent conflict

  20. Management level of Intellectual Capital in the Palestinian Universities from the Perspective of Faculty Members in Relationship to the Aspects of Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.R. Assaf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the degree of assessment given by faculty members of the Palestinian universities about their efforts in managing the intellectual capital, and to identify the aspects of excellence mostly preferred by them and the relationship between these aspects. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the descriptive method by applying two questionnaires: the first consisting of (37 items; and the second comprising (28 items distributed to (4 areas. The sample consisted of (229 faculty members from these universities: (Al-Azhar, the Islamic university and al-Aqsa. They were selected using the random stratified method. The results were as follows: The respondents’ total degree of assessment of the efforts exerted by the universities in intellectual capital was at the rate of (63.8%, which is a medium degree. The area of (management of relations came in first place at a rate of (71.2% with a large degree. The ‘management of intellectual and organizational assets’ was given the last rank with a medium degree and the rate of (56.80% The aspect of excellence that was given the first rank by the respondents was the (development of faculty members and teaching at the rate of (65.2 % , and with a medium degree. The least trend is (supporting talent and creativity which came in the last rank, with a medium degree and a rate of (59.4%. There was a statistically significant correlation of (α≤0.05 between the degree of respondents’ assessment of university efforts in managing intellectual capital and their assessment of the aspects of excellence, recording a correlation coefficient of (0.737 .  Keywords: Aspects of excellence, Intellectual capital, Efforts of Palestinian Universities.

  1. Capital Structure and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Zeitun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate the effect which capital structure has had on corporate performanceusing a panel data sample representing of 167 Jordanian companies during 1989-2003. Ourresults showed that a firm’s capital structure had a significantly negative impact on the firm’sperformance measures, in both the accounting and market’s measures. We also found that theshort-term debt to total assets (STDTA level has a significantly positive effect on the marketperformance measure (Tobin’s Q. The Gulf Crisis 1990-1991 was found to have a positiveimpact on Jordanian corporate performance while the outbreak of Intifadah in the West Bank andGaza in September 2000 had a negative impact on corporate performance.

  2. Publications | Page 11 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    insurrection syrienne. Les récentes projections à Ottawa du film primé Little Gandhi: The lost truth of the Syrian uprising ont été chaleureusement accueillies tant par les parlementaires que par le public.

  3. Ottawa exprime son soutien lors des projections du documentaire ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 mars 2017 ... Les récentes projections à Ottawa du film primé Little Gandhi: The lost truth of the Syrian uprising ont été chaleureusement accueillies tant par les parlementaires que par le public.

  4. Publications | Page 106 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and institutions to build local capacity through funding, knowledge sharing, and ... Anti-sprouting, anti-microbial and insecticidal properties of plants from Cusco ... and Arab Spring uprisings have led governments to recognise the power of ...

  5. The Suppression of Internal Unrest in South West Africa (Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AM Fokkens

    suppression of the Bondelswarts and the actions against Chief Ipumbu. This article .... firepower was an appropriate response to suppress the uprising of local ..... Morris accompanied by Beukes and a commando of 50 men, moved east.

  6. Experience of department of internal diseases propaedeutics in formation of cultural level of future physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsov Yu.I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the study at clinical departments, ethics and deontology in communication between students and patients are discussed in the article. Special attention is paid to uprising of the cultural level of students.

  7. Russia’s Impossible Position on Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Follebouckt, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The uprising in Syria is increasingly veering towards a full-fledged civil war, which raises legitimate fears for the stability of the Middle East as a whole and, more critically, for Russia’s credibility on the international front

  8. Search Results | Page 925 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 9241 - 9250 of 9603 ... One factor behind the poor quality of Thai education is inequality in ... uprisings have led governments to recognise the power of online media. ... Annex 17 : dissemination Workshop of CIFSRF Project in Theni [final ...

  9. Nigeria's Boko Haram and its Security Dynamics in the West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fineman

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... 2018. 103. Haram uprising (2009-present) in Nigeria and the Liberian ... from violent extremism to ethnonational conflict, election-related violence, .... nationals and non-national could be considered as an attempt to export its ...

  10. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Libya: Reviewing Operation Unified Protector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Qaddafi appeared on state TV. He de- clared he was “in pain” about the removal of Tunisia President Ben Ali, and described the demonstrators as “led...only be- cause of large petrol resources but also the existence of maritime choke points and one of the most important world trade routes, it attracts... Tunisia Uprising,” The Guardian, January 16, 2011, available from www.guardian.co.uk/ world/2011/jan/16/muammar-gaddafi-condemns- tunisia -uprising

  11. In The Wake of Pugachev’s Rebellion: Experience in Oral History

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita V. Shevtsov

    2016-01-01

    Grand uprising led by Pugachev seized a vast area from the middle reaches of the Volga, the Urals and the Kazakh steppes. Thousands of people from different classes and nationalities joined rebellious Ural Cossacks in 1773. From the beginning, the uprising was of antimonarchic, not noble character, although its leader, and posed as a resurrected Emperor Peter III. During two years since 1773 the rebels were holding at bay the entire Russian Empire, becoming a real threat to the power of Cathe...

  12. Indigenous Competition for Control in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    made in return for their support. Despite this natural affinity, it took time for MNR planning to mature with respect to the Indian population. In...1949, the MNR attempted to seize power through a series of urban uprisings, yet they were soundly defeated. Planning for the uprising revealed the...to take control of Bolivia’s labor unions. This included the Federacion Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia (FSTMB), which had been allowed

  13. Indoor radon concentration measurements in Tarqumia Girl Schools at Western Hebron Region, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabyneh, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, radon-222 in indoor air was surveyed in 62 rooms located in four governmental schools, for girls, in Tarqumia town that lies in the north western part of Hebron city in Palestine. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from the inhalation of radon and its daughters by 2318 pupils and 102 staff members occupying the surveyed rooms were also measured. TASTRAK, a solid state nuclear track detector, has been used to measure the indoor radon concentrations at those schools thus, 124 radon detectors were distributed in the four school buildings. The radon detectors stayed for 70 days between February 2006 and April 2006. The results showed that the radon concentration and the annual effective dose equivalent in these schools were varied from 12 to 232.5 Bq/m 3 with an average of 34.1 Bq/m 3 and 0.62 to 12.0 mSv/y with an average of 1.76 mSv/y, respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in Tarqumia secondary girls school, Al-aqsa elementary girls school, Umsalama elementary girls school and Tarqumia elementary girls school were 35.8, 26.7, 25.9 and 47.8 Bq/m 3 , respectively, and the mean values of the annual effective dose equivalent for the above mentioned were 1.85, 1.38, 1.34 and 2.47 mSv/y, respectively. It has been found from these results that, most of the values were of nominal state values (that is less than the allowed global values) and in few places, the concentration was higher than the allowed global values, therefore, the annual effective dose higher than annual global level values (1.3 mSv/y) was resulted. Poor ventilation and old buildings were, most mobility, the main cause of these high radon concentrations. Improving ventilation of these places will increase air exchange rates with the out side, thereby resulting in reduced concentration. In general, the results showed that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for pupils and staff members occupying the rooms of the investigated schools

  14. Alborotados, sediciosos y amotinados: tres momentos en la construcción de una prosa contrainsurgente sobre el levantamiento comunero de 1781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Díaz Jaramillo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the manner in which the Comunero Uprising of 1781 was interpreted and chronicled, in three documents produced in the XVIII and XIX centuries. It is remarkable that early on, as regards the uprising,diverse representatives of the Spanish Empire(scribes, civil and religious authorities, etc. assumed the task of interpreting the insurrectional movement and of providing correctivemeasures to circumvent their reproduction in the viceroyalty. Thereby, the article seeks to give account of the creation of a counter insurgent narrative concerning the rebellion of the joint owners of land, by visiting the proposal made by Ranajit Guha, on the subject of the peasant uprisings in India between the XVIII and XIX centuries

  15. Bloody Days [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minkov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available “Bloody Days” is a novel published in 1943 by Tsvetan Minkov (1891 – 1967. This journal version of the book contains four of its chapters. These chapters provide a description of the preparation of the Belogradchik uprising of 1850 – the meeting of the Belogradchik leaders with the Russian Great Duкe Constantine Nikolaevich at Athos monastery; the activity of the Belogradchik conspirators before the uprising; the first national assembly in the winter of 1849 at the Monastery of Rakovitsa.

  16. Open Crowd-Sourced Online Digital Review of Asia Pacific | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising screening in New York ... Chrystia Freeland, Minister of International Trade, announced a new project to be ... storage capability coupled with the rise of social media and Internet business ...

  17. Reflections on the 1986 Student Movement: Some Paradoxes in France's System of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruson, Pascale

    1988-01-01

    Events and factors leading to the 1986 uprising among French university students are outlined and discussed. The protest and its tragic results occurred because of a sometimes misunderstood new plan to restrict admissions and impose higher fees in order to make the system more efficient. (MSE)

  18. The Use of Postcolonial Theory in Social Studies Education Some Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Najwan Lleeb

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I explain the basic tenets of postcolonial theory and its possible implications for teaching social studies and global issues in American high schools. The use of this theory is becoming increasingly significant, given the growing Islamophobia and Orientalism in the United States, the ongoing uprisings in the Middle East, and the…

  19. Refugees and taxation : Beyond the refugee crisis: A reflection from different perspectives on the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Kilian

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the Arab Spring and the subsequent civil uprisings and wars in – among other countries – Iraq, Libya and Syria, and numerous other violations of human rights, thousands of people have fled their home countries and applied for asylum in the European Union in recent years. While the

  20. Ottawa shows support at screenings of documentary about Syrian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    Mar 22, 2017 ... Recent Ottawa screenings of the award-winning film Little Gandhi: The lost truth of the Syrian uprising, were warmly received by ... “It is a treasure that needs to be protected.” ... Innovation sows seeds of hope in dry areas.

  1. Die Gezi-Park-Proteste in der Türkei 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Akbal, Gül

    2015-01-01

    The uprising in Turkey 2013 that started with protests against the demolition of the Gezi Park soon became a nation-wide movement for more democracy. The author describes the movement and discusses it in the context of civil resistance movements.

  2. An unfulfilled promise: Twitter and the dictatorial past in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, M; Trilling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Social media offer a space for deliberation and can serve as an important tool in democracy. However, little is known about the extent to which this is happening - especially outside the US and Europe and unrelated to uprisings in non-democratic societies. We argue that in defect democracies,

  3. Collateral Damage: Veterans and Domestic Violence in Mari Sandoz's "The Tom-Walker"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    "The Tom-Walker" combines the best of Sandoz's realism with her worst attempts at moralizing. Unable to divine exactly what political configuration right-wing post-World War II sentiments might take, Sandoz nevertheless feared a fascist uprising in this country. Perhaps because these concerns dominated her thoughts at the time, she allowed her…

  4. Zhuang Zi's Rhetorical Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia

    The memory of the student uprising at Tiananmen Square in 1989 invites one professor to examine more closely what she does: rhetoric and composition, especially rhetorical invention. To examine the kind of power exercised by official Chinese public discourse and whether language could help to avoid reoccurrences such as the loss of innocent…

  5. Boko Haram : Islamism, politics, security and the state in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérouse, de Montclos M.-A.

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to understand Boko Haram in a comprehensive and consistent way. It examines the early history of the sect and its transformation into a radical armed group. It analyses the causes of the uprising against the Nigerian state and evaluates the consequences of the on-going

  6. The impact of the explosion of EU news on voter choice in the 2014 EU Elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; van Atteveldt, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    The European elections in 2014 were the first to be held after a long period in which EU-related news was prominent in the media. They were held after years of daily news about the euro crisis and after months of news about the popular uprising in the Ukraine against president Yanukovych, who had

  7. Media challenging capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Digital media and especially so-called ‘social media’ have on the one hand been ascribed the power to change societies and empower democratic movements following the thoughts of e.g. Rheingold (2004), recently fueled by the democratic uprising in Arabic countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, Iran and ...

  8. Critical Pedagogy and the Decolonial Option: Challenges to the Inevitability of Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzó, Lilia D.; McLaren, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The demise of capitalism was theoretically prophesied by Marx who posited that the world would come to such a state of destruction and human suffering that no amount of coercion or concessions would suffice to stop the massive uprisings that would lead us into a new socialist alternative. Although the downfall of world capitalism may seem…

  9. Strategic maneuvering in supporting the feasibility of political change: A pragma-dialectical analysis of Egyptian anti-regime columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omar, A.A.A.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Paving the way to the revolutionary uprising of 2011, Egyptian anti-regime columnists aimed at convincing their audiences that a political change towards democracy would not only be desirable but also feasible. The extended pragma-dialectical argumentation theory is used as a theoretical and

  10. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  11. Sequencing two cooperating automated stacking cranes in a container terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, I.F.A.; Carlo, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The containerized trade market is growing rapidly with the uprising of the Far East. Container ports worldwide should be responsive by developing tools to handle these massive volumes of containers in order to retain their level of competitiveness. One of the areas in a container terminal that is

  12. Colonial Legacy, Women's Rights and Gender-Educational Inequality in the Arab World with Particular Reference to Egypt and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society;…

  13. LITERATURE AND LIFE: THE DECLINE AND FALL OF APARTHEID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fall of apartheid in selected works published in the eighties and early nineties. And my argument is .... niscent of the 1976 Soweto uprising, reject their inferior education all over the ..... establishment of black majority rule in South Africa. But this ...

  14. The 1956 Hungarian refugee emergency, an early and instructive case of resettlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieck, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soviet repression of the Hungarian uprising in 1956 caused an exodus of 200,000 refugees. Most of the refugees fled to Austria. Austria immediately called on states to help both financially and by physically sharing the refugees by means of resettlement. As a result, most of the refugees were

  15. Introduction : Global Cultures of Contestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeren, E.; Celikates, R.; de Kloet, J.; Poell, T.; Peeren, E.; Celikates, R.; de Kloet, J.; Poell, T.

    2018-01-01

    From the popular uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East in early 2011, via the Spanish indignados and Occupy Wall Street to the Umbrella movement in Hong Kong, recent years have seen major instances of popular contestation across the world. Moving beyond positions that present a singularly

  16. Société du savoir arabe - qui représente le monde arabe en ligne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Visionnement du film Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising à New York. La mission du Canada auprès des Nations Unies projettera des extraits du film Little Gandhi, un documentaire sur la Syrie subventionné par le CDRI. Voir davantageVisionnement du film Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian ...

  17. Protection de la vie privée dans l'univers numérique des pays en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Visionnement du film Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian Uprising à New York. La mission du Canada auprès des Nations Unies projettera des extraits du film Little Gandhi, un documentaire sur la Syrie subventionné par le CDRI. Voir davantageVisionnement du film Little Gandhi —The Lost Truth of the Syrian ...

  18. Motivations-Attributes-Skills-Knowledge Model as Framework for Leadership Assessment Balanced Scorecards: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of history many leaders have made their mark on society. These leaders have led uprisings, movements, and organizations that have left legacy's in today's society. Leaders such as Martin Luther King, Adolph Hitler, and Jack Welch have displayed behaviors and leadership competencies which motivated their followers. These…

  19. Unusual Suspects: "Ultras" as political actors in the Egyptian Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, R.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an examination into the mobilization of Ultras, a social group of aggressive football fans, within the Egyptian revolution as part of the larger Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. Comments are given noting how the Ultras are a good example of how non-political groups became active

  20. The role of human development in the transition to democracy after the Arab Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapanos, Grigorios

    2017-01-01

    Tunisia has had a rather smooth transition from dictatorship to democracy, in contrast to other countries where the uprisings either failed or led to civil wars (Syria and Libya) or there was a return to autocracy (Egypt). Our analysis shows that Tunisia had a much better performance in all human...

  1. Humanitarian Intervention: Is it an Emerging Responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    a cure . Affected countries collapse into anarchy. Violent uprisings occur across the globe. International trade slows to a crawl. Governments...the 1918 pandemic, work absentee rates were 20-40% in some areas. Railroad worker absenteeism threatened transportation systems in the U.S.74 21

  2. What Does It Mean to Be Young for Syrian Men Living as Refugees in Cairo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Suerbaum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Syrian young men who fled to Egypt after the uprising in 2011. Their life was affected by the challenges stemming from displacement, such as their confrontation with new responsibilities, unknown vulnerabilities and emotions, liminality and precarity. They suffered from forced displacement in a gender- and age-specific way.

  3. 05 Pavel 03.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    showing the ways in which the contents related to the state of subjugation, such as political repressions, forced migration, critique of the rulers, unfortunate national uprisings were all included in the books whose main plot took place in South Africa. Paradoxically, the symbolism of subjugation was accompanied by Polish ...

  4. Terrorism and governance crisis: The Boko Haram experience in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast to this popular view, this article argues that, despite the strategic role played by Islamic religion in the uprising, terrorism and its security threats in northern Nigeria are more a product of a governance crisis including pervasive corruption, growing youth unemployment and poverty. It further argues that if good ...

  5. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  6. Experimenting with alternative futures in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Lei

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates young middle-class Egyptians' engagement with the religious and national visions of Resala, Egypt's largest Muslim youth NGO, and how they come to rethink themselves existentially and politically through this commitment, in the context of the 2011 uprising and its...

  7. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...

  8. Knitting Relational Documentary Networks: The Database Meta-Documentary Filming Revolution as a paradigm of bringing interactive audio-visual archives alive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehl, Anna

    2016-01-01

    abstractOne phenomenon in the emerging field of digital documentary are experiments with rhizomatic interfaces and database-logics to bring audio-visual archives 'alive'. A paradigm hereof is Filming Revolution (2015), an interactive platform which gathers and interlinks films of the uprisings in

  9. The Collins Center Update. Volume 9, Issue 3, April-June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    already persuaded populace as a means of lightweight engagement. An example includes the popular uprising in Spain after the subway bombings, where...of the nation-state may be usurped by the power of the corporation, the power of the loosely organized franchise and even the power of the

  10. Black Teachers and the Struggle against Apartheid: Oral Histories from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Presents the oral histories of three black educators who resisted apartheid and helped raise students' self-esteem despite the demeaning Bantu Education curriculum, experiencing multiple failures and successes in the era between the 1976 Soweto uprising and the end of apartheid in the early 1990s. All three resisted calls for "liberation…

  11. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    U.S. Policy Congressional Research Service Contents Political History ...Research Service 1 Political History Iran is a country of nearly 80 million people, located in the heart of the Persian Gulf region. The United...Iran government figure was 27), including a 19-year-old woman , Neda Soltani, who subsequently became an emblem of the uprising. The opposition

  12. Two New Critical Internet Studies-Books: Marcus Breen’s “Uprising” and Eran Fisher’s “Media and New Capitalism in the Digital Age”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review essay of two books: * Breen, Marcus. 2011. Uprising. The Internet’s unintended consequences. Champaign, IL: Common Ground. ISBN 978-1-863-35866-8. * Fisher, Eran. 2010. Media and new capitalism in the digital age. The spirit of networks. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61607-3.

  13. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  14. Behavior of volatiles in arc volcanism : geochemical and petrologic evidence from active volcanoes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, J.C.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of material are recycled along subduction zones by uprising magmas, of which volcanoes are the surface expression. This thesis focuses on the behavior of volatiles elements (S, Cl, H) during these recycling processes. The study area is the Indonesian arc system, which

  15. The Becoming and Changing of Parenthood:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2018-01-01

    In an age where parenting has become a central concern for education and policy makers, there is an increased effort to ensure ‘good’ parenting practices amongst immigrant and refugee parents. The article argues that there is an uprise of interventions aimed at teaching new parenting practices to...

  16. Magyarország és Erdély képe Németalföldön a Bocskai-felkelés és Bethlen Gábor hadjáratai idején 1604-1626

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teszelszky, Kees

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of the manner, in which Hungary and Transylvania and its inhabitants were imagined, appropriated and manipulated in the Low Countries. It takes as a subject the Dutch representation of Hungary and Transylvania and its inhabitants in the period of an uprising and several campaigns

  17. Free Internet and Social Media: A Dual-Edged Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    perpetuating illiteracy . Would be dissenters would have been restricted to person- to-person verbal communication which was easily detectable due to...For example, in the 1857 Indian revolt, rebels overwhelmed British troops whose last telegraph alerted authorities throughout India of an uprising

  18. Gas/liquid separator for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Naoshi; Akimoto, Seiichi; Yokoyama, Iwao.

    1993-01-01

    A two phase gas/liquid flow generated at a heating portion of a nuclear reactor is swirled by inlet vanes. The phase gas/liquid flow uprises as a vortex flow in a vortex cylinder, and a liquid phase of a high density gathers at the outer circumference of the vortex cylinder. The liquid phase gathered at the outer circumference is collected at the inlet of a discharge flow channel which protrude into the vortex cylinder and in a three-step structure, and introduced into a recycling liquid phase passing through the discharge flow channel for liquid phase. There is provided a structure that separated liquid collected at the lowermost state in the inlet of the three-step discharge flow channel inlet descends in the discharge flow channel, then uprises in an uprising flow channel and is introduced into the recycling liquid phase by way of a discharge flow channel exit. The height of the discharge flow channel exit is determined equal to that of a liquid level of the recycling liquid phase during rated operation of the reactor. Accordingly, even in a case where the liquid level in the recycling liquid phase is lowered, the liquid level of the uprising flow channel is kept equal to that during rated operation. (I.N.)

  19. The Politics of Translating the Arab Spring: Translation as an Agency to Contest Authoritarianism in MENA--A Critical Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekraoui, Lotfi

    2017-01-01

    The MENA region has witnessed unprecedented political and social events that started with a youth revolt in Tunisia in December 2010 and was followed by a series of uprisings spanning the whole region in the following months. Historians, political scientists and sociologists have attempted to study this so-called "Arab Spring" each from…

  20. Adaptive UAV Attitude Estimation Employing Unscented Kalman Filter, FOAM and Low-Cost MEMS Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector; Espinosa, Felipe; Santos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Navigation employing low cost MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is an uprising challenge. One important part of this navigation is the right estimation of the attitude angles. Most of the existent algorithms handle the sensor readings in a fixed way,

  1. A Feast (Poem [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kachev

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This poem was written by Valentin Kachev in 1984 at the vineyard of Tsolo Todorov in Bashovitsa. Tsolo Todorov was one of the leaders of the Belogradchik uprising, murdered at the Belogradchik fortress in the summer of 1850. The poem has already been published in books in Bulgarian as well as in Russian.

  2. Islam, international law and the protection of refugees and IDPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Hayatli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over half of the world’s more than 10 million refugees are inMuslim countries while 9 million of the total of over 26 millionIDPs worldwide are displaced in the Muslim world, including over800,000 newly displaced as a result of the ‘Arab Spring’ uprisings.

  3. From resilience to revolt: making sense of the Arab spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.; van Dijke, P.; Kolman, I.; Statema, J.; Dahhan, G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide a broadly-scoped understanding of the Arab uprisings, aggregating also what research has already been done, in an effort to pinpoint what factors or dynamic can be found to be useful in trying to make sense of the sudden mass mobilization in the Middle East

  4. Near East/South Asia Report, No. 2794

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-04

    unemployed . In the governorate of al-Daqahliyah 33 apartment buildings were built in 3 cities at a cost of 25,932,400 pounds. Although construction...threat to their psychic integrity and moral dignity." Was there not reportedly a minor uprising specifically as a result of this 3 months ago at Parandak

  5. Globalization and Citizenship by Hans Schattle, Rowman &

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zeleza

    general readers, and professional and scholarly books throughout the ... He elucidates the impact of social media in the uprisings in ... The Real Story of Globalization (2001) addresses the effects of globalization on ... Niger, and Mali with the help of news coverage from private media in those countries led to the election.

  6. In The Wake of Pugachev’s Rebellion: Experience in Oral History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita V. Shevtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grand uprising led by Pugachev seized a vast area from the middle reaches of the Volga, the Urals and the Kazakh steppes. Thousands of people from different classes and nationalities joined rebellious Ural Cossacks in 1773. From the beginning, the uprising was of antimonarchic, not noble character, although its leader, and posed as a resurrected Emperor Peter III. During two years since 1773 the rebels were holding at bay the entire Russian Empire, becoming a real threat to the power of Catherine II. Pugachev's Rebellion is a subject of numerous works of Russian historians, writers, articles, research journalists and ethnographers. But perhaps the most famous "History of Pugachev" is written by a classic of Russian literature Alexander Pushkin. His work became one of the first (if not the first serious historical studies on Pugachev's Rebellion. The historical science of XIX century, especially its first half, doesn't know many writings on the uprising. The fact that historians did not dare to write about Pugachev and the events that took place in 1773-1775 years, as Catherine II prohibited even mention the uprising. The decree of the senate ordered even rename the place, where the described events took place, for example, the Yaik river and Yaitsk town in order "to bring all that has happened to eternal oblivion." The famous historian S.M. Solovyov did not have advance to write about Pugachev. Death interrupted his work when his 29 volume ws in process, which he planned to complete with the execution of the leader of the uprising. Russian historian V.O. Klyuchevskii did not write many pages devoted to Pugachev as well. The author of this article visited the places, where the events took place, and repeated the journey of A.S. Pushkin, who visited the region in 60years after Pugachev's Rebellion. By talking with the locals, visiting ancient towns and villages, I sought to find out what has now preserved since ancient times, whether it is

  7. Affectivity and Liminality in Ritualized Protest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Scott Georgsen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    This article takes departure from recent events in Kiev, Ukraine. The empirical material builds on interviews and informal talks with young protesters, made online or on location during spring 2014. We argue that the uprisings – some call it a revolution – involve all essential features of limina......This article takes departure from recent events in Kiev, Ukraine. The empirical material builds on interviews and informal talks with young protesters, made online or on location during spring 2014. We argue that the uprisings – some call it a revolution – involve all essential features...... in ritualized action, unified by confronting the same essential dangers. Engaging this social drama we further wish to discuss how affectivity plays a central role in the ritualization of protest – and that subjectivity and affectivity, as relatively unformed potentials, bring qualities of heightened...

  8. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  9. The 2011 MENA Revolutions: A Study in U.S. Energy (InSecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Rumsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent upheavals in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA have brought into stark relief the conflict between democratic values and strategic interests in U.S. foreign policy. Americans are known for commitment to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, yet the U.S. Government is frequently unwilling to step forward and openly express even rhetorical support for reform movements in foreign countries. In fact, initial American reluctance to support the recent "Arab Spring" uprisings serves as another example of what scholars argue is a general exception in the MENA to broader post-Cold War rising costs of maintaining autocracy. This article explores the American response to the recent MENA uprisings and their significance in terms of U.S. fossil fuel energy security using the theoretical lens of structural realist international relations theory.

  10. The CNT in the October 1934 movement. Between the Boycott and the Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Herrerín

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spanish historiography has focused on the socialist’s attitude at the uprising of October 1934, considering that they were the principal responsible of its organization. However, the triumph needs to count with the participation of other big mass organization: the CNT (Labour National Confederation. This circumstance did not take place, exception made for the Asturias case. This paper analyzes the causes that explain why the Confederal labor union inhibited itself and even took position against this movement. For answering to this question it is essential to analyze the vision that libertarians leaders had about the uprising and their organizers. This article is based on an exhaustive review of the documents produced by the CNT organization and the official documentation of the Guardia Civil and the Spanish Army.

  11. Democratic resistance and state power in the age of social networks : the role of Facebook in Iran's green movement

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi Ari, Sharareh

    2014-01-01

    The internet and social networks have contributed extensively to democratic political uprisings in the Middle East in recent years. We cannot think of the Iranian Green Movement in 2009 and the Arab Spring in 2010-2011 without thinking, at the same time, of Facebook, Twitter and You Tube. The roles played by the internet and social networks in these two significant political events in this region led me to ask and discuss the question: Have internet and social networks constituted an alternat...

  12. The Asia-Pacific Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Bullard, Walden Bellow, and Kamal Mallhotra, “Taming the Tigers: The IMF and the Asian Crisis,” Third World Quarterly 19, no. 3 (1998): 505 –56. 16...Assessing China’s Potential for Territorial Expansion,” International Studies Review 12, no. 4 (December 2010): 505 –32; Alastair Iain Johnston, “Is...in North Korea. Earlier domestic uprisings against authoritarian gov- ernments (e.g., the 1989 overthrow of Nicolae Ceausescu in Roma- nia ) took

  13. Crisis at South Africa’s universities – what are the implications for future cooperation with Norway?

    OpenAIRE

    Tjønneland, Elling N

    2017-01-01

    South Africa’s universities have witnessed unprecedented student revolts over the past two years. It began as protests against a rise in tuition fees and calls for removals of symbols of the apartheid past. It rapidly gained momentum and turned into a national student uprising with demands for free access and decolonisation of higher education. Many universities were forced to suspend academic activities, the riots caused hundreds of millions of rand in damage, and led to violent confrontatio...

  14. Translations From Kommunist, Number 4, March 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-29

    worker deputies, etc.," he wrote in July 1906, "represented in fact the embryos of a provisional government; had the uprising been victorious they...preparations for the October Revolution was of exceptional importance to the destinies of our country. The masses linked their hopes for salvation...democracy a new content, the communists give a political education to the masses, preparing them for the role of managers of the wealth and destinies of

  15. Achieving Operational Flexibility Through Task Organization: How the American Forces in Europe Beat Nazi Germany by Making the Difficult Routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    the ABied invasion of Southern France). August 19: Resistance uprising in Paris . 20: Allies encircle Germans in the Falaise Pocket. Key Changes I...34 Army Group) for 1\\.farker-Garden (note Ridgeway bad no tactical cmd) August 25: Liberation of Paris . ~ Eisenhower Assumes Command on Continent...A.irborne Divisions) September 17-25: Operntioo Market Garden (A.Died aibome assault on HoDand). September 18: The U.S. Ninth Army finally takes Brest

  16. New Forms of Revolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kristeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular uprisings, indignant youth, toppled dictators, oligarchic presidents dismissed, hopes dashed, liberties crushed in prisons, fixed trials, and bloodbaths. How are we to read these images? Could revolt, or what is called “riot” on the Web, be waking humanity from its dream of hyperconnectedness? Or could it just be a trick played on us so that the culture of spectacle can last longer? But what “revolt” are we talking about? Is it even possible?

  17. Diaspora Mobilization in the Wake of the Syrian Civil War. The Syrian Anti-Regime Diaspora’s Struggle for Influence in the US and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stokke, Espen Ringkjøb

    2016-01-01

    This thesis seeks to analyze the Syrian diaspora's political mobilization emerging in the United States and the United Kingdom after the inception of the 2011 uprising. Despite extensive mobilization, the diaspora has been unable to exert influence on host state policies. Providing an original look at diaspora politics, this thesis employs social movement impact theory in an effort to answer an often- neglected question in diaspora and social movement research: why movements fail....

  18. Background and reflections on the process of differentiated attention in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Caraballo Carmona

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the up-rising and development of the proc ess of paying attention to individual differences in general and particularly in the field of Mathemathics as well as the different interpretations it has had in the educational context in relation to the theoretical and practical usefulness of the topic. All this is done based on the historic principle, proposed in the dialectic - materialistic philosophy.

  19. The Libyan Rebellion: With Media as a Weapon : A study of a modern insurgency’s effort to influence international media

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Amund Bakke

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2011 thousands of international journalists entered rebel-held eastern Libya to report on the popular uprising that rapidly developed into a full-blown civil war. The revolutionary insurgency was in need of both international legitimacy and support for their struggle, and they got what they wanted: Support from the western public, and military support in form of a UN certified air based bombing campaign against their adversary, Muammar Gaddafi. This qualitative study exam...

  20. Returning to Our Small Wars Roots: Preparing Marine Advisors to Help Other Lands Meet Future Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    1918 uprising. Not surprisingly, the best qualified Marines like Smedley Butler were sent to France, adding to these challenges. When confronted... Robert S. McNamara authorized advisors for each province and advisory teams for each combat battalion. In addition to the increased role advisors...University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009), 51. 17 Ibid, 40. 18 Ibid. 19 Ramsey III, Robert D., Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in

  1. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Sadat began a policy of economically opening Egypt to the West which led to mandatory subsidy reductions on cooking fuel, rice , bread and other...by a distance from one another. The Emergency Law was not violated, but protestors could look around and see others wearing a black or white shirt...expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and

  2. Depois do disparo: uma análise da apropriação das últimas imagens de Brad Will por documentários brasileiros e mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavalcanti Tedesco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Brad Will, U.S. activist, was murdered in 2006 while shooting a popular uprising in Oaxaca City, Mexico. The following year, two documentaries containing fragments of his last tapes were released:Compromiso Cumplido and Brad – uma noite mais nas barricadas. This article proposes to review and analyze the ownership of these images and sounds by those films.

  3. Turkish and Malaysian experiences: Lessons for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeg, Ali Abo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Egyptian uprising was triggered on January 25, 2011 after thirty years of political and economic corruption through Mubarak‟s administration. The thirst for development, political freedom, and social equality were the most significant factors behind thisuprising. There are widespread discussions on which developmental experience Egypt might adopt in the post-Mubarak era. Turkey and Malaysia are the two cases that are mostly referred to aspossible models for the Egyptian case. Th...

  4. German Views of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    retreated westward following the invasion of Russia. Karl Marx , in an 1849 speech, emphasized, A nation, fighting for its liberty, ought not to adhere...characterized these forces. “Irregular” forces, on the other hand, fell outside of such characterizations and state subordination. 82 Karl von Clausewitz, On...operations. Of note, this edition of On War uses “ Karl ” instead of “Carl.” 28 Tyrolean uprising (1809), and the Spanish insurrection and Peninsula

  5. From apartheid to unity: white capital and black power in the racial integration of South African football, 1976-1992

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsmann, Chris H.; Alegi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the complex process that deracialised and democratised South African football between the early 1970s and 1990s. Based mainly on archival documents, it argues that growing isolation from world sport, exemplified by South Africa's expulsion from the Olympic movement in 1970 and FIFA in 1976, and the reinvigoration of the liberation struggle with the Soweto youth uprising triggered a process of gradual desegregation in the South African professional game. While Pretoria vi...

  6. Tracking Clean Energy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Global demand for energy shows no signs of slowing; carbon dioxide emissions keep surging to new records; and political uprisings, natural disasters and volatile energy markets put the security of energy supplies to the test. More than ever, the need for a fundamental shift to a cleaner and more reliable energy system is clear. What technologies can make that transition happen? How do they work? And how much will it all cost?.

  7. A judicial review of political questions under Islamic law

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulfatai O. Sambo; Hunud Abia Kadouf

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary Arab world has witnessed uprisings and turmoil as a result of alleged power-overreaching by political elites. Consequently, people call for democracy with emphasis on constitutionalism, accountability and protection of human rights. Yet, the voice of the judiciary seems not to be heard in championing these values in many Muslim nations despite the clear roles Islam places on the judiciary regarding political matters. This paper therefore analyses the power of judicial review ...

  8. Translations on USSR Political and Sociological Affairs, Number 818.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-08

    humanist nature of our society, where everything is arranged to serve man, for his good and on his behalf. The example of our republic is vivid evidence of...theories and concepts in the modern world—from existentialism to anarchism—the bourgeois scientists state that the borrowing of "elements of Marxism...Uprisings against violence and injustice, exploitation and poverty flared up everywhere. Even at this time bold speeches rang out about freedom, knowledge

  9. Social Media & the Arab Spring: How communication technology shapes socio-political change

    OpenAIRE

    Hanska Ahy, Maximillian

    2016-01-01

    Although social media was not insignificant, we need to take a wider view examining the interac- tion between interpersonal communication, social media, and satellite TV to understand how the Arab Spring was documented and witnessed by local and global audiences, and how the protests were mobilised. Social media was a clearly important catalyst for the uprisings, but it may also ex- plain why the Arab Spring failed in the medium-term: Multimedia and multi-platform communica- tion environments...

  10. 1945 und die Polen

    OpenAIRE

    Buras, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    The current series of anniversaries concerning World War II raise the question of how Poland is coming to terms with its past. The article summarises the ongoing Polish debate about the Warsaw Uprising and the changing perspectives on Polish history in society and political circles. The discussion about Poland’s view on its own past has great influence on recent foreign political relations, e.g. with Germany, the Ukraine, or Russia.

  11. Labour Universities: Physical Education and the indoctrination of the working class

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Granados, Patricia; Ramírez Macías, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of Physical Education in Labour Universities (1955-1978) during Franco's regime as an instrument of indoctrination and declassing of the working class. The conclusions obtained after the study and the analysis of various primary sources indicate that, initially, Physical Education was used as an instrument of indoctrination for the purposes of achieving the social and ideological model of Franco's regime after the Fascist uprising (1936-1939). However, this initia...

  12. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  13. Loop type LMFBR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    In conventional FBR type reactors, primary coolants at high temperature uprise at a great flow rate and, due to the dynamic pressure thereof, the free surface is raised or sodium is partially jetted upwardly and then fallen again. Then, a wave killing plate comprising a buffer plate and a deflection plate is disposed to the liquid surface of coolants. Most of primary sodium uprising from the reactor core along the side of the upper mechanism during operation collide against the buffer plate of the wave killing plate to moderate the dynamic pressure and, further, disperse radially of the reactor vessel. On the other hand, primary sodium passing through flowing apertures collides against the deflection plate opposed to the flowing apertures to moderate the dynamic pressure, by which the force of raising the free surface is reduced. Thus, uprising and waving of the free surface can effectively be suppressed to reduce the incorporation of cover gases into the primary sodium, so that it is possible to prevent in injury of the recycling pump, abrupt increase of the reactor core reactivity and reduction of the heat efficiency of intermediate heat exchangers. (N.H.)

  14. Civil unrest in North Africa—Risks for natural gas supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochner, Stefan; Dieckhöner, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The uprising and military confrontation in Libya that began in February 2011 has led to disruptions of gas supplies to Europe. An analysis of how Europe has compensated for these missing gas volumes shows that this situation has not affected security of supply. However, this situation would change if the North African uprising were to spread to Algeria. Since Algeria is a much more important gas supplier to Europe than is Libya, more severe consequences would be likely. Applying a natural gas infrastructure model, we investigate the impact of supplier disruptions from both countries for a summer and winter period. Our analysis shows that disruptions in the low-demand summer months could be compensated for, mainly by LNG imports into several European countries. An investigation of a similar situation at the beginning of the winter shows that security of supply would be severely compromised and that disruptions to Italian consumers would be unavoidable. The analysis thereby highlights the importance of taking the political stability of supply countries into account when assessing the security of European gas imports. - Highlights: ► Impact of political instability on security of natural gas supplies. ► Analysis of export stop during Libyan civil war in 2011. ► Model-based analysis of potential future North African crisis scenarios. ► Findings: spread of uprisings to Algeria more critical for Europe. ► Price effects and potential demand curtailment for consumers.

  15. Christian activism and the fallists: What about reconciliation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Headley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to understand what role Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement, and the Soweto Uprising, played in Christian activism between the early 1970s and late 1980s. The question is: did the Black Consciousness Movement and the Soweto Uprising influence Christian activists to engage differently with notions such as reconciliation during the struggle against apartheid? The article revisits the actions and thinking of Christian activists before 1994 to understand some of their views on reconciliation, but most importantly, to understand their interactions, engagement with the Black Consciousness Movement and the Soweto Uprising. The article focuses on some of the church leaders and liberation theologians who were inspired and encouraged by Black Consciousness movements, including Allan Boesak and Desmond Tutu. To revisit their thinking and actions, in the heart of the struggle against apartheid, may help us understand current struggles on reconciliation, particularly in connection with the new generation of activists known as the Fallists. We may discover that the new generation is opening ‘old or new’ debates around reconciliation in South Africa.

  16. Islamism, Secularism and the Woman Question in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring: Evidence from the Arab Barometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Fox

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The uprisings that led to regime change during the early period of the Arab Spring were initially inclusive and pluralistic in nature, with men and women from every political and religious orientation engaging actively in political activities on the street and in virtual spaces. While there was an opening of political space for women and the inclusion of demands of marginalized groups in the activists’ agenda, the struggle to reimagine national identities that balance Islamic roots and secular yearnings is still ongoing in many countries in the region. This paper seeks to deepen understanding of the extent to which the pluralistic sentiments and openness to accepting the rights women have persisted following the uprising. We aim to examine changes in attitudes towards women’s equality in countries that underwent regime change through popular uprisings during revolutionary upheavals of the Arab Spring and in countries where regimes have remained unchanged. Using available data from consecutive rounds of the Arab Barometer survey, we examine changes in attitudes in nine countries with two rounds of Arab Barometer during and post Arab Spring (Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Algeria, Lebanon, Sudan, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine. We find that support for “Muslim feminism” (an interpretation of gender equality grounded in Islam has increased over the period and particularly in Arab Spring countries, while support for “secular feminism” has declined. In most countries examined, relatively high degrees of support for gender equality co-exist with a preference for Islamic interpretations of personal status codes pertaining to women. We discuss the implications of these findings for academics and activists concerned with women’s rights in the Middle East North Africa (MENA.

  17. The question of autonomy of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Serbian self-defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Đorđe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the historical struggle of Serbian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the autonomous freedom, through numerous rebellions and uprisings in the 19th century, such as rebellions and uprisings of Serbs in Šumadija. After its success in Serbia under the rule of Miloš Obrenović, Serbs' struggle for the autonomous freedom in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the last period of the Ottoman and later Austro-Hungarian authority was a 'categorical imperative of Serbian self defence'. Resistance to foreign occupiers in Bosnia and Herzegovina was repeated after the disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991, with the struggle for the autonomous freedom in the Republic of Srpska, for its achievements, challenges and perspectives. On both of these occasions, Serbian people remained and fought for their freedom and unity in the community with other nations. On both of these occasions, destiny and outcome of this successful struggle with opponents were earlier in hands of great powers and later in hands of powerful states. Their earlier and later attitudes towards Serbs were different. Compared to Bulgarians and Bulgaria, or Cretans and Crete, after whose uprisings the great powers awarded them the autonomy, they only promised the same to Serbs while some of them opposed it and corrupted, up until the end of the First World War. It was similar with the struggle of Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina for freedom in the achieved Republic of Srpska, up until the United States of America took Bosnia and Herzegovina in its own hands. The States, in cooperation with the Contact Group members, ended the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina at the meeting in Dayton in the USA in 1995, while at the same time legitimizing the Republic of Srpska within the two-entity Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  18. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Déplacement du mythe du Sabra The Displacement of the Sabra Myth: on Amos Gitai’s Cinematographic Adaptation of Ya’akov Shabtai’s Past Continuous תלישותו של מיתוס הצבר: על העיבוד לקולנוע של הרומן "זכרון דברים"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Munk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le déplacement du mythe du Sabra par Amos Gitai et Yaacov Shabtai. Cet article livre l'interprétation personnelle d'Amos Gitai du roman de Yaakov Shabtai, Pour inventaire (Zikhron Dvarim. Pendant de nombreuses années, personne n'avait osé adapter ce roman des plus modernistes à l'écran, jusqu'à ce que le cinéaste Gitai ait décidé que son retour en Israël après presque dix ans en France devrait être annoncé par le biais de ce projet ambitieux. Un certain nombre de décisions artistiques ont fait de Dvarim un film remarquable, dans lequel le cinéaste entretient un dialogue avec l'image du Sabra, avec laquelle Shabtai a été associé, et avec sa propre biographie. Bien que la différence d'âge entre Shabtai et Gitai ait dicté un changement majeur dans l'arrière-plan narratif, il a également contribué à l'établissement d'un parallélisme entre deux crises identitaires de l'histoire d'Israël: le lendemain de la guerre du Kippour et le lendemain de la première Intifada.This article engages with Amos Gitai’s personal interpretation of Ya’akov Shabtai’s novel, Past Continuous (Zikhron Dvarim. For many years no one had dared to adapt this most modernistic novel to the screen, until filmmaker Gitai decided that his return to Israel after almost ten years in France should be announced by means of this ambitious project. A number of artistic decisions made Dvarim a remarkable film, in which the filmmaker entertains a dialogue with the image of the Sabra, with whom Shabtai was associated, and with his own biography. Although the age difference between Shabtai and Gitai dictated a major change in the narrative background, it also contributed to the establishment of a parallelism between two identity crises in Israeli history: the aftermath of the Yom Kippur war and the aftermath of the first Intifadah.מאמר זה מטפל בעיבודו הקולנועי של עמוס גיתאי לרומן "זכרון דברים" מאת

  20. [Artur Wołyński--A forgotten Polish historian in Italy in the second half of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskurewicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Artur Wołyński (1844-1893) was, undoubtedly, one of the most interesting personages of Polish émigrés after January Uprising. He belonged to these circles of Polish émigrés, who were able to reconcile their patriotic aspirations with realities and interest of the countries that entertained them. As far as Wołyński is concerned, it found its expression in the efforts that were made in order to assimilate two nations--Polish and Italian people--appealing to the common history and familiar cultural traditions. An important element of integrating all the above-discussed actions was his scientific activity. The mentioned activity included, first of all, his studies on Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei. In the article were analyzed more comprehensive scientific descriptions dedicated to Copernicus and Galileo prepared by Wołyński, and their significance and opinions on them of the learned, whose works treated on Copernicus and Galileo as well. Secondly, in the field of scientific activity of Wołyńiski, one can also observe his researches and the process of elaborating sources for Polish and Italian his tory, particularly concerning the 17th century. However, most of his attention Wołyński paid to collecting and working out the materials concerning January Uprising. Speaking a modern language, one can say that Wołyński in a way polled the insurgents of January Uprising sending to them an appropriate list of questions, additionally allowing for their biographies. In the paper was also included a detailed description of this broad initiative together with its results. Up till now, not much attention has been paid to this significant scientific activity and its contexts. So, the present article is to remind of meritorious personage of Wołyński, and particularly of his output within the realm of history of science, history of Polish and Italian relationships, and of the role he played in bequeathing memory of January Uprising.

  1. The EU’s Interpretation of the ‘Arab Uprisings’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on how the EU has interpreted the Arab uprisings as they unfolded in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) since December 2010. EU actors have long acknowledged limits in the EU’s strategy towards its southern neighbourhood, which largely bypasses the demands of local...... populations. The article analyzes the EU’s efforts at recreating an ‘enhanced’ framework of support for political reforms in the south. It concludes that the EU and local partners in the south still have different ‘visions’ regarding democratic change, which shows the limitations of the EU’s understanding...

  2. The Rise of the Arab Youth Paradigm: A Critical Analysis of the Arab Human Development Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Mayssoun Sukarieh

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of the Arab Human Development Report (AHDR) 2016, that was released by the United Nations Development Programme in November 2016. AHDR 2016 represents the return of the Arab Human Development project, that had been interrupted by the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. It also epitomizes the Arab youth paradigm that has increasingly come to frame development and security discourse in the region. While there is much that is familiar in AHDR 2016, there are al...

  3. Coolant degassing device for PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Kaoru; Takezawa, Kazuaki; Minemoto, Masaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently decrease the rare gas concentration in primary coolants, as well as shorten the degassing time required for the periodical inspection in the waste gas processing system of a PWR type reactor. Constitution: Usual degassing method by supplying hydrogen or nitrogen to a volume control tank is replaced with a method of utilizing a degassing tower (method of flowing down processing liquid into the filled tower from above while uprising streams from the bottom of the tower thereby degassing the gases dissolved in the liquid into the steams). The degassing tower is combined with a hydrogen separator or hydrogen recombiner to constitute a waste gas processing system. (Ikeda, J.)

  4. Factors affecting the proportion of smartphone usage at Flygresor.se

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Gabriella; Karlsson, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Digitization has changed the way people access the internet. Smartphones is soon to be the preferred internet access device leading us into a new generation of e-commerce, namely mobile commerce or m-commerce. The on-going transition, from desktop to smartphone has led to an uprising problem for companies within the area of e-commerce. Visitors coming from a smartphone device tend to not go through with the purchase. With this transition in mind, the thesis aimed to identify the factors that ...

  5. Blue blood or true blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Fenja Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    directly but assumed to be embedded in the monarchical regime type, and the results show that alternative covariates are unable to fully explain the monarchical peace. Moreover, the study finds that horizontal discrimination increases the risk of intrastate conflict in authoritarian republics...... but that discrimination has no effect in monarchies. Future conflict studies should therefore consider legitimacy connected to authoritarian regime types.......In the aftermath of the Arab uprisings, the difference between monarchies and republics appears more profound than ever. Aside from Bahrain, all the Middle Eastern monarchies avoided major anti-governmental protests, and no armed conflict has occurred in any of them since 1979. Inspired by Middle...

  6. Case report of deep vein thrombosis caused by artificial urinary sphincter reservoir compressing right external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Yip

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial urinary sphincters (AUSs are commonly used after radical prostatectomy for those who are incontinent of urine. However, they are associated with complications, the most common being reservoir uprising or migration. We present a unique case of occlusive external iliac and femoral vein obstruction by the AUS reservoir causing thrombosis. Deflation of the reservoir and anticoagulation has, thus far, not been successful at decreasing thrombus burden. We present this case as a rare, but significant surgical complication; explore the risk factors that may have contributed, and other potential endovascular therapies to address this previously unreported AUS complication.

  7. The Greek Indignants through the domestic TV news bulletins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Veneti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Greek fiscal crisis kicked off many structural changes within the Greek society. Among these the uprising of a new form of protest, the movement of “indignados” (Spanish word meaning indignants in English, aganaktismeni in Greek. The paper surveys the ways in which the specific movement was presented to the public by the domestic TV news bulletins. The proposed research relies theoretically on the framing analysis approach, aiming to elaborate on the Media point of view regarding the specific social movement. The research method is media monitoring and analysis (stemming from the research rationale of content analysis.

  8. It's Time to Talk about Youth in the Middle East as The Precariat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Herrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the year of the Arab uprisings, The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing hit the bookstands. The concept precariat describes the condition of life and labour among educated urbanized youth in the twenty-first century more lucidly and persuasively than the key policy literature on the region, as exemplified in The Arab Human Development Report (AHDR 2016: Youth and the Prospects for Human Development in a Changing Reality. This paper argues that any meaningful conceptualization of youth in North Africa and West Asia going forward should incorporate the notion of precariat and the condition of precariousness.

  9. Roaring in Libya, whispering in others:UN Security Council's posture during the 'Arab Spring'

    OpenAIRE

    Aral, Berdal

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the position of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) during the Arab revolutions of 2010-2013. In the early 1990s, the UNSC devised the doctrine of ‘humanitarian intervention’ which was premised on the view that systematic and comprehensive human rights violations within a state could pose a “threat to international peace and security.” Nevertheless, the Security Council consistently failed to act during the course of Arab uprisings due to a number of structural and ...

