WorldWideScience

Sample records for upper stage program

  1. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  2. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  3. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  4. Stir Friction Welding Used in Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  5. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  6. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for studying the performance of Naflex pressure-assisted seals in the Ares-I Upper Stage liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover seal joint are explored. To assess the feasibility of using the identical seal design for the Upper Stage as was used for the Space Shuttle External Tank manhole covers, a preliminary seal deflection analysis using the ABAQUS commercial finite element software is employed. The ABAQUS analyses are performed using three-dimensional symmetric wedge finite element models. This analysis technique is validated by first modeling a heritage External Tank liquid hydrogen tank manhole cover joint and correlating the results to heritage test data. Once the technique is validated, the Upper Stage configuration is modeled. The Upper Stage analyses are performed at 1.4 times the expected pressure to comply with the Constellation Program factor of safety requirement on joint separation. Results from the analyses performed with the External Tank and Upper Stage models demonstrate the effects of several modeling assumptions on the seal deflection. The analyses for Upper Stage show that the integrity of the seal is successfully maintained.

  7. Parachute systems for the atmospheric reentry of launcher upper stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DOBRESCU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Parachute systems can be used to control the reentry trajectory of launcher upper stages, in order to lower the risks to the population or facilitate the retrieval of the stage. Several types of parachutes deployed at subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic speeds are analyzed, modeled as single and multistage systems. The performance of deceleration parachutes depends on their drag area and deployment conditions, while gliding parachutes are configured to achieve stable flight with a high glide ratio. Gliding parachutes can be autonomously guided to a low risk landing area. Sizing the canopy is shown to be an effective method to reduce parachute sensitivity to wind. The reentry trajectory of a launcher upper stage is simulated for each parachute system configuration and the results are compared to the nominal reentry case.

  8. Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with End -Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahani S.T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to define the prevalence of the upper Gastrointestinal (GI lesions, dyspeptic symptoms, H.pylori infection, and the impact of duration of dialysis on upper GI symptoms and lesions of children with End-stage renal disease. We studied 69 children with ESRD who were under regular hemodialysis therapy in our department. The age of the patients were between 4-18 years (mean: 11.3. 57(82.6% of 69 patients had GI symptoms and 12(17.4% were symptom free, the prevalence of each symptom in 57 symptomatic children was as follows: anorexia 48(84.2%, nausea/vomiting 39 (68.4%, belching/heartburn 20(35%, abdominal distention 15(26.3%, and epigastric pain 8(14%. 65(92.4% of 69 patients with ESRD had pathologic lesions and the most common lesion was gastritis .There was no case of gastric angiodysplasia in our patients. 15(21.7% of 69 patients had H. pylori infection. The prevalence of H.pylori infection in non-uremic children with upper GI symptoms is about 27% in our pediatric gastroenterology department, so there was no significant difference in prevalence of H.pylori infection between uremic and non-uremic children in our study (p value = 0.4735. There was no significant relationship between duration of dialysis and dyspeptic symptoms or upper GI lesions (p values were 0.8775 and 0.7435, respectively. Conclusions: Upper GI disorders are very common in children with ESRD, even when they have no upper GI symptoms, the most common lesion is gastritis. The prevalence of H.pylori infection is not different between children with ESRD and non-uremic children with upper GI symptoms, and duration of hemodialysis therapy has no significant effect on prevalence of GI symptoms and lesions.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  10. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Youbin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the petrological study, according to single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method, the quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage of the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied. The Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks; in addition, clastic and siliceous rocks occur with rare coals and pyroclastic rocks. Lithofacies can be divided into five types, including clastic rock assemblage, clastic rock–limestone assemblage, limestone assemblage, limestone–siliceous rock assemblage, and siliceous rock–clastic rock assemblage. Four fundamental ecological types and five fossil assemblages were recognized in the Changxing Stage. On the basis of the petrological and palaeoecological study, eight single factors were chosen including thickness, content of marine rocks, content of shallow water carbonate rocks, content of bioclasts with limemud matrix, content of bioclasts with sparry cement, distribution of reefs, content of thin bedded siliceous rocks and content of deep water sedimentary rocks. And eight single factor maps and one lithofacies paleogeographic map of the Changxing Stage were compiled. Paleoenvironments from west to east include an erosional area, fluvial plain, clastic platform, carbonate platform and reefs that developed there, slope and basin, low energy organic banks, and high energy organic banks. Sedimentary environments have an obvious control on the development of the source rocks, and the excellent source rocks are developed in the Dalong Formation. Changxing Stage reservoirs should be dominated by the reef and platform surrounding the Guangyuan–Liangping Basin rim area, and is the most favorable exploration area of the reef petroleum reservoirs of the Changxing Formation.

  11. Solar thermal upper stage: Economic advantage and development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    A solar thermal upper stage (STUS) is envisioned as a propulsive concept for the future. The STUS will be used for low Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) transfer and for planetary exploration missions. The STUS offers significant performance gains over conventional chemical propulsion systems. These performance gains translate into a more economical, more efficient method of placing useful payloads in space and maximizing the benefits derived from space activity. This paper will discuss the economical advantages of an STUS compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems, the potential market for an STUS, and the recent activity in the development of an STUS. The results of this assessment combined with the performance gains, will provide a strong justification for the development of an STUS.

  12. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, President Bush gave the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a vision for Space Exploration by setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. In response to this vision, NASA started the Constellation Program, which is a new exploration launch vehicle program. The primary mission for the Constellation Program is to carry out a series of human expeditions ranging from Low Earth Orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond for the purposes of conducting human exploration of space, as specified by the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). The intent is that the information and technology developed by this program will provide the foundation for broader exploration activities as our operational experience grows. The ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) has been designated as the launch vehicle that will be developed as a "first step" to facilitate the aforementioned human expeditions. The CLV Project is broken into four major elements: First Stage, Upper Stage Engine, Upper Stage (US), and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for the design of the CLV and has the prime responsibility to design the upper stage of the vehicle. The US is the second propulsive stage of the CLV and provides CEV insertion into low Earth orbit (LEO) after separation from the First Stage of the Crew Launch Vehicle. The fully integrated Upper Stage is a mix of modified existing heritage hardware (J-2X Engine) and new development (primary structure, subsystems, and avionics). The Upper Stage assembly is a structurally stabilized cylindrical structure, which is powered by a single J-2X engine which is developed as a separate Element of the CLV. The primary structure includes the load bearing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks, a Forward Skirt, the Intertank structure, the Aft Skirt and the Thrust Structure. A Systems Tunnel, which carries fluid and

  13. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-01

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented

  14. Risk Assessment Challenges in the Ares I Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, James E.; Ring, Robert W.; Elrada, Hassan A.; Hark, Frank

    2007-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently at work developing hardware and systems for the Ares I rocket that will send future astronauts into orbit. Built on cutting-edge launch technologies, evolved powerful Apollo and Space Shuttle propulsion elements, and decades of NASA spaceflight experience, Ares I is the essential core of a safe, reliable, cost-effective space transportation system -- one that will carry crewed missions back to the moon, on to Mars and out into the solar system. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the vehicle's primary mission -carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit --Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to "park" payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Crew transportation to the International Space Station is planned to begin no later than 2014. The first lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe. This paper presents the challenges in designing the Ares I upper stage for reliability and safety while minimizing weight and maximizing performance.

  15. Assessment and Verification of SLS Block 1-B Exploration Upper Stage and Stage Disposal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Sean; Oliver, T. Emerson; Anzalone, Evan J.

    2018-01-01

    Delta-v allocation to correct for insertion errors caused by state uncertainty is one of the key performance requirements imposed on the SLS Navigation System. Additionally, SLS mission requirements include the need for the Exploration Up-per Stage (EUS) to be disposed of successfully. To assess these requirements, the SLS navigation team has developed and implemented a series of analysis methods. Here the authors detail the Delta-Delta-V approach to assessing delta-v allocation as well as the EUS disposal optimization approach.

  16. Seal Analysis for the Ares-I Upper Stage Fuel Tank Manhole Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dawn R.; Wingate, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Naflex seals have long history of use in launch vehicle components, including Saturn stages and Space Shuttle External Tank. Ares-I Upper Stage tank pressures are higher than ET pressures, requiring performance verification of heritage seal design in new manhole cover configurations. Heritage external tank analyses are reviewed for potential application to Upper Stage.

  17. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  18. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  19. High Performance Hybrid Upper Stage for NanoLaunch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parabilis Space Technologies, Inc. (Parabilis), in collaboration with Utah State University (USU), proposes a low cost, high performance launch vehicle upper stage...

  20. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  1. Assessment and Verification of SLS Block 1-B Exploration Upper Stage State and Stage Disposal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Sean; Oliver, Emerson

    2018-01-01

    One of the SLS Navigation System's key performance requirements is a constraint on the payload system's delta-v allocation to correct for insertion errors due to vehicle state uncertainty at payload separation. The SLS navigation team has developed a Delta-Delta-V analysis approach to assess the effect on trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) design needed to correct for navigation errors. This approach differs from traditional covariance analysis based methods and makes no assumptions with regard to the propagation of the state dynamics. This allows for consideration of non-linearity in the propagation of state uncertainties. The Delta-Delta-V analysis approach re-optimizes perturbed SLS mission trajectories by varying key mission states in accordance with an assumed state error. The state error is developed from detailed vehicle 6-DOF Monte Carlo analysis or generated using covariance analysis. These perturbed trajectories are compared to a nominal trajectory to determine necessary TCM design. To implement this analysis approach, a tool set was developed which combines the functionality of a 3-DOF trajectory optimization tool, Copernicus, and a detailed 6-DOF vehicle simulation tool, Marshall Aerospace Vehicle Representation in C (MAVERIC). In addition to delta-v allocation constraints on SLS navigation performance, SLS mission requirement dictate successful upper stage disposal. Due to engine and propellant constraints, the SLS Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) must dispose into heliocentric space by means of a lunar fly-by maneuver. As with payload delta-v allocation, upper stage disposal maneuvers must place the EUS on a trajectory that maximizes the probability of achieving a heliocentric orbit post Lunar fly-by considering all sources of vehicle state uncertainty prior to the maneuver. To ensure disposal, the SLS navigation team has developed an analysis approach to derive optimal disposal guidance targets. This approach maximizes the state error covariance prior

  2. Physics Identity Development: A Snapshot of the Stages of Development of Upper-Level Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students a phenomenographic research method is employed to assess the stages of identity development of a group of upper-level students. Three categories of description were discovered which indicate the three different stages of identity development for this group…

  3. Characterization of the 2012-044C BRIZ-M Upper Stage Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, M. J.; Hamilton, J.; Horstman, M.; Papanyan, V.

