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Sample records for uppermost cervical segment

  1. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

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    Chien-Shiung Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact spine (group 1; and C5–C6 segments that were fused via cage-instrumented plate fixation (group 2. Specimens were cycled between 20° flexion and 15° extension with a displacement control of 1°/second. The tested parameters included the range of motion (ROM of each segment, torque and strain on both the body and inferior articular process at the superior segments (C3–C4 adjacent to the fused bone, and the position of the neutral axis of stress at under 20° flexion and 15° extension. Under flexion and Group 2, torque, ROM, and strain on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. Under extension and Group 2, ROM for the fused segment was less than that of Group 1; torque, ROM, and stress on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. These analytical results indicate that the muscles and ligaments require greater force to achieve cervical motion than the intact spine following anterior cervical spine fusion. In addition, ROM and stress on the bodies and facets of the joint segments adjacent to the fused bone were significantly increased. Under flexion, the neutral axis of the stress on the adjacent segment moved backward, and the stress on the bodies of the segments adjacent to the fused bone increased. These comparative results indicate that increased stress on the adjacent segments is caused by stress-shielding effects

  2. The deformation behavior of the cervical spine segment

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    Kolmakova, T. V.; Rikun, Yu. A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the model of the cervical spine segment (C3-C4) and the calculation results of its deformation behavior at flexion. The segment model was built based on the experimental literature data taking into account the presence of the cortical and cancellous bone tissue of vertebral bodies. Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disk (IVD) were simulated through a reduction of the disc height and an increase of Young's modulus. The construction of the geometric model of the cervical spine segment and the calculations of the stress-strain state were carried out in the ANSYS software complex. The calculation results show that the biggest protrusion of the IVD in bending direction of segment is observed when IVD height is reduced. The disc protrusion is reduced with an increase of Young's modulus. The largest protrusion in the direction of flexion of the segment is the intervertebral disk with height of 4.3 mm and elastic modulus of 2.5 MPa. The results of the study can be useful to specialists in the field of biomechanics, medical materials science and prosthetics.

  3. Correlation between cervical lordosis and adjacent segment pathology after anterior cervical spinal surgery.

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    Lee, Soo Eon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun Jib

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after anterior cervical spinal surgery. Fourteen patients (12 male, mean age 47.1 years) who underwent single-level cervical disk arthroplasty (CDA group) and 28 case-matched patients (24 male, mean age 53.6 years) who underwent single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF group) were included. Presence of radiologic ASP (RASP) was based on observed changes in anterior osteophytes, disks, and calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament on lateral radiographs. The mean follow-up period was 43.4 months in the CDA group and 44.6 months in the ACDF group. At final follow-up, ASP was observed in 5 (35.7%) CDA patients and 16 (57.1%) ACDF patients (p = 0.272). The interval between surgery and ASP development was 33.8 months in the CDA group and 16.3 months in the ACDF group (p = 0.046). The ASP risk factor analysis indicated postoperative cervical angle at C3-7 being more lordotic in non-ASP patients in both groups. Restoration of lordosis occurred in the CDA group regardless of the presence of ASP, but heterotopic ossification development was associated with the presence of ASP in the CDA group. And the CDA group had significantly greater clinical improvements than those in the ACDF group when ASP was present. In both CDA and ACDF patients, RASP developed, but CDA was associated with a delay in ASP development. A good clinical outcome was expected in CDA group, even when ASP developed. Restoration of cervical lordosis was an important factor in anterior cervical spine surgery.

  4. Using tracheal segments for replacement of cervical oesophagus: an experimental study.

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    Abbasidezfouli, Azizollah; Sharifi, Davood; Sasani, Farhang; Ansari, Damoon; Abarkar, Mohammad; Rahmanijoo, Nasrin; Abbasidezfouli, Golbahar; Sheikhy, Kambiz

    2012-03-01

    Segmental resection and anastomosis of oesophageal lesions are not performed as a routine clinical practice because of complications and associated problems, whereas tracheal resection and anastomosis are a routine clinical practice. In this experimental study, we resected a segment of cervical oesophagus and replaced it with a tracheal segment. In eight dogs (mixed races), weighing 20-30 kg, ageing 1-2 years, under general anaesthesia, through a cervical incision, 5 cm of cervical trachea was separated while preserving its attachments to surrounding fibroareolar tissues. Afterwards, 5 cm of the oesophagus was resected and replaced with a prepared segment of the trachea. Oral liquids were started at the first post-operative day; the animals were kept for 2 months and then euthanized. Quality of swallowing and voice were evaluated. After an autopsy, anastomoses were examined grossly and histopathologically. No complications occurred during surgery. Swallowing function and voice were normal in all eight dogs after the operation. No sign of aspiration was seen in clinical and radiographic examinations after starting oral diet. In autopsy examination, anastomoses were patent without narrowing or abnormal mucosal changes. Remarkable histopathological findings in replaced tracheal segments were squamous metaplasia, atrophy and degeneration of mucosal glands and degeneration of cartilages. Replacement of a segment of the oesophagus with an autogenous tracheal segment is a practical procedure with low complications and can probably be used for the treatment of cervical oesophageal lesions in human beings.

  5. SEGMENTATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF CERVICAL CYTOLOGY IMAGES USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL OPERATIONS

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    S Anantha Sivaprakasam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer that is a disease, in which malignant (cancer cells form in the tissues of the cervix, is one of the fourth leading causes of cancer death in female community worldwide. The cervical cancer can be prevented and/or cured if it is diagnosed in the pre-cancerous lesion stage or earlier. A common physical examination technique widely used in the screening is called Papanicolaou test or Pap test which is used to detect the abnormality of the cell. Due to intricacy of the cell nature, automating of this procedure is still a herculean task for the pathologist. This paper addresses solution for the challenges in terms of a simple and novel method to segment and classify the cervical cell automatically. The primary step of this procedure is pre-processing in which de-nosing, de-correlation operation and segregation of colour components are carried out, Then, two new techniques called Morphological and Statistical Edge based segmentation and Morphological and Statistical Region Based segmentation Techniques- put forward in this paper, and that are applied on the each component of image to segment the nuclei from cervical image. Finally, all segmented colour components are combined together to make a final segmentation result. After extracting the nuclei, the morphological features are extracted from the nuclei. The performance of two techniques mentioned above outperformed than standard segmentation techniques. Besides, Morphological and Statistical Edge based segmentation is outperformed than Morphological and Statistical Region based Segmentation. Finally, the nuclei are classified based on the morphological value The segmentation accuracy is echoed in classification accuracy. The overall segmentation accuracy is 97%.

  6. Cervical facet dislocation adjacent to the fused motion segment

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    Kunio Yokoyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on a case that forces re-examination of merits and demerits of anterior cervical fusion. A 79-year-old male was brought to the emergency room (ER of our hospital after he fell and struck the occipital region of his head following excessive alcohol consumption. Four years prior, he had undergone anterior cervical discectomy and fusion of C5/6 and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI performed 3 years after this surgery indicated that he was suffering from degeneration of C6/7 intervertebral discs. After arriving at the ER, he presented motor impairment at level C7 and lower of manual muscle testing grade 1 as well as moderate loss of physical sensation from the trunk and peripheries of both upper limbs to the peripheries of both lower limbs (Frankel B. Cervical computed tomography (CT indicated anterior dislocation of C6/7, and MRI indicated severe spinal cord edema. We performed manipulative reduction of C6/7 with the patient under general anesthesia. Next, we performed laminectomy on C5-T1 and posterior fusion on C6/7. Postoperative CT indicated that cervical alignment had improved, and MRI indicated that the spinal cord edema observed prior to surgery had been mitigated. Three months after surgery, motor function and sensory impairment of the lower limbs had improved, and the patient was ambulatory upon discharge from the hospital (Frankel D. In the present case, although C5 and 6 were rigidly fused, degeneration of the C6/7 intervertebral disc occurred and stability was compromised. As a result, even slight trauma placed a severe dynamic burden on the facet joint of C6/7, which led to dislocation.

  7. Manual therapy and segmental stabilization in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy

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    Rafael Souza Aquaroli

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cervical radiculopathy (CR is one of the diseases that most affect the cervical spine, causing radicular symptoms in the ipsilateral limb. Conservative treatment aim recover of both mechanical and physiological functions through neural mobilization techniques, along with the activation of the deep neck flexors with cervical segmental stabilization, combining techniques of joint mobilization and manipulation, which seeks mobility improvement of crucial areas of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to evaluate a multimodal treatment to enhance the outcomes of conservative care in patients diagnosed with CR. Methods: The sample consisted of 11 patients with CR, between 21 and 59 years old, 3 female and 8 male. It was recorded the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for pain, the Functional Development of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS and the goniometry during shoulder abduction. The intervention plan was composed by neural mobilization, intermittent cervical traction, pompages, stretching, myofascial inhibition techniques, manipulative techniques and cervical segmental stabilization exercises. After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects underwent a new evaluation process. Results: Before the treatment, subjects reported an average pain of 7 (± 1.48 in VAS, whose dropped to average 1.18 (± 1.99 (p < 0.01. Functional disability evaluated in NPDS was 36 (± 10.95 before treatment decreasing to 11.45 (± 9.8 (p < 0.01 after the treatment. Range of motion of the ipsilateral upper limb was restores by increasing from 9.2° (± 8.2 to 137° (± 24.4 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: The proposed treatment approach was effective, significantly improving the results of analgesia and functional disability a series of cases of patients diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy. {#}

  8. The change of adjacent segment after cervical disc arthroplasty compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Dong, Liang; Xu, Zhengwei; Chen, Xiujin; Wang, Dongqi; Li, Dichen; Liu, Tuanjing; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-10-01

    Many meta-analyses have been performed to study the efficacy of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF); however, there are few data referring to adjacent segment within these meta-analyses, or investigators are unable to arrive at the same conclusion in the few meta-analyses about adjacent segment. With the increased concerns surrounding adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) and adjacent segment disease (ASDis) after anterior cervical surgery, it is necessary to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to analyze adjacent segment parameters. To perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to elaborate adjacent segment motion, degeneration, disease, and reoperation of CDA compared with ACDF. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTs comparing CDA and ACDF before May 2016. The analysis parameters included follow-up time, operative segments, adjacent segment motion, ASDeg, ASDis, and adjacent segment reoperation. The risk of bias scale was used to assess the papers. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to analyze the reason for high heterogeneity. Twenty-nine RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Compared with ACDF, the rate of adjacent segment reoperation in the CDA group was significantly lower (panalysis. There was no statistically significant difference in ASDeg between CDA and ACDF within the 24-month follow-up period; however, the rate of ASDeg in CDA was significantly lower than that of ACDF with the increase in follow-up time (p.05). Cervical disc arthroplasty provided a lower adjacent segment range of motion (ROM) than did ACDF, but the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with ACDF, the advantages of CDA were lower ASDeg and adjacent segment reoperation. However, there was no statistically significant difference in ASDis and adjacent segment ROM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

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    Ezgi Akar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of intervertebral disc space narrowing, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM using serial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean age of the 89 patients was 41.3 (24-76 years. The mean follow-up duration was 34.3 (12-64 months. Radiographic evidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed in 12 patients (13.4%. Nine (75% patients had new complaints. Of the patients who had degenerative changes, 7 were (58% were male, 5 (42% were female; the mean age was 46 (30- 62 years. It was observed that the level of fusion and the number of fusion did not increase the adjacent segment degeneration. All of 12 patients were observed to have a non lordotic cervical spine and increased ROM. Conclusion: Development of degeneration at the level adjacent to region anterior cervical discectomy and fusion performed is higher compared to non-adjacent levels. The level of fusion and the number of fusion levels have no effect on the development of degeneration. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:120-3

  10. Radiographic analysis of the correlation between ossification of the nuchal ligament and sagittal alignment and segmental stability of the cervical spine in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

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    Ying, Jinwei; Teng, Honglin; Qian, Yunfan; Hu, Yingying; Wen, Tianyong; Ruan, Dike; Zhu, Minyu

    2018-01-01

    Background Ossification of the nuchal ligament (ONL) caused by chronic injury to the nuchal ligament (NL) is very common in instability-related cervical disorders. Purpose To determine possible correlations between ONL, sagittal alignment, and segmental stability of the cervical spine. Material and Methods Seventy-three patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and ONL (ONL group) and 118 patients with CSM only (control group) were recruited. Radiographic data included the characteristics of ONL, sagittal alignment and segmental stability, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). We performed comparisons in terms of radiographic parameters between the ONL and control groups. The correlations between ONL size, cervical sagittal alignment, and segmental stability were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent risk factors of the development of ONL. Results C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), T1 slope (T1S), T1S minus cervical lordosis (T1S-CL) on the lateral plain, angular displacement (AD), and horizontal displacement (HD) on the dynamic radiograph increased significantly in the ONL group compared with the control group. The size of ONL significantly correlated with C2-C7 SVA, T1S, AD, and HD. The incidence of ONL was higher in patients with OPLL and segmental instability. Cervical instability, sagittal malalignment, and OPLL were independent predictors of the development of ONL through multivariate analysis. Conclusion Patients with ONL are more likely to have abnormal sagittal alignment and instability of the cervical spine. Thus, increased awareness and appreciation of this often-overlooked radiographic finding is warranted during diagnosis and treatment of instability-related cervical pathologies and injuries.

  11. Segmentation and abnormality detection of cervical cancer cells using fast elm with particle swarm optimization

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    Sukumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer arises when the anomalous cells on the cervix mature unmanageable obviously in the renovation sector. The most probably used methods to detect abnormal cervical cells are the routine and there is no difference between the abnormal and normal nuclei. So that the abnormal nuclei found are brown in color while normal nuclei are blue in color. The spread or cells are examined and the image denoising is performed based on the Iterative Decision Based Algorithm. Image Segmentation is the method of paneling a digital image into compound sections. The major utilize of segmentation is to abridge or modify the demonstration of an image. The images are segmented by applying anisotropic diffusion on the Denoised image. Image can be enhanced using dark stretching to increase the quality of the image. It separates the cells into all nuclei region and abnormal nuclei region. The abnormal nuclei regions are further classified into touching and non-touching regions and touching regions undergoes feature selection process. The existing Support Vector Machines (SVM is classified few nuclei regions but the time to taken for execution is high. The abnormality detected from the image is calculated as 45% from the total abnormal nuclei. Thus the proposed method of Fast Particle Swarm Optimization with Extreme Learning Machines (Fast PSO-ELM to classify all nuclei regions further into touching region and separated region. The iterative method for to training the ELM and make it more efficient than the SVM method. In experimental result, the proposed method of Fast PSO-ELM may shows the accuracy as above 90% and execution time is calculated based on the abnormality (ratio of abnormal nuclei regions to all nuclei regions image. Therefore, Fast PSO-ELM helps to detect the cervical cancer cells with maximum accuracy.

  12. Failure of cervical arthroplasty in a patient with adjacent segment disease associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome

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    Ioannis D Papanastassiou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical arthroplasty may be justified in patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS in order to preserve cervical motion. The aim of this paper is to report an arthroplasty failure in a patient with KFS. A 36-year-old woman with KFS underwent two-level arthroplasty for adjacent segment disc degeneration. Anterior migration of the cranial prosthesis was encountered 5 months postoperatively and was successfully revised with anterior cervical fusion. Cervical arthroplasty in an extensively stiff and fused neck is challenging and may lead to catastrophic failure. Although motion preservation is desirable in KFS, the special biomechanical features may hinder arthroplasty. Fusion or hybrid constructs may represent more reasonable options, especially when multiple fused segments are present.

  13. Sagittal Alignment As a Predictor of Clinical Adjacent Segment Pathology requiring Surgery after Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

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    Park, Moon Soo; Kelly, Michael P.; Lee, Dong-Ho; Min, Woo-Kie; Rahman, Ra’Kerry K.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Postoperative malalignment of the cervical spine may alter cervical spine mechanics, and put patients at risk for clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery. PURPOSE To investigate whether a relationship exists between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery (CASP-S) following anterior cervical fusion (ACF). STUDY DESIGN Retrospective matched study. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty two patients undergoing ACF from 1996 to 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 2 year follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior endplate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. METHODS One hundred twenty two patients undergoing ACF from 1996 to 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 1 year follow-up. Patients were divided into groups according to the development of CASP requiring surgery (Control / CASP-S) and by number/location of levels fused. Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior endplate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to calculate relationships between the variables and the development of CASP-S. No funds were received in support of this work. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related

  14. [Segmental tracheal resection and anastomosis for the treatment of cicatricial stenosis in cervical tracheal].

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    Cui, P C; Luo, J S; Liu, Z; Bian, K; Guo, Z H; Ma, R N

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of segmental tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis for cicatricial cervical tracheal stenosis. The clinical outcomes of 40 patients treated with tracheal resection were retrospectively reviewed. There were 28 male patients and 12 female patients with the age ranged from 6 to 64 years (mean 33.7 years). The degree of stenosis was classified according to Myer-Cotton classification as follows: grade Ⅱ (n=7), grade Ⅲ (n=22) and grade Ⅳ (n=11). The stenosis extension ranged from 1.0 to 4.3 cm (mean 2.5 cm). The causes of the stenosis were postintubation (n=33), cervical trauma (n=6) and resection of tracheal neoplasm (n=1). Thirty-four(85.0%) patients were decannulated and 6 failed. Of the 6 patients failed, 4 were decannulated after reoperation with the sternohyoid myocutaneous flap or thyroid alar cartilage graft. Complications occurred in 10 patients. In 8 patients granulation tissues formed at the site of the tracheal anastomosis, which needed endoscopic resction, and in 2 patients anastomosic dehiscence occurred. No injury to recurrent laryngeal nerve or trachoesophageal fistula occurred. Segmental tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis is an effective surgical method for tracheal stenosis, which has a higher successful rate for primary operation and shorter therapeutic period.

  15. Adjacent segment pathology following anterior decompression and fusion using cage and plate for the treatment of degenerative cervical spinal diseases.

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    Song, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Byung-Wan; Kim, Jong-Kil

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective study. To analyze the incidence and prevalence of clinical adjacent segment pathology (CASP) following anterior decompression and fusion with cage and plate augmentation for degenerative cervical diseases. No long-term data on the use of cage and plate augmentation have been reported. The study population consisted of 231 patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with cage and plate for degenerative cervical spinal disease. The incidence and prevalence of CASP was determined by using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. To analyze the factors that influence CASP, data on preoperative and postoperative sagittal alignment, spinal canal diameter, the distance between the plate and adjacent disc, extent of fusion level, and the presence or absence of adjacent segment degenerative changes by imaging studies were evaluated. CASP occurred in 15 of the cases, of which 9 required additional surgery. At 8-year follow-up, the average yearly incidence was 1.1%. The rate of disease-free survival based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was 93.6% at 5 years and 90.2% at 8 years. No statistically significant differences in CASP incidence based on radiological analysis were observed. Significantly high incidence of CASP was observed in the presence of increased adjacent segment degenerative changes (pdegenerative cervical disease is associated with a lower incidence in CSAP by 1.1% per year, and the extent of preoperative adjacent segment degenerative changes has been shown as a risk factor for CASP.

  16. Cervicitis

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    ... that does not go away: discharge may be gray, white or yellow in color Painful sexual intercourse ... Names Cervical inflammation; Inflammation - cervix Images Female reproductive anatomy Cervicitis Uterus References Eckert LO, Lentz GM. Infections ...

  17. Cervicitis

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    ... of a woman getting HIV from an infected sexual partner. Prevention To reduce your risk of cervicitis from sexually transmitted infections, use condoms consistently and correctly each time you have sex. ...

  18. Composite cervical skin and cartilage flap provides a novel large airway substitute after long-segment tracheal resection.

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    Fabre, Dominique; Singhal, Sunil; De Montpreville, Vincent; Decante, Benoit; Mussot, Sacha; Chataigner, Olivier; Mercier, Olaf; Kolb, Frederic; Dartevelle, Philippe G; Fadel, Elie

    2009-07-01

    Airway replacement after long-segment tracheal resection for benign and malignant disease remains a challenging problem because of the lack of a substitute conduit. Ideally, an airway substitute should be well vascularized, rigid, and autologous to avoid infections, airway stenosis, and the need for immunosuppression. We report the development of an autologous tracheal substitute for long-segment tracheal resection that satisfies these criteria and demonstrates excellent short-term functional results in a large-animal study. Twelve adult pigs underwent long-segment (6 cm, 60% of total length) tracheal resection. Autologous costal cartilage strips measuring 6 cm x 2 mm were harvested from the chest wall and inserted at regular 0.5-cm intervals between dermal layers of a cervical skin flap. The neotrachea was then scaffolded by rotating the composite cartilage skin flap around a silicone stent measuring 6 cm in length and 1.4 cm in diameter. The neotrachea replaced the long segment of tracheal resection, and the donor flap site was closed with a double-Z plasty. Animals were killed at 1 week (group I, n = 4), 2 weeks (group II, n = 4), and 5 weeks (group III, n = 4). In group III the stent was removed 1 week before death. Viability of the neotrachea was monitored by means of daily flexible bronchoscopy and histologic examination at autopsy. Long-term morbidity and mortality were determined by monitoring weight gain, respiratory distress, and survival. There was no mortality during the study period. Weight gain was appropriate in all animals. Daily bronchoscopy and postmortem histologic evaluation confirmed excellent viability of the neotrachea. There was no evidence of suture-line dehiscence. Five animals had distal granulomas that were removed by using rigid bronchoscopy. In group III 1 animal had tracheomalacia, which was successfully managed by means of insertion of a silicon stent. Airway reconstruction with autologous cervical skin flaps scaffolded with costal

  19. Relationship between screw sagittal angle and stress on endplate of adjacent segments after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion with internal fixation: a Chinese finite element study.

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    Zhang, Yu; Tang, Yibo; Shen, Hongxing

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD), the current study was designed to establish Chinese finite element models of normal 3rd~7th cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) with internal fixation , and analyze the influence of screw sagittal angle (SSA) on stress on endplate of adjacent cervical segments. Mimics 8.1 and Abaqus/CAE 6.10 softwares were adopted to establish finite element models. For C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate, their anterior areas had the maximum stress in anteflexion position, and their posterior areas had the maximum stress in posterior extension position. As SSA increased, the stress reduced. With an increase of 10° in SSA, the stress on anterior areas of C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate reduced by 12.67% and 7.99% in anteflexion position, respectively. With an increase of 10° in SSA, the stress on posterior areas of C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate reduced by 9.68% and 10.22% in posterior extension position, respectively. The current study established Chinese finite element models of normal C3-C7 and ACCF with internal fixation , and demonstrated that as SSA increased, the stress on endplate of adjacent cervical segments decreased. In clinical surgery, increased SSA is able to play important role in protecting the adjacent cervical segments and reducing the incidence of ASD.

  20. Intra-patient semi-automated segmentation of the cervix-uterus in CT-images for adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer

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    Luiza Bondar, M.; Hoogeman, Mischa; Schillemans, Wilco; Heijmen, Ben

    2013-08-01

    For online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer, fast and accurate image segmentation is required to facilitate daily treatment adaptation. Our aim was twofold: (1) to test and compare three intra-patient automated segmentation methods for the cervix-uterus structure in CT-images and (2) to improve the segmentation accuracy by including prior knowledge on the daily bladder volume or on the daily coordinates of implanted fiducial markers. The tested methods were: shape deformation (SD) and atlas-based segmentation (ABAS) using two non-rigid registration methods: demons and a hierarchical algorithm. Tests on 102 CT-scans of 13 patients demonstrated that the segmentation accuracy significantly increased by including the bladder volume predicted with a simple 1D model based on a manually defined bladder top. Moreover, manually identified implanted fiducial markers significantly improved the accuracy of the SD method. For patients with large cervix-uterus volume regression, the use of CT-data acquired toward the end of the treatment was required to improve segmentation accuracy. Including prior knowledge, the segmentation results of SD (Dice similarity coefficient 85 ± 6%, error margin 2.2 ± 2.3 mm, average time around 1 min) and of ABAS using hierarchical non-rigid registration (Dice 82 ± 10%, error margin 3.1 ± 2.3 mm, average time around 30 s) support their use for image guided online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  1. Fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method of spinal cord MR images at 3T applied to the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

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    Mohamed-Mounir El Mendili

    Full Text Available To design a fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method for spinal cord 3T MR images and to construct a template of the cervical spinal cord.A semi-automated double threshold-based method (DTbM was proposed enabling both cross-sectional and volumetric measures from 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR scans of the spinal cord at 3T. Eighty-two healthy subjects, 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 10 with spinal muscular atrophy and 10 with spinal cord injuries were studied. DTbM was compared with active surface method (ASM, threshold-based method (TbM and manual outlining (ground truth. Accuracy of segmentations was scored visually by a radiologist in cervical and thoracic cord regions. Accuracy was also quantified at the cervical and thoracic levels as well as at C2 vertebral level. To construct a cervical template from healthy subjects' images (n=59, a standardization pipeline was designed leading to well-centered straight spinal cord images and accurate probability tissue map.Visual scoring showed better performance for DTbM than for ASM. Mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC was 95.71% for DTbM and 90.78% for ASM at the cervical level and 94.27% for DTbM and 89.93% for ASM at the thoracic level. Finally, at C2 vertebral level, mean DSC was 97.98% for DTbM compared with 98.02% for TbM and 96.76% for ASM. DTbM showed similar accuracy compared with TbM, but with the advantage of limited manual interaction.A semi-automated segmentation method with limited manual intervention was introduced and validated on 3T images, enabling the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

  2. Fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method of spinal cord MR images at 3T applied to the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

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    El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir; Chen, Raphaël; Tiret, Brice; Villard, Noémie; Trunet, Stéphanie; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Pradat, Pierre-François; Benali, Habib

    2015-01-01

    To design a fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method for spinal cord 3T MR images and to construct a template of the cervical spinal cord. A semi-automated double threshold-based method (DTbM) was proposed enabling both cross-sectional and volumetric measures from 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR scans of the spinal cord at 3T. Eighty-two healthy subjects, 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 10 with spinal muscular atrophy and 10 with spinal cord injuries were studied. DTbM was compared with active surface method (ASM), threshold-based method (TbM) and manual outlining (ground truth). Accuracy of segmentations was scored visually by a radiologist in cervical and thoracic cord regions. Accuracy was also quantified at the cervical and thoracic levels as well as at C2 vertebral level. To construct a cervical template from healthy subjects' images (n=59), a standardization pipeline was designed leading to well-centered straight spinal cord images and accurate probability tissue map. Visual scoring showed better performance for DTbM than for ASM. Mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 95.71% for DTbM and 90.78% for ASM at the cervical level and 94.27% for DTbM and 89.93% for ASM at the thoracic level. Finally, at C2 vertebral level, mean DSC was 97.98% for DTbM compared with 98.02% for TbM and 96.76% for ASM. DTbM showed similar accuracy compared with TbM, but with the advantage of limited manual interaction. A semi-automated segmentation method with limited manual intervention was introduced and validated on 3T images, enabling the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

  3. Cervical Hemilaminoplasty with Miniplates in Long Segment Intradural Extramedullary Ependymoma: Case Report and Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Sukru; Tumturk, Abdulfettah; Kucuk, Ahmet; Menku, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    The surgical approaches for spinal tumors, to a great extent, have been developed in accordance with the developments in medical technology. Today, many surgical techniques are implemented as anterior, anterolateral, posterior, posterolateral and combined approaches. Due to its low morbidity, the posterior approach is the more preferred one. Laminectomy is a widely used technique, especially in neoplastic lesions. However, following laminectomy, there are numerous complications such as instability, kyphotic deformity and scar formation. In this paper, the excision of a tumor that was located intradural-extramedullary at the C3-C7 level with the cervical hemilaminoplasty technique is described. A 47-year-old female patient presented to our clinic with increasing complaints of neck and left arm pain, left arm numbness and searing pain for the last 10 years. On examination, hypoesthesia at the C4-7 dermatomes in the left upper extremity, an increase in deep tendon reflexes, and bilateral positive Hoffmann reflexes were observed. C3-C7 laminae were opened unilaterally on the right side with a midline skin incision. The laminae were drilled with a high-speed drill to provide a wide opening, both on the midline obliquely and from the border of the lamina-facet joint. After the tumor was totally excised, hemilaminae were placed into the previous position and reconstructed with mini-plates and screws. Cervical hemilaminoplasty provides a wide field of vision in tumor surgery of this region. Besides, the reconstruction of hemilaminae is important for stability. As the integrity of the spinal canal is preserved during reoperations of this region, the risk of complications is decreased.

  4. Headache of cervical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''. (orig.) [de

  5. Headache of cervical origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burguet, J L; Wackenheim, A

    1984-08-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''.

  6. Segmental kyphosis after cervical interbody fusion with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages: a comparative study on 2 different PEEK cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae; Sohn, Seil; Lee, Sungjoon

    2015-02-01

    Retrospective comparative study. Two polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages of different designs were compared in terms of the postoperative segmental kyphosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Segmental kyphosis occasionally occurs after the use of a stand-alone cage for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Although PEEK material seems to have less risk of segmental kyphosis compared with other materials, the occurrence of segmental kyphosis for PEEK cages has been reported to be from 0% to 29%. There have been a few reports that addressed the issue of PEEK cage design. A total of 41 consecutive patients who underwent single-level anterior discectomy and fusion with a stand-alone cage were included. Either a round tube-type (Solis; 18 patients, S-group) or a trapezoidal tube-type (MC+; 23 patients, M-group) cage was used. The contact area between the cage and the vertebral body is larger in MC+ than in Solis, and anchoring pins were present in the Solis cage. The effect of the cage type on the segmental angle (SA) (lordosis vs. kyphosis) at postoperative month 24 was analyzed. Preoperatively, segmental lordosis was present in 12/18 S-group and 16/23 M-group patients (P=0.84). The SA was more lordotic than the preoperative angle in both groups just after surgery, with no difference between groups (P=0.39). At 24 months, segmental lordosis was observed in 9/18 S-group and 20/23 M-group patients (P=0.01). The patients in M-group were 7.83 times more likely than patients in S-group (P=0.04; odds ratio, 7.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-56.28) not to develop segmental kyphosis. The design of the PEEK cage used may influence the SA, and this association needs to be considered when using stand-alone PEEK cages.

  7. Reproducibility of F18-FDG PET radiomic features for different cervical tumor segmentation methods, gray-level discretization, and reconstruction algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altazi, Baderaldeen A; Zhang, Geoffrey G; Fernandez, Daniel C; Montejo, Michael E; Hunt, Dylan; Werner, Joan; Biagioli, Matthew C; Moros, Eduardo G

    2017-11-01

    Site-specific investigations of the role of radiomics in cancer diagnosis and therapy are emerging. We evaluated the reproducibility of radiomic features extracted from 18 Flourine-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET images for three parameters: manual versus computer-aided segmentation methods, gray-level discretization, and PET image reconstruction algorithms. Our cohort consisted of pretreatment PET/CT scans from 88 cervical cancer patients. Two board-certified radiation oncologists manually segmented the metabolic tumor volume (MTV 1 and MTV 2 ) for each patient. For comparison, we used a graphical-based method to generate semiautomated segmented volumes (GBSV). To address any perturbations in radiomic feature values, we down-sampled the tumor volumes into three gray-levels: 32, 64, and 128 from the original gray-level of 256. Finally, we analyzed the effect on radiomic features on PET images of eight patients due to four PET 3D-reconstruction algorithms: maximum likelihood-ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) iterative reconstruction (IR) method, fourier rebinning-ML-OSEM (FOREIR), FORE-filtered back projection (FOREFBP), and 3D-Reprojection (3DRP) analytical method. We extracted 79 features from all segmentation method, gray-levels of down-sampled volumes, and PET reconstruction algorithms. The features were extracted using gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), gray-level size zone matrices (GLSZM), gray-level run-length matrices (GLRLM), neighborhood gray-tone difference matrices (NGTDM), shape-based features (SF), and intensity histogram features (IHF). We computed the Dice coefficient between each MTV and GBSV to measure segmentation accuracy. Coefficient values close to one indicate high agreement, and values close to zero indicate low agreement. We evaluated the effect on radiomic features by calculating the mean percentage differences (d¯) between feature values measured from each pair of parameter elements (i.e. segmentation methods: MTV

  8. Dolor cervical incoercible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián F Narváez-Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Astrocytomas are relatively common glial neoplasm of the central nervous system, but only a small percentage of them are located in the spinal cord, with a predilection for the cervical and dorsal regions. In most cases, extend longitudinally, affecting several cord segments. Pain is a frequent symptom of local character bone segments involving the tumor, associated with sensory deficit and / or motor. The following is the case of a 60 year old woman with cervical cord astrocytoma extended to the brainstem.

  9. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Cervical Cap KidsHealth / For Teens / The Cervical Cap What's in ... Call the Doctor? Print What Is a Cervical Cap? A cervical cap is a small cup made ...

  10. Reparo de esôfago cervical de cães com segmento intestinal livre autólogo desprovido de epitélio e de lâmina própria da túnica mucosa Canine cervical esophagus repair using of free autograft intestinal segment without epithelium and lamina propria of the mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Coletto Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze cães foram separados em dois grupos de igual número e submetidos à remoção de um retalho de 3,0 x 3,5cm do esôfago cervical. A abertura foi ocluída com enxerto de segmento intestinal livre autólogo desprovido de epitélio e lâmina própria da túnica mucosa, com pontos simples separados por fio poliglactina 910. Os animais do grupo 1 foram observados durante 15 dias de pós-operatório, e os do grupo 2, durante 30 dias. Observou-se epitelização e discreta estenose no local do enxerto com invasão de tecido conjuntivo denso rico em fibras colágenas. O enxerto de segmento intestinal livre autólogo foi eficiente no reparo de rupturas do esôfago cervical de cães.Twelve dogs were allocated in two groups with same number of animals and submitted to removal of a 3.0 x 3.5cm piece of the cervical esophagus. The incision was occluded with a autograft of free intestinal segment without epithelium and lamina propria of the mucosa, with separate simples points using poliglactina 910 line. Animals of the group 1 were observed for 15 days post-surgery, and the animals from group 2, for 30 days. Epithelization and discreet stenosis in the place of the graft with invasion of dense conjunctive tissue, rich in collagen fibers was noticed. The autograft free intestinal segment was efficient in the repair of ruptures in the cervical segment of the canine esophagous.

  11. The structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriampenomanana, Fenitra; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Wysession, Michael E.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Tilmann, Frederik; Julià, Jordi; Pratt, Martin J.; Rambolamanana, Gérard; Aleqabi, Ghassan; Shore, Patrick J.; Rakotondraibe, Tsiriandrimanana

    2017-09-01

    The lithosphere of Madagascar was initially amalgamated during the Pan-African events in the Neoproterozoic. It has subsequently been reshaped by extensional processes associated with the separation from Africa and India in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, respectively, and been subjected to several magmatic events in the late Cretaceous and the Cenozoic. In this study, the crust and uppermost mantle have been investigated to gain insights into the present-day structure and tectonic evolution of Madagascar. We analysed receiver functions, computed from data recorded on 37 broad-band seismic stations, using the H-κ stacking method and a joint inversion with Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity measurements. The thickness of the Malagasy crust ranges between 18 and 46 km. It is generally thick beneath the spine of mountains in the centre part (up to 46 km thick) and decreases in thickness towards the edges of the island. The shallowest Moho is found beneath the western sedimentary basins (18 km thick), which formed during both the Permo-Triassic Karro rifting in Gondwana and the Jurassic rifting of Madagascar from eastern Africa. The crust below the sedimentary basin thickens towards the north and east, reflecting the progressive development of the basins. In contrast, in the east there was no major rifting episode. Instead, the slight thinning of the crust along the east coast (31-36 km thick) may have been caused by crustal uplift and erosion when Madagascar moved over the Marion hotspot and India broke away from it. The parameters describing the crustal structure of Archean and Proterozoic terranes, including average thickness (40 km versus 35 km), Poisson's ratio (0.25 versus 0.26), average shear-wave velocity (both 3.7 km s-1), and thickness of mafic lower crust (7 km versus 4 km), show weak evidence of secular variation. The uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar is generally characterized by shear-wave velocities typical of stable lithosphere (∼4.5 km s-1). However

  12. Shear velocity structure of the laterally heterogeneous crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, G.; Rai, S. S.; Panza, G. F.

    1997-08-01

    The shear velocity structure of the Indian lithosphere is mapped by inverting regionalized Rayleigh wave group velocities in time periods of 15-60 s. The regionalized maps are used to subdivide the Indian plate into several geologic units and determine the variation of velocity with depth in each unit. The Hedgehog Monte Carlo technique is used to obtain the shear wave velocity structure for each geologic unit, revealing distinct velocity variations in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. The Indian shield has a high-velocity (4.4-4.6 km/s) upper mantle which, however, is slower than other shields in the world. The central Indian platform comprised of Proterozoic basins and cratons is marked by a distinct low-velocity (4.0-4.2 km/s) upper mantle. Lower crustal velocities in the Indian lithosphere generally range between 3.8 and 4.0 km/s with the oceanic segments and the sedimentary basins marked by marginally higher and lower velocities, respectively. A remarkable contrast is observed in upper mantle velocities between the northern and eastern convergence fronts of the Indian plate. The South Bruma region along the eastern subduction front of the Indian oceanic lithosphere shows significant velocity enhancement in the lower crust and upper mantle. High velocities (≈4.8 km/s) are also observed in the upper mantle beneath the Ninetyeast ridge in the northeastern Indian Ocean.