  10. #HashtagSolidarities: Twitter debates and networks in the MENA region

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    During the course of the so-called Arab Spring, observers were quick to refer to the uprisings as »Facebook revolutions« or »Twitter revolutions«. Although the important role of social media in the 2011 upheavals in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is widely acknowledged, its impact on political processes in the region remains contested and contradictory. Rather than looking at social media through a transformation or security lens, the research presented here focused on how debates on...

  11. An analysis on the level changing of UET and SET in blood and urine in early stage of kidney disease caused by diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juzhen; Yang Wenying; Cai Tietie

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between UET and SET variation and early changes of diabetic nephropathy. Methods: UET and SET were measured in 24 patients with diabetes, 19 with early stage diabetic nephropathy, 21 with advanced diabetic nephropathy and 30 normal as contrast. Results: Apparent uprise of UET and SET was observed in all patients when compared to normal contrasts (P 2 -macroglobulin was revealed (P<0.05). Conclusion: UET and SET levels uprose as long as diabetic nephropathy deteriorated. As a result, UET and SET may act as sensitive indices in diagnosing early stage diabetic nephropathy

  12. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  13. Islamist echoes in the context of the Tunisian Islamist Party's 10th congress

    OpenAIRE

    LEMIERE, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Since the uprising in 2011, Tunisia is seen as a political lab whose experiences impact the entire region. The return to the political scene of the Islamists of the Ennahdha Party, and their democratic ascension to power, came as a surprise, if not a shock, to many international and local observers. The party became a key actor beyond national borders and took a step further by marking its 10th Congress with the announcement of the separation of its political and religious activities. The Tun...

  14. Memory Politics at Work in a Gyalrong Revolt in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jinba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 1917 uprising led by Zöpa, a low-ranking monk who proclaimed himself emperor, attracted over four thousand participants in the Gyalrong region on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Some of the uprising’s agendas and goals contradicted one another. It targeted the Han with the shout of “Crush the Great Han,” even though Zöpa’s two main henchmen were Han. It evoked the support of a wider Gyalrong community and claimed to avenge Qing oppression (since the Jinchuan campaigns of the eighteenth century while attempting to establish a Qing-branded kingdom. Also, this revolt targeted foreign intrusion, as evidenced by the burning of a Catholic church in Danba. This article offers a glimpse into how this uprising was embedded in sociopolitical changes during a critical transitional period from the Qing to the Republic in Sichuan’s Sino-Tibetan borderlands. It particularly examines how memories of the Qing’s atrocities and subsequent reforms, as well as of the “golden past” of Gyalrong, catalyzed ethnic and religious tensions. Above all, this study exemplifies the significance of integrating historical analyses with ethnographic investigations by examining the ways in which written documents and oral histories constitute competing yet complementary interpretive narratives about sociopolitical changes.

  15. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  16. Islam og Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the ways in which Islam is put to use by the Syrian regime and its opposition in the Syrian Uprising. By applying anthropological theory about politics of immediation and political theory about ideologies to a specific case – namely bombings in Kafer Suseh in Damascus in D...... as the one in the case are mediated. On a fundamental level, the case and its analysis indicates how politics of immediation and ideology intertwine in battles over Islam and its future role in Syria.......This article deals with the ways in which Islam is put to use by the Syrian regime and its opposition in the Syrian Uprising. By applying anthropological theory about politics of immediation and political theory about ideologies to a specific case – namely bombings in Kafer Suseh in Damascus...... in December 2011 – the article illustrates how horrific images in the conflict are mediated as part of distinctive political projects. The article traces the work of anti-regime activists on the Internet and on TV as well as that of pro-regime representatives in order to understand the peculiar scapegoating...

  17. The Arabic Revolt: Context, Perspectives and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Mandelc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss three interrelated topics, framed within discourses of individual and collective human rights, right of self-determination, democratic processes, people`s uprisings, and geopolitical (imbalances. First, we are interested in the situation of Western Sahara and the 37 years of ongoing Moroccan occupation; we refer to this country as Africa’s last colony. Discussion leads us to reflection of the political strategies of Sahrawis to achieve their national liberation, one of them being Gdeim Izik camp, understood by some relevant authors as the beginning of the »Arab spring«. The »Arab spring« is the second focus of our discussion. We offer a timetable and stress the context of events from the Western Sahara attempt in Gdeim Izik, popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen that ended in the resignations of their leaders and governments, civil wars in Syria and Libya, to bigger and smaller protests and their consequences in Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Mauretania, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Djibouti. We try to offer a deconstruction and reconstruction of the »Arab spring«. In the third part, we discuss the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the perspectives for solution. The conclusion reflects on the strategic, social and political implications of the »Arab spring«, the role and response of the international community, and the new global wave of resistance against political and financial elites.

  18. Julio Sanguily y Garritte (1846-1906 y los alzamientos de febrero de 1895 en el occidente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paz Sánchez, Manuel

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the failed uprisings of February, 1895 in Cuba´s West has been a controversial matter among historians for almonst as long ago as the events themselves. A number of Cuban scholars, as well as the accounts of people who participated in the uprisings, have not helped to the search for the truth. The reasons for this controversy are very much related to the hypothetical relevance of an all-out rebellion emerging just a short distance from Cuba´s capital, which would have accelerated the independence movement and changed the conflict's outcome. While in a previous work on Cuban banditry I insisted on the critical importance of these uprisings, in this paper I intend to call attention to new data on them, particularly on their most relevant aspect: the role played by the Cuban general Julio Sanguily y Garritte. He has been blamed for the failure of the western revolt, on account of the death of rebel officer -and former social bandit- Manuel García Ponce.

    El tema de los fracasados alzamientos insurreccionales del occidente cubano, en febrero de 1895, ha sido objeto de un largo debate historiográfico desde pocos años después de su acaecimiento. Diversos estudiosos cubanos, así como los testimonios de los propios protagonistas de los hechos han contribuido, en numerosas ocasiones, a hacer aún más difícil la búsqueda de la verdad. Las razones de esta polémica están profundamente relacionadas con la hipotética relevancia de un levantamiento en toda regla a escasos kilómetros de la capital cubana, lo que, en teoría, hubiera acelerado el proceso emancipador y cambiado, de diversas maneras, el devenir de la contienda que se saldó con la pérdida de Cuba para España. En nuestro trabajo sobre el bandolerismo cubano (1, insistimos en la importancia crucial de tales acontecimientos y, en esta ocasión, nos proponemos aportar nuevos datos sobre los hechos mencionados, particularmente sobre su aspecto más relevante: el

  19. The Protest Movement in the North Caucasus in the second half of XIX – the beginning of XX centuries: Causes, Character, Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiran T. Urushadze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the protest movement in the North Caucasus in second half of XIX– the beginning of XX centuries. The article is the first of planned by authors cycle of articles about the protest movement in the North Caucasus during the second half of the XIX century to early XXI century. The article based on analysis of published and archival evidence highlighted the reasons for the uprisings, and their character and significance. The frame of archival material were documents of central state archive of Kabardino-Balkarian Republic and the Archive of the Kabardino-Balkarian Institute of humanitarian researches. The main catalysts for the protests on the southern outskirts of the Russian Empire were the inertia of the Caucasian war, the large-scale legal and administrative innovations, unreasonable actions of the crown authorities. The article describes the largest rebellion of the highlanders in this period, which allows us to trace the peculiarities of the various stages of the protest movement in the North Caucasus. The insurrections of the 1860s became the reaction of traditional mountain societies on the Imperial upgrades. The indignation of the indigenous population caused the increase of taxes, which threatened completely to upset the already undermined by years of war economy of highlanders. The forced resettlement of highlanders to the plainsby the Russian authorities pushedthe mountaineers to the rebellion.The role of a fuse played the numerous rumors about the impending mass baptism of the highlanders and turn them into Cossacks. But the most important that the indigenous population did not trust the Russian legal and administrative institutions, did not believe in their fairness and impartiality. The uprising of 1877 was the last attempt to stop the spread of Russian sovereignty in the North Caucasus. The uprising tried to copy the state structure of the Imamate of Shamil, to restore the old titles and forms of

  20. Velocity field measurements of flow inside snout of zinc plating process using a single-frame PIV technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.

    2000-05-01

    In the continuous hot-dip galvanizing process of steel strips, the snout has been installed at the entering region of feeding strip into the molten zinc (Zn) pot. However, evaporated Zn particles in the snout cause ash imperfection on the galvanized steel strip surface. In order to resolve this problem, the flow field inside the snout, both on the deoxidisation gas flow above the free surface and the molten Zn flow in the Zn pot, has been investigated experientially. For a 1/10 scale water model, flow visualization and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) velocity field measurements were carried out at the strip speed V{sub s}= 1.5 m/s. Aluminum flakes (1{mu}m) and atomized olive oil (3{mu}m) were used as seeding particles to simulate the molten Zn flow and the deoxidisation gas flow, respectively. As a result, the liquid flow in the Zn pot is dominantly influenced by the up-rising flow in diagonal direction caused by the rotating sink roll. For gas flow in from of the strip inside the snout, the large-scale vortex formed by the downward moving strip is dominant. In the rear side of the strip, a counterclockwise vortex is formed and some of the flow following by the moving strip impinges on the free surface of molten Zn. The liquid flow in front of the strip is governed by the up-rising flow entering the snout, caused by the rotating sink roll. The moving strip affects dominantly the liquid flow behind the strip inside the snout, and large amounts of liquid are entrained and followed the moving strip toward the sink roll. A thin boundary layer is formed on the front side due to the up-rising flow, however, a relatively thick boundary layer is formed in the rear side of the strip. Inside the snout, the deoxidisation gas flow above the free surface is much faster than the liquid flow in the Zn pot. More ash imperfections are anticipated on the rear surface of the strip where larger influx flow moves toward the strip in the region near the free surface. (author)

  1. Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Hugo; Jongerden, Joost; van Etten, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite images for verification of witness reports collected by human rights groups. The Turkish army was reported to be burning forests, fields and villages as a strategy in the conflict against guerrilla uprising. This paper concludes that satellite images are useful to validate witness reports of forest fires. Even though the use of this technology for human rights groups will depend on some feasibility factors such as prices, access and expertise, the images proved to be key for analysis of spatial aspects of conflict and valuable for reconstructing a more trustworthy picture.

  2. What violent conflict tells us about media and place-making (and vice versa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Nina Grønlykke

    2018-01-01

    The increasing mobility of media has in recent years led some scholars to argue for a decline in the significance of place in relation to media. This chapter argues for the importance of understanding media as vitally emplaced in the phenomenological world and it uses violent conflict to develop...... this point. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with information activists and journalists during the Egyptian uprising, this chapter contests understandings of media as doubling or making place insignificant. Rather, it develops an understanding of media as place-making to allow for an analysis...... of the entanglements of people and things related to media, showing how media are emplaced in the phenomenological world in the same way that violence is. Doing so, the chapter sheds light on how media can contribute to opening up places to other places and thus influence movements of people and things in conflict....

  3. An introduction to standardized sampling: chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Contreras-Balderas, Salvador; Iles, Alison C.; Bonar, Scott A.; Hubert, Wayne A.; Willis, David W.

    2009-01-01

    It was probably one of the oddest riots in the history of the United States. In Erie, Pennsylvania during 1853. federal marshals were called to restore order during bloody uprisings. A mob of women, equipped with sledgehammers, was tearing up railroad rack to protest standardization of track width (Nesmith 1985). All across the United States, standardization of rail gauges was talking place to improve transportation across the country,but many people did not want consistency. Jobs moving freight from, a train running on one gauge of track to a train running on another gauge were plentiful at this time, and standardization would mean these jobs would disappear. Fortunately, for us today, the riots were quelled and standardization of railroad tack gauges went ahead. The magnificent transportation system of North America was aided by the standardization of rails, contributing to robust economies.

  4. From Global Justice to Occupy and Podemos: Mapping Three Stages of Contemporary Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Funke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveying the varied contributions to this special issue, this article examines the relationships, points of inspirations and contradictory dynamics that characterize the current epoch of social movement politics and global protest. The authors argue that with the progression of neoliberal capitalism and the explosion of new technologies, a shared logic of social movement politics has emerged. This logic spans from the Zapatistas and the Global Justice Movement to the uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East, the Occupy struggles and the most recent wave characterized by Podemos. While each of these waves of contention has a particular character, together they make up a broader epoch of struggle that thrives on multiplicity, emphasized radical participatory democracy, the innovative use of media and the heterogeneity of political struggle.

  5. Shifting Stakes: Understanding the Dynamic Roles of Individuals and Organizations in Social Media Protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Emma S; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine two protests characterized by substantial social media presence and distributed participation frameworks via two core questions: what roles did organizations and individuals play, and how did participants' social interactions change over the course of the protests? To answer these questions, we analyzed a large Twitter activity dataset for the #YoSoy132 student uprising in Mexico and Brazil's "bus rebellion." Results indicate that individuals initially took prominence at the protests but faded in importance as the movements dwindled and organizations took over. Regarding the dynamics and structure of the interactions, we found that key time points with unique social structures often map to exogenous events such as coordinated protests in physical locations. Our results have important consequences for the visibility of such social movements and their ability to attract continued participation by individuals and organizations.

  6. Governance in the Arab region: Addressing challenges and envisaging the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sumpf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When the Arab Uprisings began in 2011, citizens called for dignity, democracy and social justice. Instead of witnessing the birth of more pluralistic societies and stronger governance systems, the past years have brought the Arab region only renewed authoritarianism, conflict, and yet weaker state systems. The regional governance deficit is creating a striking underperformance of most Arab governments in political and socioeconomic development terms. To limit the damage of this downward trend, Arab governments must adopt a 2030 Vision of governance reforms to increase political participation and political freedoms, to ratify and implement international human rights conventions and transitional justice measures, adopt population policies that reflect the region’s changing demographic realities, reduce poverty through economic reform and combat corruption. The 2030 Vision will ensure the region enjoys a new era of inclusive, accountable and effective governance and the consequent benefits for sustainable development

  7. The Rise of the Arab Youth Paradigm: A Critical Analysis of the Arab Human Development Report 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssoun Sukarieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical analysis of the Arab Human Development Report (AHDR 2016, that was released by the United Nations Development Programme in November 2016. AHDR 2016 represents the return of the Arab Human Development project, that had been interrupted by the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. It also epitomizes the Arab youth paradigm that has increasingly come to frame development and security discourse in the region. While there is much that is familiar in AHDR 2016, there are also concerning developments: a historical revisionism that holds Arab youth responsible for the Arab Spring, and the Arab Spring responsible for the Arab Winter that followed; and a new trend that views not just Arab youth deficits as a dangerous threat to regional and global security, but Arab youth abilities and surfeits as well.

  8. Rebuilding the Arab Economies: New Regional and Global Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura - Ramona BENCHEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab countries are facing one of their most difficult periods of the modern history. The popular uprisings which broke out at the beginning of 2011 in Tunisia and then spread to Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Jordan, Bahrain and Syria, reflect profound economic and social hardships, but also major uncertainties regarding the political perspectives of these countries. The political transition carried out by several Arab countries could represent an incentive for profound economic reorganization and structural change all over the region. The aim of this paper is to assess the structural economic challenges the Arab countries had been confronted with over many decades and to identify possible regional and global strategies for economic development.

  9. Reactor container facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi; Nagasaka, Hideo.

    1990-01-01

    A dry-well pool for spontaneously circulating stored pool water and a suppression pool for flooding a pressure vessel by feeding water, when required, to a flooding gap by means of spontaneous falling upto the flooding position, thereby flooding the pressure vessel are contained at the inside of a reactor container. Thus, when loss of coolant accidents such as caused by main pipe rupture accidents should happen, pool water in the suppression pool is supplied to the flooding gap by spontaneously falling. Further, if the flooding water uprises exceeding a predetermined level, the flooding gap is in communication with the dry-well pool at the upper and the lower portions respectively. Accordingly, flooding water at high temperature heated by the after-heat of the reactor core is returned again into the flooding gap to cool the reactor core repeatedly. (T.M.)

  10. RELATION OF IDENTITY- POLITICAL CULTURE IN THE INDIGENOUS AUTONOMY FORMATION. CASE STUDY IN “LOS ALTOS CHIAPAS” COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Santos Chávez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The assumption of new studies about the indigenous movement in Mexico involves the need for articulating political and cultural dimensions of some social groups, as well as the reformulation of how that kind of studies should be done: In this study the need for combining the political dimensions (local power structure and cultural dimensions (ethnic identity redefinitions is established in order to examine the implications that such relationship has in the uprising of new indigenous movements and the emergence of de facto indigenous autonomies: To carry out this study, we had to think about the researching questions from a given referent , in this case it was a community from Los Altos the Chiapas. This community gave us the actual elements for the discussion of concrete research, the new indigenous movement in Chiapas and the indigenous autonomy.

  11. In the Traces of History: To the Critics of Our Socialism [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strigachev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the history of the socialist movement in Bulgaria and, in particular, to the evolution of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, later called Communist Party. The reasons for the rise of the revolutionary movement that led to the anti-fascist uprising in 1923 and its inevitable end were discussed. The paper critically analyzes the policy of the party when it became a ruling one and its power became authoritarian, falling into the hands of its leader. The reasons for the failure of the Stalinist type of "communism" imposed in Bulgaria by external circumstances as a result of the Second World War were considered. The discrepancy between the theory of Marxism and the Party’s prac-tice is highlighted and theoretical and practical conclusions are made.

  12. Santiago de Cuba: between july 1955 and november 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical context of the city of Santiago de Cuba in the months prior to November 30, 1956, when the armed uprising took place in support of the landing of the Granma yacht expedition led by Fidel Castro Ruz; The material and human assurances made by the 26th of July Revolutionary Movement (MR-26-7 to provide all possible assistance to those arriving at the coast of the country; Among this action is the making of uniforms and the location of medical kits. It also emphasizes the role played by young teacher Frank País García at the front of the plan drawn up months before 

  13. Wiersze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kwiatkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poems Kwiatkowski’s poems resemble the spirit of The Spoon River Anthology by Edgar Lee Masters, The Chronicles of the Town of Pornic by Czesław Miłosz, and uprising poems by Anna Świrszczyńska. The author is interested in the mask lyric and attempts to lead his poetry in to the domain of fact, while neither leaving the sphere of poetry nor entering the sphere of journalism.   Wiersze Poezja utrzymana w duchu Umarłych ze Spoon River Edgara Lee Mastersa, Kronik miasta Pornic Czesława Miłosza i wierszy powstańczych Anny Świrszczyńskiej. Autora interesuje liryka maski i próba wy­prowadzenia poezji na teren faktu przy jednoczesnym niewychodzeniu poza sferę poezji i niewchodzeniu w sferę publicystyki.

  14. The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    CERN Document Server

    Djeflat, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

  15. All Eyes on Egypt: Islam and the Medical Use of Dead Bodies Amidst Cairo's Political Unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Using dead bodies for medical purposes has long been considered taboo in Egypt. Public health campaigns, physicians' pleas, and the urgings of religious scholars all failed to alter public opinion regarding the donation of dead bodies either for instructional material or for therapeutic treatments. Yet in 2011, amid revolutionary turmoil in Egypt, a campaign was launched for people to donate their eyes upon death; this time, people readily signed up to be donors. Focusing on mass eye trauma that occurred in Egypt amid the political uprisings of 2011, I raise questions about when and why Islam can explain people's attitudes and behaviors, particularly toward death and medicine. The case of mass eye trauma in Egypt and citizens' reformulations of questions once jealously controlled by state-aligned doctors, politicians, and religious scholars unsettles the boundaries between 'religion' and 'secularism' in medical practice. [Formula: see text].

  16. TheApplication of Demarketing Theory to Adjusti ng Environmental Carrying Capacity of Tourism Resources---A Case Study of Ancient Water Towns in Southern Yangtze River%反营销理论在旅游资源群环境承载力调控中的应用--以江南水乡古镇旅游资源群为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓帆; 谢芳

    2016-01-01

    With the case study of ancient water towns in southern Yangtze River , the uprising number of tourists makes a great pressure on the environmental carrying capacity of the tourism resources .It is suggested to use demarketing theory to adjust this .%文章从江南水乡古镇旅游资源群案例入手,分析不断攀升的客流对江南水乡旅游资源群的环境承载力所带来的影响,并提出运用反营销理论对江南水乡古镇旅游资源群环境承载力进行调控的对策及建议。

  17. By Dynamite, Sabotage, Revolution, and the Pen: Violence in Caribbean Anarchist Fiction, 1890s-1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirwin R. Shaffer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From the 1890s to the 1920s, anarchist groups and movements emerged in Puerto Rico and Cuba. They promoted the traditional anarchist agenda against governments, militarism, capitalism, and organized religion. While research on anarchists has often focused on their activities in strikes, uprisings, educational experiments, and other counter-cultural activities, this article illustrates how Caribbean-based anarchists used their fiction to promote the anarchist agenda. A central theme in much of the fiction (plays, poetry, novels, and short stories revolved around violence leveled against society especially by governments. Just as interesting is how this fiction described—even praised—anarchist violence against authority. Thus, even while Caribbean anarchists only rarely resorted to physical violence, anarchist fiction often condemned authoritarian violence while celebrating the violence of revolution, the strike, bombings, and assassination to promote the anarchist cause of universal freedom.

  18. «La çibdad está escandalizada». Social Unrest and Factional Fight in Late Medieval Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar LÓPEZ GÓMEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the riots occurred since the thirteenth Century served mainly to educate the state organizations in Western Europe in the defense of the sociopolitical status quo, the voice of the común never was silenced. The evidence and hundreds of testimonials preserved until today show us protests of all kinds: from those born in the privacy of hate against the noble to those who desperately emerged, result of the collapse of situations that are believed untenable. Individual protests, religious groups and artisans, in masse; using songs and scandalous words, peacefully or with ferocious violence. It was on the eve of the uprisings when the protest turned bloodiest speech, providing an ideological basis for the achievement of purposes for both aspiring social groups together as specific powerful individuals.

  19. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    states, the Introduction emphasizes the continued relevance of focusing on a repoliticized MENA reality. The Middle East is still on the move away from the established image of unshakeable authoritarianism attributed to the region, which made the upgrading authoritarianism paradigm seem forever relevant......The Introduction briefly presents the ideas behind this collection of articles, namely to analyze popular mobilization and the role of civil society, political parties, and regional organizations in relation to the developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) over the last years......, and to discuss theoretical approaches and paradigms of relevance for the analysis of these new regional dynamics. The MENA region experienced, in connection with and following the Arab uprisings, a hitherto unseen popular mobilization. Despite the recent highly problematic situation in several Middle Eastern...

  20. Converting the Jews? The duties of the prince, between religious imperative and political necessity (Lombardy, 15th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Savy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper first examines the princely power’s implementation of a conversionist policy regarding Jews in the late medieval Duchy of Milan, and then considers the treatment of the conversion in contemporary treaties and mirrors of princes. The Sforza’s attitude towards conversion was more complex than one might expect given common assumptions about medieval religiosity. Until the end of the 15th century, the duke did not do much to promote the conversion of Jews, out of fear that doing so might cause a popular uprising, or even prove illegal. But when Jews did convert, the duke defended and exploited their actions. Indeed, the prince affirmed his political superiority through his refusal to submit to the Church’s injunction to force the Jews to convert. Paradoxically, he demonstrated his power by refraining from intervention.

  1. Rebelión, guerrilla y tributo: los indios en Charcas durante el proceso de independencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soux, María Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the strategic ways of Indian participation during the process of independence in Charcas (actual Bolivia, between 1809-1825. It shows that Indian population basically fought to keep their land and to secure the autonomy of their own authorities, during this political crises. In this sense, they established alliances, conspired, organized uprisings and openly involved themselves in guerrilla movements molded by their own political culture.

    El artículo analiza las formas de participación indígena en el proceso hacia la independencia en Charcas (hoy Bolivia, entre 1809 y 1825. Los indios buscaron fundamentalmente mantener la propiedad de sus tierras y la independencia de sus autoridades frente a la crisis generalizada y la incertidumbre; para ello, establecieron alianzas, conspiraron, organizaron sublevaciones y participaron abiertamente en la lucha guerrillera siguiendo pautas propias de su cultura política.

  2. Homosexual Liberation Movements in Latin America. Historiographical Contributions from a Comparative Perspective between Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico (1967-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Simonetto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Between 1967 and 1982, homosexual liberation movements emerged in Latin America that sought to unify strategies of social and sexual revolution. This article proposes a comparative study to rethink the periodization of the distinct selection of cases and analyze the similarities and differences between them. For this, the cases of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico are discussed. The purpose of this paper is to find a different explanation for these movements that avoids viewing them as just a projection of the Stonewall uprising (1969, thereby bringing forward an explanatory variable from within Latin America. In turn, the respective relationships of these movements with the local radical Left and the State are also considered.

  3. Introductory note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schaefer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost a year ago I was travelling in Greece where one morning – in what can be by now considered an obligatory step for a Western tourist – I stood on the Agora in Athens to witness what we regard as the ancient roots of modern democracy. The day before I had explored the religious side of Athens – i.e. the Parthenon temple on the Acropolis and the hill where St. Paul preached to the citizens of the then already Roman empire. That morning I first had visited the pnyx – where on the bema, the speaker’s stone, Perikles and Demosthenes had held their famous speeches to the assembly of the citizens. Demosthenes, who led an usuccessful uprising of the Atheniens against the Macedonian king Alexander the Great can be classified clearly as a defender of the vanishing democratic institutions.

  4. Le volcanisme alcalin tertiaire et quaternaire du moyen atlas (Maroc): chronologie K/Ar et cadre géodynamique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, C.; Cantagrel, J. M.

    A geochronological survey (KAr) of the volcanic area of Mid Atlas and Haute Moulouya valley exhibits three stages of alkali magmatism. The oldest volcanics are located along the northern boundary of High Atlas mountains. Their ages are Eocene, and they are thought to be related to the syenite-carbonatite complex of Bou-Agrao. During mid and late Miocene (between 15 and 6 m.y.) a scattered volcanic activity occurs in the Mid Atlas, simultaneously with the Rif orogenesis and the uplift of central Morocco. Then, during mid Quaternary (1.8-0.5 m.y.) a volcanic chain is emplaced along a N. 170 trending axis almost 120 km long. During this compression phase, the magma uprising occurs in secondary tension fractured zones on account of the European-African plates collision.

  5. The Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau and the Rabbinical College of Padua: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajon Irene

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with three points that refer to two important Jewish institutions of the age of emancipation, that is, the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau and the Rabbinical College of Padua: (1 how these Rabbinical schools were founded, (2 their courses and programs, and (3 the inspiration behind them. A comparison is outlined on the ground of these three points. The conclusion reminds the closing of these two schools, in 1938 the first and in 1871 the second, because of external events: the uprising of German antisemitism and the constitution of Italian State; and how the interesting figure of Sabato Morais, the founder in 1887 and first president of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, which prepares Conservative Rabbis, could in a sense be considered the heir of both these schools.

  6. Understanding the Dynamics of Violent Political Revolutions in an Agent-Based Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an agent-based computational model of violent political revolutions in which a subjugated population of citizens and an armed revolutionary organisation attempt to overthrow a central authority and its loyal forces. The model replicates several patterns of rebellion consistent with major historical revolutions, and provides an explanation for the multiplicity of outcomes that can arise from an uprising. The relevance of the heterogeneity of scenarios predicted by the model can be understood by considering the recent experience of the Arab Spring involving several rebellions that arose in an apparently similar way, but resulted in completely different political outcomes: the successful revolution in Tunisia, the failed protests in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, and civil war in Syria and Libya.

  7. Experiences of Imprisonment in Myanmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    For the last decade, major changes have taken place in Myanmar as the country transitioned from military rule, to ‘disciplined democracy’ as dictated by the 2008 constitution and with the accession of the quasi civilian government in 2010 and the civilian government in 2016. Still, remnants from...... from 8 month’s ethnographic fieldwork with former prisoners in Myanmar. Through first-hand accounts of experiences of imprisonment lived through by subjects from various political and ethnic groups at different points in history (from the uprising in 1988 to the student protests in 2015) the paper...... explores: (1) the ways imprisonment affects people while in prison and after release and (2) what role (former) prisoners play in the political development in Myanmar. The paper explores how different techniques of governance are applied to, acted upon, and experienced by subjects of the state through...

  8. A judicial review of political questions under Islamic law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai O. Sambo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary Arab world has witnessed uprisings and turmoil as a result of alleged power-overreaching by political elites. Consequently, people call for democracy with emphasis on constitutionalism, accountability and protection of human rights. Yet, the voice of the judiciary seems not to be heard in championing these values in many Muslim nations despite the clear roles Islam places on the judiciary regarding political matters. This paper therefore analyses the power of judicial review on political questions from the perspective of Islamic jurisprudence. It finds that the power of judicial review and its main institution existed in early Islamic periods after the demise of the Prophet (SAW. The paper concludes that failure to observe judicial review in many contemporary Muslim countries results in the absence of effective checks on the powers of the rulers by the judiciary.

  9. Review Article: The Vanished Ghosts in Two Hungarian Family Memoirs. Farkas, Charles. 2013. Vanished by the Danube: Peace, War, Revolution, and Flight to the West (Introduction by Margaret McMullan. Albany: Excelsior Editions, State University of New York Press. 472 pp. Illus; and Barlay, Nick. 2013. Scattered Ghosts: One Family's Survival through War, Holocaust and Revolution. London and New York: I. B. Tauris. 240 pp. Illus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Biro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent personal documentary works about major historical events of the twentieth century, e.g., World War II, the Holocaust and the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, offer their readers a rich and multifaceted narrative, or a history that is also "his story," "her story" and that of entire families, cohorts and communities. Often, these works are accompanied by visual artifacts such as photographs, family tress, maps etc., or supported by concise historical surveys. Thus these memoirs complete the work of historians with the lived experiences of the few that represent many. Such is the case with two 2013 books by Charles Farkas and Nick Barlay depicting their mid-twentieth century Hungarian families, one Christian and one Jewish, through two World Wars and the anti-communist uprising, culminating in their escape to the West and in the two authors looking back upon the Hungarian past of their families.

  10. Structural and genetic characteristics of uranium phosphates metasomatic deposits in limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, K G; Pigul' skij, V I; Prozorov, V G

    1985-01-01

    Voluminous literature on structural and genetic peculiarities of phosphorus-uranium deposits in Ordovician volcanogenic-sedimentary masses, is analyzed to clarify the reasons for their formation. On the basis of geologo-structural and mineralogo-geochemical research, it has been established that phosphorus-uranium mineralization is of metasomatic, postgeosyncline, intraorogenetic character. Mineralization is related to filtration of uprising fluids along rupture untrafolding violations. Formation of metasomatic ore bodies took place under hypabyssal conditions in closed structures by means of endogenous replacement of both carbonate and alumosilicate rocks, including intrusive volcanic and sedimentary complexes. The scale of phosphorus-uranium deposits depends on tectonic peculiarities of ore-containing medium much more than on lithological ones.

  11. Research on EHN additive on the diesel engine combustion characteristics in plateau environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixin; Li, Ruoting; Wang, Xiancheng; Hu, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the combustion deterioration problem of diesel engine in plateau environment, a bench test was carried out for the effects of EHN additive on combustion characteristics of the diesel engine with intake pressure of 0.68 kPa. Test results showed that with the full load working condition of 1 400 r/min: Cylinder pressure and pressure uprising rate decreased with EHN additive added in, mechanical load on the engine could be relieved; peak value of the heat release rate decreased and its occurrence advanced, ignition delay and combustion duration were shortened; cylinder temperature and exhaust gas temperature declined, thermal load on the engine could be relieved, output torque increased while specific oil consumption decreased, and effective thermal efficiency of diesel engine increased.

  12. The absolute power of the sovereign, bureaucracy, democracy and constitutional government in the works of Slobodan Jovanović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanovčić Vojislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers discusses the views of Slobodan Jovanović (1869-1958 on several phenomena of Serbia’s political and institutional development in the hundred years between the First Serbian Uprising in 1804 and the fall of the Obrenović dynasty in 1903, and on different political systems, looking at the sources on which his thought drew upon, the ideas he was guided by and the theoretical framework of his legal and socio-political thinking. His major work, a legal theory of the state, as most of his other writings, was his own contribution to what he held to be a national mission, the building of a modern state based on the rule of law.

  13. Comparison of UVB and UVC irradiation disinfection efficacies on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Markvart, M.; Nielsen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    skin, soft tissue, lungs, kidney and urinary tract infections. Moreover, it can be found on and in medical equipment causing often cross infections in hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency, of two different light-based disinfection treatments, namely UVB and UVC irradiation......, on P. aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages. In our experiments a new type of UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms, in the UVB (296nm) and UVC (266nm) region. The killing rate was studied as a function of dose for 24h grown biofilms. The dose......Disinfection routines are important in all clinical applications. The uprising problem of antibiotic resistance has driven major research efforts towards alternative disinfection approaches, involving light-based solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium that can cause...

  14. Powers of nostalgia: Ollanta and the neo-Inca movement

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    Alfredo Cordiviola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the indigenous rebellions and its evolution in Perú during the XVIII century as well as the functions and impact that nostalgia and utopia had against the mastery of Spanish, keeping in mind that both, nostalgia and utopia, were used like instruments against this movement. The uprising increases due to the abuse of power and the constant inequalities of imperial economy in and around the viceroyalty based on specific unions between social actors. By the year 1780, they conformed a group called broad Inca nationalist movement whose clear expression was showed in the insurrection promoted by Tupac Amaru. We are going to present the possible interpretations to study the evolution of this movement through this project which is related to the history context OLLANTAY. Simultaneously we are going to take advantage of it in order to analyze other texts and arts.

  15. Media Challenging Status Quo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    and Libya creating headlines like “the Facebook revolution”. On the other hand, several scholars argue that it is naive to believe that social media in themselves create change: they may at the best facilitate already existing social and political movements (Downing 2008, Christakis & Fowler 2010...... and communication research is currently engaging in a longer and deeper process of examining and assessing the cultural consequences of networked communication. One present challenge is to understand digital media and networked communication at the intersection of established and countercultural, utopian......Digital media and especially so-called ‘social media’ have on the one hand been ascribed the power to change societies and empower democratic movements following the thoughts of e.g. Rheingold (2004), recently fueled by the democratic uprising in Arabic countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, Iran...

  16. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011). The study is based on a mixed...... quantitative and qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying patterns of news reporting of the Arab Spring. The investigation looks into whether temporal developments of the Arab revolutions, the level of journalistic presence in the region, and national differences influence Danish press coverage...... of the Arab Spring. The findings indicate that media coverage of the Arab Spring points in different directions. On the one hand there has been a remarkable increase in media attention to the Middle East in purely quantitative terms. On the other hand the study finds that a number of traditional media...

  17. THE ARAB SPRING - A COMPLEX CONFLICT OF INTERESTS AND PROVOCATIONS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD

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    Mohammed ALSHAHRI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The uprisings of the Arab Spring had a major impact not only on the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and Gulf Cooperation Council Countries but also on the entire world. Analysts in various fields are still debating on the causes that led to such historical events, and also on the effects on short and long term that these revolutions have, or might have. One thing is certain for all: the Arab world entered a new stage in its development. This paper aims to analyse the Arab Spring from as many points of view as possible, looking to indicators that traditionally define a country’s health and well-being, including political and socio-economic markers, various economic crises, the rise of Islamist parties, increases in sectarianism, and other challenges.

  18. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

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    Jiu-Jiu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  19. The Role of Social Network Platform in Egyptian's Political Upheaval in January 2011

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    Farhad Hassan Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network platforms are tools, which are not just utilized for entertainment, but also serve as a multiple purposed tool in other areas, including politics. Egyptians have utilized these tools to communicate, coordinate, and bring about mass protests, since 2010. Drawing on the theoretical concepts of the public sphere and communicative action of Habermas, with the new public sphere and network society this paper examines the role of SNSs during the Arab Spring in Egypt. The lit review assumes that SNSs are causes of political upheavals. The article, however, argues that the SNSs are simply an instrument for communication and mobilization of people in the Egyptian 25th January political uprising.

  20. LITERARY DEBATES IN THE ROMANIA’S NINETIES CONSEQUENCES AND ASSESSMENTS

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    Lucian CHIȘU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social systems undergo inevitable turning points in their evolution. These changes may be caused by either progressive accumulation or a major crisis. The latter applies to Romania, who - after being a communist country - grew into a democracy as a result of a popular uprising. The dictatorship and its effects became the favourite topic of discussion in many debates - political, economic, social, or cultural - whose protagonists asserted their various opinions in the name of democracy or general usefulness. The participation in these debates was also exceptional – from well-meaning but resentful people, lucid and/or visionaries, to crypto-communists, apocalyptic and even alienated people. That explains the absence of consensus. The respective period of time was coined as “an endless transition”, a term which covered all the masked avatars of Romanian society (and of the literary phenomenon, too. Confrontations were particularly illustrative within the printed media in the field of culture, which beside tackling the general problems also focused on specific guild issues: the repercussions of the dictatorship on literary life, the writer’s status, the effects of censorship and the freedom of expression, the ethical and moral criteria, the literary canon, the future of publishing houses and literary publications, the very existence of the Writers’ Union of Romania, the literary exile and the ‘inner exile’ (of writers from the Republic of Moldova. The topics above polarized differently, in opposite directions, which could be summarized as follows: in our country, culture was as a form of resistance during communism when Romania was ‘a Siberia of the spirit’. The passing of a quarter of a century from the 1989 popular uprising now facilitates a retrospective overview of those particular times.

  1. SOBRE AS ORIGENS DA FAVELA

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    Alfredo Pereira de Queiroz Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon the origins of the Brazilian shantytown (favela. It investigates the context of the appearance of the housing and of the name itself which came to characterize this form of precarious settlement in Rio de Janeiro at the end of the 19th century. Evidence suggests that the appearance of the shacks was related to the population explosion and the lack of housing in what was the Federal Capital at the time. The name ¿favela¿ is considered to have its origins in the place name 'Alto da Favela', a district on high ground located to the south of the town of Belo Monte, in the North-eastern state of Bahia, which was the site of the 'War of Canudos' uprising. 'Favela' is also the popular name for a plant, common to the outback of Bahia where the fi ghting took place. The species described by Euclides da Cunha, in his book 'Os Sertões', is probably the Cninodoscolus quercifolius. Of the many theories concerning the renaming of the hill district 'Providência' as 'Favela' by those who had been involved in the uprising, the most plausible is that it recalls strategic and topographic features. On the 'Favela' hill in Canudos, the Republican troops were ambushed, and the occupation was extremely important in the defeat of Antonio Conselheiro's followers. The topography is associated with a metaphor for the deprivation suffered by the troops during and after the fi ghting. The natural diffi culties of the battle, compounded by the physical characteristics of the outback, were related to the struggle the soldiers had in receiving their pay once the war had ended.

  2. Globalne tezy, lokalne przemilczenia

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    Grzegorz Krzywiec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global theses with local omissions Timothy Snyder’s book is an ambitious monograph which attempts at placing Shoah in a more appropriate context of the murderous fight between the Nazi Germany and the Soviet Russia from the perspective of civilian victims. However, the book offers no new evidence or new arguments. On the one hand, most of the interpretations come from established scholars. On the other hand, Bloodlands presents a sort of synthesis of the latest discussions of the Holocaust historians and Eastern European experience of the Soviet rule. Nonetheless, as Snyder himself has stated, the novelty of the book lies rather in a parallel insight into systems and events. Such “parallelism” must, and surely will, trigger a wealth of reflections. The review article focuses on one particular aspect of the book. One of the most suggestive assumptions of Snyder’s method is that the book overcomes national narratives by examining the cruelest period in the 20th century from the above-mentioned universal point of view. However, for Snyder, a leading scholar of Eastern European, and first and foremost, Polish history, these “national” motifs play a significant, and often even crucial role in his book. Yet, as it is claimed in the review, the author frequently cannot free himself from them. On the contrary, his narrative delivers systematic permeations of Polish martyrological stereotypes and biases, which in the end results in a reproduction of many handbook schemes and even metaphorical figures from the so-called Polish “historical politics”. This also leads to many false and misleading juxtapositions with the most striking one being the comparison between the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and Warsaw Uprising. Interestingly enough, evading many national particularities, Snyder relapses in deeply rooted national, and to be specific, Polish tales. He proves to be more “national” than many other “national” scholars critical in

  3. The Arab Spring is a Latin American Winter: TeleSUR’s “Ideological Approach” and the Breakaway from the Al-Jazeera Network

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    Massimo Di Ricco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring represents a breaking point in the cooperation between the pan-Latin American satellite television TeleSUR and Al-Jazeera. Even if in February TeleSUR firmly condemned the closure by Egyptian authorities of the Al-Jazeera Cairo offices, NATO military intervention in Libya and the beginning of protests in Syria provoked an important change in TeleSUR coverage of the Arab Spring. This shift coincided with a departure from the Al-Jazeera network, sanctioning the possible end of a collaboration that always had strong political connotations. TeleSUR joined the cause of the protesters in the coverage of the Egyptian and Tunisian uprisings, meanwhile it took what we can refer to as an “ideological approach” in the coverage of the uprisings after the international intervention in Libya, implicitly embracing the official media version of the Arab regimes. This stance sparked controversy especially within grassroots Latin American movements, igniting a strong debate mainly visible on the web. At an international level, the undeclared departure from the Al-Jazeera network reflects the future split between leftist Latin American governments, who embrace and fund the multi-state TV network TeleSUR, and the forces that will come out from the Arab Spring. Finally, the Arab Spring represented a missing opportunity for TeleSUR to play an important role in global media, and not only for a national or regional audience. Indeed, TeleSUR gave more importance to the political interests of the channel's founders, than in pursuing a balanced information out of ideological interests or geopolitical strategies..

  4. The models of upbringing of children and youth as agents of cultural integration in the lives of Polish landowners during the Partitions of Poland [Wzorce wychowania dzieci i młodzieży jako element integrujący kulturę życia rodzinnego polskiego ziemiaństwa w dobie zaborów

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    Bołdyrew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tasks of a typical Polish gentry family by the end of the XIX-th century and at the beginning of the XX-th century was to hand down to younger generations patriotic values. To assure the continuity of the nation and to have the guarantee of the futurę freedom became sine qua non condition. It also became one of the main values of the gentry ethos. Gentry accepted the role of depositary of Polish nationality. The defeat of the November Uprising and the reprisals of the partitioning powers led to the radicalisation of attitudes, and of crucial importance became a principle to conflate the national cause with religion, which in tum led to crystallisation of the term „patriotic religion” whose upholder and priest became a woman - „Mother Pole”. Within the whole epoch the education of children was significant. In order to save them from the indoctrination they were taught national history, tradition and literature at home which stood in the opposition to the teaching officially practiced at school. The further evolution of the model was influenced greatly by the defeat of the January Uprising and the political and socio-economic transformations in the wake of it. The basis of a modem society was to be its young generation. It was their mother who were supposed to look after their health, bringing-up and education, and the postulates to improve the ąuality of parental care became one of the elements of „organie labour”. The new reality of life made it necessary by the end of the XIX-th century to reinterpret the idea of patriotic upbringing which was integrated with morał and hygienic education. In spite of numerous differences conceming the upbringing one can point to many common pattems of education of young generation. The models were not dependent on territorial, political or mental divisions which created so called “awareness of being one social body”. Family and social gatherings facilitated the

  5. Los prefectos urbanos de Constancio IIy el comportamiento vindicativo de la plebe romana en Amiano Marcelino

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    José Ramón AJA SÁNCHEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo trata de analizar un grupo de tumultos populares ocurridos en Roma durante el gobierno del emperador Constancio II, y a los cuales tuvieron que hacer frente los prefectos de la Urbe Orfito, Leoncio, Artemio y Tértulo —con muy diferente actitud, según la narración que de los mismos hizo el historiador tardorromano Amiano Marcelino, la única fuente de los mismos—. Para ello, nuestro análisis pretende, por un lado, enmarcar estas seditiones en un contexto que poseía una amplia tradición en Roma: la existencia de una vis de carácter defensivo y vindicativo ejercida por la plebe urbana de Roma desde tiempos remotos, y que pervivió hasta épocas tardías conservando su sentido más ancestral de ser una respuesta legítima contra la injusticia. Por otro lado, se pretende reflexionar sobre la influencia que ciertos factores —como el miedo colectivo, la inercia de la tradición y la costumbre—, o determinados rasgos del Derecho romano y del carácter de los romanos, podían ejercer en sucesos similares a los que se estudian en este artículo. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes a group of popular uprisings which occurred in Rome during the rule of the emperor Constantius II. The prefects of Rome who had to deal with these uprisings were attitudes according to Ammianus Marcellinus, the late roman historian one hand, to put these seditiones into a context with an extensive tradition in Rome, namely the existence of a vindicating, defensive power which had bee exercised by the plebs of Rome since ancient imes and continued until later periods, conserving its ancestral sense of being a legitimate response to injustice. On the other hand, the article reflects on the way in which these events may have been influenced by certain factores —such as collective fear and the inertia of tradition and custom— or certain features of Roman law and of the character of the Romans.

  6. УЧАСТЬ ПРЕДСТАВНИКІВ РИМО-КАТОЛИЦЬКОГО КЛІРУ ПРАВОБЕРЕЖНОЇ УКРАЇНИ В РЕВОЛЮЦІЙНО-ДЕМОКРАТИЧНИХ ТА ЛІБЕРАЛЬНИХ ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯХ у другій половині XIX — на початку XX ст.

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    Ю. В. Хитровська

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis the problem of the participation of the Rome-Catholic clergy on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the liberal and revolutionary-democratic movements in the second half of the 19th — in the beginning of the 20 th ct. For the investigating this problem author used scientific literature and archives documents. At the end of 18th — in the early 19th ct. the top of Roman-Catholic Church, despite the significant differences in the ideology of Catholicism and Freemasonry, went to the rapprochement with Poland Masons of political reasons — the struggle for independence of the Commonwealth. This was due to the inevitability of secularization of land ownership and the establishment of the «Latin» church of the same administrative control by the imperial government, under which long ago was the Russian Orthodox Church. In this historical period, the Polish elite largely relied on Masonic organization guided exclusively patriotic aspirations to revive the Great Poland. For the Polish secret societies support the Roman-Catholic Church was a significant factor on the eve of the uprising against Russia in 1830 –1831, they were preparing hard, since Catholicism had significant ideological influence on a significant part of the Right-Bank Ukraine. This goal subordinated forces formed at the beginning of 19th ct. in Right-Bank Ukraine in the Polish secret societies and Masonic lodges and local Roman-Catholic clergy. As the evidence archival documents, they continued their work in the middle of 19th — in the early 20th ct., especially before and during the uprising against autocracy in 1863–1864 years, achieving the overthrow of the Russian monarchy. However, part of the Roman-Catholic clergy in this process was somewhat more modest than in the beginning 19th ct., which was caused by the tsarist government holding tight against church policy of the Roman-Catholic Church, including the Right-bank Ukraine.

  7. Numerical model of the transition from continental rifting to oceanization: the case study of the Ligure-Piemontese ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, M.; Marotta, A. M.; Conte, K.; Spalla, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The transition from continental rifting to oceanization has been investigated by mean of a 2D thermo-mechanical numerical model in which the formation of oceanic crust by mantle serpentinization, due to the hydration of the uprising peridotite, as been implemented. Model predictions have been compared with natural data related to the Permian-Triassic thinning affecting the continental lithosphere of the Alpine domain, in order to identify which portions of the present Alpine-Apennine system, preserving the imprints of Permian-Triassic high temperature (HT) metamorphism, is compatible, in terms of lithostratigraphy and tectono-metamorphic evolution, with a lithospheric extension preceding the opening of the Ligure-Piemontese oceanic basin. At this purpose age, petrological and structural data from the Alpine and Apennine ophiolite complexes are compared with model predictions from the oceanization stage. Our comparative analysis supports the thesis that the lithospheric extension preceding the opening of the Alpine Tethys did not start on a stable continental lithosphere, but developed by recycling part of the old Variscan collisional suture. The HT Permian-Triassic metamorphic re-equilibration overprints an inherited tectonic and metamorphic setting consequent to the Variscan subduction and collision, making the Alps a key case history to explore mechanisms responsible for the re-activation of orogenic scars.

  8. Home Army in the Poetry of Jerzy Ficowski

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    Jerzy Kandziora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the evolution of the theme of Armia Krajowa (Home Army and the Warsaw Uprising, in Ficowski’s poetry. The theme, engaged by the poet in the late 1940s (Ołowiani żołnierze, 1948, was quickly abandoned as incompatible with the imaginary, magical direction in the development of young Ficowski’s poetry. Neither was the theme fostered by the general political background of the “dead season” of Communist Poland, by censorship, and by Ficowski’s fear of settling for the post-Romantic stereotype and patriotic myth-making. The theme returned in the 1970s (Gryps, 1979; Errata, 1981, which was related to Ficowski’s decision to liberate himself from self-censorship, and his readiness to express the once repressed content in his own, mature poetic idiom. The present study presents two aspects of historical narration in the Home-Army poems from the 1970s: the fabulous quality, which positions history in Ficowski’s private topics and intimate memory, and the scientific, naturalistic quality, which relates history to physical and cosmic categories. Both aspects redeem the poetry from the narrow specificity of Polish national myth, and make it possible to reconcile individual truth of the experience of death and suffering with the discourse of concepts and historiosophy, which also touches upon the cosmic order.

  9. Global Food Security Index Studies and Satellite Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, T. A.; Ganti-Agrawal, S.; Joshi, D.; Lakhankar, T.

    2017-12-01

    Food yield is equal to the total crop harvest per unit cultivated area. During the elapsed time of germination and frequent harvesting, both human and climate related effects determine a country's' contribution towards global food security. Each country across the globe's annual income per capita was collected to then determine nine countries for further studies. For a location to be chosen, its income per capita needed to be considered poor, uprising or wealthy. Both physical land cover and regional climate helped categorize potential parameters thought to be studied. Once selected, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data was collected for Ethiopia, Liberia, Indonesia, United States, Norway, Russia, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia over the recent 16 years for approximately every 16 days starting from early in the year 2000. Software languages such as Geographic Information System (GIS), MatLab and Excel were used to determine how population size, income and deforestation directly determines agricultural yields. Because of high maintenance requirements for large harvests when forest areas are cleared, they often have a reduction in soil quality, requiring fertilizer use to produce sufficient crop yields. Total area and vegetation index of each country is to be studied, to determine crop and deforestation percentages. To determine how deforestation impacts future income and crop yield predictions of each country studied. By using NDVI results a parameter is to be potentially found that will help define an index, to create an equation that will determine a country's annual income and ability to provide for their families and themselves.