    2013-08-01

    On 6 August 2012, Russia launched two commercial satellites aboard a Proton rocket, and attempted to place them in geosynchronous orbit using a Briz-M upper stage (2012-044C, SSN 38746). Unfortunately, the upper stage failed early in its burn and was left stranded in an elliptical orbit with a perigee in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because the stage failed with much of its fuel on board, it was deemed a significant breakup risk. These fears were confirmed when it broke up 16 October, creating a large cloud of debris with perigees below that of the International Space Station. The debris cloud was tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN), which can reliably detect and track objects down to about 10 cm in size. Because of the unusual geometry of the breakup, there was an opportunity for the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office to use specialized radar assets to characterize the extent of the debris cloud in sizes smaller than the standard debris tracked by the SSN. This paper describes the observation campaign to measure the small particle distributions of this cloud and presents the results of the data analysis. We shall compare the data to the modelled size distribution, number, and shape of the cloud, and what implications this may have for future breakup debris models. We shall conclude the paper with a discussion about how this measurement process can be improved for future breakups.

  4. Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

  5. Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

  6. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agency-wide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  7. Aluminum 2195 T8 Gore Development for Space Launch System Core and Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Gores are pie-shaped panels that are welded together to form the dome ends of rocket fuel tanks as shown in figure 1. Replacing aluminum alloy 2219 with aluminum (Al)-lithium (Li) alloy 2195 as the Space Launch System (SLS) cryogenic tank material would save enormous amounts of weight. In fact, it has been calculated that simply replacing Al 2219 gores with Al 2195 gores on the SLS core stage domes could save approximately 3,800 pound-mass. This is because the Al-Li 2195 alloy exhibits both higher mechanical properties and lower density than the SLS baseline Al 2219 alloy. Indeed, the known advantages of Al 2195 led to its use as a replacement for Al 2219 in the shuttle external tank program. The required thicknesses of Al 2195 gores for either SLS core stage tanks or upper stage tanks will depend on the specific design configurations. The required thicknesses or widths may exceed the current experience base in the manufacture of such gores by the stretch-forming process. Accordingly, the primary objective of this project was to enhance the formability of Al 2195 by optimizing the heat treatment and stretch-forming process for gore thicknesses up to 0.75 inches, which envelop the maximum expected gore thicknesses for SLS tank configurations.

  8. Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program, Image Processing Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillesand, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a series of technical guidelines by which land cover information is being extracted from Landsat Thematic Mapper data as part of the Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program (UMGAP...

  9. Laparoscopic ultrasonography--a method for staging of upper gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup Scheel-Hincke, J; Mortensen, M B; Pless, T

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) is a method that can be useful in the staging of upper gastrointestinal cancer. Dedicated transducers are available, and preliminary studies have proposed indications for the use of LUS staging of hepatic, esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer disease. In t...

  10. Waterhammer modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System cold flow development test article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides in-flight three-axis attitude control for the Ares I Upper Stage. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in 2009 were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined the waterhammer pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  11. Treatment of upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage with personal stage nutrition support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Zhi-Su Liu; Qun Qian; Quan Sun; Ding-Yu Pan; Yue-Ming He

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of treatment for upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage with personal stage nutrition support.METHODS: Forty-three patients with upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in group A were treated with personal stage nutrition support and patients in group B were treated with total parental nutrition (TPN) in combination with operation.Nutritional states of the candidates were evaluated by detecting albumin (Alb) and pre-Alb. The balance between nutrition and hepatic function was evaluated by measurement of aspartate aminotransferase (AST),alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (Tbill) before and after operation. At the same time their complications and hospitalized time were surveyed.RESULTS: Personal stage nutrition support improved upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage. The nutrition state and hepatic function were better in patients who received personal stage nutrition support than in those who did not receive TPN. There was no significant difference in the complication and hospitalized time in the two groups of patients.CONCLUSION: Upper gastrointestinal fistula and leakage can be treated with personal stage nutrition support which is more beneficial for the post-operation recovery and more economic than surgical operation.

  12. Testing of Selective Laser Melting Turbomachinery Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Marty; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task is to design, fabricate, and spin test to failure a Ti6-4 hydrogen turbopump impeller that was built using the selective laser melting (SLM) fabrication process (fig. 1). The impeller is sized around upper stage engine requirements. In addition to the spin burst test, material testing will be performed on coupons that are built with the impeller.

  13. Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

  14. Decomposition and (importance) sampling techniques for multi-stage stochastic linear programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infanger, G.

    1993-11-01

    The difficulty of solving large-scale multi-stage stochastic linear programs arises from the sheer number of scenarios associated with numerous stochastic parameters. The number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of stages and problems get easily out of hand even for very moderate numbers of stochastic parameters per stage. Our method combines dual (Benders) decomposition with Monte Carlo sampling techniques. We employ importance sampling to efficiently obtain accurate estimates of both expected future costs and gradients and right-hand sides of cuts. The method enables us to solve practical large-scale problems with many stages and numerous stochastic parameters per stage. We discuss the theory of sharing and adjusting cuts between different scenarios in a stage. We derive probabilistic lower and upper bounds, where we use importance path sampling for the upper bound estimation. Initial numerical results turned out to be promising.

  15. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

  16. SLS Block 1-B and Exploration Upper Stage Navigation System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Park, Thomas B.; Smith, Austin; Anzalone, Evan; Bernard, Bill; Strickland, Dennis; Geohagan, Kevin; Green, Melissa; Leggett, Jarred

    2018-01-01

    The SLS Block 1B vehicle is planned to extend NASA's heavy lift capability beyond the initial SLS Block 1 vehicle. The most noticeable change for this vehicle from SLS Block 1 is the swapping of the upper stage from the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion stage (ICPS), a modified Delta IV upper stage, to the more capable Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). As the vehicle evolves to provide greater lift capability and execute more demanding missions so must the SLS Integrated Navigation System to support those missions. The SLS Block 1 vehicle carries two independent navigation systems. The responsibility of the two systems is delineated between ascent and upper stage flight. The Block 1 navigation system is responsible for the phase of flight between the launch pad and insertion into Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). The upper stage system assumes the mission from LEO to payload separation. For the Block 1B vehicle, the two functions are combined into a single system intended to navigate from ground to payload insertion. Both are responsible for self-disposal once payload delivery is achieved. The evolution of the navigation hardware and algorithms from an inertial-only navigation system for Block 1 ascent flight to a tightly coupled GPS-aided inertial navigation system for Block 1-B is described. The Block 1 GN&C system has been designed to meet a LEO insertion target with a specified accuracy. The Block 1-B vehicle navigation system is designed to support the Block 1 LEO target accuracy as well as trans-lunar or trans-planetary injection accuracy. This is measured in terms of payload impact and stage disposal requirements. Additionally, the Block 1-B vehicle is designed to support human exploration and thus is designed to minimize the probability of Loss of Crew (LOC) through high-quality inertial instruments and Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) logic. The preliminary Block 1B integrated navigation system design is presented along with the challenges associated with

  17. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  18. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  19. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  20. Mobile game-based virtual reality rehabilitation program for upper limb dysfunction after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Ku, Jeonghun; Lim, Hyunmi; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2016-05-02

    Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to provide intensive, repetitive, and task-oriented training, and game-based therapy can enhance patients' motivation and enjoyment. The objective of the present study was to develop a mobile game-based upper extremity VR program for patients who have experienced stroke, and to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the program. This randomized, double-blind, controlled trial included 24 patients with ischemic stroke. The intervention group (n = 12) received 30 min of conventional occupational therapy (OT) and 30 min of the mobile upper extremity rehabilitation program using a smartphone and a tablet PC (MoU-Rehab). The controls (n = 12) received conventional OT alone for 1 h per day. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 sessions of therapy, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks. The outcome measures (Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity [FMA-UE], Brunnström stage [B-stage] for the arm and the hand, manual muscle testing [MMT], modified Barthel index [MBI], EuroQol-5 Dimension [EQ-5D], and Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) were assessed at the beginning and end of treatment, and at 1 month. User satisfaction was evaluated by a questionnaire. A greater improvement in the FMA-UE, B-stage, and MMT was found after treatment with the MoU-Rehab than with conventional therapy. The extent of improvements in the MBI, EQ-5D, and BDI was not significantly different between the two groups. Patients in the experimental group completed the 2-weeks treatment without adverse effects, and they were generally satisfied with MoU-Rehab. This mobile game-based VR rehabilitation program appears to be feasible and effective for promoting upper limb recovery after ischemic stroke.

  1. ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhls, A.

    2002-01-01

    -A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the

  2. Deorbiting Upper-Stages in LEO at EOM using Solar Sails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru IONEL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the possibility of deorbiting a launch vehicle upper-stage at end-of-mission from low Earth orbit through the use of a solar sail. Different solar sail sizes are taken into account. The analysis is made via a MATLAB numerical simulation, integrating with the ode45 solver the accelerations arising from geopotential, atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure. Direct solar pressure and drag augmentation effect are analyzed and a state of the art study in the solar sail research field is performed for a better grasp of the feasibility of the device implementation.