  13. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Using Transcranial Electrically Stimulated Muscle-evoked Potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for Predicting Postoperative Segmental Upper Extremity Motor Paresis After Cervical Laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasushi; Manabe, Hideki; Izumi, Bunichiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Prospective study. To investigate the efficacy of transcranial electrically stimulated muscle-evoked potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for predicting postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy following cervical laminoplasty. Postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy, especially in the deltoid and biceps (so-called C5 palsy), is the most common complication following cervical laminoplasty. Some papers have reported that postoperative C5 palsy cannot be predicted by TcE-MsEPs, although others have reported that it can be predicted. This study included 160 consecutive cases that underwent open-door laminoplasty, and TcE-MsEP monitoring was performed in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis. A >50% decrease in the wave amplitude was defined as an alarm point. According to the monitoring alarm, interventions were performed, which include steroid administration, foraminotomies, etc. Postoperative deltoid and biceps palsy occurred in 5 cases. Among the 155 cases without segmental upper extremity palsy, there were no monitoring alarms. Among the 5 deltoid and biceps palsy cases, 3 had significant wave amplitude decreases in the biceps during surgery, and palsy occurred when the patients awoke from anesthesia (acute type). In the other 2 cases in which the palsy occurred 2 days after the operation (delayed type), there were no significant wave decreases. In all of the cases, the palsy was completely resolved within 6 months. The majority of C5 palsies have been reported to occur several days after surgery, but some of them have been reported to occur immediately after surgery. Our results demonstrated that TcE-MsEPs can predict the acute type, whereas the delayed type cannot be predicted. A >50% wave amplitude decrease in the biceps is useful to predict acute-type segmental upper extremity palsy. Further examination about the interventions for monitoring alarm will be essential for preventing palsy.

  14. Uppermost oceanic crust structure and properties from multichannel seismic data at the Alaska subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becel, A.; Carton, H. D.; Shillington, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The most heterogeneous, porous and permeable layer within a subducting oceanic crust is the uppermost layer called Layer 2A. This layer, made of extrusive basalts, forms at the ridge axis and persists as a thin ( 600 m) low-velocity cap in old crust. Nearing the trench axis, when oceanic plate bends, normal faults can be formed or reactivated at the outer-rise allowing a more vigorous hydrothermal circulation to resume within this layer. Porosity and heterogeneity within this layer are important to assess because these parameters might have a profound impact on subduction zone processes. However, conventional refraction data quality is rarely good enough to look into detail into the properties of the uppermost oceanic layer. Here we use 2D marine long-offset multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected offshore of the Alaska Peninsula during the ALEUT Program. The dataset was acquired aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth with a 636-channels, 8-km long streamer. We present initial results from three 140 km long profiles across the 52-56Myr old incoming Pacific oceanic crust formed at fast spreading rate: two perpendicular margin and one parallel margin profiles. Those profiles are located outboard of the Shumagin gaps. Outboard of this subduction zone segment, abundant bending related normal faults are imaged and concentrated within 50-60 km of the trench. Long-offset MCS data exhibit a prominent triplication that includes postcritical reflections and turning waves within the upper crust at offsets larger than 3 km. The triplication suggests the presence of a velocity discontinuity within the upper oceanic crust. We follow a systematic and uniform approach to extract upper crustal post-critical reflections and add them to them to the vertical incidence MCS images. Images reveal small-scale variations in the thickness of the Layer 2A and the strength of its base along the profiles. The second step consists of the downward continuation followed by travel

  15. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving birth vaginally, which means the cervical cap may not fit as well. Inconsistent or incorrect use of the cervical cap increases your risk of pregnancy. For example, you may get pregnant when using the cervical cap if: ...

  16. Marine macrofossil communities in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Surlyk, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non-erosive bo......Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non...

  17. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  18. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  19. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  20. Cervical Myomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adnexal Torsion Bartholin Gland Cysts Cervical Myomas Cervical Stenosis Endometriomas of the Vulva Inclusion and Epidermal Cysts of the Vulva Noncancerous Ovarian Growths Polyps of the Cervix Skene Duct Cyst Cervical myomas are smooth, benign tumors in the cervix. A myoma may bleed, ...

  1. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.

  2. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P Justin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing.

  3. Premotor nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive pathway connecting lumbar segments with the ventral motor nucleus of the cervical enlargement in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsala, Jozef; Lukácová, Nadezda; Cízková, Dása; Lukác, Imrich; Kuchárová, Karolína; Marsala, Martin

    2004-03-01

    In this study we investigate the occurrence and origin of punctate nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus in C7-Th1 segments of the dog spine, which are supposed to be the terminal field of an ascending premotor propriospinal nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive pathway. As the first step, nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemistry was used to distinguish nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive staining of the ventral motor nucleus. Dense, punctate nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity was found on control sections in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus. After hemisection at Th10-11, axotomy-induced retrograde changes consisting in a strong upregulation of nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons were found mostly unilaterally in lamina VIII, the medial part of lamina VII and in the pericentral region in all segments of the lumbosacral enlargement. Concurrently, a strong depletion of the punctate nitric oxide synthase immunopositivity in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus ipsilaterally with the hemisection was detected, thus revealing that an uncrossed ascending premotor propriospinal pathway containing a fairly high number of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive fibers terminates in the ventral motor nucleus. Application of the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fluorogold injected into the ventral motor nucleus and analysis of alternate sections processed for nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of Fluorogold-labeled and nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive axons in the ventrolateral funiculus and in the lateral and medial portions of the ventral column throughout the thoracic and upper lumbar segments. A noticeable number of Fluorogold-labeled and nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive somata detected on consecutive sections were found in the lumbosacral enlargement, mainly in laminae VIII-IX, the medial part of lamina VII and in the pericentral region (lamina X), ipsilaterally with the

  4. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....

  5. Sn-wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the Australian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhi; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Sun, Weijia

    2018-06-01

    We have extracted a data set of more than 5000 Sn traveltimes for source-station pairs within continental Australia, with 3-D source relocation using Pn arrivals to improve data consistency. We conduct tomographic inversion for S-wave-speed structure down to 100 km using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) method for the whole Australian continent. We obtain a 3-D model with potential resolution of 3.0° × 3.0°. The new S-wave-speed model provides strong constraints on structure in a zone that was previously poorly characterized. The S velocities in the uppermost mantle are rather fast, with patterns of variation generally corresponding to those for Pn. We find strong heterogeneities of Swave speed in the uppermost mantle across the entire continent of Australia with a close relation to crustal geological features. For instance, the cratons in the western Australia usually have high S velocities (>4.70 km s-1), while the volcanic regions on the eastern margin of Australia are characterized by low S velocities (<4.40 km s-1). Exploiting an equivalent Pn inversion, we also determine the Vp/Vs ratios across the whole continent. We find that most of the uppermost mantle has Vp/Vs between 1.65 and 1.85, but with patches in central Australia and in the east with much higher Vp/Vs ratios. Distinctive local anomalies on the eastern margin may indicate the positions of remnants of mantle plumes.

  6. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Cervical ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  7. Petrogenesis of the NE Gondwanan uppermost Ediacaran-Lower Cretaceous siliciclastic sequence of Jordan: Provenance, tectonic, and climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amireh, Belal S.

    2018-04-01

    Detrital framework modes of the NE Gondwanan uppermost Ediacaran-Lower Cretaceous siliciclastic sequence of Jordan are determined employing the routine polarized light microscope. The lower part of this sequence constitutes a segment of the vast lower Paleozoic siliciclastic sheet flanking the northern Gondwana margin that was deposited over a regional unconformity truncating the outskirts of the East African orogen in the aftermath of the Neoproterozoic amalgamation of Gondwana. The research aims to evaluate the factors governing the detrital light mineral composition of this sandstone. The provenance terranes of the Arabian craton controlled by plate tectonics appear to be the primary factor in most of the formations, which could be either directly inferred employing Dickinson's compositional triangles or implied utilizing the petrographic data achieved and the available tectonic and geological data. The Arabian-Nubian Shield constitutes invariably the craton interior or the transitional provenance terrane within the NE Gondwana continental block that consistently supplied sandy detritus through northward-flowing braided rivers to all the lower Paleozoic formations. On the other hand, the Lower Cretaceous Series received siliciclastic debris, through braided-meandering rivers having same northward dispersal direction, additionally from the lower Paleozoic and lower-middle Mesozoic platform strata in the Arabian Craton. The formations making about 50% of the siliciclastic sequence represent a success for Dickinson's plate tectonics-provenance approach in attributing the detrital framework components primarily to the plate tectonic setting of the provenance terranes. However, even under this success, the varying effects of the other secondary sedimentological and paleoclimatological factors are important and could be crucial. The inapplicability of this approach to infer the appropriate provenance terranes of the remaining formations could be ascribed either to the

  8. [Cervical cerclage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, C Y; Sananes, N; Gaudineau, A; Boudier, E; Langer, B

    2015-10-01

    Cervical cerclage aims to strengthen not only the mechanical properties of the cervix, but also its immunological and anti-infectious functions. The demonstration of a strong interrelation between cervical insufficiency as well as decreased cervical length at endo-vaginal ultrasonography and infection has changed the indications cerclage. Actually we can distinguish three indications for cerclage: prophylactic, for obstetrical history; therapeutic, for shortened cervical length at ultrasonography in patients at risk and; emergency cerclage in case of threatening cervix at physical examination. The McDonald's technique is the most recommended. In case of failure, it is proposed to realize cerclage at a higher level on the cervix either by vaginal or abdominal route. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  10. Cervical Laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SEEP Alternative Medicine Acupuncture Herbal Supplements Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artifical ... tasks. A NASS physician can perform a thorough history to evaluate your symptoms and any recent changes. ...

  11. Cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical osteoarthritis; Arthritis - neck; Neck arthritis; Chronic neck pain; Degenerative disk disease ... therapist). Sometimes, a few visits will help with neck pain. Cold packs and heat therapy may help your ...

  12. Selective cervical myelography. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The classical ways of subarachnoid puncture - lumbal and suboccipital - require a considerable quantity of air in performing segmental cervical pneumomyelography. An examination technique is described, based on the recently suggested lateral subarachnoid puncture within the interarcus space at C 1 -C 2 level. Emphasis is laid on the possibilities of carrying out various neuro-roentgenological studies through contrast medium introduction in the fashion described, namely: pontocerebellar cistemography and cervical myelography with AMIPAQUE - a water soluble contrast medium. On the basis of literature data and personal experience it is stated that the risk in lateral subarachnoid puncture is by no means higher than in suboccipital puncture. The main advantages of selective cervical myelography effected by contrast medium injection through lateral subarachnoid puncture include the possibility to perform investigation with a minimum amount of air (4-8 cm 3 ) and to study patients with fixed, direct skull fraction after Crutchfield under maximum sparing conditions. (author)

  13. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  14. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully w...

  15. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  16. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188

  17. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media

  18. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media.

  19. Cervical spine injury in the elderly: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Shimamura, Tadashi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    An increase in the elderly population has resulted in an increased incidence of cervical spine injury in this group. No specific type of cervical spine trauma is seen in the elderly, although dens fractures are reported to be common. Hyperextension injuries due to falling and the resultant central cord syndrome in the mid and lower cervical segments due to decreased elasticity as a result of spondylosis may be also characteristic. The imaging features of cervical spine injury are often modified by associated spondylosis deformans, DISH and other systemic disorders. The value of MR imaging in such cases is emphasized. (orig.)

  20. Unsupervised segmentation and ordering of cervical cells : Serviks hücrelerinin öğreticisiz olarak bölütlenmesi ve sıralanması

    OpenAIRE

    Samet, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Computer Engineering and The Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 69-73. Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death among women worldwide, and it can be prevented if it is detected and treated in the precancerous stages. Pap smear test is a common, efficient and easy manual screening examination techniq...

  1. Experimental replacement of esophagus with a short segment of trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasidezfouli, Azizollah; Ansari, Damoon; Sheikhy, Kambiz; Abarkar, Mohammad; Sadeghbeigi, Farahnaz; Abbasidezfouli, Sepehr; Sharifi, Davood

    2016-03-01

    Segmental resection of esophagus with primary anastomosis is prohibited because of the risk of dehiscence. We previously have shown that replacement of a segment of cervical esophagus with a tracheal segment of the same length could successfully be performed in a canine model. In this study, we sought to assess the feasibility of replacement of the esophageal defect with a shorter segment of trachea. In five mongrel dogs weighting 20-30 kg, under general anesthesia and after a cervical incision, 8 cm of the cervical esophagus was resected and replaced by a 4-cm segment of the adjacent trachea. The animals were evaluated clinically for signs and symptoms of stenosis and dehiscence and then euthanized after 2 mo of follow-up. All dogs recovered from surgery and started regular diet on the seventh postoperative day. No clinical or endoscopic sign of stenosis or voice change was seen. Squamous metaplasia and atrophy of mucosal glands and cartilage were detected in the histopathologic examination of the replaced segments. Replacement of a cervical esophageal defect with a shorter segment of trachea can be performed successfully in dogs. This procedure can be potentially used for the treatment of cervical esophageal lesions in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Early effectiveness of discover cervical artificial disc replacement in treatment of cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yufeng; Xue, Feng; Sheng, Xiaowen; Lu, Jianmin; Chen, Bingqian

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the early effectiveness of the Discover cervical artificial disc replacement in treating cervical spondylosis. Qualified for the selective standard, 24 patients with cervical spondylosis were treated between March 2010 and March 2011. Of 24 patients, 13 patients underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) (ACDF group, between March 2010 and September 2010) and 11 patients underwent Discover cervical artificial disc replacement (CADR group, between September 2010 and March 2011). There was no significant difference in gender, age, disease duration, lesions typing, and affected segments between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operative time, blood loss, and complications were recorded. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, and Odom's scores were used to evaluate the postoperative effectiveness. In CADR group, the cervical range of motion (ROM) in all directions, and prosthesis eccentricity were measured before and after operation. Symptoms disappeared and no complication occurred after operation in the patients of 2 groups. The patients were followed up 12 to 18 months (mean, 15.3 months) in ACDF group and 6 to 12 months (mean, 9.6 months) in CADR group. The NDI scores in CADR group were significantly higher than those in ACDF group at 1, 3, and 6 months (P 0.05). According to Odom's score at last follow-up, the results were excellent in 6 cases, good in 4 cases, and fair in 3 cases with an excellent and good rate of 76.92% in ACDF group, and were excellent in 9 cases, good in 1 case, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 90.91% in CADR group, showing no significant difference (chi2 = 3.000, P = 0.223). The patients in CADR group had significant limit of cervical joint ROM in flexion and extension and right bending at 1 month (P value (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, ROM in left bending were bigger than that in right bending in replaced segment and upper segment (P < 0.05), and the ROM

  3. Cervical adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.E.; Bonenfant, J.L.; Blais, R.

    1988-01-01

    Glandular neoplasms of the uterine cervix represent a small but important group of cervical carcinomas. Included in the present study were 68 cases of primary adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix seen from 1972 to 1986 in our Radiation Oncology Center. The complete data set for all patients was analyzed with regard to symptoms, histologic patterns, diagnostic procedures, treatment methods, and prognosis. The authors stress the importance of establishing the primary origin of the lesion in the cervix and of completely investigating patients with an abnormal bleeding pattern, even those with an apparently normal exocervix

  4. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  5. New Pn and Sn tomographic images of the uppermost mantle beneath the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.; Díaz, J.; Gallart, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath the Mediterranean region, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases. The method of Hearn (1996) has been applied to Pn and Sn lectures from the catalogs of the International Seismological Center and the Spanish Instituto Geografico Nacional. A total of 1,172,293 Pn arrivals coming from 16,527 earthquakes recorded at 1,657 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1400 km have been retained (331,567 arrivals from 15,487events at 961 stations for Sn). Our results, grossly consistent with available 3D tomography images, show significant features well correlated with surface geology. The Pn velocities are high (>8.2 km/s) beneath major sedimentary basins (western Alboran Sea, Valencia Trough, Adriatic Sea, Aquitaine, Guadalquivir, Rharb, Aquitaine and Po basins), and low (Islands, probably related to a thermal anomaly associated to the westward displacement of the Alboran block along the Emile Baudot escarpment 16 Ma ago. The Pn anisotropic image shows consistent orientations sub-parallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The station delays beneath Betic and Rif ranges are strongly negative, suggesting the presence of crustal thickening all along the Gibraltar Arc. However, only the Betics have a very strong low-velocity anomaly and a pronounced anisotropy pattern. The Sn tomographic image correlates well with the Pn image, even if some relevant differences can be observed beneath particular regions.

  6. Shape preferred orientation of iron grains compatible with Earth's uppermost inner core hemisphericity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Constraining the possible patterns of iron fabrics in the Earth's Uppermost Inner Core (UIC) is key to unravel the mechanisms controlling its growth and dynamics. In the framework of crystalline micro-structures composed of ellipsoidal, aligned grains, we discuss possible textural models of UIC compatible with observations of P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion. Using recent results from multiple scattering theory in textured heterogeneous materials, we compute the P-wave phase velocity and scattering attenuation as a function of grain volume, shape, and orientation wrt to the propagation direction of seismic P-waves. Assuming no variations of the grain volume between the Eastern and Western hemisphere, we show that two families of texture are compatible with the degree-one structure of the inner core as revealed by the positive correlation between seismic velocity and attenuation. (1) Strong flattening of grains parallel to the Inner Core Boundary in the Western hemisphere and weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. (2) Strong radial elongation of grains in the Western hemisphere and again weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. Both textures can quantitatively explain the seismic data in a limited range of grain volumes. Furthermore, the velocity and attenuation anisotropy locally observed under Africa demands that the grains be locally elongated in the direction of Earth's meridians. Our study demonstrates that the hemispherical seismic structure of UIC can be entirely explained by changes in the shape and orientation of grains, thereby offering an alternative to changes in grain volumes. In the future, our theoretical toolbox could be used to systematically test the compatibility of textures predicted by geodynamical models with seismic observations.

  7. Technique and results of the spinal computed tomography in the diagnosis of cervical disc disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artmann, H.; Salbeck, R.; Grau, H.

    1985-01-01

    We give a description of a technique of the patient's positioning with traction of the arms during the cervical spinal computed tomography which allows to draw the shoulders downwards by about one to three cervical segments. By this method the quality of the images can be improved in 96% in the cervical segment 6/7 and in 81% in the cervical/thoracal segment 7/1 to such a degree that a reliable judgement of the soft parts in the spinal canal becomes possible. The diagnostic reliability of the computed tomography of the cervical disc herniation is thus improved so that the necessity of a myelography is decreasing. The results of 396 cervical spinal computed tomographies are presented. (orig.) [de

  8. Cervical Vertigo(Vertigo)

    OpenAIRE

    本間, 隆夫; Homma, Takao

    1992-01-01

    Cervical vertigo was reviewed as to its mechanism, diagnosis and treatment, and nine cases which had operation done were briefly presented. Cervical vertigo has been seen occasionaly in the cases of cervical spondylosis, frequently in the cases of traumatic cervical syndrome. The mechanism is attributed to either vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by compression on vertebral artery or irritation of poterior cervical sympathetic system. The diagnosis consists of reccurent vertigo attack with...

  9. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  10. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy for discogenic cervical headache due to soft disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Y.; Lee, S.H.; Shin, S.W.; Chung, S.E.; Park, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    A discogenic cervical headache is a subtype of cervicogenic headache (CEH) that arises from a degenerative cervical disc abnormality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) for patients with chronic cervical headache due to soft cervical disc herniation. Seventeen patients underwent PECD for intractable headache. The inclusion criteria were soft disc herniation without segmental instability, proven by both local anesthesia and provocative discography for headache unresponsive to conservative treatment. The mean follow-up period was 37.6 months. Fifteen of the 17 patients (88.2%) showed successful outcomes based on the Macnab criteria. Pain scores on a visual analog scale (VAS) improved from a preoperative mean of 8.35±0.79 to 2.12±1.17, postoperatively (P<0.01). The mean disc height decreased from 6.81±1.08 to 5.98±1.07 mm (P<0.01). There was no newly developed segmental instability or spontaneous fusion on follow-up radiography. In conclusion, PECD appears to be effective for chronic severe discogenic cervical headache under strict inclusion criteria. (orig.)

  12. Composition of uppermost mantle beneath the Northern Fennoscandia - numerical modeling and petrological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virshylo, Ivan; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Prodaivoda, George; Silvennoinen, Hanna

    2013-04-01

    Studying of the uppermost mantle beneath the northern Fennoscandia is based on the data of the POLENET/LAPNET passive seismic array. Firstly, arrivals of P-waves of teleseismic events were inverted into P-wave velocity model using non-linear tomography (Silvennoinen et al., in preparation). The second stage was numerical petrological interpretation of referred above velocity model. This study presents estimation of mineralogical composition of the uppermost mantle as a result of numerical modeling. There are many studies concerning calculation of seismic velocities for polymineral media under high pressure and temperature conditions (Afonso, Fernàndez, Ranalli, Griffin, & Connolly, 2008; Fullea et al., 2009; Hacker, 2004; Xu, Lithgow-Bertelloni, Stixrude, & Ritsema, 2008). The elastic properties under high pressure and temperature (PT) conditions were modelled using the expanded Hook's law - Duhamel-Neumann equation, which allows computation of thermoelastic strains. Furthermore, we used a matrix model with multi-component inclusions that has no any restrictions on shape, orientation or concentration of inclusions. Stochastic method of conditional moment with computation scheme of Mori-Tanaka (Prodaivoda, Khoroshun, Nazarenko, & Vyzhva, 2000) is applied instead of traditional Voigt-Reuss-Hill and Hashin-Shtrikman equations. We developed software for both forward and inverse problem calculation. Inverse algorithm uses methods of global non-linear optimization. We prefer a "model-based" approach for ill-posed problem, which means that the problem is solved using geological and geophysical constraints for each parameter of a priori and final models. Additionally, we are checking at least several different hypothesis explaining how it is possible to get the solution with good fit to the observed data. If the a priori model is close to the real medium, the nearest solution would be found by the inversion. Otherwise, the global optimization is searching inside the

  13. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  14. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J.; Hayek, J.; Grob, D.

    1988-01-01

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 7 0 , and C1/C2 more than 54 0 could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 29 0 to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast. (orig.)

  15. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, J; Hayek, J; Grob, D; Penning, L; Panjabi, M M; Zehnder, R

    1988-04-01

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 7/sup 0/, and C1/C2 more than 54/sup 0/ could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 29/sup 0/ to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast.

  16. An unusual cause of chest pain: Fused cervical vertebra (C3-C4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daipayan Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervicogenic angina is paroxysmal precordialgia usually due to lower cervical vertebral involvement. But upper cervical vertebral segmental anomaly causing cervicogenic angina is rare. Herein, we report a case of cervicogenic angina due to fused 3 rd and 4 th cervical vertebra in a 37-year female, which was initially misdiagnosed as angina and treated likewise. But, persistence of symptoms led to evaluation of her cervical spine and subsequent diagnosis. Cervical traction, physiotherapy and posture training relieved her of her symptoms with no recurrence till 6 months of follow-up. Fused C3-C4 can be a cause of precordialgia and physicians should be aware of it.

  17. DETECTION OF CANCEROUS LESION BY UTERINE CERVIX IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Priya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper works at segmentation of lesion observed in cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The purpose of segmentation is to determine the location for a biopsy to be taken for diagnosis. Cervix cancer is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the tissues of the cervix. The acetowhite region is a major indicator of abnormality in the cervix image. This project addresses the problem of segmenting uterine cervix image into different regions. We analyze two algorithms namely Watershed, K-means clustering algorithm, Expectation Maximization (EM Image Segmentation algorithm. These segmentations methods are carried over for the colposcopic uterine cervix image.

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  20. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  1. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  2. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  3. Cervical Dystonia (Spasmodic Torticollis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many people who have cervical dystonia also experience neck pain that can radiate into the shoulders. The disorder also can cause headaches. In some people, the pain from cervical dystonia can be exhausting and disabling. Causes In ...

  4. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  10. [Spondylarthrosis of the cervical spine. Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, R; Leixner, G; Stihsen, C; Windhager, R

    2013-09-01

    Chronic neck pain is often associated with spondylarthrosis, whereby segments C4/C5 (C: cervical) are most frequently affected. Spondylarthrosis can be the sole complaint, but it is associated with a degenerative cascade of the spine. The umbrella term for neck pain is the so-called cervical syndrome, which can be differentiated into segmental dysfunction and/or morphological changes of the intervertebral discs and small joints of the vertebral column. Conservative therapy modalities include physical therapy, subcutaneous application of local anesthetics, muscle, nerve and facet joint injections in addition to adequate analgesic and muscle relaxant therapy. If surgery is required, various techniques via dorsal and ventral approaches, depending on the clinic and morphologic changes, can be applied.

  11. Design and preliminary biomechanical analysis of artificial cervical joint complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu; Lan-Tao, Liu; Zhao, Jian-ning; Jian-ning, Zhao

    2013-06-01

    To design an artificial cervical joint complex (ACJC) prosthesis for non-fusion reconstruction after cervical subtotal corpectomy, and to evaluate the biomechanical stability, preservation of segment movements and influence on adjacent inter-vertebral movements of this prosthesis. The prosthesis was composed of three parts: the upper/lower joint head and the middle artificial vertebrae made of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy and polyethylene with a ball-and-socket joint design resembling the multi-axial movement in normal inter-vertebral spaces. Biomechanical tests of intact spine (control), Orion locking plate system and ACJC prosthesis were performed on formalin-fixed cervical spine specimens from 21 healthy cadavers to compare stability, range of motion (ROM) of the surgical segment and ROM of adjacent inter-vertebral spaces. As for stability of the whole lower cervical spine, there was no significant difference of flexion, extension, lateral bending and torsion between intact spine group and ACJC prosthesis group. As for segment movements, difference in flexion, lateral bending or torsion between ACJC prosthesis group and control group was not statistically significant, while ACJC prosthesis group showed an increase in extension (P inter-vertebral ROM of the ACJC prosthesis group was not statistically significant compared to that of the control group. After cervical subtotal corpectomy, reconstruction with ACJC prosthesis not only obtained instant stability, but also reserved segment motions effectively, without abnormal gain of mobility at adjacent inter-vertebral spaces.

  12. Anterior Cervical Osteophytes Causing Dysphagia and Dyspnea: An Uncommon Entity Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Giger, Roland; Dulguerov, Pavel; Payer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). We present the case of an 83-year-old patient with progressive dysphagia and acute dyspnea, necessitating emergency tracheotomy. Voluminous anterior cervical osteophytes extending from C3 to C7 and narrowing the pharyngoesophageal segment by external compression and bilateral vocal fold immobility were diagnosed radiologically and by fiberoptic laryngoscop...

  13. Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis of the cervical spine in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Motohiro; Tani, Toshikazu; Ushida, Takahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in the elderly. A total of 79 patients aged 65 or older who eventually had surgical treatment for CSM were evaluated radiographically. Altogether, 24 patients (30%) had displacement of 3.5 mm or more (severe spondylolisthesis group), 31 had displacement of 2.0-3.4 mm (moderate spondylolisthesis group), and 24 had less than 2.0 mm displacement (mild spondylolisthesis group). The severe spondylolisthesis group consisted of 14 patients with anterolisthesis (anterolisthesis group) and 10 patients with retrolisthesis (retrolisthesis group). Patients with severe spondylolisthesis had a high incidence (93%) of degenerative spondylolisthesis at C3/4 or C4/5 and significantly greater cervical mobility than those with mild spondylolisthesis. The anterolisthesis group, but not the retrolisthesis group, had a significantly wider spinal canal than the mild spondylolisthesis group, although the degree of horizontal displacement and cervical mobility did not differ significantly between the anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis groups. Severe cord compression seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and high-intensity spinal cord signals seen on T2-weighted MRI scans corresponded significantly to the levels of the spondylolisthesis. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is not a rare radiographic finding in elderly patients with CSM, which tends to cause intense cord compression that is seen on MRI scans. Greater mobility of the upper cervical segments may be a compensatory reaction for advanced disc degeneration of the lower cervical segments, leading to the development of degenerative

  14. Rice HOX12 Regulates Panicle Exsertion by Directly Modulating the Expression of ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaopei; Fang, Jun; Xu, Fan; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are key endogenous regulators of plant growth. Previous work identified ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE1 (EUI1) as a GA-deactivating enzyme that plays an important role in panicle exsertion from the flag leaf sheath in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the mechanism that regulates EUI1 activity during development is still largely unexplored. In this study, we identified the dominant panicle enclosure mutant regulator of eui1 (ree1-D), whose phenotype is caused by the activation of the homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor HOX12. Diminished HOX12 expression by RNA interference enhanced panicle exsertion, mimicking the eui1 phenotype. HOX12 knockdown plants contain higher levels of the major biologically active GAs (such as GA1 and GA4) than the wild type. The expression of EUI1 is elevated in the ree1-D mutant but reduced in HOX12 knockdown plants. Interestingly, both HOX12 and EUI1 are predominantly expressed in panicles, where GA4 is highly accumulated. Yeast one-hybrid, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that HOX12 physically interacts with the EUI1 promoter both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, plants overexpressing HOX12 in the eui1 mutant background retained the elongated uppermost internode phenotype. These results indicate that HOX12 acts directly through EUI1 to regulate panicle exsertion in rice. PMID:26977084

  15. Heterogeneous seismic anisotropy in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle: evidence from South America, Izu-Bonin and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynner, Colton; Long, Maureen D.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy are commonly used to constrain deformation in the upper mantle. Observations of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths are, however, relatively sparse. In this study we probe the anisotropic structure of the mid-mantle (transition zone and uppermost lower mantle) beneath the Japan, Izu-Bonin, and South America subduction systems. We present source-side shear wave splitting measurements for direct teleseismic S phases from earthquakes deeper than 300 km that have been corrected for the effects of upper mantle anisotropy beneath the receiver. In each region, we observe consistent splitting with delay times as large as 1 s, indicating the presence of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths. Clear splitting of phases originating from depths as great as ˜600 km argues for a contribution from anisotropy in the uppermost lower mantle as well as the transition zone. Beneath Japan, fast splitting directions are perpendicular or oblique to the slab strike and do not appear to depend on the propagation direction of the waves. Beneath South America and Izu-Bonin, splitting directions vary from trench-parallel to trench-perpendicular and have an azimuthal dependence, indicating lateral heterogeneity. Our results provide evidence for the presence of laterally variable anisotropy and are indicative of variable deformation and dynamics at mid-mantle depths in the vicinity of subducting slabs.

  16. 3D Crust and Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath Tian Shan Region from ambient noise and earthquake surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    As a typical active intracontinental mountain range in Central Asia, Tian Shan Mt serves as the prototype in studying geodynamic processes and mechanism of intracontinental mountain building. We study 3D crust and the uppermost mantle structure beneath Tian Shan region using ambient noise and earthquake surface waves. Our dataset includes vertical component records of 62 permanent broadband seismic stations operated by the Earthquake Administration of China. Firstly, we calculate two-year stacked Cross-Correlation Functions (CCFs) of ambient noise records between the stations. The CCFs are treated as the Empirical Green's Functions (EGFs) of each station pair, from which we measured phase velocities of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave in the period of 3-40 s using a frequency-time analysis method. Secondly, we collect surface wave data from tele-seismic events with Mw > 5.5 and depth shallower than 200 km and measure phase velocities of the fundamental-mode of Rayleigh wave in the period of 30-150 s using a two-station method. Finally, we combine the phase velocity measurements from ambient noise and earthquake surface waves, obtain lateral isotropic phase velocity maps at different periods based on tomography and invert a 3D Vsv model of crust and uppermost mantle down to about 150 km using a Monte Carlo Inversion method. We will discuss our inversion results in detail, as well as their implications to the tectonics in the region.

  17. [Clinical application of stand-alone MC+PEEK cage in the anterior cervical fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Cao, Yan-Qing; Pan, Hong; Zhu, Cheng-Run; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Tao, Yue-Feng; Liu, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    To explore the effect of clinical application of stand-alone MC+PEEK cage in anterior cervical fusion. From January 2011 to January 2014,50 patients were treated with the MC+PEEK cage filled with autogenous cancellous illic-bone graft after anterior cervical discectomy. There were 22 patients with cervical spondylosis,26 patients with traumatic cervical disc herniation, 2 patients with cervical instability in these patients. There were 32 males and 18 females, aged from 30 to 79 years old with an average of 53.30 years old. There were 32 patients with single segment, 15 patients with double segments and 3 patients with three segments. Cervical AP and lateral and the flexion-extension X-rays were regularly taken in order to assess the cervical physiological curvature, the graft fusion and internal fixation related complications. Nerve function, clinical effect and bone fusion were respectively evaluated according to Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA), Otani grade and Suk method. All patients were followed up from 6 to 36 months with an average of 20 months. No correlated surgical complications were found and all patients obtained bony fusion with an average time of 4.30 months. JOA score had significantly improvement after surgery (P cervical fusion can obtain satisfactory clinical effect with less operation injury and reduce the complications. It is a better fusion method in anterior cervical fusion.

  18. Seismic and thermal structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Antarctica from inversion of multiple seismic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, D.; Shen, W.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Dalziel, I.; Hansen, S. E.; Heeszel, D.; Huerta, A. D.; Nyblade, A.; Stephen, R. A.; Wilson, T. J.; Winberry, J. P.; Stern, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Since the last decade of the 20th century, over 200 broadband seismic stations have been deployed across Antarctica (e.g., temporary networks such as TAMSEIS, AGAP/GAMSEIS, POLENET/ANET, TAMNNET and RIS/DRIS by U.S. geoscientists as well as stations deployed by Japan, Britain, China, Norway, and other countries). In this presentation, we discuss our recent efforts to build reference crustal and uppermost mantle shear velocity (Vs) and thermal models for continental Antarctica based on those seismic arrays. By combing the high resolution Rayleigh wave dispersion maps derived from both ambient noise and teleseismic earthquakes, together with P receiver function waveforms, we develop a 3-D Vs model for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Central and West Antarctica to a depth of 200 km. Additionally, using this 3-D seismic model to constrain the crustal structure, we re-invert for the upper mantle thermal structure using the surface wave data within a thermodynamic framework and construct a 3-D thermal model for the Antarctic lithosphere. The final product, a high resolution thermal model together with associated uncertainty estimates from the Monte Carlo inversion, allows us to derive lithospheric thickness and surface heat flux maps for much of the continent. West Antarctica shows a much thinner lithosphere ( 50-90 km) than East Antarctica ( 130-230 km), with a sharp transition along the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). A variety of geological features, including a slower/hotter but highly heterogeneous West Antarctica and a much faster/colder East Antarctic craton, are present in the 3-D seismic/thermal models. Notably, slow seismic velocities observed in the uppermost mantle beneath the southern TAM are interpreted as a signature of lithospheric foundering and replacement with hot asthenosphere. The high resolution image of these features from the 3-D models helps further investigation of the dynamic state of Antarctica's lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere

  19. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  20. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-05-15

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nature of the uppermost mantle below the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland: new insights from seismic refraction and gravity data modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, M.; Watremez, L.; Chen, C.; O'Reilly, B.; Minshull, T. A.; Reston, T. J.; Wagner, G.; Gaw, V.; Klaeschen, D.; Shannon, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Porcupine Basin is a tongue-shaped basin SW of Ireland formed during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. Its history of sedimentation reveals several rifting and subsidence phases during the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, with a particular major rift phase occurring in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times. Previous work, focused on seismic and gravity data, suggest the presence of major crustal faulting and uppermost mantle serpentinization in the basin. Serpentinization is a key factor in lithospheric extension since it reduces the strength of mantle rocks, and hence, influences the tectonics of the lithosphere. Besides reducing the seismic velocity of the rock, serpentinization decreases mantle rock density favoring isostatic rebound and basin uplift, thus affecting the tectonic and thermal evolution of the basin. Here we characterize the deep structure of the Porcupine Basin from wide-angle seismic (WAS) and gravity data, with especial emphasis on the nature of the underlying mantle. The WAS data used were acquired along a 300 km long transect across the northern region of the basin. We used a travel time inversion method to model the data and obtain a P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the crust and uppermost mantle, together with the geometry of the main geological interfaces. The crustal structure along the model reveals a maximum stretching factor of ~5-6. These values are well within the range of crustal extension at which the crust becomes entirely brittle allowing the formation of major crustal faulting and serpentinization of the mantle. To further constrain the seismic structure and hence the nature of the mantle we assess the Vp uncertainty of the model by means of a Monte Carlo analysis and perform gravity modeling to test different interpretations regarding mantle rock nature. This project is funded by the Irish Shelf Petroleum Studies Group (ISPSG) of the Irish Petroleum Infrastructure Programme Group 4.

  2. Analysis of cervical spine function in healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, L.; Roettker, H.

    1990-01-01

    Radiograms were taken of subjects with no symptoms of cervical spine problems; the cervical spine was evaluated in the spontaneous posture and at maximal flexion and extension. The position and movement of the vertebra, intervertebral height and gliding were calculated. The results showed that (1) lordosis in women occurred less pronouncedly than in men, and that there was an increase with age; (2) C 2-3 was the least flexible segment and mobility increased in the caudal direction; mobility decreased with age and the segments of the lower cervical spine with the highest mobility decreased the most; (3) all posterior and ventral intervertebral heights showed a decrease with age at C 5-6 and C 6-7; (4) vertebral gliding decreased with age. (orig.) [de

  3. Diagnostic radiology for functional analysis of the cervical vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamieth, H.

    1986-01-01

    The book is averaged in 17 chapters. The first three, introductory chapters dealing with the significance of radiology for the functional diagnosis of the cervical spine are followed by three chapters discussing the movements of the atlantoaxial joints, the statics of the cervical spine, and the sagittal flexural movements in the C2-C7 segments. Subsequent chapters discuss the radiodiagnostical method according to Arlen, the innervation of the cervical spine segments of movement, disturbances of movement including restriction of movement, degenerative processes of the invertebral disks, and hypermobile disturbance of movement. The final chapters deal with compensational and dissociation phenomena, subluxations, defective or compulsive positions, etc., the causes of each, and with the clinical relevance of spondylochondrosis and arthrosis, and with the pain. With 171 figs [de

  4. Case Report: Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma. ... unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression that following fusion (congenital or acquired) of one segment of the spinal column, hypermobility of ...