  10. Knowledge of the concept of corporate social responsibility in agribusiness enterprises (based on the example of the SME sector in Malopolska

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    Ratajczak Marcin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiative in Poland is relatively little known and has not been yet deeply rooted in the consciousness of Polish entrepreneurs especially in the field of SMEs and local communities. CSR is a concept whereby companies at the stage of strategy building voluntarily take into account the social interests and environmental protection, as well as relationships with their stakeholders. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present issues related to the knowledge of the CSR concept in the surveyed agribusiness enterprises. The article presents among other things, statistical relations between knowledge of the above concept and education of owners of the business, company size or business entity year of uprising. The research on opinions of entrepreneurs on the above concepts was carried out at the turn of 2014 and 2015 included 182 micro (0-9 persons, small (10-49 employees and medium (50-249 employees agribusiness companies engaged in business activities in rural areas of Małopolska. The results showed that there is a need for awareness of small and medium enterprises with agribusiness that consumers increasingly pay attention to the aspect of the behavior of responsible practices, let alone to observe their assumptions. Given the nature of the business, the knowledge of the CSR concept prevailed in a group of entrepreneurs from the manufacturing sector.

  11. Spiritual Politics

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    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  12. Role of temperature-dependent O-p-Fe-d hybridization parameter in the metal-insulator transition of Fe3O4: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, A. D.; Majidi, M. A.; Rusydi, A.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a simple tight-binding based model for Fe3O4 that captures the preference of ferrimagnetic over ferromagnetic spin configuration of the system. Our model is consistent with previous theoretical and experimental studies suggesting that the system is half metallic, in which spin polarized electrons hop only among the Fe B sites. To address the metal-insulator transition (MIT) we propose that the strong correlation among electrons, which may also be influenced by the electron-phonon interactions, manifest as the temperature-dependence of the O-p-Fe-d hybridization parameter, particularly Fe-d belonging to one of the Fe B sites (denoted as {t}{{FeB}-{{O}}}(2)). By proposing that this parameter increases as the temperature decreases, our density-of-states calculation successfully captures a gap opening at the Fermi level, transforming the system from half metal to insulator. Within this model along with the corresponding choice of parameters and a certain profile of the temperature dependence of {t}{{FeB}-{{O}}}(2), we calculate the resistivity of the system as a function of temperature. Our calculation result reveals the drastic uprising trend of the resistivity profile as the temperature decreases, with the MIT transition temperature located around 100 K, which is in agreement with experimental data.

  13. A military officer in Rif: Jesús Jiménez Ortoneda (1911-1936

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    José Luis Villanova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses original and for the most part unpublished documentation in order to examine the career of Jesús Jiménez Ortoneda, a highly successful career officer who served in the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco between 1907 and 1936. He occupied important positions in the political administration of the Protectorate (as director of the political section of Melilla’s Oficina Central de Intervenciones and a senior official in the Department of Indigenous Affairs; he was fluent in Arab and Tamazight, and gained a sound knowledge of the geography of the Rif mountains. His military career, in which he achieved the rank of lieutenant colonel, was characterized by his strictly professional attitude. He was one of the few career officers in Africa who were faithful to Spain’s republican government and who did not participate in the military uprising of 1936. This discussion of his career brings into question some well-established ideas concerning Spanish colonial policy in Morocco.

  14. Thermal engineering of lead-free nanostructured CH3NH3SnCl3 perovskite material for thin-film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyez, Sk Abdul; Roy, Subhasis

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite solar cell is a kind of revolutionary investigation in the field of renewable energy which is capable of mitigates the deficiencies of silicon solar cell and its uprising efficiency can bring blessing to society. The presence of lead (Pb) in perovskite solar cell can make worst and negative impact on environment and is not desirable for our society. In this paper, general plans are anticipated by replacement of Pb with tin (Sn) in open atmosphere to fabricate the CH3NH3SnCl3 photovoltaic cells in chlorine (Cl)-rich environment. Excess uses of Cl has positive influences on morphological growth of the film and it also suppresses the oxidation tendency of tin (Sn) with existing oxygen in atmosphere and maintains same chemical atmosphere as bulk. Various characterization tools like X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to study the effect of annealing temperature on crystal stricture, phase formation, impurities, and morphologies of the film. Finally, photovoltaic performance was reported using the solar simulator under 1.5 sun illumination.

  15. Oocyte cryopreservation, will it be a real social choice and family solution?

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    Hossam Hassan Soliman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Social changes, uprising ambitions and life demands have markedly affected the behavior and attitude of women toward the concept of composing a stable family and giving birth to children, that was clearly demarcated by the remarkably increased age of conception and child birth, postponement of such essential events could be followed later on by a sense of sorrow and regret. As such elderly ladies would sometimes find more difficulty in conceiving or in maintaining pregnancy till full term because of old age compared to the relatively younger women who might get better chances to get a healthy pregnancy, that could be attributed to the poorer quality of oocytes which progressively develops with the advancement of the maternal age. Oocyte cryopreservation at a younger age using vitrification has been proposed as a solution to maintain women’s fertility without the need for sperms; if done at a younger age where oocytes are still healthy and competent to yield a normal pregnancy, thus enabling women to delay conception.

  16. Contextualizing History in Hungarian Films of the New Millennium

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    Clara Orban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian films produced after the year 2000 build on the historical reality of the fall of communism and anticipate, or come to terms with, entry into the European Union.  This article will explore six films that deal with history through multiple perspectives to dramatize the dynamic between historical events and human responses to them.  These films reference history, or efface it, as a way of problematizing the relationship between human behavior and history.  Colossal Sensation [Világszám – Dodó és Naftalin] (2005 and Children of Glory [Szabadság, szerelem] (2006, for example, examine Hungarians’ moments of defiance during the 1956 uprising but shape historical events to fit human constructs.  Contemporary history provides satire of rising capitalism in The District! [Nyócker!] (2005 whose plot weaves historical figures into a modern rendition of Romeo and Juliette.  Miracle in Krakow [Csoda Krakkóban] (2004 also presents a book as its central metaphor, and, like The District!, the book allows some of history’s uglier moments to be erased.  Béla Tarr’s Werkmeister Harmonies [Werkmeister harmóniák] (2000 and Nimród Antal’s Control [Kontroll] (2003, films without overt historical markers, provide allegorical visions of societal unrest that can be read as allusions to millennial concerns.

  17. Allama Shibli and the early Muslim League: A dissenting voice

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    Arshad Islam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The All-India Muslim League (AIML was formed in 1906, with the primary aim to improve the educational and socioeconomic status of Muslims. Allama Shibli Nu‘mani (1857-1914 put forward an argument in support of Muslims recovering from the political stupor into which they had fallen after the British suppression of the 1857 uprising. He encouraged Muslims to participate in democratic politics in India, departing from the educational focus of his mentor, Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898. Shibli advanced a strong critique of the Muslim League’s limited ambitions in comparison with the Indian National Congress (INC. His critique, notably in ironic and emotive poetry, significantly contributed to the national discussion pertaining to the Muslim League’s reform and restructure. Based on Shibli’s original writings, this paper analyses his critique of the Muslim League and his efforts to overhaul its structure and policies. It examines the response of the Muslim League to these critiques and studies the extent to which its structure and policies changed.

  18. Cacophony or Empowerment? Analysing the Impact of New Information Communication Technologies and New Social Media in Southeast Asia

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    Jason P. Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities, tools and websites we associate with new information communication technologies and social media are now ubiquitous. Moreover tools that were designed to facilitate innocuous conversation and social interaction have had unforeseen political impacts. Nowhere was this more visible than during the 2011 uprisings across the Arab World. From Tunis to Cairo, and Tripoli to Damascus protest movements against authoritarian rule openly utilized social networking and file sharing tools to publicize and organize demonstrations and to catalogue human rights abuses. The Arab Spring, or Jasmine Revolution, was an event that was both witnessed and played out in real time online. This article explores the impacts and effects of these technologies on regimes in East Asia, in particular exploring the extent to which they proffer new capabilities upon activists and reformers in the region’s semi-democratic and authoritarian regimes. Drawing on data on Internet and smartphone use, as well as case studies that explore the role of these technologies on the 2008 and 2011 general elections in Malaysia and Singapore respectively, this article suggests that the Internet and social networking platforms do present unique opportunities for activists, citizens and social movements.

  19. The development of the penal system in Serbian criminal law

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    Jakšić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the penal system in Serbia is reflected in significant changes within the criminal legislative solutions. The most important legal document of the medieval Serbia, 'Dušan's Code' was characterized by harsh corporal and death punishments taken from the Byzantine law. During the Ottoman period 'Dušan's Code' was no longer in use, and with the beginning of the First Serbian Uprising, the adoption of individual legislations began. The Criminal Code of the Principality of Serbia, adopted in 1860, introduced a novelty of major and minor penalties, including, most importantly, several types of detention. The Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was adopted in 1929 and it predicted different types of sanctions other than fines. The main feature of the Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was permanent abolition of the corporal punishment. After the Second World War, the newly formed government adopted new criminal codes and new forms of punishment, which remained unchanged from the Novel in 1959 up until the dissolution of the SFRY. Contemporary criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia is characterized by the abolition of the death penalty, seizure of property and the introduction of new penalties, which should, instead of short prison sentences, serve as an alternative. Throughout its statehood, from the Middle Ages up until today, Serbia has always had a continuity of the penal system development parallel with its development, primarily in Europe.

  20. The Mouse That Roared: The Democratic Movement in Hong Kong

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    Arif Dirlik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The popular uprising in recent years in Hong Kong – “Occupy Central” a.k.a. Umbrella Movement – has again brought to the fore the question of the Special Administrative Region’s relationship with Mainland China post-1997 “handover” of the territory by the British colonial government to the People’s Republic of China. This article argues that the protests have their origins in a consciousness born of the anxieties provoked by the prospect of unification in the 1980s and 1990s, further evolved against the background of the unstable “one country, two systems” arrangement openly favoring the corporate and financial ruling class in Hong Kong which is in turn prepared to align its interests with those of the Communist regime in a mutually beneficial relationship. It also posits while the upheaval in Hong Kong bears similarities to other “Occupy” movements elsewhere in the economic issues that inform it, it may be viewed as the latest chapter in a narrative that goes back to the 1980s – the emergence of a neoliberal global capitalism of which the PRC has been an integral component, and the Tiananmen movement which was one of the earliest expressions of the social and political strains created by shifts in the global economy.

  1. Utilización del espacio ciudadano en el siglo IV "Acclamatio et tumultus"

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    Manuel RODRÍGUEZ GERVÁS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Señalamos que durante el Bajo Imperio la plebe ciudadana mantiene una cierta identidad propia y una cierta conciencia de sí misma. Tanto las celebraciones triunfales como las sublevaciones forman parte de una misma moneda en la que las masas populares adquieren protagonismo. El espacio ciudadano, al que tradicionalmente se ve como lugar exclusivo de las prácticas del poder, es utilizado y reivindicado por la plebe, hasta el punto de que los lugares de concentración del triunfo o de los juegos son los mismos lugares donde la masa acude para mostrar su descontento o reivindicar sus propuestas.ABSTRACT: During the late Roman Empire, citizen plebeians maintained a certain identity of their own and a certain self-awareness. Triumphal celebrations and uprisings were two sides of the same coin in which the plebeian masses acquired protagonism. At the same time, the citizens' space, traditionally seen as the exclusive place for the practice of power, was used and claimed by the plebeians to the point that the places used by crowds to celebrate triumphs or hold games became the same places where the masses went to show their displeasure or demand that their proposals be met.

  2. Dobrovoľnícky cestovný ruch na príklade troch kultúrnych festivalov

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    Kristína Pompurová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer tourism has become a global phenomenon with future market predictions indicating growth. Despite the fact that certain features of volunteer tourism in Slovakia appeared after the Second World War, in domestic literature, the issue that includes the volunteerism was not addressed in an appropriate manner. The aim of the paper is also to evaluate the activity and management of volunteers participating in selected cultural festivals as a part of a tourism product in selected destinations in Slovakia. The number of volunteers at festivals is high and mostly consists of young people. The volunteers gain many extraordinary and valuable experiences applicable in various ways of life. The results of structured interviews with volunteers’ coordinators management in the Nitra Theatre Festival, Pohoda and Uprising Reggae Festival confirmed the idea that volunteers play a major role in planning and organizing festivals in selected destinations. The degree of coordination of their activity is relatively high. An optimal amount of involvement of volunteers in organizing events may contribute to the generation of positive effects for the destination.

  3. Investigations on human and animal remains from a medieval shaft well in Ayasuluk/Ephesos (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanz, Fabian; Pfeiffer-Taş, Şule; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Galik, Alfred; Weissengruber, Gerald; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-01-01

    In course of the archaeological survey of Ayasuluk/Ephesos region (Turkey), a shaft well situated at the area of an extensive medieval bathing complex was excavated. In the stratum corresponding to the reign Mehmed II the well-preserved skeletons of two humans, an equine and a canine were recovered. Anthropological analysis of the human skeletons indentified two males aged 22 (± 3) and 36 (± 5) years. The skeleton of the younger individual showed signs of various antemortal conditions, including a well-healed fraction of right arc of the fifth lumbar vertebra, and a marked asymmetry of the shoulder joints. The older individual exhibited significant peri/postmortem injuries at the elbows, with evident signs of peeling and external burning. Also, the few elements of the cranium recovered showed also indications of burning. Archaeozoological characterization of the complete skeletons of the equine and canine established evidence of well cared-for animals of high value. The time of disposal of this group coincides with uprising of the formerly ruling Aydnoullar clan against the Ottomans in power. The human individuals recovered from the well may have been members of Aydnoullar tribe or men in service of the latter, suffering severe torture and/or mutilation for siding with the rebels after defeat.

  4. Pricing a Protest: Forecasting the Dynamics of Civil Unrest Activity in Social Media.

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    Brian J Goode

    Full Text Available Online social media activity can often be a precursor to disruptive events such as protests, strikes, and "occupy" movements. We have observed that such civil unrest can galvanize supporters through social networks and help recruit activists to their cause. Understanding the dynamics of social network cascades and extrapolating their future growth will enable an analyst to detect or forecast major societal events. Existing work has primarily used structural and temporal properties of cascades to predict their future behavior. But factors like societal pressure, alignment of individual interests with broader causes, and perception of expected benefits also affect protest participation in social media. Here we develop an analysis framework using a differential game theoretic approach to characterize the cost of participating in a cascade, and demonstrate how we can combine such cost features with classical properties to forecast the future behavior of cascades. Using data from Twitter, we illustrate the effectiveness of our models on the "Brazilian Spring" and Venezuelan protests that occurred in June 2013 and November 2013, respectively. We demonstrate how our framework captures both qualitative and quantitative aspects of how these uprisings manifest through the lens of tweet volume on Twitter social media.

  5. Pricing a Protest: Forecasting the Dynamics of Civil Unrest Activity in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Brian J; Krishnan, Siddharth; Roan, Michael; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2015-01-01

    Online social media activity can often be a precursor to disruptive events such as protests, strikes, and "occupy" movements. We have observed that such civil unrest can galvanize supporters through social networks and help recruit activists to their cause. Understanding the dynamics of social network cascades and extrapolating their future growth will enable an analyst to detect or forecast major societal events. Existing work has primarily used structural and temporal properties of cascades to predict their future behavior. But factors like societal pressure, alignment of individual interests with broader causes, and perception of expected benefits also affect protest participation in social media. Here we develop an analysis framework using a differential game theoretic approach to characterize the cost of participating in a cascade, and demonstrate how we can combine such cost features with classical properties to forecast the future behavior of cascades. Using data from Twitter, we illustrate the effectiveness of our models on the "Brazilian Spring" and Venezuelan protests that occurred in June 2013 and November 2013, respectively. We demonstrate how our framework captures both qualitative and quantitative aspects of how these uprisings manifest through the lens of tweet volume on Twitter social media.

  6. The Impact of the Arab Spring on Islamist Strategies

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    Ioana E. Matesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt created a contagion effect that inspired a series of uprisings by sending two signals: first, that even entrenched authoritarian regimes are vulnerable; and second, that nonviolent tactics can be effective in bringing about dramatic political changes. Subsequent developments, especially in Libya and Syria, convoluted these messages. Nonetheless, the political openings and the electoral victory of Islamists in Egypt and Tunisia continue to send the signal to many Islamist opposition groups that nonviolent means and participation in politics can be effective ways to produce political change. The chance of gaining power through electoral means can give Islamists strong incentives to join in the demands for democratic institutions and change their stance towards political participation. The appeal of nonviolent tactics, however, is undermined when external threats surpass domestic considerations. When the primary concern of the public is about outside threats and the main enemy is external rather than a domestic despot, the impact of the Arab Spring on views regarding the efficacy of nonviolent tactics is diminished. Similarly, when an Islamic group is primarily concerned with the "far enemy," the incentives for moderation offered by political participation are undermined.

  7. Learning from soil gas change and isotopic signatures during 2012 Emilia seismic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Cantucci, Barbara; Coltorti, Massimo

    2017-10-27

    Soil surveys were performed in Medolla (Italy), a peculiar area characterized by spotty high soil temperature, gas vent, and lack of vegetation, to determine the migration mechanisms and spatial behavior of gas species. Hereby we present soil gas measurements and their isotopic ratios measured between 2008 and 2015, including the 2012 Emilia-Romagna seismic sequence. We found that soil gas concentrations markedly changed during the main shocks of May 20 and 29, 2012 (Mw 6.1 and 6.0, respectively), highlighting the presence of a buried fault intersecting the gas vents. We suggest that crustal dilation associated with seismic activity favored the uprising of geogas towards the surface. Changes in the isotopic signature highlight the contribution of two distinct sources, one deeper, thermogenic and another superficial related to organic-rich layer, whose relative contribution varied before, during and after the earthquake. We suppose an increase of microbial component likely due to the ground shaking of shallower layers linked to seismic sequence, which masks the thermogenic contribution. Although the changes we detect are specific for an alluvial plain, we deduce that analogous processes may be active elsewhere, and that soil gas geochemistry represents an useful tool to discriminate the gas migration related to seismic activity.

  8. Colonial legacy, women's rights and gender-educational inequality in the Arab World with particular reference to Egypt and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society; Western, European colonial perception of women's rights; and finally national gender-related policy reforms. This paper examines the past and present status of women and gender-educational inequality in the Arab world with particular reference to Egypt and Tunisia, prior to and post colonialism. Special attention is given to colonial legacy and its influence on gender and education; to current gender practices in the social sphere with a focus on women's modesty ( hijab); to international policies and national responses with regard to women's rights and finally to female participation in pre-university and higher education. These issues incorporate a discussion of cultural and religious constraints. The paper demonstrates similarities and differences between Egypt's and Tunisia's reform policies towards gender parity. It highlights the confrontation of conservative versus liberal ideologies that occurred in each country with the implementation of its gender-related reform policy.

  9. Systemic violence against Syrian refugee women and the myth of effective intrapersonal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmine, Rola; Moughalian, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Since the uprising in Syria in March 2011, over 4.3 million Syrians have fled to neighboring countries. Over a million have sought refuge in Lebanon, constituting almost a quarter of the Lebanese population and becoming the largest refugee population per capita in the world. With inequitable health coverage being a longstanding problem in Lebanon, Syrian refugee women's health, and specifically their sexual and reproductive health, is disproportionately affected. An increase in gender-based violence and early marriage, a lack of access to emergency obstetric care, limited access to contraception, forced cesarean sections, and high cost of healthcare services, all contribute to poor sexual and reproductive health. In this commentary, we conceptualize violence against Syrian refugee women using the ecological model, exploring the intersections of discrimination based on ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, while critiquing interventions that focus solely on the intrapersonal level and ignore the role of microsystemic, exosystemic, and macrosystemic factors of negative influence. These social determinants of health supersede the individual realm of health behavior, and hinder women in taking decisions about their sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on the Combustion Process and Emissions of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with EGR

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    Mei Deqing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high pressure EGR system was adopted to a turbocharged inter-cooled diesel engine, to analyze its combustion and emission characteristics under the condition of different loads and constant speed. Under the same steady operating mode, with the increase of EGR rate, the temperature of compressed gas ascended, the ignition delay was shortened, the pressure and temperature of the burned gas descended, and the combustion process was prolonged. According to the experimental data, it was found that, at the same EGR rate, lower the load of engine was, lower the temperature in cylinder, and higher the increase rate of CO was. However, the increase rate of HC present a falling trend. The decrease rate of the specific emission of NOx linearly varied with EGR rate with a slope of 1.651. The increase rate of smoke opacity behaved a second-order polynomial uprising trend, and the higher the load was, the sharpener the smoke opacity deteriorated, with the increase of EGR rate. From the point of emission view, the engine with EGR system can achieve the lesser exhaust emissions in some operations by adjusting the engine parameters.

  11. Passive Super-Low Frequency electromagnetic prospecting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Zhao, Shanshan; Hui, Jian; Qin, Qiming

    2017-03-01

    The Super-Low Frequency (SLF) electromagnetic prospecting technique, adopted as a non-imaging remote sensing tool for depth sounding, is systematically proposed for subsurface geological survey. In this paper, we propose and theoretically illustrate natural source magnetic amplitudes as SLF responses for the first step. In order to directly calculate multi-dimensional theoretical SLF responses, modeling algorithms were developed and evaluated using the finite difference method. The theoretical results of three-dimensional (3-D) models show that the average normalized SLF magnetic amplitude responses were numerically stable and appropriate for practical interpretation. To explore the depth resolution, three-layer models were configured. The modeling results prove that the SLF technique is more sensitive to conductive objective layers than high resistive ones, with the SLF responses of conductive objective layers obviously showing uprising amplitudes in the low frequency range. Afterwards, we proposed an improved Frequency-Depth transformation based on Bostick inversion to realize the depth sounding by empirically adjusting two parameters. The SLF technique has already been successfully applied in geothermal exploration and coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir interpretation, which demonstrates that the proposed methodology is effective in revealing low resistive distributions. Furthermore, it siginificantly contributes to reservoir identification with electromagnetic radiation anomaly extraction. Meanwhile, the SLF interpretation results are in accordance with dynamic production status of CBM reservoirs, which means it could provide an economical, convenient and promising method for exploring and monitoring subsurface geo-objects.

  12. Tadeus Reichstein, co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine: on the occasion of the 110th anniversary of his birth in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, Andrzej; Sulkowska, Mariola; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2007-01-01

    Tadeus Reichstein (1897-1996) was the first scientist born in Poland to receive the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology (1950) for the "discovery of hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects", as stated by the Nobel Prize Committee. His family being deeply devoted to Polish cultural and historical heritage, his first name was given to him after Tadeus Kosciuszko, a chief commander of the 18th century Polish uprising named the Kosciuszko Insurrection. As a child, he emigrated with his family to Switzerland, where he was much later to become involved in numerous research studies on steroids on an international scale. It was Tadeus Reichstein who isolated and synthesized desoxycorticosterone, which still remains the drug of first choice in the treatment of Addison's disease. Additionally, thanks to his strategy for the mass production of Vitamin C, the cost of this agent was drastically reduced thus enabling its widespread therapeutic use. In our divided world so often torn by tremendous conflicts, there is a great need to both remember and commemorate such distinguished people as Tadeus Reichstein who, despite the apparent "borders" between different nationalities and cultures, have demonstrated through their work the huge need for harmonious collaboration in the development of science.

  13. Wladimir Krzyzanowski, 123 Polish Hero of the Civil War in the USA

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    PIYUK T.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the young Polish revolutionist Wladimir Krzyzanowski who emigrated from Great Poland to the US after failed uprising in 1846 against Prussia in order to avoid possible arrest. He went to Hamburg, Germany and sailed from there to the United States.W. Krzyzanowski managed to become a successful and prosperous businessman and politician, and he was lucky in his personal life, he married a girl with a name and a significant dowry. He considered slavery not only anachronistic, but also a disgrace to the young state, and at the same time, he admired American democracy and American people. In Washington he recruited the company of Polish immigrants which became one of the first companies of Union Soldiers. Krzyzanowski then moved his company to New York and enlisted more immigrants and soon became a Colonel of the 58th Infantry Division, listed in the official Army Register as the “Polish Legion”. He participated in the Civil War battles of Cross-Keys, Bull Run, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. “Polish Legion”, led by Krzyzanowski, made himself famous in the main battle at Gettysburg. Subsequently, the memorial of granite was erected to legion in the immediate vicinity of the city.The author’s attention was attracted by the eccentric personality of the Pole, known in Poland and in America. In her work she explores Krzyzanowski’s life and service to the American people

  14. Les racines de la « révolution du 25 janvier » en Égypte : une réflexion géographique

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    Leila Vignal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article identifie les racines structurelles de la révolution égyptienne du 25 janvier 2011. Si le blocage du système politique et les promesses de développement non tenues de la libéralisation économique ont fait le lit de la contestation, les profondes mutations de la société égyptienne au cours des 50 dernières années – baisse de la fécondité, essor de l’éducation, urbanisation massive – sont autant de causes profondes qui expliquent le soulèvement populaire et le départ d’Hosni Moubarak.This paper explores the structural roots of the 25th January Egyptian revolution. The stalemate of the political system and the deceptive effects of an economic liberalization with little trickle-down effect explain the run-up to the revolution. However, deep social changes (the decline in birth rates, the rise of literacy, massive urbanization are part of the background to the popular uprising and the exit of Mubarak.

  15. An Animal-Centered Perspective on Colonial Oppression: Animal Representations and the Narrating Ox in Uwe Timm’s ‘‘Morenga’’ (1978

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    Steffen Röhrs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of its topic and its narrative style, Uwe Timm’s novel ‘Morenga’ (1978 marks an important step in the development of postcolonial German literature. The main theme of the book is the bloody suppression of the Herero and the Nama uprisings through the German army in South-West Africa at the beginning of the 20th century. With recourse to historical and fictional documents and by using different narrative perspectives, the text achieves a plurality of voices and thereby destabilizes a one-dimensional view on colonialism. The present article discusses the functions of the nonhuman animals appearing in ‘Morenga’. It is assumed that the animal representations are an essential part of the plot and underscore the criticism of colonial rule in a narrative manner too. The novel contains several descriptions of suffering animals and links them to the harm of the Herero and the Nama in order to point out the ruthlessness of the colonists. Moreover, the book features a story-telling ox, which initiates a reflection process about possible ways of narrating colonial history. The talking ox adds a specific animal-centered perspective on colonial oppression and raises questions about emancipation, self-determination, and the agency of the nonhuman ‘other’

  16. Civilian Joint Task Force’ (CJTF – A Community Security Option: A Comprehensive and Proactive Approach of Reducing Terrorism

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    Oluwaseun Bamidele

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Boko Haram uprising in 2009, the Nigerian government has employed various strategies as counter-terrorism measures to stem the atrocities of the group. These strategies include amnesty negotiations, implementation of emergency law in the northeast, increase in security spending to the deployment of military force. In the midst of these security measures, the civilian Joint Task Force (JTF emerged, first as a community effort, and later as a joint effort with the security forces to help fight Boko Haram. The civilian JTF has helped recover towns and villages from Boko Haram, rescued women in the northeast and helped identify Boko Haram members shielded by some local people. Although doubts have been expressed in some quatres that the civilian JTF could transform into ethnic militias, the Boko Haram security threat neutralized by the group indicates an untapped security potential in Nigerian communities. However, one approach that has yet to be pursued is community security option. Community security option is a model built around proactive citizen-driven communal response. This article explains the role of civilian JTF and how civilian JTF can be used to investigate terrorism in Nigeria. This article will contribute to the discourse on the imperative of African-inspired mechanisms to solving African security problems.

  17. Mechanism of enhanced performance on a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell using sawdust biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangbin; Jiang, Cairong; Liu, Juan; Tao, Haoliang; Meng, Xie; Connor, Paul; Hui, Jianing; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Jianjun; Irvine, John T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Biomass is expected to play a significant role in power generation in the near future. With the uprising of carbon fuel cells, hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) show its intrinsic and incomparable advantages in the generation of clean energy with higher efficiency. In this study, two types of biomass treated by physical sieve and pyrolysis from raw sawdust are investigated on an anode-supported HDCFC. The structure and thermal analysis indicate that raw sawdust has well-formed cellulose I phase with very low ash. Electrochemical performance behaviors for sieved and pyrolyzed sawdust combined with various weight ratios of carbonate are compared in N2 and CO2 purge gas. The results show that the power output of sieved sawdust with 789 mWcm-2 is superior to that of pyrolyzed sawdust in CO2 flowing, as well as in N2 flowing. The anode reaction mechanism for the discrepancy of two fuels is explained and the emphasis is also placed on the modified oxygen-reduction cycle mechanism of catalytic effects of Li2CO3 and K2CO3 salts in promoting cell performance.

  18. Overcoming ICT Barriers in IBS Management Process in Malaysia Construction Industry

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    Soon Ern Peniel Ang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of government’s initiative and future outlook in uprising the awareness towards the implementation of sustainable elements in construction industries, the Industrialized Building System (IBS is one of the approaches that had been introduced as an alternative to conventional building method and produce the new strategy of reducing the waste of materials in construction. The IBS approach is actively promoted through several strategies and incentives as an alternative to conventional building methods. Extensive uptakes of modern Information Communication Technology (ICT applications are able to support the different IBS processes for effective production. However, it is argued that ICT uptake at the organizational level needs to be regularly improved. Thus, this paper fulfills the need to identify the critical barriers to ICT employment and highlighting the ICT drivers in enhancing the IBS management process. Critical barriers and drivers to ICT uptake were identified through questionnaire survey with industry stakeholders and were analyzed using mean index and critical t-value with the use of SPSS software. The critical drivers are top management support and commitment and improving the availability of the technologies. The critical drivers which were identified are significant in ensuring the enhancement of ICT implementation. Hence, any system in place should avoid the highest ranked barriers or seek to alleviate their impact by focusing on the identified drivers in order to enhance implementation of ICT in IBS process management.

  19. Time evolution simulation of heat removal in a small water tank by natural convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Carlos Alberto de, E-mail: carlos.freitas1950@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil); Jachic, Joao; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: jjachic@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the cooling modes for any source of heat such as in a shutdown nuclear core is the natural convection. The design specifications of any cooling pool can only be done when the removal heat rate and the corresponding mass flow rate is reasonably established. In our simulation scheme, we assumed that the body forces acting in the cubic water cell are: the weight, the drag force and the integrated pressure forces on the horizontal surfaces, the viscosity shear forces on the vertical surfaces and also a special viscosity drag force due to the mass dislocation along a Bernoulli type current tube outside the motive region. For a suitable time step, the uprising convection velocity is determined by an implicit and also by an explicit solution algorithm. The resulting differential equation depends on updating specific mass, dynamic viscosity and constant pressure heat coefficient with the last known temperature in the cell that absorbed heat. Numerical calculation software was performed using MATLAB’s technical computing language and then applied for a heat generation plate simulating a spent fuel assembler from a shutdown nuclear core. The results show time evolution of convection, terminal velocity and water temperature distribution. Pool dimension as well as pool level decrement are also determined for various air exhausting system conditions and heat rate of the spent fuel plate being cooled. (author)

  20. Electron heating enhancement by frequency-chirped laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, E.; Afarideh, H., E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadighi-Bonabi, R., E-mail: Sadighi@sharif.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Z. [Physics and Accelerator School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-09-14

    Propagation of a chirped laser pulse with a circular polarization through an uprising plasma density profile is studied by using 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulation. The laser penetration depth is increased in an overdense plasma compared to an unchirped pulse. The induced transparency due to the laser frequency chirp results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum longitudinal electrostatic field at the back side of the solid target, which is very essential in target normal sheath acceleration regime of proton acceleration. For an applied chirp parameter between 0.008 and 0.01, the maximum amount of the electrostatic field is improved by a factor of 2. Furthermore, it is noticed that for a chirped laser pulse with a₀=5, because of increasing the plasma transparency length, the laser pulse can penetrate up to about n{sub e}≈6n{sub c}, where n{sub c} is plasma critical density. It shows 63% increase in the effective critical density compared to the relativistic induced transparency regime for an unchirped condition.

  1. Time evolution simulation of heat removal in a small water tank by natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Carlos Alberto de; Jachic, Joao; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    One of the cooling modes for any source of heat such as in a shutdown nuclear core is the natural convection. The design specifications of any cooling pool can only be done when the removal heat rate and the corresponding mass flow rate is reasonably established. In our simulation scheme, we assumed that the body forces acting in the cubic water cell are: the weight, the drag force and the integrated pressure forces on the horizontal surfaces, the viscosity shear forces on the vertical surfaces and also a special viscosity drag force due to the mass dislocation along a Bernoulli type current tube outside the motive region. For a suitable time step, the uprising convection velocity is determined by an implicit and also by an explicit solution algorithm. The resulting differential equation depends on updating specific mass, dynamic viscosity and constant pressure heat coefficient with the last known temperature in the cell that absorbed heat. Numerical calculation software was performed using MATLAB’s technical computing language and then applied for a heat generation plate simulating a spent fuel assembler from a shutdown nuclear core. The results show time evolution of convection, terminal velocity and water temperature distribution. Pool dimension as well as pool level decrement are also determined for various air exhausting system conditions and heat rate of the spent fuel plate being cooled. (author)

  2. Clinical study on temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood caused by temporal lobe space occupying lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Mariko; Oguni, Hirokazu; Funatsuka, Makoto; Osawa, Makiko; Yamane, Fumitaka; Hori, Tomokatsu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    We studied the clinicoelectrical and neuroimaging features of 11 patients with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) caused by temporal lobe space occupying lesions (SOLs), and compared its characteristics with those of 19 mesial TLE (MTLE) patients. Brain MRI demonstrated SOLs in the mesiotemporal lobe in 9, and laterotemporal lobe in the remaining 2 patients. Ten of the 11 patients successfully underwent surgery, which revealed tumors in 7 and focal cortical dysplasia in 3 patients. Comparisons of the clinical features between those with space occupying TLE (SOTLE) and MTLE showed that both conditions shared the same clinical seizure manifestations such as gastric uprising sensation or ictal fear and a favorable response to surgery. However, the patients with SOTLE had fewer febrile convulsion, and more frequent seizure recurrences as well as TLE EEG discharges and associations of the monophasic clinical course than those with MTLE. In addition, the MRI findings were characterized by unilateral hippocampal atrophy in MTLE and expanding or SOLs in the SOTLE group. Children with complex partial seizures of suspected temporal lobe origin should undergo extensive neuroimaging evaluation. (author)

  3. The shallow structure of Solfatara Volcano, Italy, revealed by dense, wide-aperture seismic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Pier Paolo G; Maraio, Stefano; Festa, Gaetano

    2017-12-12

    Two active-source, high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired in the Solfatara tuff cone in May and November 2014, with dense, wide-aperture arrays. Common Receiver Surface processing was crucial in improving signal-to-noise ratio and reflector continuity. These surveys provide, for the first time, high-resolution seismic images of the Solfatara crater, depicting a ~400 m deep asymmetrical crater filled by volcanoclastic sediments and rocks and carved within an overall non-reflective pre-eruptive basement showing features consistent with the emplacement of shallow intrusive bodies. Seismic reflection data were interpreted using the trace complex attributes and clearly display several steep and segmented collapse faults, generally having normal kinematics and dipping toward the crater centre. Fault/fracture planes are imaged as sudden amplitude drops that generate narrow low-similarity and high-dip attributes. Uprising fluids degassed by a magmatic source are the most probable cause of the small-scale amplitude reduction. Seismic data also support the interpretation of the shallow structure of the Solfatara crater as a maar. Our results provides a solid framework to constrain the near-surface geological interpretation of such a complex area, which improves our understanding of the temporal changes of the structure in relation with other geophysical and geochemical measurements.

  4. The Role of Environmentally Conscious Architecture and Planning As Components of Future National Development Plans in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim M. Ayyad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has been experiencing challenging economic, social and political disturbance during the end of the twentieth century and towards the beginning of the twenty-first. With its fast expanding population, high consumption rate and economic deficit, the Egyptian community continues to experience a low quality of living. These issues contributed greatly to the uprising, following the Tunisian model, in January, 2011. However, the political change that followed did not help a lot, as development strategies are still far from being sustainable. In the beginning of the millennium, Egypt experienced an 8.6% energy deficit, followed by a growing energy crisis [1]. Knowing that almost 50% of the energy produced in Egypt is consumed inside buildings [2], environmentally conscious architecture can be a very powerful tool in development plans, as it can reasonably reduce the consumption of energy and other resources and enhance the quality of living for people. This work analyzes the supposed role of environmentally conscious architecture and, hence, evaluates its importance as a major component of national development plans in the near future. The analysis encompasses a review of the status quo in terms of consumption patterns and required services and, then, compares it with the case in which environmentally conscious architecture is adopted.

  5. El levantamiento "patriótico" de Bartolomé Zapata en 1811: ¿caudillismo tradicional o forma de expresión del poder local entrerriano entre el orden colonial y la revolución?

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    Claudio Biondino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es desarrollar una primera aproximación, desde una perspectiva etnohistórica, al problema del surgimiento de nuevos liderazgos políticos en la provincia de Entre Ríos, aparecidos tras la Revolución de Mayo. El estudio se centrará en un caso particular: el levantamiento revolucionario encabezado por Bartolomé Zapata en 1811. Esta investigación se desarrollará en el contexto de los nuevos enfoques historiográficos sobre el caudillismo. Se utilizarán algunas de las herramientas de análisis desarrolladas por la antropología política, que contribuyan el estudio del problema planteado.This paper aims to develop an ethno-historical approach to the problem of the sprouting of new political leaderships in the province of Entre Ríos, after the May Revolution. The study focuses on a particular case: the revolutionary uprising headed by Bartolomé Zapata in 1811. This investigation will be developed in the context of the new historiographical approaches on caudillismo. Some of the resources developed by political anthropology will be used, in order to study Zapata's leadership.

  6. "To serve the community best": reconsidering Black politics in the struggle to save Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis, 1976-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac-Fram, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    The move to consolidate, and eventually to close, Homer G. Phillips Hospital sparked a major uprising in St. Louis, Missouri, during the years 1976 through 1984. This article explores the struggle in St. Louis’s black community to keep open, and later to reopen, Homer G. Phillips Hospital from a vantage point that demonstrates the diversity of opinion surrounding the struggle. For many black St. Louis residents, the physical space of Homer G. Phillips Hospital was a metaphor for identity, a manifestation of citizenship rights, and a means of delineating a territory of shared histories, understandings, and values. For others, it was a relic of segregation and racism. In seeking to understand the diversity of public reaction, this article addresses class antagonism, examines the varied and divergent motivations for eliminating or maintaining services at the hospital, and reconsiders the discourse of "black politics." It is a decisive illustration of how the national twin crises of deindustrialization and privatization affected a heterogeneous black community.

  7. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi.

    1991-01-01

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  8. Miłosz, wojna i poezja cywilna

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    Irena Grudzińska-Gross

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Miłosz, war and civilian poetry The article addresses the reaction of the Polish population during Second World War towards the military resistance to the occupier. The author offers a case study of the life choices of Czesław Miłosz, the poet. Considering them hopeless and counterproductive, Miłosz decided not to participate in military actions. He had no confidence in the Polish government in exile and its military decisions. Instead, the poet concentrated on writing and publishing; he also criticized what he viewed as unjustified sacrifice of life in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. His attitude was criticized then, and today continues to be a source of attacks against the poet. The article analyses the logic of national solidarity in the times of foreign occupation and the arguments of the poet’s critics. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that Miłosz’s stand was beneficial not only for himself but also for the community as a whole.

  9. Civil society and the Health and Social Care Act in England and Wales: theory and praxis for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambler, Graham; Scambler, Sasha; Speed, Ewen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we revisit the notion of civil society in the light of recent attempts to privatize health care in England via the passing of the Health and Social Care Act of 2013. This legislation promises a re-commodification of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The Bill was bitterly contested during its passage through parliament, most vigorously in 2011. Much of the opposition occurred at a time of widespread, global rebellion, most notably in the 'Arab uprisings' and through the 'occupy movement'. Despite a plethora of protests, we argue, a non-porous boundary between what we call the 'protest sector' of civil society and the wider public sphere of the lifeworld has become apparent in England. A good deal of collective action, whether campaign-focused (like opposition to the Health and Social Care Bill) or more generalized (like rejections of corporate greed), has so far proved ineffective, at least in the short-term; no crisis of legitimation is apparent. We highlight a new 'class/command dynamic', leading to oligarchic rule, in the present era of financial capitalism. We use this health care case-study to re-examine the notion of civil society and its changing properties in what Castells calls a 'networked society'. The contribution ends with a discussion of the role of the sociologist re-civil society and the advocacy of both 'action' and 'foresight sociologies'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EL DERECHO EN INSURRECCIÓN: El uso contra-hegemónico del derecho en el movimiento purépecha de cherán*

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    Orlando Aragón Andrade

    2013-12-01

    del derecho. --- LAW IN UPRISING: The counter-hegemonic use of law in the Purepecha movement of Cheran On November 2nd, 2011, the Electoral Court of the Judicial Power of the Federation in México, issued a resolution in favor of the indigenous town of Cherán. For the first time in México’s history, the state recognized an indigenous municipality’s right to elect a municipal authority formed according to their “uses and customs”. This judgment, which has been considered paradigmatic for indigenous peoples’ human rights, was actually the culmination of a remarkable social process that disrupted Michoacán’s political scene, while in full electoral conjuncture. Parting from my experience as a lawyer of the community of Cherán in said judicial process, and as a participant of it, I reflect in this paper on the scope and the limits of the use of law by the social movements of México’s indigenous peoples. keywords: Cherán, human rights, “customary”, and law’s critical use.

  11. Suffrage Movement and the Subversion of the ‘Juridico-Discursive’ Power in the Victorian Period: Elizabeth Robins and The Concept of 'New Women'

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    Esmaeil Najar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the socio-historical subversion of ‘juridico-discursive’ power in the late Victorian period. It briefly investigates the rise of the British suffrage movement and highlights the role of ‘suffrage drama’ as its social apparatus. The authors demonstrate how suffrage artists, especially the playwright/actress Elizabeth Robins, acted against the dominant patriarchal hegemony and were in frontline of social uprisings. It is argued that ‘Suffrage drama’ as a ‘place of tolerance’ functioned as an antithesis to the mainstream theatre and challenged the conventional dramatic forms practiced prior to its birth. Suffrage drama provided a space for women to have their collective voice heard in a social and political context in the early Victorian era. Elizabeth Robins, mostly acknowledged for enacting women heroines of Ibsen’s plays, became an invaluable inspirational figure for suffrage women as she was the actress in whom the strong concept of the ‘New Woman’ was incarnated.

  12. Correlation between hardness and water absorption properties of Saudi kaolin and white clay geopolymer coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Shamala; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Huang, Yue; Hussin, Kamarudin; Wang, Jin; Shahedan, Noor Fifinatasha

    2017-09-01

    Geopolymer is an uprising technology that is being studied worldwide. Geopolymer raw materials are basically aluminosilicate source materials. However, this technology is yet to infiltrate into pipelines and coating industries which initiated our research idea. The idea of creating universal geopolymer based coating material is mainly to help oil and gas industry reduce its maintenance cost. Kaolin based geopolymer paste was coated on glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) substrates which are majorly used as pipeline material in the oil and gas industry at Saudi Arabia. Kaolin and white clay was chosen as raw material to study the possibilities of utilizing underused aluminosilicate raw materials for geopolymer coating. To obtain suitable formulation, Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio was varied from 0.40 untill 0.60 while other parameters such as solid/liquid ratio and NaOH molarity were kept constant at values as per previous works. Geopolymer coated GRE substrates were then subjected to water absorption, flexural strength and hardness test to validate our findings. Water absorption is a crucial test as for coating materials which justifies the pratical usability of the coating product. Upon testing, kaolin and white clay based geopolymer coating each shows promising properties at Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.45 and 0.50 each.

  13. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  14. Abdulgaffar Qyrymi. Excerpt from “Umdet ul-Ahbar”. From the History of Crimean Khans »

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    Nariman Seitametovich Seyityahya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains a fragment about the history of Crimean khans from the historical work “Umdet al-Akhbar” written by a Crimean author Abdulgaffar Kyrymi. In particular, this publication contains a translation of the story about the descendants of Bash-Timur (Tash-Timur according to another version. In this story, Abdulgaffar Kyrymi thoroughly reveals the history of the descendants of Bash-Timur – Gyyaseddin and Devlet-Berdi. He also tells how Haji Giray, Devlet-Berdi’s son, became Khan. In addition, he provides information about khan Ulugh Muhammad, Bash-Timur’s cousin. The author provides us with a very interesting and supporting information in a separate addition to the margins of the manuscript. In particular, this addition contains a brief history of the Turkic tribes and inhabitants of Tataristan, birthplace of the Seljuks and Osman family from the Kayi clan. It also tells how the Ottomans took control of Crimea, examines in detail the reasons for this event, it speaks both about Mengli Giray’s education together with Ottoman princes and on the establishment of relations with Emenek-Bek Shirinsky, Chief Karachi of the Khanate. Then it tells about the rule of Muhammad Giray and his death in the war against the Nogays, about the reign of Saadet Giray, a son of Mengli Giray, during whose reign the uprising of Islam Giray took place.

  15. AHEAD OF THE GAME: ADOPTING 21ST CENTURY LEARNING APPROACHES SUPPORTED BY VIDEO-BASED WEB CONFERENCING TECHNOLOGY IN A ROMANIAN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING MILITARY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula CHARBONNEAU-GOWDY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent major political uprisings are indicating the extent to which social learning Web 2.0 technologies, can infl uence change in informal learning settings. Recognition and a discussion of the potential of that infl uence in formal learning settings have only just begun. This article describes a study of an international distance learning project in 2004, using a variety of Web 2.0 technologies, including video-based web conferencing, that sought to initiate and respond to this urgent need for dialogue in the research. Self-selected participants took part in a 5-week English as a foreign language (EFL program, a joint NATO sponsored Canadian and Romanian Ministry of Defense-supported initiative. Clear evidence of linguistic knowledge construction and of important changes to participants’ learner identities, indicates the power of these technologies to support the kind of learning that can lead to the development of global citizens and the skills they will increasingly require in the 21st century.

  16. Marine controlled source electromagnetics on the Hikurangi Margin, NZ : coincidence between cold seep sites and electrical resistivity anomalies indicating sub-seafloor gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalenberg, K. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Pecher, I. [Heriot Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering; Netzeband, G.; Jegen, M. [IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Port, J. [Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium). Renard Centre of Marine Geology

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the use of marine-controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) measurements for monitoring the control, release and transformation of methane from gas seep sites and deposits on the Hikurangi Margin near New Zealand. The CSEM experiments were conducted to determine the electrical signature of the gas seeps as a means of identifying the presence of gas hydrate deposits. Data for 4 profiles were obtained and inverted to sub-sea floor resistivities and 1-D layered earth models. An analysis of the data showed a relationship between anomalous resistivities and the location of gas seep sites. Results suggested that concentrated gas hydrates were the cause of the anomalous resistivities. Data obtained from the southeast corner of the North Islands suggested the presence of gas hydrates in the first 100 m of bottom simulating reflector (BSM) data. Seeps were also identified in seismic data that showed faults and high amplitude reflections. A seep site with no resistivity anomalies but with active venting, high heat flow, and seismic fault planes was also identified. The lack of resistive anomalies was attributed to lower concentrations of gas hydrates; strong temporal and spatial variations; and temperature-driven fluid expulsion that hampered gas hydrate formation beneath the vent. The final profile examined in the study demonstrated a single anomaly over a deep, uprising reflective zone cause by both free gas and gas hydrates. 25 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  17. The Achuar People of the Corrientes Basin: The State vis a vis its own Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chirif

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the events leading to the 2006 uprising of theAchuar people of the Corrientes basin (Loreto, who have sufferedfour decades of contamination due to oil exploitation. It also examinesthe Peruvian State’s and the oil company´s attitudes throughoutthe protest and after signing an agreement aiming to stop contaminationand remedy environmental and social havoc. Materials usedinclude interviews conducted with different stake holders and a widerange of written records, such as political declarations, reports onlocal people´s health´s and remediation work, agreement documentsand letters exchanged between stake holders, as well as historicaland socio economic background information. Findings highlight thestrength of organized indigenous people´s claiming for their rights;the greater commitment to assuming responsibility shown by the oilcompany´s as compared to the Peruvian State; and the weakness ofa political discourse equating development with the extraction ofnatural resources. The main conclusion is that the Peruvian Statedoes not fulfill the paradigm set in the first article of the Constitution:that the defense of the human person and the respect of its dignityare its supreme aim.

  18. Ignacio Ellacuría’s thinking on University’s social function

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    José Sols Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the convulsive historical context of El Salvador (Central America during the 1970s and 1980s, characterized by popular uprisings against the postcolonial socioeconomic system, the ten year Salvadorean civil war and the mass murder of civilians, Ignacio Ellacuría rethinks the University’s social function based on his experience as Head of the Department of Philosophy and, then, as Rector of the Central American University (UCA in El Salvador. His conception of the university, and in particular of universities of Christian inspiration, is that of an institution devoted to an in-depth analysis of historical reality ―in terms of the human habitat as well as the social, economic and political reality― and the transformation of this reality towards a future society respectful of the dignity of every human being. In this sense, the university, understood in the broadest sense ―teaching, research and social mobility―, represents the theoretical moment of historical liberation movements. However, to fulfill this goal the university contribution should not only be academic but should, also, be firmly rooted in reality, and not external to the political framework or merely a place for subversive unrest.