  3. Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

  4. Improving the performance of LOX/kerosene upper stage rocket engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IgorN. Nikischenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Improved liquid rocket engine cycles were proposed and analyzed via comparison with existing staged combustion and gas-generator cycles. The key features of the proposed cycles are regenerative cooling of thrust chamber by oxygen and subsequent use of this oxygen for driving one or two oxygen pumps. The fuel pump(s are driven in a conventional manner, for example, using a fuel-rich gas-generator cycle. Comparison with staged combustion cycle based on oxygen-rich pre-burner showed that one of the proposed semi-expander cycles has a specific impulse only on 0.4% lower while providing much lower oxygen temperature, more efficient tank pressurizing system and built-in roll control. This semi-expander cycle can be considered as a more reliable and cost-effective alternative of staged combustion cycle. Another semi-expander cycle can be considered as an improvement of gas-generator cycle. All proposed semi-expander cycles were developed as a derivative of thrust chamber regenerative cooling performed by oxygen. Analysis of existing oxygen/kerosene engines showed that replacing of kerosene regenerative cooling with oxygen allows a significant increase of achievable specific impulse, via optimization of mixture ratio. It is especially the case for upper stage engines. The increasing of propellants average density can be considered as an additional benefit of mixture ratio optimization. It was demonstrated that oxygen regenerative cooling of thrust chamber is a feasible and the most promising option for oxygen/kerosene engines. Combination of oxygen regenerative cooling and semi-expander cycles potentially allows creating the oxygen/kerosene propulsion systems with minimum specific impulse losses. It is important that such propulsion systems can be fully based on inherited and well-proven technical solutions. A hypothetic upper stage engine with thrust 19.6 kN was chosen as a prospective candidate for theoretical analysis of the proposed semi

  5. Thrust Vector Control of an Upper-Stage Rocket with Multiple Propellant Slosh Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rubio Hervas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with propellant slosh dynamics is considered. The control inputs are defined by the gimbal deflection angle of a main engine and a pitching moment about the center of mass of the spacecraft. The rocket acceleration due to the main engine thrust is assumed to be large enough so that surface tension forces do not significantly affect the propellant motion during main engine burns. A multi-mass-spring model of the sloshing fuel is introduced to represent the prominent sloshing modes. A nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while suppressing the sloshing modes. The effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through a simulation example.

  6. Inventory of uranium resources potency at Kawat area, upper Mahakam, East Kalimantan detailed prospecting stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; I Gde Sukadana; Adi Gunawan Muhammad; Suripto

    2011-01-01

    Result of the general prospecting in East Kalimantan has found several radioactivity outcrop anomalies at upper Mahakam in the acid volcanic rock area which is approximately 25 km 2 in wide. The objective of the research is to know detailed geological information and characteristic of uranium mineralization. Method of this research are detailed geological, radiometric and geochemical mapping 1:10.000 on scale. The lithology of Kawat area is composed of seven units of rock. They are black clay unit, feldspatic sandstone unit, Nyaan rhyolite unit, lower andesite unit, Kawat rhyolite unit, upper andesite unit and tuffaceous sandstone unit. Evolving fault is dextral fault and normal fault. The trending of dextral fault is west-east and southwest-northeast, meanwhile the trending of normal faults is west-east and southwest northeast. There are two period of uranium mineralization occurrences in the area, the first is connected with the eruption of Nyaan rhyolite magma and the second is connected with the eruption of Kawat rhyolite magma. Uranium mineralization occurred in the stage of hydrothermal process and including in the pneumatogenic class of volcanogenic uranium deposits. This investigation has yielded two sites of potential uranium sector are the Nyaan sector with an area of about 6 km 2 and Kawat sector with an area of about 10 km 2 . (author)

  7. Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

    The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

  8. Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2014-10-14

    To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT.

  9. Mortgage Loan Portfolio Optimization Using Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the Danish mortgage loan system and propose several models to reflect the choices of a mortgagor as well as his attitude towards risk. The models are formulated as multi stage stochastic integer programs, which are difficult to solve for more than 10 stages. Scenario...

  10. Hot-Fire Test of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Space Launch Mission Injector Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Greg; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task is to hot-fire test an existing Space Launch Mission (SLM) injector that is applicable for all expander cycle engines being considered for the exploration upper stage. The work leverages investment made in FY 2013 that was used to additively manufacture three injectors (fig. 1) all by different vendors..

  11. 77 FR 23193 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ..., 413, and 495 [CMS-0044-CN] RIN 0938-AQ84 Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record... proposed rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage... (77 FR 13698), the proposed rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record...

  12. Reduced upper obstructions in N3 and increased lower obstructions in REM sleep stage detected with manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Markus; Schramm, Juliane; Bautz, Maximilian; Hofauer, Benedikt; Edenharter, Günther; Ott, Armin; Heiser, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), airway obstruction occurs at different anatomic levels. The frequency and location of obstructions play a crucial role in the planning of surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharyngeal obstruction levels in different sleep stages with manometry in OSA patients. In addition, the manometry results were compared with drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). Forty-one patients with OSA received manometry measurements during one night of sleep. All patients were simultaneously evaluated with polysomnography. The frequency of obstructions in different sleep stages was assessed. Twenty patients were additionally studied with DISE. Obstruction levels detected with manometry were compared with DISE. The frequency of upper and to a lesser extent lower obstructions decreased in sleep stage N3. In rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, lower obstructions increased. The overall proportion of upper and lower obstructions detected with manometry corresponded with DISE in 13 of 20 cases. A significant change in the obstruction levels was detected with manometry in N3 and REM sleep. The reduction of both upper and to a lesser extent lower obstructions in N3 suggests more stable airways in slow-wave sleep. Relevant lower obstructions were not detected in DISE compared to manometry in 5 out of 20 examinations. This could be a potential reason for treatment failure of site-specific surgical OSA treatment when only performing DISE preoperatively. Therefore, manometry could be a useful complementary tool in the preoperative evaluation for OSA.

  13. Programmed Death-ligand 1 Expression in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Stephanie L; Liu, Tzu-Ying; Udager, Aaron M; Weizer, Alon Z; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Siddiqui, Javed; Cao, Xuhong; Fields, Kristina; Abugharib, Ahmed E; Soliman, Moaaz; Hafez, Khaled S; Miller, David; Lee, Cheryl T; Alva, Ajjai; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Morgan, Todd M; Spratt, Daniel E; Jiang, Hui; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-10-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Upper tract (renal pelvis and ureter) urothelial carcinomas (UTUC) account for approximately 5% of UCs but a significant subset are invasive and associated with poor clinical outcomes. To evaluate programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in UTUC. UTUC cases from 1997-2016 were retrospectively identified from the surgical pathology database at a single large academic institution. The cohort included 149 cases: 27 low-grade and 24 high-grade pathologic T (pT)a, 29 pT1, 23 pT2, 38 pT3, and eight pT4. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on representative whole tumor sections using anti-PD-L1 primary antibody clone 5H1. PD-L1 expression was evaluated using a previously established cut-off for positivity (≥ 5% membranous staining). Association between PD-L1 IHC expression and clinicopathologic parameters was examined with Fisher's exact test; the effect of PD-L1 expression on cancer-specific mortality was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Approximately one-third (32.7%) of invasive primary UTUC and 23.5% of all primary UTUC (invasive and noninvasive tumors) demonstrated positive PD-L1 expression. Positive PD-L1 expression was associated with high histologic grade, high pathologic stage, and angiolymphatic invasion. Cancer-specific survival was not significantly associated with positive PD-L1 expression using a 5% cut-off. Study limitations include the retrospective nature and the fact that PD-L1 expression by IHC is an imperfect surrogate for response to therapy. Positive PD-L1 expression in approximately one-third of primary invasive UTUC and association with high-risk clinicopathologic features provide a rational basis for further investigation of PD-L1-based immunotherapeutics in these patients. Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is often associated with poor clinical outcome. While current treatment options for advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma are

  14. ARIANE 5 upper-stage ignition conditions improvement, and return to operation with ''Envisat'' payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, J. Ph.; Langel, G.

    2003-08-01

    ARIANE 5 experienced a flight anomaly with the 10 th model mission (F 510), having placed its both satellites in a lower orbit than the planned GTO. Only one satellite (Artemis) could be retrieved due to its own propulsion systems. Arianespace, CNES and Astrium-GmbH (former DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Dasa) immediately set up a recovery team, combining forces for carrying deep and schedule-driven investigations, and later qualifying recovery measures. A failure in such an important program: is immediately triggering a large "post-shock" reaction from the ARIANE community implied in the relevant business and technology. The investigation fields are summarised in the following chapters, showing how failure analysis, engineering investigations and basic research have been combined in order to have a schedule and methodic efficient approach. The combination of all available European resources in space vehicle design has been implemented, involving industry, agency technical centers and research laboratories. The investigation methodology applied has been driven by the particular situation of a flight anomaly investigation, which has to take into account the reduced amount of measurement available in flight and the necessary combination with ground test data for building a strategy to reach identification of possible failure scenario. From the investigations and from extensive sensitivity characterisation test of EPS engine (AESTUS) ignition transient, stability margins have been deeply investigated and introduced in the post-anomaly upgraded stage design. The identification and implementation of recovery measures, extended as well to - potential ignition margin reduction factors even beyond the observed flight anomaly allowed to establish a robust complementary qualification status, thus allowing resuming of operational flight, starting with the valuable "Envisat" payload of European Space Agency, dedicated to earth and climate monitoring, on flight 511, the 28

  15. A Mathematical Sciences Program at an Upper-Division Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.

    1978-01-01

    The conception, objectives, contents, and limitations of a degree program in the mathematical sciences at Pennsylvania State University, Capitol Campus, are discussed. Career goals that may be pursued include: managerial, science, education, actuarial, and computer. (MP)

  16. Operations analysis (study 2.1). Program SEPSIM (solar electric propulsion stage simulation). [in FORTRAN: space tug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    Program SEPSIM is a FORTRAN program which performs deployment, servicing, and retrieval missions to synchronous equatorial orbit using a space tug with a continuous low thrust upper stage known as a solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS). The SEPS ferries payloads back and forth between an intermediate orbit and synchronous orbit, and performs the necessary servicing maneuvers in synchronous orbit. The tug carries payloads between the orbiter and the intermediate orbit, deploys fully fueled SEPS vehicles, and retrieves exhausted SEPS vehicles when, and if, required. The program is presently contained in subroutine form in the Logistical On-orbit VEhicle Servicing (LOVES) Program, but can also be run independently with the addition of a simple driver program.