  5. An unusual case of idiopathic multiple invasive cervical resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya Prakash Reddy Kesary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a rare form of root resorption, characterized by destruction of the cervical region of teeth resulting from the action of tooth resorbing cells. Being an asymptomatic condition, it is often discovered on routine radiographic examination. This multifactorial disease process can most commonly occur as a sequel to orthodontic treatment, dental trauma, bleaching procedures, and less commonly, as an outcome of segmental orthognathic surgery, periodontal root planning, tetracycline conditioning of the root canal, bruxism, transplantation of tooth, guided tissue regeneration, cementoenamel disjunction. In the absence of these predisposing factors, it can be labeled as ′idiopathic multiple cervical resorption′. This article describes the case of a medically fit Indian male, who displayed idiopathic invasive cervical resorption in multiple teeth.

  6. Application of Piezosurgery in Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sheng-Fa; Sun, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) is frequently used to decompress the cervical spine; however, this procedure is risky when dealing with a hard disc or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). Piezosurgery offers a useful tool for performing this procedure. In this article, we present a 50 years old man who had cervical spondylotic myelopathy with OPLL at the C 6 level and segmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal. When removing the posterior wall of his C 6 vertebral body and OPLL, piezosurgery was used to selectively cut hard structures piece by piece without injuring delicate soft tissues like the nerve roots and spinal cord. Because there is no bleeding from the bone surface with piezosurgery, it provides a clean operative field. © 2016 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Nightingale, R. W.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. Methods A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury. The cervical spine was subjected to simulated whiplash exposure in accordance with Euro NCAP (the European New Car Assessment Programme) testing using the whole human FE model. The coupled motions between the cervical spine and lumbar spine were assessed by evaluating the biomechanical effects of simulated cervical fusion and lumbar fusion. Results Peak anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) strain ranged from 0.106 to 0.382 in a normal spine, and from 0.116 to 0.399 in a fused cervical spine. Strain increased from cranial to caudal levels. The mean strain increase in the motion segment immediately adjacent to the site of fusion from C2-C3 through C5-C6 was 26.1% and 50.8% following single- and two-level cervical fusion, respectively (p = 0.03, unpaired two-way t-test). Peak cervical strains following various lumbar-fusion procedures were 1.0% less than those seen in a healthy spine (p = 0.61, two-way ANOVA). Conclusion Cervical arthrodesis increases peak ALL strain in the adjacent motion segments. C3-4 experiences greater changes in strain than C6-7. Lumbar fusion did not have a significant effect on cervical spine strain. Cite this article: H. Huang, R. W. Nightingale, A. B. C. Dang. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study. Bone

  8. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Nightingale, R W; Dang, A B C

    2018-01-01

    Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury. The cervical spine was subjected to simulated whiplash exposure in accordance with Euro NCAP (the European New Car Assessment Programme) testing using the whole human FE model. The coupled motions between the cervical spine and lumbar spine were assessed by evaluating the biomechanical effects of simulated cervical fusion and lumbar fusion. Peak anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) strain ranged from 0.106 to 0.382 in a normal spine, and from 0.116 to 0.399 in a fused cervical spine. Strain increased from cranial to caudal levels. The mean strain increase in the motion segment immediately adjacent to the site of fusion from C2-C3 through C5-C6 was 26.1% and 50.8% following single- and two-level cervical fusion, respectively (p = 0.03, unpaired two-way t -test). Peak cervical strains following various lumbar-fusion procedures were 1.0% less than those seen in a healthy spine (p = 0.61, two-way ANOVA). Cervical arthrodesis increases peak ALL strain in the adjacent motion segments. C3-4 experiences greater changes in strain than C6-7. Lumbar fusion did not have a significant effect on cervical spine strain. Cite this article : H. Huang, R. W. Nightingale, A. B. C. Dang. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:28-35. DOI: 10

  9. Pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Darryl C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy is a group of closely related disorders usually caused by spondylosis or by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and is characterized by compression of the cervical spinal cord or nerve roots by varying degrees and number of levels. The decrease in diameter of the vertebral canal secondary to disc degeneration and osteophytic spurs compresses the spinal cord and nerve roots at one or several levels, producing direct damage and often secondary ischemic changes. Clinicians who treat cervical myelopathy cord injuries should have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology and the processes that are initiated after the spinal cord has been injured. Literature review. Literature review of human cervical myelopathy and clinically relevant animal models to further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms involved. The pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy involves static factors, which result in acquired or developmental stenosis of the cervical canal and dynamic factors, which involve repetitive injury to the cervical cord. These mechanical factors in turn result in direct injury to neurons and glia as well as a secondary cascade of events including ischemia, excitotoxicity, and apoptosis; a pathobiology similar to that occurring in traumatic spinal cord injury. This review summarizes some of the significant pathophysiological processes involved in cervical myelopathy.

  10. Imaging in cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Follen, M.; Levenback, C.F.; Iyer, R.B.; Grigsby, P.W.; Boss, E.A.; Delpassand, E.S.; Fornage, B.D.; Fishman, E.K.

    2003-01-01

    Cervical cancer traditionally has been staged clinically. Advances in imaging could improve the staging of cervical cancer by facilitating the detection of lymph node metastases and micrometastases in distant organs. Such progress could lead to improvements in treatment selection and therefore

  11. Fractal analysis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Fabrizii

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. METHODS: Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. RESULTS: Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. CONCLUSION: Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  12. Surgery for failed cervical spine reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Albert, Todd J

    2012-03-01

    Review article. To review the indications, operative strategy, and complications of revision cervical spine reconstruction. With many surgeons expanding their indications for cervical spine surgery, the number of patients being treated operatively has increased. Unfortunately, the number of patients requiring revision procedures is also increasing, but very little literature exists reviewing changes in the indications or operative planning for revision reconstruction. Narrative and review of the literature. In addition to the well-accepted indications for primary cervical spine surgery (radiculopathy, myelopathy, instability, and tumor), we have used the following indications for revision surgery: pseudarthrosis, adjacent segment degeneration, inadequate decompression, iatrogenic instability, and deformity. Our surgical goal for pseudarthrosis is obviously to obtain a fusion, which can usually be performed with an approach not done previously. Our surgical goals for instability and deformity are more complex, with a focus on decompression of any neurologic compression, correction of deformity, and stability. Revision cervical spine reconstruction is safe and effective if performed for the appropriate indications and with proper planning.

  13. Role of upper-most crustal composition in the evolution of the Precambrian ocean-atmosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, R. R.; Mukherjee, I.; Zhukova, I.; Corkrey, R.; Stepanov, A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.

    2018-04-01

    Recent research has emphasized the potential relationships between supercontinent cycles, mountain building, nutrient flux, ocean-atmosphere chemistry and the origin of life. The composition of the Upper-Most Continental Crust (UMCC) also figures prominently in these relationships, and yet little detailed data on each component of this complex relationship has been available for assessment. Here we provide a new set of data on the trace element concentrations, including the Rare Earth Elements (REE), in the matrix of 52 marine black shale formations spread globally through the Archean and Proterozoic. The data support previous studies on the temporal geochemistry of shales, but with some important differences. Results indicate a change in provenance of the black shales (upper-most crustal composition), from more mafic in the Archean prior to 2700 Ma, to more felsic from 2700 to 2200 Ma, followed by a return to mafic compositions from 2200 to 1850 Ma. Around 1850 to 1800 Ma there is a rapid change to uniform felsic compositions, which remained for a billion years to 800 Ma. The shale matrix geochemistry supports the assertion that the average upper-most continental source rocks for the shales changed from a mix of felsic, mafic and ultramafic prior to 2700 Ma to more felsic after 1850 Ma, with an extended transition period between. The return to more mafic UMCC from 2200 to 1850 Ma is supported by the frequency of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and banded iron formations, which suggest a peak in major mantle-connected plume events and associated Fe-rich hydrothermal activity over this period. Support for the change to felsic UMCC around 1850 Ma is provided by previous geological data which shows that felsic magmas, including, A-type granites and K-Th-U-rich granites intruded vast areas of the continental crust, peaking around 1850 Ma and declining to 1000 Ma. The implications of this change in UMCC are far reaching and may go some way to explain the distinct

  14. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants' effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site

  15. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  16. Hydrogeologic framework of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; LeCain, Gary D.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sando, Roy; Long, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins within the United States and Canada are the uppermost principal aquifer systems and most accessible sources of groundwater for these energy-producing basins. The glacial aquifer system covers the northeastern part of the Williston structural basin. The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems are present in about 91,300 square miles (mi2) of the Williston structural basin and about 25,500 mi2 of the Powder River structural basin. Directly under these aquifer systems are 800 to more than 3,000 feet (ft) of relatively impermeable marine shale that serves as a basal confining unit. The aquifer systems in the Williston structural basin have a shallow (less than 2,900 ft deep), wide, and generally symmetrical bowl shape. The aquifer systems in the Powder River structural basin have a very deep (as much as 8,500 ft deep), narrow, and asymmetrical shape.

  17. Cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Sage, M.R.; Brophy, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Although cervical spondylosis is a common disorder, dysphagia induced by osteophyte formation is uncommon. Fewer than one hundred cases of cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia have been reported, with little attention to the diagnosis by barium swallow. The radiological features of two cases treated surgically with good results are described. Both cases complained of dysphagia while one had associated respiratory obstruction on forward flexion of his neck. The features on barium study of cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia include deformity at the level of osteophyte formation, in both AP and lateral projections. Tracheal aspirations due to deformity at the laryngeal inlet and interference with epiglottic retroversion may be present. 8 refs., 3 figs

  18. Cervical lung hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, Robin G.; Cleland, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Lightwood, R. G., and Cleland, W. P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 349-351. Cervical lung hernia. Lung hernias occur in the cervical position in about one third of cases. The remainder appear through the chest wall. Some lung hernias are congenital, but trauma is the most common cause. The indications for surgery depend upon the severity of symptoms. Repair by direct suture can be used for small tears in Sibson's (costovertebral) fascia while larger defects have been closed using prosthetic materials. Four patients with cervical lung hernia are described together with an account of their operations. PMID:4850946

  19. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struck, Aaron F.; Carr, Carrie M.; Shah, Vinil; Hesselink, John R.; Haughton, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  20. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  1. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean K. Stolworthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (LBP is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the camelid (specifically, alpaca and llama cervical spine as a model of the human lumbar spine. Cervical spines were obtained from four alpacas and four llamas and individual segments were used for segmental flexibility/biomechanics and/or morphology/anatomy studies. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared for the alpaca and llama cervical spines, and human lumbar specimens in addition to other published large animal data. Results indicate that a camelid cervical intervertebral disc (IVD closely approximates the human lumbar disc with regard to size, spinal posture, and biomechanical flexibility. Specifically, compared with the human lumbar disc, the alpaca and llama cervical disc size are approximately 62%, 83%, and 75% with regard to area, depth, and width, respectively, and the disc flexibility is approximately 133%, 173%, and 254%, with regard to range of motion (ROM in axial-rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral-bending, respectively. These results, combined with the clinical report of disc degeneration in the llama lower cervical spine, suggest that the camelid cervical spine is potentially well suited for use as an animal model in biomechanical studies of the human lumbar spine.

  2. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    function. Seventy-five per cent of patients with mild symptoms (sensory changes but no functional ... of both motor and sensory function as well as ... pathological and compressive) structures, ... management of cervical degenerative disease:.

  3. Cervical MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bones and cartilage in the neck ( cervical spondylosis ) Abnormal results may also be due to: Bone ... Park AL. Degenerative disorders of the thoracic and lumbar spine. In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, Canale ST, ...

  4. Cervical Chondrocutaneous Branchial Remnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, Tuomas; Kajosaari, Lauri

    2017-03-01

    Cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants are rare malformations usually found in the lower neck. As high as 76% of patients have been reported to have associated anomalies. We review the literature and report a case series of seven patients with cervical cartilaginous remnants.   A retrospective case series of seven patients identified from the electronic hospital records.   Seven patients with cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants were identified (six boys and one girl). Only one of the patients had associated anomalies.   A review of the literature revealed no evidence for sinuses or cysts related to cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants. Operative treatment can be postponed to a suitable and safe age. There is marked variation in the reported prevalence of associated anomalies, ranging from 11% to 76%.

  5. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  6. The cervical cap (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  7. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.

  8. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  9. Herniated Cervical Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are sometimes prescribed for more severe arm and neck pain because of their very powerful anti-inflammatory effect. ... caused by a herniated cervical disc. However, some neck pain may persist. Most patients respond well to discectomy; ...

  10. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous of southern Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Prieto-Márquez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A., is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus, a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus, and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus. Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949 suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development.

  11. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Erickson, Gregory M; Ebersole, Jun A

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development.

  12. Uppermost mantle seismic velocity and anisotropy in the Euro-Mediterranean region from Pn and Sn tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Gil, A.; Gallart, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10-15 years, the number of high quality seismic stations monitoring the Euro-Mediterranean region has increased significantly, allowing a corresponding improvement in structural constraints. We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath this complex area, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases sampling the whole region. The method of Hearn has been applied to the traveltime arrivals of the International Seismological Center catalogue for the time period 1990-2010. A total of 579 753 Pn arrivals coming from 12 377 events recorded at 1 408 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1 400 km have been retained after applying standard quality criteria (maximum depth, minimum number of recordings, maximum residual values …). Our results show significant features well correlated with surface geology and evidence the heterogeneous character of the Euro-Mediterranean lithosphere. The station terms reflect the existence of marked variations in crustal thickness, consistent with available Moho depths inferred from active seismic experiments. The highest Pn velocities are observed along a continuous band from the Po Basin to the northern Ionian Sea. Other high velocity zones include the Ligurian Basin, the Valencia Trough, the southern Alboran Sea and central part of the Algerian margin. Most significant low-velocity values are associated to orogenic belts (Betics, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines and Calabrian Arc, Dinarides-Hellenides), and low-velocity zones are also identified beneath Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. The introduction of an anisotropic term enhances significantly the lateral continuity of the anomalies, in particular in the most active tectonic areas. Pn anisotropy shows consistent orientations subparallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The Sn tomographic image has lower resolution but confirms independently most of the

  13. High-resolution surface wave tomography of the European crust and uppermost mantle from ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Stehly, Laurent; Paul, Anne; AlpArray Working Group

    2018-05-01

    Taking advantage of the large number of seismic stations installed in Europe, in particular in the greater Alpine region with the AlpArray experiment, we derive a new high-resolution 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the European crust and uppermost mantle from ambient noise tomography. The correlation of up to four years of continuous vertical-component seismic recordings from 1293 broadband stations (10° W-35° E, 30° N-75° N) provides Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion data in the period band 5-150 s at more than 0.8 million virtual source-receiver pairs. Two-dimensional Rayleigh wave group velocity maps are estimated using adaptive parameterization to accommodate the strong heterogeneity of path coverage. A probabilistic 3-D shear-wave velocity model, including probability densities for the depth of layer boundaries and S-wave velocity values, is obtained by non-linear Bayesian inversion. A weighted average of the probabilistic model is then used as starting model for the linear inversion step, providing the final Vs model. The resulting S-wave velocity model and Moho depth are validated by comparison with previous geophysical studies. Although surface-wave tomography is weakly sensitive to layer boundaries, vertical cross-sections through our Vs model and the associated probability of presence of interfaces display striking similarities with reference controlled-source (CSS) and receiver-function sections across the Alpine belt. Our model even provides new structural information such as a ˜8 km Moho jump along the CSS ECORS-CROP profile that was not imaged by reflection data due to poor penetration across a heterogeneous upper crust. Our probabilistic and final shear wave velocity models have the potential to become new reference models of the European crust, both for crustal structure probing and geophysical studies including waveform modeling or full waveform inversion.

  14. Preliminary clinical applications of DTI in human cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ting; Mai Weiwen; Liang Biling; Shen Jun; Huang Suiqiao; Hu Chunhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To condcut preliminary study of the value of DTI(diffusion tensor imaging) in human cervical spinal cord. Methods: Twenty-one patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy and twenty volunteers without any clinical symptoms underwent routine MRI and DTI examination. DTI was performed in six non-collinear directions with single-shot fast spin echo echo, planar imaging sequence(b value = 400 s·mm -2 ). ADC(apparent diffusion coefficient) and FA(fractional anisotropy)values were measured by ROIs(regions of interest) in 4 different level segment spinal cord (C 2/3 , C 3/4 , C 4/5 , C 5/6 ) in normal volunteers, in lesions and normal segmental spinal cord in clinical cases respectively. DTI original images were automatically processed by using IDL (Version 5.6) soft- ware to produce color tensor images. SPSS11.0 software for windows was used for t-test and one-way ANOVA analysis. The difference was considered statistically significant if P 2/3 , C 3/4 , C 4/5 , C 5/6 , were analyzed and it was found that FA value between them had a significant difference by ANOVA, F=159.24, P 2/3 level. However, ADC value between 4 segments had no significant difference(F=2.191, P>0.05). (2)In patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, routine MRI T2WI showed abnormal signal in 9 cases, and showed no abnormal signal in 12 dases. In sixteen cases it was found that abnormal patchy green signal on colorized tensor maps appeared on the normal blue spinal cord. Also, in patients of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, there was significant difference in ADC and FA value between lesions and normal spinal cord (paired t test, for ADC, t=2.88, P 2/3 level segment spinal cord in normal volunteers (0.85 ± 0.03) is the highest among other segments. FA value decreases gradually along cervical spinal cord towards the caudal direction. However, the difference of ADC values amongst 4 segments is not significant. DTI colorized tensor maps can show more lesions than routine MRI

  15. KYSTE THYMIQUE CERVICAL CERVICAL THYMIC CYST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tic est souvent de découverte histologique après l'examen de la pièce opératoire. Nous rapportons un cas de kyste thymique cervical et nous exposons les particularités em- bryologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques de cette entité pathologique. OBSERVATION CLINIQUE. Il s'agit d'une patiente, âgée de sept ans, qui nous ...

  16. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  17. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  18. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  19. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  1. Accelerated Deformable Registration of Repetitive MRI during Radiotherapy in Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Tanderup, Kari; Kiritsis, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Tumour regression and organ deformations during radiotherapy (RT) of cervical cancer represent major challenges regarding accurate conformation and calculation of dose when using image-guided adaptive radiotherapy. Deformable registration algorithms are able to handle organ deformations, which can...... be useful with advanced tools such as auto segmentation of organs and dynamic adaptation of radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to accelerate and validate deformable registration in MRI-based image-guided radiotherapy of cervical cancer.    ...

  2. Interventional therapy of cervical esophageal malignant obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Aiwu; Gao Zhongdu; Li Guofen; Jiang Tinghui; Hu Xuan; Wu Jieru; Yang Renjie; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of microinvasive technique in high level malignant esophageal obstruction and to provide the palliative therapy that can't be dredged by traditional methods. Methods: There were 39 patients suffered from high level esophageal obstruction, involving the segments from esophageal circular pharynx to 12 mm below. Tube-reticular nitinol metal stents woven by single thread were placed in orally to dredge the esophagus under fluoroscopic guidance after repeated tolerant expanding performance through expandable catheter. Interventional chemical therapy were administrated through blood-supply vessels. Results: Thirty nine patients were grafted with 46 high level esophageal stents. 34 patients accepted 156 times of interventional chemical therapy. All patients restored with fine residue diet without showing side-effects except slight pain and tolerant uncomfortable feeling. The survival rate of the patients with both interventional chemical therapy and stents was longer than those with stent therapy alone. Conclusion: Cervical high level segment of esophagus shouldn't be the restricted zone in the management of inner-stents. Interventional chemical therapy showed tumor-inhibiting effect in the cervical malignant diseases

  3. EFFICACY OF CAGE PLACEMENT WITHOUT PLATE IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL MYELOPATHY WITH SINGLE-LEVEL AFFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO ZUÑIGA-MAZÓN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the efficacy of PEEK (Poly-ether-ether-ketone cage without plate for the treatment of single-level cervical spondylosis. Methods: Ten patients with cervical myelopathy data, with a single-level root condition, seen at the outpatient clinic of the Neurosurgery Service, operated in 2016, mean age 53 years, 6 (60% female, 4 (40% obese, 3 (30% smokers. The Cloward technique was used by anterior approach, discectomy, and PEEK cage placement. Results: At six months of surgery, 100% of the patients had increased intervertebral space, with a 100% reduction in osteophytes; only one patient had dysphagia, no patient had lesion of the adjacent segment and 10% had persistent root pathology. Cervical lordosis was observed in 90% of the patients and arthrodesis in 100% of the cases. Conclusions: Anterior approach arthrodesis using PEEK cage without cervical plate is effective as a treatment of cervical myelopathy in a single level.

  4. VS of the uppermost crust structure of the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy) from ambient noise Rayleigh wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.; Strollo, R.

    2017-11-01

    Shear wave velocities (VS) are defined in the uppermost 1-2 km of the Campi Flegrei caldera through the non-linear inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves extracted from ambient noise cross-correlations between two receivers. Noise recordings, three months long, at 12 seismic stations are cross-correlated between all couples of stations. The experiment provided successful results along 54 paths (inter-stations distance), of which 27 sampled a depth > 1 km. VS contour lines are drawn from 0.06 km b.s.l. to 1 km depth b.s.l. and show difference between the offshore (gulf of Pozzuoli and coastline) and the onshore areas. At 0.06 km b.s.l., the gulf of Pozzuoli and the coastline are characterized by VS of 0.3-0.5 km/s and of 0.5-0.7 km/s, respectively. Such velocities are typical of Neapolitan pyroclastic soils and fractured or altered tuffs. The inland shows VS in the range 0.7-0.9 km/s, typical of Neapolitan compact tuffs. Velocities increase with depth and, at 1 km depth b.s.l., velocities lower than 1.5 km/s are still present in the gulf and along the coastline while velocities higher than 1.9 km/s characterize the eastern sector (grossly coincident with the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff caldera rim), the S. Vito plain and the area between Solfatara and SW of Astroni. Such features are much more evident along two cross-sections drawn in the offshore and onshore sectors by integrating our VS models with literature data. Our models join previous noise cross-correlation studies at greater scale at depths of 0.7-0.8 km, hence the picture of the Campi Flegrei caldera is shown up to a depth of 15 km. VS of about 1.7 km/s, corresponding to compression velocities (VP) of about 3 km/s (computed by using the VP/VS ratio resulted in the inversion), are found at depths of 1.1 km, in the centre of the gulf of Pozzuoli, and at a depth of about 0.7 km b.s.l. onshore. An increment of VS velocity ( 1.9-2.0 km/s) is locally observed onshore

  5. Bedrock topography beneath uppermost part of Aletsch glacier, Central Swiss Alps, revealed from cosmic-ray muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Käser, Samuel; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Ereditato, Antonio; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2017-04-01

    absorption rate enabled us to image a three-dimensional boundary shape between dense granite bedrock (˜ 2.7 g/cm3) and light ice part (˜ 0.8 g/cm3) in the very uppermost part of Aletsch glacier. This is the first application of muon radiography to cryogenic science. Further measurements are presently ongoing to image inside a much larger edifice of Eiger glacier, which straddles on the western flank of the famous Eiger mountain. References: Ambrosino et al. (2015), J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 120, 7290-7307. Jourde et al. (2016), Scientific Reports, 6, 33406. Nishiyama et al. (2016), Pure Appl. Geophys., doi:10.1007/s00024-016-1430-9. Tanaka et al. (2011), Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 306, 156-162.

  6. Factors predicting dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Lei; Yang, Da-Long; Wang, Hui; Bai, Zhi-Long; Zhang, Li-Jun; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A multicenter retrospective study. The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors of dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery and factors affecting rehabilitation of dysphagia 2 years after surgery. Patients who underwent anterior cervical surgery at 3 centers from January 2010 to January 2013 were included. The possible factors included 3 aspects: demographic variables—age, sex, body mass index (BMI): hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, smoking, alcohol use, diagnose (cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament), preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA), surgical-related variables—surgical option (ACDF, ACCF, ACCDF, or Zero profile), operation time, blood loss, operative level, superior fusion segment, incision length, angle of C2 to C7, height of C2 to C7, cervical circumference, cervical circumference/height of C2 to C7. The results of our study indicated that the rate of dysphagia at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery was 20%, 5.4%, 2.4%, 1.1%, and 0.4%, respectively. Our results showed that age (58.8 years old), BMI (27.3 kg/m2), course of disease (11.6 months), operation time (103.2 min), blood loss (151.6 mL), incision length (9.1 cm), cervical circumference (46.8 cm), angle of C2 to C7 (15.3°), cervical circumference/height of C2 to C7 (4.8), preoperative VAS (7.5), and ODI (0.6) in dysphagia group were significantly higher than those (52.0, 24.6, 8.6, 88.2, 121.6, 8.6, 42.3, 12.6, 3.7, 5.6, and 0.4, respectively) in nondysphagia group; however, height of C2 to C7 (9.9 vs 11.7 cm) and preoperative JOA (8.3 vs 10.7) had opposite trend between 2 groups. We could also infer that female, smoking, diabetes, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, ACCDF, multilevel surgery, and superior fusion segment including C2 to C3 or C6 to C7 were the risk factors for dysphagia after surgery immediately. However

  7. Cervical Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. The primary risk factor for cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Start here to find evidence-based information on cervical cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  8. Loss of inter-vertebral disc height after anterior cervical discectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haden, N; Latimer, M; Seeley, H M; Laing, R J

    2005-12-01

    Most surgeons undertaking anterior cervical discectomy (ACD) introduce a bone graft or cage into the disc space when the decompression is complete. This is done to prevent segmental collapse, preserve cervical spine alignment and to promote fusion. We have conducted a prospective observational cohort study to investigate the relationship between loss of disc height, cervical spine alignment and clinical outcome in 140 patients undergoing ACD without inter-body graft or cage. At a minimum of 12 months after operation changes in disc space height and cervical spine alignment were correlated with clinical outcome measured by SF36, Neck Disability Index, and visual analogue neck and arm pain scores. There was no relationship between loss of disc height and outcome. Loss of the overall cervical lordosis was present in 71 patients and segmental kyphosis was found in 69. Analysis of clinical outcome showed no significant differences between patients with preserved and abnormal cervical alignment. Neither loss of disc height nor disturbance of cervical alignment compromised clinical outcome in the first year following ACD.

  9. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  10. Pavement management segment consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dividing roads into "homogeneous" segments has been a major problem for all areas of highway engineering. SDDOT uses Deighton Associates Limited software, dTIMS, to analyze life-cycle costs for various rehabilitation strategies on each segment of roa...

  11. Speaker segmentation and clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...

  12. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  13. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  14. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  15. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (HPV) will hopefully reduce cervical cancer rates globally even ... active people will get HPV at some time in their lives', making it ... cells due to HPV infection of the cervix are the first step in a series ..... A randomised controlled study of purified air administered to the 'breathing zone' at night to people with allergic asthma ...

  16. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  17. Biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy of uppermost Cretaceous-lower Cenozoic Muzzle Group in middle Clarence valley, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, C.J.; Field, B.D.; Jones, C.M.; Strong, C.P.; Wilson, G.J.; Dickens, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Muzzle Group strata exposed along southeast-flowing tributaries of the Clarence River valley, Marlborough, record hemipelagic-pelagic sedimentation across a high latitude (c. 55 degrees S), terrigenous sediment-starved, continental margin from latest Cretaceous to middle Eocene times. Studies of dinoflagellates, foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils, and radiolarians have been integrated with bulk carbonate δ 13 C profiles to establish the chronostratigraphy for two stratigraphic sections along Bluff and Muzzle Streams, middle Clarence valley. The two sections comprise similar successions. Uppermost Cretaceous (upper Haumurian) micritic limestone of Mead Hill Formation is overlain unconformably by Teredo Limestone, a c. 0.25 m thick bed of highly glauconitic, calcareous sandstone. This unit, the basal member of Amuri Limestone, is overlain conformably by c. 15 m thick Lower Limestone, micritic limestone that is glauconitic at base and progressively more marl-rich in its upper part. Lower Limestone grades up into Lower Marl, a poorly exposed, 40-70 m thick unit of alternating marl and micritic limestone beds. Biostratigraphy indicates that the base of Amuri Limestone is younger at Bluff Stream (earliest Eocene, early Waipawan) than at Muzzle Stream (late Paleocene, late Teurian). In the condensed (12 m) upper Paleocene-lower Eocene Amuri Limestone sequence at Muzzle Stream, a trend in δ 13 C from high (≥2.4 permille) to low (≤1 permille) values is consistent with global records across three major climate or carbon cycle perturbations: the late Paleocene carbon isotope maximum (PCIM, 59-56 Ma), the initial Eocene thermal maximum (IETM, 55.5 Ma), and the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO, 53-50 Ma). Probably only the upper PCIM is preserved in the 4 m thick siliceous limestone interval overlying Teredo Limestone. The IETM is well-defined by a 1 permille negative δ 13 C excursion at the base of a 0.8 m thick marl-rich unit (Dee Marl), 5 m above the base of

  18. [Total cervical disk replacement--implant-specific approaches: keel implant (Prodisc-C intervertebral disk prosthesis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korge, Andreas; Siepe, Christoph J; Heider, Franziska; Mayer, H Michael

    2010-11-01

    Dynamic intervertebral support of the cervical spine via an anterolateral approach using a modular artificial disk prosthesis with end-plate fixation by central keel fixation. Cervical median or mediolateral disk herniations, symptomatic cervical disk disease (SCDD) with anterior osseous, ligamentous and/or discogenic narrowing of the spinal canal. Cervical fractures, tumors, osteoporosis, arthrogenic neck pain, severe facet degeneration, increased segmental instability, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), severe osteopenia, acute and chronic systemic, spinal or local infections, systemic and metabolic diseases, known implant allergy, pregnancy, severe adiposity (body mass index > 36 kg/m2), reduced patient compliance, alcohol abuse, drug abuse and dependency. Exposure of the anterior cervical spine using the minimally invasive anterolateral approach. Intervertebral fixation of retainer screws. Intervertebral diskectomy. Segmental distraction with vertebral body retainer and vertebral distractor. Removal of end-plate cartilage. Microscopically assisted decompression of spinal canal. Insertion of trial implant to determine appropriate implant size, height and position. After biplanar image intensifier control, drilling for keel preparation using drill guide and drill bit, keel-cut cleaner to remove bone material from the keel cut, radiologic control of depth of the keel cut using the corresponding position gauge. Implantation of original implant under lateral image intensifier control. Removal of implant inserter. Functional postoperative care and mobilization without external support, brace not used routinely, soft brace possible for 14 days due to postoperative pain syndromes. Implantation of 100 cervical Prodisc-C disk prostheses in 78 patients (average age 48 years) at a single center. Clinical and radiologic follow-up 24 months postoperatively. Significant improvement based on visual analog scale and Neck Disability Index. Radiologic

  19. Clinical and pathological heterogeneity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah P Yang

    Full Text Available Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3, the immediate cervical cancer precursor, is a target of cervical cancer prevention. However, less than half of CIN3s will progress to cancer. Routine treatment of all CIN3s and the majority of CIN2s may lead to overtreatment of many lesions that would not progress. To improve our understanding of CIN3 natural history, we performed a detailed characterization of CIN3 heterogeneity in a large referral population in the US.We examined 309 CIN3 cases in the SUCCEED, a large population-based study of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results. Histology information for 12 individual loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP segments was evaluated for each woman. We performed case-case comparisons of CIN3s to analyze determinants of heterogeneity and screening test performance.CIN3 cases varied substantially by size (1-10 LEEP segments and by presentation with concomitant CIN2 and CIN1. All grades of CINs were equally distributed over the cervical surface. In half of the women, CIN3 lesions were found as multiple distinct lesions on the cervix. Women with large and solitary CIN3 lesions were more likely to be older, have longer sexual activity span, and have fewer multiple high risk HPV infections. Screening frequency, but not HPV16 positivity, was an important predictor of CIN3 size. Large CIN3 lesions were also characterized by high-grade clinical test results.We demonstrate substantial heterogeneity in clinical and pathological presentation of CIN3 in a US population. Time since sexual debut and participation in screening were predictors of CIN3 size. We did not observe a preferential site of CIN3 on the cervical surface that could serve as a target for cervical biopsy. Cervical cancer screening procedures were more likely to detect larger CIN3s, suggesting that CIN3s detected by multiple independent diagnostic tests may represent cases with increased risk of invasion.

  20. Venous hypertensive myelopathy associated with cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Seiji; Chang, Charles; Chang, Geraldine; Yue, James J

    2016-11-01

    Venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM) results from spinal vascular malformations of arteriovenous shunting that increases spinal venous pressure, leading to congestive edema and neurologic dysfunction. There has been no report of VHM associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The aim of this study was to report an extremely rare case of VHM likely due to CSM. This study is a case report and review of the literature. The patient was a 51-year-old man with CSM exhibiting relatively rapid neurologic deterioration with an abnormal expansion of a centromedullary hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the absence of traumatic injury. Neurologic examination and radiologic imaging were taken by various means. The patient developed a cervical radiculopathy, followed by gait disturbance and motor weakness. The MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated spinal canal stenosis due to disc bulging and flavum hypertrophy at the C5/C6 and C6/C7 levels as well as hyperintense area over the C5-C7 levels on T2-weighted images. Although decompression surgery was planned, an acute inflammatory process such as transverse myelitis or demyelinating disease other than cord compression was also considered, and the patient received intravenous steroids. His walking improved for several days. However, his symptoms then became significantly worse, and he had difficulty walking. Subsequent MRI demonstrated marked progression of the T2 hyperintense lesion over the C4-T1 vertebral levels. Flow voids were also noted on the dorsal surface of the upper cervical cord on T2-weighted MRI. His lab work, medical history, and the local enhancement on contrast-enhanced MRI indicated low probability of spinal inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the decision was made to perform anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery on two levels. Following surgery, his symptoms improved promptly. Our case indicates that VHM could be caused by spondylotic cord compression in the

  1. Postural Consequences of Cervical Sagittal Imbalance: A Novel Laboratory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash G; Havey, Robert M; Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Muriuki, Muturi G; Voronov, Leonard I; Carandang, Gerard; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lam; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Schuit, Dale; Patel, Alpesh A; Smith, Zachary A; Sears, William

    2015-06-01

    A biomechanical study using human spine specimens. To study postural compensations in lordosis angles that are necessary to maintain horizontal gaze in the presence of forward head posture and increasing T1 sagittal tilt. Forward head posture relative to the shoulders, assessed radiographically using the horizontal offset distance between the C2 and C7 vertebral bodies (C2-C7 [sagittal vertical alignment] SVA), is a measure of global cervical imbalance. This may result from kyphotic alignment of cervical segments, muscle imbalance, as well as malalignment of thoracolumbar spine. Ten cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-T1) were tested. The T1 vertebra was anchored to a tilting and translating base. The occiput was free to move vertically but its angular orientation was constrained to ensure horizontal gaze regardless of sagittal imbalance. A 5-kg mass was attached to the occiput to mimic head weight. Forward head posture magnitude and T1 tilt were varied and motions of individual vertebrae were measured to calculate C2-C7 SVA and lordosis across C0-C2 and C2-C7. Increasing C2-C7 SVA caused flexion of lower cervical (C2-C7) segments and hyperextension of suboccipital (C0-C1-C2) segments to maintain horizontal gaze. Increasing kyphotic T1 tilt primarily increased lordosis across the C2-C7 segments. Regression models were developed to predict the compensatory C0-C2 and C2-C7 angulation needed to maintain horizontal gaze given values of C2-C7 SVA and T1 tilt. This study established predictive relationships between radiographical measures of forward head posture, T1 tilt, and postural compensations in the cervical lordosis angles needed to maintain horizontal gaze. The laboratory model predicted that normalization of C2-C7 SVA will reduce suboccipital (C0-C2) hyperextension, whereas T1 tilt reduction will reduce the hyperextension in the C2-C7 segments. The predictive relationships may help in planning corrective strategy in patients experiencing neck pain, which may be

  2. Whole vertebral bone segmentation method with a statistical intensity-shape model based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Shouhei; Fritscher, Karl; Schuler, Benedikt; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni; Schubert, Rainer

    2011-03-01

    An automatic segmentation algorithm for the vertebrae in human body CT images is presented. Especially we focused on constructing and utilizing 4 different statistical intensity-shape combined models for the cervical, upper / lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. For this purpose, two previously reported methods were combined: a deformable model-based initial segmentation method and a statistical shape-intensity model-based precise segmentation method. The former is used as a pre-processing to detect the position and orientation of each vertebra, which determines the initial condition for the latter precise segmentation method. The precise segmentation method needs prior knowledge on both the intensities and the shapes of the objects. After PCA analysis of such shape-intensity expressions obtained from training image sets, vertebrae were parametrically modeled as a linear combination of the principal component vectors. The segmentation of each target vertebra was performed as fitting of this parametric model to the target image by maximum a posteriori estimation, combined with the geodesic active contour method. In the experimental result by using 10 cases, the initial segmentation was successful in 6 cases and only partially failed in 4 cases (2 in the cervical area and 2 in the lumbo-sacral). In the precise segmentation, the mean error distances were 2.078, 1.416, 0.777, 0.939 mm for cervical, upper and lower thoracic, lumbar spines, respectively. In conclusion, our automatic segmentation algorithm for the vertebrae in human body CT images showed a fair performance for cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.