  19. Experimental investigation into the interaction between the human body and room airflow and its effect on thermal comfort under stratum ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Lin, Z

    2016-04-01

    Room occupants' comfort and health are affected by the airflow. Nevertheless, they themselves also play an important role in indoor air distribution. This study investigated the interaction between the human body and room airflow under stratum ventilation. Simplified thermal manikin was employed to effectively resemble the human body as a flow obstacle and/or free convective heat source. Unheated and heated manikins were designed to fully evaluate the impact of the manikin at various airflow rates. Additionally, subjective human tests were conducted to evaluate thermal comfort for the occupants in two rows. The findings show that the manikin formed a local blockage effect, but the supply airflow could flow over it. With the body heat from the manikin, the air jet penetrated farther compared with that for the unheated manikin. The temperature downstream of the manikin was also higher because of the convective effect. Elevating the supply airflow rate from 7 to 15 air changes per hour varied the downstream airflow pattern dramatically, from an uprising flow induced by body heat to a jet-dominated flow. Subjective assessments indicated that stratum ventilation provided thermal comfort for the occupants in both rows. Therefore, stratum ventilation could be applied in rooms with occupants in multiple rows. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Method and device for cleaning fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Oohigashi, Yoshiaki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove clads or scales deposited on the outer surface of fuel pins in BWR type reactors. Method: A fuel assembly taken out of a reactor core is vertically contained without detaching a channel box in a scrubber tower disposed in a liquid tight manner within a fuel pool. Then, a specifically prepared slurry is caused to flow and uprise from the bottom of the scrubber tower into the channel box and then discharged from the top of the tower. The slurry is prepared by mixing pure water and granules (for example, as activated carbon, ion exchanger resin, iron and molecular sieve) of such a granular size as not causing clogging in the channel box of the fuel assembly and having a larger specific gravity than pure water. The slurry flown into the channel box scrubs the surface of fuel pins to scrape off clads or scales. Then, discharged slurry is sent to a hydraulic cyclone to separate the granules from the clads or scales. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. Jom ha-Šo'a...počátky jednoho svátku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Tarant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available If one looks at the calendar, one will find there 'International Holocaust Rememberance Day' on 27th of January. This day was set by the UN General Assembly in 2005 and it refers to the anniversary of Auschwitz liberation. However, if one looks at the Israeli calendar, or any of the Jewish Luakh haShannah's, one will find there another day of mourning that is actually far older. The Yom HaShoah was set according to the Hebrew calendar and refers not to the liberation of Auschwitz, but to the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Today, this day of mourning is an interesting relict of the pioneer, upbuilding era that preferred the stories of heroes to those of victims. This article attempts to map the very beginning of the Yom HaShoah commemoration, by using Hebrew sources that were never published before in the Czech language. The story of Yom HaShoah in the context of the young state of Israel in the 1950s is an interesting case-study on the issue of how the contemporary political and public discourse affects the collective memory of  future generations.

  2. The origins of Cenobitic Monasticism on Mount Pochayiv and the First Donations to the Monastery

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    Andrzej Borkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mount Pochayiv became famous in Russia after the miraculous apparition of the Mother of God, which took place there. Presumably, already in 1240, monks from Kiev found refuge in nearby caves when fleeing the Tartar hordes. In 1559, the owner of these lands Anna Hojska provided funds for building an Orthodox monastery for the monks living in the caves and gave them a miraculous icon of the Mother of God. The most prominent abbot of the Pochayiv monastery was Job Zalizo. He was first elected exclusively by the monks as the new superior of the monastery, the fourth superior since the cenobitic rule was introduced in the monastery. The second prominent founder of the Pochayiv monastery were the Domaszewska family. Their efforts in the construction of the stone church, financial, land support and earth intended for the beautification and maintenance of the monastery, was to compensate for losses and damages applied by the magnate Firlej and the Cossack uprising. They wanted to prevent the total collapse and cessation of monastic life on Mount Pochayiv. For this reason, their names are so strongly emphasized in the history of the main spiritual center of Volyn.

  3. Radicalization of the Settlers’ Youth: Hebron as a Hub for Jewish Extremism

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    Geneviève Boucher Boudreau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Hebron has been a hub for radicalization and terrorism throughout the modern history of Israel. This paper examines the past trends of radicalization and terrorism in Hebron and explains why it is still a present and rising ideology within the Jewish communities and organization such as the Hilltop Youth movement. The research first presents the transmission of social memory through memorials and symbolism of the Hebron hills area and then presents the impact of Meir Kahana’s movement. As observed, Hebron slowly grew and spread its population and philosophy to the then new settlement of Kiryat Arba. An exceptionally strong ideology of an extreme form of Judaism grew out of those two small towns. As analyzed—based on an exhaustive ethnographic fieldwork and bibliographic research—this form of fundamentalism and national-religious point of view gave birth to a new uprising of violence and radicalism amongst the settler youth organizations such as the Hilltop Youth movement.

  4. Monitoring methane emission of mud volcanoes by seismic tremor measurements: a pilot study

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    D. Albarello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for estimating methane emission at mud volcanoes is here proposed based on measurements of the seismic tremor on their surface. Data obtained at the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan reveal the presence of energy bursts characterized by well-determined features (i.e. waveforms, spectra and polarization properties that can be associated with bubbling at depth. Counting such events provides a possible tool for monitoring gas production in the reservoir, thus minimizing logistic troubles and representing a cheap and effective alternative to more complex approaches. Specifically, we model the energy bursts as the effect of resonant gas bubbles at depth. This modelling allows to estimate the dimension of the bubbles and, consequently, the gas outflow from the main conduit in the assumption that all emissions from depth occur by bubble uprising. The application of this model to seismic events detected at the Dashgil mud volcano during three sessions of measurements carried out in 2006 and 2007 provides gas flux estimates that are in line with those provided by independent measurements at the same structure. This encouraging result suggests that the one here proposed could be considered a new promising, cheap and easy to apply tool for gas flux measurements in bubbling gas seepage areas.

  5. Geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domenech, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    The Swedish concept developed by SKB for deep radioactive waste disposal, envisages an engineered multi-barrier system surrounding the nuclear waste (near field). In the present study we developed a numerical model to assess the geochemical evolution of the near field in the frame of the SKB's safety assessment SR-Can. These numerical models allow us to predict the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field system by means of reactive-transport codes and the information gathered in underground laboratory experiments and natural analogues. Two different scenarios have been defined to model this near field evolution, according to the pathway used by groundwater to contact the near field: a) through a fracture in the host rock intersecting the deposition hole; and b) through the material used to backfill the deposition tunnel. Moreover, we also modelled the effect of different groundwater compositions reaching the near field, as the up-rise of deep-seated brines and the intrusion of ice-melting derived groundwater. We also modelled the effect of the thermal stage due to the heat generated by spent fuel on the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier

  6. From the Bright Future of the Nation to the Dark Future of Mankind: Jókai and Karinthy in Hungarian Utopian Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Czigányik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After defining utopianism Czigányik gives a brief introduction to Hungarian utopian literature. While he discusses Tariménes utazása [‘The Voyage of Tariménes’], written by György Bessenyei in 1804, the utopian scenes of Imre Madách’s Az ember tragédiája [‘The Tragedy of Man’, 1862] and Frigyes Karinthy’s short utopian piece, Utazás Faremidoba [‘Voyage to Faremido’, 1916], the bulk of the paper deals with Mór Jókai’s monumental novel, A jövő század regénye, [‘The Novel of the Century to Come’, 1872]. Jókai, who had taken an active part in the 1848 uprising, depicts in this novel a future world of an imaginary twentieth century, where Hungary has primacy within the Habsburg empire (with the emperor king being Árpád Habsburg and the invention of the airplane (by a Hungarian brings lasting peace, stability and prosperity to the world. Besides introducing the Hungarian utopian tradition, the paper will reflect upon the role of individuals in imagined societies and how an agency-centered narrative overwrites the essentially structuralist view of history, that usually permeates utopias.

  7. FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masaya; Yamakawa, Masanori; Goto, Tadashi; Ikeuchi, Toshiaki; Yamaki, Hideo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent thermal deformation and making the container compact by improving the cooling performance of main container walls. Constitution: A pipeway is extended from a high pressure plenum below the reactor core and connected to the lower side of the flow channel at the inside of a thermal shielding layer disposed to the inside of the main container wall. Low pressure sodium sent from the low temperature plenum into the high pressure plenum is introduced to the pipeway, caused to uprise in the inside flow channel, then turned for the direction, caused to descend in the outer side flow channel between the main container and the inside flow channel and then returned to the low temperature plenum. A heat insulating layer disposed with argon gas is installed to the inside of the flow channel to reduce the temperature change applied upon reactor scram. An annular linear induction pump capable of changing the voltage polarity is disposed at the midway of the pipeway and the polarity is switched such that the direction of flow of the liquid sodium is exerted as a braking force upon rated operation, whereas exerted as a pumping force upon reactor scram. (Sekiya, K.)

  8. Digital-Networked Images as Personal Acts of Political Expression: New Categories for Meaning Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Kasra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing use of digital-networked images, specifically online self-portraits or “selfies”, as deliberate and personal acts of political expression and the ways in which meaning evolves and expands from their presence on the Internet. To understand the role of digital-networked images as a site for engaging in a personal and connective “visual” action that leads to formation of transient communities, the author analyzes the nude self-portrait of the young Egyptian woman Aliaa Magda Elmahdy, which during the Egyptian uprisings in 2011 drew attention across social media. As an object of analysis this image is a prime example of the use of digital-networked images in temporally intentional distribution, and as an instance of political enactment unique to this era. This article also explains the concept of participatory narratives as an ongoing process of meaning formation in the digital-networked image, shaped by the fluidity of the multiple and immediate textual narratives, visual derivatives, re-appropriation, and remixes contributed by other interested viewers. The online circulation of digital-networked images in fact culminates in a flow of ever-changing and overarching narratives, broadening the contextual scope around which images are traditionally viewed.

  9. Flow control inside a molten Zn pot for improving surface quality of zinc plated strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H. [Samsung Techwin Co., Ltd. (Korea); Koh, M.S.; Kim, S. [Pohang University of Science and Technology Graduate School, Pohang (Korea)

    2001-10-01

    The flow fields inside a molten Zn pot of continuous hot-chip galvanizing process were investigated experimentally. With varying several parameters including the strip speed V{sub s}, flow rate Q of induction heater, scrapper location and baffle configuration, instantaneous velocity fields were measured using a PIV velocity field measurement technique. Inside the strip region, counter-clockwise rotating flow is dominant. The general flow pattern inside the strip region is nearly not influenced by the trip speed V{sub 2}, flow rate Q and the scrapper location. In the exit region, the flow separated from the moving strip due to the existence of a stabilizing roll ascends to the free surface, for the cases of no scrapper and scrapper detached form the roll. On the other hand, the ascending flow to the free surface is decreased, as the flow rate Q of induction heater increases. By installing a baffle around the uprising strip, the flow moving up to the stabilizing roll decreases. In addition, B-type baffle is better than A-type baffle in reducing speed of flow around the stabilizing rolls. However, the flow ascended to the free surface is largely influenced by changing the flow rate Q, and the scrapper location, irrespective of the baffle type. (author). 14 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Présence Commune, Museum Mohammed VI for Modern and Contemporary Arts (MMVI, Rabat, Morocco, 28.03.2017 - 31.09.2017.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zineb Bahji Bahji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the temporary exhibition Presence Commune that was held at Museum Mohammed VI for Modern and Contemporary Arts (MMVI of Rabat, Morocco, from 28 March to 31 September 2017. The review contextualizes the exhibition Presence Commune and examines the communicative strategies it used to convey its messages. It also explains how this artistic event adds to the various artistic and cultural programmes and events that the Moroccan National Foundation of Museums organizes in the course of democratizing access to culture and promoting harmony and tolerance through the universal language of art. The review also shows how the exhibition reflected the role of MMVI in initiating dialogues among artists and visitors from different ethnicities, religions, and African countries, and how it supportedMorocco’s new cultural agenda.Morocco has made cultural diplomacy a priority after the uprisings of the Arab Spring and the rise of religious and ethnic conflicts in the region of North Africa and theMiddle East.

  11. Geothermal conditions in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Eugster, W.; Griesser, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The geothermal field in northern Switzerland, derived from a great number of borehole temperature measurements, is characterized by a strongly positive temperature gradient and heat flow anomaly (>150 mW/m 2 ) in the lower Aare valley. The anomaly is centered above the recently discovered Permocarboniferous trough. Several possibilities to explain the anomaly (thermal disturbance in the mantle, cooling shallow intrusion, locally strong uplift/erosion, local contrasts in petrophysical properties) can be ruled out on the basis of model calculations. Uprising deep groundwater is favoured as the mechanism creating the observed anomaly. Deep groundwater circulation was investigated in detail, especially to clarify the hydraulic role of the Permocarboniferous trough, by coupled thermo-hydraulic modelling, using the integrated finite difference technique. The model was carefully validated by field data. The results reveal the draining effect of the Permocarboniferous trough and indicate that vertical permeability is present in the vicinity of the trough even at depths of several kilometers. They further imply that large parts of the crystalline basement in northern Switzerland have average hydraulic conductivities >10 -9 m/sec and that Darcy velocities in the order of 10 mm/year must be expected. (author) 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Assessment of the origin and geothermal potential of the thermal waters by hydro-isotope geochemistry: Eskisehir province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Italiano, Francesco; Yasin, Didem; Taskiran, Lutfi; Gulbay, Ahmet Hilmi

    2017-05-01

    The thermal fluids vented over Eskisehir province have been investigated for their origin and to estimate the geothermal potential of the area. Thermal waters as well as bubbling and dissolved gases were collected and analysed for their chemical and isotopic features. Their isotopic composition varies in the range from -11.5 to -7.7 ‰ for δ 18 O, -84 and -57 ‰ for δ 2 H, and 0-7.2 TU for tritium. The gases (bubbling and dissolved) are mostly N 2 -dominated with a significant amount of CO 2 . The helium isotopic ratios are in the range of 0.2-0.66 R/Rac, indicate remarkable mantle-He contribution ranging between 2 and 10 % in the whole study area. Considering the estimated geothermal gradient about three times higher than the normal gradient, and the reservoir temperatures estimated to be between 50 and 100 °C using quartz and chalcedony geothermometers, a circulation model was built where possible mixing with shallow waters cool down the uprising geothermal fluids.

  13. Social costs of transition

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    Pavlović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of political and economic transformation in Central and East Europe after 1990 was based on the presumption that the reforms will collapse when the citizens realize that the cost they have to pay for them is too high. The classical claim was that democracy will be destroyed by democratic means-namely, that the losers in the transition will vote the way back to the authoritarian regime. The article offers an explanation as to the regress to the authoritarian regime will not be a consequence of the economic reforms. The article is divided in six section. Section 1 considers the general context of the start of the economic transformation in the light of the debate about the choice between the expert government and the significance of democratic procedures for economic reforms. Section 2 defines the context of Serbia within which economic transformation started out after 2000. Sections 4-5 consider economic policy of the two post-Milosevic government. The major finding is that it was the economic policy that was highly socially sensible that prevented social uprising and undermining democracy by democratic means. Section 6 concludes by applying the concept of equilibrium of partial reforms.

  14. The Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: What could have been the precursors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Anthony Ofongo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of insurgency has for several decades occupied a good part of the attention of IR scholars. This paper explores the various perspectives on the formation and radicalization of Boko Haram in Nigeria. The focus is on the extent to which illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, weak state capability, the almajiri crisis and the mobilization of ethno-religious identity explain simmering insurgency in Nigeria. The group has experienced ferocious onslaught on their activities by the Nigerian Military. The article relies on secondary data. This has enabled the author to draw heavily from literature espousing the diverse perspectives put forth as explanations for the uprising. Fragile state theory serves as a framework for analysis. On this basis, the article demonstrates the low-cost availability of foot soldiers from the almajiri pool, resulting from the state’s inability or unwillingness to provide better education, and employment opportunities, and widespread poverty has exposed youths to indoctrination, criminalization and terrorism. In order to ensure the effectiveness of counter terrorism efforts, the military option should not be solely relied on. Rather, efforts should be geared towards addressing the various underlying social, political and economic triggers of violent insurgency, especially in northern Nigeria where such triggers are pervasive.

  15. Bioestadística como apoyo a la praxis pedagógica de la Zoología de invertebrados en la determinación de Rotíferos de hábitat planctónico en el ecosistema de la laguna del Parque Recreacional de la ciudad de Cúcuta, aplicando las claves dicotómicas para su clasificación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Muñoz-Peñaloza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study involved the identification and classification of phylum specimens rotifers from planktonic habitat in the recreational lagoon park ecosystem in Cucuta City. Was made a topographic uprising to the lagoon, was distributed in eight areas and physicochemical water analyses were performed. Rotifers were collected and identified in two ways, first, using representative schemes of the most common genera, according to Barnes (1995, Gardiner (1978, Hickman (1995, Arteaga, Herrera (2005, Strebler and Krauter (1987 Iafrancesco (1997 and second, the systematic identification through the application of the dichotomous key to genera, according to James G. Needham And Paul R. Needham (1982. To characterize the presence of rotifers according to zones, we used the frequency distribution, at the rates: Jaccard (presence or absence, Raup-Crick index (similarity in relation to the areas and Margalef index (for diversity. The lagoon water according to the physicochemical parameters and bioindication was classified as beta mesosapria, being secondary contact for recreational purposes. We found six families of rotifers: Brachionidae, Philodinidae, Notommatidae, Synchaetidae, Collotheidae, Lecanidae and ten genera Brachionus, Lepadella, Colurella, Philodina, Rotary, Cephalodella, Trichocerca, Polyartha, Collotheca and Lecane and through the application of biostatistics rotifers were distributed according to areas. The procedures and photographic records developed in the study are a support material, for pedagogical praxis in rotifer phylum topic in invertebrate zoology.

  16. Time-optimized high-resolution readout-segmented diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Gernot Reishofer

    Full Text Available Readout-segmented echo planar imaging with 2D navigator-based reacquisition is an uprising technique enabling the sampling of high-resolution diffusion images with reduced susceptibility artifacts. However, low signal from the small voxels and long scan times hamper the clinical applicability. Therefore, we introduce a regularization algorithm based on total variation that is applied directly on the entire diffusion tensor. The spatially varying regularization parameter is determined automatically dependent on spatial variations in signal-to-noise ratio thus, avoiding over- or under-regularization. Information about the noise distribution in the diffusion tensor is extracted from the diffusion weighted images by means of complex independent component analysis. Moreover, the combination of those features enables processing of the diffusion data absolutely user independent. Tractography from in vivo data and from a software phantom demonstrate the advantage of the spatially varying regularization compared to un-regularized data with respect to parameters relevant for fiber-tracking such as Mean Fiber Length, Track Count, Volume and Voxel Count. Specifically, for in vivo data findings suggest that tractography results from the regularized diffusion tensor based on one measurement (16 min generates results comparable to the un-regularized data with three averages (48 min. This significant reduction in scan time renders high resolution (1 × 1 × 2.5 mm(3 diffusion tensor imaging of the entire brain applicable in a clinical context.

  17. Web Server Security on Open Source Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoutzelis, Dimitrios X.; Sardis, Manolis S.

    Administering critical resources has never been more difficult that it is today. In a changing world of software innovation where major changes occur on a daily basis, it is crucial for the webmasters and server administrators to shield their data against an unknown arsenal of attacks in the hands of their attackers. Up until now this kind of defense was a privilege of the few, out-budgeted and low cost solutions let the defender vulnerable to the uprising of innovating attacking methods. Luckily, the digital revolution of the past decade left its mark, changing the way we face security forever: open source infrastructure today covers all the prerequisites for a secure web environment in a way we could never imagine fifteen years ago. Online security of large corporations, military and government bodies is more and more handled by open source application thus driving the technological trend of the 21st century in adopting open solutions to E-Commerce and privacy issues. This paper describes substantial security precautions in facing privacy and authentication issues in a totally open source web environment. Our goal is to state and face the most known problems in data handling and consequently propose the most appealing techniques to face these challenges through an open solution.

  18. Topics in Complexity: Dynamical Patterns in the Cyberworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong

    Quantitative understanding of mechanism in complex systems is a common "difficult" problem across many fields such as physical, biological, social and economic sciences. Investigation on underlying dynamics of complex systems and building individual-based models have recently been fueled by big data resulted from advancing information technology. This thesis investigates complex systems in social science, focusing on civil unrests on streets and relevant activities online. Investigation consists of collecting data of unrests from open digital source, featuring dynamical patterns underlying, making predictions and constructing models. A simple law governing the progress of two-sided confrontations is proposed with data of activities at micro-level. Unraveling the connections between activity of organizing online and outburst of unrests on streets gives rise to a further meso-level pattern of human behavior, through which adversarial groups evolve online and hyper-escalate ahead of real-world uprisings. Based on the patterns found, noticeable improvement of prediction of civil unrests is achieved. Meanwhile, novel model created from combination of mobility dynamics in the cyberworld and a traditional contagion model can better capture the characteristics of modern civil unrests and other contagion-like phenomena than the original one.

  19. Once upon an Oldman: special interest politics and the Oldman River dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Alberta government in 1986 commenced the construction of the Oldman irrigation dam in southern Alberta, and this sparked a controversy pitting the Alberta government and the federal government and a well-organized and highly effective irrigation lobby against local landowners, environmental interest groups, and the Peigan Indian band. At its peak in the early 1990s, the dispute featured a minor uprising on the Peigan reserve, an environmental review by the government in Ottawa, and rulings by the Supreme Court, as well the attention of the national media. The book tells the story of that controversy from its beginnings in 1976 to the present day. A critical analysis is made of how the participants dealt with some of the major issues at stake. The book emphasizes the continuity of events and what the outcomes might mean for the broader issues of environmental integrity and fairness to the Indian people. The book was researched and written in order to provide a clear an coherent account of the Oldman controversy, to show how it revealed the differences between what governments say about the environment and Indian people and how they act toward them, and illustrate the impotence of special interest groups in bringing about changes that are contrary to the received wisdom. refs

  20. 1948 AND THE COLD WAR IN MALAYA: SAMPLINGS OF MALAY REACTIONS

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    Abdul Rahman Haji Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary report of an on-going research on the reactions of the Malays in Malaya to the coming of the Cold War to the region, with particular reference to the importance of the year 1948. For the majority of the Malays, the Cold War was most popularly associated with the Emergency, which British authorities had declared in the effort to quell the armed uprising mounted by the MCP. The vast majority of Malays in Malaya were not interested in the on-going Cold War between the Western bloc led by the United States on the side the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union on the other. The preoccupations of the Malays during the immediate post-Pacific War period was nationalism and the concomitant effort to gain independence for Malaya from Britain. In particular, they had been rather anxious that the Malays, who were the native of the land, were not robbed of the custodianship over Malaya and political privileges of the Malays in independent Malaya. Consumed with these issues, the Malays had little interests in external affairs. It was perhaps the lack of Malay support that foredoomed the fate of communism in Malaya.

  1. Fuel assembly for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shigeru.

    1993-01-01

    In the fuel assembly of the present invention, a means for mounting and securing short fuel rods is improved. Not only long fuel rods but also short fuel rods are disposed in channel of the fuel assembly to improve reactor safety. The short fuel rods are supported by a screw means only at the lower end plug. The present invention prevents the support for the short fuel rod from being unreliable due to the slack of the screw by the pressure of inflowing coolants. That is, coolant abutting portions such as protrusions or concave grooves are disposed at a portion in the channel box where coolants flowing from the lower tie plate, as an uprising stream, cause collision. With such a constitution, a component caused by the pressure of the flowing coolants is formed. The component acts as a rotational moment in the direction of screwing the male threads of the short fuel rod into the end plug screw hole. Accordingly, the screw is not slackened, and the short fuel rods are mounted and secured certainly. (I.S.)

  2. The Role of Social Media in the ‘Syrian Uprising’

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    Araz Ramazan Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which is entitled ‘The Role of Social Media in the ‘Syrian Uprising’ aimed to report on survey research conducted  which identify the role of played by social media  in the ‘Syrian Uprising’ Currently social media tools were good mediums of electronic communication among protesters in Syria. Further, it was a vital medium for spreading information such as photos, videos and documents about the revolution for national, regional and international spheres. This paper looked at the impact and relationship between protesters and Syrian people who used social media ,technology and the nature of its role in the ‘Syrian Uprising ‘ as well as the study has made a controversial argument between different views of scholars about the subject and its case. This paper has interviewed 30 protesters inside Syria through a survey. This study, demonstrate the appeal that social media can have both positive and negative points in the ‘Syrian uprising’.

  3. What the Recovery Movement Tells Us About Prefigurative Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Beckwith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of prefigurative politics has re-emerged following recent worldwide uprisings, such as the Occupy movement, to which this concept has been applied. In applying a contemporary analysis to prefigurative politics, we explore the contribution of community-based recovery groups to the recovery movement, a socio-political movement in the fields of mental health and addiction treatment. We argue that collective action in recovery groups is derived from the formation of an opinion-based social identity and results in alternative approaches to unmet needs, creatively addressing these identified needs through the utilisation of personal, social and collective resources within an emerging recovery community. To illustrate our argument, we provide examples of community-based recovery groups and the approaches they use in addressing the identified needs of their recovery community. We conclude with an analysis of what community-based recovery groups and the wider recovery movement can contribute to a contemporary understanding of prefigurative politics.

  4. Political Agroecology in Mexico: A Path toward Sustainability

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    Víctor M. Toledo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The biocultural richness of Mexico is among the highest worldwide. A history of over 7000 years of agriculture, and a persistent tradition of peasant social resistance movements that climaxed during the agrarian revolution in the early 20th century, continued in the indigenous resistance in Chiapas leading to the Zapatista uprising in 1992, and continues to be expressed in present local and regional confrontations for the defense of territory. Scholars agree that agroecology conceptually includes ecological and agricultural scientific research activity, empirical practices applied for agriculture, and the nuclear goal of numerous rural social movements. What has not been sufficiently established is how these three spheres of agroecology interact with each other and what emergent synergies they generate. Taking as an example the production in Mexico of three key agricultural goods—maize, coffee, and honey—our paper briefly reviews the existing relations between knowledge generation, agroecological practices, and rural social processes. We conclude by reflecting on the role of agroecological research in the context of an agrarian sustainability committed to helping reduce social inequity, marginality, and exploitation, as much as reverting the severe deterioration of the natural environment: both common issues in contemporary Mexico.

  5. The use of tyranny in response to the Visigothic domination in the Tarraconensis (5th-6th centuries

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    Juan Antonio Jiménez Sánchez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 5th century, the Hispano-Roman population watched in dismay as the Visigothic presence in Tarraconensis lands grew. Between the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century, two individuals —Burdunelus and Peter— illegally came into power and led revolts against the Visigothic domination. The source that reports on these events, the Pseudo Chronica Caesaraugustana, is an extremely problematic text which for many years was interpreted as the remains of the historiola written by bishop Maximus of Saragossa (c. 599-614/620, when, in fact, they are mere annotations made on the margins of previous chronicles. Moreover, the vicissitudes of the transmission of the manuscript led to the displacement of some of these annotations from their original position, which resulted in erroneous dates. In this paper we study the entries regarding the rebellions of Burdunelus and Peter, we propose a new chronology, we analyse the social origins of these leaders, and we examine the implications of these uprisings in the context of an imminent confrontation between Visigoths and Franks.

  6. Ὁ μάγιστρος Θεόκτιστος καί ὁ Θεόδωρος Στουδίτης. Μοναστηριακός Βίος καί Πολιτική

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ελεωνόρα ΚΟΥΝΤΟΥΡΑ-ΓΑΛΑΚΗ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Eleonora Kountoura-GalakiThe magister Theoktistos and Theodore the Studite: Monastic Life and Policy. The quaestor Theoktistos was among the leading officials who took part in the conspiracy of the logothete Nicephorus against the empress Irene (802. He was identical with the magister Theoktistos who, as a supreme member of the Senate, received in 808 the letter No. 24 by Theodore the Studite. With this letter Theodore hoped that he could persuade magister Theoktistos to intervene to the emperor Nicephorus I, in order to avoid banishment. The magister, however, did not play a prominent role under the reign of Nicephorus and Theodore was forced to abandon the City. During the brief reign of Michael I, where we can observe the weakening of the imperial institution and the simultaneous uprise of the senatorial power as well as the rise of the fanatic monks (the monastery of Studion experienced a significant prosperity at that time magister Theoktistos and Theodore the Studite had then powerfully participated in political life and had played a crucial role in it. Probably the same Theoktistos received one more letter (No 123 by Theodore the Studite after the accession of Leo V.

  7. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell/Supercapasitor Hybrid Power Management System for a Golf Cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Afiqah Abd Hamid; Ros Emilia Rosli; Edy Herianto Majlan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Ramizi Mohamed; Ramli Sitanggang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presented the transformation of a golf cart system powered lead acid battery into an environmental friendly hybrid vehicle. The design developed by using an advantage contributes by the uprising alternative power source candidate which is Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and the maintenance free energy storage device, a supercapacitor (SC). The fuel cell (FC) stack was an in house manufactured with 450 W (36 V, 12.5 A) power, while the SC was from Maxwell Technologies (48 V, 165 F). This two power sources were controlled by the mechanical relay, meanwhile the reactant (hydrogen) are control by mass flow controller (MFC) both signaled by a National Instrument (NI) devices. The power management controller are programmed in the LabVIEW environment and then downloaded to the NI devices. The experimental result of the power trend was compared before and after the transformation with the same route to validate the effectiveness of the proposed power management strategy. The power management successfully controls the power sharing between power sources and satisfies the load transient. While the reactant control managed to vary the hydrogen mass flow rate feed according to the load demand in vehicular applications. (author)

  8. Spatial distribution correlation of soil-gas radon (222Rn) and mercury with leveling deformation in northern margin fault zone of West Qinling, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhua; Zhang, Hui; Su, Hejun; Zhou, Huiling; Wang, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    This study concerns measurement of 222 Rn and mercury concentrations in soil-gas in the northern margin fault zone of West Qinling, Tibet (China). Based on profiles crossing perpendicularly the different segments of the fault at six different locations, the relations between the gas measurements, fault deformation, and seismic activity in each segment of the studied fault were analyzed, determining seismic risks in the fault zone. Soil-gas data are heterogeneous, but appear relatively organized along the three segments of the fault. The detailed multidisciplinary analysis reveals complex interactions between the structural setting, uprising fluids, leveling and seismic activity in different fault segments. The results for both fault soil gas and deformation indicated relatively stronger fault activity in the Wushan segment in the middle-eastern segment of the northern margin fault zone of West Qinling and lower activity in the Zhangxian segment, whereas the fault in the Tianshui segment was relatively locked. Additionally, in the Wushan strike-slip pull-apart area, the active influence of fluid activities facilitated the occurrence of small to medium-sized seismic events, which prevented the occurrence of larger events; in contrast, in the Tianshui segment, the west Zhangxian segment, the weak fluid activities and the corresponding strain rate will probably lead to strong earthquake buildup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Insza prostota szczera, cnotliwa, przystojna; insza prostota co ją głupstwem zowią". O rozwoju jednego ze znaczeń prostoty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Raszewska-Żurek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of a meaning of prostota This article is dedicated to the evolution of one of prostota lexeme meaning (and prostoć, prostość as well – its human mental sphere significance. The analysis (definitions and examples expands over the Polish language dictionary since its beginning till modernity. There were two main meanings of a lexeme prostota from the Old Polish till the end of the XVII century – positively characterised straight meaning regarding morality, directly linked to religious attitude and the second one, referring to mental and intelectual ability of individual, negatively regarding its undernormative features. It transformed during the XVIII century – the disredarding meaning disappeared, the first, religious aspect expanded over morality, customs, the way of living, simultanously drifting away from its religious significance. Throught the history of the prostota lexeme there was a short period regarding to a lack of culture and misbehaviour but dissapeared quickly with uprising of a prostactwo lexeme. Since the XIX century the dominating feature of prostota lexeme is being natural in a positive way. Besides the modifications of the lexeme and the transformation of its meanings prostota was mostly referring to positive values, which are the only meanings now.

  10. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Resulting from Torture and Other Traumatic Events among Syrian Kurdish Refugees in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hawkar; Hassan, Chiya Q

    2017-01-01

    Political violence is known to cause psychological distress. There is a large body of empirical studies drawing correlations between war trauma, torture, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few studies on the effects of war-related trauma among Syrian refugees after events following the 'Arab Spring' uprisings between 2010 and 2012. This study examines the association of PTSD symptoms with torture and other traumatic events among Syrian Kurdish refugees living in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The experiences and PTSD symptoms among 91 Syrian Kurdish refugees in the Arbat camp in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq were assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, sections I, IV, and V. Results showed that the estimated levels of PTSD symptoms were high: between 35 and 38%. There were no significant gender differences in the occurrence of PTSD symptoms. However, men reported more general traumatic experiences than women. There were significant positive correlations between PTSD symptoms with traumatic events and torture ( r = 0.500, r = 0.366, respectively). Examining the mental health impact of torture and other traumatic events among refugees has possible implications for organizations managing rehabilitation programs for individuals who have been exposed to traumatic events.

  11. The conservation of Javanese-cultured city through visual expression study on the architecture of Keraton Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohar, Ibrahim; Hardiman, Gagoek; Ratih Sari, Suzanna

    2017-12-01

    Keraton Yogyakarta as a summit of Javanese culture has been renowned as a heritage building. As object of study, Keraton Yogyakarta is ornamented with a collection of architectural artifacts. The acculturation and merging of these different styles create a unique impression within the palace complex. This study aims to identify the pattern of acculturation of these two styles and to interpret their meaning and expression. A descriptive-qualitative method is employed in this research, which contains visual observation, documentation collection, interviews with informants, and relevant literature review. As results of study, the expression of Tratag Pagelaran, Tratag Sitihinggil, Bangsal Ponconiti, and Gedong Jene tends to widen, while the expression of Gedong Purwaretna tends to uprise. Every building has its own point of interest and ornamentation which its place and content are different.. In visual observations, there are two categories of buildings in Keraton Yogyakarta,which accommodate two styles, namely Javanese Traditional style and Dutch Colonial style. Buildings of Javanese traditional style, which hold a special concept of shading, were built without buttresses and embody a ‘light’ expression, while buildings of Dutch Colonial style, which hold a concept of protection, were built with massive enclosure and produce a “heavy” expression. Although visually split into two distinct styles, the acculturation process in Keraton Yogyakarta produced a unity in its overall expression. The expression pattern of Keraton Yogyakarta can be used as conservation guidance of Javanese-cultured city.

  12. Geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domenech, Cristina [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The Swedish concept developed by SKB for deep radioactive waste disposal, envisages an engineered multi-barrier system surrounding the nuclear waste (near field). In the present study we developed a numerical model to assess the geochemical evolution of the near field in the frame of the SKB's safety assessment SR-Can. These numerical models allow us to predict the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field system by means of reactive-transport codes and the information gathered in underground laboratory experiments and natural analogues. Two different scenarios have been defined to model this near field evolution, according to the pathway used by groundwater to contact the near field: a) through a fracture in the host rock intersecting the deposition hole; and b) through the material used to backfill the deposition tunnel. Moreover, we also modelled the effect of different groundwater compositions reaching the near field, as the up-rise of deep-seated brines and the intrusion of ice-melting derived groundwater. We also modelled the effect of the thermal stage due to the heat generated by spent fuel on the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier.

  13. Nawal El-Saadawi: Membongkar Budaya Patriarkhi Melalui Sastra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Kulsum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nawal el-Saadawi, an Egyptian feminist, which dismantle patriarchal culture in Egypt, through the work of the controversial novel "Woman at Point Zero" a phenomenal work because it makes the Egyptian government blocked all literary works. So el-Saadawi owns exodus to America because his life is not safe in his own country. This novel literary work is a true story of a woman named paradise. Firdaus was sentenced to hanging for killing a pimp - in this novel tells the vagaries of life. From the time of his childhood in the village, until he became a top class prostitute in the city of Cairo. He welcomed the heart punishment. Even he firmly rejected clemency to the president proposed by the prison doctor. According to paradise, it is precisely the verdict is the only path to true righteousness. Ironic. This phenomenal literary work, terms of the patriarchal system that is so powerful in the Egyptian city. Although there are much more works of el-Saadawi, who gave the feel of the uprising of a feminist Nawal el-Saadawi, as plaintiff, he was imprisoned, chased, stalked a herd of armed security guards. A threat to el-Saadawi is still desperate to voice his inner anxiety because they feel unfairly treated. Songs of freedom will not stop, you could have silenced any threat.

  14. Perceived marginalization and aggression: a longitudinal study with low-educated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issmer, Christian; Wagner, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Social exclusion can evoke aggression. In the past two decades research has demonstrated this effect both for interpersonal and societal forms of exclusion. In addition, recent violent uprisings, like the London riots in August 2011, have been linked to social exclusion in the media. However, so far there is a lack of longitudinal studies which examine the aggression-enhancing effect of societal-level exclusion (i.e., marginalization) in disadvantaged groups. This research investigates the impact of perceived marginalization on aggression in a sample of N = 181 adolescents with a low educational background by means of a two-wave longitudinal study. The results of structural equation analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that perceived marginalization enhances aggression, and that this effect is mediated by the extent of negative societal meta-stereotypes. Furthermore, the reverse path from aggression to perceptions of marginalization is also significant. We discuss the implications of these findings and highlight practical consequences. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Mass Claims in Land and Property Following the Arab Spring: Lessons from Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D Unruh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring uprisings have released a flood of land and property conflicts, brought about by decades of autocratic rule. Expropriations, corruption, poor performance of the rule of law, patronage and sectarian discrimination built up a wide variety of land and property transgressions over approximately 30 years. The result has been the creation of longstanding, acute grievances among large components of national populations who now seek to act on them. If new, transitional or reforming governments and their international partners fail to effectively attend to such grievances, the populations concerned may act on them in ways that detract from stability. This article critiques the case of Yemen, whose transitional government, with international support, initiated a land and property mass claims process in the South in order to address a primary grievance of the southern population as part of the National Dialogue transition. A series of techniques are described that would greatly improve the mass claims process once it inevitably recommences after the Houthi conflict comes to an end. These improvements would attach more importance to socio-political realities and how to quickly attend to them, as opposed to an over-reliance on specific legalities. Such an approach could have wider utility among Arab Spring states seeking to address similar land and property grievances.

  16. Arab Spring: Islam dalam gerakan sosial dan demokrasi Timur Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafira Elnanda Yasmine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Social movement during Arab Spring has lead to political uprising in Middle East. Started from Tunisia, the revolt spread to neighboring states such as Egypt, Libya, also Syiria. Influenced by religion and strong Islamic tradition, protestors demand the presence of democracy within political system which had held autocracy as ruling system for decades. It is commonly assumed that democracy and Islam were mostly incompatible, moreover in a state whose Islamic values has deeply rooted in the daily life of its people. This article focuses in the usage of Islamic values within global civil society movement in Arab Spring. Theory of Islam and Ideology were applied to analyze the phenomena. Having view the revolution generally, this research found that Arab Spring is required as a phase which led Islam into particular flexibility level towards democracy and brought democratization into the Arab world. This article resulted in the conclusion that trigger a revolution not because of religious affairs, the demonstrators were joined not one hundred percent Muslim, and the issues that required not related to the religious life of the community, but Islam is either the value or the practice of worship, can not be separated in the organization of the masses during the revolution.

  17. A revolta no Egito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Kandil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta entrevista enfoca a derrubada do regime autoritário egípcio em 11 de fevereiro de 2011, quando o presidente Hosni Mubarak renunciou ao posto após três décadas no poder: as razões que levaram à revolta popular, os segmentos sociais que compuseram o movimento e a forma como se deu sua mobilização, as forças que constituíam a estrutura de poder do regime deposto, o cenário sociopolítico do Egito no período de transição subsequente e as perspectivas de democratização do país.This interview focuses on the fall of Hosni Mubarak's authoritarian regime in Egypt: the reasons leading to the popular uprising, the social strata that engaged in it and its mobilization strategies, the forces that supported Mubarak's regime and perspectives for the future of democracy in Egypt.

  18. Self-potential anomalies in some Italian volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Silenziario

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Self-Potential (SP space and time variations in volcanic areas may provide useful information on both the geometrical structure of the volcanic apparatuses and the dynamical behaviour of the feeding and uprising systems. In this paper, the results obtained on the islands of Vulcano (Eolian arc and Ponza (Pontine archipelago and on the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius complex are shown. On the island of Vulcano and on the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius apparatus areal SP surveys were performed with the aim of evidencing anomalies closely associated to the zones of major volcanic activity. On the island of Vulcano a profile across the fumaroles along the crater rim of the Fossa Cone was also carried out in order to have a direct relationship between fumarolic fracture migration and flow rate and SP anomaly space and time variations. The areal survey on the island of Ponza, which is considered an inactive area, is assumed as a reference test with which to compare the amplitude and pattern of the anomalies in the active areas. A tentative interpretation of the SP anomalies in volcanic areas is suggested in terms of electrokinetic phenomena, related to the movement of fluids of both volcanic and non-volcanic origin.

  19. Water rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Yokomizo, Osamu; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a BWR type reactor, the area of a flow channel in a lower portion of a downcoming pipe for downwardly releasing steams present at the top portion in a water rod is increased. Further, a third coolant flow channel (an inner water rod) is disposed in an uprising having an exit opened near the inlet of the water rod and an inlet opened at the outside near the top portion of the water and having an increase flow channel area in the upper portion. The downcoming pipe in the water rod is filled with steams, and the void ratio is increased by so much as the flow channel area of the downcoming pipe is increased. Since the pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the inner water rod is greater than the pressure difference between the inlet and the exit of the water rod, most of water flown into the inner water rod is discharged out of the exit in the form of water as it is. Since the area of the flow channel is increased in the portion of the inner water rod, void efficiency in the upper portion of the reactor core is decreased by so much. Since the void ratio is thus increased in the lower portion and the void efficiency is decreased in the upper portion of the reactor core, axial void distribution can be flattened. (N.H.)

  20. The Impact of the Explosion of EU News on Voter Choice in the 2014 EU Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kleinnijenhuis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The European elections in 2014 were the first to be held after a long period in which EU-related news was prominent in the media. They were held after years of daily news about the euro crisis and after months of news about the popular uprising in the Ukraine against president Yanukovych, who had refused to sign the association agreement with the EU. This could have invited political parties to overcome the usual problem of low salience of EU issues by strongly profiling themselves on EU issues. Turnout at the 2014 EU elections, however, remained low, hinting that parties were unable to convert the attention for European issues into enthusiasm for their party at the European elections. This paper asks how vote choice was influenced by party campaigning on EU related issues. A news effects analysis based on a content analysis of Dutch newspapers and television, and on a panel survey among Dutch voters revealed that EU issues functioned as wedge issues: the more strongly parties were associated in the news with the euro crisis and the Ukraine, the less they succeeded in mobilizing voters.

  1. Electrical resistivity structures and tectonic implications of Main Karakorum Thrust (MKT) in the western Himalayas: NNE Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Tallataf Hussain; Zhao, Junmeng; Xiao, Qibin; Bhatti, Zahid Imran; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Zhang, Heng; Deng, Gong; Liu, Hongbing

    2018-06-01

    We discovered a conductive zone along Main Karakoram Thrust which could be an indication of flat subduction of Kohistan island arc beneath the Eurasian plate. Kohistan island arc collided with the Karakoram Block of the Eurasian Plate in the Early Cretaceous. However, according to findings of many researchers, the subduction ceased about 75 Ma ago. The presence of the conductive zone is an indication of current magmatism or hydrothermal fluids. Maximum low-frequency band data from Fourteen sites with recording periods of 10-2-103 s was acquired along a profile crossing MKT. Our results reveal the existence of multiple low resistivity zones beneath the region extending from shallow to the depths of more than 100 km. These low-resistivity zones might be a signature of the ongoing magmatic activities or hydrothermal fluids along the Shyok Suture Zone. In addition, we discovered another large conductive body towards the south of the study area which could be a result of uprising magmatic plumes generated by the subducting Indian plate along the Indian suture zone and their entrapment in the overlying Kohistan block.

  2. Scope and prospects of re-engineering and retrofitting wind farms in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajsekhar, B.; Van Hulle, F.J.L.

    2001-09-01

    The paper starts with a brief analysis of the characteristics of the Indian wind energy programmes while enumerating the developments that have taken place so far. In view of the large scope for renewable energy based power generation and in order to boost the present uprise of the wind farm development, the authors investigate the possibilities that lay in re-engineering of existing wind farms. Existing wind farm entrepreneurs are showing interest to improve the performance of their wind farms. New initiatives are suggested addressing the involved technical and commercial concerns of both the state-run utility (the principal customer of wind generated electricity) and wind farm entrepreneur to spur development of economically competitive wind-power plants In addition, inferences are drawn from a recently conducted detailed case study at a 5 year old large wind farm in Muppandal area. The study involved conducting detailed WAsP based analysis based on remote land use and land cover details interfacing with GIS. In addition, detailed site investigations were conducted to assess the health of the machines and the adequacy of the power evacuation facility together with the analysis of the machine down times. The paper highlights the benefits that can be expected from such undertakings for several parties both in India and in EU. The paper finally outlines the possible business opportunities and economic benefits that exist for retrofitting and re-engineering in the country, which has over 700 individually designed wind farms. 2 refs

  3. Freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during 1804-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This text is on freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during the first half of 19th century, i.e. since the beginning of the First Serbian uprising in 1804 and till passing the Criminal law in 1860. Author first emphasises that the freedom deprivation punishment doesn't have long tradition, although in medieval Serbia and under Turkish rule existed imprisonment in dungeon, but it was foremost some form of custody before a trial, and subsequently as keeping a prisoner after the verdict until its effectuation. It wasn't a freedom deprivation punishment in modern sense. During 1804 - 1813 there was so called 'haps' i.e. apprehension, though Uprising authorities built also 'real' prisons for punishment purpose. Imprisonment of culprits was a condition for compulsory labour, which could be very useful utilized under given circumstances. Since the beginning 1820-ties when first Serbian courts were established, beside 'haps' appears also imprisonment in heavy shackles. However there was no substantial difference between apprehension and imprisonment. In this time the sentence to imprisonment was combined with the punishment with beating (or sometimes with the flogging at the end of imprisonment. The Regulation of County courts from January 26th 1840 mentions several forms of freedom deprivation punishment, but in praxis freedom deprivation was reduced on either 'eternal' imprisonment or time-sentenced imprisonment. Since the beginning of 1840-ties freedom deprivation was more frequently used as punishment and its implementation was continually spreading. For heaviest crimes was instead death penalty and running gauntlet sentenced freedom deprivation, either from courts or from supreme authority in the amnesty process. Imprisonment was effectuated either at police reformatories (for shorter penalties or at the penitentiary institutions (for longer imprisonment. By the end of 1830-ties an issue of imprisonment of female perpetrators emerged, together

  4. The geochemistry and tectonic setting of late Cretaceous Caribbean and Colombian volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John; Marriner, Giselle F.; Nivia, Alvaro; Klaver, Gerard Th.; Saunders, Andrew D.

    1996-03-01

    Late Cretaceous mafic volcanic sequences in Western Colombia and in the southern Caribbean have a striking coherence in their chemistry and compositional range which suggests they are part of the same magmatic province. The chemical characteristics of the majority of the mafic lavas are totally unlike those of island arc or marginal basin basalts, so the sequences cannot represent accreted arc terranes. On the other hand their trace element characteristics closely resemble those of Icelandic/Reykjanes Ridge basalts that represent an oceanic plateau formed by extensive decompression melting of an uprising deep mantle plume. The occurrence of komatiites on Gorgona and high-MgO picritic lavas in S.E. Colombia and on Curaçao, representing high temperature melts of the plume tail, confirms this analogy. Likewise, late stage rhyolites within the Colombian mafic volcanics may well be the equivalent of the extensive silicic magmas on Iceland and at Galapagos, possibly formed by remelting of the deep parts of the overthickened basaltic crust above the plume head. These volcanics, plus others around the Caribbean, including the floor of the Central Caribbean, probably all represent part of an oceanic plateau that formed rapidly at the Galapagos hotspot at 88 Ma, and that was too hot and buoyant to subduct beneath the margin of S. America as it migrated westwards with the opening of the South Atlantic, and so was imbricated along the continental margin. Minor arc-like volcanics, tonalites and hornblende leucogabbro veins may represent the products of subduction-flip of normal ocean crust against the buoyant plateau, or hydrous melts developed during imbrication/obduction.

  5. Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    The Philippines is an archipelago of 7100 islands and islets, 11 of which compose about 95% of the total area and population. The majority of the Filipinos are descendants of Indonesians and Malays. Approximately 90% of the population are Christian with the majority of the remaining 10% being Moslems. In the 1960s, the annual population growth rate was roughly 3%, but it fell to 2.4% in the late 1970s and was still 2.4% in 1985. In 1970, President Marcos implemented an official family planning policy to reduce the high growth rate and thereby stimulate economic development. A population commission coordinates family planning efforts. Both the Spanish (1521-1898) and the United States (1898-1946) have ruled the Philippines with a brief occupation by the Japanese (1942-1945). The US assisted in the reconstruction of the economy following World War II and continues to maintain and operate military bases. Further, from 1946-1986, the Philippines has received $3.7 billion in economic and military assistance from the US. The government operated under a constitutional democracy from 1946-1972, but in 1972 President Marcos declared martial law. In 1981, martial law ended and Marcos called for a presidential election. After winning the election, he called for an amendment of the 1972 constitution making him, rather than the prime minister, the head of government. Even though martial law ended in 1981, the Marcos government retained its wide powers to arrest and detain anyone. In February 1986, popular support backed by a peaceful civilian-military uprising brought Corazon Aquino to the Presidency. In the mid 1980s a severe economic recession hit the Philippines with the real GNP growth rate ranging from -5.3%-0%. The Philippines have diplomatic relations with the south east Asian nations, many East Bloc nations, the US, China, Cuba, and the Soviet Union.

  6. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman

    2014-05-01

    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  7. Fame and Infamy of Duke of Braganza in the Spanish Golden Age Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Domínguez Matito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available «Portuguese matter» is a subject that inspired a large amount of plays of the Spanish Golden Age. This is especially the case in the period of the dual monarchy, in which the outstanding episodes in the history of Portugal and their main protagonists are dealt, in general, from a Castilian-centered perspective. This article specifically focuses on the events involving the dukes of Braganza. These events were of great importance not only for the history of Portugal but for the Austrian monarchy. They also served as the source of a number of comedies of the theatre in the Golden Age. Several of Lope de Vega’s plays are analyzed including El duque de Viseo, El más galán portugués, with the intention of contrasting them with the Granada playwright Cubillo de Aragón’s La tragedia del duque de Berganza. The analysis of the dramatizations evidences the different attitudes of both playwrights towards the house of Braganza. It also evidences the different assessment of Portuguese nobility in relation to the historical circumstances that they experienced during the reign of John II of Portugal. In the case of Lope de Vega, during the same time period as the dual monarchy, the plays are written in order to ennoble his image and, in the case of Cubillo, to validate his reputation as a traitor, following the uprise against the monarchy of Phillip IV, which lead to the secession of Portugal.