  17. Multiobjective Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Problems with Interval Discrete Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Barik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the real-life decision-making problems have more than one conflicting and incommensurable objective functions. In this paper, we present a multiobjective two-stage stochastic linear programming problem considering some parameters of the linear constraints as interval type discrete random variables with known probability distribution. Randomness of the discrete intervals are considered for the model parameters. Further, the concepts of best optimum and worst optimum solution are analyzed in two-stage stochastic programming. To solve the stated problem, first we remove the randomness of the problem and formulate an equivalent deterministic linear programming model with multiobjective interval coefficients. Then the deterministic multiobjective model is solved using weighting method, where we apply the solution procedure of interval linear programming technique. We obtain the upper and lower bound of the objective function as the best and the worst value, respectively. It highlights the possible risk involved in the decision-making tool. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed solution procedure.

  18. The pattern of relapse and survival of elective irradiation of the upper neck for stage N0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiayun; Pan, Ziqiang; Guo, Xiaomao; Ye, Ming; Zhang, Zhen; He, Shaoqin; Liu, Taifu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate patterns of failure and survival rates of elective irradiation of upper neck in N0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. From February 1996 to November 2002, 97 patients without cervical lymph node involvement were admitted for radiotherapy alone. Before treatment, each patient underwent enhanced CT of nasopharynx and neck. All patients received radiotherapy to the nasopharynx, skull base, and upper neck drainage areas (including levels II, III, and VA). The upper neck was irradiated to a total dose of 50-56 Gy/25-28 fractions/5-5.6 weeks. For the primary tumor, 22 patients used conventional fractionation for a total dose of 70 Gy/35 fractions/7 weeks, and 75 patients used an accelerated hyperfractionationated schedule for a total dose of 78 Gy/60 fractions/6 weeks. The median follow-up of these 97 patients was 7.75 years. 10 patients had recurrences in the nasopharynx, 8 had distant metastasis, and 5 had recurrences in the cervical lymph nodes. Among the cervical lymph node failures, the areas of recurrence were in the II drainage areas in 4 patients who had neck dissections afterwards, and in IA drainage areas in 1 patient who also had recurrence in the nasopharynx. The causes of death were recurrence in the nasopharynx for 8 patients, 1 of these also had recurrence in the neck, distant metastases in 8 patients, and non-neoplastic diseases in 3 patients. The causes of failure of N0 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy alone to the nasopharynx and upper neck were nasopharyngeal recurrence, distant metastasis, and cervical recurrence in order of frequency. Elective irradiation of upper neck (II, III, VA) is advised for stage N0 patients diagnosed by enhanced CT of neck. Cervical recurrence alone is rare, which did not greatly affect the long-term survival after salvage neck dissection

  19. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints.

  20. THE LATE STAGES OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK EVOLUTION: A MILLIMETER SURVEY OF UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Ménard, Francois; Duchêne, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Phillips, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to ∼4 × 10 –3 M Jup of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 × 10 –3 to 1.0 × 10 –1 M Jup . The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and Hα measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mixing in Upper Annular Space of SMART during Early Stage of non-LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Kim, Keung Koo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing a passive safety injection system (PSIS) to supply cold borated water into a reactor coolant system (RCS) without any operator actions or AC power under the occurrence of postulated design basis accidents. The PSIS consists of four independent trains, each of which is furnished with a gravity drained core makeup tank (CMT) and a safety injection tank (SIT). The CMT is designed to provide makeup and boration functions to the RCS during the early stage of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and a non-LOCA. In this paper, we investigate numerically the fluid mixing characteristics in the upper annular space of SMART, especially when single-phase natural circulation is formed between the CMT and RCS following a non-LOCA such as a main steam line break. In this paper, the fluid mixing characteristics in the upper annular space of SMART are investigated numerically when single-phase natural circulation is formed between the RCS and CMT during the early stage of a non-LOCA.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mixing in Upper Annular Space of SMART during Early Stage of non-LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing a passive safety injection system (PSIS) to supply cold borated water into a reactor coolant system (RCS) without any operator actions or AC power under the occurrence of postulated design basis accidents. The PSIS consists of four independent trains, each of which is furnished with a gravity drained core makeup tank (CMT) and a safety injection tank (SIT). The CMT is designed to provide makeup and boration functions to the RCS during the early stage of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and a non-LOCA. In this paper, we investigate numerically the fluid mixing characteristics in the upper annular space of SMART, especially when single-phase natural circulation is formed between the CMT and RCS following a non-LOCA such as a main steam line break. In this paper, the fluid mixing characteristics in the upper annular space of SMART are investigated numerically when single-phase natural circulation is formed between the RCS and CMT during the early stage of a non-LOCA

  3. Design and Evaluation of Dual-Expander Aerospike Nozzle Upper Stage Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    42 to develop an engine for use in Single-Stage-to-Orbit launch vehicles. The DF/DX cycle utilizes a dense hydrocarbon fuel, such as RP-1, and liquid...materials selection trade studies, the third generation DEAN material list was filtered to eliminate extraneous material options. This filtering ...to limit the amount of ceramic material required to manufacture the DEAN. The material lists for the aerospike structural jacket and aerospike tip

  4. Groundwater Discharge to Upper Barataria Basin Driven by Mississippi River Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J. E.; Kim, J.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kolker, A.; Telfeyan, K.; Breaux, A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater flow into deltaic wetlands occurs despite the heterogeneous and anisotropic depositional environment of deltas. Along the Mississippi River this groundwater flow is augmented by the vast alluvial aquifer and the levees which confine the river to a zone much more narrow than the historical floodplain. The effect of the levees has been to force the river stage to as much as 10 m above the adjacent back-levee wetlands. Consequently, the head difference created by higher river stages can drive groundwater flow into these wetlands, especially during flood seasons. We measured Rn-222 in the surface waters of a bayou draining a bottomland hardwood swamp in the lower Mississippi River valley over a 14-month period. With a half-life of 3.83 days and its conservative geochemical behavior, Rn-222 is a well-known tracer for groundwater inputs in both fresh and marine environments. Transects from the mouth to the headwaters of the bayou were monitored for Rn-222 in real-time using Rad-7s on a semi-monthly basis. We found that Rn-222 decreased exponentially from the swamp at the headwaters to the mouth of the bayou. Using a mass balance approach, we calculated groundwater inputs to the bayou headwaters and compared these discharge estimates to variations in Mississippi River stage. Groundwater inputs to the Barataria Basin, Louisiana, represent a significant fraction of the freshwater budget of the basin. The flow appears to occur through the sandy Point Bar Aquifer that lies adjacent to the river and underlies many of the freshwater swamps of the Basin. Tracer measurements throughout the Basin in these swamp areas appear to confirm our hypothesis about the outlet for groundwater in this deltaic environment.

  5. Upper atmosphere research satellite program. [to study the chemistry energetics, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite program to conduct research on the chemistry, energetics, and dynamics of the upper atmosphere was developed. The scientific goals of the Upper Atmospheric Research Program, the program requirements, and the approach toward meeting those requirements are outlined. An initial series of two overlapping spacecraft missions is described. Both spacecraft are launched and recovered by the STS, one in the winter of 1983 at a 56 deg inclination, and the other a year later at a 70 deg inclination. The duration of each mission is 18 months, and each carries instruments to make global measurements of the temperature, winds, composition, irradation, and radiance in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere between the tropopause and 120 km altitude. The program requires a dedicated ground-based data system and a science team organization that leads to a strong interaction between the experiments and theory. The program includes supportive observations from other platforms such as rockets, balloons, and the Spacelab.

  6. Home programs for upper extremity recovery post-stroke: a survey of occupational therapy practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso Brown, Elena V; Fichter, Renae

    2017-12-01

    Upper extremity hemiparesis is an impairment post-stroke that impacts quality of life. Home programs are an intervention strategy used by many occupational therapists to support continued motor recovery post-stroke, yet little is known about how these programs are designed and implemented. The purpose of this study was to describe how occupational therapy practitioners approach this task and specifically what strategies they use to support adherence and what types of technology are most commonly used. An on-line survey methodology was used. Participants were recruited through multiple sources including state associations and occupational therapy educational program directors. A total of 73 occupational therapy practitioners submitted complete surveys. It was found that majority of occupational therapy practitioners in the sample (n = 53) reported creating home programs focused on upper extremity motor recovery more than 80% of the time. Range of motion and strengthening were reported as being in the top three most commonly used interventions by more than half the sample, however incorporating clients' goals and interests were reported most often as strategies to create meaning in the home program. Respondents also reported limited incorporation of technology and strategies to support adherence. Personal motivation was reported by occupational therapy practitioners to be a key moderator of adherence to a home program. Occupational therapy practitioners often provide home programs for individuals post-stroke focusing on upper extremity function. Future research that aims to understand stakeholders' perspectives on home programs and determine effective strategies for ensuring adherence is needed.