  3. Surgical management of metastatic tumors of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarski, Atanas N; Kitov, Borislav D; Zhelyazkov, Christo B; Raykov, Stefan D; Kehayov, Ivo I; Koev, Ilyan G; Kalnev, Borislav M

    2013-01-01

    To present the results from the clinical presentation, the imaging diagnostics, surgery and postoperative status of 17 patients with cervical spine metastases, to analyse all data and make the respective conclusions and compare them with the available data in the literature. The study analysed data obtained by patients with metastatic cervical tumours treated in St George University Hospital over a period of seven years. All patients underwent diagnostic imaging tests which included, separately or in combination, cervical x-rays, computed tomography scan and magnetic-resonance imaging. Severity of neurological damage and its pre- and postoperative state was graded according to the Frankel Scale. For staging and operating performance we used the Tomita scale and Harrington classification. Seven patients had only one affected vertebra, 4 patients--two vertebrae, one patient--three vertebrae, 2 patients--four vertebrae, and in the other 3 patients more than one segment was affected. Surgery was performed in 12 patients. One level anterior corpectomy was performed in 6 patients, three patients had two-level surgery, and one patient--three-level corpectomy; in the remaining 2 cases we used posterior approach in surgery. Complete corpectomy was performed in 4 patients, subtotal corpectomy was used in 6 patients and partial--in 2 patients. Anterior stabilization system ADD plus (Ulrich GmbH & Co. KG, Ulm, Germany) was implanted in 2 patients; in 8 patients anterior titanium plate and bone graft were used, and in 1 patient--posterior cervical stabilization system. Because of the pronounced pain syndrome and frequent neurological lesions as a result of the cervical spine metastases use of surgery is justified. The main purpose is to maximize tumor resection, achieve optimal spinal cord and nerve root decompression and stabilize the affected segment.

  4. Comparison of Cervical Kinematics, Pain, and Functional Disability Between Single- and Two-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Andy; Lai, Dar-Ming; Wang, Shwu-Fen; Hsu, Wei-Li; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2016-08-01

    A prospective, time series design. The purpose of this study is two-fold: firstly, to investigate the impact of altered cervical alignment and range of motion (ROM) on patients' self-reported outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), and secondly, to comparatively differentiate the influence of single- and two-level ACDF on the cervical ROM and adjacent segmental kinematics up to 12-month postoperatively. ACDF is one of the most commonly employed surgical interventions to treat degenerative disc disease. However, there are limited in vivo data on the impact of ACDF on the cervical kinematics and its association with patient-reported clinical outcomes. Sixty-two patients (36 males; 55.63 ± 11.6 yrs) undergoing either a single- or consecutive two-level ACDF were recruited. The clinical outcomes were assessed with the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological results included cervical lordosis, global C2-C7 ROM, ROM of the Functional Spinal Unit (FSU), and its adjacent segments. The outcome measures were collected preoperatively and then at 3, 6, and 12-month postoperatively. A significant reduction of both VAS and NDI was found for both groups from the preoperative to 3-month period (P < 0.01). Pearson correlation revealed no significant correlation between global ROM with neither VAS (P = 0.667) nor NDI (P = 0.531). A significant reduction of global ROM was identified for the two-level ACDF group at 12 months (P = 0.017) but not for the single-level group. A significant interaction effect was identified for the upper adjacent segment ROM (P = 0.024) but not at the lower adjacent segment. Current study utilized dynamic radiographs to comparatively evaluate the biomechanical impact of single- and two-level ACDF. The results highlighted that the two-level group demonstrated a greater reduction of global ROM coupled with an increased upper adjacent segmental compensatory motions that

  5. Imaging of cervical carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyer, P.; Michel, G.; Masselot, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal or transvaginal ultrasound (TRUS, TVUS) had an important place in imaging techniques of cervical carcinomas and raise the question of modifying the imaging strategies. For the diagnosis of primitive tumor, those techniques cannot take the place of clinical examination and gross examination. In the assessment of parametrial involvement, TRUS which has better accuracy than clinical examination, and MRI which is considered as the most accurate technique, have an important role to play. In the follow-up and the detection of recurrences, MRI is actually considered as the best imaging technique. The authors, according to recent data in literature and their own experience, present basic concepts of imaging strategies for staging and follow-up of cervical carcinomas [fr

  6. Cytology of treated cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    The vaginal smear specimens of the patients who received operative therapy, irradiation or chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma were examined. Long-term follow-up vaginal cytology following treatment of cervical carcinoma is effective for the detection of local recurrence in an early stage. Serial cytology is also useful in evaluation of the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Radiosensitive and prognostic significance of vaginal smears before and after radiation therapy was discussed. (author)

  7. Amitriptyline induced cervical dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand B Hiremath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, such as amitriptyline, have many side effects. But extrapyramidal tract symptom is an uncommon side effect of these drugs. Here, we report a case of a 28-year-old male who is suffering from amitriptyline induced cervical dystonia. Though rare, this side effect is an uncomfortable condition and may influence drug compliance. So clinicians should be aware of this side effect while treating a patient with amitriptyline.

  8. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  9. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  11. Effect of Unifocal versus Multifocal Lenses on Cervical Spine Posture in Patients with Presbyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Rami L; Houri, Mohamad T; Rayyan, Mohammad M; Hamada, Hamada Ahmad; Saab, Ibtissam M

    2018-04-04

    There are many environmental considerations which may or may not lead to the development of faulty cervical mechanics. The design of near vision lenses could contribute to the development of such cervical dysfunction and consequently neck pain. Decision making regarding proper type of lens prescription seems important for presbyopic individuals. To investigate the effect of unifocal and multifocal lenses on cervical posture. Thirty subjects (18 females and 12 males) participated in the study with an age range from 40 to 64 years. Each subject wore consequently both unifocal and multifocal lenses randomly while reading. Then lateral cervical spine X-ray films were taken for each subject during each lens wearing. X-ray films were analyzed with digital software (Autocad software, 2 D) to measure segmental angles of the cervical vertebrae (Occiput/C1, C1/C2, C2/C3, C3/C4, C4/C5, C5/C6, C6/C7, C3/C7, C0/C3, and occiput/C7). Higher significant extension angle in the segments C0/C7, C1/C2, C5/C6, C6/C7, and C3/C7 (p<0.05) during multifocal lenses wearing were observed in contrast with higher flexion angle between C3/C4 and C4/C5 (p<0.05) with unifocal lenses wear. Multifocal lens spectacles produces increased extension in the cervical vertebrae angles when compared with the use of unifocal lenses.

  12. Comparison of Radiologic Outcomes of Different Methods in Single-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O Ik; Son, Dong Wuk; Lee, Sang Weon; Song, Geun Sung

    2016-09-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a choice of surgical procedure for cervical degenerative diseases associated with radiculopathy or myelopathy. However, the patients undergoing ACDF still have problems. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the radiologic results of 3 different methods in single-level ACDF. We conducted a retrospective collection of radiological data from January 2011 to December 2014. A total of 67 patients were included in this study. The patients were divided into 3 groups by operation procedure: using stand-alone cage (group cage, n=20); polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK)-titanium combined anchored cage (group AC, n=21); and anterior cervical cage-plate (group CP, n=26). Global cervical lordosis (C2-C7 Cobb angle), fused segment height, fusion rate, and cervical range of motion (ROM) were measured and analyzed at serial preoperative, postoperative, 6-month, and final 1-year follow-up. Successful bone fusion was achieved in all patients at the final follow-up examination; however, the loss of disc height over 3 mm at the surgical level was observed in 6 patients in group cage. Groups AC and CP yielded significantly better outcomes than group cage in fused segment height and cervical ROM(p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). Furthermore, group AC had similar radiologic outcomes to those of group CP. The PEEK-titanium combined anchored cage may be a good alternative procedure in terms of reducing complications induced by plate after ACDF.

  13. ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE Encodes a Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase That Epoxidizes Gibberellins in a Novel Deactivation Reaction in RiceW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongyou; Nomura, Takahito; Xu, Yonghan; Zhang, Yingying; Peng, Yu; Mao, Bizeng; Hanada, Atsushi; Zhou, Haicheng; Wang, Renxiao; Li, Peijin; Zhu, Xudong; Mander, Lewis N.; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; He, Zuhua

    2006-01-01

    The recessive tall rice (Oryza sativa) mutant elongated uppermost internode (eui) is morphologically normal until its final internode elongates drastically at the heading stage. The stage-specific developmental effect of the eui mutation has been used in the breeding of hybrid rice to improve the performance of heading in male sterile cultivars. We found that the eui mutant accumulated exceptionally large amounts of biologically active gibberellins (GAs) in the uppermost internode. Map-based cloning revealed that the Eui gene encodes a previously uncharacterized cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP714D1. Using heterologous expression in yeast, we found that EUI catalyzed 16α,17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs. Consistent with the tall and dwarfed phenotypes of the eui mutant and Eui-overexpressing transgenic plants, respectively, 16α,17-epoxidation reduced the biological activity of GA4 in rice, demonstrating that EUI functions as a GA-deactivating enzyme. Expression of Eui appeared tightly regulated during plant development, in agreement with the stage-specific eui phenotypes. These results indicate the existence of an unrecognized pathway for GA deactivation by EUI during the growth of wild-type internodes. The identification of Eui as a GA catabolism gene provides additional evidence that the GA metabolism pathway is a useful target for increasing the agronomic value of crops. PMID:16399803

  14. [Cervical spine trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Hellen, P

    2016-08-01

    In the emergency department 65 % of spinal injuries and 2-5 % of blunt force injuries involve the cervical spine. Of these injuries approximately 50 % involve C5 and/or C6 and 30 % involve C2. Older patients tend to have higher spinal injuries and younger patients tend to have lower injuries. The anatomical and development-related characteristics of the pediatric spine as well as degenerative and comorbid pathological changes of the spine in the elderly can make the radiological evaluation of spinal injuries difficult with respect to possible trauma sequelae in young and old patients. Two different North American studies have investigated clinical criteria to rule out cervical spine injuries with sufficient certainty and without using imaging. Imaging of cervical trauma should be performed when injuries cannot be clinically excluded according to evidence-based criteria. Degenerative changes and anatomical differences have to be taken into account in the evaluation of imaging of elderly and pediatric patients.

  15. Cervical Myelopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mukerji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the cervical spine is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical presentation can be variable, and symptoms may be due to neck pain or compressive myeloradiculopathy. We discuss the pathology, grading systems, clinical presentation, indications for surgery and surgical management of cervical myelopathy related to rheumatoid arthritis in this paper. We describe our surgical technique and results. We recommend early consultation for surgical management when involvement of the cervical spine is suspected in rheumatoid arthritis. Even patients with advanced cervical myelopathy should be discussed for surgical treatment, since in our experience improvement in function after surgery is common.

  16. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  17. Analysis on Biomechanical Characteristics of Post-operational Vertebral C5-C6 Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heqiang Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR have obvious advantages in the treatment of cervical spondylosis. To analyze the operation results, it is absolutely necessary to study the biomechanics of the movement range of post-operational vertebral C5-C6 segments, especially the biomechanical characteristics in cervical tissues in actual movements. In this study, using the human vertebral 3D graph gained by imaging diagnosis (CT, a vertebral solid model is established by the 3D reconstruction algorithm and reverse engineering technology. After that, with cervical soft tissue structure added to the solid model and set with a joint contact mechanism, a finite element model with a complete, accurate cervical C5-C6 kinematic unit is constructed, based on relevant physiological anatomical knowledge. This model includes vertebral segments, an intervertebral disc, ligament and zygopophysis in the cervical C5-C6 kinematic unit. In the created vertebral finite element model, the model is amended, referring to ACDF and ACDR, and the load and constraint are applied to a normal group, a fusion group and a displacement group, so as to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of the cervical vertebra after ACDF and ACDR. By comparing the finite element simulation results of different surgeries, this paper is intended to evaluate the functions and biomechanical behaviors of the post-operational vertebra, and explore the influence of the operation on the biomechanical stability of the cervical vertebra. This will provide theoretical guidance for implementation and optimization of ACDF and ACDR.

  18. Diagnostic radiology for functional analysis of the cervical vertebral column. Roentgenfunktionsdiagnostik der Halswirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamieth, H

    1986-01-01

    The book is averaged in 17 chapters. The first three, introductory chapters dealing with the significance of radiology for the functional diagnosis of the cervical spine are followed by three chapters discussing the movements of the atlantoaxial joints, the statics of the cervical spine, and the sagittal flexural movements in the C2-C7 segments. Subsequent chapters discuss the radiodiagnostical method according to Arlen, the innervation of the cervical spine segments of movement, disturbances of movement including restriction of movement, degenerative processes of the invertebral disks, and hypermobile disturbance of movement. The final chapters deal with compensational and dissociation phenomena, subluxations, defective or compulsive positions, etc., the causes of each, and with the clinical relevance of spondylochondrosis and arthrosis, and with the pain. With 171 figs..

  19. Spondilitis Tuberkulosa Cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Eka Saputra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Spondilitis tuberkulosa servikalis adalah penyakit yang cukup jarang dijumpai, hanya berkisar 2-3% dariseluruh kasus spondilitis tuberkulosa. Gambaran klinis sangat bervariasi, mulai dari gejala ringan dan tidak spesifikhingga komplikasi neurologis yang berat. Seorang wanita berusia 29 tahun datang dengan keluhan lemah keempatanggota gerak yang semakin memberat dalam 10 hari terakhir yang didahului oleh nyeri leher yang menjalar ke bahudan lengan sejak 6 bulan sebelumnya. Nyeri awalnya dirasakan sebagai keterbatasan gerakan leher saat menolehkesamping kiri dan kanan serta menundukkan kepala. Nyeri dirasakan semakin berat dengan pergerakan danberkurang jika istirahat. Pasien mengalami penurunan berat badan sejak 2 bulan terakhir. Tidak dijumpai riwayat batukatau nyeri dada. Pemeriksaan neurologis menunjukkan kelemahan  pada keempat ekstremitas. Hasil laboratoriumditemukan peningkatan Laju Endap Darah (LED. Rontgen foto toraks dalam batas normal. Roentgen foto cervicalmenunjukkan destruksi setinggi C5. MRI cervical menunjukkan destruksi pada korpus C5-6 dengan penyempitan padadiscus intervertebrae C5-6 disertai dengan  massa/abses paravertebral dengan penekanan ke posterior. MRI Thorakaltampak destruksi corpus verebre T4,5 dengan diskus intervertebralis yang menyempit. Sugestif suatu spondilitistuberkulosa. Pasien dilakukan tindakan pembedahan anterior corpectomi melalui microscopic surgery dengan graftdari iliac sinistra, serta insersi anterior plate 1 level. Hasil pemeriksaan patologi anatomi menunjukkan spodilitis TBCkaseosa. Pada spondilitis vertebre T4,5 dilakukan laminectomi, debridement costotrasversektomi, dan stabilisasidengan pedicle screw T2, T3, dan T5. Pasien diterapi dengan obat antituberkulosis. Keadaan pasien saat ini, pasiensudah bisa beraktifitas normal dengan motorik dan sensorik baik. Spondilitis tuberkulosa merupakan bentuktuberkulosa tulang yang paling sering dijumpai. Spondilitis tuberkulosa cervical berkisar 2

  20. Anterior cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia and dyspnea: an uncommon entity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Roland; Dulguerov, Pavel; Payer, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). We present the case of an 83-year-old patient with progressive dysphagia and acute dyspnea, necessitating emergency tracheotomy. Voluminous anterior cervical osteophytes extending from C3 to C7 and narrowing the pharyngoesophageal segment by external compression and bilateral vocal fold immobility were diagnosed radiologically and by fiberoptic laryngoscopy. Surgical removal of all osteophytes led to the resolution of symptoms. Dyspnea with or without dysphagia caused by hypertrophic anterior cervical osteophytes is an uncommon entity. The exhaustive diagnostic workup proposed in the literature could be simplified by using fiberoptic laryngoscopy and dynamic videofluoroscopy. The causes, treatment, and outcome are discussed.

  1. What is the superior surgical strategy for bi-level cervical spondylosis-anterior cervical disc replacement or anterior cervical decompression and fusion?: A meta-analysis from 11 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Duan, Li-Jun; Gao, Yu-Shan; Yang, Yong-Dong; Tang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhao, Ding-Yan; Xiong, Yang; Hu, Zhen-Guo; Li, Chuan-Hong; Yu, Xing

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, anterior cervical artificial disc replacement (ACDR) has achieved favorable outcomes in treatment for patients with single-level cervical spondylosis. However, It is still controversial that whether or not it will become a potent therapeutic alternation in treating 2 contiguous levels cervical spondylosis compared with anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of ACDR and ACDF in patients with 2 contiguous levels cervical spondylosis. According to the computer-based online search, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for articles published before July 1, 2017 were searched. The following outcome measures were extracted: neck disability index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) neck, VAS arm, Short Form (SF)-12 mental component summary (MCS), SF-12 physical component summary (PCS), overall clinical success (OCS), patient satisfaction (PS), device-related adverse event (DRAE), subsequent surgical intervention (SSI), neurological deterioration (ND), and adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). Methodological quality was evaluated independently by 2 reviewers using the Furlan for randomized controlled trial (RCT) and MINORS scale for clinical controlled trials (CCT). The chi-squared test and Higgin I test were used to evaluate the heterogeneity. A P bi-level cervical spondylosis, ACDR appears to provide superior clinical effectiveness and safety effects than ACDF. In the future, more high-quality RCTs are warranted to enhance this conclusion.

  2. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  3. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral...

  4. Research on simulation calculation method of biomechanical characteristics of C1-3 motion segment damage mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Ju-ying

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To develop the finite element model (FEM of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment, and to make biomechanical finite element analysis (FEA on C1-3 motion segment and thus simulate the biomechanical characteristics of C1-3 motion segment in distraction violence, compression violence, hyperextension violence and hyperflexion violence. Methods According to CT radiological data of a healthy adult, the vertebrae and intervertebral discs of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment were respectively reconstructed by Mimics 10.01 software and Geomagic 10.0 software. The FEM of C1-3 motion segment was reconstructed by attaching the corresponding material properties of cervical spine in Ansys software. The biomechanical characteristics of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment model were simulated under the 4 loadings of distraction violence, compression violence, hyperextension violence and hyperflexion violence by finite element method. Results In the loading of longitudinal stretch, the stress was relatively concentrated in the anterior arch of atlas, atlantoaxial joint and C3 lamina and spinous process. In the longitudinal compressive loads, the maximum stress of the upper cervical spine was located in the anterior arch of atlas. In the loading of hyperextension moment, the stress was larger in the massa lateralis atlantis, the lateral and posterior arch junction of atlas, the posterior arch nodules of the atlas, superior articular surface of axis and C2 isthmus. In the loading of hyperflexion moment, the stress was relatively concentrated in the odontoid process of axis, the posterior arch of atlas, the posterior arch nodules of atlas, C2 isthmic and C2 inferior articular process. Conclusion Finite element biomechanical testing of C1-3 motion segment can predict the biomechanical mechanism of upper cervical spine injury.

  5. Follow-up CT myelography of severe cervical spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Keiichi; Onoda, Kimio; Kawashima, Yasuhiro; Muto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yoichi

    1987-11-01

    There are many reports describing gross anatomical and microscopical findings of severely injured cervical cords in autopsy of the acute and chronic state, but no morphological findings of a severe cervical spinal cord injury in a chronic state by follow-up CT myelography have been found in the literature so far. The sagittal and transverse diameters of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space of 9 out of 14 severe cervical spinal cord injury patients were measured with CT myelography within 7.5 years after the tranuma and their size compared with a control group which was made up of 29 patients with slight radiculopathy due to cervical spondylosis and whiplash injuries. Injured cord levels were C4 4 cases, C5 4 cases and C6 1 case. Remarkable spinal cord atrophy was recogniged in the sagittal diameter from C1 to C7 and in the transverse diameter below C4 and narrowing of the cervical subarachnoid space in the sagittal diameter from C2 to C5. The significance level was set at 1 - 5 %. From these fingings, we have concluded that atrophy appeared not only in the injured segment but also the whole cervical cord after the trauma. There was less cord atrophy in a good functional prognosis than in a poor prognosis.

  6. Follow-up CT myelography of severe cervical spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Keiichi; Onoda, Kimio; Kawashima, Yasuhiro; Muto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yoichi

    1987-01-01

    There are many reports describing gross anatomical and microscopical findings of severely injured cervical cords in autopsy of the acute and chronic state, but no morphological findings of a severe cervical spinal cord injury in a chronic state by follow-up CT myelography have been found in the literature so far. The sagittal and transverse diameters of the cervical spinal cord and subarachnoid space of 9 out of 14 severe cervical spinal cord injury patients were measured with CT myelography within 7.5 years after the tranuma and their size compared with a control group which was made up of 29 patients with slight radiculopathy due to cervical spondylosis and whiplash injuries. Injured cord levels were C4 4 cases, C5 4 cases and C6 1 case. Remarkable spinal cord atrophy was recogniged in the sagittal diameter from C1 to C7 and in the transverse diameter below C4 and narrowing of the cervical subarachnoid space in the sagittal diameter from C2 to C5. The significance level was set at 1 - 5 %. From these fingings, we have concluded that atrophy appeared not only in the injured segment but also the whole cervical cord after the trauma. There was less cord atrophy in a good functional prognosis than in a poor prognosis. (author)

  7. Radiology of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes some particularities seen in the abnormal or pathological image of the cervical spine: The osteolysis of the cortical bone in the spinous processes, the 'Y' shaped course of the corporeal veins, the notch in interspinous bursitis, and the main forms of constitutional stenosis of the cervical canal. (orig.) [de

  8. Cervical plexus block for thyroidectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    RESEARCH. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - November 2003 ... Cervical plexus block has also been found useful for thy- .... lar, transverse cervical and supraclavicular nerves. ... administration of midazolam and pentazocine as required. ... find out if there were postoperative complications specific to.

  9. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rarely changes in bowel or bladder control. Cervical radiculopathy will manifest itself as pain traveling from the neck into a specific region ... physician feels that this is related to your cervical spine. If you have persistent pain, numbness or weakness in one of your arms ...

  10. Fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area inferred from receiver function and surface-wave dispersion: constraints on magma chamber distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.

  11. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  12. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Ferrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression.

  13. Sagittal alignment after single cervical disc arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Patrick; Obeid, Ibrahim; Gille, Olivier; Bourghli, Anouar; Luc, Stéphane; Pointillart, Vincent; Vital, Jean-Marc

    2012-02-01

    Prospective study. To analyze the sagittal balance after single-level cervical disc replacement (CDR) and range of motion (ROM). To define clinical and radiologic parameters those have a significant correlation with segmental and overall cervical curvature after CDR. Clinical outcomes and ROM after CDR with Mobi-C (LDR, Troyes, France) prosthesis have been documented in few studies. No earlier report of this prosthesis has studied correlations between static and dynamic parameters or those between static parameters and clinical outcomes. Forty patients were evaluated. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire, Neck Disability Index, and a Visual Analog Scale. Spineview software (Surgiview, Paris, France) was used to investigate sagittal balance parameters and ROM. The mean follow-up was 24.3 months (range: 12 to 36 mo). Clinical outcomes were satisfactory. There was a significant improvement of Short Form-36, Neck Disability Index, and Visual Analog Scale scores. Mean ROM was 8.3 degrees preoperatively and 11.0 degrees postoperatively (P=0.013). Mean preoperative C2C7 curvature was 12.8 and 16.0 degrees at last follow-up (P=0.001). Mean preoperative functional spinal unit (FSU) angle was 2.3 and 5.3 degrees postoperatively (P<0.0001). Mean postoperative shell angle was 5.5 degrees. There was a significant correlation between postoperative C2C7 alignment and preoperative C2C7 alignment, change of C2C7 alignment, preoperative and postoperative FSU angle, and prosthesis shell angle. There was also a significant correlation between postoperative FSU angle and preoperative C2C7 alignment, preoperative FSU angle, change of FSU angle, and prosthesis shell angle. Regression analysis showed that prosthesis shell angle and preoperative FSU angle contributed significantly to postoperative FSU angle. Moreover, preoperative C2C7 alignment, preoperative FSU angle, postoperative FSU angle, and prosthesis shell angle contributed significantly to

  14. Fenda cervical mediana Midline cervical cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Tagliarini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A fenda mediana congênita do pescoço é anomalia rara da parte ventral do pescoço. Em torno de 100 casos foram relatados na literatura, sendo o primeiro caso descrito por Bailey em 1924. Este defeito é relatado em associação com fenda mediana do lábio inferior, fenda da mandíbula e da língua, e hipoplasia de outras estruturas cervicais medianas. Acredita-se que seja uma malformação originada dos dois primeiros arcos branquiais. O tratamento da lesão consiste na excisão vertical da lesão e reparação do defeito resultante. A maioria dos autores recomenda evitar a reparação simples da lesão, preferindo a fechamento com a utilização de zetaplastia múltiplas, com o intuito de evitar fibrose e retração local. Neste artigo relatamos dois casos dessa anomalia e realizamos revisão bibliográfica.The midline cervical cleft is an unusual congenital anomaly of the ventral neck and fewer than 100 cases have been reported overall and the first described by Bailey in 1924. This anomaly is report in association with median cleft of lower lip, cleft mandible and tongue, and hypoplasia of other midline neck structures. Its considered an anomaly originated from the two first branchial arches. The treatment of this cleft is a vertical complete excision and a closure with multiple Z-plasty. Many authors recommend avoid linear closure and prefer multiple Z-plasty for evicted fibrosis and local retraction. In this paper we report 2 case of this anomaly and the literature is reviewed.

  15. The effect of ex vivo flexion and extension on intervertebral foramina dimensions in the equine cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutjens, J; Voorhout, G; Van Der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Back, W

    2010-11-01

    In dressage, the head and neck position has become an issue of concern as certain extreme positions may imply a welfare risk for the horse. In man, extension and flexion of the cervical spine cause a decrease and increase in intervertebral foramina dimensions, respectively. However, in horses, the influence of flexion and extension on foramina dimensions and its possible interference with peripheral nerve functioning remains unknown. To determine the effect of ex vivo flexion and extension on intervertebral foramina dimensions in the equine cervical spine. Computed tomography was performed on 6 cadaver cervical spines from adult Warmblood horses subjected to euthanasia for reasons unrelated to cervical spine abnormalities, in a neutral position, in 20 and 40° extension, and in 20 and 40° flexion. Multiplanar reconstructions were made to obtain transverse images perpendicular to the long axis of each pair of intervertebral foramina from C2-T1. Intervertebral foramina dimensions were measured in the 5 positions. Compared to the neutral position, 40° extension caused a decrease in foramina dimensions at segments C4-C5, C5-C6, C6-C7 (P dimensions at segments C5-C6 (P dimensions at segments C4-T1, similar to that found in man. In vivo extension of the cervical spine could possibly interfere with peripheral nerve functioning at segments C4-T1. This effect may be even more profound in patients with a reduced intervertebral foramina space, for example in the presence of facet joint arthrosis. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Mediastinoscopic Bilateral Bronchial Release for Long Segmental Resection and Anastomosis of the Trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Park, In Kyu; Bae, Mi-Kyung; Hwang, Yoohwa

    2011-01-01

    The extent of resection and release of the trachea is important for successful anastomosis. Bilateral bronchial dissection is one of the release techniques for resection of the lower trachea. We present the experience of cervical video-assisted mediastinoscopic bilateral bronchial release for long segmental resection and anastomosis of the lower trachea.

  17. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  18. Segmentation of consumer's markets and evaluation of market's segments

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVECOVÁ, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...

  19. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Pattern of cervical radiculopathy as diagnosed by electrodiagnostic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, O.J.; Ali, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of cervical radiculopathy presenting to a military care set up using electro diagnostic techniques. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabillitation Medicine Rawalpindi from July 2012 to December 2012. Subjects and Methods: Seventy-three patients who were diagnosed as cases of cervical radiculopathy on electro diagnostic testing were included in the study. Demographics and frequency of involvement of different levels were noted. Results: Of the total 73 patients, 51 (69.9%) were males and 22 (30.1%) females, with a men age of 48.01 +- 13.5 years. Left side predominated with 46.6% involvement whereas 39.7% of the patients had right sided radiculopathy and 13.7% had bilateral involvement. The most common radiculopathy encountered in this study was C7 which affected 25 (34.2%) patients, followed by C6 affecting 17 (23.3%) patients. Radicuolpathy affecting multiple upper segments like C5, C6 and C7 were a close third presenting in 15 (20.5%) patients. C8, TI radiculopathy of the lower segments was diagnosed in 13 (17.8%) patients whereas the lest common upper limp radiculopathy was C54, present in only 3 (4.1%) patients. Conclusion: Cervical radiculopathies affecting C7 and C6 roots were the most common ones encountered in our study, similar to international data. The cervical spine allows for greater movement and therefore is more prone to such developments. The reasons why C7 and C6 roots are most affected need to be studied further. (author)

  1. Tuina treatment in cervical spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mihai Hinoveanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a common, chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck as well as the contents of the spinal canal. Common clinical syndromes associated with cervical spondylosis include cervical pain, cervical radiculopathy and/or mielopathy. This study show the main principles, indication and side effects of tuina in cervical spondylosis´ treatment; tuina is one of the external methods based on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, especially suitable for use on the elderly population and on infants. While performing Tuina, the therapist concentrates his mind, regulates his breathing, and actuates the Qi and power of his entire body towards his hands. For a better result is recommended to try to combine acupuncture with tuina treatment. Tuina can help relieve the pain associated with spondylosis. After this kind of treatment, the symptomes produced by irritated nerves and sore muscles can find some relief. Tuina helps patients with cervical spondylosis regain muscle control, nerve function and flexibility, all through the restoration of the life force flow.

  2. X-ray image segmentation for vertebral mobility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Said

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to extract the parameters determining vertebral motion and its variation during flexion-extension movements using a computer vision tool for estimating and analyzing vertebral mobility. To compute vertebral body motion parameters we propose a comparative study between two segmentation methods proposed and applied to lateral X-ray images of the cervical spine. The two vertebra contour detection methods include (1) a discrete dynamic contour model (DDCM) and (2) a template matching process associated with a polar signature system. These two methods not only enable vertebra segmentation but also extract parameters that can be used to evaluate vertebral mobility. Lateral cervical spine views including 100 views in flexion, extension and neutral orientations were available for evaluation. Vertebral body motion was evaluated by human observers and using automatic methods. The results provided by the automated approaches were consistent with manual measures obtained by 15 human observers. The automated techniques provide acceptable results for the assessment of vertebral body mobility in flexion and extension on lateral views of the cervical spine. (orig.)

  3. Segmental tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthappa H

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of segmental Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis is reported in 10 year old boy. The condition was resembling the ascending lymphangitic type of sporotrichosis. The lesions cleared on treatment with INH 150 mg daily for 6 months.

  4. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  5. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  6. Fluence map segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: 'Interpreting' the fluence map; The sequencer; Reasons for difference between desired and actual fluence map; Principle of 'Step and Shoot' segmentation; Large number of solutions for given fluence map; Optimizing 'step and shoot' segmentation; The interdigitation constraint; Main algorithms; Conclusions on segmentation algorithms (static mode); Optimizing intensity levels and monitor units; Sliding window sequencing; Synchronization to avoid the tongue-and-groove effect; Accounting for physical characteristics of MLC; Importance of corrections for leaf transmission and offset; Accounting for MLC mechanical constraints; The 'complexity' factor; Incorporating the sequencing into optimization algorithm; Data transfer to the treatment machine; Interface between R and V and accelerator; and Conclusions on fluence map segmentation (Segmentation is part of the overall inverse planning procedure; 'Step and Shoot' and 'Dynamic' options are available for most TPS (depending on accelerator model; The segmentation phase tends to come into the optimization loop; The physical characteristics of the MLC have a large influence on final dose distribution; The IMRT plans (MU and relative dose distribution) must be carefully validated). (P.A.)

  7. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  8. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  9. Advances in cervical screening technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, M H

    2000-03-01

    The Pap smear unquestionably is a successful screening test for cervical cancer. However, recent advances in technology have raised questions regarding whether the conventional Pap smear is still the standard of care. This article relates issues of screening and cost-effectiveness to the state of the art in thin layer preparations, cytology automation, human papillomavirus screening, human papillomavirus vaccines, and other cervical screening adjuncts. Perhaps nowhere in medicine is clinical decision making being more strongly influenced by market and other external forces than in cervical cytopathology.

  10. Follow-up radiographs of the cervical spine after anterior fusion with titanium intervertebral disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Hutzelmann, A.; Heller, M.; Rama, B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the postoperative changes of the cervical spine after treatment of cervical nerve root compression with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a new titanium intervertebral disc. Patients and Methods: 37 patients were examined prior to, as well as 4 days, 6 weeks, and 7 months after surgery. Lateral view X-rays and functional imaging were used to evaluate posture and mobility of the cervical spine, the position of the implants, and the reactions of adjacent bone structures. Results: Implantation of the titanium disc led to post-operative distraction of the intervertebral space and slight lordosis. Within the first 6 months a slight loss of distraction and re-kyphosis due to impression of the implants into the vertebral end-plates were found in all patients. We noted partial infractions into the vertebral end-plates in 10/42 segments and slight mobility of the implants in 14/42 segments. Both groups of patients showed reactive spondylosis and local symptoms due to loosening of the implants. The pain subsided after onset of bone bridging and stable fixation of the loosened discs. Conclusions: The titanium intervertebral disc provides initial distraction of the fusioned segments with partial recurrence of kyphosis during the subsequent course. Loosening of the implants with local symptoms can be evaluated with follow-up X-rays and functional imaging. (orig.) [de

  11. Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmany Leonel Mendoza Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad reemergente en la actual sociedad globalizada y puede presentarse prácticamente ante cualquier especialista. Las formas extrapulmonares pueden representar hasta la cuarta parte de los casos, y entre ellos la afectación ganglionar se ubica entre las más frecuentes. Se reportan dos pacientes estudiados y tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital General de Bata, Litoral de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Central, afectados por tumoraciones laterocervicales subagudas, con escasos síntomas y excelente evolución, tras su diagnóstico de tuberculosis ganglionar cervical y terapéutica antibiótica. Aunque la punción y aspiración con aguja fina no fue concluyente, ambos casos resultaron positivos por medio de la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen

  12. Segmented block copolymers with monodisperse aramide end-segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers were synthesized using monodisperse diaramide (TT) as hard segments and PTMO with a molecular weight of 2 900 g · mol-1 as soft segments. The aramide: PTMO segment ratio was increased from 1:1 to 2:1 thereby changing the structure from a high molecular weight multi-block

  13. Dose effect relationships in cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdorff, B.

    1980-01-01

    The course and prognosis of radiation myelopathies are determined by 3 factors: the segmental (vertical) location of the lesion, the extent of the transverse syndrome (complete or incomplete) and the radiation dose. The median spinal dose in cervical radiation myelopathies with fatal outcome was higher than in survivals with an incomplete transverse syndrome. In thoracic radiation myelopathies a dose difference between complete and incomplete transverse syndromes could be found as well. Incomplete transverse syndromes as submaximum radiation injuries are more suitable for the determination of the spinal tolerance dose than complete transverse syndromes. The lowest threshold could be stated for cases following high-volume irradiation of the lymphatic system. (Auth.)

  14. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  15. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  16. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  17. CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY. LONG TERM RESULTS CONCERNING 18 PATIENTS OPERATED ON BY ANTERIOR APPROACH IN GABON MYELOPATHIES CERVICARTHROSIQUES INVALIDANTES. RESULTATS A LONG TERME DE 18 PATIENTS OPERES PAR VOIE ...

  18. Does rehabilitation of cervical lordosis influence sagittal cervical spine flexion extension kinematics in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim Moustafa; Diab, Aliaa Attiah Mohamed; Hegazy, Fatma A; Harrison, Deed E

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that improvement of cervical lordosis in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) will improve cervical spine flexion and extension end range of motion kinematics in a population suffering from CSR. Thirty chronic lower CSR patients with cervical lordosis lordosis (p lordosis in the study group was associated with significant improvement in the translational and rotational motions of the lower cervical spine. This finding provides objective evidence that cervical flexion/extension is partially dependent on the posture and sagittal curve orientation. These findings are in agreement with several other reports in the literature; whereas ours is the first post treatment analysis identifying this relationship.

  19. Cervical chordoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, C.; Wiehoff, A.; Candela, V. P.; Perera, J.

    2002-01-01

    Chordomas, lesions that develop from notochordal remnants, can arise at any site ranging from the clivus to the sacrum: they represent 3% to 4% of all primary bone tumors. We present the cases of a 45-year-old man with cervical chordoma at the C2 level, the site least frequently reported in the literature. We provide the radiological findings resulting from cervical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (Author) 11 refs

  20. Scorpion image segmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  1. Effects of Maitland manual therapy on the treatment of pain syndromes of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Dzierżek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of Maitland's manual therapy on selected motor function parameters in cervical spine pain syndromes. Material and Methods: 30 subjects were enrolled, in the age from 27 to 66, including 15 men and 15 women with chronic functional cervical spine syndrome who had a 10-day physiotherapy cycle that did not produce the expected results. The study included: pain assessment in the Dziak scale, measurements of mobility of the cervical spine and shoulder joints, functional evaluation by Hautanta, De`Klein, Jackson, and palpation of muscle irritation. Results: A comparison of average pain scores before and after therapy indicated that the pain level after treatment decreased (p 0.05. There has been a decrease in positive clinical trials and muscle irritation after therapy. Conclusions: Maitland manual therapy is effective in the treatment of cervical spine pain syndromes. The technique results in a significant increase in the mobility of the cervical spine as well as an improvement in the functional state of the cervical segment without affecting the mobility of the shoulder ridge. There was a decrease in palpate tenderness of the soft tissue studied.

  2. A case of marked short-neck with fusion of cervical vertebrae in a Holstein cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, J.; Ando, T.; Otsuka, H.; Paku, T.; Yoshioka, I.; Saruyama, Y.; Yamada, H.; Iso, H.; Oyamada, T.; Watanabe, D.