  8. Measuring Qatari Women’s Progress Through Reactions to Online Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanalakshmi Rajakumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The close kinship structure of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries of Oman, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE means that appeasing one’s family often supersedes personal aspirations. The family occupies a central space in the life of the individual, one that mimics the state’s involvement in the everyday lives of its citizens. Within such a context we need a new framework to understand how women’s private choices have sociopolitical implications. Qatari women are ensconced within the political and economic stability of the Arabian Gulf. The Western feminist tropes of activism and advocacy, as have been studied in Egypt and other Arab countries affected by the Arab uprisings of 2011, cannot characterize Qatari women’s behavior on social media. Yet the degree to which women present themselves online, using their real names, is a form of agency important to their context. Qatari women also use social media in order to educate themselves about the personalities and activities of potential spouses. Similarly, male Qataris consider certain behaviors as disqualifiers for potential brides. We discuss these trends within the larger context of Qatari society and the dichotomy between modernization and traditional culture in the Arabian context. This article arose out of a larger study about contemporary marriage practices and attitudes toward partner selection in Qatar today. The ways in which both males and females analyze the social media usage of potential partners is an interesting ancillary discussion against the backdrop of larger trends in Qatari society.

  9. «Todos somos iguales». La Revolución de la Igualdad en Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 1876-1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schelchkov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Equality Revolution in Santa Cruz (1876-1877, also known as the equality movement, was a conflict between the pairing of the common urban class and local elites who defended a development formula that championed a modern age that balanced the social values of the traditional and patriarchal society, and other local elites who benefited from the boom of free-market capitalism. The political actions of the egalitarians was influenced by the ideology of romantic socialism in its different stages and combined legal formulas with pressure from peasant militia and civil uprisings. The disruption between the project defending a selfmanaged local way of life and local/state modernization priorities led to a state of repression rarely seen in XIX century Santa Cruz society.La Revolución de Igualdad en Santa Cruz (1876-1877 o movimiento igualitario fue un conflicto entre el binomio formado por las capas plebeyas urbanas y las elites locales, defensoras de la fórmula del desarrollo que abogaba por una modernidad en equilibrio con los valores sociales de la sociedad patriarcal y tradicional, y otras elites locales, beneficiarias del auge del capitalismo de libre cambio. La actuación política de los igualitarios estuvo influenciada por las ideas del socialismo romántico en todas sus etapas y combinó formas legales con presión armada montonera y sublevación popular. El desajuste entre este proyecto de defensa de un autogestionado modo de vida local y las prioridades locales/estatales de modernización provocó una represión del mismo pocas veces vista en la sociedad cruceña en el siglo XIX.

  10. Albania’s Transformation since 1997: Successes and Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusufi Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 Albania experienced a collapse of order and widespread violence, which resulted in a situation where the government was overthrown and some 2,000 people were killed. The 1997 disorder came as a result of the collapse of fraudulent financial pyramid schemes that had all the features of a war-like economic structure. During the 1997 events, large-scale confiscation and stealing of state assets occurred. Albania’s transitional period from communism to democracy, which began in 1990, led to the establishment of new structures for profiting from the country’s resources. Some of these political and economic structures, in the aftermath of the 1997 events, disappeared and others, including their structural effects, persist and have had an impact on the country’s political stability and economic progress. Today, both the successes and failures of the country are assessed based on the progress that the country has made since the 1997 events. The paper analyses the 1997 events and the transformation of Albania’s political and economic structures between 1997 and 2016, considering both achievements and failures. It looks at how the country has dealt with the post-1997 peace-building and development agenda from the perspective of it being a success. It looks at the factors that led to state failure in 1997 and at the factors that continue and have generated a path dependency to the current political context of the country. Although a lot has been written concerning the 1997 events, very little analysis has been conducted concerning what it means from the perspective of research on state failure. In this context, the proposed paper seeks to offer Albania as a case study example of a transformation process, from the uprising to the current situation, which is characterized as a mixture of successes and failures. The belief is that the proposed paper will point to some lessons learned for the strategies directed at the transformation processes.

  11. Governance, violence and the struggle for economic regulation in South Sudan: the case of Budi County (Eastern Equatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Walraet

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how Budi County in Eastern Equatoria State (South Sudan was governed during the 1990s and up to mid-2007. Because its capital Chukudum was the SPLM/A headquarters almost throughout that period, it provides us with an interesting case from which to explore how the SPLM/A governed during the war and how this impacts on the post-war peace. One observation is that the war, besides a period of devastation and human suffering, was also a time of economic opportunities and social differentiation. For that reason this article will also explore livestock trade as a new mode of wealth appropriation and the changing nature of cattle raiding, and how this interferes with the struggle for regulatory power and governable “spaces”. This means that we comprehend the economy as a political terrain. At the same time we leave room for sociological perspectives, to complement the more restricted “competition for resources and gains” approach to conflict and violence. The article is written in three sections. In the first section we briefly clarify why in 1999 there was an uprising in Budi County against SPLM/A rule and why it engendered massive local support. In the second section we examine one of the most destructive manifestations of violence that affect Budi county: cattle raiding. We look at it from a perspective that has been under-researched in the eld: that of trans-border trade. In the last section we look at how, after the peace of 2005, newly appointed local government authorities are (reclaiming do- mains of state regulation that previously lay rmly in the hands of the military. Particular attention is given to the capacity of the local authorities to guarantee security and provide protection. Key words: governance, violent conflict, regulatory power, trans-border trade, South Sudan Eastern Equatoria

  12. NATO's approach to the Libyan crisis in the events of the «Arab spring»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Repeshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern system of international relations more often faces the conflicts of different tension which appear in different regions of the world. Conflicts of the beginning of XXI century are determined by different political, economic, national and confessional reasons. The system of international relations faced the crisis. This system had existed for many centuries and was adopted in the Westphalia Peace. The ending of the Cold War made the world see the new conditions whose distinctive feature was an increasing quantitative index of clashes. A number of political changes at the beginning of the current decade have resulted in changes of political regimes in these countries. On the whole, the process of peaceful political transformation was characteristic of the events of the so-called «Arabic spring». However, similar changes in Libya proved to have a different character causing military changes and NATO's military intervention. If the process of social uprising turned into protest-street disturbances in Egypt and Tunis, in Libya there was an armed overthrow of the authorities by the opposition supported by foreign states. The author touches upon the events of the Arabic spring which resulted in overthrowing Gaddafi's regime. NATO' policy was criticized in the course of military actions in Libya. The author considers NATO's views, particularly, that of the USA, France and Great Britain in terms of the Libyan crisis and its solutions. The study of the conflict mechanism, its nature will allow to estimate taken by the world measures influencing the modern system of international relations.

  13. Macedonio Melloni between physics and political commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Macedonio Melloni is an outstanding figure in the scientific world of the nineteenth century. His life can be divided into two main periods, and the interruption is due to his deep involvement in the political risings that shaked Europe in 1831. In the first period, he was a professor at the School of Physics of the University of Parma. Since the very beginning, he devoted a special attention to the properties of radiant heat, and the theoretical insights about the nature of thermal phenomena were doubled by a smart attitude in improving the laboratory tools. The political events of 1830-31 caused stir inside the University of Parma. Melloni delivered a celebrated speech, leading to stormy meetings, the closure of the School of Physics of the University, the arrests and deportations of students. Nevertheless they gained support from the whole town: Parma in fact rose up and a provisional government was formed of which Melloni himself became a member. Accounts on these events can be found in the documents of the 'Archivio di Stato' (the Public Records Office), as well as in the diary of Lombardini, the Chancellor of the University, and in the short stories by Gallenga (a deported student), besides letters and memories of Melloni himself. The subsequent exile, apart from difficulties in private and familiar life, gave him the chance of establishing relations and collaborations with the scientific European circles. Thus, the 1831 uprising caused both dramatic changes and rich opportunities in the career of a patriot who, as others in the same period, was divided between political engagement and scientific passion.

  14. Impasse of the 21st century accountants: Need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline

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    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical uprising, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body is an issue of concern that need to be uphold due to the succession of corporate scandals that took place in Nigeria and the world over, thereby undermining the image of the accountancy profession. These corporate scandals in no doubt challenged the credibility of financial statements, auditing and corporate governance practices for which accountants are directly linked with. In this paper, we examined the impasse of the 21st century accountants and the need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body for erring accountants. Several impasses facing the 21st century accountants were identified such as expectation gap (resulting to loss of public confidence in the profession, falsifying financial statements and engaging in ‘negative accounting’ among others. Questionnaire was administered to three (3 classes of respondents (investors, auditors and accounting regulatory bodies and the data obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The study found that the impasse facing the 21st century accountants can be repealed via ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body for erring accountants. Owing to the above findings, we proposed that the accounting regulatory bodies and the government should sanction accountants and firms engaged in unscrupulous accounting practices as well as revoking the licenses of professional accountants that precipitate such actions. As a matter of fact, seminars and workshop on issues relating to ethics and accounting guidelines should be organized for professional accountants. Also, code of professional conducts should be strictly enforced on all professional accountants by the regulatory body. It is our candid believe that if these recommendations are fully implemented, it will go a long

  15. Cambios y continuidades en el pacto colonial en la Amazonía: el caso de los indios chasutas del Huallaga medio a finales del siglo XIX

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    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CHANGEMENTS ET CONTINUITES DU PACTE COLONIAL EN AMAZONIE. LE CAS DES INDIENS CHASUTAS DU MOYEN HUALLAGA A LA FIN DU XIXe SIECLE. Cet article analyse le soulèvement Chasuta de 1893 dans la région du moyen Huallaga, comme résultat de ce que les indigènes perçurent comme une rupture du pacte colonial qui leur assurait certains droits et privilèges et établissait leurs devoirs envers l’État. L’article suggère que la dissolution de cet ordre d’origine missionnaire entraîna la désintégration sociale des Chasutas et accéléra ainsi les processus mis en place par le boom du caoutchouc. Este artículo analiza el levantamiento chasuta ocurrido en 1893 en el Medio Huallaga, como el resultado de lo que los indígenas locales percibieron como la ruptura del pacto colonial que les garantizaba determinados derechos y prerrogativas y establecía sus obligaciones frente al Estado. Sugiere que la disolución de este ordenamiento de origen misional y colonial, condujo a la desintegración social de los llamados chasutas y aceleró los procesos impulsados por el auge gomero. CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES IN THE COLONIAL PACT IN AMAZONIA. THE CASE OF CHASUTA AT THE END OF 19TH CENTURY. This article explains the occurrence of an uprising in Chasuta in 1893 as the result of what local Indians perceived as the infringement of the colonial pact that guarantied their rights and stipulated their duties vis à vis the local administration. It suggests that the dissolution of such a pact led to the social disintegration of the Chasuta as a people and that it accelerated those processes driven by the rubber boom.

  16. Red-and-Black Streets. Anarcho-Syndicalism, Rituals of Mobilization and Symbols in Public Spaces (1931-1936 | La calle rojinegra. Anarcosindicalismo, rituales de movilización y símbolos en el espacio público (1931-1936

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    Javier Navarro Navarro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the analysis of the typology, characteristics and evolution of some of the rituals of mobilization and symbols that Spanish anarchist and anarchosyndicalist organisations displayed in public spaces during the years of the Second Republic, before the July 1936 military uprising: strikes, revolutionary insurrections, rallies, demonstrations, tours, partisans’ funerals, etc. The aim of all these actions was clear: both internal cohesion and identity reaffirmation, and external projection of the movement. With these collective action strategies, anarcho-syndicalists tried to be present in public spaces, to make the movement strength visible and to reinforce their demands and aspirations. This visibility was enhanced by displaying its own symbols: hymns, songs, flags, etc. | Este artículo se centra en el análisis de la tipología, características y evolución de algunos de los diversos rituales de movilización y símbolos desplegados en el espacio público por las distintas organizaciones y núcleos de militantes de signo confederal y anarquista en España durante los años de la Segunda República, antes del estallido de la sublevación militar de julio de 1936. Entre ellos: huelgas, insurrecciones revolucionarias, mítines, manifestaciones, excursiones, entierros de militantes, etc. El propósito de estas acciones era claro: tanto la cohesión y reafirmación identitaria internas, como la proyección externa del movimiento. Con estas estrategias de acción colectiva, que suponían una “salida” al espacio público, se trataba de hacer visible allí la fuerza del movimiento y reafirmar la presencia física de este, sus reivindicaciones y aspiraciones. Esta visibilidad se reforzaba mediante el despliegue de los símbolos propios: himnos, canciones, banderas, etc.

  17. Effective interactions in lysozyme aqueous solutions: a small-angle neutron scattering and computer simulation study.

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    Abramo, M C; Caccamo, C; Costa, D; Pellicane, G; Ruberto, R; Wanderlingh, U

    2012-01-21

    We report protein-protein structure factors of aqueous lysozyme solutions at different pH and ionic strengths, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering experiments. The observed upturn of the structure factor at small wavevectors, as the pH increases, marks a crossover between two different regimes, one dominated by repulsive forces, and another one where attractive interactions become prominent, with the ensuing development of enhanced density fluctuations. In order to rationalize such experimental outcome from a microscopic viewpoint, we have carried out extensive simulations of different coarse-grained models. We have first studied a model in which macromolecules are described as soft spheres interacting through an attractive r(-6) potential, plus embedded pH-dependent discrete charges; we show that the uprise undergone by the structure factor is qualitatively predicted. We have then studied a Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) model, in which only central interactions are advocated; we demonstrate that this model leads to a protein-rich/protein-poor coexistence curve that agrees quite well with the experimental counterpart; experimental correlations are instead reproduced only at low pH and ionic strengths. We have finally investigated a third, "mixed" model in which the central attractive term of the DLVO potential is imported within the distributed-charge approach; it turns out that the different balance of interactions, with a much shorter-range attractive contribution, leads in this latter case to an improved agreement with the experimental crossover. We discuss the relationship between experimental correlations, phase coexistence, and features of effective interactions, as well as possible paths toward a quantitative prediction of structural properties of real lysozyme solutions. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  18. La legislación general acerca de los judíos en el reinado de Juan II de Castilla

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    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la legislación general promulgada a lo largo del reinado de Juan II de Casti lla (1406-1454 en relación con los judíos. La gran extensión de este reinado, los vaivenes que marcaron la política caste llana en este momento y la proximidad cronológica de las persecuciones de 1391, que tanta incidencia tuvieron en la evolución del judaísmo hispano, hacen de él un escenario idóneo para analizar las complejas circunstancias, de muy diversa naturaleza –política, económica, social, religioso-ideológica-, que en la primera mitad del siglo XV concurrían en el reino de Castilla en la cuestión judía. Resulta particularmente interesante y revelador el estudio del posicionamiento de la monarquía en relación con los judíos, con el trasfondo de la revuelta nobiliaria.This article examines the general legislation enacted throughout the reign of Juan II of Castile (1406-1454 with respect to the Jews. The considerable length of his reign, the ups and downs that characterized Castilian politics in this period and the chronological proximity to the persecutions of 1391 which severely altered the evolution of Hispanic Judaism make it an ideal setting to analyse the complex circumstances of very diverse origin –political, economic, social, religious-ideological- which affected the Jewish question in Castile in the first half of the fifteenth century. The monarchy’s stance with respect to the Jewish community in the context of the uprising of the nobility is particularly interesting and revealing.

  19. Crustal structure beneath Liaoning province and the Bohai Sea and its adjacent region in China based on ambient noise tomography

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    Pang, Guang-hua; Feng, Ji-Kun; Lin, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The velocity structure of the crust beneath Liaoning province and the Bohai sea in China was imaged using ambient seismic noise recorded by 73 regional broadband stations. All available three-component time series from the 12-month span between January and December 2013 were cross-correlated to yield empirical Green's functions for Rayleigh and Love waves. Phase-velocity dispersion curves for the Rayleigh waves and the Love waves were measured by applying the frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements of the Rayleigh wave and the Love wave were then utilized to construct 2D phase-velocity maps for the Rayleigh wave at 8-35 s periods and the Love wave at 9-32 s periods, respectively. Both Rayleigh and Love phase-velocity maps show significant lateral variations that are correlated well with known geological features and tectonics units in the study region. Next, phase dispersion curves of the Rayleigh wave and the Love wave extracted from each cell of the 2D Rayleigh wave and Love wave phase-velocity maps, respectively, were inverted simultaneously to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures. The horizontal shear wave velocity images clearly and intuitively exhibit that the earthquake swarms in the Haicheng region and the Tangshan region are mainly clustered in the transition zone between the low- and high-velocity zones in the upper crust, coinciding with fault zones, and their distribution is very closely associated with these faults. The vertical shear wave velocity image reveals that the lower crust downward to the uppermost mantle is featured by distinctly high velocities, with even a high-velocity thinner layer existing at the bottom of the lower crust near Moho in central and northern the Bohai sea along the Tanlu fault, and these phenomena could be caused by the intrusion of mantle material, indicating the Tanlu fault could be just as the uprising channel of deep materials.

  20. Geosphere-biosphere interactions in bio-activity volcanic lakes: evidences from Hule and Rìo Cuarto (Costa Rica.

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    Jacopo Cabassi

    Full Text Available Hule and Río Cuarto are maar lakes located 11 and 18 km N of Poás volcano along a 27 km long fracture zone, in the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica. Both lakes are characterized by a stable thermic and chemical stratification and recently they were affected by fish killing events likely related to the uprising of deep anoxic waters to the surface caused by rollover phenomena. The vertical profiles of temperature, pH, redox potential, chemical and isotopic compositions of water and dissolved gases, as well as prokaryotic diversity estimated by DNA fingerprinting and massive 16S rRNA pyrosequencing along the water column of the two lakes, have highlighted that different bio-geochemical processes occur in these meromictic lakes. Although the two lakes host different bacterial and archaeal phylogenetic groups, water and gas chemistry in both lakes is controlled by the same prokaryotic functions, especially regarding the CO2-CH4 cycle. Addition of hydrothermal CO2 through the bottom of the lakes plays a fundamental priming role in developing a stable water stratification and fuelling anoxic bacterial and archaeal populations. Methanogens and methane oxidizers as well as autotrophic and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria responsible of organic carbon recycling resulted to be stratified with depth and strictly related to the chemical-physical conditions and availability of free oxygen, affecting both the CO2 and CH4 chemical concentrations and their isotopic compositions along the water column. Hule and Río Cuarto lakes were demonstrated to contain a CO2 (CH4, N2-rich gas reservoir mainly controlled by the interactions occurring between geosphere and biosphere. Thus, we introduced the term of bio-activity volcanic lakes to distinguish these lakes, which have analogues worldwide (e.g. Kivu: D.R.C.-Rwanda; Albano, Monticchio and Averno: Italy; Pavin: France from volcanic lakes only characterized by geogenic CO2 reservoir such as Nyos and Monoun

  1. Galician mining and metallurgy in the light of the General Regional Exhibition of Lviv in 1894

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    Wojciech Paduchowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The General Regional Exhibition of Lviv was organized in 1894, on the 100 year anniversary of the Kosciuszko Uprising of 1794. The Exhibition was meant to demonstrate Galicia’s economical and cultural progress since its gaining political autonomy and to become an opportunity for the national integration of Poles. The Exhibition displays included various thematic groups which were devoted to both spiritual and material aspects of life in Galicia and were meant to show the abundance of its crops and produce, mining and metallurgy, agriculture, forestry and hunting. The shows pictured everyday life of the inhabitants of Galicia, its folk art, so-called domestic industry and craftwork. Other sections of the Exhibition demonstrated the development of the Galician financial institutions, public administration, healthcare, communication, engineering, construction, literature, general and vocational education and the bloom of the fine arts and architecture. The article analyzes only some parts of the great legacy of the Exhibition, its scope focuses on mining and metallurgy. The text points out the dynamic development of the oil industry and the increase in the branches such as: salt production, iron smelting, and brown and hard coal extraction. The only branch of the Galicia’s economy which had not offered good perspectives and was thus soon discontinued had been the production of earthwax (ozocerite. The organization of the exhibitions of such sort was regarded at that time as one of the best ways to stimulate economy and benefit the regions. The actual development itself, especially of the oil mining, aided many positive social and cultural changes and undoubtedly increased the societal potential and might have resulted in further initiatives.

  2. The Right to Work by the Persons with Disabilities in the Public Sphere

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    Milena Sousa de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The strugles lived by the persons with disabilities on their quest for attaining their proper rights have taken the shape of a true democratic battle with the increasing number of persons in this situation and the uprise in their worldwide influence. The advances reached by this minority group have drawn, at first, international attention and, subsequently, national acceptance, leading to the signature of the New York Covention, in 2008. In fact, the equality principle - treating the equals equally and the unequals unequally - looses its meaning without the defiinition of what are these inequalities and who are the people who suffer from it. One of the main approaches for achieving equality is by protecting these people's right to work, inclusive within the public sphere. Work a productive act of citizenship and, as such, cannot be denied or limited due to the disability. For the persons with disabilities, working in the public service is a challenge which has been only partially solved. Although their access to jobs in the public service has been widely guaranteed, it is still necessary to ensure the essential conditions for the effective accomplishment of their assigned duties. The main goal of this paper is to analize the evolution of the national and international law in terms of the current understanding that implementing the rights of people with disabilities should be centered on inclusion. After a brief investigation of the legislation protecting the rights of the people with disabilities, we make a detailed study of the internal, State and Federal Law in order to identify the presence or absence of regulations that promote the adaptation or readaptation of workers with disabilities. The analysis will be focused on the comparison between the worker's attained post and his/hers actual duties and the responsabilities, specially in the cases on which the readaptation process act in terms of promoting the exclusion of the person with

  3. From the black Atlantic to the bleak Pacific: Re-reading “Benito Cereno”

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    Ganser, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herman Melville’s novella “Benito Cereno” (1855/56) is one of the best-studied texts both within Melville’s oeuvre and nineteenth-century American literature in general. In recent decades, its puzzling structure and fragmented narrative perspective as well as its symbolism and themes have been subject to critical scrutiny mostly in the context of inquiries into the text’s racial politics regarding the institution of slavery. More specifically, the canonical tale about a slave uprising on the ship San Dominick, its detection by a Massachusetts-born captain and its consequences, has been discussed in the context of Paul Gilroy’s black Atlantic paradigm. Few readings of the tale consider the significance of the Pacific setting of a story grounded in the transatlantic slave trade but happening far away from the center of American slavery. Taking a fresh look at Melville’s tale, this essay focuses on its translation of (black) Atlantic subject matters and epistemologies onto the Pacific. Not only do I read the tale as both an Atlantic and a Pacific text, demonstrating that the institution of slavery and its specters know no geographical borders in Melville’s imagination; I also argue that piracy is an important trope in this context. Anticipating the shift of piracy cases and slavery to the Pacific towards the end of the nineteenth century, it both recalls a black Atlantic and predicts a bleak Pacific of violent imperial scenarios that would come to characterize US–Pacific relations. PMID:29696056

  4. Reinventing the political role of health professionals in conflict prevention & reconciliation: the Sudanese model.

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    Salih, Alaaddin M; Ahmed, Jasim M; Mohamed, Jamal F; Alfaki, Musaab M

    2016-01-01

    Given the persistent recurrence of armed conflict, influential actors owe it to the affected communities to take action. The legitimacy of health professionals to mitigate the effects of conflict relates to their ability to save lives and address the physical and mental consequences of armed conflict during which thousands of lives may be lost. Medical professionals have unique and potentially far-reaching skills. These become crucial during wartime and disasters in terms of providing medical services and humanitarian aid. However, they are insufficiently used in one area: involvement in politics as a tool to foster peace. Despite this, Sudanese individuals from medical backgrounds have participated actively in conflict resolution and peace-building processes. In fact, their political actions throughout the last six decades have aimed to prevent conflict at four different levels, which are described by Yusuf et al. in their article on the political involvement of health professionals in prevention. Their stand against President Nimeiri's Sharia laws was primordial prevention of religious conflict at the national level. Their leading role in the second Sudanese Intifada uprising was a key factor in saving the country from civil war, and another example of primary prevention. Sudanese physicians were also involved in secondary prevention by being influentially involved in almost all national peace agreements. Avoiding disputes at the tertiary level represents the weakest link in their repeated efforts. This paper outlines the different roles Sudanese medical personnel have taken in peacemaking. It also critically evaluates them in order to consider new methods of political involvement that suit future challenges.

  5. Inner Otherness as a Source of Fear: Elements of Horror in Balkan Travelogues

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    Sanja Lazarević-Radak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Travel fiction has created numerous Others, assigning them an ontologically unstable status, while the traditional travelogue spread a fear of the dark interior of Europe, presenting images of daily political strife, assassinations, wars and uprisings. Just like the Gothic novel, which entertained its readers with images of ruins and gloomy structures in Eastern Europe, the travelogue spread a fear of the Balkans through Europe, depicting the Balkans as a place that could pose a threat to the entire continent. While enjoying the mysterious terror of the Gothic novel, Europe also derived a kind of pleasure from the shocking images that were to be found in travelogues from the Balkans. The paper re-examines the elasticity of the boundaries of the travelogue genre, and identifies convenient transformations of certain parts of the travelogue into text aimed at inspiring terror, shocking and appalling its readers. The transformations show that it is impossible to draw a strict boundary between travel fiction and travelogues, and at the same time reveal the hidden discourse used by both genres. The parallel presence of awareness of the geographic identity of the Balkans as European, and of the aspiration to depict them as the strange inner Otherness of Europe, is accompanied by the production of terrifying images. Although these images cannot be viewed solely as a threat of "reverse colonization", the assumption that hybridity is the basis on which the terrifying nature of the Balkans is produced is re-examined. The travelogue chapters, sections and illustrations assume the features of horror, particularly body horror, revealing Europe’s fear of the possibility of the Orient infiltrating the "body of the Occident", or of the possibility of the latter being infected by elements of "alien" i.e. Oriental culture.

  6. The Syrian Crisis: What It Means for the World; Is There a Role for Canada?

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    Ferry de Kerckhove

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harper government has shown itself to be fully engaged and willing to take a public leadership position when it comes to the world’s response to the Syrian crisis, but Canada has yet to commit to a military intervention. That may well be the most sensible approach. There are many reasons that western countries have resisted a Libyan-style intervention in Syria, though there are compelling arguments on both sides. But with al-Qaida operatives involved in the uprising, uncertainty over how favourable a new regime would be towards the West, and the potential dangers posed by the conflict to Israel, one of Canada’s staunchest allies, the Harper government’s primary objective must be to ensure that the outcome of the Syrian civil war is compatible with western values. One of Canada’s top priorities must be helping to ensure that Syria, after the likely defeat of dictator Bashar Assad, rapidly returns to as much stability as possible, and avoids breaking down further into competing divisions and conflicts. The Harper government must be prepared to lend legitimacy to a new government in Syria, work more systematically with the Arab League to foster security in the region, prepare to be of assistance in a post-Assad reconstruction, and engage with other countries considering imposing a no-fly zone over Syria that might help impede Assad’s brutality. There are no simple pathways to securing a peaceful, pro-Western Syria after Assad. But there are things Canada can do, besides military intervention, that can increase the likelihood of it.

  7. Degradation of Silicon Carbide Reflective Surfaces in the LEO Environment

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    Mileti, Sandro; Coluzzi, Plinio; Marchetti, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Space mirrors in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) encounter a degradation problem caused by the impact of atomic oxygen (ATOX) in the space environment. This paper presents an experiment of the atomic oxygen impact degradation and UV synergic effects on ground simulation. The experiment was carried out in a dedicated ATOX simulation vacuum chamber. As target materials, a polished CVD Beta-silicon carbide (SiC) coating was investigated. The selection of silicon carbide is due to its high potential candidate as a mirror layer substrate material for its good reflectance at UV wavelengths and excellent thermal diffusivity. It has highly desirable mechanical and thermal properties and can achieve an excellent surface finish. The deposition of the coatings were on carbon-based material substrate; i.e., silicon impregnated carbon fiber composite (C/SiC). Mechanical and thermal properties of the coatings such as hardness and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) were achieved. Several atomic oxygen impact angles were studied tilting the target samples respect to the flux direction. The various impact angles permitted to analyze the different erosion rates and typologies which the mirrors would encounter in LEO environment. The degradation was analyzed in various aspects. Macroscopic mass loss per unit area, surface roughness and morphology change were basically analyzed. The exposed surfaces of the materials were observed through a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Secondly, optical diagnostic of the surfaces were performed in order to investigate their variation in optical properties as the evaluation of reflectance degradation. The presence of micro-cracks caused by shrinkage, grinding, polishing or thermal cycling and the porosity in the coatings, could have led to the undercutting phenomenon. Observation of uprising of undercutting was also conducted. Remarks are given regarding capabilities in short-term mission exposures to the LEO environment of this coating.

  8. La fauna come inferno della psiche. Metamorfosi animali nelle interpretazioni lautréamontiane di Gaston Bachelard e Georges Bataille

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    Francesco Agnellini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the reading about the work of Lautréamont given by Gaston Bachelard and, in particular, the very important role that has in it the animal metamorphosis. In a second step, it would approach it through the analysis given by Georges Bataille in La Littérature et le Mal (Literature and Evil, but never fully expressed. In the Lautréamont, Bachelard identifies as the formal cause of the Chants de Maldoror the vitalistic dynamism expressed by the rapid succession of images in the unit of animal metamorphosis. The procedure followed in the course of the analysis is similar to the one previously used in La Psychanalyse du feu (The psychoanalyse of the fire: to stress the infantile, subjective and poetic dimension that precedes any objective knowledge. Rather than an happy rêverie, Lautréamont makes figuratively evident an incendiary fantasy focused on the uprising, and expression of a complex of animal life which gives rise to a phenomenology of aggression; as if the call of the embers presented in La Psychanalyse du feu as an example of the most serene philosophy of the rest, had a necessary prelude in the hell of the psyche, graphically represented by the cruelty of animals that inhabit the Chants. Similarly, Georges Bataille sees in Lautreamont the founder of a literature that expressed herself as intensive communication, based on the knowledge of evil, far from everyday life, and near to the dark zones, unconscious, regulated by taboos, which heterology designates as the accursed share. Therefore, the combination between the two authors is potentially really profitable, in the common vision of the ducassian work as a mental space animated by metamorphic images and expression of violent obsessions that translates the needs of animals and the desire of freedom of each person.

  9. The Big Data Tools Impact on Development of Simulation-Concerned Academic Disciplines

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    A. A. Sukhobokov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition of Big Data on the basis of 5V (Volume, Variety, Velocity, Veracity, Value as well as shows examples of tasks that require using Big Data tools in a diversity of areas, namely: health, education, financial services, industry, agriculture, logistics, retail, information technology, telecommunications and others. An overview of Big Data tools is delivered, including open source products, IBM Bluemix and SAP HANA platforms. Examples of architecture of corporate data processing and management systems using Big Data tools are shown for big Internet companies and for enterprises in traditional industries. Within the overview, a classification of Big Data tools is proposed that fills gaps of previously developed similar classifications. The new classification contains 19 classes and allows embracing several hundreds of existing and emerging products.The uprise and use of Big Data tools, in addition to solving practical problems, affects the development of scientific disciplines concerning the simulation of technical, natural or socioeconomic systems and the solution of practical problems based on developed models. New schools arise in these disciplines. These new schools decide peculiar to each discipline tasks, but for systems with a much bigger number of internal elements and connections between them. Characteristics of the problems to be solved under new schools, not always meet the criteria for Big Data. It is suggested to identify the Big Data as a part of the theory of sorting and searching algorithms. In other disciplines the new schools are called by analogy with Big Data: Big Calculation in numerical methods, Big Simulation in imitational modeling, Big Management in the management of socio-economic systems, Big Optimal Control in the optimal control theory. The paper shows examples of tasks and methods to be developed within new schools. The educed tendency is not limited to the considered disciplines: there are

  10. Seawater Circulation and Thermal Sink at OCEAN Ridges - FIELD Evidence in Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Boudier, F. I.; Cathles, L. M.; Buck, W. R.; Celerier, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Exceptionally, the lowermost gabbros in the Oman ophiolite are black and totally fresh, except for minute traces of impregnation by seawater fluids at very high temperature (~1000°C). These black gabbros sharply contrast with normal, whitish gabbros altered down to Low-T~500-350°C. These hydrous alterations are ascribed to an unconventional model of seawater circulation and cooling of the permanent magma chambers of fast spreading ocean ridges. In this model, gabbros issued from the magma chamber cross a ~100 m thick thermal boundary layer (TBL) before reaching a narrow, Low-T high permeability channel where the heated return seawater is flowing towards black smokers and the local gabbros are altered. Uprising mantle diapirs in Oman diverge at ~5 km on each side of the palaeo-ridge axis and feed an overlying magma chamber that closes at this distance from axis. Preservation of black gabbros along the Moho implies that the loop of seawater alteration locally does not reach Moho beyond this ~5km distance (otherwise black gabbros would be altered in whitish gabbros). This defines an internal "thermal sink" within ~5 km to the ridge axis. There, the sink is efficiently cooled by the active hydrothermal convection that is ridge transverse. This has been documented near the Galapagos ridge by marine geophysical data, within the same distance. Beyond this critical distance, the cooling system becomes dominantly conductive and ridge-parallel. The TBL and attached return flow channels must be rising into the overcooled, accreted crust. Beyond the thermal sink, the 500°C isotherm rebounds into the crust. It is only after ~ 1My of crustal drift that this isotherm penetrates into the uppermost mantle in a sustained fashion, developing serpentinites at the expense of peridotites.

  11. Coupled petrological-geodynamical modeling of a compositionally heterogeneous mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Lisa; Kaus, Boris J. P.; White, Richard W.; Mertz, Dieter F.; Yang, Jianfeng; Baumann, Tobias S.

    2018-01-01

    Self-consistent geodynamic modeling that includes melting is challenging as the chemistry of the source rocks continuously changes as a result of melt extraction. Here, we describe a new method to study the interaction between physical and chemical processes in an uprising heterogeneous mantle plume by combining a geodynamic code with a thermodynamic modeling approach for magma generation and evolution. We pre-computed hundreds of phase diagrams, each of them for a different chemical system. After melt is extracted, the phase diagram with the closest bulk rock chemistry to the depleted source rock is updated locally. The petrological evolution of rocks is tracked via evolving chemical compositions of source rocks and extracted melts using twelve oxide compositional parameters. As a result, a wide variety of newly generated magmatic rocks can in principle be produced from mantle rocks with different degrees of depletion. The results show that a variable geothermal gradient, the amount of extracted melt and plume excess temperature affect the magma production and chemistry by influencing decompression melting and the depletion of rocks. Decompression melting is facilitated by a shallower lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and an increase in the amount of extracted magma is induced by a lower critical melt fraction for melt extraction and/or higher plume temperatures. Increasing critical melt fractions activates the extraction of melts triggered by decompression at a later stage and slows down the depletion process from the metasomatized mantle. Melt compositional trends are used to determine melting related processes by focusing on K2O/Na2O ratio as indicator for the rock type that has been molten. Thus, a step-like-profile in K2O/Na2O might be explained by a transition between melting metasomatized and pyrolitic mantle components reproducible through numerical modeling of a heterogeneous asthenospheric mantle source. A potential application of the developed method

  12. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: Impact on Reemerging Infections, Health Services, and Biosecurity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2016-01-01

    After the Arab Spring uprising, Syria descended into a civil war in 2011. By March 2016, the United Nations reported that 13.5 million Syrians required humanitarian assistance, including 6.6 million internally displaced persons and more than 4.8 million refugees outside of Syria. Turkey is currently hosting the largest number of Syrian refugees-more than 2.7 million. A limited number of refugees are living in camps settled around the border, and others are spread throughout Turkey. This explosive and unexpected increase in the Syrian population in Turkey has had several negative impacts on health and social determinants. The overload of healthcare facilities has led to shortages in childhood immunization programs, drugs, and access to clean water and food supplies. According to Ministry of Health data, more than 7.5 million Syrians were examined at outpatient clinics, and 299,240 were hospitalized; most of those hospitalized were injured and wounded victims who require and have been occupying intensive care units. The refugees generally live in crowded and unsanitary conditions, which may lead to the spread of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genital system infections. Currently, measles, poliomyelitis, leishmaniasis, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are the reemerging infections being most frequently recorded. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections seem to be an increasing problem in gunshot or surgical wounds. Hepatitis A, malaria, and varicella have been seen with a high incidence among the refugees. There are many problems waiting to be resolved for health and living standards in Turkey.

  13. Differences in resource management affects drought vulnerability across the borders between Iraq, Syria, and Turkey

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    Lina Eklund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Much discussion has taken place exploring a potential connection between the 2007-2009 Fertile Crescent drought and Syria's uprising-turned civil war beginning in 2011. This study takes an integrated perspective on the 2007-2009 drought in the border region of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey by looking at the meteorological, agricultural, and socioeconomic aspects of drought vulnerability. Satellite-based precipitation and vegetation data help outline the drought's spatial and temporal properties. In order to understand the context in which this drought happened, we also look at the trends in vegetation productivity between 2001 and 2015, as well as each country's different politico-economic factors affecting land and water resource management leading up to the drought. The findings show that, although the drought was severe in Syria, it was not the only country affected, nor necessarily the worst hit meteorologically. The agricultural drought lasted 2 yr in most affected areas on the Iraqi and Syrian sides, however, only 1 yr in the affected areas on the Turkish side. The vegetation trend analysis shows a striking difference between the Syrian and Turkish sides of the border. Turkey experienced a general improvement in land productivity between 2001 and 2015, whereas Iraq and Syria show a generally negative productivity trend. The fact that the decline in rainfall had different effects on crops in each of the three countries highlights the role government and private sector resource management and infrastructure play in reducing drought vulnerability. The findings of this study highlight the need for an integrated approach to research that investigates the interconnection between climate and conflict.

  14. From polar wander to dynamic planet: A tribute to Keith Runcorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of Keith Runcorn's ideas from the static, elastic Earth of Jeffreys to a dynamic, convecting planet are presented based on discussions as his colleague over 25 years from 1963 to his retirement in 1988. Keith reached the concept of a dynamic planet by way of polar wander and continental drift using palaeomagnetism with great zeal. It took some time for Keith to convince himself of the reality of continental drift. Once convinced, he became an evangelist converting others and enthusiastically pursuing possible mechanisms for explaining it, homing in on mantle convection. To establish the nature and history of mantle convection his interests ranged from the world rift system and satellite gravity anomalies to the radiometric age peaks. A great step forward occurred when we realised that a region of uprising convection was not necessary under all the rifts as had been commonly advocated in the 1960s and that the mid-Atlantic, African and Indian Ocean rifts could be equally well explained by one large region of upwelling mantle convection. It was also realised that the plate convergence zones (island arcs, trenches and deep focus earthquakes) were much better correlated with the satellite gravity anomalies and it was much easier to locate the possible regions of downwelling mantle convection. Now, seismic tomography helps to establish the nature of mantle convection and it appears that relations among the Earth's surface features, the geoid anomalies and peturbations of mantle seismic velocities are near to being established. In the next few years a far better and accurate picture of the geometry of mantle convection so enthusiastically advocated by Keith Runcorn is likely to be seen.

  15. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, Saleh Mahmud; Xie, Y.; Uddin, Md. Rokon; Haque, Mohammod Abu Sayid; Hoq, Mahbubul; Mawla, Yasmeen; Alom, Md. Zahangir; Morium, Tasnim

    2002-11-01

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past century there was an uprising in the computer technology and most of the manually operated machines were brought under computerization. It was basically done with a custom built processor to perform only the specific job and spare the users from doing some extra manual work. But the performances of the recent models of the same computerized equipment are by far the best as compared with the past ones. This report describes the role of the IAEA in the upgradation of medical equipment, PC interfacing, upgrading of old gamma cameras and the technological and socio-economic impact in Bangladesh

  16. Variations in Tectonic Activities of the Central and Southwestern Foothills, Taiwan, Inferred from River Hack Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal profile of a river under static equilibrium shows no degradation or aggradation and can be ideally described as a straight line on a semi-logarithmic graph. This type of profile is called a “Hack profile”. If a river runs across uprising active structure systems, its Hack profile becomes convex. Accumulated tectonic strain varies positively with the intensity of the upwarping in Hack-profile convexity. In this paper, we compare curvature changes in Hack profiles of a series of rivers running through faults in the central and southwestern Foothills of Taiwan. Longitudinal profiles of these rivers were derived from two versions of topographic maps (1904 and 1985 and recent DTM data (2000. Prior to comparisons, we calibrated the 1904 topographic map, named “Taiwan Bautu”, by “offsetting” horizontal coordinates north and westward approximately 440 m and then “linear transforming” the elevation values. The Tungtzchiau fault of the central Foothills has remained inactive since 1935. Here relatively high uplift activity near the Wu River is indicated by significantly convex Hack profiles. This strain accumulation can be attributed to a lack of small magnitude earthquakes along the fault over the past 70 years. In the southwestern Foothills, relatively high uplift activity of similar intensity to the central Foothills is indicted near the Neocho River. Significant profiles with concave segments below the ideal graded profiles, at the lower reaches of rivers where continuous small magnitude strain release events have occurred, can only be found along the Sandieh, Neocho and Bazhang rivers in the southwestern Foothills. All these findings indicate that fault systems in the central Foothills tend to be locked and these faults could yield large earthquakes similar to the Chi-Chi event.

  17. Constraining the deformation and exhumation history of the Ronda Massif, Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myall, Jack; Donaldson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Ronda peridotite, southern Spain is comprised of four peridotite units hosted within metasedimentary units of the Betic Cordillera, Western Alps. These four areas of differing mineral facies are termed: the Garnet Mylonite , the Foliated Spinel Peridotite, the Granular Spinel Peridotite and the Foliated Plagioclase Peridotite. Whilst two of these units show a strong NE-SW foliation, the granular unit has no foliation and the Plagioclase facies shows a NW-SE foliation. The massif is separated from the metasedimentary host through a mylonite shear zone to the NW and thrust faults to the SE. The Garnets contain rims of Kelyphite which when combined with the rims of Spinel on the Plagioclase crystals illustrate the complicated exhumation of this massif. The Kelyphite shows the breakdown of garnet back to spinel and pyroxene showing the deeper high pressure high temperature mineral is under shallowing conditions whereas in contrast to this the low pressure low temperature plagioclase crystals have spinel rims showing that they have been moved into deeper conditions. The P-T-t pathway of the massif suggests slow exhumation to allow for partial recrystallisation of not only the garnets and plagioclases but of a 100m band of peridotite between the Foliated Spinel Peridotite and the Granular Spinel Peridotite facies. The tectonic model for the Ronda Peridotite that best describes the field data and subsequent lab work of this study is Mantle Core complex and slab roll back models. These models support mantle uprising during an extensional event that whereby slab roll back of the subducting lithosphere provides uplift into a void and emplacement into the crust. Further extension and final exhumation causes rotation of a mantle wedge into its present day position.

  18. Searching for a better city. An urban discourse during the Revolution of 1905 in the Kingdom of Poland

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    Kamil Śmiechowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main argument of this paper states that the Revolution of 1905, which established the era of modern politics in Central and Eastern Europe, was also an important landmark for the cities in the Kingdom of Poland. The rapid urbanisation and industrialisation of the Kingdom of Poland after the January Uprising brought irreversible change to the country’s social structure. New agents like the proletariat and the intelligentsia appeared in the urban space. As a result, urban contexts during the Revolution of 1905 were much more important in Russian Poland than in the Interior of the Russian Empire. A conflict arose between groups supporting different visions for the cities: traditional, moderately progressive and radical. Actually, the urban discourse of 1905 was a dispute about the scope of urban democracy. With reference to manifestos or projects for legal acts, as well as articles or reports from Warsaw’s national journals and the local press from Lodz, I examine changes in the Kingdom’s urban discourse—from criticism of the existing administration (the so-called Magistrats to demands for introducing the modern system of self-governance. Urban discourse tells us a lot about the Polish middle-class and its ideological attitudes. During the Revolution, the initial democratic enthusiasm was soon replaced by the logic of exclusion. Established by the bourgeoisie as a consequence of the revolutionary exposure of class antagonism, it took measures to limit the influence of the working class and its political position in the future urban self-governance.

  19. Anomaly Detection and Life Pattern Estimation for the Elderly Based on Categorization of Accumulated Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taketoshi; Ishino, Takahito; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Shimosaka, Masamichi; Sato, Tomomasa

    2011-06-01

    We propose a life pattern estimation method and an anomaly detection method for elderly people living alone. In our observation system for such people, we deploy some pyroelectric sensors into the house and measure the person's activities all the time in order to grasp the person's life pattern. The data are transferred successively to the operation center and displayed to the nurses in the center in a precise way. Then, the nurses decide whether the data is the anomaly or not. In the system, the people whose features in their life resemble each other are categorized as the same group. Anomalies occurred in the past are shared in the group and utilized in the anomaly detection algorithm. This algorithm is based on "anomaly score." The "anomaly score" is figured out by utilizing the activeness of the person. This activeness is approximately proportional to the frequency of the sensor response in a minute. The "anomaly score" is calculated from the difference between the activeness in the present and the past one averaged in the long term. Thus, the score is positive if the activeness in the present is higher than the average in the past, and the score is negative if the value in the present is lower than the average. If the score exceeds a certain threshold, it means that an anomaly event occurs. Moreover, we developed an activity estimation algorithm. This algorithm estimates the residents' basic activities such as uprising, outing, and so on. The estimation is shown to the nurses with the "anomaly score" of the residents. The nurses can understand the residents' health conditions by combining these two information.

  20. Canonization of the new-martyrs of the Ottoman period in the Orthodox Church and their importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Charkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the issue of the canonization of the so-called new-martyrs of the Balkans in the Orthodox Church, the issue that has not been in the Polish language studied yet. It concerns the saints who died for Christ after the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. The considerations on the subject is preceded by a short introduction on the role of the martyrs in the Church. Article also refers to the issue of nomenclature, i.e. the definition of the term “new-martyr”, and its appearance in Christianity.Nearly 300 of the new-martyrs of the period of Ottoman slavery are known by the name. This group includes people of different social groups: the hierarchy, the rulers, the monks, married priests and lay people. It is probably only a small part of people who have suffered the death during this period in defense of Orthodoxy. The researchers divided them into four groups, which, the author presents. Their cult for centuries was limited because of the fear of consequences from the Turkish authorities. Only part of them was canonized after 1821, when as a result of uprising the independence of the Greece was proclaimed.The article also contains a part in which the importance of the new-martyrs of the Ottoman period for the Orthodox Church and its faithful is explained. Their importance was emphasized already by their contemporaries. This importance is multi-faceted and refers to the role of the Church plays from its beginning by the martyrs.

  1. Strontium isotopes as an indicator for groundwater salinity sources in the Kirkuk region, Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahib, Layth Y. [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Geology Department, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Jadreya, Baghdad (Iraq); Marandi, Andres; Schüth, Christoph [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The Kirkuk region in northern Iraq hosts some of the largest oil fields in the Middle East. Several anticline structures enabled vertical migration and entrapment of the oil. Frequently, complex fracture systems and faults cut across the Eocene and middle Oligocene reservoirs and the cap rock, the Fatha Formation of Miocene age. Seepage of crude oil and oil field brines are therefore a common observation in the anticline axes and contamination of shallow groundwater resources is a major concern. In this study, 65 water samples were collected in the Kirkuk region to analyze and distinguish mixing processes between shallow groundwater resources, uprising oil field brines, and dissolution of gypsum and halite from the Fatha Formation. Hydrochemical analyses of the water samples included general hydrochemistry, stable water isotopes, as well as strontium concentrations and for 22 of the samples strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Strontium concentrations increased close to the anticline axes with highest concentrations in the oil field brines (300 mg/l). Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes as isotope signatures of the oil field brines and of waters from the Fatha Formation are significantly different. It could be shown, that mixing of shallow groundwater with oil field brines is occurring close to the major fault zones in the anticlines but high concentrations of strontium in the water samples are mainly due to dissolution from the Fatha Formation. - Highlights: • This field study evaluates the salinity sources in the groundwater in Kirkuk region. • Salinity is related to evaporates dissolving and/or mixing with oil field brine. • Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes.

  2. Le poesie della rivoluzione egiziana e la loro riproduzione come testi multimodali in YouTube: al-Midàn (La Piazza di Abd al-Rahmàn al-Abnudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Casini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates Abd al-Rahmàn al-Abnudi’s al-Midàn (The Square, the celebrated poem in colloquial Egyptian Arabic dedicated to the Egyptian young people who occupied the central Midàn al-Tahrìr (Tahrìr Square or Liberation Square in Cairo on 25th January 2011 paving the way for the revolution. The poem, written during the very first days of the uprising, is analyzed in the context of the major transformations in the Egyptian literary field during the decade 2001-2011. In this period the state’s cultural institutions lost much of their traditional power to exert authority over the contents of literary production and its circulation among the reading public. One of the most outstanding features of these transformations, is represented by the role of internet as a means of circulation and reception of literary texts, especially by means of blogs and YouTube. The article considers several versions of al-Midàn uploaded on YouTube and highlights the process by which the poem was transformed by each user into a (re newed multimodal text, where different semiotic resources interact: the reading of the poem, the video images, and (if present the soundtrack. These videos were viewed and commented on by hundreds of thousands of YouTube users in the weeks following the writing of the poem and have made a decisive contribution to the shaping of the revolution’s collective imaginary.