  7. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology development, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our chemical and physical understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Research Division in the Office of Earth Science at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort have also been provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and their control on the distribution of atmospheric chemical species such as ozone; assess possible perturbations to the composition of the atmosphere caused by human activities and natural phenomena (with a specific emphasis on trace gas geographical distributions, sources, and sinks and the role of trace gases in defining the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere); understand the processes affecting the distributions of radiatively active species in the atmosphere, and the importance of chemical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks on the meteorology and climatology of the stratosphere and troposphere; and understand ozone production, loss, and recovery in an atmosphere with increasing abundances of greenhouse gases. The current report is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported

  8. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Test Requirements for Launch, Upper-Stage and Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space and Missile Systems Center/Air Force Program...140 Satellite Hardness and Survivability; Testing Rationale for Electronic Upset and Burnout Effects 30. JANNAF-GL-2012-01-RO Test and Evaluation...vehicle, subsystem, and unit lev- els . Acceptance testing shall be conducted on all subsequent flight items. The protoqualification strategy shall require

  9. A Model for the Development an Upper-Division Marketing Certificate Program: Professional Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Joyce L.

    The sequential components of a model for the development of an upper-division marketing certificate program in professional sales are described in this report as they were implemented at the University of Minnesota's General College during Fall 1980. After introductory material examining the responsibilities of the professional sales…

  10. Comparing unilateral and bilateral upper limb training: the ULTRA-stroke program design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Harlaar, J.; Daffertshofer, A.; Zijp, N.I.; Nienhuys, K.; Koppe, P.; Kwakkel, G.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: About 80% of all stroke survivors have an upper limb paresis immediately after stroke, only about a third of whom (30 to 40%) regain some dexterity within six months following conventional treatment programs. Of late, however, two recently developed interventions - constraint-induced

  11. Hand Hygiene Program Decreases School Absenteeism Due to Upper Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor-Martinez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Fernández-Sánchez, Carmen; Strizzi, Jenna M.; Torres-Alegre, Pilar; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizer to prevent school absenteeism due to upper respiratory infections (URIs). Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, and open study on a sample of 1341 children 4-12 years old, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow-up. The…

  12. Numerical Study of the Working Process in the Reducing Gas Generator of the Upper Stage Oxygen - Methane Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Yagodnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of creating a reducing gas generator of the liquid rocket engine (LRE of upper stage using advanced fuel components, namely oxygen + liquid natural gas. Relevance of the work is justified by the need to create and develop of environmentally friendly missile systems for space applications using methane-based fuel (liquid natural gas. As compared to the currently used unsymmetrical dimethyl-hydrazine and kerosene, this fuel is environmentally safe, passive to corrosion, has better cooling properties and high energy characteristics in the re-generatively cooled chambers, as well as is advantageous for LRE of multiple start and use.The purpose of this work is a mathematical modeling, calculation of the working process efficiency, as well as study of gas-dynamic structure of the flow in the gas generator flow path. The object of study is the upper stage LRE gas generator, which uses the reducing scheme on the liquid propellants: oxygen + liquid methane. Research methods are based on numerical simulation.Computational studies allowed us to receive the velocity, temperatures, and concentrations of reactants and combustion products in the longitudinal section of gas generator. Analysis of the gas-dynamic structure of flow shows a complete equalization of the velocity field by 2/3 of the gas generator length. Thus, the same distance is not enough to equalize the temperature distribution of the gasification products and their concentrations in radius. Increasing the total excess oxidant ratio from 0.15 to 0.25 leads to a greater spread of the parameters at the exit of the gas generator by ~ 13 ÷ 17%. As a recommendation to reduce the size of the working area, is proposed a dual-zone gas generator-mixing scheme with fuel separately supplied to the first and second zones.

  13. Factors influencing subject selection in upper secondary education (Key Stage 4 for males and females in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Vaughan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Research to date has investigated the potential factors that influence students’ decisions in opting to study certain subjects during their upper secondary education. Trends in subject selection at this level (Key Stage 4 have been maintained over time and have consistently displayed comparable differences for males and females. It is recognised that males typically opt for subjects such as physical education and science, while females are traditionally noted as favouring the arts and humanities. These educational decisions may impact on future occupational directions. In light of recent initiatives, such as the English Baccalaureate, it is of interest to explore whether such measures have had an influence on this noted gender gap. Participants and procedure The present study investigates the potential predictors of subject selection, while controlling for gender, offering a specific focus on the education system in England. Attention is given to students’ perceived academic ability and attitude toward school, and how such factors may guide subject choice. Participants (N = 276 were students currently in the process of selecting optional modules for Key Stage 4 study. Results The findings demonstrate that female students are less likely than their male counterparts to opt for physical education (PE and business studies/information and communication technology (ICT as preferred modules, in comparison to ‘creative and performance’ subjects (reference category. Higher levels of reported masculinity were also shown to relate to the up-take of PE at Key Stage 4. Conclusions The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to existing research and practical contributions to the educational arena.

  14. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  15. Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

  16. Staging computed tomography in upper GI malignancy. A survey of the 5 cancer networks covered by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, M.P.; Bailey, D.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To identify the methods and protocols of staging CT scans performed for upper GI malignancy throughout the region covered by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire relating to the protocols used in the CT staging of upper GI cancer was circulated to all the Cancer Leads and Clinical Directors of Radiology throughout the network covered by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service (SWCIS). Information about the type of scanner, the provision of protocols and the staging of oesophageal, gastric and pancreatic carcinoma was obtained. RESULTS: Twenty one of the twenty six departments contacted responded (81%). Ninety percent of departments perform staging CT scans to a departmental protocol but these protocols vary throughout the region. Most centres have multislice CT technology and all use intravenous contrast media administered via a pump. All centres us a portal venous phase to exclude liver metastasis in all cancers. Thirty-eight to forty percent of centres use an arterial phase of enhancement when examining the oesophagus and stomach. Sixty one percent of centres use an arterial phase and seventy percent of centres use a pancreatic phase of enhancement in addition to a portal venous phase when staging pancreatic carcinoma. Addition imaging of the chest to identify disseminated disease is often performed, 100% of centres include the chest when staging oesophageal malignancy, 87% include the chest in gastric staging and 51% include this additional scan when staging pancreatic carcinoma. The staging scans were reported in 80% of centres by radiologists with a sub-speciality interest in GI malignancy. CONCLUSION: Whilst nearly all centres perform staging CT scans for upper GI malignancy to a departmental protocol there is much variability in the protocols used throughout the South West region

  17. A piano training program to improve manual dexterity and upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam eVilleneuve

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Music-supported therapy was shown to induce improvements in motor skills in stroke survivors. Whether all stroke individuals respond similarly to the intervention and whether gains can be maintained over time remain unknown. We estimated the immediate and retention effects of a piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. Methods: Thirteen stroke participants engaged in a 3-week piano training comprising of supervised sessions (9 x 60min and home practice. Fine and gross manual dexterity, movement coordination and functional use of the upper extremity were assessed at baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention and at a 3-week follow-up. Results: Significant improvements were observed for all outcomes at post-intervention and follow-up, compared to pre-intervention scores. Larger magnitudes of change in manual dexterity and functional use of the upper extremity were associated with higher initial levels of motor recovery. Conclusions: Piano training can result in sustainable improvements in upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors. Individuals with a higher initial level of motor recovery at baseline appear to benefit the most from this intervention.

  18. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  19. Approximation in two-stage stochastic integer programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Romeijnders; L. Stougie (Leen); M. van der Vlerk

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractApproximation algorithms are the prevalent solution methods in the field of stochastic programming. Problems in this field are very hard to solve. Indeed, most of the research in this field has concentrated on designing solution methods that approximate the optimal solution value.

  20. Approximation in two-stage stochastic integer programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijnders, W.; Stougie, L.; van der Vlerk, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Approximation algorithms are the prevalent solution methods in the field of stochastic programming. Problems in this field are very hard to solve. Indeed, most of the research in this field has concentrated on designing solution methods that approximate the optimal solution value. However,

  1. Comparing unilateral and bilateral upper limb training: The ULTRA-stroke program design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppe Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 80% of all stroke survivors have an upper limb paresis immediately after stroke, only about a third of whom (30 to 40% regain some dexterity within six months following conventional treatment programs. Of late, however, two recently developed interventions - constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT and bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing (BATRAC - have shown promising results in the treatment of upper limb paresis in chronic stroke patients. The ULTRA-stroke (acronym for Upper Limb TRaining After stroke program was conceived to assess the effectiveness of these interventions in subacute stroke patients and to examine how the observed changes in sensori-motor functioning relate to changes in stroke recovery mechanisms associated with peripheral stiffness, interlimb interactions, and cortical inter- and intrahemispheric networks. The present paper describes the design of this single-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT, which has recently started and will take several years to complete. Methods/Design Sixty patients with a first ever stroke will be recruited. Patients will be stratified in terms of their remaining motor ability at the distal part of the arm (i.e., wrist and finger movements and randomized over three intervention groups receiving modified CIMT, modified BATRAC, or an equally intensive (i.e., dose-matched conventional treatment program for 6 weeks. Primary outcome variable is the score on the Action Research Arm test (ARAT, which will be assessed before, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. During those test sessions all patients will also undergo measurements aimed at investigating the associated recovery mechanisms using haptic robots and magneto-encephalography (MEG. Discussion ULTRA-stroke is a 3-year translational research program which aims (1 to assess the relative effectiveness of the three interventions, on a group level but also as a function of patient

  2. DWPF Stage 2: precipitation test program at Mott

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This memorandum covers the results of the test program conducted at Mott Metallurgical to determine cross-flow filter performance on potassium/cesium tetraphenylborate (K/Cs TPB)-sodium titanate slurries. The test program was designed to provide essential basic operating data to supplement the 1000-gallon cold process tests planned at TNX and the shielded cell tests with actual waste supernate planned by Chemical Technology. The specific Mott Metallurgical test objectives are outlined in DPST-81-722. During the Mott Metallurgical test program an average filtrate flow rate of approximately 0.05 gpm/ft 2 was repeatedly demonstrated over an 8-hr run with 0.5 micron filter elements. Initial Fe/Al sludge concentrations up to 150 ppM did not affect filter performance. Rheologies of the K/Cs TPB-sodium titanate slurries up to 13% by weight, the maximum concentration achieved, are summarized. Several recommendations are made to act as a guide for optimal filter performance

  3. Experience of curing serious obstruction of advanced-stage upper digestive tract tumor using laser under endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Man-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Feng-Qiu; Kong, De-Jia; Tang, Li-Bin

    1998-11-01

    The patients who suffer from upper digestive tract tumor, such as cancer of esophagus, cancer of cardia, all have serious obstruction and fail to get nutrition and can not bear the strike of the radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In order to reduce the obstruction symptom and suffering of the patients and to prolong their life time, since 1989, our hospital used the laser to cure the upper digestive tract tumor 11 cases with serious obstruction and got remarkable curative effect.