    2007-01-01

    An 11-month old Holstein cow with congenitally shortened neck was subjected to clinical, radiographic and myelographic examination, and also autopsy and histopathological examination. Skeletal preparations of the cervical region were made to investigate the abnormality of the vertebrae. The cow was growing normally, and no critical neurological signs were observed. Radiographic examination showed marked kyphosis of the cervical spine, and fusion of posterior cervical vertebrae was suspected. Myelographic examination showed curvature of the spinal cord, but no narrowing at any part. Atrophy, hyaline degeneration, and hydropic degeneration of muscle fibers were seen in the dorsal part of the cervical region in the histopathological examination, but there was no abnormality in the cervical spinal cord. Deformation, fusion, and hypoplasia of the cervical vertebrae and posterior thoracic vertebrae were observed. It is suggested that in the organ system-wise classification of congenital abnormalities, this may be classified as a case of defective vertebrae with the coexisting congenital anomalies of kyphosis, scoliosis and vertebral fusion. The cause of this defect was not clear, but the observed vertebral fusion and hypoplasia indicated defective development of the vertebral segment during the early fetal stage

  3. Function and structure of the deep cervical extensor muscles in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacher, Jochen; Falla, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    The deep cervical extensors are anatomically able to control segmental movements of the cervical spine in concert with the deep cervical flexors. Several investigations have confirmed changes in cervical flexor muscle control in patients with neck pain and as a result, effective evidence-based therapeutic exercises have been developed to address such dysfunctions. However, knowledge on how the deep extensor muscles behave in patients with neck pain disorders is scare. Structural changes such as higher concentration of fat within the muscle, variable cross-sectional area and higher proportions of type II fibres have been observed in the deep cervical extensors of patients with neck pain compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that the behaviour of the deep extensors may be altered in patients with neck pain. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent series of studies confirm that patients display reduced activation of the deep cervical extensors as well as less defined activation patterns. This article provides an overview of the various different structural and functional changes in the deep neck extensor muscles documented in patients with neck pain. Relevant recommendations for the management of muscle dysfunction in patients with neck pain are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Narrative review of the in vivo mechanics of the cervical spine after anterior arthrodesis as revealed by dynamic biplane radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, William

    2016-01-01

    Arthrodesis is the standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine and is performed over 150,000 times annually in the United States. The primary long-term concern after this surgery is adjacent segment disease (ASD), defined as new clinical symptoms adjacent to a previous fusion. The incidence of adjacent segment disease is approximately 3% per year, meaning that within 10 years of the initial surgery, approximately 25% of cervical arthrodesis patients require a second procedure to address symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. Despite the high incidence of ASD, until recently, there was little data available to characterize in vivo adjacent segment mechanics during dynamic motion. This manuscript reviews recent advances in our knowledge of adjacent segment mechanics after cervical arthrodesis that have been facilitated by the use of dynamic biplane radiography. The primary observations from these studies are that current in vitro test paradigms often fail to replicate in vivo spine mechanics before and after arthrodesis, that intervertebral mechanics vary among cervical motion segments, and that joint arthrokinematics (i.e., the interactions between adjacent vertebrae) are superior to traditional kinematics measurements for identifying altered adjacent segment mechanics after arthrodesis. Future research challenges are identified, including improving the biofidelity of in vitro tests, determining the natural history of in vivo spine mechanics, conducting prospective longitudinal studies on adjacent segment kinematics and arthrokinematics after single and multiple-level arthrodesis, and creating subject-specific computational models to accurately estimate muscle forces and tissue loading in the spine during dynamic activities. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 3-D structure of the crust and uppermost mantle at the junction between the Southeastern Alps and External Dinarides from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidarelli, Mariangela; Aoudia, Abdelkrim; Costa, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    We use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and the uppermost mantle structure beneath the junction between the Southern Alps, the Dinarides and the Po Plain. We obtained Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions from cross-correlation of vertical component seismic recordings for three years (2010-2012) using stations from networks in Italy, Slovenia, Austria, Croatia, Serbia and Switzerland. We measure group and phase velocity dispersion curves from the reconstructed Rayleigh waves in the period range 5-30 and 8-37 s, respectively, and we invert the surface wave velocities for tomographic images on a grid of 0.1° × 0.1°. After the tomography, the group velocities are then inverted to compute the 3-D shear wave velocity model of the crust and the upper mantle beneath the region. Our shear wave velocity model provides the 3-D image of the structure in the region between Northeastern Italy, Slovenia and Austria. The velocity variations at shallow depths correlate with known geological and tectonic domains. We find low velocities below the Po Plain, the northern tip of the Adriatic and the Pannonian Basin, whereas higher velocities characterize the Alpine chain. The vertical cross-sections reveal a clear northward increase of the crustal thickness with a sharp northward dipping of the Moho that coincides at the surface with the leading edge of the Alpine thrust front adjacent to the Friuli Plain in Northeastern Italy. This geometry of the Moho mimics fairly well the shallow north dipping geometry of the decollement inferred from permanent GPS velocity field where high interseismic coupling is reported. From the northern Adriatic domain up to the Idrija right lateral strike-slip fault system beneath Western Slovenia, the crustal thickness is more uniform. Right across Idrija fault, to the northeast, and along its strike, we report a clear change of the physical properties of the crust up to the uppermost mantle as reflected by the lateral distribution

  6. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  7. Evaluations of Factors Predicting the Need for an Extra-Cervical Approach for Intra-Thoracic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadrizadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-thoracic goiter refers to the extension of enlarged thyroid tissue into the thoracic inlet. This condition can produce symptoms of compression on adjacent organs and can sometimes be accompanied by malignant transformation. Therefore surgical treatment is almost always necessary. In order to remove the pathology with the fewest post-operative complications, selection of the appropriate surgical approach is essential. In this study we aimed to detect the criteria which help us select the best therapeutic approach.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 82 patients with intra-thoracic goiter were investigated. Their data were extracted from medical records and analyzed using SPSS software.   Results: Overall 82 patients, 18 (21% males and 64 (78% females with mean age of 56.38 years were studied. The most common clinical symptoms were mass (95% and dyspnea (73%. In most patients, the surgical approach was cervical (90.2%, while 9.8% of patients required an extra-cervical approach. Post-operation complications were observed in 17.1% of patients; the most common being transient recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (4.9%. Malignancy was reported in the histopathology of seven patients (8.5%. The most common malignant histopathology was papillary thyroid carcinoma (7.3%. Extension of the thyroid tissue below the uppermost level of the aortic arch was significantly correlated with the need for an extra-cervical approach to surgery (P

  8. The role of B-mode ultrasonography in the musculoskeletal anatomical evaluation of the cervical region of the dog spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibely G. Sarto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the normal musculoskeletal anatomy of the cervical segment of the spine of dogs by means of B-mode ultrasonography. The objective was to establish the role of B-mode ultrasonography for the anatomical evaluation of the cervical spine segment in dogs, by comparing the ultrasonographic findings with images by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The ultrasound examination, in transverse and median sagittal sections, allowed to identify a part of the epaxial cervical musculature, the bone surface of the cervical vertebrae and parts of the spinal cord through restricted areas with natural acoustic windows, such as between the atlanto-occipital joint, axis and atlas, and axis and the third cervical vertebra. The images, on transverse and sagittal planes, by low-field magnetic resonance imaging, were superior for the anatomical identification of the structures, due to higher contrast between the different tissues in this modality. Computed tomography showed superiority for bone detailing when compared with ultrasonography. As for magnetic resonance imaging, in addition to the muscles and cervical vertebrae, it is possible to identify the cerebrospinal fluid and differentiate between the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral discs. Although not the scope of this study, with knowledge of the ultrasonographic anatomy of this region, it is believed that some lesions can be identified, yet in a limited manner, when compared with the information obtained mainly with magnetic resonance imaging. The ultrasound examination presented lower morphology diagnostic value compared with the other modalities.

  9. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  10. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cervical Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Peng, Baogan

    2015-01-01

    Cervical vertigo is characterized by vertigo from the cervical spine. However, whether cervical vertigo is an independent entity still remains controversial. In this narrative review, we outline the basic science and clinical evidence for cervical vertigo according to the current literature. So far, there are 4 different hypotheses explaining the vertigo of a cervical origin, including proprioceptive cervical vertigo, Barré-Lieou syndrome, rotational vertebral artery vertigo, and migraine-associated cervicogenic vertigo. Proprioceptive cervical vertigo and rotational vertebral artery vertigo have survived with time. Barré-Lieou syndrome once was discredited, but it has been resurrected recently by increased scientific evidence. Diagnosis depends mostly on patients' subjective feelings, lacking positive signs, specific laboratory examinations and clinical trials, and often relies on limited clinical experiences of clinicians. Neurological, vestibular, and psychosomatic disorders must first be excluded before the dizziness and unsteadiness in cervical pain syndromes can be attributed to a cervical origin. Treatment for cervical vertigo is challenging. Manual therapy is recommended for treatment of proprioceptive cervical vertigo. Anterior cervical surgery and percutaneous laser disc decompression are effective for the cervical spondylosis patients accompanied with Barré-Liéou syndrome. As to rotational vertebral artery vertigo, a rare entity, when the exact area of the arterial compression is identified through appropriate tests such as magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) decompressive surgery should be the chosen treatment.

  11. Decreased panicle-derived indole-3-acetic acid reduces gibberellin A1 level in the uppermost internode, causing panicle enclosure in male sterile rice Zhenshan 97A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changxi; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Zhou, Xie; Xia, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) rice Zhenshan 97A (ZS97A) has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. However, ZS97A suffers from serious panicle enclosure, which blocks normal pollination and greatly reduces seed production of hybrid rice. Little is known about the cause of panicle closure in ZS97A. In this study, it was found that the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility caused a deficiency of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in ZS97A panicles, and less IAA was provided to the uppermost internode (UI). Further, it was found that the decreased panicle-derived IAA caused a gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) deficiency in the UI by the down-regulation of OsGA3ox2 transcript level. Reduced GA(1) level in the UI led to decreases of both cell number and cell elongation, resulting in a shortened UI. The shortened UI was unable to push the panicle out of the flag leaf sheath that remained normal, which resulted in panicle enclosure in ZS97A. These findings suggest that decreased panicle-derived IAA reduces the GA(1) level in the UI, causing panicle enclosure in CMS rice ZS97A.

  12. Measurement of intervertebral cervical motion by means of dynamic x-ray image processing and data interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Romano, Maria; Fratini, Antonio; Sansone, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of intervertebral kinematics of the cervical spine can support the diagnosis of widespread diseases related to neck pain, such as chronic whiplash dysfunction, arthritis, and segmental degeneration. The natural inaccessibility of the spine, its complex anatomy, and the small range of motion only permit concise measurement in vivo. Low dose X-ray fluoroscopy allows time-continuous screening of cervical spine during patient's spontaneous motion. To obtain accurate motion measurements, each vertebra was tracked by means of image processing along a sequence of radiographic images. To obtain a time-continuous representation of motion and to reduce noise in the experimental data, smoothing spline interpolation was used. Estimation of intervertebral motion for cervical segments was obtained by processing patient's fluoroscopic sequence; intervertebral angle and displacement and the instantaneous centre of rotation were computed. The RMS value of fitting errors resulted in about 0.2 degree for rotation and 0.2 mm for displacements.

  13. Segmentation in cinema perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M; Bever, T G

    1976-03-12

    Viewers perceptually segment moving picture sequences into their cinematically defined units: excerpts that follow short film sequences are recognized faster when the excerpt originally came after a structural cinematic break (a cut or change in the action) than when it originally came before the break.

  14. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  15. Unsupervised Image Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 23-23 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unsupervised image segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0434412.pdf

  16. Metrics for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise

    1998-07-01

    An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.

  17. [The biomechanics of hyperextension injuries of the subaxial cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G; Meyer, C; Ingenhoff, L; Bredow, J; Müller, L P; Eysel, P; Schiffer, G

    2017-07-01

    Hyperextension injuries of the subaxial cervical spine are potentially hazardous due to relevant destabilization. Depending on the clinical condition, neurologic or vascular damage may occur. Therefore an exact knowledge of the factors leading to destabilization is essential. In a biomechanical investigation, 10 fresh human cadaver cervical spine specimens were tested in a spine simulator. The tested segments were C4 to 7. In the first step, physiologic motion was investigated. Afterwards, the three steps of injury were dissection of the anterior longitudinal ligament, removal of the intervertebral disc/posterior longitudinal ligament, and dissection of the interspinous ligaments/ligamentum flavum. After each step, the mobility was determined. Regarding flexion and extension, an increase in motion of 8.36 % after the first step, 90.45 % after the second step, and 121.67 % after the last step was observed. Testing of lateral bending showed an increase of mobility of 7.88 %/27.48 %/33.23 %; axial rotation increased by 2.87 %/31.16 %/45.80 %. Isolated dissection of the anterior longitudinal ligament led to minor destabilization, whereas the intervertebral disc has to be seen as a major stabilizer of the cervical spine. Few finite-element studies showed comparable results. If a transfer to clinical use is undertaken, an isolated rupture of the anterior longitudinal ligament can be treated without surgical stabilization.

  18. Percutaneous treatment of cervical and lumbar herniated disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, A., E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr; Filippiadis, D.K., E-mail: dfilippiadis@yahoo.gr

    2015-05-15

    Therapeutic armamentarium for symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation includes conservative therapy, epidural infiltrations (interlaminar or trans-foraminal), percutaneous therapeutic techniques and surgical options. Percutaneous, therapeutic techniques are imaging-guided, minimally invasive treatments for intervertebral disc herniation which can be performed as outpatient procedures. They can be classified in 4 main categories: mechanical, thermal, chemical decompression and biomaterials implantation. Strict sterility measures are a prerequisite and should include extensive local sterility and antibiotic prophylaxis. Indications include the presence of a symptomatic, small to medium sized contained intervertebral disc herniation non-responding to a 4–6 weeks course of conservative therapy. Contraindications include sequestration, infection, segmental instability (spondylolisthesis), uncorrected coagulopathy or a patient unwilling to provide informed consent. Decompression techniques are feasible and reproducible, efficient (75–94% success rate) and safe (>0.5% mean complications rate) therapies for the treatment of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation. Percutaneous, imaging guided, intervertebral disc therapeutic techniques can be proposed either as an initial treatment or as an attractive alternative prior to surgery for the therapy of symptomatic herniation in both cervical and lumbar spine. This article will describe the mechanism of action for different therapeutic techniques applied to intervertebral discs of cervical and lumbar spine, summarize the data concerning safety and effectiveness of these treatments, and provide a rational approach for the therapy of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation in cervical and lumbar spine.

  19. Percutaneous treatment of cervical and lumbar herniated disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelekis, A.; Filippiadis, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic armamentarium for symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation includes conservative therapy, epidural infiltrations (interlaminar or trans-foraminal), percutaneous therapeutic techniques and surgical options. Percutaneous, therapeutic techniques are imaging-guided, minimally invasive treatments for intervertebral disc herniation which can be performed as outpatient procedures. They can be classified in 4 main categories: mechanical, thermal, chemical decompression and biomaterials implantation. Strict sterility measures are a prerequisite and should include extensive local sterility and antibiotic prophylaxis. Indications include the presence of a symptomatic, small to medium sized contained intervertebral disc herniation non-responding to a 4–6 weeks course of conservative therapy. Contraindications include sequestration, infection, segmental instability (spondylolisthesis), uncorrected coagulopathy or a patient unwilling to provide informed consent. Decompression techniques are feasible and reproducible, efficient (75–94% success rate) and safe (>0.5% mean complications rate) therapies for the treatment of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation. Percutaneous, imaging guided, intervertebral disc therapeutic techniques can be proposed either as an initial treatment or as an attractive alternative prior to surgery for the therapy of symptomatic herniation in both cervical and lumbar spine. This article will describe the mechanism of action for different therapeutic techniques applied to intervertebral discs of cervical and lumbar spine, summarize the data concerning safety and effectiveness of these treatments, and provide a rational approach for the therapy of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation in cervical and lumbar spine

  20. Is the cervical spine clear? Undetected cervical fractures diagnosed only at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J F; Rosemurgy, A S; Gill, S; Albrink, M H

    1992-10-01

    Undetected cervical-spine injuries are a nemesis to both trauma surgeons and emergency physicians. Radiographic protocols have been developed to avoid missing cervical-spine fractures but are not fail-safe. Three case reports of occult cervical fractures documented at autopsy in the face of normal cervical-spine radiographs and computerized tomography scans are presented.

  1. Inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trijffel, E.; Anderegg, Q.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Lucas, C.

    2005-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to determine inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of segmental intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine as well as to explore sources of heterogeneity. Passive assessment of motion is used to decide on treatments for neck and low-back pain

  2. Quiste dermoide cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurian Gbenou Morgan

    Full Text Available Los quistes dermoides presentan una incidencia de 1,6 hasta 6,9 % en la región de cabeza y cuello. Se realiza el siguiente reporte de caso clínico con el objetivo de enfatizar en la importancia de un adecuado manejo diagnóstico preoperatorio, para establecer una acertada planificación quirúrgica en la exéresis de este tipo de lesiones de la región cervicofacial. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente masculino, de 13 años de edad, quien hacía 3 años se notaba un crecimiento redondeado en región submentoniana, lo cual le ocasionaba molestias al hablar y ligera afectación de su estética facial. Una vez realizados los estudios complementarios preoperatorios, se decide tratamiento quirúrgico, empleando una cervicotomía medial para la extirpación de la lesión quística, dada la ubicación anatómica por debajo del músculo milohiodeo y su gran dimensión. El diagnóstico histopatológico se corresponde con un quiste epidérmico. Se concluye que resulta imprescindible realizar un exhaustivo examen físico e imagenológico, para lograr resultados satisfactorios en el tratamiento quirúrgico del quiste dermoide cervical.

  3. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  4. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  5. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  8. Cervical interfacet spacers and maintenance of cervical lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee A; Straus, David C; Traynelis, Vincent C

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The cervical interfacet spacer (CIS) is a relatively new technology that can increase foraminal height and area by facet distraction. These offer the potential to provide indirect neuroforaminal decompression while simultaneously enhancing fusion potential due to the relatively large osteoconductive surface area and compressive forces exerted on the grafts. These potential benefits, along with the relative ease of implantation during posterior cervical fusion procedures, make the CIS an attractive adjuvant in the management of cervical pathology. One concern with the use of interfacet spacers is the theoretical risk of inducing iatrogenic kyphosis. This work tests the hypothesis that interfacet spacers are associated with loss of cervical lordosis. METHODS Records from patients undergoing posterior cervical fusion at Rush University Medical Center between March 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed. The FacetLift CISs were used in all patients. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic data were reviewed and the Ishihara indices and cervical lordotic angles were measured and recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA software. RESULTS A total of 64 patients were identified in whom 154 cervical levels were implanted with machined allograft interfacet spacers. Of these, 15 patients underwent anterior-posterior fusions, 4 underwent anterior-posterior-anterior fusions, and the remaining 45 patients underwent posterior-only fusions. In the 45 patients with posterior-only fusions, a total of 110 levels were treated with spacers. There were 14 patients (31%) with a single level treated, 16 patients (36%) with two levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with three levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with four levels treated, 1 patient (2%) with five levels treated, and 4 patients (9%) with six levels treated. Complete radiographic data were available in 38 of 45 patients (84%). On average, radiographic follow-up was obtained at 256.9 days (range 48-524 days

  9. Cervical spondylosis in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, P; Roka, Y B

    2008-01-01

    Neck pain with or without radiculopathy and myelopathy is a very common problem in clinical practice. The incidence is believed to be higher in subgroups carrying load on their head. It has been reported in literature that radiographic spondylosis is appreciable in 25% to 50% of population by the age of 50 years and 75% to 85% by the age of 65 years. One hundred and nineteen lateral X-rays of cervical spine were analyzed as case-control study in patients between 40 and 50 years age with the objective of finding out proportion of cervical spondylosis in this age group and difference in the prevalence between porters and non-porters. Out of the 119 cases 54 (45.4.2%) were porters and 65 (54.6%) were non-porters. There were 98 (82.4%) males and 21 (17.6%) females. The overall prevalence of radiological cervical spondylosis was 69 (58%). The prevalence of cervical spondylosis was significantly lower (x2=14.795, p=0.0001) in porters in comparison to non-porters. The odds ratio was found to be 0.23 (0.10, 0.53) at 95% confidence interval indicating that portering significantly prohibited development of spondylosis. This study concludes that the overall prevalence of cervical spondylosis in the Nepalese population is slightly higher than in the Caucasian and contrary to other studies there is significantly lower prevalence of such degeneration among the Nepalese porters.

  10. Histological Osteoarthritic Changes in the Human Cervical Spine Facet Joints Related to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Charles, Annie Vesterby; Gregersen, Markil

    2018-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional autopsy study. OBJECTIVE: Quantify histological changes in the lower cervical spine facet joints with regard to age and gender using systematic random sampling of entire joints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a common debilitating musculoskeletal condition...... and one of the highest ranked causes of years lived with disability. The cause of neck pain is multifactorial and osteoarthritis is one potential cause. The cervical spine facet joints have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic neck pain. Hence, a detailed description of their anatomy and age......- and gender related changes is needed. METHODS: The lower four cervical spine segments (C4-C7 included) were obtained from 72 subjects during autopsy; 29 females (median age 53 years [22-77]) and 43 males (median age 38 years [20-78]). A total of 1132 articular facets were embedded in toto in hard plastic...

  11. Fusion around cervical disc prosthesis: case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Donk, R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cervical arthroplasty is a relatively new method to maintain motion after cervical anterior discectomy. Two cases are presented in which bony fusion occurred around a cervical disc prosthesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man and a 49-year-old woman underwent a

  12. Radical surgery for early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Due to an effective screening programme, in the Netherlands cervical cancer is often detected in early stages of disease. For early stage (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/IIA) cervical

  13. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  14. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  15. Cervical Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary risk factor for cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Most cases of cervical cancer are preventable by routine screening and by treatment of precancerous lesions. Find evidence-based information on cervical cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  16. Status of the segment interconnect, cable segment ancillary logic, and the cable segment hybrid driver projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swoboda, C.; Barsotti, E.; Chappa, S.; Downing, R.; Goeransson, G.; Lensy, D.; Moore, G.; Rotolo, C.; Urish, J.

    1985-01-01

    The FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. In particular, the Segment Interconnect links a backplane crate segment to a cable segment. All standard FASTBUS address and data transactions can be passed through the SI or any number of SIs and segments in a path. Thus systems of arbitrary connection complexity can be formed, allowing simultaneous independent processing, yet still permitting devices associated with one segment to be accessed from others. The model S1 Segment Interconnect and the Cable Segment Ancillary Logic covered in this report comply with all the mandatory features stated in the FASTBUS specification document DOE/ER-0189. A block diagram of the SI is shown

  17. Analysis of progression of cervical OPLL using computerized tomography: typical sign of maturation of OPLL mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung-Wan; Baek, Dong-Hoon; Sheffler, Lindsey C; Chang, Han

    2015-07-17

    OBJECT The progression of cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can lead to increase in the size of the OPLL mass and aggravation of neurological symptoms. In the present study, the authors aimed to analyze the progression of cervical OPLL by using CT imaging, elucidate the morphology of OPLL masses, and evaluate the factors associated with the progression of cervical OPLL. METHODS Sixty patients with cervical OPLL were included. All underwent an initial CT examination and had at least 24 months' follow-up with CT. The mean duration of follow-up was 29.6 months. Fourteen patients (Group A) had CT evidence of OPLL progression, and 46 (Group B) did not show evidence of progression on CT. The 2 groups were compared with respect to the following variables: sex, age, number of involved segments, type of OPLL, and treatment methods. The CT findings, such as the connection of an OPLL mass with the vertebral body and formation of trabeculation in the mass, were evaluated. RESULTS Sex and treatment modality were not associated with OPLL progression. The mean age of the patients in Group A was significantly lower than that in Group B (p = 0.03). The mean number of involved segments was 5.3 in Group A and 3.6 in Group B (p = 0.002). Group A had a higher proportion of cases with the mixed type of OPLL, whereas Group B had a higher proportion of cases with the segmental type (p = 0.02). A connection between the vertebral body and OPLL mass and trabeculation formation were more common in Group B (p cervical OPLL is associated with younger age, involvement of multiple levels, and mixed-type morphology. OPLL masses that are contiguous with the vertebral body and have trabecular formation are useful findings for identifying masses that are less likely to progress.

  18. The M6-C Cervical Disk Prosthesis: First Clinical Experience in 33 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sam; Willems, Karel; Van den Daelen, Luc; Linden, Patrick; Ciocci, Maria-Cristina; Bocher, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Retrospective study. To determine the short-term clinical succesrate of the M6-C cervical disk prosthesis in primary and secondary surgery. Cervical disk arthroplasty (CDA) provides an alternative to anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the treatment of spondylotic radiculopathy or myelopathy. The prevention of adjacent segment disease (ASD), a possible complication of anterior cervical decompression and fusion, is its most cited--although unproven--benefit. Unlike older arthroplasty devices that rely on a ball-and-socket-type design, the M6-C cervical disk prosthesis represents a new generation of unconstrained implants, developed to achieve better restoration of natural segmental biomechanics. This device should therefore optimize clinical performance of CDA and reduce ASD. All patients had preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative x-rays. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Neck Disability Index, a Visual Analog Scale, and the SF-36 questionnaire. Patients were asked about overall satisfaction and whether they would have the surgery again. Thirty-three patients were evaluated 17.1 months after surgery, on average. Nine patients had a history of cervical interventions. Results for Neck Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and SF-36 were significantly better among patients who had undergone primary surgery. In this group, 87.5% of patients reported a good or excellent result and 91.7% would have the procedure again. In contrast, all 4 device-related complications occurred in the small group of patients who had secondary surgery. The M6-C prosthesis appears to be a valuable addition to the CDA armatorium. It generates very good results in patients undergoing primary surgery, although its use in secondary surgery should be avoided. Longer follow-up is needed to determine to what measure this device can prevent ASD.

  19. Development and validation of a 10-year-old child ligamentous cervical spine finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liqiang; Li, Guangyao; Mao, Haojie; Marek, Stanley; Yang, King H

    2013-12-01

    Although a number of finite element (FE) adult cervical spine models have been developed to understand the injury mechanisms of the neck in automotive related crash scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to develop a child neck model. In this study, a 10-year-old ligamentous cervical spine FE model was developed for application in the improvement of pediatric safety related to motor vehicle crashes. The model geometry was obtained from medical scans and meshed using a multi-block approach. Appropriate properties based on review of literature in conjunction with scaling were assigned to different parts of the model. Child tensile force-deformation data in three segments, Occipital-C2 (C0-C2), C4-C5 and C6-C7, were used to validate the cervical spine model and predict failure forces and displacements. Design of computer experiments was performed to determine failure properties for intervertebral discs and ligaments needed to set up the FE model. The model-predicted ultimate displacements and forces were within the experimental range. The cervical spine FE model was validated in flexion and extension against the child experimental data in three segments, C0-C2, C4-C5 and C6-C7. Other model predictions were found to be consistent with the experimental responses scaled from adult data. The whole cervical spine model was also validated in tension, flexion and extension against the child experimental data. This study provided methods for developing a child ligamentous cervical spine FE model and to predict soft tissue failures in tension.

  20. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  1. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  2. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  3. Video segmentation using keywords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2018-04-01

    At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.

  4. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  5. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V

    2008-12-15

    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  6. Unravelling the stratigraphy and sedimentation history of the uppermost Cretaceous to Eocene sediments of the Kuching Zone in West Sarawak (Malaysia), Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Hall, Robert; Galin, Thomson; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.

    2018-07-01

    The Kuching Zone in West Sarawak consists of two different sedimentary basins, the Kayan and Ketungau Basins. The sedimentary successions in the basins are part of the Kuching Supergroup that extends into Kalimantan. The uppermost Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Lower Eocene Kayan Group forms the sedimentary deposits directly above a major unconformity, the Pedawan Unconformity, which marks the cessation of subduction-related magmatism beneath SW Borneo and the Schwaner Mountains, due to termination of the Paleo-Pacific subduction. The successions consist of the Kayan and Penrissen Sandstones and are dominated by fluvial channels, alluvial fans and floodplain deposits with some deltaic to tidally-influenced sections in the Kayan Sandstone. In the late Early or early Middle Eocene, sedimentation in this basin ceased and a new basin, the Ketungau Basin, developed to the east. This change is marked by the Kayan Unconformity. Sedimentation resumed in the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) with the marginal marine, tidal to deltaic Ngili Sandstone and Silantek Formation. Upsequence, the Silantek Formation is dominated by floodplain and subsidiary fluvial deposits. The Bako-Mintu Sandstone, a potential lateral equivalent of the Silantek Formation, is formed of major fluvial channels. The top of the Ketungau Group in West Sarawak is formed by the fluvially-dominated Tutoop Sandstone. This shows a transition of the Ketungau Group in time towards terrestrial/fluvially-dominated deposits. Paleocurrent measurements show river systems were complex, but reveal a dominant southern source. This suggests uplift of southern Borneo initiated in the region of the present-day Schwaner Mountains from the latest Cretaceous onwards. Additional sources were local sources in the West Borneo province, Mesozoic melanges to the east and potentially the Malay Peninsula. The Ketungau Group also includes reworked deposits of the Kayan Group. The sediments of the Kuching Supergroup are predominantly

  7. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  8. Cervical spinal cord injuries in patients with cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenbogen, V S; Rogers, L F; Atlas, S W; Kim, K S

    1986-02-01

    Eighty-eight patients over age 40 with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries were clinically and radiographically evaluated, and comparison was made with 35 spinal cord injury patients under age 36. While most older patients sustained obvious bony and/or ligamentous damage commensurate with their neurologic findings, 25 (28%) of the 88 patients had no demonstrable bony abnormalities and 17 (20%) of the 88 patients had only minimal evidence of bony injury. Of particular interest are the patients with severe cord injuries, yet no bony abnormalities, who seem to form a distinct subgroup of the cervical spinal cord injury patient on the basis of radiographic and clinical features. Of these 25 patients, 24 (96%) had severe cervical spondylosis. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were injured in falls, five (36%) of these 14 being of a seemingly trivial nature. Of the 42 patients with minimal or no demonstrable bony abnormalities, 33 (79%) were evaluated with plain tomography and no occult fractures or other significant pathology was demonstrated. Pantopaque myelography in 27 (64%) of the 42 cases revealed no extruded disk or other surgical lesion in any patient. In large measure, these injuries can be attributed to cervical spondylosis, which narrows the canal and makes the cord more susceptible to compression by the bulging ligamenta flava during hyperextension.

  9. Development of Ultrasound to Measure In-vivo Dynamic Cervical Spine Intervertebral Disc Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The deformation between C4 and C6 measured by the US probe was affected by bulging of the IVD and soft tissues during compressive loading as...endplates of the vertebrae and cartilaginous endplate of the discs were added to all segments. Figure 28 Coronal views of the updated C4-T1 FEM (a...the ligaments and soft tissue connections that provide stability to the cervical spine FSUs were added (Figures 30 and 31). For the anterior

  10. Activation of Central Pattern Generator for Respiration Following Complete High Cervical Spinal Cord Interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...neurotransmitter profile (GABAa- and Glycine-ergic). Epidural stimulation applied at frequencies 100-300 Hz to the area of phrenic nucleus location...C4 cervical segment) in spinal (C1-transected) rats induced time -frequency depended facilitation of phrenic nerve activity and was able to maintain

  11. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  12. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  13. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  14. Cervical bracing practices after degenerative cervical surgery: a survey of cervical spine research society members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardini, David J; Krag, Martin H; Mauser, Nathan S; Lee, Joon Y; Donaldson, William H; Kang, James D

    2018-05-21

    Context: Prior studies have shown common use of post-operative bracing, despite advances in modern day instrumentation rigidity and little evidence of brace effectiveness. To document current practice patterns of brace use after degenerative cervical spine surgeries among members of the Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS), to evaluate trends, and to identify areas of further study. A questionnaire survey METHODS: A 10 question survey was sent to members of the Cervical Spine Research Society to document current routine bracing practices after various common degenerative cervical spine surgical scenarios, including fusion and non-fusion procedures. The overall bracing rate was 67%. This included 8.4% who used a hard collar in each scenario. Twenty-two percent of surgeons never used a hard collar, while 34% never used a soft collar, and 3.6% (3 respondents) did not use a brace in any surgical scenario. Bracing frequency for specific surgical scenarios varied from 39% after foraminotomy to 88% after multi-level corpectomy with anterior & posterior fixation. After one, two and three level anterior cervical discectomy & fusion (ACDF), bracing rates were 58%, 65% and 76% for an average of 3.3, 4.3 and 5.3 weeks, respectively. After single level corpectomy, 77% braced for an average of 6.2 weeks. After laminectomy and fusion, 72% braced for an average of 5.4 weeks. Significant variation persists among surgeons on the type and length of post-operative brace usage after cervical spine surgeries. Overall rates of bracing have not changed significantly with time. Given the lack evidence in the literature to support bracing, reconsidering use of a brace after certain surgeries may be warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cervical Vertigo: Historical Reviews and Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan

    2018-01-01

    Vertigo is one of the most common presentations in adult patients. Among the various causes of vertigo, so-called cervical vertigo is still a controversial entity. Cervical vertigo was first thought to be due to abnormal input from cervical sympathetic nerves based on the work of Barré and Liéou in 1928. Later studies found that cerebral blood flow is not influenced by sympathetic stimulation. Ryan and Cope in 1955 proposed that abnormal sensory information from the damaged joint receptors of upper cervical regions may be related to pathologies of vertigo of cervical origin. Further studies found that cervical vertigo seems to originate from diseased cervical intervertebral discs. Recent research found that the ingrowth of a large number of Ruffini corpuscles into diseased cervical discs may be related to vertigo of cervical origin. Abnormal neck proprioceptive input integrated from the signals of Ruffini corpuscles in diseased cervical discs and muscle spindles in tense neck muscles secondary to neck pain is transmitted to the central nervous system and leads to a sensory mismatch with vestibular and other sensory information, resulting in a subjective feeling of vertigo and unsteadiness. Further studies are needed to illustrate the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms of cervical vertigo and to better understand and manage this perplexing entity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. The radiographic observation of the cervical strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chung Sik

    1972-01-01

    A total of 100 cases of cervical disorders were analysed of clinical signs and symptoms. The cervical strain is proved by the loss of normal lordotic curvature of the cervical spinal column on the lateral x-ray film in Ewha University Hospital from January, 1970 to december 1971 with the following results. 1. The 53 cervical strain was diagnosed in radiographic study for its abnormal locations. The hyperextension with abnormal curve is twice more after than hyperflection type. 2. The most frequent location of the cervical strain is demonstrated in the 4-6 th cervical spinal bodies (80%). 3. Most pronounced symptoms of cervical strain are local tenderness (40%), limitation of motion (17%) and radiating pain (15%). 4. The ratio of the sex incidence of male female was 3:2

  18. The radiographic observation of the cervical strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    A total of 100 cases of cervical disorders were analysed of clinical signs and symptoms. The cervical strain is proved by the loss of normal lordotic curvature of the cervical spinal column on the lateral x-ray film in Ewha University Hospital from January, 1970 to december 1971 with the following results. 1. The 53 cervical strain was diagnosed in radiographic study for its abnormal locations. The hyperextension with abnormal curve is twice more after than hyperflection type. 2. The most frequent location of the cervical strain is demonstrated in the 4-6 th cervical spinal bodies (80%). 3. Most pronounced symptoms of cervical strain are local tenderness (40%), limitation of motion (17%) and radiating pain (15%). 4. The ratio of the sex incidence of male female was 3:2.

  19. Understanding cervical cancer prevention and screening in Chuukese women in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vanessa S; Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2010-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the primary cause of death due to cancer in women in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. The Chuukese population is the fastest growing segment of the Micronesian community in Hawaii. Little is known about the health beliefs or practices of this population in Hawaii. The purpose of this project was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of Chuukese women in Hawaii regarding cervical cancer prevention and screening. Research assistants from the Chuukese community were recruited and trained as members of the research team. A culturally sensitive survey tool was developed and piloted by the research team and used to interview ten key informants from the Chuukese community in Honolulu, Hawaii. There is limited knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the association with human papillomavirus (HPV). This may be indicative of a lack of health information in general. Fear, privacy concerns, lack of awareness and cultural beliefs represent the main barriers mentioned when discussing cervical cancer. Education, done in a group setting with other women, is the most recommended method of informing this community and improving preventive and screening services for cervical cancer in these women. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  20. Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-04-05

    Whiplash injuries continue to have significant societal cost; however, the mechanism and location of whiplash injury is still under investigation. Recently, the upper cervical spine ligaments, particularly the alar ligament, have been identified as a potential whiplash injury location. In this study, a detailed and validated explicit finite element model of a 50th percentile male cervical spine in a seated posture was used to investigate upper cervical spine response and the potential for whiplash injury resulting from vehicle crash scenarios. This model was previously validated at the segment and whole spine levels for both kinematics and soft tissue strains in frontal and rear impact scenarios. The model predicted increasing upper cervical spine ligament strain with increasing impact severity. Considering all upper cervical spine ligaments, the distractions in the apical and alar ligaments were the largest relative to their failure strains, in agreement with the clinical findings. The model predicted the potential for injury to the apical ligament for 15.2 g frontal or 11.7 g rear impacts, and to the alar ligament for a 20.7 g frontal or 14.4 g rear impact based on the ligament distractions. Future studies should consider the effect of initial occupant position on ligament distraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Longterm results of cervical arthroplasty with disc prosthesis. A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, P; Schils, F

    2014-01-01

    Cervical arthroplasty has now been performed for over 10 years. Despite the large number of implanted artificial discs, the quality of the published studies is weak, and very few report a follow up exceeding two years. We reviewed the literature on cervical total disc replacement, focusing on publications reporting a follow-up of more than two years. The selection of patients, the type of implant and the surgical technique seem to influence greatly the quality of the clinical and radiological results. The occurrence of heterotopic ossifications around the implant seems to be the rule rather than the exception. Wear debris are likely to be observed in the vicinity of the prosthesis. Most long term studies also report a progressive decrease in the range of motion of the prosthesis, although without influence on the clinical evolution. It seems reasonable to say that cervical disc prosthesis is not inferior to discectomy and fusion, and that these implants allow a short term preservation of cervical mobility, but the efficacy in preventing adjacent segment disease or a favourable costleffectiveness ratio have yet to be demonstrated. A more widespread use of cervical disc prosthesis can only be suggested when these questions have been answered by long term follow-up studies.