  3. A Short (Personal) Future History of Revolution 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Barbara A

    2015-11-01

    Crisis of replicability is one term that psychological scientists use for the current introspective phase we are in-I argue instead that we are going through a revolution analogous to a political revolution. Revolution 2.0 is an uprising focused on how we should be doing science now (i.e., in a 2.0 world). The precipitating events of the revolution have already been well-documented: failures to replicate, questionable research practices, fraud, etc. And the fact that none of these events is new to our field has also been well-documented. I suggest four interconnected reasons as to why this time is different: changing technology, changing demographics of researchers, limited resources, and misaligned incentives. I then describe two reasons why the revolution is more likely to catch on this time: technology (as part of the solution) and the fact that these concerns cut across social and life sciences-that is, we are not alone. Neither side in the revolution has behaved well, and each has characterized the other in extreme terms (although, of course, each has had a few extreme actors). Some suggested reforms are already taking hold (e.g., journals asking for more transparency in methods and analysis decisions; journals publishing replications) but the feared tyrannical requirements have, of course, not taken root (e.g., few journals require open data; there is no ban on exploratory analyses). Still, we have not yet made needed advances in the ways in which we accumulate, connect, and extract conclusions from our aggregated research. However, we are now ready to move forward by adopting incremental changes and by acknowledging the multiplicity of goals within psychological science. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. CASTIGO FEMENINO EN CHILE DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

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    Marcelo Neira Navarro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo permitió generar una serie de categorías de castigos femeninos, considerando que durante buena parte del siglo XIX la policía pudo aplicar "justicia correccional", es decir, sancionar delitos menores. De un universo de más de 32.000 arrestos efectuados en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile entre los años 1830 a 1840 y utilizando el criterio "femenino", el levantamiento logró una muestra que alcanzó al 12% del total. Los datos sistematizados permiten señalar que durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX el delito femenino fue parte importante de la actividad represiva en Chile y dio origen a un castigo relacionado a la Cárcel Correccional. Aunque también se observan otras penas como trabajo de casa formal o encierro en monasterios, forman parte de un circuito restrictivo en función del encierro de mujeres.The present article allowed to generate a series of categories of female punishments, considering that during a great part of the XIX century the police could apply "correctional justice", in other words, punish minor offences. In a universe of more than 32,000 arrest in the city of Santiago, Chile between the years 1830 and 1840 and using a "female" criteria, the uprising achieved a sample that reached 12% of the total. The systematized information shows that during the firt half of the xix century the female offence was an important part of the repressive activity in Chile and it gave origin to a punishment related to a correctional. Even though some other punishments were observed such a work in a formal house or monastery confinemet, they formed part of a restricting circuit functioning with the confinement of women.

  5. Strategic Stability in South Asia: An Indian?s Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanwal, Gurmeet [Inst. for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi (India)

    2017-05-01

    The security environment in South Asia has been marked by instability for several decades. The foremost causes of regional instability are the nuclear weapons-cum-missile development program of China, North Korea and Pakistan, the strident march of Islamist fundamentalism, the diabolical nexus between narcotics trafficking and terrorism, the proliferation of small arms and the instability inherent in the rule of despotic regimes. Instability on the Indian sub-continent is manifested, first and foremost, in the continuing conflict in Afghanistan, its tense relations with Iran and the Central Asian Republics (CARs); Pakistan’s struggle against the Taliban, the emerging fissiparous tendencies in Balochistan and Pakhtoonkhwa, the rise of Jihadi Islam and what some fear is Pakistan’s gradual slide towards becoming a ‘failed state’ despite some economic gains in the last five years. Also symptomatic of an unstable and uncertain security environment in the South Asian region are what some see as Sri Lanka’s inability to find a lasting solution to its internal challenges; the potential for Bangladesh’s gradual emergence as the new hub of Islamist fundamentalist terrorism and its struggle for economic upliftment to subsistence levels; the continuing negative impact of Maoist insurgency on Nepal’s fledgling democracy; the simmering discontent in Tibet and Xinjiang and what some see as a low-key uprising against China’s regime; and, the Myanmar peoples’ nascent movement for democracy. In all these countries, socio-economic development has been slow and, consequently, per capita income is alarmingly low. Transborder narcotics trafficking – the golden triangle lies to the east of South Asia and the golden crescent to its west – and the proliferation of small arms, make a potent cocktail. Ethnic tensions and fairly widespread radicalization, worsened by the advent of the vicious ideology of the Islamic state, add further to regional instability.

  6. The November 2002 degassing event at Panarea Island (Italy: five months of geochemical monitoring

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    P. L. Rossi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On 3rd November 2002, at about 3 km off-shore of Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy, a series of gas vents suddenly and violently opened from the seafloor at the depth of 10-15 m, with an unusually high gas flux and superimposing on the already existing submarine fumarolic field. Starting from the 12th November 2002 a discontinuous geochemical monitoring program was carried out. The emissions consisted in an emulsion whose liquid phase derived from condensation of an uprising vapor phase occurring close to the fluid outlets without significant contamination by seawater. The whole composition of the fluids was basically H2O- and CO2-dominated, with minor amounts of typical «hydrothermal» components (such as H2S, H2, CO and light hydrocarbons, atmospheric-related compounds, and characterized by the occurrence of a significant magmatic gas fraction (mostly represented by SO2, HCl and HF. According to the observed temporal variability of the fluid compositions, between November and December 2002 the hydrothermal feeding system was controlled by oxidizing conditions due to the input of magmatic gases. The magmatic degassing phenomena showed a transient nature, as testified by the almost complete disappearance of the magmatic markers in a couple of months and by the restoration, since January 2003, of the chemical features of the existing hydrothermal system. The most striking feature of the evolution of the «Panarea degassing event» was the relatively rapid restoration of the typical reducing conditions of a stationary hydrothermal system, in which the FeO/Fe1.5O redox pair of the rock mineral phases has turned to be the dominating redox controlling system.

  7. Comparison of UVB and UVC irradiation disinfection efficacies on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyraki, A.; Markvart, M.; Nielsen, Anne; Bjarnsholt, T.; Bjørndal, L.; Petersen, P. M.

    2016-04-01

    Disinfection routines are important in all clinical applications. The uprising problem of antibiotic resistance has driven major research efforts towards alternative disinfection approaches, involving light-based solutions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium that can cause skin, soft tissue, lungs, kidney and urinary tract infections. Moreover, it can be found on and in medical equipment causing often cross infections in hospitals. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency, of two different light-based disinfection treatments, namely UVB and UVC irradiation, on P. aeruginosa biofilms at different growth stages. In our experiments a new type of UV light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to deliver UV irradiation on the biofilms, in the UVB (296nm) and UVC (266nm) region. The killing rate was studied as a function of dose for 24h grown biofilms. The dose was ramped from 72J/m2 to 10000J/m2. It was shown that UVB irradiation was more effective than UVC irradiation in inactivating P. aeruginosa biofilms. No colony forming units (CFU) were observed for the UVB treated biofilms when the dose was 10000 J/m2 (CFU in control sample: 7.5 x 104). UVB irradiation at a dose of 20000J/m2 on mature biofilms (72h grown) resulted in a 3.9 log killing efficacy. The fact that the wavelength of 296nm exists in daylight and has such disinfection ability on biofilms gives new perspectives for applications within disinfection at hospitals.

  8. تصاویر الثوار والخارجین عن حکم الأباطرة المغول فی الهند (932-1273هـ/1526-1857م

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    DR. Amal Abdul Salam Al Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the portrayal of the revolutionaries and the outlaws of the Mongol emperors in India, highlighting the most important revolutions and stages of each revolution and how to eliminate them and their main leaders, whether these revolutions inside the Mongol house of the emperor's brothers or cousins or revolutions The leaders of the Mughal army, such as the Uzbek officers' revolutions led by the brothers Ali Qali Khan and Bahadir Khan al-Shaibani, or revolutions that are a popular uprising of the Indian people, the Mongol emperors, Such as the revolution of merahta in the era of the Emperor Orangzip, and research is concerned with the study of the regions in which these revolutions and their geographical nature, such as the province of Bengal and Gujarat, as well as the most important strongholds and fortresses of the rebels such as Fort Sourt and the Castle of Uzbeks, Was carried out by some members of the Mongol house, such as Adham Khan, Akbar's brother Akbar's breast, or Perm Khan, Emperor Akbar's minister, Khan Jahan, the minister of Emperor Shahghan, and other prominent figures in the Mongol court, And of course, through a number of images that illustrated the stages of these revolutions and the way followed by the emperors of the Mongols in the elimination of such revolutions and rebel movements, and through the researcher was able to reach a number of important results through which to know the history of India's political and social history is documented by the affirmation of events and historical and military events

  9. História, arte e política: o muralismo do boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja History, art and politics: the muralism of the Bolivian Miguel Alandia Pantoja

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    Everaldo de Oliveira Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar em que medida arte e política se expressaram na criação e na ação do artista e militante político boliviano Miguel Alandia Pantoja, ativo participante de momentos centrais da História do seu país como a guerra do Chaco, a revolução de 1952 e a Comuna de La Paz de 1971. As influências do indigenismo andino e do muralismo mexicano parecem ter-se cruzado com as opções políticas de Alandia e com seu engajamento na proposta dos artistas ligados ao Manifesto por Uma Arte Revolucionária e Independente lançado por André Breton, Diego Rivera e Leon Trotski em 1936, permitindo o surgimento de uma obra original, polêmica e marcante para a História latino-americana.This article intends to evaluate how art and politics are expressed both in the creation and in the action of the Bolivian militant politician Miguel Alandia Pantoja, who was an active participant in decisive moments of his country's history, as the Chaco War, the 1952 Revolution and the Commune of La Paz in 1971. The Andean indigenismo and the Mexican muralist influences seemed to have crossed with Alandia political options and with his enrollment at the proposal made by artists related to the Manifesto for a Revolutionary and Independent Art launched by Andre Breton, Diego Rivera and Leon Trotski in 1936, allowing the uprising of an original and controversial artistic creation for Latin American history.

  10. Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    In this discussion of Hungary, attention is directed to the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations between the US and Hungary. In 1985 the population totaled 10.7 million with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate is 20.2/1000 live births; life expectancy is 66 years for men and 73.2 years for women. Hungary was a monarchy for almost 1000 years. Its constitutional parliamentary system preceded, by several centuries, the establishment of such Western-style governments in other East European countries. A communist dictatorship seized power in May/June 1947. The Hungarian uprising of 1956, although forcibly suppressed by Soviet armed intervention, gave impetus to long overdue changes and clearly demonstrated the popular will for national identity and internal reform. With the exception of various small businesses with few employees, all economic activity is run by state-owned enterprises or cooperatives. Agriculture has been collectivized. Hungary has rich bauxite mines and provides for most of its coal and natural gas requirements. Introduction of the "new economic mechanism" in 1968 ushered in a period of rapid growth, accompanied by equilibrium in the balance of trade. Yet, in the early 1970s a number of factors combined to blunt the reform effort, and in 1977 government leaders recognized the need for a new reform effort. Hungary is highly dependent on foreign trade, about 50% of which is with other communist countries. Except for the brief and unsuccessful attempt in November 1956 to establish a position and course of neutrality for Hungary, the foreign policy of the Hungarian government has followed closely the Soviet Union since 1947. In recent years, US/Hungarian relations have featured a steady exchange of official visits.

  11. The Shale Gas potential of Lower Carboniferous Sediments in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschke, D.; Mihailovic, A.; Schulz, H., -M.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organic-rich Carboniferous sediments are proven source rocks for conventional gas systems in NW Europe and are likely gas shale candidates. Within the framework of GeoEnergie, an initiative to strengthen scientific excellence, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the influence of palaeogeography and basin dynamics on sedimentology and diagenesis is being investigated. Our aim is to unravel the evolution of shale gas-relevant properties which control gas prospectivity and production parameters like porosity, brittleness, etc. for the Lower Carboniferous in Germany. Northern Germany is underlain by thick, mudstone-bearing Carboniferous successions with a wide range of thermal maturities. Some of these mudstone horizons are rich in organic carbon which is either of marine and/or terrigenous origin. During the Carboniferous deposition of fine-grained, TOC-rich basinal sediments changed into shallow marine to paralic siliciclastic sediments (carbonates during the Lower Carboniferous) in the north, and grade into coarse-grained sediments close to the uprising Variscan mountains in the south. As a result different architectural elements including TOC-rich fine-grained sediments like basinal shales, fine-grained parts of turbidites, and shallow marine mudstones occur in both the Lower and the Upper Carboniferous section. A high shale gas potential occurs in basinal shales of Namurian age with marine organic material and TOC contents of up to 8 % (Rhenish Alum Shales). Such sediments with thermal maturities between 1.3 to 3.0 % vitrinite reflectance and sufficient quartz contents occur in wide areas of present-day Central European Basins System (CEBS), and are at favourable depth for shale gas exploration predominantly along the southern CEBS margin.

  12. Scientific Drilling in a Central Italian Volcanic District

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    Paola Montone

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Colli Albani Volcanic District, located 15 km SE of Rome (Fig. 1, is part of the Roman Magmatic Province, a belt of potassic to ultra-potassic volcanic districts that developed along the Tyrrhenian Sea margin since Middle Pleistocene time (Conticelli and Peccerillo, 1992; Marra et al., 2004; Giordano et al., 2006 and references therein. Eruption centers are aligned along NW-SE oriented majorextensional structures guiding the dislocation of Meso-Cenozoic siliceous-carbonate sedimentary successions at the rear of the Apennine belt. Volcanic districts developed in structural sectors with most favorable conditions for magma uprise. In particular, the Colli Albani volcanism is located in a N-S shear zone where it intersects the extensional NW- and NE-trending fault systems. In the last decade, geochronological measurements allowed for reconstructions of the eruptive history and led to the classification as "dormant" volcano. The volcanic history may be roughly subdivided into three main phases marked by different eruptive mechanisms andmagma volumes. The early Tuscolano-Artemisio Phase (ca. 561–351 ky, the most explosive and voluminous one, is characterized by five large pyroclastic flow-forming eruptions. After a ~40-ky-long dormancy, a lesser energetic phase of activity took place (Faete Phase; ca. 308–250 ky, which started with peripheral effusive eruptions coupled with subordinate hydromagmatic activity. A new ~50-ky-long dormancypreceded the start of the late hydromagmatic phase (ca. 200–36 ky, which was dominated by pyroclastic-surge eruptions, with formation of several monogenetic or multiple maars and/or tuff rings.

  13. A study of the effects of pinealectomy on intestinal cell proliferation in infant newborn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalio Marcelo Belini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study the proliferation rate of jejunum and large intestine crypt epithelial cells, in rats pinealectomized immediately after borning. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: Acute group (n=12 and Chronic group (n=12. Six animals of each group were operated for removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy-PnX, and other six were controls (sham pinealectomy-C. Animals from acute and chronic group were sacrificed 15 and 90 days after the surgery, respectively. RESULTS: In acute group, pinealectomy of new-born rats has not caused significant alteration in cell proliferation (PnX=58,77?1,77 and C=60,88?1,10 in the descending colon/ PnX=31,56?0,45 and C=31,73?0,47 in the proximal jejunum and in crypt cell population (PnX=24,92?4,82 and C=23,60?2,48 in the descending colon/ PnX=39,92?3,49 and C=44,32?5,56 in the proximal jejunum. However, in chronic group there was an uprising crypt cell production per crypt in the proximal jejunum (PnX=57,54?2,19 and C=47,19?7,3and in the descending colon (PnX=37,78?2,22 and C=17,92?2,28. CONCLUSION: As the increase of intestinal crypts epithelial cells in chronic group is a carcinogenesis predetermining factor, the understanding of the interaction between pineal gland and this event has great importance.

  14. Probiotic Yogurt Culture Bifidobacterium Animalis Subsp. Lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus Acidophilus LA-5 Modulate the Cytokine Secretion by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, A; Shakerian, M; Giti, H; Baghaeifar, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Ghaed, V; Heibor, M R; Baharifar, N; Dadafarin, Z; Bashirpour, G

    2016-06-01

    There are some evidences for the immunomodulation disorders in the response to intestinal microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease. Yogurt is a fermented milk product made with a starter culture consisting of different probiotics which could be colonized in intestine. However, the role of probiotics in the aetiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been clarified. To determine how the immune system responds to these bacteria this study was planned. Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (B. lactis) and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (L. acidophilus) were cultivated on MRS broth. PBMCs of 36 UC patients were separated by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation and co-cultured with different concentrations of UV killed bacteria in RPMI-1 640 plus 10% FCS for 48/72 h. IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured in supernatant of PBMCs by ELISA. Both bacteria significantly augmented IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α compared to control (p<0.001). The secretion levels of IL-10 and TGF-β by B. lactis- compared to L. acidophilus-stimulated PBMCs were significantly higher (p<0.05, p<0.01 respectively). The secretion levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ by PBMCs after 72 h were significantly lower compared to 48 h stimulation by B. lactis (p<0.001, p<0.035 respectively). These data show that both probiotics may trigger the pro- and anti-inflammatory immune response of UC patients. It seems that IL-10/TGF-β uprising by B. lactis could be the reason of TNF-α/IFN-γ reduction. Therefore albeit B. lactis still stimulates the effector Th cells but because of more stimulatory effect on Tregs, it could be a good potential therapeutic candidate for further investigation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

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    Mahin Arab

    2014-08-01

    Old Testament Mashih (Messiah means the anointed one by God and is the one who has been exposed to the spirit of Yahweh and this virtue has equipped him with all qualities which are necessary for an ideal king of Israel "the spirit of God will perch on that branch, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of council and power, the spirit of knowledge of Yahweh and fear of him." (Isaiah, 2: 11. Mashih recalls a Savior of political taste. According to Jews, when Messiah rises the kingdom of heaven becomes established on earth and all nations return to Jerusalem (Isaiah, 14: 45 and the golden age of Jewish rule over the world begins. Thus Jewish taking of the Promised is ethnically motivated whose main concern is reclaiming the dominance and prosperity of Jews and it is less concerned with spiritual salvation. Although this Savior is of a Jewish origin but since his personal qualities are not decided then it is impersonal and void of divinity.    Christianity: the idea of the Promised has revealed itself in Christianity in three forms: first in the form of Jesus of Nazareth who plays the role of Savior and fulfills the expectations; second, in the form of "Judge of worlds" who will reveal himself when Jesus returns to the earth at the Day of Judgment as he once left there (Acts, 1: 11. And third, in the form of a man whose advent is announced by Jesus Christ and is described as the "source of consolation" and "spirit of honesty" who will bless Jesus and approve him (John, 14: 17. Accordingly, Christianity contains three versions of the Promised idea.    According to the previously mentioned typology, the first countenance of the Savior in Christianity, i.e. Jesus as Messiah in the New Testament, not only does not indicate the occurrence of a social uprising for establishing a government or spiritual refinement of people but rather the Savior in this sense undergoes a severe agony to relieve humanity from the burden of original sin (Acts, 8: 32. This

  16. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Arab

    2014-09-01

    Old Testament Mashih (Messiah means the anointed one by God and is the one who has been exposed to the spirit of Yahweh and this virtue has equipped him with all qualities which are necessary for an ideal king of Israel "the spirit of God will perch on that branch, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of council and power, the spirit of knowledge of Yahweh and fear of him." (Isaiah, 2: 11. Mashih recalls a Savior of political taste. According to Jews, when Messiah rises the kingdom of heaven becomes established on earth and all nations return to Jerusalem (Isaiah, 14: 45 and the golden age of Jewish rule over the world begins. Thus Jewish taking of the Promised is ethnically motivated whose main concern is reclaiming the dominance and prosperity of Jews and it is less concerned with spiritual salvation. Although this Savior is of a Jewish origin but since his personal qualities are not decided then it is impersonal and void of divinity.    Christianity: the idea of the Promised has revealed itself in Christianity in three forms: first in the form of Jesus of Nazareth who plays the role of Savior and fulfills the expectations; second, in the form of "Judge of worlds" who will reveal himself when Jesus returns to the earth at the Day of Judgment as he once left there (Acts, 1: 11. And third, in the form of a man whose advent is announced by Jesus Christ and is described as the "source of consolation" and "spirit of honesty" who will bless Jesus and approve him (John, 14: 17. Accordingly, Christianity contains three versions of the Promised idea.    According to the previously mentioned typology, the first countenance of the Savior in Christianity, i.e. Jesus as Messiah in the New Testament, not only does not indicate the occurrence of a social uprising for establishing a government or spiritual refinement of people but rather the Savior in this sense undergoes a severe agony to relieve humanity from the burden of original sin (Acts, 8: 32. This

  17. Petrogenesis and origin of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous magmatism in Central High Atlas (Morocco): Major, trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd) constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaifi, Abderrahim; Zayane, Rachid

    2018-01-01

    island basalt source. Melting of the subcontinental metasomatized lithosphere is tentatively related to small-scale shallow mantle upwelling and asthenospheric uprise at the triple junction between the western High Atlas, the Middle Atlas and the eastern High Atlas domains during a period of relative tectonic quiescence.

  18. Deep magmatism alters and erodes lithosphere and facilitates decoupling of Rwenzori crustal block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Herbert; Schmeling, Harro

    2013-04-01

    The title is the answer to the initiating question "Why are the Rwenzori Mountains so high?" posed at the EGU 2008. Our motivation origins in the extreme topography of the Rwenzori Mountains. The strong, cold proterozoic crustal horst is situated between rift segments of the western branch of the East African Rift System. Ideas of rift induced delamination (RID) and melt induced weakening (MIW) have been tested with one- and two-phase flow physics. Numerical model parameter variations and new observations lead to a favoured model with simple and plausible definitions. Results coincide in the scope of their comparability with different observations or vice versa reduce ambiguity and uncertainties in model input. Principle laws of the thermo-mechanical physics are the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and composition for a two-phase (matrix-melt) system with nonlinear rheology. A simple solid solution model determines melting and solidification under consideration of depletion and enrichment. The Finite Difference Method with markers is applied to visco-plastic flow using the streamfunction in an Eulerian formulation in 2D. The Compaction Boussinesq and the high Prandtl number Approximation are employed. Lateral kinematic boundary conditions provide long-wavelength asthenospheric upwelling and extensional stress conditions. Partial melts are generated in the asthenosphere, extracted above a critical fraction, and emplaced into a given intrusion level. Temperature anomalies positioned beneath the future rifts, the sole specialization to the Rwenzori situation, localize melts which are very effective in weakening the lithosphere. Convection patterns tend to generate dripping instabilities at the lithospheric base; multiple slabs detach and distort uprising asthenosphere; plumes migrate, join and split. In spite of appearing chaotic flow behaviour a characteristic recurrence time of high velocity events (drips, plumes) emerges. Chimneys of increased

  19. NILAI-NILAI PENDIDIKAN PADA PEMBERONTAKAN RAKYAT SUMATERA BARAT PADA AWAL TAHUN 1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Bain

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Each incident in history contain high values that can be taken and utilized as the guidance for the next generation to be the guide for their life in the future. The history lesson will become really significant if each history teacher always invest the values of education from each kind of history material that is taught to the pupil. The West Sumatera riot revolt at the beginning of 1927 at least contain three values of education that that is good to be socialized to students, firstly, the disintegration of the West Sumatera community contain the value of the importance of the spirit of unity, secondly, authoritarianism the colonial Dutch government in undertaking his authority in West Sumatera contain the value of democracy of the importance of social, political, economic and cultural life, thirdly, tactics of Indonesian Communist Party in inciting the West Sumatera community to carry out the revolt show us the importance of the value of vigilance towards the disturbance and the threat to himself, the community, the nation.   Keywords:, values ​​education, historical events, popular uprising   Setiap kejadian dalam sejarah mengandung nilai-nilai yang tinggi untuk diambil dan memanfaatkan sebagai pedoman bagi generasi berikutnya sebagai panduan untuk hidup mereka di masa depan. Pelajaran sejarah akan menjadi benar-benar signifikan jika setiap guru sejarah selalu menanamkan nilai pendidikan dari materi sejarah yang diajarkan kepada murid. Pemberontakan rakyat di Sumatera Barat pada awal tahun 1927 setidaknya mengandung tiga nilai-nilai pendidikan yang yang baik sebagai bahan pelajaran dan internalisasi nilai murid-murid, pertama, disintegrasi masyarakat Sumatera Barat mengandung nilai pentingnya persatuan, dua, otoritarianisme pemerintah kolonial Belanda dalam melaksanakan kekuasaannya di Sumatera Barat mengandung nilai pentingnya demokrasi dalam kehidupan sosial, politik, ekonomi dan budaya, tiga, taktik PKI dalam menghasut

  20. INTERNATIONAL BIOMASS TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Catalin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crystal clear that the neoclassical economical theory, despite being probably the best growth model ever invented by man, tickled a cost of environmental degradation which can threaten our wealth and even our existence. For this reason, the concept of sustainable development (SD is so empathic, being considered probably the best theoretical alternative invented by man to standard growth, because of its vision of a better world, where economics, society and environment are intimately linked. Thus, all human activities have to adapt to this new paradigm, in order to achieve its goals. From the economical perspective, production, consumption and trade must incorporate a kind of sustainable type of activity. In the recent years, growing demands in energy use and the increase of oil and coal prices, have led to the usage of new energy sources such as biomass, water, solar, wind and geothermal energy. This is why we propose in this paper to present an overview of international trade in biomass reported to the philosophy of SD. In short, we want to give an answer at two questions: how much is biomass trade sustainable and what risks may arise if the main source of energy used today, based on fossil fuels, will be totally substitute by biomass? To be sustainable, biomass, must meet certain criteria, such as: to possess a high capacity for regeneration, in a relatively short time; to offer a better efficiency compared with the traditional fossil fuel sources; to be less or non-polluting, to be used in solid, liquid and gaseous form; to have a broad applicability in production and consumption; to have a competitive level in terms of costs and prices for transport or storage, in both stages, as a raw material or as a finished product; to be a good substitute of traditional fuels (gasoline or diesel, without the necessity for structural changes of the of the engine. The article will conclude that the uprising trend of the EU biomass trade and

  1. GREAT REBELLION OF 1916 in KYRGYZ: URKÜN 1916 KIRGIZ BÜYÜK İSYANI: ÜRKÜN

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    Füsun KARA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The revolution in 1916 was one of the biggest tragedies in the politics of the Russian Empire was to have Kyrgyzstan as its colony. For instance, the best places were given to russians, local people were forced to move to rural area. The main reason was a call for men into Russia’s Central Asian colonies to serve in the Tsarist army fighting in World war I. The first uprising was in Khojent on july 4 th 1916 and the movement spread to other parts of Turkestan. Kyrgyz Turks were killed by the Russian forces and settlers. Kyrgyz population from the North of the country were killed. And another 120.000 fled across the border to China 1916 İsyanı Kırgız tarihinin en büyük trajedilerinden biridir. Bu olay Kırgızistan’da Ürkün olarak bilinir. Rus İmparatorluğu Kırgızistan’da koloni politikası uygulamıştır. En iyi yerler Ruslara verilmiş yerli halk kendi toprağından edilerek kırsal alanlara göç ettirilmiştir. Ayaklanmanın temel nedeni ise I. Dünya Savaşında Çarlığın Rusya’nın geri hizmetlerinde çalışmak üzere Türkistanlıları çağırması olmuştur. Ayaklanma 4 Temmuz 1916’da Hocent’te başlamıştır daha sonra Türkistan’ın diğer kısımlarına yayılmıştır. Kırgız Türkleri Rus askerleri ve Rus yerleşimciler tarafından öldürülmüştür. Ülkenin kuzeyindeki ayaklanmacılar öldürülmüş diğer 120 bini Çine kaçmıştır.

  2. Field investigation with regard to the impermeability of clay formations. Helium-4 soil gas surveys in sedimentary basins as a tentative study of secondary permeability in clayey sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, S.; Benvegnu, F.; Brondi, A.; Polizzano, C.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with a tentative study for the detection of the secondary permeability in clayey formations conducted in several sedimentary basins in Central Italy, by means of geochemical methods. The main purposes are: to try a geochemical method, based on the distribution of deep origin gases in soil gas ( 4 He and 222 Rn), to detect buried fault systems and to study the permeability of clay as a potential migration pathway for nuclides of radioactive waste deposits; to verify the effectiveness of this method for the selection of suitable sites for radwaste disposal. This research programme consists in a collaboration between ENEA and the University of Rome within the communitarian programme for the disposal of high level and long-live radwaste. Investigations concerned sedimentary basins filled by sand-clay formations 1000-2000 meters thick and characterized by different tectonic: Era and Chiani-Paglia Valleys (Tuscany and North Latium), structural trenches due to extensive tectonics along the tyrrhenian edge, and Vasto region, a basin in the 'Adriatic foretrench', characterized by compressive tectonics. The investigated areas are near or directly correspond to geothermal fields or to hydrocarbon reservoirs supplying gases which may migrate upward along fractures. Almost 4000 soil gas samples were collected in the three surveyed areas; the sampling density was of about 1.5 points / km 2 , normally used in the regional scale surveys. The obtained results show that the observed helium anomalies are distributed or elongated according to the main tectonic features of the substratum (fault systems, fractures, deep structures); the magnitude of anomalies seems to correlate with the nature of the deep gas reservoir (i.e. oil in Vasto), geothermal reservoir in the Paglia valley. These observations seem to confirm that the presence of deep origin gases in soils is controlled by tectonics. Clay thickness does not significantly control the uprising of deep gases: in

  3. Attention for pediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ming; Cheng Yongde

    2005-01-01

    Radiological interventions possess wide utilization in the diagnosis and treatment for pediatric patients. Pediatric interventional radiology is an important branch of interventional radiology and also an important branch of pediatric radiology. Pediatric interventional radiology has grown substantially over the last 30 years, radiologists closely cooperation with surgeons and other physicians providing a new horizon in the management of pediatric diseases in western countries. It includes pediatric cardiac interventional radiology, pediatric neuro-interventional radiology, pediatric vascular interventional radiology, pediatric nonvascular interventional radiology, pediatric tumor interventional radiology and others. In the United States, every children hospital which owns two hundred beds has to have special trained interventional radiologists in radiologic department installing with advanced digital subtraction angiographic equipment. Interventional therapeutic procedures and diagnostic angiography have been proceeding more and more for the congenital and acquired diseases of children. The promising results give use uprising and interventional therapy as an alternative or a replacement or supplement to surgical operation. Pediatric interventional radiology is rather underdeveloped in China with a few special pediatric interventional radiologist, lack of digital subtraction angiography equipment. Pediatric radiologists have no enough field for interventional procedures such as pediatric neuro-interventional radiology and pediatric vascular interventional radiology. In the contrary adult interventional radiologists do have better interventional jobs in China and Pediatric cardiologists also share the same trend. They perform angiocardiography for congenital heart diseases and treat congenital heart disease with interventional procedures including balloon dilation of valves and vessels, coil embolization of collaterals, patent ducts and other arterial fistulae

  4. Memoria 'da longa noite de pedra': la represión franquista en Ourense (1936-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Prada Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia el proceso de gestación de la sublevación militar de julio de 1936 en la provincia de Ourense y la represión que le sigue. Se destaca, en primer lugar, la temprana implicación de los elementos civiles y militares en el intento de golpe de febrero de 1936, demostrando así la falsedad de las tesis que ven en aquélla una respuesta a la violencia política de la etapa de la etapa del Frente Popular. Seguidamente se analizan la toma del poder y las particularidades de las dos grandes modalidades represivas en la provincia: la represión para legal y la institucionalizada. La identidad de actores, víctimas y objetivos permite concluir la existencia de un único proceso represivo dirigido a garantizar la imposición de un nuevo orden político y social mediante la eliminación física de todo aquel que representase un peligro para su consolidación. Represión, franquismo, sublevación militar, Ourense._________________________ABSTRACT:This article deals with the gestation process of July 1936 military uprising in the Ourense and the repression which comes after it. First, it emphasizes the early implication of the civilian and military elements in the coup d''état attempt of February 1936, demonstrating the falseness of theories which interpret this implication as an answer to the political violence of the period of Frente Popular. Next, the particularities of two great repressive modalities in the province are analyzed: the so called para-legal and the institutional repression. The identification of actors, victims and aims allows the author to deduce the existence of a unique repressive process designed to guarantee the imposition of a new political and social system through the physical elimination of anybody which endangers his consolidation.

  5. Critiques of World-Systems Analysis and Alternatives: Unequal Exchange and Three Forms of Class and Struggle in the Japan–US Silk Network, 1880–1890

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    Elson E. Boles

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic critics of world-system analysis contend that its systemic level of abstraction results in one-sided generalizations of systemic change. Unequal exchange theory and commodity chain analysis similarly reduce distinct and historical forms of labor and their interrelationships to common functional and ahistorical essences. This paper applies an incorporated comparisons method to give historical content to an understanding of unequal exchange and global inequality through a study of the Japan–US silk network’s formation and change during the mid 1880–1890s. Analysis of unequal exchange processes requires, in this case, an examination of the mutual integration and transformation of distinct labor and value forms —peasant sericulture, ?lature wage-labor, and industrial silk factory wage-labor—and the infundibular market forces they structured. These relations were decisively conditioned by new landlordism and debt-peonage, class-patriarchy, state mediations, migration, and by peasant and worker struggles against deteriorating conditions. Indeed, the transitional nature of the silk network’s formation, which concluded the Tokugawa system and decisively contributed to Japan’s emergence as a nation-state of the capitalist world-economy, was signi?ed by the very last millenarian and quasi-modern peasant uprising in 1884 among indebted sericulturists, the very ?rst recorded factory strikes in 1885–86, by women raw silk reelers in K?fu, and by strikes among unionizing workers in patriarchal and mechanized silk factories in Paterson, New Jersey, 1885–86 (Boles 1996, 1998. The “local” conditions of each con?ict were molded by the interdependence of those conditions that constituted a formative part of the world-system and its development. In the face of struggles and intensifying world-market competition, Japanese and US manufacturers took opposite spatial strategies of regional expansion to overcome the structural constraints of

  6. Spinel and plagioclase peridotites of the Nain ophiolite (Central Iran): Evidence for the incipient stage of oceanic basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnia, Tahmineh; Saccani, Emilio; Arai, Shoji

    2018-06-01

    The Nain ophiolites crop out along the western border of the central East Iran Microcontinent (CEIM) and consist of an ophiolitic mélange in which pargasite-bearing spinel and plagioclase mantle lherzolites are largely represented. Whole-rock and mineral chemistry data suggest that these rocks record the complex history of the asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle evolution. The spinel lherzolites have experienced low-degree ( 5%) partial melting and contain clinopyroxenes with positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.10-1.48) suggesting that the partial melting occurred under oxidized conditions (fayalite-magnetite-quartz -0.8 to +1.3). The pargasite and coexisting clinopyroxene in these rocks are depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) (mean chondrite-normalized CeN/SmN = 0.045). The depleted chemistry of this amphibole reflects metasomatism during interaction with H2O-rich subalkaline mafic melts, most likely concurrently with or after the partial melting of the spinel lherzolites. The plagioclase lherzolites were subsequently formed by the subsolidus recrystallization of spinel lherzolites under plagioclase facies conditions as a result of mantle uprising, as evidenced by: (1) the development of plagioclase rims around the spinels; (2) plagioclase + orthopyroxene exsolution textures within some clinopyroxene grains; (3) an increase in plagioclase modal content coupled with an increase in modal olivine and a decrease in modal pyroxene and pargasite; (4) coincident decreases in Al, Mg, and Ni, and increases in Cr, Ti, and Fe in spinel, as well as decreases in Al and Ca, and increases in Cr and Ti in pyroxene and pargasite; and (5) the identical whole rock compositions of the spinel and plagioclase lherzolites, which rules out a magmatic origin for the plagioclase in these units. The Nain lherzolites have similar whole-rock and mineral geochemical compositions to subcontinental peridotites that are typically representative of Iberia-type rifted continental margins

  7. Nubarrones y tormentas sobre la sierra zapoteca: luchas de poder en San Juan Yasona (1674-1707

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    Calvo, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is based on the judicial archives from the rich Alcaldía Mayor of Villa Alta, where almost a hundred towns used to manufacture blankets and grana. Among these comunities, the one called Yasona —known as Yatzona nowadays— is practically unknown in the documentation before 1674 and after 1707. In this short period of time a number of tensions and crisis emerged, both internally and regionally. The main nobles (caciques from Yasona led two bands, manipulating rudimentary forms of democracy, angainst and pro traditions, the Church and the authority of the Mayor. From Yasona they tried to confederate the politic oposition and embroiled the Royal Court of Justice (Audiencia of Mexico in their play with the mechanism of the real provisions. The tragic uprising of Cajonos in 1700 and the actions of the state authorities thereafter put an end to this situation, and Yasona was reincorporated to the pax hispanica...

    La investigación se apoya en el archivo judicial de la rica alcaldia mayor de Villa Alta, donde cerca de un centenar de pueblos producían mantas y grana. Entre estas comunidades, la de Yasona —hoy Yatzona— resulta casi totalmente desconocida en la documentación antes de 1674 y después de 1707. Pero en ese corto periodo se pone de manifiesto toda una serie de tensiones y crisis, tanto a nivel interno como regional. Los principales nobles (caciques de Yasona toman la cabeza de dos bandos, manipulando formas rudimentarias de democracia, en pro y en contra de las tradiciones, de la Iglesia y de la autoridad del alcalde mayor. Desde Yasona tratan de confederar la oposición politicae involucran a la audiencia de México en su juego con el mecanismo de las reales provisiones. Con la trágica revuelta de Cajonos en 1700 y la posterior actuación de las autoridades estatales, todo queda sesgado, y Yasona se reincorpora a la pax hispanica…

  8. The Rise and Fall of Liberal Peace in Libya

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    Siyum Adugna Mamo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2011 “Arab Uprising”, liberal elements were haunting in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya – countries which experienced the uprising at its early stage. The liberal elements triggered the youth particularly in Libya to boldly oppose their long-serving Libyan president, Muammar Qaddafi. In what followed, the West not only interfered to help the rebels and become involved in a direct military intervention in the guise of humanitarian intervention, it also tried to install a liberal peace in the process of state reconstruction and peacebuilding in the aftermath of the revolution that ousted Qaddafi. The intervention had an implicit agenda of regime change and installing liberal peace in post-Qaddafi Libya. However, the intervention descended the country into a protracted civil war that the country has been suffering from for more than six years after the downfall of Qaddafi, instead of bringing peace and stability to the Libyans. The liberal peace that was rising during the revolution and immediately after the fall of Qaddafi through the liberal ideals that triggered the Libyan revolutionaries ruptured as the country descended into protracted civil war among different factions due to Western intervention. The aim of this desk research is therefore to unpack the rise and fall of liberal peace in Libya. Employing discussion of the debate over liberal peace in Libya as a core methodological analysis, this paper argues that the liberal peace that the West attempted to install in the country failed mainly because it was rooted in hegemonic liberal values, which are incompatible with Libyan tribal society, and disregarded the indigenous peacebuilding mechanisms. This paper concludes that liberal peace, which privileges the international over the local, is irreconcilable with post-conflict environments in the Global South and hence was unable to solve the Libyan crises. Therefore, emphasis should be given to indigenous peacebuilding

  9. Nuevo modelo matemático para la distribución de carga en el horno alto

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    Jiménez, J.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for burden distribution in the blast furnace, has been developed. A set of operational variables related with the charging system (Paul Wurth plus other parameters related with the burden itself, such as ore and coke repose angles, weights discharged and the effect of the uprising gas, have been taken into account. These data are processed by modern computer tools. As a result, the burden distribution inside the blast furnace is obtained. Every time that a charge is added to the blast furnace, the model updates the burden distribution. The approach employed is based on considering each burden layer described by a set of interrelated polynomials. It has been tested comparing its results with burden layers obtained in a physical model of the blast furnace (scale 1/10. After installation in Aceralia blast furnace B control computers, the model is currently being employed as a tool for process control.

    El modelo matemático desarrollado describe la distribución de carga en el tragante de un horno alto. Se ha empleado un conjunto de variables operacionales relacionadas con el sistema de carga (Paul Wurth, junto con otras obtenidas de la carga, tales como el peso descargado, los ángulos de reposo de los materiales y el efecto del gas al atravesar el horno. Estos datos se procesan mediante herramientas informáticas. Como resultado, se obtiene la distribución de carga en el horno. Cada vez que se introduce una carga, el modelo actualiza la distribución. La aproximación empleada considera el perfil de cada capa de carga, el cual está descrito por un conjunto de polinomios interrelacionados. Los resultados se comparan con la distribución obtenida en un modelo físico del horno (escala 1/10. Tras su instalación en los ordenadores de proceso del horno alto B de Aceralia, el modelo se emplea actualmente para el control del mismo.

  10. Zonation of High Disaster Potential Communities for Remote Mountainous Areas in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chang, Chwen-Ming; Chen, Jing-Wen; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Lu, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hui-Wen

    2017-04-01

    . The greater the slope land disturbance, the more likely the scale of secondary landslide uprises. The results of the map for the zonation of high-disaster potential communities can be a useful reference for the government to plan strategies on adaptation to climate change for remote mountainous communities in southern Taiwan.

  11. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The composition and metal concentration of hydrothermal fluids venting at the seafloor is strongly temperature-dependent and fluids above 300°C are required to transport metals to the seafloor (Hannington et al. 2010). Ore-forming hydrothermal systems and high temperature vents in general are often associated with faults and fracture zones, i.e. zones of enhanced permeabilities that act as channels for the uprising hydrothermal fluid (Heinrich & Candela, 2014). Previous numerical models (Jupp and Schultz, 2000; Andersen et al. 2015) however have shown that high permeabilities tend to decrease fluid flow temperatures due to mixing with cold seawater and the resulting high fluid fluxes that lead to short residence times of the fluid near the heat source. A possible mechanism to reduce the permeability and thereby to focus high temperature fluid flow are mineral precipitation reactions that clog the pore space. Anhydrite for example precipitates from seawater if it is heated to temperatures above ~150°C or due to mixing of seawater with hydrothermal fluids that usually have high Calcium concentrations. We have implemented anhydrite reactions (precipitation and dissolution) in our finite element numerical models of hydrothermal circulation. The initial results show that the precipitation of anhydrite efficiently alters the permeability field, which affects the hydrothermal flow field as well as the resulting vent temperatures. C. Andersen et al. (2015), Fault geometry and permeability contrast control vent temperatures at the Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Geology, 43(1), 51-54. M. D. Hannington et al. (2010), Modern Sea-Floor Massive Sulfides and Base Metal Resources: Toward an Estimate of Global Sea-Floor Massive Sulfide Potential, in The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Innovative Exploration, and New Discoveries, edited by R. J. Goldfarb, E. E. Marsh and T. Monecke, pp. 317-338, Society of Economic Geologists

  12. Serbs in education during the Turkish government

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    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present opportunities cultural educational social policy and the Serbian people during the Turkish government. The intention is also to investigate the extent and level of education - literacy through the process of learning, reading, writing and acquiring new knowledge. The paper will also be discussed and the impact of other counters and their schools (Russia, Germany, Greece on the entire educational system in Serbia in the Serbian education period. Legal regulation and development of spiritual awareness and desire for literacy, will also find its place in this paper. Based on all the foregoing, it follows that the literacy during the Ottoman rule was very limited, and that the small number and percentage of population of certain social groups (nobility, clergy. There fore education was meager and insignificant, that and that, as concept, was reduced to literacy. Also, the church was the meeting place of all those who strove for literacy, and together with the monasteries of the first and only school in which they were taught reading and writing. During the First Serbian Uprising, except churches, the need for some kind of education begins to have, and government or authority which forms a first and basic institution of society. Looking at the wider development of literacy in Serbia can be concluded that education had its ups and downs, which are periodically changed depending on the social and political conditionally. Thus, at the close of the Middle Ages to the territorial possession of Despot Stefan Lazarevic (1389-1427 and its owner George Brankovic (1427-1456, with constant theats to the Turkish conquest occurred one interesting moment. Thjere is still an independent country, and despite the double vassalage to Turkey and Hungary, has seen a tumultuous economy and education rise, which was also the basis for the rise of Serbia culture. In the Serbian despots then we come to real cult of art and education, as earlier

  13. Hydrodynamic influence on reservoir sustainability in semi-arid climate: A physicochemical and environmental isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rawaa; Kazpard, Véronique; El Samrani, Antoine G; Amacha, Nabil; Saad, Zeinab; Chou, Lei

    2017-07-15

    Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. The particularity of the semi-arid climate and the diverse topography generate a continental and orographic rain effect on the isotopic composition of precipitation and the water recharged sources. The studied reservoir responds quickly to land-use activities and climatic changes as reflected by temporal and spatial variations of water chemistry and isotopic composition. Increasing changes in precipitation rate and dry periods significantly modified the water isotopic composition in the reservoir. During the first year, hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotopes are depleted by 6 and 2‰ between dry and wet season, respectively. While a shift of -2‰ for δD and -1‰ for δ 18 O was detected during the second annual cycle. Environmental isotopic compositions demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of groundwater inflow to the central (Cz) and dam (Dz) zones of the Qaraaoun reservoir. The Cz and Dz can be considered as open water bodies subjected to dilution by groundwater inflow, which induces vertical mixing and reverse isotopic stratification of the water column. In the contrary, the river mouth zone acts as a closed system without groundwater intrusion, where heavy water accumulates and may act as a sink for contaminants during dry season. Groundwater influx acts as a dilution factor that renews the hypolimnion, and minimizes the perturbations induced by both internal

  14. 3D Gravity Inversion by Growing Bodies and Shaping Layers at Mt. Vesuvius (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrino, Giovanna; Camacho, Antonio G.

    2008-06-01

    To improve our knowledge of the structural pattern of Mt. Vesuvius and its magmatic system, which represents one of the three volcanoes located in the Neapolitan area (together with Campi Flegrei and Ischia; southern Italy), we analyze here the Bouguer gravity map that is already available through its interpretation by means of 2.5-dimensional modelling. We have carried out a three-dimensional interpretation using a new and original algorithm, known as ‘Layers’, that has been especially processed for this purpose. Layers works in an automatic and non-subjective way, and allows the definition of the structural settings in terms of several layers, each representing a specific geological formation. The same data are also interpreted in terms of isolated and shallow anomalous density bodies using a well tested algorithm known as ‘Growth’. We focus our inversions on the Mt. Vesuvius volcano, while globally analyzing the entire Neapolitan area, in order to investigate the deep structures, and in particular the deep extended ‘sill’ that has been revealed by seismic tomography. The final models generally confirm the global setting of the area as outlined by previous investigations, mainly for the shape and depth of the carbonate basement below Mt. Vesuvius. The presence of lateral density contrasts inside the volcano edifice is also shown, which was only hypothesized in the 2.5-dimensional inversion. Moreover, the models allow us to note a high density body that rises from the top of the carbonate basement and further elongates above sea level. This probably represents an uprising of the same basement, which is just below the volcano and which coincides with the VP and VP/VS anomalies detected under the crater. The three-dimensional results also reveal that the two inversion methods provide very similar models, where the high density isolated body in the Growth model can be associated with the rising high density anomaly in the Layers model. Taking into account

  15. A geothermal resource in the Puna plateau (Jujuy Province, Argentina): New insights from the geochemistry of thermal fluid discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Arnold, Yesica; Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Caffe, Pablo; Vaselli, Orlando

    2017-04-01

    Several hydrothermal mineralization and thermal fluid discharges are distributed in the high altitude Puna plateau at the eastern border of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes in the Jujuy Province, a region where volcanic explosive activity developed from Oligocene-Miocene to Neogene produced giant calderas and huge ignimbrite deposits. This study presents the geochemical and isotopic composition of thermal fluids discharged from Granada, Vilama, Pairique, Coranzulì and Olaroz zones, which are located between S 22°20'- 23°20' and W 66°- 67°. This aim is to provide insights into the physicochemical features of the deep fluid circulating system in order to have a preliminary indication about the geothermal potential in this area. The occurrence of partially mature Na+-Cl- waters suggests that a deep (>5,000 m b.g.l.) hydrothermal reservoir, hosted within the Paleozoic crystalline basement, represents the main fluid source. Regional tectonics, dominated by S-oriented faulting systems that produced a horst and graben tectonics, as well as NE-, NW- and WE-oriented transverse structures, favour the uprising of the deep-originated fluids, including a significant amount (up to 16%) of mantle He. The dry gas phase mainly consists of CO2 mostly produced from subducted C-bearing organic-rich material. The interaction between meteoric water and Cretaceous, Palaeogene to Miocene sediments at shallow depth gives rise to relatively cold Na+-HCO3-type aquifers. Dissolution of evaporitic surficial deposits (salares), produced by the arid climate of the region, strongly affects the chemistry of the thermal springs in the peripheral zones of the study area. Geothermometry in the Na-K-Ca-Mg system suggests equilibrium temperatures up to 200 °C for the deep aquifer, whereas the H2 geothermometer equilibrates at lower temperatures (from 105 to 155 °C), likely corresponding to those of the shallower aquifer. Although the great depth of the main fluid reservoir represents a

  16. The economic impact of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fuente, María; Arruza, Luis; Muro, Marta; Zozaya, Carlos; Avila, Alejandro; López-Ortego, Paloma; González-Armengod, Carmen; Torrent, Alba; Gavilán, Jose Luis; Del Cerro, María Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most serious chronic lung diseases in infancy and one of the most important sequels of premature birth (prevalence of 15-50%). Our objective was to estimate the cost of BPD of one preterm baby, with no other major prematurity-related complications, during the first 2 years of life in Spain. Data from the Spanish Ministry of Health regarding costs of diagnosis-related group of preterm birth, hospital admissions and visits, palivizumab administration, and oxygen therapy in the year 2013 were analyzed. In 2013, 2628 preterm babies were born with a weight under 1500 g; 50.9% were males. The need for respiratory support was 2.5% needed only oxygen therapy, 39.5% required conventional mechanical ventilation, and 14.9% required high-frequency ventilation. The incidence of BPD was of 34.9%. The cost of the first 2 years of life of a preterm baby with BPD and no other major prematurity-related complications ranged between 45,049.81 € and 118,760.43 €, in Spain, depending on birth weight and gestational age. If the baby required home oxygen therapy or developed pulmonary hypertension, this cost could add up to 181,742.43 €. Prematurity and BPD have an elevated cost, even for public health care systems. This cost will probably increase in the coming years if the incidence and survival of preterm babies keeps rising. The development of new therapies and preventive strategies to decrease the incidence of BPD and other morbidities associated with prematurity should be a priority. What is known: • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious chronic lung disease related with premature birth. • BPD is an increasing disease due to the up-rise in the number of premature births. What is new: • The economic cost of preterm birth and BPD has never before been estimated in Spain nor published with European data. • Preterm babies with BPD and a good clinical outcome carry also an important economic and social burden.