  4. Improvement of upper limb’s condition of women with post mastectomy syndrome with the help of problem-oriented program of physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Briskin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine effectiveness of problem-oriented program of women’s physical rehabilitation with post mastectomy syndrome in improvement of upper limb’s functional state. Material: 50 women with early symptoms of post mastectomy syndrome at stationary rehabilitation stage, who underwent radical mastectomy by Madden were involved in the research. Testing of movement amplitude in shoulder joint, swelling of upper limb and muscular strength of hand’s flexors was conducted on 2 nd day after surgery and at the end of stationary rehabilitation period (12-14 th day. Results: Main means of the authors’ program were: general and special physical exercises; static and dynamic breathing exercises; breathing through preloaded lips, controlled coughing, autogenic drainage, manual pressing, manual vibration; post-isometric relaxation; elements of labor therapy; lymphatic drainage massage and self massage; topical talks; consultations; auto training. The trainings were conducted individually 2-3 times a day; 20-30 minutes every session. The patients’ independent trainings included: fulfillment of therapeutic positions, self-massage, relaxation exercises and auto-training. Conclusions: application of problem-oriented physical rehabilitation program facilitates improvement of upper limb’s functional potentials of women with post mastectomy syndrome.

  5. Development of whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis program ACT. 4. Incorporation of three-dimensional upper plenum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2003-03-01

    The thermal-hydraulic analysis computer program ACT is under development for the evaluation of detailed flow and temperature fields in a core region of fast breeder reactors under various operation conditions. The purpose of this program development is to contribute not only to clarifying thermal hydraulic characteristics that cannot be revealed by experiments due to measurement difficulty but also to performing rational safety design and assessment. This report describes the incorporation of a three-dimensional upper plenum model to ACT and its verification study as part of the program development. To treat the influence of three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in a upper plenum on the in-core temperature field, the multi-dimensional general purpose thermal-hydraulic analysis program AQUA, which was developed and validated at JNC, was applied as the base of the upper plenum analysis module of ACT. AQUA enables to model the upper plenum configuration including immersed heat exchangers of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS). In coupling core analysis module that consists of the fuel-assembly and the inter-wrapper gap calculation parts with the upper plenum module, different types of computation mesh systems were jointed using the staggered quarter assembly mesh scheme. A coupling algorithm among core, upper plenum and heat transport system modules, which can keep mass, momentum and energy conservation, was developed and optimized in consideration of parallel computing. ACT was applied to analyzing a sodium experiment (PLANDTL-DHX) performed at JNC, which simulated the natural circulation decay heat removal under DRACS operation conditions for the program verification. From the calculation result, the validity of the improved program was confirmed. (author)

  6. IMPROVING THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF RETENTION DISORDERS OF THE UPPER URINARY TRACT IN PATIENTS WITH STAGES IIB–III CANCER OF THE CERVIX UTERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study investigates the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment in patients with retention disorders upper urinary tract cervical cancer stage IIB III after more than 3 months after combined radiotherapy. In the apartment complex to the diagnosis of renal ultrasound and radioisotope study of renal excretory function added to the study ureteral emissions by color Doppler sonography. Information on ureteral emissions revealed a violation of the early passage of urine in 23.1 % of patients with renal ultrasound revealed no pathology. On the basis of violations ureteral emissions increase in the number of patients, respectively, are assigned to nonoperative treatment (anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic therapy. As a result, decreased by 14.2 % (p = 0.034, female patients, which showed drainage of the upper urinary tract.

  7. Method and simulation program informed decisions in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    variations. The program then presents the output in a way that enables designers to make informed decisions. The method and the program reduce the need for design iterations, reducing time consumption and construction costs, to obtain the intended energy performance and indoor environment....... for making informed decisions in the early stages of building design to fulfil performance requirements with regard to energy consumption and indoor environment. The method is operationalised in a program that utilises a simple simulation program to make performance predictions of user-defined parameter......The early stages of building design include a number of decisions which have a strong influence on the performance of the building throughout the rest of the process. It is therefore important that designers are aware of the consequences of these design decisions. This paper presents a method...

  8. A two-stage stochastic programming approach for operating multi-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a two-stage stochastic programming approach for joint operating multi-energy systems under uncertainty. Simulation is carried out in a test system to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed approach. The test energy system includes a gas subsystem with a gas...

  9. 78 FR 8535 - Medicare Program: Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model Announcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... develop and test innovative health care payment and service delivery models that show promise of reducing... test innovative payment and service delivery models that reduce spending under Medicare, Medicaid or...] Medicare Program: Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model Announcement AGENCY: Centers for...

  10. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. A tailored workplace exercise program for women at risk for neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasotto, Chiara; Bergamin, Marco; Sieverdes, John C; Gobbo, Stefano; Alberton, Cristine L; Neunhaeuserer, Daniel; Maso, Stefano; Zaccaria, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a tailored physical activity protocol performed in a work environment with a group of female workers employed in manual precision tasks to reduce upper limb pain. Sixty female subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The IG was administered of a 6-month, twice-a-week, tailored exercise program, whereas the CG received no intervention. The IG showed a reduction on shoulder pain accompanied by increases on the range of motion measures. In addition, reductions in upper limb pain and neck disability were detected with concomitant increases in grip strength. This study indicated positive effects of a tailored workplace exercise protocol in female workers exposed to moderate risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, showing clinically meaningful reductions of pain symptoms and disability on upper limb and neck regions.

  12. Cognitive Impairments and Depressive Symptoms Did Not Impede Upper Extremity Recovery in a Clinical Repetitive Task Practice Program after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Becker, James T.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Huber, Lynne M.; Waterstram, Laura F.; Ward, Amalie Andrew; Grattan, Emily S.; Holm, Margo B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined whether cognitive impairments or depressive symptoms impeded improvement in upper extremity function in a clinical repetitive task practice program. Design Participants had mild to moderate upper extremity impairment after stroke (n=20). We characterized baseline cognitive function and depressive symptoms with the Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. We measured upper extremity function at baseline, week 4 and week 24 with the Action Research Arm Test. Results Participants with and without cognitive impairments improved significantly over time (F1,17=84.48, pstroke (t17=.07, p=.95). Participants with and without depressive symptoms improved significantly over time (F1,18=86.29, pstroke (t17=.06, p=.95). Conclusions Preliminary findings suggest that cognitive impairments and depressive symptoms may not impede benefit from repetitive task practice after stroke. PMID:22311057

  13. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, Imre; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders; Demaziere, Christophe (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report gives an account of the work performed by the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, in the frame of a research contract with the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), contract No. SSM 2009/2093. The present report is based on work performed by Imre Pazsit, Victor Dykin, Anders Jonsson and Christophe Demaziere, with Imre Pazsit being the project leader. This report describes the results obtained during Stage 16 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The long-term goals are elaborated in more detail in e.g. the Final Reports of Stage 1 and 2 (SKI Report 95:14 and 96:50, Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996). Results up to Stage 15 were reported in (Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003a, 2003b; Demaziere et al, 2004; Sunde et al, 2006; Pazsit et al. 2008, 2009). A brief proposal for the continuation of this program in Stage 17 is also given at the end of the report. The program executed in Stage 16 consists of four parts as follows: - An overview of the present status of experience with BWR stability; - An investigation of the significance of the properties of the noise source for BWR instability; - Study of the dynamics of molten salt systems: construction of the adjoint and calculating the space dependent noise induced by propagating perturbations in the fuel; - A specific study of some novel methods of analysis of non-linear and non-stationary processes

  14. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders; Demaziere, Christophe

    2010-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed by the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, in the frame of a research contract with the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), contract No. SSM 2009/2093. The present report is based on work performed by Imre Pazsit, Victor Dykin, Anders Jonsson and Christophe Demaziere, with Imre Pazsit being the project leader. This report describes the results obtained during Stage 16 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The long-term goals are elaborated in more detail in e.g. the Final Reports of Stage 1 and 2 (SKI Report 95:14 and 96:50, Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996). Results up to Stage 15 were reported in (Pazsit et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003a, 2003b; Demaziere et al, 2004; Sunde et al, 2006; Pazsit et al. 2008, 2009). A brief proposal for the continuation of this program in Stage 17 is also given at the end of the report. The program executed in Stage 16 consists of four parts as follows: - An overview of the present status of experience with BWR stability; - An investigation of the significance of the properties of the noise source for BWR instability; - Study of the dynamics of molten salt systems: construction of the adjoint and calculating the space dependent noise induced by propagating perturbations in the fuel; - A specific study of some novel methods of analysis of non-linear and non-stationary processes

  15. 76 FR 627 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... important components of the Medicare ESRD payment system. In the proposed rule, we described the evolution...) of the Social Security Act (the Act), as the next step in the evolution of the ESRD quality program...-mix (for example, nursing home patients, patients with complex conditions) that may make meeting the...