  2. Reliability of cervical lordosis and global sagittal spinal balance measurements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Christophe; Ilharreborde, Brice; Azoulay, Robin; Sebag, Guy; Mazda, Keyvan

    2013-06-01

    Radiological reproducibility study. To assess intra and interobserver reliability of radiographic measurements for global sagittal balance parameters and sagittal spine curves, including cervical spine. Sagittal spine balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a main issue and many studies have been reported, showing that coronal and sagittal deformities often involve sagittal cervical unbalance. Global sagittal balance aims to obtain a horizontal gaze and gravity line at top of hips when subject is in a static position, involving adjustment of each spine curvature in the sagittal plane. To our knowledge, no study did use a methodologically validated imaging analysis tool able to appreciate sagittal spine contours and distances in AIS and especially in the cervical region. Lateral full-spine low-dose EOS radiographs were performed in 75 patients divided in three groups (control subjects, AIS, operated AIS). Three observers digitally analyzed twice each radiograph and 11 sagittal measures were collected for each image. Reliability was assessed calculating intraobserver Pearson's r correlation coefficient, interobserver intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) completed with a two-by-two Bland-Altman plot analysis. This measurement method has shown excellent intra and interobserver reliability in all parameters, sagittal curvatures, pelvic parameters and global sagittal balance. This study validated a simple and efficient tool in AIS sagittal contour analysis. It defined new relevant landmarks allowing to characterize cervical segmental curvatures and cervical involvement in global balance.

  3. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency neurotomy in cervical spine: sonoanatomic study of a new technique in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Kang, C.H.; Lee, S.-H.; Derby, R.; Yang, S.N.; Lee, J.E.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lee, J.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To develop an ultrasound-guided technique for radiofrequency (RF) cervical medial branch neurotomy and to validate the accuracy of this new method. Materials and methods: Five non-embalmed, fresh cadavers were used; three male and two female cadavers with a median age at death of 67.2 years (range 50-84 years). This study was conducted in two parts. First, two of the cadavers were used to define the sonographic target point for RF cervical medial branch neurotomy using high-resolution ultrasound (12 to 5 MHz). The needles were guided to five consecutive cervical medial branches in the cadavers under ultrasound guidance. Subsequently, the position of the ultrasound-guided needle was verified using C-arm fluoroscopy. Ultrasound-guided RF neurotomy was performed to the C5 medial branches in all five cadavers. In the three cadavers not used in the first part of the study, ultrasound-guided RF neurotomy without C-arm fluoroscopic confirmation was performed to the C3-C7 medial branches. The accuracy of neurotomy was assessed by pathological examination of the cervical medial branches obtained through cadaver dissection. Results: In all five cadavers, the sonographic target point was identified in all C3-C7 segments with the 12 to 5 MHz linear transducer. In all 20 needle placements for the first and second cadavers, C-arm fluoroscopy validated proper needle tip positions. In all five cadavers, successful neurotomy was pathologically confirmed in 30 of 34 cervical medial branches. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided cervical medial branch neurotomy was successfully performed in 30 of 34 cervical medial branches in five cadavers. However, before eliminating fluoroscopic validation of final needle tip positioning, the technique should be validated in symptomatic patients

  4. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  5. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare, comprising 3 -. 5% of cases of tuberculosis of the spine. Eight patients with tuberculosis of the cervicaJ spine seen during 1989 -. 1992 were reviewed. They all presented with neck pain. The 4 children presented with a kyphotic deformity. In all the children the disease was extensive, ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Spinal surgery - cervical - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems include: pain that interferes with daily activities neck pain that extends (radiates) to the shoulder or arm ... done while the patient is deep asleep and pain-free (general anesthesia). For the neck (cervical spine), an incision may be made either in ...

  9. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Takenaka, Shota; Fuji, Takeshi; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Makino, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  10. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  11. The use of ileocolic segment for esophageal replacement in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshjeet Singh Bal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate and describe the procedure and outcome of ileocolic replacement of esophagus. Materials and Methods: We review 7 children with esophageal injuries, who underwent esophageal replacement using ileocolic segment in Christian Medical College, Vellore, India between 2006 and 2014. Results: The ileocolic segment was used in 7 children with scarred or inadequate esophagus. There were 4 girls and 3 boys, who underwent esophageal replacement using isoperistaltic ileocolic segment in this period. Age at presentation varied from 1 month to 14 years with an average of 4.6 years. The indications for ileocolic replacements were corrosive strictures in 5, failed esophageal atresia repair in one and gastric volvulus related esophageal stricture in another. The average follow-up duration was 37 months. One child with corrosive stricture lost to follow-up and died 2 years later in another center. Other 6 children were free of dysphagia till the last follow-up. Conclusions: Although the ileocolic segment is not commonly used for esophageal substitution, it can be useful in special situations where the substitution needs to reach the high cervical esophagus and also where the stomach is scarred and not suitable for gastric pull-up.

  12. FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  13. Value of preoperative cervical discography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Joon Woo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the method and the value of cervical discography as correlated with the MR findings. Twenty-one discs in 11 consecutive patients who underwent cervical discography were analyzed. MR and CT discography (CTD) were performed in all patients. Discography was performed after swallowing barium for visualizing the pharynx and the esophagus to prevent penetration. We also analyzed the preceding causes of the subjects' cervical pain. The results of the pain provocation test were classified into concordant pain, discordant pain and a negative test. MRI was analyzed according to the T2-signal intensity (SI) of the disc, disc height, annular bulging and disc herniation. The CTD was analyzed for degeneration or radial tear of the disc, epidural leakage of the contrast agent and pooling of the contrast agent at the periphery of the disc. The pain provocation tests were correlated with the MR and CTD findings. We used the chi-square test to analyze the results. Concordant pain was observed in 14 cases, discordant pain in 3 cases and there were negative tests in 4 cases. There were no complications related to the procedure. Four patients had undergone anterior cervical fusion and four patients that developed after traffic injuries. The decreased T2-SI and annular bulging on MRI, disc degeneration and peripheral pooling of the contrast agent on CT were significantly correlated with pain provocation. When the diagnosis of disc disease is difficult with performing MRI, cervical discography with using swallowed barium solution to reduce the penetration of the esophagus or hypopharynx may play be helpful. The decreased T2-SI and annular bulging on MRI correlated significantly with a positive result on the pain provocation test

  14. A systematic review of definitions and classification systems of adjacent segment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Paul; Fehlings, Michael G; Hashimoto, Robin; Lee, Michael J; Anderson, Paul A; Chapman, Jens R; Raich, Annie; Norvell, Daniel C

    2012-10-15

    Systematic review. To undertake a systematic review to determine how "adjacent segment degeneration," "adjacent segment disease," or clinical pathological processes that serve as surrogates for adjacent segment pathology are classified and defined in the peer-reviewed literature. Adjacent segment degeneration and adjacent segment disease are terms referring to degenerative changes known to occur after reconstructive spine surgery, most commonly at an immediately adjacent functional spinal unit. These can include disc degeneration, instability, spinal stenosis, facet degeneration, and deformity. The true incidence and clinical impact of degenerative changes at the adjacent segment is unclear because there is lack of a universally accepted classification system that rigorously addresses clinical and radiological issues. A systematic review of the English language literature was undertaken and articles were classified using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Seven classification systems of spinal degeneration, including degeneration at the adjacent segment, were identified. None have been evaluated for reliability or validity specific to patients with degeneration at the adjacent segment. The ways in which terms related to adjacent segment "degeneration" or "disease" are defined in the peer-reviewed literature are highly variable. On the basis of the systematic review presented in this article, no formal classification system for either cervical or thoracolumbar adjacent segment disorders currently exists. No recommendations regarding the use of current classification of degeneration at any segments can be made based on the available literature. A new comprehensive definition for adjacent segment pathology (ASP, the now preferred terminology) has been proposed in this Focus Issue, which reflects the diverse pathology observed at functional spinal units adjacent to previous spinal reconstruction and balances

  15. Facetal distraction as treatment for single- and multilevel cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha

    2011-06-01

    .2 mm). The circumferential distraction resulted in reduction in the buckling of the posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum. The procedure ultimately resulted in segmental bone fusion. No patient worsened after treatment. There was no noticeable implant malfunction. During the follow-up period, all patients had evidence of segmental bone fusion. No patient underwent reexploration or further surgery of the neck. Distraction of the facets of the cervical vertebra can lead to remarkable and immediate stabilization-fixation of the spinal segment and increase in space for the spinal cord and roots. The procedure results in reversal of several pathological events related to spondylotic disease. The safe, firm, and secure stabilization at the fulcrum of cervical spinal movements provided a ground for segmental spinal arthrodesis. The immediate postoperative improvement and lasting recovery from symptoms suggest the validity of the procedure.

  16. Evolution of magmatism from the uppermost cretaceous to Oligocene, and its relationship to changing tectonic regime, in the Inca de Oro-El Salvador area (Northern Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Paula; Matthews, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We present geochronological and petrological data for extrusive and intrusive rocks in the Inca de Oro and El Salvador sheets (in prep.), and the Potrerillos (Tomlinson et al., 1999) and Salar de Maricunga sheets (Cornejo et al., 1998), III Region, Chile (26 o -27 o S). Most of these data were collected as part of the SERNAGEOMIN regional mapping programme. Additionally, we include published data for El Salvador and Potrerillos districts (Cornejo et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1997; Gustafson et al., 2001). The dataset includes K/Ar, Ar/Ar and U-Pb mineral ages, which have been carefully selected for quality. The area is underlain by Carboniferous-Permian granitic basement rocks, which are covered by Triassic to Early Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary successions, including both marine and continental sequences (Cornejo et al., 1993). The period studied in this paper includes extrusive and intrusive rocks of Maastrichtian to Oligocene age, which are of particular interest since they record the 'preparation' of the lithosphere prior to, during, and after the mid-Eocene Incaic deformation and associated porphyry copper event. Shortening in the early-upper Cretaceous (95-85Ma; e.g. Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989; Arevalo and Grocott, 2000) deformed large areas of northen Chile, and marked the transition from the dominance of intra-arc extension to that of shortening punctuated by periods of extension. We recognise seven tectono-magmatic periods from the uppermost Cretaceous to Oligocene, comprising a volcanic sedimentary event contemporaneous with an extensional tectonic regime in the Upper Cretaceous, associated with graben formation, followed by an important compressive event at the beginning of the Tertiary. The middle Paleocene was again dominated by voluminous volcanic activity (collapse calderas) in an extensional regime. During the lowest Eocene the magmatic activity in the area shows a gradual transition from pyroxene-bearing to amphibole-bearing lithologies

  17. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices.......We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  18. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  19. Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi Adeleye, A; Olusola Akinyemi, R

    2010-01-01

    An otherwise-healthy, active 83-year-old Nigerian man developed reversible central cord myelopathy from a mild fall on a level surface. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed C5, 6, and 7 block vertebrae and marked disc extrusions only at the immediately adjoining upper and lower non-fused segments of the cervical spine. There was no spinal canal stenosis otherwise. We think that the unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression th...

  20. Hemivertebra of the cervical spine: an uncommon background for neck pain, cervical scoliosis, and torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Stavrev, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    A 15-year-old female patient presented with neck pain accompanied by cervical scoliosis, on the existence of torticollis. Although rare, hemivertebra of the cervical spine is a congenital deformation associated with these three clinical features.

  1. Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Huzurbazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.

  2. Choice of surgical approach for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in combination with cervical disc hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-song; Chen, De-yu; Lu, Xu-hua; Yang, Li-li; Yan, Wang-jun; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yu

    2010-03-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a common spinal disorder that presents with or without cervical myelopathy. Furthermore, there is evidence suggesting that OPLL often coexists with cervical disc hernia (CDH), and that the latter is the more important compression factor. To raise the awareness of CDH in OPLL for spinal surgeons, we performed a retrospective study on 142 patients with radiologically proven OPLL who had received surgery between January 2004 and January 2008 in our hospital. Plain radiograph, three-dimensional computed tomography construction (3D CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine were all performed. Twenty-six patients with obvious CDH (15 of segmental-type, nine of mixed-type, two of continuous-type) were selected via clinical and radiographic features, and intraoperative findings. By MRI, the most commonly involved level was C5/6, followed by C3/4, C4/5, and C6/7. The areas of greatest spinal cord compression were at the disc levels because of herniated cervical discs. Eight patients were decompressed via anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), 13 patients via anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), and five patients via ACDF combined with posterior laminectomy and fusion. The outcomes were all favorable. In conclusion, surgeons should consider the potential for CDH when performing spinal cord decompression and deciding the surgical approach in patients presenting with OPLL.

  3. An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae as a 'gold standard'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Cynthia K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the effectiveness of manipulative therapy for treating back and neck pain has been demonstrated, the validity of many of the procedures used to detect joint dysfunction has not been confirmed. Practitioners of manual medicine frequently employ motion palpation as a diagnostic tool, despite conflicting evidence regarding its utility and reliability. The introduction of various spinal models with artificially introduced 'fixations' as an attempt to introduce a 'gold standard' has met with frustration and frequent mechanical failure. Because direct comparison against a 'gold standard' allows the validity, specificity and sensitivity of a test to be calculated, the identification of a realistic 'gold standard' against which motion palpation can be evaluated is essential. The objective of this study was to introduce a new, realistic, 'gold standard', the congenital block vertebra (CBV to assess the validity of motion palpation in detecting a true fixation. Methods Twenty fourth year chiropractic students examined the cervical spines of three subjects with single level congenital block vertebrae, using two commonly employed motion palpation tests. The examiners, who were blinded to the presence of congenital block vertebrae, were asked to identify the most hypomobile segment(s. The congenital block segments included two subjects with fusion at the C2–3 level and one with fusion at C5-6. Exclusion criteria included subjects who were frankly symptomatic, had moderate or severe degenerative changes in their cervical spines, or displayed signs of cervical instability. Spinal levels were marked on the subject's skin overlying the facet joints from C1 to C7 bilaterally and the motion segments were then marked alphabetically with 'A' corresponding to C1-2. Kappa coefficients (K were calculated to determine the validity of motion palpation to detect the congenitally fused segments as the 'most hypomobile' segments. Sensitivity

  4. Phasing multi-segment undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Elleaume, P.; Vaerenbergh, P. Van

    1996-01-01

    An important issue in the manufacture of multi-segment undulators as a source of synchrotron radiation or as a free-electron laser (FEL) is the phasing between successive segments. The state of the art is briefly reviewed, after which a novel pure permanent magnet phasing section that is passive and does not require any current is presented. The phasing section allows the introduction of a 6 mm longitudinal gap between each segment, resulting in complete mechanical independence and reduced magnetic interaction between segments. The tolerance of the longitudinal positioning of one segment with respect to the next is found to be 2.8 times lower than that of conventional phasing. The spectrum at all gaps and useful harmonics is almost unchanged when compared with a single-segment undulator of the same total length. (au) 3 refs

  5. Long term results of anterior corpectomy and fusion for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results showed good clinical outcomes of anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM during a short term follow-up; however, studies assessing long term results are relatively scarce. In this study we intended to assess the long term clinical and radiographic outcomes, find out the factors that may affect the long term clinical outcome and evaluate the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 145 consecutive CSM patients on ACCF treatment with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Clinical data were collected from medical and operative records. Patients were evaluated by using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA scoring system preoperatively and during the follow-up. X-rays results of cervical spine were obtained from all patients. Correlations between the long term clinical outcome and various factors were also analyzed. FINDINGS: Ninety-three males and fifty-two females completed the follow-up. The mean age at operation was 51.0 years, and the mean follow-up period was 102.1 months. Both postoperative sagittal segmental alignment (SSA and the sagittal alignment of the whole cervical spine (SACS increased significantly in terms of cervical lordosis. The mean increase of JOA was 3.8 ± 1.3 postoperatively, and the overall recovery rate was 62.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative duration of symptoms >12 months, high-intensity signal in spinal cord and preoperative JOA score ≤ 9 were important predictors of the fair recovery rate (≤ 50%. Repeated surgery due to ASD was performed in 7 (4.8% cases. CONCLUSIONS: ACCF with anterior plate fixation is a reliable and effective method for treating CSM in terms of JOA score and the recovery rate. The correction of cervical alignment and the repeated surgery rate for ASD are also considered to be satisfactory.

  6. [Three dimensional finite element model of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, Y; Fei, Q; Li, D; Li, J J; Meng, H; Su, N; Fan, Z H; Wang, B Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To build a three-dimensional finite element models of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty with short-segmental lateral mass screws fusion. Methods: The C(2)-C(7) segmental data were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of a male patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and spinal stenosis.Three-dimensional finite element models of a modified cervical single open-door laminoplasty (before and after surgery) were constructed by the combination of software package MIMICS, Geomagic and ABAQUS.The models were composed of bony vertebrae, articulating facets, intervertebral disc and associated ligaments.The loads of moments 1.5Nm at different directions (flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation)were applied at preoperative model to calculate intersegmental ranges of motion.The results were compared with the previous studies to verify the validation of the models. Results: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty had 102258 elements (preoperative model) and 161 892 elements (postoperative model) respectively, including C(2-7) six bony vertebraes, C(2-3)-C(6-7) five intervertebral disc, main ligaments and lateral mass screws.The intersegmental responses at the preoperative model under the loads of moments 1.5 Nm at different directions were similar to the previous published data. Conclusion: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty were successfully established and had a good biological fidelity, which can be used for further study.

  7. Cervical spondylosis anatomy: pathophysiology and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedid, Daniel; Benzel, Edward C

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is the most common progressive disorder in the aging cervical spine. It results from the process of degeneration of the intervertebral discs and facet joints of the cervical spine. Biomechanically, the disc and the facets are the connecting structures between the vertebrae for the transmission of external forces. They also facilitate cervical spine mobility. Symptoms related to myelopathy and radiculopathy are caused by the formation of osteophytes, which compromise the diameter of the spinal canal. This compromise may also be partially developmental. The developmental process, together with the degenerative process, may cause mechanical pressure on the spinal cord at one or multiple levels. This pressure may produce direct neurological damage or ischemic changes and, thus, lead to spinal cord disturbances. A thorough understanding of the biomechanics, the pathology, the clinical presentation, the radiological evaluation, as well as the surgical indications of cervical spondylosis, is essential for the management of patients with cervical spondylosis.

  8. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2): Linking cervical cancer screening to a two-dose HPV vaccination ... In VACCS 1 the feasibility of linking cervical cancer with HPV vaccination was demonstrated. ... Article Metrics.

  9. Cervical spondylosis and hypertension: a clinical study of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis.

  10. Screening for Cervical Cancer: Experience from a University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Cervical cancer, cervical cytology, north-west Nigeria. Access this article .... involving a larger sample size will give better picture about the prevalent of ... Ridsdale LL. Cervical screening in general practice: Call and recall. J R.

  11. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in ... and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. ... Results: Majority of the women have poor knowledge about cervical cancer ...

  12. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  13. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  14. International EUREKA: Market Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year

  15. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  16. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  17. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  18. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area.

  19. Cervical myelopathy: magnetic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholin, A.V.; Makarov, A.Yu.; Gurevich, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    69 patients with clinical signs of cervical myelopathy were examined using magnetic imaging (T1- and T2-suspended tomograms of the sagittal and transverse section using a device with 0.04 T field intensity). Vertebral disk hernias were revealed in 35 patients, compression of the spinal cord with metastases into vertebral body in 2, extramedullary tumor in 11, intramedullary tumor in 9, and syringomyelia in 12 patients. T2-suspended tomograms proved to be more informative due to their higher sensitivity to aqueous content. T1-suspended tomograms help assess the degree of spinal cord compression and the direction of the disk protrusion. Magnetic imaging is an informative method used for objective identification of the cases of myelopathy of cervical localization [ru

  20. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHAN, Sairah R.; ROCKALL, Andrea G.; BARWICK, Tara D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed.

  1. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  2. Paediatric cervical spine injury but NEXUS negative

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Melanie J; Jardine, Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in paediatric patients following trauma are extremely rare. The National Emergency X‐Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) guidelines are a set of clinical criteria used to guide physicians in identifying trauma patients requiring cervical spine imaging. It is validated for use in children. A case of a child who did not fulfil the NEXUS criteria for imaging but was found to have a cervical spine fracture is reported.

  3. The biomechanical effect of transverse connectors use in a pre- and postlaminectomy model of the posterior cervical spine: an in vitro cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Kamran; Gudipally, Manasa; Hussain, Mir; Moldavsky, Mark; Khalil, Saif

    2011-12-15

    An in vitro biomechanical study investigating the effect of transverse connectors on posterior cervical stabilization system in a laminectomy model. To evaluate the optimal design, number, and location of the transverse connectors in stabilizing long segment posterior instrumentation in the cervical spine. In the cervical spine, lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation is used for providing stability after decompression. Transverse connectors have been used to augment segmental posterior instrumentation. However, in the cervical region the optimal design, number, and the location of transverse connectors is not known. Seven fresh human cervicothoracic cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were tested by applying ±1.5 Nm moments in flexion (F), extension (E), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). After testing the intact condition, LMS/rods were placed and then were tested with two different transverse connectors (top-loading connector [TL] and the head-to-head [HH] connector) in multiple levels, pre- and postlaminectomy (PL). LMS significantly reduced segmental motion by 77.2% in F, 75.6% in E, 86.6% in LB, and 86.1% in AR prelaminectomy and by 75.4% in F, 76% in E, 80.6% in LB, and 76.4% in AR postlaminectomy compared to intact (P transverse connectors is significant in AR, when using two connectors at the proximal and distal ends, compared to one connector. In a clinical setting, this data may guide surgeons on transverse connector configurations to consider during posterior cervical instrumentation.

  4. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  5. Misplaced Cervical Screws Requiring Reoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeremy C; Arnold, Paul M; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Nassr, Ahmad; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Mroz, Thomas E; Currier, Bradford L; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Fogelson, Jeremy L; Jobse, Bruce C; Massicotte, Eric M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective case series. In the past several years, screw fixation of the cervical spine has become commonplace. For the most part, this is a safe, low-risk procedure. While rare, screw backout or misplaced screws can lead to morbidity and increased costs. We report our experiences with this uncommon complication. A multicenter, retrospective case series was undertaken at 23 institutions in the United States. Patients were included who underwent cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, and had misplacement of screws requiring reoperation. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all participating institutions, and detailed records were sent to a central data center. A total of 12 903 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 11 instances of screw backout requiring reoperation, for an incidence of 0.085%. There were 7 posterior procedures. Importantly, there were no changes in the health-related quality-of-life metrics due to this complication. There were no new neurologic deficits; a patient most often presented with pain, and misplacement was diagnosed on plain X-ray or computed tomography scan. The most common location for screw backout was C6 (36%). This study represents the largest series to tabulate the incidence of misplacement of screws following cervical spine surgery, which led to revision procedures. The data suggest this is a rare event, despite the widespread use of cervical fixation. Patients suffering this complication can require revision, but do not usually suffer neurologic sequelae. These patients have increased cost of care. Meticulous technique and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are the best means of preventing this complication.

  6. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie A Robson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:520–522.

  7. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  8. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...

  9. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  10. ADVANCED CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kesavaraja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.

  11. Automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in manual liquid-based cytology with hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Ting Chin, Chien; Liu, Shaoxiong; Fan, Xinmin; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2014-03-01

    Current automation-assisted technologies for screening cervical cancer mainly rely on automated liquid-based cytology slides with proprietary stain. This is not a cost-efficient approach to be utilized in developing countries. In this article, we propose the first automation-assisted system to screen cervical cancer in manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) slides with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, which is inexpensive and more applicable in developing countries. This system consists of three main modules: image acquisition, cell segmentation, and cell classification. First, an autofocusing scheme is proposed to find the global maximum of the focus curve by iteratively comparing image qualities of specific locations. On the autofocused images, the multiway graph cut (GC) is performed globally on the a* channel enhanced image to obtain cytoplasm segmentation. The nuclei, especially abnormal nuclei, are robustly segmented by using GC adaptively and locally. Two concave-based approaches are integrated to split the touching nuclei. To classify the segmented cells, features are selected and preprocessed to improve the sensitivity, and contextual and cytoplasm information are introduced to improve the specificity. Experiments on 26 consecutive image stacks demonstrated that the dynamic autofocusing accuracy was 2.06 μm. On 21 cervical cell images with nonideal imaging condition and pathology, our segmentation method achieved a 93% accuracy for cytoplasm, and a 87.3% F-measure for nuclei, both outperformed state of the art works in terms of accuracy. Additional clinical trials showed that both the sensitivity (88.1%) and the specificity (100%) of our system are satisfyingly high. These results proved the feasibility of automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in MLBC slides with H&E stain, which is highly desirable in community health centers and small hospitals. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  12. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  13. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Modified Laminoplasty for Degenerative Cervical Spondylosis: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-19

    Apr 19, 2018 ... simple procedure that preserves spine stability and minimizes postoperative spinal deformity. KEYWORDS: Cervical spondylosis, laminoplasty, ligamentous suspension .... the risk of iatrogenic neurological injuries associated.

  15. EXAMINATION RESULTS OF CHILDREN WITH CERVICAL SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Bakhteeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By the example of examination of 80 children aged from 4 to 18 with cervical syndrome it is indicated, that the diagnosed abnormalities of hemodynamics in vertebrobasilar basin in patients of all age groups are connected both with bone and vascular pathology of the cervical part of the spine. The pathology has functional or congenital character. Early detection of discicirculatory vascular injuries in the cervical part of the spine in children with cervical syndrome will allow to define the therapeutic management of patients and to prolong juvenile osteochondrosis clinical behaviour.

  16. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  17. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  18. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  19. MRI of acute cervical injury: correlation with neurologic deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Chang Dong; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lim, Seung Chul; Shin, Myung Jin; Han, Boo Kyung; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Man Soo; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Suh, Dae Chul

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate MRI findings of spinal cord according to mechanism in acute cervical spinal injury. 25 patients under went MRI within 1 month after acute cervical trauma. Axial T1Wl (TR/TE: 500/20), gradient-echo (TR/TE: 300/14), sagittal T1Wl (TR/TE: 500/20), proton (TR/TE: 2000. 20 msec), T2Wl (TR/TE: 2000/80) were performed. In 11 patients, post-enhancement T1Wl was done. Change of spinal cord signal intensity on MRI in addition to the presence of abnormal changes of vertebral body, intervertebral disc and paraspinal soft tissue were evaluated. 15 patients had flexion injury, seven had extension injury and three had injury of unknown mechanism. Twelve patients showed iso-signal intensity on T2Wl and high signal intensity on T2Wl. Three patients showed low signal intensity on T1Wl and high signal intensity on T2Wl. Spinal cord hemorrhage occured in 10 patients. We found cord swelling in nine patients and cord compression in 12 patients. In nine patients with cord swelling, extent of cord injury was more than one segment of vertebral body. Ligamentous injury, disc injury, soft tissue injury occurred in 16 (64%), 17 (68%), 15 (60%) patients respectively. Vertebral body fracture was found in 17 patients (68%). The levels of fracture were C6 (eight patients) and C5 (five patients). MRI is valuable in exaluetion of the spinal cord, intervertebral disc, and soft tissue lesions in acute cervical spinal injury. Prognosis is worse in flexion injury than in extension injury, and is well correlated with cord hemorrhage and lesion extent

  20. Construction and calibration of a groundwater-flow model to assess groundwater availability in the uppermost principal aquifer systems of the Williston Basin, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Long, Andrew J.

    2018-05-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater-flow model for the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada as part of a detailed assessment of the groundwater availability in the area. The assessment was done because of the potential for increased demands and stresses on groundwater associated with large-scale energy development in the area. As part of this assessment, a three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed as a tool that can be used to simulate how the groundwater-flow system responds to changes in hydrologic stresses at a regional scale.The three-dimensional groundwater-flow model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s numerical finite-difference groundwater model with the Newton-Rhapson solver, MODFLOW–NWT, to represent the glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems for steady-state (mean) hydrological conditions for 1981‒2005 and for transient (temporally varying) conditions using a combination of a steady-state period for pre-1960 and transient periods for 1961‒2005. The numerical model framework was constructed based on existing and interpreted hydrogeologic and geospatial data and consisted of eight layers. Two layers were used to represent the glacial aquifer system in the model; layer 1 represented the upper one-half and layer 2 represented the lower one-half of the glacial aquifer system. Three layers were used to represent the lower Tertiary aquifer system in the model; layer 3 represented the upper Fort Union aquifer, layer 4 represented the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit, and layer 5 represented the lower Fort Union aquifer. Three layers were used to represent the Upper Cretaceous aquifer system in the model; layer 6 represented the upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit, layer 7 represented the lower Hell Creek aquifer, and layer 8 represented the Fox

  1. Outcome of physiotherapy after surgery for cervical disc disease: a prospective randomised multi-centre trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients with cervical disc disease require leave from work, due to long-lasting, complex symptoms, including chronic pain and reduced levels of physical and psychological function. Surgery on a few segmental levels might be expected to resolve disc-specific pain and reduce neurological deficits, but not the non-specific neck pain and the frequent illness. No study has investigated whether post-surgery physiotherapy might improve the outcome of surgery. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a well-structured rehabilitation programme might add benefit to the customary post-surgical treatment for cervical disc disease, with respect to function, disability, work capability, and cost effectiveness. Methods/Design This study was designed as a prospective, randomised, controlled, multi-centre study. An independent, blinded investigator will compare two alternatives of rehabilitation. We will include 200 patients of working age, with cervical disc disease confirmed by clinical findings and symptoms of cervical nerve root compression. After providing informed consent, study participants will be randomised to one of two alternative physiotherapy regimes; (A) customary treatment (information and advice on a specialist clinic); or (B) customary treatment plus active physiotherapy. Physiotherapy will follow a standardised, structured programme of neck-specific exercises combined with a behavioural approach. All patients will be evaluated both clinically and subjectively (with questionnaires) before surgery and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after surgery. The main outcome variable will be neck-specific disability. Cost-effectiveness will also be calculated. Discussion We anticipate that the results of this study will provide evidence to support physiotherapeutic rehabilitation applied after surgery for cervical radiculopathy due to cervical disc disease. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01547611

  2. Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Mollá, Enrique; Costa, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6 +/- 14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P < 0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated ( P = 0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together ( P < 0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms.

  3. Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Costa, Salvador [Department of Radiology, Clinica Quiron, Avda Blasco Ibanez 14, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Molla, Enrique [Department of Radiology, Clinica Quiron, Avda Blasco Ibanez 14, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Department of Morphological Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-01-01

    To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6{+-}14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P<0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated (P=0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together (P<0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  4. The Influence of Natural Head Position on the Cervical Sagittal Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated the relationship between the parameters related to the natural head position and cervical segmental angles and alignment of patients with neck pain. Material and Methods. The lateral radiographs of the cervical spine were collected from 103 patients and were used to retrospectively analyze the correlation between the natural head position, cervical local sagittal angles, and alignment. Sagittal measurements were as follows: cervical curvature classification, slope of McGregor’s line (McGS, local sagittal angles (C0–C2 angle, C2–C5 angle, C5–C7 angle, and C2–C7 angle, T1 slope, center of gravity of the head to sagittal vertical axis (CG–C7 SVA, and local sagittal alignment (C0–C2 SVA and C2–C7 SVA. Results. McGS was significantly correlated to C0–C2 angle (r=0.57, C0–C2 SVA (r=−0.53, C2–C7 SVA (r=−0.28, and CG–C7 SVA (r=−0.47. CG–C7 SVA was also significantly correlated to curvature type (r=0.27, C5–C7 angle (r=−0.37, and C2–C7 angle (r=−0.39. Conclusions. A backward shift with an extended head position may accompany a relatively normal curvature of the cervical spine. The effect of posture control in relieving abnormal mechanical state of the cervical spine needs to be further confirmed by biomechanical analysis.

  5. Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Costa, Salvador; Molla, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6±14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P<0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated (P=0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together (P<0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  6. Computational model for squamous cells characterization during cervical smear cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Eduardo Martínez Abaunza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the work done by the Biomedical Engineering Research Group (GIIB, and the Structural, Functional and Clinical Pathology Research Group of the Industrial University of Santander (UIS, with Autonomous University of Bucaramanga (UNAB, was to construct a computational model allowing squamous cells characterization of cervical smear cytology to classify them as being either normal or abnormal cells. Slides containing the cell samples were colleted by the pathologist and the images were digitalized by a video-camera coupled to a microscope and connected to a frame acquisition device. Three thresholding algorithms were used, in image segmentation, allowing cell nuclei detection; manual thresholding was used when these algorithms failed to detect cytoplasm. Cell texture was described by the distribution of histogram in each color level, and the borders using Fourier descriptors. The results of the first phase are presented, implementing them in classifying and identifying normal cells. Later stages will involve characterizing each cells stage initially classified as presenting some reactive change or due to infection, to distinguish the reactive cells of intraepithelial lesion cells. Key words: image processing, mathematical morphology, cervical smear cytology, dysplasia, cancer of cervix.

  7. Eagle Syndrome Causing Vascular Compression with Cervical Rotation: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirtaş, Hakan; Kayan, Mustafa; Koyuncuoğlu, Hasan Rıfat; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Kara, Mustafa; Şengeze, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Eagle syndrome is a condition caused by an elongated styloid process. Unilateral face, neck and ear pain, stinging pain, foreign body sensation and dysphagia can be observed with this syndrome. Rarely, the elongated styloid process may cause pain by compressing the cervical segment of the internal carotid and the surrounding sympathetic plexus, and that pain spreading along the artery can cause neurological symptoms such as vertigo and syncope. In this case report we presented a very rare eagle syndrome with neurological symptoms that occurred suddenly with cervical rotation. The symptoms disappeared as suddenly as they occurred, with the release of pressure in neutral position. We also discussed CT angiographic findings of this case. Radiological diagnosis of the Eagle syndrome that is manifested with a wide variety of symptoms and causes diagnostic difficulties when it is not considered in the differential diagnosis is easy in patients with specific findings. CT angiography is a fast and effective examination in terms of showing compression in patients with the Eagle syndrome that is considered to be atypical and causes vascular compression

  8. The importance of the occipitocervical area in patients with ankylosing spondylitis analysis of a cohort of 86 cervical fractures in surgically treated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Atilio Covaro

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: X-angle is a reliable measure for joint integrity C0–C1–C2 in patients with AS. Total cervical ankylosis including the C0-C1-C2 segments is not related to poorer QOL and disability in these patients.

  9. Region segmentation along image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  10. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  11. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  12. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  13. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  14. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  15. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  16. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L; Kuster, John K; Levenstein, Jacob M; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Breiter, Hans C; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  17. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff L Waugh

    Full Text Available Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia.We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7. We used (1 automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2 blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume; and (3 voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus.Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region.Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  18. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. Methods We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Results Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Conclusions Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches. PMID:27171035

  19. Impact of Isometric Contraction of Anterior Cervical Muscles on Cervical Lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchuk, Curtis A; McCoy, Matthew; Lightstone, Douglas F; Bak, David A; Moser, Jacque; Kubricht, Brett; Packer, John; Walton, Dustin; Binongo, Jose

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the impact of isometric contraction of anterior cervical muscles on cervical lordosis. 29 volunteers were randomly assigned to an anterior head translation (n=15) or anterior head flexion (n=14) group. Resting neutral lateral cervical x-rays were compared to x-rays of sustained isometric contraction of the anterior cervical muscles producing anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. Paired sample t-tests indicate no significant difference between pre and post anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. Analysis of variance suggests that gender and peak force were not associated with change in cervical lordosis. Chamberlain's to atlas plane line angle difference was significantly associated with cervical lordosis difference during anterior head translation (p=0.01). This study shows no evidence that hypertonicity, as seen in muscle spasms, of the muscles responsible for anterior head translation and anterior head flexion have a significant impact on cervical lordosis.

  20. The cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelstein, B A; Nightingale, R W; Richardson, W J; Myers, B S

    2000-05-15

    Cervical facet capsular strains were determined during bending and at failure in the human cadaver. To determine the effect of an axial pretorque on facet capsular strains and estimate the risk for subcatastrophic capsular injury during normal bending motions. Epidemiologic and clinical studies have identified the facet capsule as a potential site of injury and prerotation as a risk factor for whiplash injury. Unfortunately, biomechanical data on the cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash injury are not available. Cervical spine motion segments were tested in a pure-moment test frame and the full-field strains determined throughout the facet capsule. Motion segments were tested with and without a pretorque in pure bending. The isolated facet was then elongated to failure. Maximum principal strains during bending were compared with failure strains, by paired t test. Statistically significant increases in principal capsular strains during flexion-extension loading were observed when a pretorque was applied. All measured strains during bending were significantly less than strains at catastrophic joint failure. The same was true for subcatastrophic ligament failure strains, except in the presence of a pretorque. Pretorque of the head and neck increases facet capsular strains, supporting its role in the whiplash mechanism. Although the facet capsule does not appear to be at risk for gross injury during normal bending motions, a small portion of the population may be at risk for subcatastrophic injury.

  1. Segmental vitiligo with segmental morphea: An autoimmune link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old girl with segmental vitiligo involving the left side of the trunk and left upper limb with segmental morphea involving the right side of trunk and right upper limb without any deeper involvement is illustrated. There was no history of preceding drug intake, vaccination, trauma, radiation therapy, infection, or hormonal therapy. Family history of stable vitiligo in her brother and a history of type II diabetes mellitus in the father were elicited. Screening for autoimmune diseases and antithyroid antibody was negative. An autoimmune link explaining the co-occurrence has been proposed. Cutaneous mosiacism could explain the presence of both the pathologies in a segmental distribution.