  17. Diffuse soil emission of hydrothermal gases (CO2, CH4, and C6H6) at Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, southern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassi, F.; Nisi, B.; Cardellini, C.; Capecchiacci, F.; Donnini, M.; Vaselli, O.; Avino, R.; Chiodini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the first measurements of soil C 6 H 6 fluxes in a volcanic system. • Methane oxidation rate is controlled by soil gas fluxes. • Benzene oxidation rate is controlled by presence of a SO 4 2- rich aquifer. • Fumarolic emissions cause a strong benzene air contamination at a local scale. • Endogenous monoaromatics are detected in air samples from the whole crater. - Abstract: Measurements of soil fluxes of hydrothermal gases, with special emphasis on C 6 H 6 , as well as chemical composition of mono-aromatic compounds in fumaroles and air, were carried out in April 2012 at the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) to investigate the distribution and behavior of these species as they migrate through the soil from their deep source to the atmosphere. Soil fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and C 6 H 6 exhibit good spatial correlation, suggesting that diffuse degassing is mainly controlled by local fractures. The calculated total output of diffuse C 6 H 6 from Solfatara is 0.10 kg day −1 , whereas fluxes of CO 2 and CH 4 are 79 × 10 3 and 1.04 kg day −1 , respectively. A comparison between soil gas fluxes and fumarole composition reveals that within the crater soil CH 4 is significantly affected by oxidation processes, which are more efficient for low gas fluxes, being dependent on the residence time of the uprising hydrothermal gases at shallow depth. Benzene degradation, mainly proceeding through oxidation via benzoate, seems to be strongly controlled by the presence of a shallow SO 4 2- rich aquifer located in the central and southwestern sectors of the crater, suggesting that the process is particularly efficient when SO 4 2- acts as terminal electron acceptor (SO 4 reduction). Relatively high C 6 H 6 /C 7 H 8 ratios, typical of hydrothermal fluids, were measured in air close to the main fumarolic field of Solfatara crater. Here, C 6 H 6 concentrations, whose detection limit is ∼0.1 μg m −3 , are more than one order of

  18. Patterns of national identity development among the Balkan orthodox Christians during the nineteenth century

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    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the development of national identities among Balkan Orthodox Christians from the 1780s to 1914. It points to pre-modern political subsystems in which many Balkan Orthodox peasants lived in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Serbian and Greek uprisings/revolutions are analyzed in the context of the intellectual climate of the Enlightenment. Various modes of penetration of the ideas of the Age of Revolution are analyzed as well as the ways in which new concepts influenced proto-national identities of Serbs and Romans/Greeks. The author accepts Hobsbawm’s concept of proto-national identities and identifies their ethno-religious identity as the main element of Balkan Christian Orthodox proto-nations. The role of the Orthodox Church in the formation of ethno-religious proto-national identity and in its development into national identity during the nineteenth century is analyzed in the cases of Serbs, Romans/ Greeks, Vlachs/Romanians and Bulgarians. Three of the four Balkan national movements fully developed their respective national identities through their own ethnic states, and the fourth (Bulgarian developed partially through its ethnic state. All four analyzed identities reached the stage of mass nationalism by the time of the Balkan Wars. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only Macedonian Slavs kept their proto-national ethno-religious identity to a substantial degree. Various analyzed patterns indicate that nascent national identities coexisted with fluid and shifting protonational identities within the same religious background. Occasional supremacy of social over ethnic identities has also been identified. Ethnification of the Orthodox Church, in the period 1831-1872, is viewed as very important for the development of national movements of Balkan Orthodox Christians. A new three-stage model of national identity development among Balkan Orthodox Christians has been proposed. It is

  19. Political History of the Ulus of Jochi in 1256–1263 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.M. Sabitov

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, the author believes that the uprising in Rus’ in 1262 was directed against the Golden Horde and not against the Empire.

  20. The Phenological Network of Catalonia: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) began systematic phenological observation in 1932. Forty-four observers registered the phenophases of 45 plant species, the first or last sighting of six bird species and the first sighting of one species of butterfly. The study First results of phenological observation in Catalonia was published in 1936, showing the different behaviour of the vegetal species and birds according to geographical location. The SMC worked against the military fascist uprising during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Therefore, once the war was finished, the organisation was quickly closed by the Franco dictatorship and the National Meteorological Service became the official institution in Spain. This organization created the Spanish Phenological Network in 1943 following similar standards to the former Catalan network. The reintroduction of democracy and the return of the Catalan self-government structures (1977) allowed the re-foundation of the SMC in 1996. The Climatology Department needed phenological data to complement the study of climatic indicators and realised the fragile situation of phenology observations in Catalonia, with very few operational series. Following a preliminary analysis of the different systems of recording and saving data, the Phenological network of Catalonia (Fenocat) was re-established in 2013. Fenocat is an active partner of the Pan European Phenology Database (PEP725) that uses BBCH-scale coding and the USA National Phenology Network observation system. It is an example of citizen science. As at December 2016, Fenocat had recorded more than 450,000 data. The extension of summer climatic conditions in the Western Mediterranean region has resulted in repetition of phenopases in the same year, such as the second flowering of the holm oak (Quercus ilex), almond tree (Prunus dulcis) and sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium), or the delay in the departure data of the swallow (Hirundo rustica) and hoopoe (Upupa epops

  1. Long-term monitoring on a closed-conduit volcano: A 25 year long time-series of temperatures recorded at La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy), ranging from 250 °C to 520 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole Serena

    2017-10-01

    The longest record of temperature data from an active volcano in southern Italy is presented. The dataset comes from continuous monitoring of fumarole temperatures from the La Fossa cone of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands) running from 1991 to 2016. The discussion includes an empirical approach, based on a large number of direct measurements. At Vulcano Island, geochemical monitoring of the uprising fluids allows detection of the surface effects of perturbation in the state variables of the buried hydrothermal and magmatic systems. The presented datasets show that fumaroles' changing temperatures, which are related to surface heat flow, are useful indicators. Over the past 25 years, the combined effects of runoff and chemo-physical alterations were negligible on the output temperature of the earliest monitored fumaroles. The maximum recorded variation was 298 °C (measured in the ground very close to the steaming vents, at a depth of 0.5 m). Repetition of output temperature values occurred after 19 years in the same position; the time variations suggest a cyclic characteristic, although more years are needed to register the complete cyclic modulation. A combination of minor cyclical variations has also been registered in the fumarole output. The minor cycles appeared in this long series of data after 1995, and they can be interpreted as one of the surface effects of temporary departures from a stationary state assumed for the system feeding the La Fossa area. In this sector of the Mediterranean area, the steady state pressure field, as well as the steady state temperature gradients, can be perturbed either by magmatism or by seismo-tectonic processes related to regional dynamics. This long-term monitoring allowed comparisons of many temperature subsets with other validated geochemical and geophysical data series and highlighted common source mechanisms accounting for endogenous processes. Changes in the magma source and/or seismo-tectonic activity have been the primary

  2. Stand by Me: Qualitative Insights into the Ease of Use of Adjustable Workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-01-01

    Office workers sit for more than 80% of the work day making them an important target for work site health promotion interventions to break up prolonged sitting time. Adjustable workstations are one strategy used to reduce prolonged sitting time. This study provides both an employees' and employers' perspective into the advantages, disadvantages, practicality and convenience of adjustable workstations and how movement in the office can be further supported by organisations. This qualitative study was part of the Uprising pilot study. Employees were from the intervention arm of a two group (intervention n = 18 and control n = 18) study. Employers were the immediate line-manager of the employee. Data were collected via employee focus groups (n = 17) and employer individual interviews (n = 12). The majority of participants were female (n = 18), had healthy weight, and had a post-graduate qualification. All focus group discussions and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and the data coded according to the content. Qualitative content analysis was conducted. Employee data identified four concepts: enhanced general wellbeing; workability and practicality; disadvantages of the retro-fit; and triggers to stand. Most employees (n = 12) reported enhanced general well-being, workability and practicality included less email exchange and positive interaction (n = 5), while the instability of the keyboard a commonly cited disadvantage. Triggers to stand included time and task based prompts. Employer data concepts included: general health and wellbeing; work engagement; flexibility; employee morale; and injury prevention. Over half of the employers (n = 7) emphasised back care and occupational health considerations as important, as well as increased level of staff engagement and strategies to break up prolonged periods of sitting. The focus groups highlight the perceived general health benefits from this short intervention, including opportunity to sit less and interact

  3. Stand by Me: Qualitative Insights into the Ease of Use of Adjustable Workstations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonine Jancey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Office workers sit for more than 80% of the work day making them an important target for work site health promotion interventions to break up prolonged sitting time. Adjustable workstations are one strategy used to reduce prolonged sitting time. This study provides both an employees’ and employers’ perspective into the advantages, disadvantages, practicality and convenience of adjustable workstations and how movement in the office can be further supported by organisations. This qualitative study was part of the Uprising pilot study. Employees were from the intervention arm of a two group (intervention n = 18 and control n = 18 study. Employers were the immediate line-manager of the employee. Data were collected via employee focus groups (n = 17 and employer individual interviews (n = 12. The majority of participants were female (n = 18, had healthy weight, and had a post-graduate qualification. All focus group discussions and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and the data coded according to the content. Qualitative content analysis was conducted. Results: Employee data identified four concepts: enhanced general wellbeing; workability and practicality; disadvantages of the retro-fit; and triggers to stand. Most employees (n = 12 reported enhanced general well-being, workability and practicality included less email exchange and positive interaction (n = 5, while the instability of the keyboard a commonly cited disadvantage. Triggers to stand included time and task based prompts. Employer data concepts included: general health and wellbeing; work engagement; flexibility; employee morale; and injury prevention. Over half of the employers (n = 7 emphasised back care and occupational health considerations as important, as well as increased level of staff engagement and strategies to break up prolonged periods of sitting. Discussion: The focus groups highlight the perceived general health benefits from this short

  4. The Militarization of State as a Factor of Geopolitical Competition

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    A. V. Tolochko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the conception of collision between Russia and the West. It presents the history of U.S.-Soviet relations in the context of globalization. The authors note that, despite the end of the Cold War after breakup of the Soviet Union, the militarization of politics has not taken back seat as a geopolitical factor and has directly affected the various aspects of national and international security. The subject matter change of the participants in this process should be noted as a special feature of the militarization of modern globalization. The role of transnational and nongovernmental organizations escalating the situation in many unstable parts of the world is increasing. The neutral states and international organizations which purpose is far from of militarism begin to be enlisted for military and political actions. In the article the processes of geopolitical competition and militarization are considered on the example of the Russia-West confrontation and the bilateral relations between the superpowers are analyzed in the historical perspective. The article presents the uprise of the Cold War as a natural phenomenon. The Cold War was a deliberate policy of the US administration aimed at establishing of US dominance in the postwar world. This strategy involved the confrontation with its geopolitical opponents and not partnership relations. The USA could reach its foreign-policy goals only through the Cold War. One of the main methods of battle was the arms race aimed at the economic attenuation of the USSR. The paper focuses on the problems in the relations between Russia and the USA at the contemporary stage. The article designates the role of Russia which is countering and responding the expansion of geopolitical competition as well as projecting of its national achievements and spiritual values in the world. The article considers in the context of geopolitics and the militarization of the country the reform of power

  5. Russian attempts on constitutional issue of insurgent Serbia (1804-1813: Part two: Establishment of a Serbian government by Constantine Rodofinikin

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    Šarkić Srđan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The second attempt at constitutional organization, called Osnovanije Praviteljstva Sebskago (Establishment of a Serbian Government, was made by Constantine Constantinovich Rodofinikin, a Russian representative of Greek origine, immediatly after his arrival in Serbia (August 2, 1807. It was signed by Karađorđe on August 20, 1807. According to this project, the supreme power in liberated Serbia was to be executed by the Praviteljstvujušči Senat, i.e. a governing senate, composed of three categories of members: military commanders (vojvode, former honorable members of the council (sovjet and elected representatives of the nahiyes (Turkish districts or counties. The first two categories were to be nobles with a lifelong membership in the senate, while the members of the third category were able to achieve nobility only if elected three times into the senate. Karađorđe was to preside over the senate, bearing the title of svetlejši knez, 'sublime prince,' who would have the right of three votes. Rodofinikin did not consider Karađorđe to be an appropriate person to collaborate with. As a leader of the Uprising, responsible for its military success, Karađorđe demanded urgent, concrete and conditionless Russian aid. On the other hand, Karađorđe wanted autonomous and apsolutic power. Rodofinikin in his Establishment of a Serbian Government, gave him only the presidency over the Senate and the right of three votes. According to this Act, Karađorđe's power was neither hereditary, nor for a lifetime. Karađorđe was not at all satisfied with Rodofinikin's document, but he agreed to the Act thinking that it was the necessary price for Russian support. The aim of Rodofinikin, as well as Paulucci, was to ensure Russian influence in Serbia. However, Paulucci wanted to place Russian officers in all of the governing and commanding positions, while Rodofinikin's desire was to create some kind of Serbian aristocracy, faithful to Russia. During his

  6. Partisan movement in southern Ukraine in 1943–1944

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    M. A. Slobodyanyuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The events of the Revolution of Dignity and war in Donbass formed the experience of the armed and sociopolitical confrontation of the Second World War period, especially in the steppe and industrial south of Ukraine. Partisan struggle in this region had its own specifics, which requires its comprehension and generalization. The article is devoted to the final stage (1943–1944 of the development of the Soviet partisan movement in Southern Ukraine. This region is characterized by the absence of large forest areas and the presence of large industrial centers. Considering this, underground forms of struggle became the priority ones. Nevertheless, partisan methods of resistance to the invaders were also used actively. Based on the analysis of a wide range of archival documents of the central and regional archives, it has been established that the final stage of development of the partisan movement in its characteristics differed significantly from the initial stage (1941–1942. Its features were: the excellent emergence of partisan formations and a modified tactic of fighting against the invaders. In particular this happened in years 1943–1944. Partisan detachments were formed as a result of the organizational activities of the landing groups, abandoned from «Big Land» or underground. It has been found out during the investigation that they were active in the approaching front line: they attacked the occupation troops and institutions, carried out diversionary acts, conducted reconnaissance in the interests of the Red Army. An outstanding page of the Resistance movement in the south of Ukraine was Pavlograd uprising of 1943. In addition, the quality of the source base has been described in the article. It has been established that the documents of the Soviet archives contain a considerable part of falsifications and exaggerations. Therefore, researchers are being recommended to use the quantitative indicators of Soviet documents very

  7. Spoken Word and Printed Page: G. W. M. Reynolds and ‘The Charing-Cross Revolution’, 1848

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    Mary L. Shannon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In March 1848, the radical writer and editor G. W. M. Reynolds came face-to-face with some of the very people he hoped were his readers, when he took a step out of the editor’s office and onto the speaker’s platform. Reynolds stood up in front of a protest meeting in Trafalgar Square, and turned the issue of the day away from taxation and towards revolution. In that critical year of Europe-wide revolutions, Reynolds praised the recent French uprising and declared solidarity with the French republicans. Reynolds’s actions on that spring afternoon earned him immediate prominence in the Chartist movement, a place on the platform at the ‘monster meeting’ at Kennington Common on 10 April, the status of a radical celebrity, and a government file. The disorder after the meeting continued on and off over several days. This article considers Reynolds’s accounts of his own speech as printed in the pages of his best-selling serial narrative, 'The Mysteries of London' (1844–48. Reynolds’s sprawling tale mixed melodrama with radical polemics in the belief that fiction was a legitimate means of promoting radical politics. This article argues that the insertions of his 1848 speeches attempted to connect imagined readers of urban fiction to real protestors on London’s streets, by linking the printed page of urban fiction to oratory within urban space. Reynolds’s speech-making on that March afternoon projected his outbursts in his London fiction out onto the London streets; he hoped that the combined work of both would push forward his political agenda. His experience of writing 'The Mysteries of London' gave melodramatic wings to his oratory on the platform. Setting Reynolds’s speech within the context of his debt to popular melodrama and its roots in oral culture, and the oral effects within 'The Mysteries of London' as a whole, this article argues that Reynolds’s actions declared printed matter to be indelibly linked with the street

  8. Islas de Puerto Rico y de Culebra: regularidades geomoríológicas de su relieve costero y submarino

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    José Ramón Hernández Santana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The littoral s morphodynamic survey, its correlation with the main tectonic designs and the coastal morphc-structural analysis of Puerto Rico, and especially of the Culebra island, allowed to differentiate and assess the significant influence of island tectogénesis upon the configuration of geomorphological patterns at the land-sea interface as well as its submarine surroundings. The major tectogenetic peculiarities of island morphostructure and its littoral morpho-sculpture include: the morphotectonic alignment of small groups of islands as well as their internal morpho-sculptural features; the appearance and alignment of abrasive rock outcrop ranges; the littoral´s parallel and interrupted alignment; the tectonic control of the coastal configuration and its accidents derived from the orthogonal design of the prevailing NW-SE and NE-SW diagonal disjunctive systems; tombolos development by faulting parallel to the coastline and uprising of small contiguous island blacks; ample distribution of microbays and microinlets generated by a high faulting density and parallel transversal cracking, the diffusion of concave shell-shaped coasts of a cumulative and biogenic nature between discreet abrasive projections; and the presence of alternating horst and graben systems as a conditioning factor for the alternation of abrasive (ends, capes and promontories and cumulative coasts (beaches, marshes and mangroves or inlets and bays. This latter features is unique and determinant in coastal morpho-dynamics at western Puerto Rico and the Northern coast of Culebra island. Separately, this work includes the structural-geomorphic pattern of submarine relief of seas and oceans surrounding the Puerto Rico island, derived from the evolution of the major and most characteristic elements of the northern Caribbean´s earth crust. The principles of its typological classification differentiate the major structures within which morphogenetic complexes develop. At the

  9. Brigantaggio e patrimonio culturale. Una riflessione su alcune recenti tendenze museali e turistiche / Brigandage and cultural heritage. A reflection on some recent museum and tourism trends

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    Massimo Cattaneo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio propone una riflessione sui processi di inserimento del brigantaggio, e in particolare di alcuni suoi celebri protagonisti, nel concetto di patrimonio culturale delle comunità che furono teatro degli eventi di fine Settecento-inizio Ottocento (insorgenze antifrancesi e degli anni Sessanta-Settanta del XIX secolo, e a volte anche oltre, per quanto riguarda il grande brigantaggio postunitario. Viene discusso il rapporto spesso difficile tra risultati acquisiti dalla ricerca storica e applicazioni didattiche concrete in occasione di ricostruzioni storiche nella forma del cinespettacolo (La storia bandita in scena al Parco della Grancia in Basilicata o della recente istituzione di musei del brigantaggio nella Regione Lazio. Il rischio denunciato è quello di trasformare il brigantaggio nel suo insieme in tratto antropologico-culturale distintivo di una intera comunità, anche in virtù di logiche politiche, turistiche e in senso lato di mercato dirette in tal senso, poco interessate al dialogo con la ricerca scientifica e inclini, viceversa, a recepire acriticamente miti e stereotipi presenti nella memoria popolare. The paper proposes a reflection on the processes of insertion of brigandage, and in particular of some of his famous characters, in the concept of cultural heritage of the communities that were the scene of the events of the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century (anti-French uprisings and the sixties-seventies of nineteenth century, and sometimes even beyond, as regards the large brigandage post-unification. The paper analyzes the relationship between results obtained from the historical research and the concrete applications in historical reconstructions in spectacular forms (Grancia Park in Basilicata or with the recent establishment of museums in the region Lazio. It denounces the risk to transform the brigandage in a distinctive cultural-anthropological trait of an entire community, even by virtue of a

  10. Half a Century of Life Don Khutor: the Parish Chronicle of St. Panteleimon• s Church of Khutor Letovskiy, Stanitsa Kremenskaia, Ust`-Medveditskaya District, Troops of the Don Region (1873-1929

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    Ageev Evgenii, priest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article puts forward into scientific circulation a valuable source on the history of the parish life of the late 19th — early 20th century on the Don — the parish chronicle found in one of the investigations of the repressed clergy. This chronicle is unique high temporal coverage, from 1873 to 1929, it includes the years of revolution, Civil war on the Don and the first post-revolutionary decade. The author gives a brief overview of the history of the chronicle, the characteristics of its six authors — rural priests. The first thirty years were marked by the construction and decoration of the church and the absence of conflict. The early twentieth century was marked by the confl icts of the parishioners with the clergy. In the chronicle it was described the hardships of the lives of ordinary Cossacks, the scourge of Civil war, the famine of the early 1920s. In the postwar years there has been growing discontent of the parishioners by the activities of the Soviet government: tax policy, anti-religious propaganda and oppression of the clergy, beginning with collectivization. Narratives are rural priests, and it refl ects their own perception of the key events of the age. The author in the article examines the attitude of the parishioners to the Church, their perception of current events, participation in parish life. He concludes on a high degree of involvement of Cossacks in the Church life, the importance of the Church in their daily lives. The facts given in the article, suggest the sustainability of the parish farm, the community was able to survive in the turmoil of the Civil war. Forced destruction of parish life in the years of collectivization destroyed the community and has led to the degradation and disappearance of rural settlement. The last author of the chronicle was repressed, he and those arrested with him the clergy and parishioners were accused of preparing an armed uprising. The chronicle shows that this

  11. Human rights abuses and concerns about women's health and human rights in southern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amowitz, Lynn L; Kim, Glen; Reis, Chen; Asher, Jana L; Iacopino, Vincent

    2004-03-24

    Although human rights abuses have been reported in Iraq, the full scope of these abuses has not been well documented. To assess the prevalence of human rights abuses since 1991 in southern Iraq, along with attitudes about women's health and human rights and women's rights and roles in society, to inform reconstruction and humanitarian assistance efforts in Iraq. Cross-sectional, randomized survey of Iraqi men and women conducted in July 2003 using structured questionnaires. Three major cities in 3 of the 9 governorates in southern Iraq. A total of 1991 respondents representing 16 520 household members. Respondent demographics, information on human rights abuses that occurred among household members since 1991, women's health and human rights, opinions regarding women's rights and roles in society, and conditions for community health and development. Respondents were a mean age of 38 years and were mostly of Arab ethnicity (99.7% [1976/1982]) and Muslim Shi'a (96.7% [1906/1971]). Overall, 47% of those interviewed reported 1 or more of the following abuses among themselves and household members since 1991: torture, killings, disappearance, forced conscription, beating, gunshot wounds, kidnappings, being held hostage, and ear amputation, among others. Seventy percent of abuses (408/586) were reputed to have occurred in homes. Baath party regime-affiliated groups were identified most often (95% [449/475]) as the perpetrators of the abuses; 53% of the abuses occurred between 1991 and 1993, following the Shi'a uprising, and another 30% between 2000 and the first 6 months of 2003. While the majority of men and women expressed support for women's equal opportunities for education, freedom of expression, access to health care, equality in deciding marriage and the number and spacing of children, and participation in community development decisions, there was less support among both men and women for women's freedom of movement, association with people of their choosing, and

  12. Challenging dyke ascent models using novel laboratory experiments: Implications for reinterpreting evidence of magma ascent and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Janine L.; Burns, Alec J.; Hilmi Hazim, Suraya; Wood, Elliot P.; Martin, Simon A.; Hignett, Sam; Dennis, David J. C.

    2018-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are fed by plumbing systems that transport magma from its source to the surface, mostly fed by dykes. Here we present laboratory experiments that model dyke ascent to eruption using a tank filled with a crust analogue (gelatine, which is transparent and elastic) that is injected from below by a magma analogue (dyed water). This novel experimental setup allows, for the first time, the simultaneous measurement of fluid flow, sub-surface and surface deformation during dyke ascent. During injection, a penny-shaped fluid-filled crack is formed, intrudes, and traverses the gelatine slab vertically to then erupt at the surface. Polarised light shows the internal stress evolution as the dyke ascends, and an overhead laser scanner measures the surface elevation change in the lead-up to dyke eruption. Fluorescent passive-tracer particles that are illuminated by a laser sheet are monitored, and the intruding fluid's flow dynamics and gelatine's sub-surface strain evolution is measured using particle image velocimetry and digital image correlation, respectively. We identify 4 previously undescribed stages of dyke ascent. Stage 1, early dyke growth: the initial dyke grows from the source, and two fluid jets circulate as the penny-shaped crack is formed. Stage 2, pseudo-steady dyke growth: characterised by the development of a rapidly uprising, central, single pseudo-steady fluid jet, as the dyke grows equally in length and width, and the fluid down-wells at the dyke margin. Sub-surface host strain is localised at the head region and the tail of the dyke is largely static. Stage 3, pre-eruption unsteady dyke growth: an instability in the fluid flow appears as the central fluid jet meanders, the dyke tip accelerates towards the surface and the tail thins. Surface deformation is only detected in the immediate lead-up to eruption and is characterised by an overall topographic increase, with axis-symmetric topographic highs developed above the dyke tip. Stage 4 is

  13. The Antiquity in Lyrics by Eugen Malaniuk: Reception and Specifics of Interpretation

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    Oksana Galchuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the reception’s specifics of the Antique text and to observe its role in historiosophy and esthetics of Eugen Malaniuk. Using contact and comparative methods we analyzed his lyrics and elucidated that the author had put in the basis of his poetic historiosophy his comprehension of concepts “Hellas” and “Rome”. In Malaniuk’s interpretation these concepts became the metaphors of past and future of Ukraine (“Polittia”, “Variaz′ka vesna”, “Liuds′ke”, “Epiloh”, “Uryvok”, etc.. Its present he comprehend transforming the antique maxim “world – theatre” (“Teatr, Doba”, “Odyn vechir”, “V maіbutnie”, “Pobachennia”, etc.. This comprehension resulted into quotations in epigraphs and text (“Tertia vigilia”, “Сampus Martius”, “Ars poetica”, “Ave, Caesar…”, “Post scriptum”, etc., reminiscence and allusions of antique plots and motives (“Martivs′ki idy”, “Osinnii Stiks”, “Muza”, “Bezkrovna Muza…”, “Perykl”, etc., explicit (“Prysviatni strofy”, “Doba”, “Bezsonnia”, “Tak dovho buv dvolykyi i dvoiakyi…”, “Nostal′hiia” and implicit (“Proloh” embodiment of “text in text” structure and transformation of the lyrical hero into images of the prototext’s characters (Odysseus, Theseus, Aeneas. The research revealed that transplantation of the antique text by the poet caused the uprise of the “Prague” interpretation variant, distinctive features of which are synthesis of neoclassic and neoromantic perception of the Classic tradition, focus on the Baroque experience of its reception, reading through the historisophical prism. The study “Malaniuk and Antiqity” creates a perspective of separating and researching masculine, Rome’s rationality oriented, with Apollo’s principles domineering (Ol′zhych, Klen; and feminine, with Dionysus’ element prevalence in dialogue with emotional

  14. Research of the Indicators the efficiency of the biodegradable waste on the Landfills

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    Jana Kotovicová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of the research work for the exploitation of the preventive tools for the decrease of biodegradable waste comes out from the requirements, which are reposed on Czech Republic as a valid member of European Union. The Czech Republic have to follow the legislative requirements, which are defined for the waste treatment, in this case it deals with the EC Landfill Directive (1999/31/ES. The directive undertakes for the EU members to limit the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills. The main sense of this restriction is to reduce the volume of the emitted gas, mainly methane, into atmosphere. Therefore, it was assigned the Waste Management Plan of the Czech republic, which states in the interest of the strategic goals (the decrease of the specific waste production independently on the level of the economic growth, the maximal waste exploitation as a reserve of the primary natural resources and the minimalization of negative impacts on human health and environment by the waste treatment the goal achievement in its binding part, what´s the decrease of maximal volume of the biodegradable municipal waste deposited in landfills, thus the rate of this element will be the most 75% weighted in 2010, the most 50% weighted in 2013 and the most 35% weighted from the total volume rised in 1995. One of the ways, how to achieve the required reduction of the waste volume deposited in the landfills, is consistent exercitation of the preventive methods and the sound agricultural and sound operating practice methods. The main goal of the work consists in creation of methodics for the make prognosis of the region development charging by the biodegradable waste in the preventive tool exploitation. I identified the typical sources of biodegradable waste and the key areas of their uprise after the evaluation of environmental gains of the selected preventive projects by the creation of methodics. After this manner of data acquirement, I proposed

  15. Research of the indicators the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills

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    Jana Kotovicová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of the research work for the exploitation of the preventive tools for the decrease of bio- degradable waste comes out from the requirements, which are reposed on Czech Republic as a valid member of European Union. The Czech Republic have to follow the legislative requirements, which are defined for the waste treatment, in this case it deals with the EC Landfill Directive (1999/31/ES. The directive undertakes for the EU members to limit the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills. The main sense of this restriction is to reduce the volume of the emitted gas, mainly methane, into atmosphere. Therefore, it was assigned the Waste Management Plan of the Czech republic, which states in the interest of the strategic goals (the decrease of the specific waste production independently on the level of the economic growth, the maximal waste exploitation as a reserve of the primary natural resources and the minimalization of negative impacts on human health and environment by the waste treatment the goal achievement in its binding part, whatęs the decrease of maximal volume of the biodegradable municipal waste deposited in landfills, thus the rate of this element will be the most 75% weighted in 2010, the most 50 % weighted in 2013 and the most 35 % weighted from the total volume rised in 1995. One of the ways, how to achieve the required reduction of the waste volume deposited in the landfills, is consistent exercitation of the preventive methods and the sound agricultural and sound operating practice methods. The main goal of the work consists in creation of methodics for the make prognosis of the region development charging by the biodegradable waste in the preventive tool exploitation. I identified the typical sources of biodegradable waste and the key areas of their uprise after the evaluation of environmental gains of the selected preventive projects by the creation of methodics. After this manner of data acquirement, I

  16. Rewiev of the Book: Cherkas B.V. The Western Dominions of the Ulus of Jochi: Political History, Territorial-Administrative Structure, Economics, Cities. (13th–14th centuries. Kiev: Institute of History of NAS of Ukraine, 2014. 387 p. »

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    Ya.V. Pilipchuk

    2016-07-01

    expansion. Reconstruction of Tokhtamish’s campaign in Podolia and Principality of Kiev in 1380 represents an important achievement of the scholar. Trying to prevent uprisings in the Black Sea uluses, Tokhtamish planted there his relatives and actively used the troops from Muval’s wing during campaigns in Iran and Central Asia. Reviewer’s comments have no fundamental significance and cannot seriously affect the appreciation of the work.

  17. Representatividad política y rebelión urbana a fi nes del medievo: las asambleas del común toledano (1478-1522

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    López Gómez, Óscar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the joint action of local elite and royalty managed to marginalize the urban population from government, in many cities the desire of pecheros to participate in public affairs did not disappear, for they used every means available –usually peaceful, but occasionally of a violent nature. In Toledo the only remaining system of political action of the común in the XV century was the participation in parish meetings to appoint juries, yet despite this, the pecheros suffered all kinds of abuse by the powerful; abuses accepted with resignation, but which degraded the image of the Cabildo de jurados, representing the común in the city, making it the focus of popular rage in the uprisings of 1449, 1467 and especially between 1520 and 1522.

    Aunque la acción conjunta de las oligarquías locales y la realeza consiguió marginar del gobierno a la población urbana, en muchas ciudades no desapareció la voluntad del común de intervenir en los asuntos públicos, para lo que empleó todos los mecanismos a su alcance (habitualmente de naturaleza pacífi ca, pero a menudo también de carácter violento. En Toledo la participación en las juntas de las parroquias que se celebraban para nombrar a los jurados eran el único sistema de acción política que le quedaba al común en el siglo XV, y, aun así, tenía que sufrir toda clase de abusos por parte de los poderosos; unos abusos que se aceptaban con resignación, pero que degradarían la imagen del Cabildo de jurados, representante de los pecheros en la urbe, hasta situarlo en el punto de mira de la furia popular en sublevaciones como las de 1449 y 1467, y sobre todo en 1520.

  18. Melting mode and source lithology inferred from trace element systematic in historical olivine from Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.

    2017-04-01

    basanite magma were reproduced approximately a century later may reflect episodic carbonatic fluxing in the slowly uprising Canarian mantle plume.

  19. From Dungans to Xinyimin: China, Chinese Migration and the Changing Sociopolitical Fabric of Central Asian Republics

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    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the issue of ethnic identity of the Dungans – descendants of early Chinese migrants in Central Asia – and its change and preservation in the context of the fragile social fabric of the Central Asian states that were born from the shadow of the now-defunct Soviet Union, the arduous processes of nation-building plagued by often violent, competing emergent nationalisms as well as political and economic turbulence, and the impact brought by the emergence of the xinyimin (Chinese new migrants. These Chinese-speaking Dungans staying in compact communities mostly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are descendants of political and war refugees from China’s provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu who moved across the border into the territory of Czarist Russia in the later part of the nineteenth century after the crushing of the Northwest Uprising by the Imperial Ch’ing (the Manchu dynasty army which bordered on genocide and ethnic cleansing. This paper analyses how a new ethnic identity has since emerged due partly to the geographical isolation imposed by the formidable natural barrier of the Tianshan (“Heavenly Mountains” However, their Chinese language in the form of a mixture of the Shaanxi and Gansu regionalects, remarkably written today not in Chinese characters but in the Cyrillic alphabet, and Chinese traditions of the Shaanxi and Gansu varieties have been fiercely preserved through the generations until today, including nineteenth-century vocabulary and traditions which are no longer found in modern China, due both to the cohesiveness of communal life and an aversion to marriage outside the community. After analysing the community’s dilemmas of identity preservation and identity creation, this paper then proceeds to look at the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulting in the birth of the post-Soviet independent Central Asian republics, and the influx of the xinyimin from China since the

  20. The Pan-African Kekem gabbro-norite (West-Cameroon), U-Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes: Geodynamical implication for the evolution of the Central African fold belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwékam, Maurice; Affaton, Pascal; Bruguier, Olivier; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Hartmann, Gerald; Njonfang, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The Kekem shoshonitic gabbro-norite association is part of the high-K calc-alkaline (HKCA) post-collisional magmatism, a major feature of the Pan-African Belt in Cameroon. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses provide an age of 576 ± 4 Ma for the Kekem complex. This age is interpreted as dating the emplacement of the massif during the waning stage of the Pan-African orogeny. The latter is related to dextral movements along the Central Cameroon Shear Zone (CCSZ). The REE patterns display enriched LREE (LaN/YbN = 14.2-23.5) while HREE present a nearly flat profile (DyN/YbN = 1.3-1.7), and the La/Sm and Sm/Yb ratios led to propose that the Kekem gabbro-norites have been derived from the partial melting of a garnet-spinel lherzolite mantle source. The negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies and the positive Pb anomalies indicate that this mantle source was modified by contribution of a subduction-related material. The low Ce/Pb (2.6-10.4) and Th/Yb ratios associated to high Ba/La ratios, indicate that source enrichment could be related to slab derived fluids. As a whole, the Kekem geochemical features suggest that primary gabbro-noritic magmas derived from a subduction-modified mantle source (metasomatised lithospheric mantle). Moderately high 86Sr/87Sr initial ratios (0.7068-0.7082), low ɛNd (-5 to -9) and old Nd TDM model ages (1.6-1.8 Ga) are interpreted to result from contamination of Neoproterozoic mantle by the Paleoproterozoic crust. The ca. 576 Ma movements along the CCSZ are related to a Neoproterozoic metacratonization of the northern margin of the Congo craton during the Pan-African orogeny. This metacratonization led to vertical planar lithospheric delamination along lithospheric transcurrent faults, asthenospheric uprise and partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic lithospheric mantle.

  1. Um gaúcho e dezoito condores nas Ilhas Malvinas: identidade política e nação sob o autoritarismo argentino

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    Rosana Guber

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Argumento que o apelo ao símbolo "nação" constituía o principal veículo de construção de identidades políticas na Argentina de 1955 a 1983, sob regimes autoritários e semidemocráticos que excluíam a vontade eleitoral de amplos setores do país. Para isso, apresento a história da "Operação Condor" de 1966, na qual dezoito jovens peronistas e nacionalistas desviaram para a capital das Malvinas, sob ocupação britânica desde 1833, um vôo regular para a Patagônia. Protagonistas, simpatizantes e também antagonistas dos "condores" converteram o episódio e seus efeitos imediatos em um drama quase-turneriano no qual se encontram duas histórias: a do gaúcho Antonio Rivero e sua polêmica sublevação de 1834 contra os usurpadores ingleses, e a dos "condores". A "Operação Condor" revela assim, em última instância, a confluência de duas identidades-chave na política argentina dos anos 60 e 70: o Povo e a Juventude.I argue that the symbol of the "Nation" has been the main channel through which the formation of political identities takes place under exclusionary regimes, such as the authoritarian and restricted democracies of Argentina during the period from 1950-70. I therefore examine the "Condor Operation" of 1966, when seventeen young men and a young woman hijacked an Argentinian plane that was heading for the Malvinas (Falkland Islands, in order to assert Argentina's sovereignty over the South Atlantic archipelago which had been under British occupation since 1833. Members of the Condor group, as well as people backing and countering the Condors' action, turned the event and its effects into a quasi-Turnerian drama. It is at this point that two stories meet: that of the Gaucho Antonio Rivero and his controversial uprising against the English troops in 1834, and that of the Condors. The Condor Operation ultimately reveals the confluence of two key identities in 1960s-1970s Argentinian politics: the People and the Youth.

  2. Urban soils as hotspots of anthropogenic carbon accumulation: Review of stocks, mechanisms and factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    city (e.g. suburban, agricultural and forest areas), and ii) C accumulation in parallel with upward soil growing without complete mineralization (common in natural soils). These mechanisms result over long period in gradual growing-up of urban soils and C accumulation. The average rate of urban soils' uprising growth of 50 cm per century and the average SOC contents of 3-5% led conclude that urban soils accumulate 15-30 kg C m-2 per century without steady state (common for all natural soils). These factors lead to high potential of urban soils for long-term C sequestration. We conclude that despite small area under the cities, urban soils are hotspots of belowground long-term C sequestration worldwide and the importance of urban soils will increase in future with global urbanization.

  3. Monitoring deep geodynamic processes within Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic zone by geodetic means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita

    2015-04-01

    Background Located in the bending zone of East Carpathians, the so-called Vrancea zone is one of the most active seismic regions in Europe. Despite many years of international research, its intermediate-depth seismicity within full intra-continental environment still represents a challenge of the 21st century. Infrastructure In the attempt to join the above-mentioned efforts, the Solid Earth Dynamics Department (SEDD) in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy has developed a special research infrastructure, mainly devoted to gravity and space geodesy observations. A geodetic network covering the epicentre area of the intermediate-depth earthquakes has been designed and implemented for monitoring deep geodynamic processes and their surface echoes. Within each base-station of the above-mentioned network, a still-reinforced concrete pillar allows for high accuracy repeated gravity and GPS determinations. Results Starting from some results of the previously run CERGOP and UNIGRACE European programmes, to which additional SEDD repeated field campaigns were added, an unusual geodynamic behaviour has been revealed in the area. 1) Crust deformation: unlike the overall uprising of East Carpathians, as a result of denudation followed by erosion, their SE bending zone, with Vrancea epicentre area exhibits a slight subsidence. 2) Gravity change: more than 200 microgals non-tidal gravity decrease over a 20 years time-span has been noticed within the subsiding area. Extended observations showed the gravity lowering as a nowadays continuing process. Interpretation This strange combination of topography subsidence and gravity lowering has been interpreted in terms of crust stretching in the Vrancea epicentre zone due to the gravity pull created by densification of the lower crust as a result of phase-transform processes taking place in the lithospheric compartment sunken into the upper mantle. The occurrence of crust earthquakes with vertical-extension focal

  4. ESCAPE OF A YOUNG SULTAN: THE RUNNING AWAY OF THE MAMLÛK SULTAN AZÎZ YUSUF FROM THE CITADEL OF CAIRO (1439 KÜÇÜK SULTANIN FİRARI: MEMLÛK SULTANI AZÎZ YUSUF’UN KAHİRE KALESİNDEN KAÇMASI (1439

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mesut AĞIR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerning with the escape adventure of a young Mamlûk Sultan, al-Malik al-Aziz Yusuf, who was raised to the throne at the age of fifteen at 1439 by the testament of Sultan Barsbay (1422-1437 but then dethroned and be exposed to the escape for fear to be killed, had reigned for six months. After been banished from the sultanate by Amir Jaqmaq, he was imprisoned at a room of the citadel. This room was the place where his escape adventure began. The most important reason for the escape of the young sultan was the rumor arose at the citadel which was concerning with the death edict given by Sultan Jaqmaq. By the incitements of his attendants, he decided to escape from the Citadel of Cairo to save his life. This escape was critically important connected with the uprisings at Syria at that time. Because Amir Tagribirmish, viceroy of Aleppo and Amir Aynal al-Jakamî, viceroy of Damascus, who protested the reign of Sultan Jaqmaq, had leaned to Yusuf. Although Yusuf had just aimed to save his life by escaping from the citadel, the supporters of him, who objected to the reign of Jaqmaq, wanted to embrace this opportunity against the authority. Bu makale 1439 yılında Sultan Barsbay’ın (1422-1437 vasiyetiyle daha henüz 15 yaşındayken tahta çıkarılıp altı ay iktidarda kalan fakat daha sonra öldürülme korkusuyla firar eden Memlûk Sultanı el-Melik el-Azîz Yusuf’un kaçış serüveniyle ilgilidir. Emir el-Kebir Çakmak tarafından tahttan edildikten sonra kendisi kaledeki odalardan birine hapsedilmişti. İşte bu mekân onun kaçış serüveninin başladığı yerdi. Onun firar etmesinin altında yatan en büyük sebep ise Sultan Çakmak’ın kendisi hakkında verdiği ölüm fermanı ile ilgili bir dedikodunun zuhur etmesiydi. Bu suretle, hizmetkârlarının da kışkırtmasıyla hayatını korumak için Yusuf, Kal‘at ul-Cebel’den kaçmaya karar verdi. Onun bu firarı aynı zamanda dönem itibariyle Suriye

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Jon Fraenkel; The manipulation of custom; From uprising to intervention in the Solomon Islands (Jaap Timmer Clive Moore; Happy isles in crisis; The historical causes for a failing state in Solomon Islands, 1998-2004 (Jaap Timmer Peter Burns; The Leiden legacy; Concepts of law in Indonesia (Bryan S. Turner Terry Crowley; Bislama reference grammar (Kees Versteegh REVIEW ESSAY Matthew Isaac Cohen; Transnational and postcolonial gamelan Lisa Gold; Music in Bali Margaret J. Kartomi; The Gamelan Digul and the prison camp musician who built it; An Australian link with the Indonesian revolution Marc Perlman; Unplayed melodies; Javanese gamelan and the genesis of music theory Ted Solís (ed.; Performing ethnomusicology; Teaching and representation in world music ensembles Henry Spiller; Gamelan; The traditional sounds of Indonesia Andrew N. Weintraub; Power plays; Wayang golek theater of West Java REVIEW ESSAY Victor T. King; People and nature in Borneo Tim Bending; Penan histories; Contentious narratives in upriver Sarawak Rajindra K. Puri; Deadly dances in the Bornean rainforest; Hunting knowledge of the Penan Benalui, 2005 Reed L. Wadley (ed.; Histories of the Borneo environment; Economic, political and social dimensions of change and continuity In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde no. 162 (2006, no: 4, Leiden

  6. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

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    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG.Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the uprise of extremist, subcultural youth of multiple-aged groups, and the reasons whence they begin to perform distinctive functions that are specific for teenagers. Options for models of MAG humanistic educational systems formed in Russian and foreign social and pedagogical practice are listed. A complex of pedagogical conditions provided for the formation of social competence of adolescents in multiple-aged associations of humanistic orientation is considered. It has been found that this type of system is characterized by the following features: the principle of voluntary association of people, independence of subjects, rapid adaptation to changing socio-cultural situation, a variety of activities by interests, alternating change of activities, conflict resolution within the team, a high level of team spirit, selfmanagement, the creative nature of educational process, upbringing, socialization and self-realization. A brief description of conditions for development of fundamental human values among adolescents and formation of new specific complicated humanistic human and personal relations in global world is given.Scientific novelty. The author studies the following concepts: educational system of multiple-aged associations, teenager social competence, ambivalent behavior, emotional and moral compass of personality, invisible assets of the team, emergent effect of multiple-aged groups, inter-age communication. It was found that the specificity of MAG educational

  7. Soil CO2 efflux measurement network by means of closed static chambers to monitor volcanic activity at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonte, Cecilia; García-Merino, Marta; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; García-Hernández, Rubén; Pérez, Aaron; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Tenerife (2304 km2) is the largest of the Canary Islands and has developed a central volcanic complex (Cañadas edifice), that started to grow about 3.5 My ago. Coeval with the construction of the Cañadas edifice, shield basaltic volcanism continued until the present along three rift zones oriented NW-SE, NE-SW and NS (hereinafter referred as NW, NE and NS respectively). Main volcanic historical activity has occurred along de NW and NE rift-zones, although summit cone of Teide volcano, in central volcanic complex, is the only area of the island where surface geothermal manifestations are visible. Uprising of deep-seated gases occurs along the aforementioned volcanic structures causing diffuse emissions at the surface environment of the rift-zones. In the last 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the study of diffuse degassing as a powerful tool in volcano monitoring programs. Diffuse degassing studies are even more important volcanic surveillance tool at those volcanic areas where visible manifestations of volcanic gases are absent. Historically, soil gas and diffuse degassing surveys in volcanic environments have focused mainly on CO2 because it is, after water vapor, the most abundant gas dissolved in magma. One of the most popular methods used to determine CO2 fluxes in soil sciences is based on the absorption of CO2 through an alkaline medium, in its solid or liquid form, followed by gravimetric, conductivity, or titration analyses. In the summer of 2016, a network of 31 closed static chambers was installed, covering the three main structural zones of Tenerife (NE, NW and NS) as well as Cañadas Caldera with volcanic surveillance porpoises. 50 cc of 0.1N KOH solution is placed inside the chamber to absorb the CO2 released from the soil. The solution is replaced weekly and the trapped CO2 is then analyzed at the laboratory by titration. The are expressed as weekly integrated CO2 efflux values. The CO2 efflux values ranged from 3.2 to 12.9 gṡm-2

  8. Modelling of long term geochemical evolution and study of mechanical perturbation of bentonite buffer of a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, Francois; Pellegrini, Delphine; Deleruyelle, Frederic; Serres, Christophe (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) (FR)); Windt, Laurent de (Paris School of Mines (ENSMP) (FR))

    2008-03-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has recently completed a safety assessment project named SR-Can, related to the KBS-3 disposal concept. In this concept, the waste packages are surrounded by a buffer made of either MX-80 or Deponit CA-N bentonite. Interactions between the buffer and groundwater may modify the buffer composition and thus its containment properties. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authorities (SSI) requested the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to perform the present study in support of SSI review of the SR-Can report. The purpose is to assess the geochemical evolution of both potential buffer materials due to the intrusion of different types of groundwater, with a similar modelling layout to that reported in SR-Can. Three main categories of water inflows via a fracture intersecting a deposition hole are considered: the Forsmark reference groundwater, a high-salinity groundwater to account for up-rise of deep-seated brines and a diluted water representing ice-melting derived groundwater. In addition to this, the redox buffering capacity of Deponit CA-N bentonite and the thermal effect on MX-80 bentonite geochemistry have been assessed. This modelling work has been performed using the reactive transport modelling code HYTEC. The main outcome of the present study is that the intrusion of the considered groundwaters should not affect drastically the geochemistry of neither the Deponit CA-N nor the MX-80 bentonite on the long-term (100,000 y). Bentonite pH may reach high values (up to 10.5) in some cases but does not reach SKB criterion value related to bentonite chemical stability. Dissolution-precipitation of accessory minerals is not significant enough to induce important porosity changes (rise by maximum 2 %). Globally, the montmorillonite exchanger undergoes Na by Ca partial replacement, which may decrease the swelling pressure of the bentonite. The simulated intrusion of oxidizing waters

  9. Evidence for a low permeability fluid trap in the Nový Kostel Seismic Zone, Czech Republic, using double-difference tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Calo, M.; Vavrycuk, V.

    2012-12-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region is the border area between the Czech Republic and Germany known for frequent occurrences of earthquake swarms. The most prominent earthquake swarms occurred recently in 1985/86, 1997, 2000 (Fischer and Horálek, 2003) and 2008 (Fischer et al., 2010). They comprised thousands of microearthquakes, their duration was between 2 weeks to 2 months, and the activity focused typically at depths ranging from 7 to 12 km. The seismic activity is concentrated mostly at the same epicentral area, called the Nový Kostel Zone. This zone is located on the edge of the Cheb Basin, Eger Rift, and at the junction of the Mariánské-Lázně Fault with the Počátky-Plesná Shear Zone. Numerous gas vents and mineral springs within and around the Cheb Basin indicate that uprising magmatic fluids may act as a swarm trigger. In this study, we apply double-difference tomography to investigate the structure within and around the Nový Kostel focal zone. We use data from the 2008 earthquake swarm, as it has been extensively analyzed, and focal mechanisms, principal faults, tectonic stress, source migration and other basic characteristics are known. We selected about 500 microearthquakes recorded at 22 local seismic stations of the West Bohemia Network (WEBNET). The events were inverted for the 3-D seismic structure using the TomoDD code (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and post-processed using the Weighted Average Model method (Calò et al., 2011). The application of double-difference tomography is advantageous for this setting as swarm foci are closely spaced and form a dense cluster. The geometry of the focal zone and the WEBNET network configuration offer good raypath coverage in all directions. Applying double-difference tomography we produce and interpret 3-D models of the P and S velocities. In this work, we interpret 3-D models of the P velocity and P-to-S ratio in and around the focal zone. The P-to-S model was obtained by calculating directly the ratio

  10. Water geochemistry to estimate reservoir temperature of Stabio springs, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Sebastian; Soma, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The Mendrisiotto region located in Southern Switzerland and close to the Italian border, is characterized by the presence of a thick sequence of Mesozoic limestones and dolostones above a volcanic rocks from Permian (Bernoulli, 1964). Within the carbonates, fractures and dissolution processes increased limestone permeability and favored the widespread presence of springs. The presence of few localized H2S and CH4 bearing springs is known from historical times in Stabio. Its localization is related to the faulting affecting the area (Balderer et Al., 2007). These waters were classified by Greber et Al. (1997) as Na-(Ca)-(Mg)-HCO3-Cl-(SO4) type with having a total dissolved solid content in the range of 0.8 and 1.2 gl-1. According with Balderer et Al. (2007) the stable isotopic composition deviates from the global meteoric water line (IAEA, 1984) being the values of δ18O and δ2H respectively 0.8 ‰ and 5‰ lower than the normal shallow groundwater of the area. The values of δ13C of TDIC (-1.54‰ 1.44 ) indicate exchange with CO2 of thermo - metamorphic or even Mantle origin. While 14C in TDIC (7.95, 26.0 pMC) and 3H (1.1 ±0.7, 3.1±0.7 TU) indicates uprising of deep water along faults with some mixing. To estimate reservoir temperature, a new sampling was conducted in 2015 for chemical and isotopic analysis. The sampling was carried out from the only source that allows getting water directly from the dolostone in order to avoid mixing. Although some differences are noticed respect to previous studies, the results show a substantial agreement for stable isotopic composition of water, δ13C and 14C of TDIC. Reservoir temperature was calculated by using several geothermometers. The results show a great variability ranging from 60 ˚ C using Silica to more than 500 ˚ C using cationic ( Na - Ca) geothermometers; indicating that besides mixing, exchange processes and chemical reactions along flow path affect results. This study was partially funded by Azienda

  11. أهمية الموسيقى في تنمية الاداء التخيلي للممثل

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    عقيل زغير عبيس حمزة العزاوي

    2017-09-01

    variant in using music as independent melodies and between what is used of human voices (Rystative and its use as sound effects like the sound of fire flames , burnt coal and serine. 5-\tMusic helped in many cases in the moving of the stage actor's character and moving through chapters and scenes of the play easily and smoothly. 6-\tThe music participates in creates the general weather of the show within the apparent harmony with main idea of the play. 7-\tUsing some eastern melodies like Hijaz which is featured with grief to relate with ( pain – grief- homeland The research has come up with some conclusions , most important ones are : 1-\tThe music has affected of the performance of the actor and success of his character and uprising its drama action and its readiness to be inside the stage system . 2-\tThe musical rhythm upraised the performance of the imaginary actor on the stage through variety and rising in type and speed of the rhythm. 3-\tThe music was able to erupt the skills of innovations for the actor to create and invent a stage character get harmonized with the main motion of the show. 4-\tThe music helped the actor to be mingled within his role via the harmony of the character with other elements of the stage show. 5-\tAlso the music helped in supporting the credibility of the actor on the stage. 6-\tThe body and imaginary performance of the actor on the stage have correlated with the musical rhythm that helped in adjusting the movements of the actor in a harmonic mass. The research was ended with margins, resources, the English title and abstract of the research.