  16. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods, Stage 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Nam, Tran Hoai; Dykin, Victor; Jonsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This report constitutes Stage 18 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The objective of the research program is to contribute to the strategic research goal of competence and research capacity by building up competence within the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, regarding reactor physics, reactor dynamics and noise diagnostics. The purpose is also to contribute to the research goal of giving a basis for SSM's supervision by developing methods for identification and localization of perturbations in reactor cores. Results up to Stage 17 were reported in SKI and SSM reports, as listed in the report's summary

  17. Assumption and program of the earlier stage construction of L/ILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuequn; Chen Shi; Li Xinbang

    1993-01-01

    The authors analysed the production and treatment of low- and intermediate-level radwastes (L/ILW) in China. Some problems and situation in this field are introduced. Over the past ten years, preliminary efforts have been made by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) in policy, law and rules, developing program, management system, siting, engineering techniques, and safety assessment for radwaste disposal. The investment of the earlier stage work of L/ILW disposal site construction is estimated, the program and assumption to disposal site construction of the L/ILW are reviewed

  18. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program UARP and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1994 - 1996. Report to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Rose (Compiler); Wolfe, Kathy (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Science Division in the Office of Mission to Planet Earth at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort are also provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aeronautics. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper atmosphere and their effect on the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere, such as ozone; understand the relationship of the trace constituent composition of the lower stratosphere and the lower troposphere to the radiative balance and temperature distribution of the Earth's atmosphere; and accurately assess possible perturbations of the upper atmosphere caused by human activities as well as by natural phenomena. In compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Law 101-549, NASA has prepared a report on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere, and on the progress of UARP and ACMAP. The report for the year 1996 is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summary 1994-1996. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere

  19. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stages 14 and 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, Imre; Wihlstrand, Gustav; Tambouratzis, Tatiana; Jonsson, Anders; Dahl, Berit (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This report constitutes Stages 14 and 15 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. Stage 14 was a full one-year project, whereas Stage 15 consisted of a half-year project. The program executed in Stages 14 and 15 consists of the following three parts: - Study of criticality, neutron kinetics and neutron noise in molten salt reactors (MSR) (Stages 14 and 15); - An overview and introduction to fuzzy logics (Stage 14), and an application to two-phase flow identification (Stage 15) - Preparations for and execution of an IAEA-ICTP workshop on Neutron fluctuations, reactor noise and their applications in nuclear reactors (Stage 14)

  20. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stages 14 and 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Wihlstrand, Gustav; Tambouratzis, Tatiana; Jonsson, Anders; Dahl, Berit

    2009-12-01

    This report constitutes Stages 14 and 15 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. Stage 14 was a full one-year project, whereas Stage 15 consisted of a half-year project. The program executed in Stages 14 and 15 consists of the following three parts: - Study of criticality, neutron kinetics and neutron noise in molten salt reactors (MSR) (Stages 14 and 15); - An overview and introduction to fuzzy logics (Stage 14), and an application to two-phase flow identification (Stage 15) - Preparations for and execution of an IAEA-ICTP workshop on Neutron fluctuations, reactor noise and their applications in nuclear reactors (Stage 14)

  1. An early stage evaluation of the Supporting Program for Obstetric Care Underserved Areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Baeg Ju; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin Yong

    2014-06-01

    "The Supporting Program for Obstetric Care Underserved Areas (SPOU)" provides financial aids to rural community (or district) hospitals to reopen prenatal care and delivery services for regions without obstetrics and gynecology clinics or hospitals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early stage effect of the SPOU program. The proportion of the number of birth through SPOU was calculated by each region. Also survey was conducted to investigate the extent of overall satisfaction, elements of dissatisfaction, and suggestions for improvement of the program; 209 subjects participated from 7 to 12 December, 2012. Overall, 20% of pregnant women in Youngdong (71 cases) and Gangjin (106 cases) used their community (or district) hospitals through the SPOU whereas Yecheon (23 cases) was 8%; their satisfaction rates were high. Short distance and easy accessibility was the main reason among women choosing community (or district) hospital whereas the reasons of not selecting the community (or district) hospital were favor of the outside hospital's facility, system, and trust in the medical staffs. The SPOU seems to be currently effective at an early stage. However, to successfully implement this program, the government should make continuous efforts to recruit highly qualified medical staffs and improve medical facility and equipment.

  2. FitKids360: Design, Conduct, and Outcomes of a Stage 2 Pediatric Obesity Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M. Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes FitKids360, a stage 2 pediatric weight management program. FitKids360 is a physician-referred, multicomponent, low-cost healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese youth 5–16 years of age and their families. FitKids360 provides an evidence-based approach to the treatment of pediatric overweight by targeting patients’ physical activity, screen time, and dietary behaviors using a family-centered approach. The intervention begins with a two-hour orientation and assessment period followed by six weekly sessions. Assessments include lifestyle behaviors, anthropometry, and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA survey, which screens for obesogenic risk factors in the home environment. Outcomes are presented from 258 patients who completed one of 33 FitKids360 classes. After completing FitKids360, patients increased moderate to vigorous physical activity by 14 minutes (P=0.019, reduced screen time by 44 minutes (P<0.001, and improved key dietary behaviors. Overall, FNPA scores increased by 9% (P<0.001 and 69% of patients with “high risk” FNPA scores at baseline dropped below the “high risk” range by followup. Patients also lowered BMIs (P=0.011 and age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores (P<0.001 after completing the 7-week program. We hope this report will be useful to medical and public health professionals seeking to develop stage 2 pediatric obesity programs.

  3. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng; Georgiadis, Michael C.; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimal design of distributed energy systems under uncertainty is studied. ► A stochastic model is developed using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method. ► The proposed system possesses inherent robustness under uncertainty. ► The inherent robustness is due to energy storage facilities and grid connection. -- Abstract: A distributed energy system is a multi-input and multi-output energy system with substantial energy, economic and environmental benefits. The optimal design of such a complex system under energy demand and supply uncertainty poses significant challenges in terms of both modelling and corresponding solution strategies. This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems. A two-stage decomposition based solution strategy is used to solve the optimization problem with genetic algorithm performing the search on the first stage variables and a Monte Carlo method dealing with uncertainty in the second stage. The model is applied to the planning of a distributed energy system in a hotel. Detailed computational results are presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. The impacts of demand and supply uncertainty on the optimal design of distributed energy systems are systematically investigated using proposed modelling framework and solution approach.

  5. A MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING APPROACH FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION STAGES OF A BIOETHANOL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas-Carvajal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The biorefineries concept from renewable sources has gained much attention in recent years because they improve sustainability with regard to fossil fuel refineries that are limited by the depletion of petroleum reserves. In this perspective, the production of ethanol from sugar cane bagasse is highly attractive because it reduces the fossil fuels consumption, the energy costs and the greenhouse gases emission. In this context, this paper aims to develop an optimal model design of an ethanol plant, considering bagasse pretreatment stages for subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. SSF variant, as its name suggests, has the advantage that enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages are simultaneously carried out on the same equipment, obtaining directly the ethanol as a main product. The proposed approach is based on a mixed integer linear programming model which is optimized by GAMS-CPLEX package.

  6. Upper Bounds Prediction of the Execution Time of Programs Running on ARM Cortex-A Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova , Irina; Krause , Bernd; Siemens , Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Part 6: Embedded and Real Time Systems; International audience; This paper describes the application of statistical analysis of the timing behavior for a generic real-time task model. Using specific processor of ARM Cortex-A series and an empirical approach of time values retrieval, the algorithm to predict the upper bounds for the task of the time acquisition operation has been formulated. For the experimental verification of the algorithm, we have used the robust Measurement-Based Probabili...

  7. Prescribed exercise programs may not be effective in reducing impairments and improving activity during upper limb fracture rehabilitation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Bruder

    2017-10-01

    Registration: CRD42016041818. [Bruder AM, Shields N, Dodd KJ, Taylor NF (2017 Prescribed exercise programs may not be effective in reducing impairments and improving activity during upper limb fracture rehabilitation: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 205–220

  8. The upper Tortonian-lower Messinian at Monte dei Corvi (Northern Apennines, Italy) : Completing a Mediterranean reference section for the Tortonian Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsing, S. K.; Kuiper, K. F.; Link, W.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Krijgsman, W.

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution integrated stratigraphy including biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, tephrostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy is presented for the upper Tortonian and lower Messinian (Upper Miocene) at Monte dei Corvi. Numerical age control comes from a combination of magnetobiostratigrapic

  9. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  10. Immunological indices of blood and interstitial fluid in estimation of a program of therapy of upper limb secondary edemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, E.G.; Degtyareva, A.A.; Doroshenko, L.N.; Rogova, N.M.; Zorina, L.N.

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of therapy of upper limb secondary edemas after 4 programs was compared among 83 patients. The methods were as follows: traditional method (TM) including routine conservative therapy, acupuncture (AP), He-Ne laser OKG-13 and semiconductor laser against a background of traditional therapy. A study was made of the time course of the extent of edema, total protein, IG, G, A and M and circulating immune complexes (CIC) during therapy of such patients. Blood serum and interstitial fluid indices were compared. It was shown that the application of both lasers led to increasing efficacy of TM and AP

  11. Research program in reactor core diagnostics with neutron noise methods: Stage 3. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, I.; Garis, N.S.; Karlsson, J.; Racz, A.

    1997-09-01

    Stage 3 of the program has been executed 96-04-12. The long term goal is to develop noise methods for identification and localization of perturbations in reactor cores. The main parts of the program consist of modelling the noise source, calculation of the space- and frequency dependent transfer function, calculation of the neutron noise via a convolution of the transfer function of the system and the noise source, i.e. the perturbation, and finally finding an inversion or unfolding procedure to determine noise source parameters from the neutron noise. Most previous work is based on very simple (analytical) reactor models for the calculation of the transfer function as well as analytical unfolding methods. The purpose of this project is to calculate the transfer function in a more realistic model as well as elaborating powerful inversion methods that do not require analytical transfer functions. The work in stage 3 is described under the following headlines: Further investigation of simplified models for the calculation of the neutron noise; Further investigation of methods based on neural networks; Further investigation of methods for detecting the vibrations and impacting of detectors; Application of static codes for determination of the neutron noise using the adiabatic approximation

  12. Two-stage stochastic programming model for the regional-scale electricity planning under demand uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Traditional electricity supply planning models regard the electricity demand as a deterministic parameter and require the total power output to satisfy the aggregate electricity demand. But in today's world, the electric system planners are facing tremendously complex environments full of uncertainties, where electricity demand is a key source of uncertainty. In addition, electricity demand patterns are considerably different for different regions. This paper developed a multi-region optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming framework to incorporate the demand uncertainty. Furthermore, the decision tree method and Monte Carlo simulation approach are integrated into the model to simplify electricity demands in the form of nodes and determine the values and probabilities. The proposed model was successfully applied to a real case study (i.e. Taiwan's electricity sector) to show its applicability. Detail simulation results were presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. Finally, the long-term electricity development roadmap at a regional level could be provided on the basis of our simulation results. - Highlights: • A multi-region, two-stage stochastic programming model has been developed. • The decision tree and Monte Carlo simulation are integrated into the framework. • Taiwan's electricity sector is used to illustrate the applicability of the model. • The results under deterministic and stochastic cases are shown for comparison. • Optimal portfolios of regional generation technologies can be identified.