  2. Pregnancy Outcome in Cervical Incompetence: Comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical incompetence is a major cause of recurrent mid-trimester pregnancy loss and preterm deliveries; it contributes significantly to fetal loss and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite its wide use, the effectiveness of cervical cerclage in its management remains unsettled. Objective: To evaluate the ...

  3. Role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xi Yang,1 Miao Da,2 Wenyuan Zhang,3 Quan Qi,4 Chun Zhang,5 Shuwen Han4 1Department of Intervention and Radiotherapy, Huzhou Central Hospital, 2Medical College of Nursing, Huzhou University, 3Department of Gynaecology, 4Department of Medical Oncology, 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Huzhou Central Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cervical cancer is a common malignant cancer among women worldwide. Changes in the vaginal microecological environment lead to multiple gynecological diseases, including cervical cancer. Recent research has shown that Lactobacillus may play an important role in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. This review explores the role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer. A total of 29 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on Lactobacillus in cervical cancer from two perspectives, including clinical studies and experimental studies, was analyzed. An association network for the mechanism by which Lactobacillus induces cervical cancer was constructed. In addition, we provide direction and insight for further research on the role of Lactobacillus in cervical cancer. Keywords: CIN, cervical cancer, Lactobacillus, microorganism

  4. Odontogenic cervical necrotizing fasciitis, etiological aspects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but very severe infection that affects the soft‑tissues of the cephalic extremity. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis most frequently occurs secondarily to inflammatory odontogenic disorders and represents the most severe infection of maxillofacial spaces, with a high lethal potential.

  5. Cervical cancer and pregnancy: treatment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Toth, R.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy and cervical carcinoma occurring concomitantly causes therapeutic and ethical dilemmas. The management for this situation will depend on the gestational age at the time of diagnosis, disease staging, size of the lesion and the patient’s wish to maintain pregnancy and fertility. Review of the literature suggest that pregnancy does not seem to influence the prognosis of cervical cancer. (author)

  6. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  7. The agreement between cervical abnormalities identified by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives and design. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is causally associated with cervical cancer. Using the Digene Hybrid Capture2 high-risk HPV test (HC2), we investigated the prevalence of high-risk HPV in cervical specimens, and compared results with those of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears taken concurrently. Subjects ...

  8. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.

  9. Cervical myositis ossificans traumatica: a rare location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, T.; Sarac, K.; Kutlu, R.; Baysal, O.; Ersoy, Y.; Elmali, N.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual case of myositis ossificans traumatica lesion located in the paraspinal region is reported. Despite the contiguity of the lesion with the cervical vertebrae and ominous appearance of the biopsy material, the history of antecedent trauma and computed tomography findings allowed preoperative accurate diagnosis. To our knowledge, myositis ossificans traumatica located in the cervical paraspinal region is very rare. (orig.)

  10. Human papilloma virus infection and cervical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinte-Popescu, Alina; Costăchescu, Gh

    2012-01-01

    Pap testing is considered to be the best screening tool for cervical cancer but there is currently great interest in the possible application of human papilloma virus (HPV) testing to supplement Pap screening for cervical cancer. To determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV types in the studied population and to explore the association between high-risk HPV types and cervical dysplasia. Cross-sectional study conducted at the Iasi Cuza Voda Obstetrics-Gynecology Hospital and Suceava County Hospital. 332 women who underwent colposcopy for cervical lesions between 2006 and 2011 were included in this study. The overall prevalence of HPV was 57.23%. HPV prevalence differs significantly in the three age groups up to 50 years. It was highest in patients below the age of 40 and progressively lower with advancing age. The overall prevalence of cervical dysplasia was 56.62%. The prevalence of cervical dysplasia was highest in the age groups up to 40 years. The most important determinant of HPV infection is age. Persistence of HPV appears to be associated with progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion. Dysplasia is often missed in a cervical sample either because of human error in screening and interpretation, or because of suboptimal quality of Pap smear. Incorporation of HPV testing into the present Pap screening program has the potential of making screening for cervical cancer more effective, and a necessary prelude to assessing this is by determining the prevalence of the high-risk types.

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.

  12. Cervical cancer: current knowledge, perception and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynaecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer continues to persist in Nigeria like other developing countries despite the existence of ...

  13. E6-associated transcription patterns in human papilloma virus 16-positive cervical tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kezhi; Lu, Xulian; Chen, Jun; Zou, Ruanmin; Zhang, Lifang; Xue, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The change in transcription pattern induced by post-transcriptional RNA splicing is an important mechanism in the regulation of the early gene expression of human papilloma virus (HPV). The present study was conducted to establish a method to specifically amplify HPV-16 E6-associated transcripts. The E6-related transcripts from 63 HPV-16-positive cervical tumor tissue samples were amplified, consisting of eight cases of low-risk intraepithelial lesions, 38 cases of high-risk intraepithelial lesions and 17 cases of cervical cancer (CxCa). The appropriate amplified segments were recovered following agarose gel electrophoresis, and subjected to further sequencing and sequence alignment analysis. Six groups of E6 transcription patterns were identified from HPV-16-positive cervical tumor tissue, including five newly-discovered transcripts. Different HPV-16 E6-associated transcription patterns were detected during the development of CxCa. Over the course of the progression of the low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to CxCa, the specific HPV-16 E6-associated transcription patterns and the dominant transcripts were all different. As indicated by this study, the transcription pattern of the E6 early gene of HPV-16 was closely associated with the stages of cervical carcinogenesis, and may also be involved in the development of CxCa.

  14. Operative techniques for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, C

    2012-02-01

    The surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis and resulting cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy has evolved over the past century. Surgical options for dorsal decompression of the cervical spine includes the traditional laminectomy and laminoplasty, first described in Asia in the 1970\\'s. More recently the dorsal approch has been explored in terms of minimally invasive options including foraminotomies for nerve root descompression. Ventral decompression and fusion techniques are also described in the article, including traditional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, strut grafting and cervical disc arthroplasty. Overall, the outcome from surgery is determined by choosing the correct surgery for the correct patient and pathology and this is what we hope to explain in this brief review.

  15. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargon, G.

    1981-01-01

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.) [de

  16. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cervical Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rungoe, Christine; Simonsen, Jacob; Riis, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We examined the risk of cervical neoplasia (dysplasia or cancer) in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). We also calculated the reverse, the risk for diagnosis with cervical neoplasia before development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We...... established a national cohort of women diagnosed with UC (n = 18,691) or CD (n = 8717) between 1979 and 2011 and a control cohort of individually matched women from the general population (controls, n = 1,508,334). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of screening activity and diagnosis of cervical neoplasia in women...... with IBD were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) of cervical neoplasia before diagnosis of IBD were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Women with CD underwent cervical cancer screening as often as women in the general population (IRR, 0...

  17. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargon, G

    1981-03-01

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion.

  18. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  19. Cervical motion testing: methodology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prushansky, Tamara; Dvir, Zeevi

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of cervical motion (CM) is probably the most commonly applied functional outcome measure in assessing the status of patients with cervical pathology. In general terms, CM refers to motion of the head relative to the trunk as well as conjunct motions within the cervical spine. Multiple techniques and instruments have been used for assessing CM. These were associated with a wide variety of parameters relating to accuracy, reproducibility, and validity. Modern measurement systems enable recording, processing, and documentation of CM with a high degree of precision. Cervical motion measures provide substantial information regarding the severity of motion limitation and level of effort in cervically involved patients. They may also be used for following up performance during and after conservative or invasive interventions.

  20. Radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagabu, Teruo; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nanayama, Kunihiko

    1976-01-01

    In order to observe the radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer, the author carried out irradiation of 60 Co in 16 cases of cervical cancer. The primary lesion of each case was exposed to radiation of 100 R once a day, 40 times in sequence, totaling 4,000 R. To evaluate this results, the vaginal smears were obtained everyday and examined for changes in cancerous cells caused by the irradiation. The results of our study showed that cervical cancer could be classified into three groups according to the radiosensitivity of its cancerous cells. In the group of low-radiosensitivity (11 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased gradually, and enlargement of the nuclei of the cancerous cells was observed from 2,000 R of irradiation, but the majority of the cancerous cells were those of nucleus after the irradiation of 4,000 R. In all of the 5 uterus removed, residual cancer lesion was noted. The radiocuability was unfavourable. In the group of high-radiosensitivity (4 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly. Enlargement of nucleus was noted from 1,000 R of the irradiation, the cancerous cells of small-sized nucleus appeared with the irradiation of 3,000 R but the cancerous cells almost disappeared with the irradiation of 4,000 R. The radiocuability was favourable. In the group of combination of high-radiosensitivity and low-radiosensitivity portions (one case of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly until the exposure to the radiation of 2,000 R but thereafter did slowly. In a removed uterus, the cancer lesion was noted, but the prognosis was favourable. The foregoing results suggest that changes in the nuclear diameter of the cancerous cells in vaginal smears during irradiation can tell the radiosensitivity of the cancerous cells. (Kanao, N.)

  1. Using Predictability for Lexical Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çöltekin, Çağrı

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored. This paper presents an incremental computational model of lexical segmentation for exploring the usefulness of predictability for lexical segmentation. We show that the predictability cue is a strong cue for segmentation. Contrary to earlier reports in the literature, the strategy yields state-of-the-art segmentation performance with an incremental computational model that uses only this particular cue in a cognitively plausible setting. The paper also reports an in-depth analysis of the model, investigating the conditions affecting the usefulness of the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Regional Monitoring of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Lupse, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara; Salvari, Daniela; Catanet, Radu; Bernad, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most important causes of death in women in fertile age in Romania. In order to discover high-risk situations in the first stages of the disease it is important to enhance prevention actions, and ICT, respectively cloud computing and Big Data currently support such activities. The national screening program uses an information system that based on data from different medical units gives feedback related to the women healthcare status and provides statistics and reports. In order to ensure the continuity of care it is updated with HL7 CDA support and cloud computing. The current paper presents the solution and several results.

  3. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis.

  4. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Yolas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years. Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%. On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis.

  5. Only fixation for cervical spondylosis: Report of early results with a preliminary experience with 6 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The author reports early post-operative outcome and preliminary experience with an alternative form of treatment of cervical degenerative or spondylotic disease leading to spinal canal stenosis that involves fixation-arthrodesis of the affected spinal segment using one or two (double insurance transarticular screws for each joint. Materials and Methods: During the period of months from March 2013 to July 2013, six patients having cervical spondylotic cord compression were treated with transarticular method of screw fixation of the involved segments. The operation involved section of the spinous process at its base, opening up of the facet joint, denuding of articular cartilage, placement of intraarticular cavity bone graft chips and insertion of either a single or two transarticular screws at each level. The fixation was done in four levels in four patients and at two levels in two patients. Japanese Orthopedic Association score, visual analog scale (neck pain and Odom′s criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patients before and after the surgery and at follow-up. Results: Immediate post-operative and a relatively short-term post-operative outcome was remarkably gratifying. During the average period of follow-up of 6 months (range: 3-8 months; there was varying degree of recovery of symptoms. The procedure resulted in firm stabilization and fixation of the spinal segment and provided a ground for arthrodesis. No patient worsened after treatment. During the period of follow-up, all patients showed remarkable and progressive recovery in symptoms. Conclusions: Vertical instability and telescoping, listhesis or overriding of the facets on physical activity seems to be the defining phenomenon in pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic disease. The clinical outcome in our patients suggest that only fixation of the spinal segment can be a rationale form of treatment. Transarticular method of treatment is a simple, safe and

  6. The Hierarchy of Segment Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.

  7. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  8. Accounting for segment correlations in segmented gamma-ray scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, G.A.; Prettyman, T.H.; Piquette, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    In a typical segmented gamma-ray scanner (SGS), the detector's field of view is collimated so that a complete horizontal slice or segment of the desired thickness is visible. Ordinarily, the collimator is not deep enough to exclude gamma rays emitted from sample volumes above and below the segment aligned with the collimator. This can lead to assay biases, particularly for certain radioactive-material distributions. Another consequence of the collimator's low aspect ratio is that segment assays at the top and bottom of the sample are biased low because the detector's field of view is not filled. This effect is ordinarily countered by placing the sample on a low-Z pedestal and scanning one or more segment thicknesses below and above the sample. This takes extra time, however, We have investigated a number of techniques that both account for correlated segments and correct for end effects in SGS assays. Also, we have developed an algorithm that facilitates estimates of assay precision. Six calculation methods have been compared by evaluating the results of thousands of simulated, assays for three types of gamma-ray source distribution and ten masses. We will report on these computational studies and their experimental verification

  9. Overview and Prevention of Cervical Cancer | Ogu | Nigerian Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer though a preventable disease, still has an estimated mortality of 80% from invasive cervical cancer in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of cervical cancer and the various modalities available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. Methodology: ...

  10. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical ...

  11. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N.; Wisner, Erik R.; Prutton, Jamie W.; Madigan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  12. What are Segments in Google Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segments find all sessions that meet a specific condition. You can then apply this segment to any report in Google Analytics (GA). Segments are a way of identifying sessions and users while filters identify specific events, like pageviews.

  13. Approach to the irradiation of extensive cervical and upper thoracic spinal astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, E.

    1981-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord tumors are relatively rare, especially to the extent presented in this report. A 31-year-old woman had been diagnosed as having an inoperable astrocytoma, grade I-II, involving the entire cervical spinal cord and two upper thoracic segments. After decompressive laminectomy, she was referred for a radical course of radiation therapy. An irradiation technique was devised which allowed treatment of a single cylindrical volume of tissue encompassing the known tumor. Field fractionation with undesirable gaps and/or excessive dose to overlying normal structures was avoided. To the cervical spinal cord she received 5590 cGy in 29 fractions over 42 days. By this schedule she received at the same time 4820 cGy to the medulla oblongata and 4880 cGy to the upper thoracic cord. Partial neurological improvement occurred at the end of the treatment. The treatment approach is discussed in the background of the literature data. (orig.) [de

  14. Camouflage of moderate Class III malocclusions with extraction of lower second molars and mandibular cervical headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Diego Rey; Oberti, Giovanni; Ealo, Martha; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2007-01-01

    Orthodontic camouflage in patients with slight or moderate skeletal Class III malocclusions, can be obtained through different treatment alternatives. The purpose of this paper is to present a treatment that has not been described in the literature and which consists of the extraction of lower second molars and distal movement of the posterior segments by means of mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) and fixed appliances as a camouflage alternative. The force applied by the MCH was 250 gr per side (14hr/day). The total treatment time was 1 1/2 years. the extraction of lower second molars along with the use of mandibular cervical headgear is a good treatment alternative for camouflage in moderate Class III patients in order to obtain good occlusal relationships without affecting facial esthetics or producing marked dental compensations.

  15. Sexual life after cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buković, Damir; Strinić, Tomislav; Habek, Mario; Hojsak, Iva; Silovski, Hrvoje; Krhen, Ivo; Maloca, Ivana; Radan, Mirjana

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the differences in sexual life of women with cervical cancer after surgery and radiation therapy. A total of 210 patients treated for cervical cancer at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Croatia between March 2001 and March 2003 were asked to fill in the questionnaire. Sexual life had worsened in 42.86% of the surgical patients, as had in 25.00% of irradiated patients (p 0.05)). More than 80% of patients didn't notice any changes in their partner's behavior. Almost every third woman felt certain change in her "body image", similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Need for consultations regarding sex life after diagnosis were recognized by 71.43% of patients. In conclusion we can say that considerable amount of attention should be given to psychological and sexual aspects of recovery of patients, because those aspects can significantly influence patients rehabilitation and prognosis.

  16. Photodynamic therapy for cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Grebenkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of treatment for precancer and early cervical cancer by photodynamic therapy in 12 patients with primary diagnosis H-SIL (CIN II–III and cancer in situ is described. Chlo-rine photosensitizer Photolon was given intravenously at a dose of 0.75–1.15 mg/kg body weight. 2.5 h later the treatment with polyposition laser exposure (light dose – 150 J/cm2, light power density – 400–500 mW/cm2 was made. Thirty days later conization of the cervix with endocervical curettage assessing therapeutic response of cervical tumor tissue was per-formed. According to histological data complete response was in 4 patients, minute foci of CIN I were determined in 7 patients, 1 patient had foci of CIN II. 8 of 10 HPV-positive patients had complete eradication of HPV after treatment. There were no serious adverse events after light exposure. Marked therapeutic response, high anti-viral activity and good feasibility allow to consider photodynamic therapy as alternative organ-sparing treatment of early cancer and pre-cancer of cervix. 

  17. Cervical cytology biobanking in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage.

  18. Functional cervical myelography with iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakstad, P.; Aaserud, O.; Nyberg-Hansen, R.; Ganes, T.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty patients underwent functional cervical myelography, i.e. radiographs in the lateral view were obtained in extension as well as in flexion of the neck. Sagittal tomography was performed in both positions. Narrowing of the subarachnoid space and increased sagittal diameter of the spinal cord due to shortening were demonstrated in the lateral view in extension. In flexion a widening of the subarachnoid space was seen in almost all. In some cases with advanced narrowing or spinal block in extension, such widening in flexion resulted in better diagnostic images by providing passage of the contrast medium caudally. Although iohexol (Omnipaque, Nyegaard and Co., Oslo) was regularly forced into the posterior cranial fossa by the movements, the frequency of side effects was approximately the same as in our former trials with iohexol in conventional cervical myelography. EEG changes occurred in two patients (7%). A sitting position for 3-4 min after the examination followed by an elevated head end of the bed was probably important for preventing side effects from the contrast medium. Specific questioning revealed twice as many subjective side effects as reported after general questions alone. (orig.)

  19. Thermal Stimulation Alters Cervical Spinal Cord Functional Connectivity in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kenneth A; Sentis, Amy I; Bernadel-Huey, Olivia N; Chen, Yufen; Wang, Xue; Parrish, Todd B; Mackey, Sean

    2018-01-15

    The spinal cord has an active role in the modulation and transmission of the neural signals traveling between the body and the brain. Recent advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made the in vivo examination of spinal cord function in humans now possible. This technology has been recently extended to the investigation of resting state functional networks in the spinal cord, leading to the identification of distinct patterns of spinal cord functional connectivity. In this study, we expand on the previous work and further investigate resting state cervical spinal cord functional connectivity in healthy participants (n = 15) using high resolution imaging coupled with both seed-based functional connectivity analyses and graph theory-based metrics. Within spinal cord segment functional connectivity was present between the left and right ventral horns (bilateral motor network), left and right dorsal horns (bilateral sensory network), and the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns (unilateral sensory-motor network). Functional connectivity between the spinal cord segments was less apparent with the connectivity centered at the region of interest and spanning spinal cord functional network was demonstrated to be state-dependent as thermal stimulation of the right ventrolateral forearm resulted in significant disruption of the bilateral sensory network, increased network global efficiency, and decreased network modularity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CLG for Automatic Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christo Ananth; S.Santhana Priya; S.Manisha; T.Ezhil Jothi; M.S.Ramasubhaeswari

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic segmentation method which effectively combines Active Contour Model, Live Wire method and Graph Cut approach (CLG). The aim of Live wire method is to provide control to the user on segmentation process during execution. Active Contour Model provides a statistical model of object shape and appearance to a new image which are built during a training phase. In the graph cut technique, each pixel is represented as a node and the distance between those nodes is rep...

  1. Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...

  2. [Our experience with the use of Active-C cervical prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Ferenc; Böösi, Martina; Papp, Zoltán; Padányi, Csaba; Banczerowski, Péter

    2016-09-30

    The most widely used surgical procedure in the treatment of cervical spine disc hernias have been the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for decades. The usage of cervical disc prostheses enabled us to preserve the movements of the affected segments, hereby reducing the overexertion of the adjacent vertebrae and discs. Our goal is to follow our patients operated with Active-C prosthesis (which is used in the Institute since 2010) to gather information about the change of their complaints and about the functioning and unwanted negative effects of the prostheses. Question - Is the usage of Active-C prosthesis an efficient procedure? Between 2010 and 2013, performing the survey of neurological conditions and functional X-ray examinations. We measured the complaints of the patients using the Visual Analogue Scale, Neck Disability Index and Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire. The control group consisted of patients who were operated in one segment using the fusion technique. In the study group according to the Neck Disability Index scale after 18 months, seven patients had no complaints, while twelve persons reported mild and the remaining six moderate complaints. In the control group, moderate complaints were present in four patients, while twelve patients reported mild complaints. The other eight persons showed no complaints. According to the results of the Visual Analogue Scale in the group of prosthesis, the degree of referred pain decreased from 8.6 to 1.84 one and a half years after the surgery. A decrease was observable in the case of axial pain too, from 6.6 down to 1.92 (pcervical disc prosthesis can be considered as an efficient procedure, but at the same time the advantages can only be determined in the long run, therefore further following and studies are required.

  3. Recognition Using Classification and Segmentation Scoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin

    1992-01-01

    .... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...

  4. Elongated Styloid Process and Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Unlu MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dysphagia, is a significant sign of many different lesions in upper digestive system especially in proximal esophagus. Tumors, gastroesophageal reflux, achalasia and extrinsic compressions are the most common causes that may lead to dysphagia in geriatric population. Cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia, is one of the uncommon reasons of dysphagia, therefore other causes of dysphagia must be excluded to establish the exact diagnosis. Eagle syndrome is one of the considerable reason which may lead to misdiagnosis in patients with cervical osteophytes. In this case report, we represent four patients who had dysphagia due to anteriorly located cervical osteophytes and evaluate the patients with special reference to Eagle syndrome. Material and methods After a detailed anamnesis and ENT examination, cervical plain radiographs in four projections and Towne radiographs were obtained for every patient. After that, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of cervical spine and barium swallowing studies were performed to evaluate the presence of esophageal compression. Results Eagle syndrome was excluded due to absence of other symptoms and physical signs, eventhough unilateral or bilateral elongation of styloid processes was found in all of the patients. Conclusion Cervical osteophytes induced dysphagia is a rare clinical entity, diagnosis should be done by a careful examination, intensive radiologic evaluation. Moreover, all the other causes like Eagle syndrome should be excluded during the diagnosis of cervical osteophyte induced dysphagia.

  5. Human Papillomavirus and Vaccination in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Liahng Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is not only the most frequently reported cancer among women, but also the most common female genital tract neoplasm in Taiwan. Early detection is effective, because the development, maintenance and progression of precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] evolve slowly into invasive cancer, typically over a period of more than 10 years. It is now recognized that human papillomavirus (HPV infection is a necessary cause for over 99% of cervical cancer cases. Advances in the understanding of the causative role of HPV in the etiology of high-grade cervical lesions (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer have led to the development, evaluation and recommendation of HPV-based technologies for cervical cancer prevention and control. The prevention of HPV infection before the onset of CIN is now possible with recently available prophylactic HPV vaccines, e.g. the quadrivalent Gardasil (Merck & Co., NJ, USA and bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK. This review article provides an up-to-date summary of recent studies and available information concerning HPV and vaccination in cervical cancer.

  6. EXPRESSION OF HPV 16 AND 18 IN CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kodali Venkataramana; Prasad Usha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is by far the most common human papilloma virus related disease. Nearly, all cases of cervical cancer can be attributable to human papilloma virus infection. Infection with the human papilloma virus is the main risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer especially the high-risk types. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus 16 and 18 in various grades of cervical intraepithelia...

  7. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, David

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance) to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. Results A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82). Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º) to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07). However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82) were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders. PMID:24422022

  8. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods: A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. Results: A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82. Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07. However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82 were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions: Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders.

  9. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  10. Radiological evaluation of the cervical spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, W. K.; Koh, B. H.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J. [School of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Acute injuries of the cervical spine are the most common causes of severe disability following trauma, yet the diagnosis of these injuries are often delayed and the treatment, inadequate. Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are diagnosed by radiological examinations. And complete evaluations of bony structures and soft tissue changes on conventional radiograms are very important for determining the therapeutic plans and prognoses of the injuries patients. During the period of 5 years from June 1976 to May 1981, the radiological and clinical evaluation had been made on 38 patients suffered from acute cervical spinal injuries which were confirmed by the radiological examinations. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of total 38 patients was broad ranging from 19 years to 72 years. 2. The most common cause of injury was traffic accident, next fall down, other accident respectively. 3. Levels of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows: Upper cervical spine in 15.8%, lower cervical spine in 84.2%, and the most common injuries level was C 5. Most of the lower cervical spinal injuries were located in the vertebral body and spinous process. 4. Anatomical sites of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows; vertebral body in 55.5%, spinous process in 23.7%, neural arch in 15.8%, and locked facet in 18.4%, etc. 5. Most of the patients with severe mental changes were injuries in upper cervical spine rather than lower. And most of the patients with quadriplegia or paraplegia were shown marked disruption of spinal canal.

  11. Radiological evaluation of the cervical spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, W. K.; Koh, B. H.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Acute injuries of the cervical spine are the most common causes of severe disability following trauma, yet the diagnosis of these injuries are often delayed and the treatment, inadequate. Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are diagnosed by radiological examinations. And complete evaluations of bony structures and soft tissue changes on conventional radiograms are very important for determining the therapeutic plans and prognoses of the injuries patients. During the period of 5 years from June 1976 to May 1981, the radiological and clinical evaluation had been made on 38 patients suffered from acute cervical spinal injuries which were confirmed by the radiological examinations. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of total 38 patients was broad ranging from 19 years to 72 years. 2. The most common cause of injury was traffic accident, next fall down, other accident respectively. 3. Levels of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows: Upper cervical spine in 15.8%, lower cervical spine in 84.2%, and the most common injuries level was C 5. Most of the lower cervical spinal injuries were located in the vertebral body and spinous process. 4. Anatomical sites of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows; vertebral body in 55.5%, spinous process in 23.7%, neural arch in 15.8%, and locked facet in 18.4%, etc. 5. Most of the patients with severe mental changes were injuries in upper cervical spine rather than lower. And most of the patients with quadriplegia or paraplegia were shown marked disruption of spinal canal

  12. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  13. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  14. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  15. MR imaging in cervical hyperextension injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.J.; Teresi, L.M.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.; Ziemba, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on cervical hyperextension injuries that are common and often show minimal radiographic abnormalities, even with severe or unstable lesions. MR images and clinical records of 14 patients scanned within 4 months of hyperextension cervical injuries were reviewed. Clinical, radiographic, and MR findings were correlated. Nine patients had acceleration hyperextension whiplash injuries, four with acute cervical disk herniations developing radiculopathy after several weeks. Five patients injured by direct frontal head trauma presented with myelopathy and had MR evidence of cord injury, and four had acute disk herniation

  16. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  17. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsainvil, Merlyn A

    The incidence of cervical cancer has declined dramatically due to Papanicolaou smear testing. However, some minority populations continue to suffer with high incidences and/or death rates of cervical cancer, due to lack of screening. This article updates on cervical cancer screening and prevention and discusses cultural impacts on screening. Knowledge deficits disproportionately affect ethnic minority groups and contribute to cancer incidence, whereas lack of healthcare coverage and low socioeconomic status contribute to screening disparities. Although minority women have cultural beliefs and practices that influence screening, recommendation and/or education from a provider often lead to screening.

  18. The Effect of the PEEK Cage on the Cervical Lordosis in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Gulsen

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: We achieved better cervical lordotic angles at the postoperative period by implanting one-level, two-level, three-level or four-level PEEK cage filled with demineralized bone matrix. Also, the causes of cervical root and or medulla spinalis impingement were different in group1 and 2. While extruded cervical disc impingement was the first pathology in group 1, osteophyte formation was the first pathology in group 2.

  19. Cervical precancerous changes and selected cervical microbial infections, Kiambu County, Kenya, 2014: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyina, Evalyne Wambui; Kamau, Lucy; Muturi, Margaret

    2017-09-25

    Cervical cancer is the predominant cancer among women in Kenya and second most common in women in developing regions. Population-based cytological screening and early treatment reduces morbidity and mortality associated with the cancer. We determined the occurrence of cervical precancerous changes and cervical microbial infections (Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Neisseria gonorrhea and Actinomyces) among women attending Family Health Option Kenya (FHOK) clinic in Thika. This was a hospital based cross sectional study among women attending reproductive health screening clinic from November 2013 to January 2014. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) I, II, III, cervical cancer and microbial infection (Actinomyces, Trichomonas vaginalis and Yeast cells) diagnosis was based on Pap smear screening test and High Vaginal Swab wet preparation microscopy. Neisseria gonorrhea was diagnosed through Gram staining. Socio-demographic and reproductive health data was collected using a structured questionnaire administered to the study participants and analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Of the 244 women screened, 238 (97.5%) presented with cervical inflammation, 80 (32.8%) cervical microbial infections and 12 (4.9%) cervical precancerous changes; 10 (83.3%) with CIN I and 2 (16.7%) CIN II. Of the 80 cervical microbial infections, 62 (77.5%) were yeast cell and 18 (22.5%) T. vaginalis. One thirty four (55%) participants had no history of Pap smear screening of which 84 (62.7%) were 20-40 years. Use of IUCDs (OR: 2.47, 95% CI 1.3-4.6) was associated with cervical inflammation. CIN I was the predominant cervical precancerous change. There is need to scale up cervical screening test to capture all categories of women.

  20. SU-C-207B-03: A Geometrical Constrained Chan-Vese Based Tumor Segmentation Scheme for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L; Zhou, Z; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation of tumor in PET is challenging when part of tumor is connected with normal organs/tissues with no difference in intensity. Conventional segmentation methods, such as thresholding or region growing, cannot generate satisfactory results in this case. We proposed a geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based scheme to segment tumor in PET for this special case by considering the similarity between two adjacent slices. Methods: The proposed scheme performs segmentation in a slice-by-slice fashion where an accurate segmentation of one slice is used as the guidance for segmentation of rest slices. For a slice that the tumor is not directly connected to organs/tissues with similar intensity values, a conventional clustering-based segmentation method under user’s guidance is used to obtain an exact tumor contour. This is set as the initial contour and the Chan-Vese algorithm is applied for segmenting the tumor in the next adjacent slice by adding constraints of tumor size, position and shape information. This procedure is repeated until the last slice of PET containing tumor. The proposed geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based algorithm was implemented in Matlab and its performance was tested on several cervical cancer patients where cervix and bladder are connected with similar activity values. The positive predictive values (PPV) are calculated to characterize the segmentation accuracy of the proposed scheme. Results: Tumors were accurately segmented by the proposed method even when they are connected with bladder in the image with no difference in intensity. The average PPVs were 0.9571±0.0355 and 0.9894±0.0271 for 17 slices and 11 slices of PET from two patients, respectively. Conclusion: We have developed a new scheme to segment tumor in PET images for the special case that the tumor is quite similar to or connected to normal organs/tissues in the image. The proposed scheme can provide a reliable way for segmenting tumors.

  1. SU-C-207B-03: A Geometrical Constrained Chan-Vese Based Tumor Segmentation Scheme for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L; Zhou, Z; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation of tumor in PET is challenging when part of tumor is connected with normal organs/tissues with no difference in intensity. Conventional segmentation methods, such as thresholding or region growing, cannot generate satisfactory results in this case. We proposed a geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based scheme to segment tumor in PET for this special case by considering the similarity between two adjacent slices. Methods: The proposed scheme performs segmentation in a slice-by-slice fashion where an accurate segmentation of one slice is used as the guidance for segmentation of rest slices. For a slice that the tumor is not directly connected to organs/tissues with similar intensity values, a conventional clustering-based segmentation method under user’s guidance is used to obtain an exact tumor contour. This is set as the initial contour and the Chan-Vese algorithm is applied for segmenting the tumor in the next adjacent slice by adding constraints of tumor size, position and shape information. This procedure is repeated until the last slice of PET containing tumor. The proposed geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based algorithm was implemented in Matlab and its performance was tested on several cervical cancer patients where cervix and bladder are connected with similar activity values. The positive predictive values (PPV) are calculated to characterize the segmentation accuracy of the proposed scheme. Results: Tumors were accurately segmented by the proposed method even when they are connected with bladder in the image with no difference in intensity. The average PPVs were 0.9571±0.0355 and 0.9894±0.0271 for 17 slices and 11 slices of PET from two patients, respectively. Conclusion: We have developed a new scheme to segment tumor in PET images for the special case that the tumor is quite similar to or connected to normal organs/tissues in the image. The proposed scheme can provide a reliable way for segmenting tumors.

  2. Temporary occipital fixation in young children with severe cervical-thoracic spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brian J; Minkara, Anas A; Angevine, Peter D; Vitale, Michael G; Lenke, Lawrence G; Anderson, Richard C E

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The long-term effects of instrumentation and fusion of the occipital-cervical-thoracic spine on spinal growth in young children are poorly understood. To mitigate the effects of this surgery on the growing pediatric spine, the authors report a novel technique used in 4 children with severe cervical-thoracic instability. These patients underwent instrumentation from the occiput to the upper thoracic region for stabilization, but without bone graft at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). Subsequent surgery was then performed to remove the occipital instrumentation, thereby allowing further growth and increased motion across the CVJ. METHODS Three very young children (15, 30, and 30 months old) underwent occipital to thoracic posterior segmental instrumentation due to cervical or upper thoracic dislocation, progressive kyphosis, and myelopathy. The fourth child (10 years old) underwent similar instrumentation for progressive cervical-thoracic scoliosis. Bone graft was placed at and distal to C-2 only. After follow-up CT scans demonstrated posterior arthrodesis without unintended fusion from the occiput to C-2, 3 patients underwent removal of the occipital instrumentation. RESULTS Follow-up cervical spine flexion/extension radiographs demonstrated partial restoration of motion at the CVJ. One patient has not had the occipital instrumentation removed yet, because only 4 months have elapsed since her operation. CONCLUSIONS Temporary fixation to the occiput provides increased biomechanical stability for spinal stabilization in young children, without permanently eliminating motion and growth at the CVJ. This technique can be considered in children who require longer instrumentation constructs for temporary stabilization, but who only need fusion in more limited areas where spinal instability exists.

  3. Characterizing the location of spinal and vertebral levels in the human cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, D W; Cadotte, A; Cohen-Adad, J; Fleet, D; Livne, M; Wilson, J R; Mikulis, D; Nugaeva, N; Fehlings, M G

    2015-04-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques are critical to understanding the pathophysiology of conditions involving the spinal cord. We provide a novel, quantitative solution to map vertebral and spinal cord levels accounting for anatomic variability within the human spinal cord. For the first time, we report a population distribution of the segmental anatomy of the cervical spinal cord that has direct implications for the interpretation of advanced imaging studies most often conducted across groups of subjects. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent a T2-weighted, 3T MRI of the cervical spinal cord. Two experts marked the C3-C8 cervical nerve rootlets, C3-C7 vertebral bodies, and pontomedullary junction. A semiautomated algorithm was used to locate the centerline of the spinal cord and measure rostral-caudal distances from a fixed point in the brain stem, the pontomedullary junction, to each of the spinal rootlets and vertebral bodies. Distances to each location were compared across subjects. Six volunteers had 2 additional scans in neck flexion and extension to measure the effects of patient positioning in the scanner. We demonstrated that substantial variation exists in the rostral-caudal position of spinal cord segments among individuals and that prior methods of predicting spinal segments are imprecise. We also show that neck flexion or extension has little effect on the relative location of vertebral-versus-spinal levels. Accounting for spinal level variation is lacking in existing imaging studies. Future studies should account for this variation for accurate interpretation of the neuroanatomic origin of acquired MR signals. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, G. W.; Seim, III, H. B.; Clemmons, R. M.

    1988-08-15

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space.

  5. Distracted cervical spinal fusion for management of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy in large-breed dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, G.W.; Seim, H.B. III; Clemmons, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Using an autogenous bone graft (obtained from the iliac crest), 4-mm cancellous bone screws, and polymethylmethacrylate, a distracted cervical spinal fusion technique was performed on 10 dogs with myelographic evidence of caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. All dogs had evidence of dynamic soft tissue spinal cord compression, as indicated by flexion, extension, and traction myelographic views. Of the 10 dogs, 4 previously had undergone surgery by use of ventral slot or cervical disk fenestration techniques, and their neurologic status had deteriorated after the original surgery. Preoperative neurologic status of the 10 dogs included nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 5), severe ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 2), and mild ambulatory ataxia with conscious proprioceptive deficits (n = 3). Five dogs had signs of various degrees of cervical pain. Clinical improvement was observed in 8 of 10 dogs--either improved neurologic status or elimination of cervical pain. Implant loosening developed in 3 dogs; 2 of them were euthanatized because of lack of neurologic improvement. Radiographic evidence of bony cervical fusion was observed during a 9- to 24-week period in 6 of the 8 surviving dogs. The distracted cervical fusion technique appears to be a valid surgical procedure to manage cervical spondylomyelopathy in those dogs in which the lesions are limited to one cervical intervertebral disk space

  6. Methods of evaluating segmentation characteristics and segmentation of major faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary.

  7. Segmentation by Large Scale Hypothesis Testing - Segmentation as Outlier Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    a microscope and we show how the method can handle transparent particles with significant glare point. The method generalizes to other problems. THis is illustrated by applying the method to camera calibration images and MRI of the midsagittal plane for gray and white matter separation and segmentation......We propose a novel and efficient way of performing local image segmentation. For many applications a threshold of pixel intensities is sufficient but determine the appropriate threshold value can be difficult. In cases with large global intensity variation the threshold value has to be adapted...... locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...

  8. Methods of evaluating segmentation characteristics and segmentation of major faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok

    2000-03-01

    Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary

  9. Cervical tuberculous adenitis: CT manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reede, D L; Bergeron, R T

    1985-03-01

    Cervical tuberculous adenitis is being seen with increasing frequency in the United States; in the appropriate clinical setting it should be included in the differential diagnosis of an asymptomatic neck mass. Patients are typically young adults who are recent arrivals from Southeast Asia. A history of tuberculosis is not always elicited nor is the chest radiograph always abnormal. All of these patients have positive purified protein derivative tests unless they are anergic. The CT findings may lead to the diagnosis. Several CT patterns of nodal disease can be seen in tuberculous adenitis; some may mimic benign and neoplastic disease. The presence of a multiloculated or multichambered (conglomerate nodal) mass with central lucency and thick rims of enhancement and minimally effaced fascial planes is highly suggestive of tuberculous adenitis, especially if the patient has a strongly positive tuberculosis skin test.