  12. La revolución de la palabra: del lenguaje radiofónico español al caso de Radio EAJ-47 Valladolid (1924-1936

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    Matteo Tomasoni

    2011-04-01

    also exerted an important function as a direct contact instrument between citizens and civil authority, beginning to develop the role of “propaganda agent" that during the Republican period was used to spread the different political thoughts. This model is clearly represented on the case of “Radio Valladolid”, its entertainment proposal as well as its liking for policy debates (through collaboration with the newspaper El Norte de Castilla were used for nourishing the first tensions. After the military uprising in 1936, radio will definitely become one of the main agent diffusion for the defense of the Franco regime.Keywords: Radio EAJ-47, comunication, radio language

  13. Anthropogenic versus natural processes and pollution in Padana Valley in last years involving new communication/policy strategies and ethical issues in research evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Vaccaro, Carmela; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Smart grids-Smat cities "fashion" requires management plans of highly urbanized areas located over the Padanian floodplain, which are prone to diffuse pollution of both lands and urban sectors, mostly after the disasters caused by tremendous alluvial rains in January 2014, when shallow aquifers and agricultural matters could have increase pollution over wide territory. Moreover the urban expansion has affected areas previously used for industrial activity and in some cases such for landfills. When the loss of memory of previous activity prevails after urbanization, with health issues, ethical questions are inevitable, accompanied by social conflicts and economic impacts. The alluvial plains of active tectonic areas - as the Padania Valley - in additions to widespread "anthropogenic pollution" is suffering from widespread "natural pollution" of deep fluid sources - mainly methane - corresponding to areas prone to uprising gaseous brines, along faults. Some of them were partially activated during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. This noteworthy seismic sequence engaged discussion about the possible role of gas storages and hydrocarbons production or the simple/exploring drilling activity to trigger typical tectonic seismicity. The paper deepen this troubled communication strategy, their gaps and peculiar geopolicy case histories, to avoid the same strategy, in the future. On the other hand, gas burst or brine-gas-contamination in shallow aquifers, soils and indoor, should be studied by simple and cheap methods, by deepening stratigraphic gaps for the tectonics effects on sedimentation: natural processes should be recalled prior to recall anthropogenic causes, if any. Policy should be more responsible in state clearly the role of research in study infrastructures/processes, also when engaged by private companies, for sites selected by ministries mostly to star research: relevant gaps involves serious confusion in the public as regards responsibility and an exact

  14. Radicalismos, violências e integração política na Turquia Radicalisms, violence and political integration in Turkey

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    Hamit Bozarsian

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os principais obstáculos a serem enfrentados para a integração política na Turquia. Mostra que o radicalismo e a violência originam-se em três fontes: a oposição curdo-turca; a oposição alevita-sunita e o avanço do islamismo político, com sua recusa de abandonar a referência religiosa. Contribuíram para a atual fragmentação política as contradições da doutrina kemalista, na qual ainda se assenta a legitimidade do Estado turco; os sucessivos golpes militares de Estado, que obrigam a constantes realinhamentos das formações partidárias; e a militarização de vastas regiões da Turquia em resposta às sucessivas ondas curdas e alevitas de contestação violenta, conduzindo à autonomização dos grupos armados que tendem a perpetuar a contestação e a repressão violentas. Diante desse quadro, o futuro da Turquia depende, por um lado, da integração social das identificações e convicções (curdas, alevitas e islamitas pelo reconhecimento das culturas regionais e, por outro lado, da adoção do princípio de não-politização das convicções religiosas e do abandono do conservadorismo social por oposição à ocidentalidade.This article analyses the main obstacles to be faced for the political integration in Turkey. It shows that radicalism and violence spring from three sources; the Turkish-Kurd opposition; the Sunite-Alevite opposition and the rise of political Islamism, with its refusal to abandon religious reference.What has contributed to the present political fragmentation are the contradictions of the Kemalist doctrine, on which the legitimacy of the Turkish State is based; the successive military coups d'etat that cause constant party realignements; and the militarization of vast regions of Turkey to hold back the successive waves of Kurdish and Alevite violent uprisings, which, in turn, give autonomy to armed groups that tend to perpetuate the violent contends and repression. From this

  15. The political economy of development of nuclear energy in Iran: 1957-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, Nader

    2004-01-01

    will hinder the ability of Iran to build a complete nuclear cycle - Iran will however invest in Eurodif to ensure access to fuel. On the other hand the manipulation of the dollar exchange rate, decrease of international energy consumption and promotion of alternative sources of petroleum supply will put Iran's revenues and investment capacity under strain. The result will be popular dissatisfaction, which will be aggravated by the US targeting of Iran for its Human Rights shortcomings - ending in uprising and revolution. Our thesis holds that the revelation of Iranian enrichment capacity in 2002 serves two essential functions: first a 'virtual dissuasion' against invasion of American forces that besiege Iran on all frontiers. Second, having demonstrated - and abandoned - military capability, Iran seeks to be finally able to operate its civilian nuclear industry. For the past 30 years this has been impossible as the US accused Iran of wanting to use this industry for military purposes. Faced with this, the US has 3 choices: veto of Iranian nuclear industry, accepting of civilian reactor operations without the fuel cycle, and accepting of complete Iranian sovereignty over its nuclear cycle. The veto option will require the utilization by the US of military or sabotage operations, pressure on Russia or internal unrest. We argue that neither is feasible or desirable for the US. The option of allowing civilian reactor operation can link provision of fuel to measures of democratization. This is the option that this study identifies as optimal for both sides. The EU and the IAEA can play a constructive role in this scenario. We conclude that increased democratization in Iran will also allow future cooperation between Iran, the US and Golf states, allowing Iran to assume the role of regional security. (author)

  16. Festivales cinematográficos: en el punto de mira de la historiografía fílmica / Film Festivals. In the Focus of Film Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Vallejo Vallejo

    2016-08-01

    focus of film historiography. This essay presents a general overview of this phenomenon, which has attracted the attention of the academy in recent years. Firstly, I reflect on the theoretical and methodological frames around which this research line has evolved, and secondly, I offer a historical reconstruction of the evolution of film festivals in the international sphere. Following De Valck's historical analysis (2007, 2012, four different periods are identified: the first, from the interwar period to 1968, is ruled by international diplomacy; the second, which follows the uprisings in May 1968, gives control to the programmers; the third, from the 1980suntil 2000, witnesses the incorporation of industrial activities into their programmes; and the four this characterised by a saturation of the system and the diffusion of the model to peripheral spaces at the turn of the century. Regarding theory and methodology, the study of film festivals has been marked by its interdisciplinary character from its beginnings, as it has borrowed references and research tools from Anthropology, Cultural Studies, and the History of Cinema. Within this framework, the study of film festivals addresses key issues to help understand the social and historical contexts in which artistic movements, national cinemas and cinematographic theory itself have developed.Keywords: film festivals, history of cinema, media ethnography, world cinema.

  17. Low Entalpy Geothermal suitability of north Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccuru, Stefano; Oggiano, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    This note focus on geothermal potentialities of north Sardinia, where several positive thermal anomalies occur along with geolithological and climatic conditions, which make the area specifically suitable for geoexchange. Sardinia consists of a Variscan basement metamorphosed at different grade and further intruded by a late orogenic batholith. Above this basement, since Mesozoic time, a composite sedimentary and volcanic succession occurs, with maximum thickness of 2-3 Km in correspondence of some extensional and strike-slip Cenozoic basins. The volcanic activity consists of a calcalkaline cycle with crustal component, which started in the late Eocene and ended in the Serravallian; another, mantle derived, alkaline-transitional cycle took place during Pliocene and ended in the middle Pleistocene. Several evidences of geothermal circuits occur in northwestern Sardinia, where some springs characterized by anomalous water temperatures and/or chemical-physical features (e.g., high salinity and carbon dioxide content) were known. In addiction those already exploited (e.g., S. Lucia, S. Martino), new springs and boreholes characterized by positive anomalous water temperatures (in the range of 24 and 35 °C) have been highlighted during our recent surveys. These waters are warmer than the homoeothermic level temperature (where no seasonal variations are recorded), which in the area is 15-16 °C. Considering the absence of active volcanism, the anomalous temperatures must be generated by the uprising of deep meteoric water along a plumbing network of crustal faults that bound the extensional as well as the strike slip basins. Rainwater heated for geothermal gradient can upwell rapidly interacting with surface aquifers that, hence, experience heating at different degree. The physical characteristics (i.e., thermal conductivity, open porosity, permeability etc) of the rocks cropping in north Sardinia, regardless the positive thermal anomalies, are profitably suitable for

  18. Recent drying of the Fertile Crescent: natural or externally forced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Colin

    2014-05-01

    There has been a reduction in observed precipitation over the greater Mediterranean region since the middle of the 20th Century. Recent studies suggest that while anthropogenic forcing has already begun to assert itself in recent decades, the preponderance of the winter drying trend is attributable to the large natural multidecadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), while over the eastern Mediterranean, the anthropogenic, or forced drying signal is more clearly evident. This forced drying is projected to increase during the 21st Century according to the newest global climate models and this aridification would present significant challenges for a region that is already water-stressed. Although the Fertile Crescent is historically known for its agricultural prosperity, the severity and persistence of the recent multiyear drought in Syria, directly prior to the 2011 uprising there, leads us to ask whether this is evidence of emerging global warming influence. This drought exacerbated existing water insecurity, resulting in an agricultural collapse and a mass migration of rural drought refugees to the urban areas in Syria's west. This migration followed the previous influx of Iragi refugees and combined with strong natural population growth to place a severe strain on resources. Here we examine observations of precipitation and temperature, both gridded and stations, along with simulations and projections from the newest global climate models, to estimate the forced contribution to the recent Syrian drought, and assess the uncertainty in future drying according to the models. We find that this region has experienced a long-term downward trend in precipitation, and a concomitant increase in temperature, serving to further dry the soil, and in surface pressure. We find that the shift in the distributions of three-year running means of surface pressure and precipitation due to the forcing make severe events such as the recent Syrian drought several

  19. Origin and assessment of deep groundwater inflow in the Ca' Lita landslide using hydrochemistry and in situ monitoring

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    F. Cervi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil water content, groundwater flow and a rise in pore water pressure are well-known causal or triggering factors for hillslope instability. Rainfall and snowmelt are generally assumed as the main sources of groundwater recharge. This assumption neglects the role of deep water inflow in highly tectonized areas, a factor that can influence long-term pore-pressure regimes and play a role on local slope instability.

    This paper aims to assess the origin of groundwater in the Ca' Lita landslide (northern Italian Apennines and to qualify and quantify the aliquot attributable to deep water inflow. The research is essentially based on in situ monitoring and hydrochemical analyses. It involved 5 yr of continuous monitoring of groundwater levels, electrical conductivity and temperature and with groundwater sampling followed by determination of major ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, HCO3, SO42−, tracers (such as Btot and Sr2+, and isotopes (δ18O, δ2H and 3H. Leaching experiments on soil samples, hydrochemical modelling and water recharge estimation were also carried out.

    Results show that the groundwater balance in the Ca' Lita landslide must take into account an inflow of deep and highly mineralised Na-SO4 water (more than 9500 μS cm−1 with non-negligible amounts of Cl (up to 800 mg l−1. The chemical and isotopic fingerprint of this water points to oilfield water hosted at large depths in the Apennine chain and that uprises through a regional fault line crossing the landslide area. It recharges the aquifer hosted in the bedrock underlying the sliding surface (at a rate of about 49 000–85 700 m3 yr−1 and it also partly recharges the landslide body. In both the aquifers, the hydrochemical

  20. Fisuras en los monopolios discursivos de dos narradores: el indio inexistente de «Huasipungo» y el indio ausente de «Raza de bronce»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ximena Postigo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two were the main concerns in Latin America during the first half of the twentieth century: the consolidation of the nation-State and the incipient development of capitalism. In the Andes the “Indian problem” added complexity to these concerns. This article proposes a comparative analysis of how Alcides Arguedas, with Raza de bronce (1919, and Jorge Icaza, with Huasipungo (1934 –despite similarities in their social projects, the racism of their speeches and the stories that they address– differ in how they incorporate indigenous issues into the novel. If Huasipungo’s social realism responds to a need for change in the relations of production, Raza de bronce’s critical realism responds to a fear of an indigenous uprising. The above is not, however, the central difference. The latter consists of a monopolistic coherence in the narrative discourse of Icaza versus the fissures that literary modernism produces in Arguedas’ positivism. As a result, the social narrative of these writers creates a bourgeois responsibility in Huasipungo (where the indigenous cultural universe is reduced to a non-existence and a dangerous indigenous potential in Raza de bronce (where the reader does not feel the presence of the Andean cultural world, but neither its non-existence.Las preocupaciones centrales de la primera mitad del siglo XX en Latinoamérica pueden resumirse en las siguientes dos: la consolidación del estado-nación y el desarrollo incipiente del capitalismo. En los Andes se añade además la problemática indígena. En este trabajo planteo un análisis comparativo de cómo Alcides Arguedas, con Raza de bronce (1919, y Jorge Icaza, con Huasipungo (1934 –pese a asemejarse en el proyecto social que promulgan, el racismo de sus discursos y la historia que cuentan– se diferencian en cómo incorporan la problemática indígena a la novelística de la época. Si el realismo social de Huasipungo responde a la necesidad de cambio de las

  1. Concepções e práticas sócio-educativas promotoras de autonomia no ensino fundamental Concepciones y prácticas socioeducativas promotoras de autonomía en la educación primaria Conceptions and social education practices promoted autonomy in primary education

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    Roselaine Vieira Sônego

    2007-08-01

    ón docente sobre sus prácticas fue positiva, con asignación elevada a la enseñanza de valores morales, pero con justificativas todavía unilaterales. Niveles superiores de adopción de perspectiva se correlacionaron inversamente con la frecuencia de pronunciamientos coercitivos y heterónomos. Los datos confirman la importancia del desarrollo de la autonomía discente en la escuela condicionada a intervenciones de profesores.The research investigated the relations between practices partner and the development of autonomy, evaluating dynamic of interpersonal agreement, by Selman. The colecta data instruments were the naturalistic study and a half questionnaire structuralized, composed of 7 categories, for application to teachers, and 4 categories, for pupils applied in the field on a private and a public schools. The data, pointing in the school A: to a more homogeneous relation between the your practice and educative procedures partner with the perceptions and levels of interpersonal agreement of the pupils; one high importance for the education of moral values, but its justifications had tends the unilateralism; bigger balance enter the shared strategies of negotiation and experiences in interpersonal dynamic in the school A; a bigger sense of cooperation enter the children of school B; in both the schools the superior levels of perspective adoption had evidenced minor frequency of coercive and heteronomic uprisings. The data show it's necessary interventions of the teachers, guided for the autonomic development of children in basic education.

  2. Health care in Nicaragua: a social and historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrack, E M

    1984-10-01

    To facilitate understanding of the advances in health care in Nicaragua since 1979, this discussion examines them within a historical framework. Nicaragua was occupied by US marines almost continuously from 1909-33. In 1933, their withdrawal left in power the US backed National Guard and the 1st dictator, Anastasio Somoza Garcia. Health conditions under the Somoza regime are difficult to evaluate because lack of data and underreporting were the norm. The health care system under Somoza was administered by 23 separate agencies, including the National Social Security Institute (INSS), a national Ministry of Health, independent local health ministries, and autonomous public hospital governing boards. On July 19, 1979, the dictatorship was overthrown in a popular uprising. Somoza left behind a foreign debt of 1.6 billion dollars, which the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) needed to honor to qualify for needed loans. Following Somoza's defeat, the new government faced the problem of how to care for the tens of thousands of persons wounded and how to distribute the aid and medical supplies coming in from other countries. The key to achieving these tasks was popular participation and organization. By the early part of 1980, the new government was addressing more directly the organization of the health care system. Unlike the fragmented services under Somoza, health care in the new Nicaragua fell under the control of a unified Ministry of Health (MINSA). In 1980, the FSLN initiated an intensive campaign against illiteracy, 100,000 young Nicaraguans, called "brigadistas," were trained and sent around the country to teach basic reading and writing. In addition, 1 out of 10 was trained in elementary health principles. They were responsible for educating others about hygiene and basic sanitation as well as distributing antimalarial medication. 5 popular Health Campaigns were waged during 1981 against polio; measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; rabies

  3. What olivine and clinopyroxene mineral chemistry and melt inclusion study can tell us about magmatic processes in a post-collisional setting. Examples from the Miocene-Quaternary East Carpathian volcanic chain, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Mason, Paul R. D.

    2015-04-01

    Calc-alkaline magmatism occurred along the easternmost margin of Tisia-Dacia at the contact with East European Platform forming the Călimani-Gurghiu- Harghita volcanic chain. Its northern part represented by Călimani-Gurghiu-North Harghita (CGNH hereafter) is showing a diminishing age and volume southwards at 10-3.9 Ma. This marks the end of subduction-related magmatism along the post-collision front of the European convergent plate margin. Magma generation was associated with progressive break-off of a subducted slab and asthenosphere uprise. Fractionation and crustal assimilation were typical CGNH volcanic chain. The rocks show homogeneous 87Sr/86Sr, but a linear trend of Th/Y vs Nb/Y that reflects a common mantle source considered to be the metasomatized lithospheric mantle wedge. Fractionation and/or assimilation-fractional crystallization are characteristic for each main volcanic area, suggestive of lower to middle crust magma chamber processes. The South Harghita (SH) volcanic area represents direct continuation of the CGNH volcanic chain. Here at ca. 3 Ma following a time-gap, magma compositions changed to adakite-like calc-alkaline and continued until recent times (< 0.03 Ma). This volcanism was interrupted at ~1.6-1.8 Ma by simultaneous generation of Na- and K-alkalic varieties in nearby areas, suggestive of various sources and melting mechanisms, closely related to the hanging block beneath Vrancea seismic zone. The specific geochemistry is revealed by higher Nb/Y and Th/Y ratios and lower 87Sr/86Sr as compared to the CGNH chain. Identification of primitive magmas has been difficult despite the fact that this volcanic area contains more basalts than any other in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. Since the most primitive rocks represent the best opportunity to identify the trace element composition of the mantle source beneath the East Carpathian volcanic chain we use mineral and melt inclusions in olivine and composition of the most primitive

  4. Two-Phase Flow Effect on the Ex-Vessel Corium Debris Bed Formation in Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Moo Hwan; Park, Hyun Sun; Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian V.

    2014-01-01

    In Korean IVR-ERVC(In-Vessel Retention of molten corium through External Reactor Vessel Cooling) strategy, if the situation degenerates into insufficient external vessel cooling, the molten core mixture can directly erupt into the flooded cavity pool from the weakest point of the vessel. Then, FCI (molten Fuel Coolant Interaction) will fragment the corium jet into small particulates settling down to make porous debris bed on the cavity basemat. To secure the containment integrity against the MCCI (Molten Core - Concrete Interaction), cooling of the heat generating porous corium debris bed is essential and it depends on the characteristics of the bed itself. For the characteristics of corium debris bed, many previous experimental studies with simulant melts reported the heap-like shape mostly. There were also following experiments to develop the correlation for the heap-like shaped debris bed. However, recent studies started to consider the effect of the decay heat and reported some noticeable results with the two-phase flow effect on the debris bed formation. The Kyushu University and JAEA group reported the experimental studies on the 'self-leveling' effect which is the flattening effect of the particulate bed by the inside gas generation. The DECOSIM simulation study of RIT (Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden) with Russian researchers showed the 'large cavity pool convection' effect, which is driven by the up-rising gas bubble flow from the pre-settled debris bed, on the particle settling trajectories and ultimately final bed shape. The objective of this study is verification of the two-phase flow effect on the ex-vessel corium debris bed formation in the severe accident. From the analysis on the test movie and resultant particle beds, the two-phase flow effect on the debris bed formation, which has been reported in the previous studies, was verified and the additional findings were also suggested. For the first, in quiescent pool the

  5. Influence of the shape of the layers in photo-cured dental restorations on the shrinkage stress peaks-FEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse an influence of the shape of the layers in photo-cured dental restorations of Class I on distribution of shrinkage stresses along the tooth-restoration interface. The study is a continuation of the previous considerations (Kowalczyk and Gambin (2008) [1]), where techniques, which reduce stress concentration at the top of the tooth-restoration interface, were considered. The analysis leads to proposition of new layer forming techniques, which diminish the stress peaks at the interface and prevent the crack propagation process. To find the stress distributions in the dental restoration layers and the tooth tissues the finite element method implemented in the ABAQUS (Simulia, Providence, USA) software is used. For Class I restoration of the premolar tooth, the axisymmetrical model is assumed. The restoration is made of four layers of a photo-cured composite. Between the tooth tissues and the restoration, a layer of bonding agent 0.01mm thick is placed and modeled by FEM with help of the cohesive elements. The assumed model takes into account an influence of changes of elastic properties and viscous effects. For each case of the restoration layers system, the Huber-Mises stresses are analysed. The investigations show that the stresses near the restoration-tooth tissue interface are reduced due to viscous flow of the cured material and due to existence of a thin layer of the bonding agent. However, the stress distribution both, in the restoration and in the tooth tissues, is strongly dependent on a shape of the filling layers. Numerical simulations disclose that stress peaks are located at the top corners of each layer. The top corners of the last layer are the places where microleakage may occur. Stress concentrations at the corners of the preceding layers may lead to a growth of uprising crack. It will be shown that the flat layers in the restoration create relatively high values of the stress peaks. The rounded layers, with shapes

  6. Modelling of long term geochemical evolution and study of mechanical perturbation of bentonite buffer of a KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsal, Francois; Pellegrini, Delphine; Deleruyelle, Frederic; Serres, Chris tophe; Windt, Laurent de

    2008-03-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has recently completed a safety assessment project named SR-Can, related to the KBS-3 disposal concept. In this concept, the waste packages are surrounded by a buffer made of either MX-80 or Deponit CA-N bentonite. Interactions between the buffer and groundwater may modify the buffer composition and thus its containment properties. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authorities (SSI) requested the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to perform the present study in support of SSI review of the SR-Can report. The purpose is to assess the geochemical evolution of both potential buffer materials due to the intrusion of different types of groundwater, with a similar modelling layout to that reported in SR-Can. Three main categories of water inflows via a fracture intersecting a deposition hole are considered: the Forsmark reference groundwater, a high-salinity groundwater to account for up-rise of deep-seated brines and a diluted water representing ice-melting derived groundwater. In addition to this, the redox buffering capacity of Deponit CA-N bentonite and the thermal effect on MX-80 bentonite geochemistry have been assessed. This modelling work has been performed using the reactive transport modelling code HYTEC. The main outcome of the present study is that the intrusion of the considered groundwaters should not affect drastically the geochemistry of neither the Deponit CA-N nor the MX-80 bentonite on the long-term (100,000 y). Bentonite pH may reach high values (up to 10.5) in some cases but does not reach SKB criterion value related to bentonite chemical stability. Dissolution-precipitation of accessory minerals is not significant enough to induce important porosity changes (rise by maximum 2 %). Globally, the montmorillonite exchanger undergoes Na by Ca partial replacement, which may decrease the swelling pressure of the bentonite. The simulated intrusion of oxidizing waters

  7. El periodismo médico en la periferia española durante el primer tercio del siglo XX: Aproximación a la biografía y obra de José Sánchez Pozuelos (Murcia, c. 1885 - 1936

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    López González, José

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The biographical career of the physician José Sánchez Pozuelos and his contribution to the medical journalism in the first third of the twentieth century have been studied. In Murcia, as in the rest of Spain, this was a period of cultural and scientific excellence manifested, among other things, by the publication of many medical journals with the aim of disseminating the most relevant scientific production, the national as well as the foreign one. In this context, doctor José Sánchez Pozuelos who was belonging to the bourgeoisie that held the political local power and was also identified with conservative and religious ideologies as well as concerned with overcoming the backwardness of his homeland, founded and directed Murcia Médica (1915-1918 and Estudios Médicos (1920, 1924-1934. Both journals became the disseminating tool for the activity of the Murcia´s Royal Academy of Medicine, but also for other Spanish professionals and for the most relevant papers from various national and international publications; Estudios Médicos also came to be the Spanish medical journal with the largest circulation. The atmosphere of social unrest that preceded the military uprising of 1936 and the war that followed it truncated the development of these publications and the careers of the professionals that promoted them.Se estudia la trayectoria biográfica y la contribución de José Sánchez Pozuelos (Murcia, c. 1885-1936 al periodismo médico español del primer tercio del siglo XX, una época que en Murcia, como en el resto de España, fue un período de resurgir cultural y científico manifestado, entre otras cosas, por la edición de numerosas revistas médicas que pretendieron difundir entre los profesionales la producción científica más relevante, nacional y extranjera. En ese marco el médico José Sánchez Pozuelos, perteneciente a la burguesía murciana que detentaba el poder político local, e identificado con ideologías de car

  8. On the Margins: Noncitizens Caught in Countries Experiencing Violence, Conflict and Disaster

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    Sanjula Weerasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, perhaps more than ever, humanitarian crises permeate the lives of millions, triggering increased human movement and repeatedly testing the international community’s capacity to respond. Stakeholders within the international community have recognized that existing legal and institutional frameworks for protecting forced migrants are inadequate to address the diversity of movements and needs. This article examines the situation of noncitizens who are caught in violence, conflict, and disaster, and asserts that they are an at-risk population requiring tailored responses.Recent history has witnessed numerous humanitarian crises in which noncitizens have been among those most seriously affected. With more people than at any other point in history residing outside of their country of origin, the presence of new and sustained eruptions of violence and conflict, and the frequency and intensity of disasters predicted to increase, noncitizens will continue to be caught in countries experiencing crises. Destination countries, as well as origin countries whose citizens are caught in crisis situations abroad, must understand the challenges that noncitizens may encounter in accessing assistance and protection, and must formulate responses to ensure that their needs are adequately accommodated.While both citizens and noncitizens may encounter difficulties in any given humanitarian crisis, research on five recent crises—the Libyan uprising, the Tohoku earthquake, the tsunami and Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, flooding in Thailand, Hurricane Sandy in the United States, and the on-going conflict in Syria—demonstrates that a range of factors create particular challenges for noncitizens. Factors related to the underlying environment in the country undergoing a crisis and the responses of different actors may exacerbate the vulnerability of noncitizens. Moreover, different groups of noncitizens manifest distinct protection needs due to specific

  9. NUEVA REFORMA AGRARIA NEOLIBERAL Y MULTICULTURALISMO. TERRITORIOS INDÍGENAS, UN DERECHO VUELTO A NEGAR

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    María del Carmen Ventura Patiño

    2008-06-01

    systems and its conversion to private property. The PROCEDE and PROCECOM programs have been pillars of this process, to date granting certifications and property titles corresponding to just over 90% of all agrarian units in the country. A reiterated demand of the indigenous movement, which gathered momentum especially following the Zapatista uprising, is the modification of Constitutional Article 27, particularly in reference to the recognition of the collective right held by indigenous peoples over their lands, territories and natural resources. An important legal reference to which the indigenous movement has alluded is ILO Agreement 169, ratified by the Mexican government in 1990. In 2006, Mexico’s House of Representatives discussed a legislative proposal regarding a new Federal Agrarian Law, in which it was proposed that common-property lands (ejidos and communities that so wished could adhere themselves to the established procedure so their properties would be declared Indigenous Lands. However, it was not instituted as a new tenure system, and the legal definition of territory as spelled out in ILO Agreement 169 was also not taken into account. In the present essay we attempt to offer some elements that contribute to an analysis of the legal scope of this proposal.

  10. Book Reviews

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    ? Parakitri

    1991-10-01

    , Culture and language development, Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language No. 6, Cambridge University Press, 227 + 10 pp. - Denis Monnerie, Frederick H. Damon, Death rituals and life in the societies of the Kula Ring, Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1989. 280 pp., maps, figs., bibliogr., Roy Wagner (eds. - Denis Monnerie, Frederick H. Damon, From Muyuw to the Trobriands; Transformations along the northern side of the Kula ring, Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1990. xvi + 285 pp., maps, figs., illus., apps., bibliogr., index. - David S. Moyer, Jeremy Boissevain, Dutch dilemmas; Anthropologists look at the Netherlands, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1989, v + 186 pp., Jojada Verrips (eds. - Gert Oostindie, B.H. Slicher van Bath, Indianen en Spanjaarden; Een ontmoeting tussen twee werelden, Latijns Amerika 1500-1800. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1989. 301 pp. - Parakitri, C.A.M. de Jong, Kompas 1965-1985; Een algemene krant met een katholieke achtergrond binnen het religieus pluralisme van Indonesie, Kampen: Kok, 1990. - C.A. van Peursen, J. van Baal, Mysterie als openbaring. Utrecht: ISOR, 1990. - Harry A. Poeze, R.A. Longmire, Soviet relations with South-East Asia; An historical survey. London-New York: Kegan Paul International, 1989, x + 176 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Ann Swift, The road to Madiun; The Indonesian communist uprising of 1948. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project (Monograph series 69, 1989, xii + 116 pp. - Alex van Stipriaan, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and in Surinam 1791/5 - 1942, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1990. xii + 812 pp. - A. Teeuw, Keith Foulcher, Social commitment in literature and the arts: The Indonesian ‘Institute of People’s culture’ 1950-1965, Clayton, Victoria: Southeast Asian studies, Monash University (Centre of Southeast Asian studies, 1986, vii + 234 pp. - Elly Touwen-Bouwsma, T. Friend, The blue-eyed enemy; Japan against the West in Java and Luzon, 1942-1945. New

  11. Modelling of long term geochemical evolution and study of mechanical perturbation of bentonite buffer of a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, Francois; Pellegrini, Delphine; Deleruyelle, Frederic; Serres, Christophe (French Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)); Windt, Laurent de (Ecole des Mines de Paris, Paris (FR))

    2008-03-15

    PART I: The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has recently completed a safety assessment project named SR-Can, related to the KBS-3 disposal concept. In this concept, the waste packages are surrounded by a buffer made of either MX-80 or Deponit CA-N bentonite. Interactions between the buffer and groundwater may modify the buffer composition and thus its containment properties. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authorities (SSI) requested the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to perform the present study in support of SSI review of the SR-Can report. The purpose is to assess the geochemical evolution of both potential buffer materials due to the intrusion of different types of groundwater, with a similar modelling layout to that reported in SR-Can and detailed in Arcos et al. Three main categories of water inflows via a fracture intersecting a deposition hole are considered: the Forsmark reference groundwater, a high-salinity groundwater to account for up-rise of deep-seated brines and a diluted water representing ice-melting derived-groundwater. In addition to this, the redox buffering capacity of Deponit CA-N bentonite and the thermal effect on MX-80 bentonite geochemistry have been assessed. This modelling work has been performed using the reactive transport modelling code HYTEC. The main outcome of the present study is that the intrusion of the considered groundwaters should not affect drastically the geochemistry of neither the Deponit CA-N nor the MX-80 bentonite on the longterm (100,000 y). Bentonite pH may reach high values (up to 10.5) in some cases but does not reach SKB criterion value related to bentonite chemical stability. Dissolution-precipitation of accessory minerals is not significant enough to induce important porosity changes (rise by maximum 2 %). Globally, the montmorillonite exchanger undergoes Na by Ca partial replacement, which may decrease the swelling pressure of the bentonite. The

  12. The Lives of Others: re-remembering the German Democratic Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Montgomerie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In the period since the popular uprising of 1989, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the re-unification of Germany, a range of representations of the GDR have emerged and gained popularity with audiences in the former GDR and the West. This article will investigate the ways in which three films, Good bye Lenin! (Becker, 2003, Germany , The Lives of Others  (von Donnersmarck,  2006, Germany and Mrs Ratcliffe’s Revolution (Eltringham, 2007, UK recall the East German past, invoking memories, or the sense of memory, through an articulation of the detail of the everyday lives of ordinary people. These films are immersed in the discursive practices associated with ‘Ostalgie’, a term coined to characterise the critical, often humorous nostalgia for the life and style of the former East.  The article will also explore the use of references to state coercion and surveillance which draws on a set of representational tropes and which continue the West’s Cold War representation of the paranoid and intrusively watchful state.

     

    Signal Processing for Indian and Pakistan Nuclear Tests Recorded at IMS Stations Located in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.; Pinsky, V.; Hofstetter, R.

    - In compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) the International Monitoring System (IMS) was designed for detection and location of the clandestine Nuclear Tests (NT). Two auxiliary IMS seismic stations MRNI and EIL, deployed recently, were subjected to detectability, travel-time calibration and discrimination analysis. The study is based on the three recent 1998 underground nuclear explosions: one of India and two of Pakistan, which provided a ground-truth test of the existing IMS. These events, attaining magnitudes of 5.2, 4.8 and 4.6 correspondingly, were registered by many IMS and other seismic stations.The MRNI and EIL broadband (BB) stations are located in Israel at teleseismic distances (from the explosions) of 3600, 2800 and 2700km, respectively, where the signals from the tests are already weak. The Indian and the second Pakistan NT were not detected by the short-period Israel Seismic Network (ISN), using standard STA/LTA triggering. Therefore, for the chosen IMS stations we compare the STA/LTA response to the results of the more sensitive Murdock-Hutt (MH) and the Adaptive Statistically Optimal Detector (OD) that showed triggering for these three events. The second Pakistan NT signal arrived at the ISN and the IMS stations in the coda of a strong Afghanistan earthquake and was further disturbed by a preceding signal from a local earthquake. However, the NT signal was successfully extracted at EIL and MRNI stations using MH and OD procedures. For comparison we provide the signal analysis of the cooperating BB station JER, with considerably worse noise conditions than EIL and MRNI, and show that OD can detect events when the other algorithms fail. Using the most quiet EIL station, the most sensitive OD and different bandpass filters we tried in addition to detect the small Kazakh chemical 100-ton calibration explosion of 1998, with magnitude 3.7 at a distance approaching 4000km. The detector response curve showed uprising in the

  13. Written Exercises: Ancestral Magic and Emergent Intellectuals in Mia Couto, Lhoussain Azergui and Dorota Masłowska

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    Ewa Łukaszyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Written Exercises: Ancestral Magic and Emergent Intellectuals in Mia Couto, Lhoussain Azergui and Dorota Masłowska The article consists in a comparative reading of three novels: Um rio chamado tempo by Mia Couto, Le pain des corbeaux by Lhoussain Azergui and Paw królowej by Dorota Masłowska. In spite of the difference of the historical circumstances of Mozambique, Morocco and Poland, these three books meet at an intersecting point: the emergence of an intelligentsia that uses literacy and writing as an instrument to deconstruct the post-colonial concept of nation and to operate a trans-colonial renegotiation of identity. By the notion of trans-colonial, I understand the opposition against new kinds of symbolic violence that emerged after the end of the colonial period; here this new form of oppression is related to the concept of national unity – an artificial construct that leaves no place for a dualism or pluralism of cultural reality (two shores of the Zambezi river, Arab and Berber dualism in Morocco, “small homelands” in Poland. The young heroes of the novels grasp the pen in order to break through the falseness or the taboos created by the fathers, establishing, at the same time, the relation of solidarity with the world of the grandfathers. The act of writing becomes an actualization of the ancestral universe of magic. The settlement of accounts with the parental generation concerns the vision of nation built upon the resistance against the colonizer (it also refers to the Polish cultural formation, based on the tradition of uprisings and resistance against the Russians.   Ćwiczenia pisemne: magia przodków i nowi intelektualiści w powieściach Mii Couto, Lhoussaina Azerguiego i Doroty Masłowskiej Na podstawie powieści Um rio chamado tempo, uma casa chamada terra Mii Couto (2002, Le pain des corbeaux Lhoussaina Azerguiego (2012 oraz Paw królowej Doroty Masłowskiej (2005 dokonano analizy zjawiska wyłonienia się nowej

  14. The Biosphere as a Living System. On Peculiarities of the Evolutionary Process on the Biosphere Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexej Yablokov

    2016-10-01

    ; spontaneity and non-directional changes of the development programs; securing successful changes by natural selection; geometrical progression of reproduction as a “spring” of life. There are four basic levels of organization of life: molecular-genetics, ontogenetics, species-populational, ecosystemic. Among the main features of the evolution of the biosphere: spreading of life on the planet; the uprising of the biosphere’ turnover of matters on the basis of the use of solar energy; increasing of the closeness of this turnover; strengthening the energy flow through the biosphere; the increase in mass of organic matter involved in this cycle; the emergence of the genetic code; the emergence of eukaryotes; increasing of the structural and functional diversity of the biosphere. Among the major achievements of evolution in the plant world: improving the chemical mechanisms of photosynthesis, plants access to land (the appearance of vascular and root systems; the growth of the photosynthetic capacity of terrestrial plant communities. Among the main achievements of evolution in the animal world: the appearance of the skeleton, hemoglobin; increasing the independence from the external factors (growth of a homeostasis; the emergence of the nervous system and sociality. Among the patterns of evolution of organs and functions in different groups of living organisms: the intensification of functions; intensification of the multifunctionality and duplications of biological systems components; supplementation (rather than substitution of new functions to the old. Chorologically (spatially biosphere is composed of ecosystems of all sizes, including biogeocoenoses (which are the ecosystems within the boundaries of the phytocenosis. Biogeocoenoses are minimal spatial unit of biosphere with its own evolutionary destiny (but not "one more" name of an ecosystem, is as usual treated in the western literature. The Biosphere as whole is not only the largest Earth’ ecosystem, but also

  15. Légitimer la participation des femmes à l’effort de guerre en zone nationale pendant la guerre d’Espagne : vers la notion de « guerre totale »

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    Marie-Aline Barrachina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pendant la guerre civile espagnole, l’urgence sanitaire et sociale conduit les femmes de la zone nationale à se mobiliser derrière des associations confessionnelles ou partisanes afin de  participer à l’effort de guerre. Or les forces qui soutenaient le soulèvement antirépublicain fondaient leur conception de l’Etat et de la société sur une stricte répartition des espaces privés et public, ce dernier étant exclusivement réservé aux hommes. Il convenait donc de dépoussiérer ces principes afin de les rendre cohérents avec la réalité du terrain, sans pour autant enfreindre trop visiblement l’ordre national et catholique. La reconnaissance par Franco du Secours social (2 février 1937, puis la création du Service social présenté comme l équivalent féminin du service militaire (décret du 7 octobre 1937 sont les premières étapes du processus d’officialisation d’un devoir national de présence des femmes dans l’espace public à des fins exclusives d’assistance, et sous le strict contrôle de l’Etat national et catholique. Ce devoir national, la presse féminine se chargera d’en préciser les limites dans une dernière étape qui se poursuit après guerre, en exaltant un modèle de femme espagnole dont l’unique aspiration, quand l’urgence l’oblige à accomplir de grandes choses au nom de la foi et de la patrie, serait de retrouver au plus vite la quiétude du foyer où réside sa vocation première et transcendante. C’est la théorie de la « guerre totale » qui arrache les femmes à leur nature, le temps d’une guerre.During the Spanish civil war, due to a lack of sanitary and social services, the women of the national zone had to support the war effort. But the forces that supported the antirepublican uprising had a conception of the state and society strictly divided between private and public spaces, this being exclusively for men. So it was necessary to get rid of these principles to adjust

  16. Organized massive forced migration of Serbs from Croatia in 1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škiljan Filip

    2012-01-01

    in an organized manner. One part of them managed to escape before they were arrested. The migration of priests was carried out through transit camps in Caprag and Požega. Massive deportations of the Serbian population through transit camps in Caprag, Bjelovar and Požega began with the arresting of Serbs in Zagreb in the first half of July 1941, and then continued in other districts of northern Croatia and Bosnia. The total number of migrations in an organized manner from the Croatian part of the NDH up to the beginning of September 1941, according to the name list drawn up in 2012, amounted to 9875 Serbs, although that number was not final since there were greater disparities for certain districts. By the end of September 1941, the Ustashas migrated 14,733 Serbs out of the NDH in a legal way. Croatians from Dalmatia, Herzegovina and the Croatian Zagorje as well as displaced Slovenians primarily originally from Styria, moved into their houses. The authorities of NDH confiscated the property of the forced out Serbs. Other forms of the Ustasha terror, like massive killings, caused intensive illegal emigration of Serbs from NDH to Serbia, which, according to German data, had already increased to around 180,000 relocated Serbs by the end of July, although it seems this number exceeded 200,000 by the end of September. Organized migration was ceased in October 1941 after the German authorities in Serbia forbid further immigration of Serbs from the NDH mainly because of the uprising in western Serbia. Part of the banished Serbs from the Požega concentration camp were returned home to the districts of Osijek, Garešnica, Križevac, Virovitica and Ludbreg. However, from the documentation of the Commissariat for Refugees in Belgrade, it is evident that the research on the migration of Serbs from Croatia and the whole of NDH was not finished in 1941, so the number of 200,000 of forced migrants who have left is not final.

  17. Osmanlı’da Bir Darbe ve Tahlili: Genç Osman Örneği A Coup in Ottoman Empire And Its Analysis: Genç Osman Example

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    Hasan YAŞAROĞLU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The New Order (Nizam-ı Cedit movements started in period of Selim The third (III. Selim of Otttoman sultans, is an important step taken toward westernization. Some sultans in last period of Ottoman Empire have also strived to take similar steps. There are records of initiation for reform movements even during period of Mustafa The Third (III. Mustafa, father of Selim The Third (III. Selim. When we went back to more in time, The Lale Devri (The Tulip Period emerges. The Tulip Period (Lale Devri despite the term being at the forefront of pleasure and deligth, some steps have been taken at this time in the direction of the westernization/renewal. The period of Sultan Osman The Second (II Osman forms the first steps taken toward renewal. Unfortunately, an uprising movement has ended the mentioned period above. Both this first Ottoman innovation movement and the first Ottoman insurrection that terminated the innovation are of importance in terms of being sample for the next ones. After these events, most of the reform movements, which emerged in the Ottoman Empire, have shared the same fate as Genç Osman reform movement.Upon his uncle Mustafa The First (I. Mustafa being jailed, Genç Osman (Young Othman became the Ottoman Sultan, but Othman has soon attracted the wrath of Janissaries and the Ulema due to his tough attitude. This hatred increased in time when Sultan Othman personally assumed the supreme commander in chief of army and decided to go to Mecca for pilgimage and eventually turned into a rebellion. The coup that was started under the leadership of Janissary and Sipahi units, and the rebels, strengthened the next day with the participation of scholars, relied on the Palace’s door to inform their demands. Genç Osman (Young Othman initially rejected the demands of the rebels, but he but was unable to sustain his attitude over the time. The rebels, at the end, entered the Palace, and have taken the Sultan’s uncle Mustafa The first (I

  18. Concrete containments in Swedish nuclear power plants. A review of construction and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Thomas; Silfwerbrand, Johan; Sundquist, Haakan

    2002-12-01

    attention. Current investigation shows that the documentation on the concrete containment structures of the Swedish nuclear power stations is fairly complete after the authors have obtained new information through a survey during 2001 and included these data in the report. The target group of this report are structural engineers and other people interested in knowing how the prestressed concrete containments in the Swedish nuclear power stations are designed, detailed and constructed. Uprising questions regarding the structural behaviour of the containment structures ought to be evaluated by using present material properties and not the data describing the used building materials at the design stage. The aim of this research project is to gain new knowledge on life span questions regarding prestressing steel in concrete structures, partly generally and partly with focus on Swedish nuclear power stations and Swedish bridges. The project covers both bonded and un bonded prestressing steel. This report describes the containment structures for all Swedish nuclear power stations. The information is both given in Chapters 5 through 16 and assembled in tables in Appendix A. The intention is that the documentation shall grow and be supplemented as soon as new information, either new data describing the containment structures or new measuring results, will be obtained or produced within current research project. Design and detailing of prestressed concrete structures are among others based on the knowledge of time-dependent material changes regarding concrete (creep and shrinkage) and prestressing steel (relaxation). The intention is that the following items will treated: general evaluation; testing of prestressing steel and concrete properties; assessment of the risk of a time-dependent increase of brittleness of the prestressing steel; comparisons with codes; modelling of steel relaxation; unidimensional modelling of prestressing losses; regard to elevated temperatures

  19. Corelation among clinical, biochemical and tomographic criteria in order to evaluate the severity in acute pancreatitis Correlación entre criterios clínicos, bioquímicos y tomográficos para evaluar la gravedad de la pancreatitis aguda

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    L. A. Lujano-Nicolás

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process that may involve peripancreatic tissue and distant organs. According to the Atlanta criteria, in 10 to 20% of the patients the disease is severe. Nowadays there are different clinical and biochemical severity scales such as the Ranson, APACHE-II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation and hematocrit, which have discrepancies when being compared to tomographic scales such as the Balthazar. There exist few studies that correlate these parameters. Objective: to evaluate the severity of the acute pancreatitis according to the Ranson, APACHE-II and serous hematocrit criteria at the moment of admission of the patient and correlate these scales with the local pancreatic complications according to the Balthazar classification. Patients and method: retrospective, observational and analytic study. There were included patients of any gender above the age of 18, with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis of any etiology, who had performed an abdominal tomography 72 hours after the beginning of the clinical condition in order to stage the pancreatic damage. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was established with 2 of the 3 following criteria: a characteristic abdominal pain; b uprising of the amylase and/or lipase more than 3 times above the superior normal limit; and c characteristic finds of acute pancreatitis in the computed tomography. In order to make the correlation, the Pearson or the Spearman tests were used according to the distribution of the variables. Results: there were included 28 patients (21 masculine, 75%. The most frequent etiology was due to alcohol (53.6%, bile (21.4% and hypertriglyceridemia (17.9%. The age average was 38.1 years old. Fifty per cent of the patients had acute severe pancreatitis according to the Atlanta criteria. Of the patients with APACHE-II less than 8 points, 62.5% were classified according to the Balthazar tomographic scale as D or E degree. Ninety

  1. Надчеканки на медных монетах боспорского архонта Асандра / Countermarks on copper coins of the Bosporus archon Asander

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    M.M. Choref

    2016-01-01

    трамаркирование. Судя по надчеканкам, большая их часть просуществовала сравнительно недолго. Так, монеты с контрамаркой «палица» крайне редки. Нечасто встречаются и бронзы с выбитой на них монограммой. В то же время звездовидная контрамарка оттиснута на множестве оболов, обращавшихся в эпоху Асандра. Полагаем, что это обстоятельство свидетельствует о продолжительности периода деятельности использовавшего ее эмиссионного центра, и, следовательно, санкционировавшего надчеканивание органа власти. Считаем, что появление контрамарок свидетельствует о тяжести кризиса, поразившего Боспорское царство на рубеже н.э., вызванного грубым вмешательством Рима во внутренние дела этого государства. The paper presents a study of countermarks on coins of Asander, a Bosporus archon. We believe that the countermarks when stamped at the time of Polemon I. We have discovered that the countermark with a mace, or a fighting stick different was stamped at the Dioscurias strategy mint. We date the countermark back to 14 BC, which was the time when the Bosporians confronted Polemon I for the first time. A star-like countermark was used at the mint of Aspurgians and appeared as a result of the uprising against Polemon I in the Asian side of Bosporus as a reaction to Polemon I’s marriage to Pifodorida. This countermark had been stamped starting from 12 BC and used until the death of the Roman appointee. We have

  2. Environmental changes and human settlement in the central Marches (Italy during the early-middle Holocene

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    Gilberto Calderoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Early Holocene, the central Marches (Italy underwent a widespread development of forest cover and soils which drastically reduced slope degradation and related aggradation processes in riverbeds. In such conditions, streams deeply incised the previous alluvial sediments. In the Apennine sectors, linear erosion was locally prevented by the growth of travertine dams in correspondence with river channel knickpoints and waterfalls. Fluvial deposition prevailed in the peri-Adriatic hilly belt, where river valleys still extended from the present coastline to the uprising Adriatic Sea, as testified by a 50-m-deep cored log, drilled near the Potenza River mouth. Several archaeological sites, ranging from the Mesolithic to the Aeneolithic, testify the recurrent presence of small-scale human groups on the alluvial plains of the lower valley sectors. Sandy-clayey sediments, emplaced by flooding episodes, repeatedly buried these settlements which were commonly located on the riversides. Small Aeneolithic communities were also present in the mountain sectors, around travertine-dammed swampy-lacustrine basins. On top of the sequences, Bronze Age sites were locally found. Widespread deforestation started in the early Iron Age (about 3000 yr BP, when alluvial plains and terraces were permanently occupied by large-scale human settlements. Geo-archaeological evidence of systematic deforestation at 2950 ± 50 14C yr BP, consisting of numerous round-shaped 1.5-3 m wide hollows, filled with soil sediments and upturned blocks of alluvial gravels, were found on top of a fluvial terrace in the Esino River basin. From the Iron Age to recent historical times, notwithstanding the progressive increase of debris supply to the drainage systems due to the spreading agricultural-pastoral activities, erosion dominated almost everywhere in the Marches rivers, likely induced by climatic factors.À l’Holocène inférieur, comme ailleurs dans le monde, les Marches