  10. Cervical tuberculous adenitis: CT manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reede, D.L.; Bergeron, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Cervical tuberculous adenitis is being seen with increasing frequency in the United States; in the appropriate clinical setting it should be included in the differential diagnosis of an asymptomatic neck mass. Patients are typically young adults who are recent arrivals from Southeast Asia. A history of tuberculosis is not always elicited nor is the chest radiograph always abnormal. All of these patients have positive purified protein derivative tests unless they are anergic. The CT findings may lead to the diagnosis. Several CT patterns of nodal disease can be seen in tuberculous adenitis; some may mimic benign and neoplastic disease. The presence of a multiloculated or multichambered (conglomerate nodal) mass with central lucency and thick rims of enhancement and minimally effaced fascial planes is highly suggestive of tuberculous adenitis, especially if the patient has a strongly positive tuberculosis skin test

  11. Integration of functional and morphological MR data for preoperative 3D visualisation of tumours. Cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, H.; Meinzer, H.P.; Hawighorst, H.; Kaick, G. van; Knapstein, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this exemplary study was to integrate morphological and functional MRI to establish computer-based, preoperative therapy planning for tumors, instancing cervical carcinoma. Results: Segmentation of organs and vessels as well as tissue differentiation yielded a morphological visualisation of anatomical structures that were overlaid with pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic MRI, subsequently. Thereby, three-dimensional, arbitrary views on the functional data were displayed. Conclusions: Image analysis and visualisation of the acquired MR data establishes both a morphologic and functional evaluation of suspect lesions and adjacent organs. By integrating morphologic and functional MRI additional information can be gathered that possibly impinge on preoperative planning. (orig./AJ) [de

  12. Effect of loading rate on the compressive mechanics of the immature baboon cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Paul Z; Nuckley, David J; Ching, Randal P

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-four cervical spine segments were harvested from 12 juvenile male baboons and compressed to failure at displacement rates of 5, 50, 500, or 5000 mm/s. Compressive stiffness, failure load, and failure displacement were measured for comparison across loading rate groups. Stiffness showed a significant concomitant increase with loading rate, increasing by 62% between rates of 5 and 5000 mm/s. Failure load also demonstrated an increasing relationship with loading rate, while displacement at failure showed no rate dependence. These data may help in the development of improved pediatric automotive safety standards and more biofidelic physical and computational models.

  13. Motor aphasia after cervical myelography with Metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeker, D.K.; Sartor, K.; Winkler, D.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Altona, Hamburg

    1980-01-01

    Two cases of transient motor aphasia after cervical myelography with Metrizamide are described. A possible mechanism is thought to be prolonged contact of contrast with a brain already damaged by a pre-existing vascular abnormality. (orig.) [de

  14. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Christopher P; Clark, Aaron J; Kanter, Adam S; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Multi-institutional retrospective study. The goal of the current study is to quantify the incidence of 2 extremely rare complications of cervical spine surgery; hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies. A total of 8887 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were included in the study from 21 institutions. No glossopharyngeal nerve injuries were reported. One hypoglossal nerve injury was reported after a C3-7 laminectomy (0.01%). This deficit resolved with conservative management. The rate by institution ranged from 0% to 1.28%. Although not directly injured by the surgical procedure, the transient nerve injury might have been related to patient positioning as has been described previously in the literature. Hypoglossal nerve injury during cervical spine surgery is an extremely rare complication. Institutional rates may vary. Care should be taken during posterior cervical surgery to avoid hyperflexion of the neck and endotracheal tube malposition.

  15. Emergency Cervical Cerclage: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Doruk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of the emergency cervical cerclage on the duration of pregnancy in the patient with cervical insufficiency METHOD: Thirteen pregnant women between 22-28 th gestational age treated with emergency cerclage were included in the study. Mc Donald technic was perfomed to in all patients. RESULTS: Among the patients,7 women were delivered between 25-32th weeks, and 4 patients were followed beyond the 34th week. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonographic screening to determine cervical insufficiency among the patient in the risk group should be done at 14-20th weeks for the first time. Emergency cerclage can be considered in patient without contractions or chorioamnionitis, if there is any evidence of cervical dilatation at pelvic examination.

  16. Computerized axial tomography in traumatic cervical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1982-01-01

    Although plain computerized axial tomography cannot routinely demonstrate the spinal cord, it does provide excellent visualization of the bony outline of the spinal canal and vertebral column. So it should be reasonable to use this technique in cases of cervical traumatic disorders. In this paper we presented 10 cases of cervical traumatic lesions; 3 atlanto-axial dislocation, 2 cervical canal stenosis, 3 OPLL, 1 intramedullary hematoma and 1 C 2 -neurinoma. In some patients neurologic deficits were induced by cervical trauma. Bony lesions appeared more adequately deliniated than intraspinal lesions, however, in some cases intramedullary changes could also be demonstrated. The use of metrizamide with high resolution CT-scanner could improve the usefullness of this technique. (author)

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.

  18. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialho, S.A.G.; Graca, D.L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L.S.S. de; Lopes, S.T.D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia

  19. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialho, S. A.G.; Graca, D. L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L. S.S. de; Lopes, S. T.D.A.

    1989-08-15

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia.

  20. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.

  1. Abnormal cervical cytology requiring colposcopy among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    current national screening policy only offers women a free cervical smear at 30, 40 and 50 years ... consistent with the recommendations of working groups in developed ... under the age of 30 years in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

  2. Detection and prognosis of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deregowski, Valerie; Van Criekinge, Wim; Dehaspe, Luc; Wisman, G. Bea A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Schuuring, E. M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and kits for identifying, diagnosing, prognosing, and monitoring cervical cancer. These methods include determining the methylation status or the expression levels of particular genes, or a combination thereof.

  3. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  4. Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelaria, Myrna; Garcia-Arias, Alicia; Cetina, Lucely; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity

  5. Is cervical discography of any value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, W F; Stockdale, H R

    1983-05-01

    Following the successful use of lumbar discography in the management of lumbo-sciatic pain, attention focussed on the possibility of using such intradiscal injections in the management of cervico-brachial disorders. Much has been written on the subject of cervical discography. However, little is of use to the clinician seeking objective validation of this procedure. Many papers relate to specific workers' own experiences and one cannot but be disturbed at the wide diversity of opinion that has been expressed on the efficacy of cervical discography. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on cervical discography and present our own findings from both in vitro and clinical studies. We conclude that as a technique to locate symptomatic levels, cervical discography is worthless but that the findings of a normal nuclear image will probably indicate an asymptomatic level. Also, we feel that reliance on pain reproduction during injection is doubtful.

  6. Is cervical discography of any value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, W.F.; Stockdale, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Following the successful use of lumbar discography in the management of lumbo-sciatic pain, attention focussed on the possibility of using such intradiscal injections in the management of cervico-brachial disorders. Much has been written on the subject of cervical discography. However, little is of use to the clinician seeking objective validation of this procedure. Many papers relate to specific workers' own experiences and one cannot but be disturbed at the wide diversity of opinion that has been expressed on the efficacy of cervical discography. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on cervical discography and present our own findings from both in vitro and clinical studies. We conclude that as a technique to locate symptomatic levels, cervical discography is worthless but that the findings of a normal nuclear image will probably indicate an asymptomatic level. Also, we feel that reliance on pain reproduction during injection is doubtful. (orig.)

  7. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  8. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  9. Skip segment Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica R. Gross

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.

  10. U.S. Army Custom Segmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    segmentation is individual or intergroup differences in response to marketing - mix variables. Presumptions about segments: •different demands in a...product or service category, •respond differently to changes in the marketing mix Criteria for segments: •The segments must exist in the environment

  11. Skip segment Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Erica R.; Geddes, Gabrielle C.; McCarrier, Julie A.; Jarzembowski, Jason A.; Arca, Marjorie J.

    2015-01-01

    Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwey, B.; Koschorek, F.; Jensen, H.P.

    1985-12-01

    170 patients with suspected lesions of the cervical part of the medulla were examined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tomography. 27 cases revealed no pathological changes in the regions of the cervical medulla, the cervical canal and of the cervical spine. 143 cases produced pathological findings whose diagnoses determined therapeutical approach. Verified pathological changes comprised anomalies of the cranio-cervical junction like basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation, various types of cavity formation in the cervical medulla (syringomyelia, hydromyelia), demyelinization processes, intramedullary and extramedullary tumours, intervertebral disk degeneration processes, dislocation of intervertebral disks and spondylophytes with spinal stenoses. Sagittal sections in different functional positions allowed to demonstrate the biomechanical effects of extramedullary masses on the cervical medulla. However, proven tumours could not be differentiated successfully using histological methods. Nevertheless, NMR tomography will replace invasive methods like conventional cervical myelography and CT myelography in diagnostic clarification of diseases of the cervical medulla.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwey, B.; Koschorek, F.; Jensen, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    170 patients with suspected lesions of the cervical part of the medulla were examined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tomography. 27 cases revealed no pathological changes in the regions of the cervical medulla, the cervical canal and of the cervical spine. 143 cases produced pathological findings whose diagnoses determined therapeutical approach. Verified pathological changes comprised anomalies of the cranio-cervical junction like basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation, various types of cavity formation in the cervical medulla (syringomyelia, hydromyelia), demyelinization processes, intramedullary and extramedullary tumours, intervertebral disk degeneration processes, dislocation of intervertebral disks and spondylophytes with spinal stenoses. Sagittal sections in different functional positions allowed to demonstrate the biomechanical effects of extramedullary masses on the cervical medulla. However, proven tumours could not be differentiated successfully using histological methods. Nevertheless, NMR tomography will replace invasive methods like conventional cervical myelography and CT myelography in diagnostic clarification of diseases of the cervical medulla. (orig.) [de

  14. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  15. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Khoi D.; Mummaneni, Praveen V.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. Methods: A retrospective case-series study of 12?903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy....

  16. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Christopher P.; Clark, Aaron J.; Kanter, Adam S.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Multi-institutional retrospective study. Objective: The goal of the current study is to quantify the incidence of 2 extremely rare complications of cervical spine surgery; hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies. Methods: A total of 8887 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were included in the study from 21 institutions. Results: No glossopharyngeal nerve injuries were reported. One hypoglossal nerve injury was reported after a C3-7 laminectomy...

  17. Proteomic alterations in early stage cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Güzel, Coşkun; Govorukhina, Natalia; Wisman, G.B.A.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard; Hollema, Harry; Guryev, Victor; Horvatovich, Peter; van der Zee, Ate; Bischoff, Rainer; Luider, Theo

    2018-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) allows the capture of cell types or well-defined structures in tissue. We compared in a semi-quantitative way the proteomes from an equivalent of 8,000 tumor cells from patients with squamous cell cervical cancer (SCC, n = 22) with healthy epithelial and stromal cells obtained from normal cervical tissue (n = 13). Proteins were enzymatically digested into peptides which were measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry and analyzed by “all-or-nothing” anal...

  18. Cervical myositis ossificans traumatica: a rare location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, T.; Sarac, K.; Kutlu, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey); Baysal, O.; Ersoy, Y. [Dept. of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey); Elmali, N. [Dept. of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey)

    1999-05-01

    An unusual case of myositis ossificans traumatica lesion located in the paraspinal region is reported. Despite the contiguity of the lesion with the cervical vertebrae and ominous appearance of the biopsy material, the history of antecedent trauma and computed tomography findings allowed preoperative accurate diagnosis. To our knowledge, myositis ossificans traumatica located in the cervical paraspinal region is very rare. (orig.) With 4 figs., 16 refs.

  19. Noncarious Cervical Lessions: From Etiology to Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Krolo; Aleksandra Kovačević

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to briefly summarize the most important characteristics of non-carious cervical lesions, as well as the etiological factors that lead to their formation. Cervical area represents one of the most sensitive parts of the tooth due to the specific position, as well as the structure and thickness of hard tissue. It is less resistant to various chemical and mechanical stimuli, and as a result the lesions in this area are frequently encountered in everyday practice.

  20. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Armijo-Olivo; David Magee

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maxima...

  1. Implications of tyrosine phosphoproteomics in cervical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeFord James

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide cervical cancer remains a leading cause of mortality from gynecologic malignancies. The link between cervical cancer and persistent infection with HPV has been established. At a molecular level little is known about the transition from the precancerous state to invasive cancer. To elucidate this process, cervical biopsies from human specimens were obtained from precancerous state to stage III disease. Methods Cervical biopsies were obtained from patients with a diagnosis of cervical cancer undergoing definitive surgery or staging operation. Biopsies were obtained from patients with precancerous lesions at the time of their excisional procedure. Control samples were obtained from patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions such as fibroids. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using two dimensional gel electrophoresis with subsequent trypsin digestion followed by MALDI-TOF protein identification. Candidate proteins were then further studied using western blotting, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Results Annexin A1 and DNA-PKcs were found to be differentially expressed. Phosphorylated annexin A1 was up regulated in diseased states in comparison to control and its level was strongly detected in the serum of cervical cancer patients compared to controls. DNA-PKcs was noted to be hyperphosphorylated and fragmented in cancer when compared to controls. By immunohistochemistry annexin A1 was noted in the vascular environment in cancer and certain precancerous samples. Conclusion This study suggests a probable role for protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cervical carcinogenesis. Annexin A1 and DNA-PK cs may have synergistic effects with HPV infection. Precancerous lesions that may progress to cervical cancer may be differentiated from lesions that will not base on similar immunohistochemical profile to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Jonathan [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike [Flinders Medical Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park, South Australia (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  3. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  5. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabot, Jonathan; Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  6. The Mobi-C cervical disc for one-level and two-level cervical disc replacement: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Matthew D Alvin,1,2 Thomas E Mroz1,3,41Cleveland Clinic Center for Spine Health, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 4Department of Neurological Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USABackground: Cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA is a novel motion-preserving procedure that is an alternative to fusion. The Mobi-C disc prosthesis, one of many Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved devices for CDA, is the only FDA-approved prosthesis for two-level CDA. Hence, it may allow for improved outcomes compared with multilevel fusion procedures.Purpose: To critically assess the available literature on CDA with the Mobi-C prosthesis, with a focus on two-level CDA.Methods: All clinical articles involving the Mobi-C disc prosthesis for CDA through September 1, 2014 were identified on Medline. Any paper that presented Mobi-C CDA clinical results was included. Study design, sample size, length of follow-up, use of statistical analysis, quality of life outcome scores, conflict of interest, and complications were recorded.Results: Fifteen studies were included that investigated Mobi-C CDA, only one of which was a level Ib randomized control trial. All studies included showed non-inferiority of one-level Mobi-C CDA to one-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF. Only one study analyzed outcomes of one-level versus two-level Mobi-C CDA, and only one study analyzed two-level Mobi-C CDA versus two-level ACDF. In comparison with other cervical disc prostheses, the Mobi-C prosthesis is associated with higher rates of heterotopic ossification (HO. Studies with conflicts of interest reported lower rates of HO. Adjacent segment degeneration or disease, along with other complications, were not assessed in most studies.Conclusion: One-level Mobi-C CDA is non-inferior, but not superior, to one-level ACDF for patients

  7. Cervical spine motion in manual versus Jackson table turning methods in a cadaveric global instability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Matthew J; DiPaola, Christian P; Conrad, Bryan P; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Sawers, Andrew; Bloch, David; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2008-06-01

    A study of spine biomechanics in a cadaver model. To quantify motion in multiple axes created by transfer methods from stretcher to operating table in the prone position in a cervical global instability model. Patients with an unstable cervical spine remain at high risk for further secondary injury until their spine is adequately surgically stabilized. Previous studies have revealed that collars have significant, but limited benefit in preventing cervical motion when manually transferring patients. The literature proposes multiple methods of patient transfer, although no one method has been universally adopted. To date, no study has effectively evaluated the relationship between spine motion and various patient transfer methods to an operating room table for prone positioning. A global instability was surgically created at C5-6 in 4 fresh cadavers with no history of spine pathology. All cadavers were tested both with and without a rigid cervical collar in the intact and unstable state. Three headrest permutations were evaluated Mayfield (SM USA Inc), Prone View (Dupaco, Oceanside, CA), and Foam Pillow (OSI, Union City, CA). A trained group of medical staff performed each of 2 transfer methods: the "manual" and the "Jackson table" transfer. The manual technique entailed performing a standard rotation of the supine patient on a stretcher to the prone position on the operating room table with in-line manual cervical stabilization. The "Jackson" technique involved sliding the supine patient to the Jackson table (OSI, Union City, CA) with manual in-line cervical stabilization, securing them to the table, then initiating the table's lock and turn mechanism and rotating them into a prone position. An electromagnetic tracking device captured angular motion between the C5 and C6 vertebral segments. Repeated measures statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the following conditions: collar use (2 levels), headrest (3 levels), and turning technique (2 levels). For all

  8. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  9. Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

  10. Imaging of the cervical articular pillar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeomans, E. [Orange Base Hospital, Orange, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-01

    The cervical articular pillar, due to the complex anatomical structure of the cervical spine, is not well demonstrated in routine plain radiographic views. Dedicated views have been devised to demonstrate the pillar, yet their performance has abated considerably since the inception of Computed Tomography (CT) in the 1970`s. It is the consideration that CT does not image the articular pillar with a 10 per cent accuracy that poses the question: Is there still a need for plain radiography of the cervical articular pillar? This paper studies the anatomy, plain radiography, and incidence of injury to the cervical articular pillar. It discusses (with reference to current and historic literature) the efficacy of current imaging protocols in depicting this injury. It deals with plain radiography, CT, complex tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine to conclude there may still be a position in current imaging protocols for plain radiography of the cervical articular pillar. Copyright (1998) Australian Institute of Radiography 43 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Essential Segmental Myoclonus Responding Well To Fluoxetine A case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya K B

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of essential segmental myoclonus a 10 year old girl who presented with continuing movement of both the shoulder girdle muscles for 6 months. The movements were exacerbated with the hands raised above the head or in the outstretched posture and were persisting during sleep. There was no abnormal palatal movement. Additionally there was a rhythmical clicking sound arising from the shoulders that could be felt and ausculated with the stethoscope. CT scan of brain and MRI of cervical spine were non-contributory, EMG showed muscle activates at about 50 per second in the shoulder girdle muscles. Cine-radiography of shoulder joints showed the head of humerus hitting against the spine of the scapula rhythmically. Spinal tap was non-contributory. The diagnosis or essential segmental myoclonus was entertained and the subject with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with remarkable response. The possible mechanism of action of agents modulating the serotonergic system in the brain for the management of myoclonus has been reviewed and their role suggested.

  12. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  13. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  14. Intercalary bone segment transport in treatment of segmental tibial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Amin, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results and complications of intercalary bone segment transport in the treatment of segmental tibial defects. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with segmental tibial defects who were treated with intercalary bone segment transport method. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from September 1997 to April 2001. Subjects and methods: Thirteen patients were included in the study who had developed tibial defects either due to open fractures with bone loss or subsequent to bone debridement of infected non unions. The mean bone defect was 6.4 cms and there were eight associated soft tissue defects. Locally made unilateral 'Naseer-Awais' (NA) fixator was used for bone segment transport. The distraction was done at the rate of 1mm/day after 7-10 days of osteotomy. The patients were followed-up fortnightly during distraction and monthly thereafter. The mean follow-up duration was 18 months. Results: The mean time in external fixation was 9.4 months. The m ean healing index' was 1.47 months/cm. Satisfactory union was achieved in all cases. Six cases (46.2%) required bone grafting at target site and in one of them grafting was required at the level of regeneration as well. All the wounds healed well with no residual infection. There was no residual leg length discrepancy of more than 20 mm nd one angular deformity of more than 5 degrees. The commonest complication encountered was pin track infection seen in 38% of Shanz Screws applied. Loosening occurred in 6.8% of Shanz screws, requiring re-adjustment. Ankle joint contracture with equinus deformity and peroneal nerve paresis occurred in one case each. The functional results were graded as 'good' in seven, 'fair' in four, and 'poor' in two patients. Overall, thirteen patients had 31 (minor/major) complications with a ratio of 2.38 complications per patient. To treat the bone defects and associated complications, a mean of

  15. The natural history and clinical syndromes of degenerative cervical spondylosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, John C

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a broad term which describes the age related chronic disc degeneration, which can also affect the cervical vertebrae, the facet and other joints and their associated soft tissue supports. Evidence of spondylitic change is frequently found in many asymptomatic adults. Radiculopathy is a result of intervertebral foramina narrowing. Narrowing of the spinal canal can result in spinal cord compression, ultimately resulting in cervical spondylosis myelopathy. This review article examines the current literature in relation to the cervical spondylosis and describes the three clinical syndromes of axial neck pain, cervical radiculopathy and cervical myelopathy.

  16. Assessment of cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia in violin players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pooja; Dabadghav, Rachana; Bedekar, Nilima; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-12-01

    Playing the violin can lead to asymmetric postures which can affect the cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular stability. The objective of the study was to assess the cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia in violin players and non-players of the same age group. An inclinometer was used to assess the cervical range of motion, pressure biofeedback was used to assess cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia was also assessed in 30 professional violin players (18-40 years) compared with 30 age-matched non-players. Analysis was done using an unpaired t test. Significant change was seen with respect to extension (p = 0.051), cervical core strength (p = 0.005), right (Rt) superior angle 0° (p = 0.004), Rt superior angle 45° (p = 0.015) and Rt inferior angle 90° (p = 0.013). This study shows a significant difference in extension range of motion and cervical core strength of violin players. Also, there was scapular dyskinesia seen at 0° and 45° right-side superior angle of the scapula and 90° right-side inferior angle of the scapula.

  17. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  18. Oceanic Sub-Moho Reflectors in and Around the Segmentation Boundary Between the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquake Area, the Central Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ito, A.; Sato, T.; Park, J.; Obana, K.; Kaneda, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The Nankai Trough is a unique subduction zone because the recurrence intervals of M8 class earthquakes and the segmentation of rupture zones are well documented on the basis of geophysical, geological and historic data. In 2004, large intraslab earthquake (Mw7.5) occurred southeast off the Kii Peninsula, the central Nankai Trough. Recent ocean bottom seismograph observation off the Kii Peninsula shows seismicity concentrated in the oceanic crust and the uppermost mantle. To understand the genesis of such intraslab earthquakes and its relation to large interplate earthquakes as well as to obtain an entire structural image of Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, a wide-angle reflection/refraction survey across the coseismic rupture zone of the Tonankai earthquake was conducted in 2004. This research is part of "Structure research on plate dynamics of the presumed rupture zone of the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The result of structural image shows a bit thicker oceanic crust (>8km) subducting landward, and the existence of oceanic sub-Moho reflectors in the uppermost mantle. The aftershocks of the 2004 off Kii Peninsula earthquake are distributed within the oceanic crust and the uppermantle, which is not consistent with the estimated fault plane of main shock. Comparing the structural image with this aftershock distribution and usual seismicity in the uppermost mantle, the depth of the oceanic sub-Moho reflectors and the intraslab events within the uppermantle are both distributed around 20km. We consider that such sub-Moho reflectors may become a seismic fault of intraslab earthquakes.

  19. Hydrophilic segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) and monodisperse amide segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, D.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) flexible segments and monodisperse crystallizable bisester tetra-amide segments were made via a polycondensation reaction. The molecular weight of the PEO segments varied from 600 to 4600 g/mol and a bisester tetra-amide segment (T6T6T)

  20. Reliability and validity of CODA motion analysis system for measuring cervical range of motion in patients with cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongyang; Song, Hui; Ren, Fenggang; Li, Yuhuan; Wang, Dong; He, Xijing

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the Cartesian Optoelectronic Dynamic Anthropometer (CODA) motion system in measuring the cervical range of motion (ROM) and verify the construct validity of the CODA motion system. A total of 26 patients with cervical spondylosis and 22 patients with anterior cervical fusion were enrolled and the CODA motion analysis system was used to measure the three-dimensional cervical ROM. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed by interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEm), Limits of Agreements (LOA) and minimal detectable change (MDC). Independent samples t-tests were performed to examine the differences of cervical ROM between cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion patients. The results revealed that in the cervical spondylosis group, the reliability was almost perfect (intra-rater reliability: ICC, 0.87-0.95; LOA, -12.86-13.70; SEm, 2.97-4.58; inter-rater reliability: ICC, 0.84-0.95; LOA, -13.09-13.48; SEm, 3.13-4.32). In the anterior cervical fusion group, the reliability was high (intra-rater reliability: ICC, 0.88-0.97; LOA, -10.65-11.08; SEm, 2.10-3.77; inter-rater reliability: ICC, 0.86-0.96; LOA, -10.91-13.66; SEm, 2.20-4.45). The cervical ROM in the cervical spondylosis group was significantly higher than that in the anterior cervical fusion group in all directions except for left rotation. In conclusion, the CODA motion analysis system is highly reliable in measuring cervical ROM and the construct validity was verified, as the system was sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between the cervical spondylosis and anterior cervical fusion groups based on their ROM.

  1. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN......INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  2. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, S

    2016-01-01

    , which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were......OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical...... in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme...

  3. Experimental evaluation of the stability of goat's cervical spine after percutaneous cervical diskectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongli; Zhou Yicheng; Wang Chengyuan; Hong Cheng; Liu Hanqiao; Zhang Jiangfan; Ding Hui; Feng Dingyi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability of the goat's cervical spine after PCD (percutaneous cervical diskectomy). Methods: Ten adult goats were studied. Seven had PCD at C 3-4 , and three at C 4-5 . The cervical spine of the goat was studied with MR using axial, corona land sagittal images and with anteroposterior and lateral radiographs before and after PCD. The height of the disk, the disk space angle and dislocation were measured respectively before and after PCD. The data were examined by t-test. Results: The disk space (7 cases, 70%) became narrow obviously, and hyperostosis (5 cases, 50%) disk bulging (4 cases, 40%) appeared after PCD, but there was no obvious dislocation or angulation between the adjacent vertebral bodies. Conclusions: The stability of the goat's cervical spine is not affected after PCD. Indicating that this might also hold true for human cervical spine

  4. The rheumatoid cervical spine: Signs of instability on plain cervical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Clare J.; Eyes, Brian E.; Whitehouse, Graham H.

    2002-01-01

    The cervical spine is a common focus of destruction from rheumatoid arthritis, second only to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Joint, bone and ligament damage in the cervical spine leads to subluxations which can cause cervical cord compression resulting in paralysis and even sudden death. Because many patients with significant subluxations are asymptomatic, the radiologist plays a key role in recognizing the clinically important clues to instability on plain radiographs of the cervical spine-often difficult in rheumatoid arthritis when the bony landmarks are osteoporotic or eroded. This review focuses on the signs of instability on plain radiographs of the cervical spine, using diagrams and clinical examples to illustrate methods of identifying significant subluxations in rheumatoid arthritis. Roche, C.J., Eyes, B.E. and Whitehouse, G.H. (2002)

  5. Assessment of automatic segmentation of teeth using a watershed-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galibourg, Antoine; Dumoncel, Jean; Telmon, Norbert; Calvet, Adèle; Michetti, Jérôme; Maret, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    Tooth 3D automatic segmentation (AS) is being actively developed in research and clinical fields. Here, we assess the effect of automatic segmentation using a watershed-based method on the accuracy and reproducibility of 3D reconstructions in volumetric measurements by comparing it with a semi-automatic segmentation(SAS) method that has already been validated. The study sample comprised 52 teeth, scanned with micro-CT (41 µm voxel size) and CBCT (76; 200 and 300 µm voxel size). Each tooth was segmented by AS based on a watershed method and by SAS. For all surface reconstructions, volumetric measurements were obtained and analysed statistically. Surfaces were then aligned using the SAS surfaces as the reference. The topography of the geometric discrepancies was displayed by using a colour map allowing the maximum differences to be located. AS reconstructions showed similar tooth volumes when compared with SAS for the 41 µm voxel size. A difference in volumes was observed, and increased with the voxel size for CBCT data. The maximum differences were mainly found at the cervical margins and incisal edges but the general form was preserved. Micro-CT, a modality used in dental research, provides data that can be segmented automatically, which is timesaving. AS with CBCT data enables the general form of the region of interest to be displayed. However, our AS method can still be used for metrically reliable measurements in the field of clinical dentistry if some manual refinements are applied.

  6. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  7. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...

  8. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  9. Segmental Colitis Complicating Diverticular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ma Van Rosendaal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of idiopathic colitis affecting the sigmoid colon in elderly patients with underlying diverticulosis are presented. Segmental resection has permitted close review of the histopathology in this syndrome which demonstrates considerable similarity to changes seen in idiopathic ulcerative colitis. The reported experience with this syndrome and its clinical features are reviewed.

  10. Leaf segmentation in plant phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharr, Hanno; Minervini, Massimo; French, Andrew P.; Klukas, Christian; Kramer, David M.; Liu, Xiaoming; Luengo, Imanol; Pape, Jean Michel; Polder, Gerrit; Vukadinovic, Danijela; Yin, Xi; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based plant phenotyping is a growing application area of computer vision in agriculture. A key task is the segmentation of all individual leaves in images. Here we focus on the most common rosette model plants, Arabidopsis and young tobacco. Although leaves do share appearance and shape

  11. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Bae, Sang Jin

    2004-01-01

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance (ρ > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury

  12. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [Sanggyepaik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance ({rho} > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury.

  13. The polymethyl methacrylate cervical cage for treatment of cervical disk disease Part III. Biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyi-Feng; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2006-10-01

    In a previous article, we used the PMMA cervical cage in the treatment of single-level cervical disk disease and the preliminary clinical results were satisfactory. However, the mechanical properties of the PMMA cage were not clear. Therefore, we designed a comparative in vitro biomechanical study to determine the mechanical properties of the PMMA cage. The PMMA cervical cage and the Solis PEEK cervical cage were compressed in a materials testing machine to determine the mechanical properties. The compressive yield strength of the PMMA cage (7030 +/- 637 N) was less than that of the Solis polymer cervical cage (8100 +/- 572 N). The ultimate compressive strength of the PMMA cage (8160 +/- 724 N) was less than that of the Solis cage (9100 +/- 634 N). The stiffness of the PMMA cervical cage (8106 +/- 817 N/mm) was greater than that of the Solis cage (6486 +/- 530 N/mm). The elastic modulus of the PMMA cage (623 +/- 57 MPa) was greater than that of the Solis cage (510 +/- 42 MPa). The elongation of PMMA cage (43.5 +/- 5.7%) was larger than that of the Solis cage (36.1 +/- 4.3%). Although the compressive yield strength and ultimate compressive strength of the PMMA cervical cage were less than those of the Solis polymer cage, the mechanical properties are better than those of the cervical vertebral body. The PMMA cage is strong and safe for use as a spacer for cervical interbody fusion. Compared with other cage materials, the PMMA cage has many advantages and no obvious failings at present. However, the PMMA cervical cage warrants further long-term clinical study.

  14. A comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using self-locking stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage with ACDF using cage and plate in the treatment of three-level cervical degenerative spondylopathy: a retrospective study with 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqiao; Lü, Guohua; Wang, Bing; Li, Lei; Kuang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and radiological outcomes of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using self-locking polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages for treatment of three-level cervical degenerative spondylopathy. Twenty-eight patients underwent three-level ACDF using self-locking stand-alone PEEK cages (group A), and 26 patients underwent three-level ACDF using cages and plate fixation (group B) were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by pre- and post-operative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and Neck Disability Index (NDI). The operation time, blood loss, surgical results according to Odom's criteria and post-operative dysphagia status were also recorded. Radiological outcomes including fusion, cervical Cobb's lordosis, fused segment angle, disc height, and cage subsidence were assessed. Clinical outcome measures such as dysphagia and fusion rate and the results of surgery evaluated according to Odom's criteria were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) between groups. The operation time was shorter and blood loss was less in group A (P  0.05). Post-operative cage subsidence, the loss of disc height, cervical lordosis and the fused segment angle were relatively higher in group A than group B (P < 0.05). ACDF using self-locking stand-alone cages showed similar clinical results as compared to ACDF using cages and plate fixation for the treatment of three-level cervical degenerative spondylopathy. However, potential long-term problems such as cage subsidence, loss of cervical lordosis and fused segment angle post-operatively were shown to be associated with patients who underwent ACDF using self-locking stand-alone cages.

  15. [Traumatic spinal complications of cervical arthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstichel, P; Berthelot, J L; Randriananja, H; Crozier, S; Masson, C

    1996-02-17

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is usually a chronic and progressive disease. In a few cases, however, dramatic tetraplegia sometimes occurs after even minor injury. We report seven patients (6 males, 1 female, aged from 41 to 63), who suffered from acute myelopathy after an injury. In 5 cases, the injury revealed the cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A hyperextension of the cervical spine was found in 5 cases. The injury was severe in only one case, but there was no bony abnormalities, except arthrosis. The most common cause was a fall. In contrast, severe tetraplegia was found in 4 cases. Spontaneous, but incomplete, recuperation occurred in 4 patients. In all 7 cases, CT scan and MRI showed congenital cervical stenosis associated with cervical spondylosis. The level of disco-osteophytic changes was mainly in C4, C5, C6. On T2-weighted spin-echo image, an increased signal intensity was present in the cord of 3 patients, but was not correlated with the severity of the symptoms, nor with improvement. Surgical treatment was performed in 6 cases: 3 laminectomies, 3 anterior or antero-lateral approaches. Improvement after operative decompression was observed in all but one case, even when the motor or sensory deficit persists for more than one year. Motricity of the inferior limbs improved better than the other deficits, perhaps because of the location of non-reversible lesions in the spinal gray matter. The acute medullary syndrome of cervical spondylotic myelopathy is serious and can cause major handicaps. This complication justifies a preventive surgical attitude when medullar signs are moderate, and cervical imagery shows a spondylotic compression of the cord with congenital stenosis.

  16. Cervical motion assessment using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig-Bahat, Hilla; Weiss, Patrice L; Laufer, Yocheved

    2009-05-01

    Repeated measures of cervical motion in asymptomatic subjects. To introduce a virtual reality (VR)-based assessment of cervical range of motion (ROM); to establish inter and intratester reliability of the VR-based assessment in comparison with conventional assessment in asymptomatic individuals; and to evaluate the effect of a single VR session on cervical ROM. Cervical ROM and clinical issues related to neck pain is frequently studied. A wide variety of methods is available for evaluation of cervical motion. To date, most methods rely on voluntary responses to an assessor's instructions. However, in day-to-day life, head movement is generally an involuntary response to multiple stimuli. Therefore, there is a need for a more functional assessment method, using sensory stimuli to elicit spontaneous neck motion. VR attributes may provide a methodology for achieving this goal. A novel method was developed for cervical motion assessment utilizing an electromagnetic tracking system and a VR game scenario displayed via a head mounted device. Thirty asymptomatic participants were assessed by both conventional and VR-based methods. Inter and intratester repeatability analyses were performed. The effect of a single VR session on ROM was evaluated. Both assessments showed non-biased results between tests and between testers (P > 0.1). Full-cycle repeatability coefficients ranged between 15.0 degrees and 29.2 degrees with smaller values for rotation and for the VR assessment. A single VR session significantly increased ROM, with largest effect found in the rotation direction. Inter and intratester reliability was supported for both the VR-based and the conventional methods. Results suggest better repeatability for the VR method, with rotation being more precise than flexion/extension. A single VR session was found to be effective in increasing cervical motion, possibly due to its motivating effect.

  17. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  18. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-02-01

    The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.

  19. Joint shape segmentation with linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Qixing

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to segmenting shapes in a heterogenous shape database. Our approach segments the shapes jointly, utilizing features from multiple shapes to improve the segmentation of each. The approach is entirely unsupervised and is based on an integer quadratic programming formulation of the joint segmentation problem. The program optimizes over possible segmentations of individual shapes as well as over possible correspondences between segments from multiple shapes. The integer quadratic program is solved via a linear programming relaxation, using a block coordinate descent procedure that makes the optimization feasible for large databases. We evaluate the presented approach on the Princeton segmentation benchmark and show that joint shape segmentation significantly outperforms single-shape segmentation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  20. Direct Posterior Bipolar Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Rhizotomy: A Simpler and Safer Approach to Denervate the Facet Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palea, Ovidiu; Andar, Haroon M; Lugo, Ramon; Granville, Michelle; Jacobson, Robert E

    2018-03-14

    Radiofrequency cervical rhizotomy has been shown to be effective for the relief of chronic neck pain, whether it be due to soft tissue injury, cervical spondylosis, or post-cervical spine surgery. The target and technique have traditionally been taught using an oblique approach to the anterior lateral capsule of the cervical facet joint. The goal is to position the electrode at the proximal location of the recurrent branch after it leaves the exiting nerve root and loops back to the cervical facet joint. The standard oblique approach to the recurrent nerve requires the testing of both motor and sensory components to verify the correct position and ensure safety so as to not damage the slightly more anterior nerve root. Bilateral lesions require the repositioning of the patient's neck. Poorly positioned electrodes can also pass anteriorly and contact the nerve root or vertebral artery. The direct posterior approach presented allows electrode positioning over a broader expanse of the facet joint without risk to the nerve root or vertebral artery. Over a four-year period, direct posterior radiofrequency ablation was performed under fluoroscopic guidance at multiple levels without neuro-stimulation testing with zero procedural neurologic events even as high as the C2 spinal segment. The direct posterior approach allows either unipolar or bipolar lesioning at multiple levels. Making a radiofrequency lesion along the larger posterior area of the facet capsule is as effective as the traditional target point closer to the nerve root but technically easier, allowing bilateral access and safety. The article will review the anatomy and innervation of the cervical facet joint and capsule, showing the diffuse nerve supply extending into the capsule of the facet joint that is more extensive than the recurrent medial sensory branches that have been the focus of radiofrequency lesioning.