  13. Risk averse optimal operation of a virtual power plant using two stage stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajeddini, Mohammad Amin; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan; Soroudi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    VPP (Virtual Power Plant) is defined as a cluster of energy conversion/storage units which are centrally operated in order to improve the technical and economic performance. This paper addresses the optimal operation of a VPP considering the risk factors affecting its daily operation profits. The optimal operation is modelled in both day ahead and balancing markets as a two-stage stochastic mixed integer linear programming in order to maximize a GenCo (generation companies) expected profit. Furthermore, the CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) is used as a risk measure technique in order to control the risk of low profit scenarios. The uncertain parameters, including the PV power output, wind power output and day-ahead market prices are modelled through scenarios. The proposed model is successfully applied to a real case study to show its applicability and the results are presented and thoroughly discussed. - Highlights: • Virtual power plant modelling considering a set of energy generating and conversion units. • Uncertainty modelling using two stage stochastic programming technique. • Risk modelling using conditional value at risk. • Flexible operation of renewable energy resources. • Electricity price uncertainty in day ahead energy markets

  14. Technical efficiency of women's health prevention programs in Bucaramanga, Colombia: a four-stage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Myriam; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2016-10-13

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is an efficient strategy to improve health outcomes in populations. Nevertheless, studies of technical efficiency in health care have focused on hospitals, with very little on primary health care centers. The objective of the present study was to use the Data Envelopment Analysis to estimate the technical efficiency of three women's health promotion and disease prevention programs offered by primary care centers in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Efficiency was measured using a four-stage data envelopment analysis with a series of Tobit regressions to account for the effect of quality outcomes and context variables. Input/output information was collected from the institutions' records, chart reviews and personal interviews. Information about contextual variables was obtained from databases from the primary health program in the municipality. A jackknife analysis was used to assess the robustness of the results. The analysis was based on data from 21 public primary health care centers. The average efficiency scores, after adjusting for quality and context, were 92.4 %, 97.5 % and 86.2 % for the antenatal care (ANC), early detection of cervical cancer (EDCC) and family planning (FP) programs, respectively. On each program, 12 of the 21 (57.1 %) health centers were found to be technically efficient; having had the best-practice frontiers. Adjusting for context variables changed the scores and reference rankings of the three programs offered by the health centers. The performance of the women's health prevention programs offered by the centers was found to be heterogeneous. Adjusting for context and health care quality variables had a significant effect on the technical efficiency scores and ranking. The results can serve as a guide to strengthen management and organizational and planning processes related to local primary care services operating within a market-based model such as the one in Colombia.

  15. The Experience of Staging Nijinsky's "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune" in a Higher Education Dance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This study documented the experiences of staging Vaslav Nijinsky's "L'Apres-midi d'un Faune" in a higher education dance program. The ballet was staged from Labanotation. Research questions focused on teaching and learning pedagogy, characterization of the process over time, experiences of the participants and teaching approaches. The project…

  16. Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the

  17. Evaluation of 11C-choline PET/CT for primary diagnosis and staging of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassa, Naoto; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Gotoh, Momokazu; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Abe, Shinji; Iwano, Shingo; Ito, Shinji; Naganawa, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of PET/CT with 11 C-choline (choline PET/CT) for primary diagnosis and staging of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UC). Enrolled in this study were 16 patients (9 men, 7 women; age range 51 - 83 years, mean ± SD 69 ± 10.8 years) with suspected UUT-UC. The patients were examined by choline PET/CT, and 13 underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and partial cystectomy. Lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy were also performed as necessary in some of the patients. Of the 16 patients, 12 were confirmed to have UUT-UC (7 renal pelvis carcinoma and 5 ureteral carcinoma), 1 had malignant lymphoma (ureter), 1 had IgG4-related disease (ureter), and 2 had other benign diseases (ureter). Of the 16 study patients, 13 showed definite choline uptake in urothelial lesions, and of these, 11 had UUT-UC, 1 had malignant lymphoma, and 1 had IgG4-related disease. Three patients without choline uptake comprised one with UUT-UC and two with benign diseases. Of the 12 patients with UUT-UC, 3 had distant metastases, 2 had metastases only in the regional lymph nodes, and 7 had no metastases. Distant metastases and metastases in the regional lymph nodes showed definite choline uptake. The outcome in patients with UUT-UC, which was evaluated 592 - 1,530 days after surgery, corresponded to the patient classification based on the presence or absence of metastases and locoregional or distant metastases. Choline uptake determined as SUVmax 10 min after administration was significantly higher than at 20 min in metastatic tumours of UUT-UC (p < 0.05), whereas there was no statistically significant difference between the SUVmax values at 10 and those at 20 min in primary tumours of UUT-UC. This study suggests that choline PET/CT is a promising tool for the primary diagnosis and staging of UUT-UC. (orig.)

  18. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day−1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year−1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  19. Developmental stages of developmental screening: steps to implementation of a successful program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Dunkle, Margaret; Earls, Marian; Fliedner, Dane; Landes, Cynthia

    2005-11-01

    Through the use of 2-stage screening strategies, research studies have shown that autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities can now be detected reliably and with greater validity and in children as young as 18 months of age. Screening and diagnostic practices in the medical and educational arena lag far behind clinical research, however, with the average patient age at time of diagnosis being 3 to 6 years.We discuss the challenges of instituting universal developmental screening as part of pediatric care and present 2 models of existing or planned programs of early screening for autism spectrum disorder and developmental disability (1 in a community-based setting and 1 in a pediatric setting), and discuss the pros and cons of the different strategies.

  20. Optimal design of distributed energy resource systems based on two-stage stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Shijie; Xiao, Yunhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage stochastic programming model is built to design DER systems under uncertainties. • Uncertain energy demands have a significant effect on the optimal design. • Uncertain energy prices and renewable energy intensity have little effect on the optimal design. • The economy is overestimated if the system is designed without considering the uncertainties. • The uncertainty in energy prices has the significant and greatest effect on the economy. - Abstract: Multiple uncertainties exist in the optimal design of distributed energy resource (DER) systems. The expected energy, economic, and environmental benefits may not be achieved and a deficit in energy supply may occur if the uncertainties are not handled properly. This study focuses on the optimal design of DER systems with consideration of the uncertainties. A two-stage stochastic programming model is built in consideration of the discreteness of equipment capacities, equipment partial load operation and output bounds as well as of the influence of ambient temperature on gas turbine performance. The stochastic model is then transformed into its deterministic equivalent and solved. For an illustrative example, the model is applied to a hospital in Lianyungang, China. Comparative studies are performed to evaluate the effect of the uncertainties in load demands, energy prices, and renewable energy intensity separately and simultaneously on the system’s economy and optimal design. Results show that the uncertainties in load demands have a significant effect on the optimal system design, whereas the uncertainties in energy prices and renewable energy intensity have almost no effect. Results regarding economy show that it is obviously overestimated if the system is designed without considering the uncertainties.

  1. Motor relearning program and Bobath method improve motor function of the upper extremities in patients with stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjing Liu; Fengsheng Li; Guihua Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the natural evolution of cerebrovascular disease, unconscious use of affected extremity during drug treatment and daily life can improve the function of affected upper extremity partially, but it is very slow and alsc accompanied by the formation of abnormal mode. Therefore, functional training should be emphasized in recovering the motor function of extremity.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of combination of motor relearning program and Bobath method on motor function of upper extremity of patients with stroke.DESIGN: Comparison of therapeutic effects taking stroke patients as observation subjects.SETTING: Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Jingmei Group.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 120 stroke patients, including 60 males and 60 females, averaged (59±3) years, who hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Jingmei Group between January 2005 and June 2006 were recruited. The involved patients met the following criteria: Stroke attack within 2 weeks;diagnosis criteria of cerebral hemorrhage or infarction made in the 4th National Cerebrovascular Disease Conference; confirmed by skull CT or MRI; Informed consents of therapeutic regimen were obtained. The patients were assigned into 2 groups according to their wills: rehabilitation group and control group, with 30 males and 30 females in each group. Patients in rehabilitation group averaged (59±2)years old, and those in the control group averaged (58±2)years old.METHODS: ① Patients in two groups received routine treatment in the Department of Neurology. When the vital signs of patients in the rehabilitation group were stable, individualized treatment was conducted by combined application of motor relearning program and Bobath method. Meanwhile, training of activity of daily living was performed according to the disease condition changes of patients at different phases, including the nursing and instruction of body posture, the maintenance of good extremity

  2. An inexact mixed risk-aversion two-stage stochastic programming model for water resources management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, B; Xie, Y L; Huang, G H; Liu, L

    2015-02-01

    Uncertainties exist in the water resources system, while traditional two-stage stochastic programming is risk-neutral and compares the random variables (e.g., total benefit) to identify the best decisions. To deal with the risk issues, a risk-aversion inexact two-stage stochastic programming model is developed for water resources management under uncertainty. The model was a hybrid methodology of interval-parameter programming, conditional value-at-risk measure, and a general two-stage stochastic programming framework. The method extends on the traditional two-stage stochastic programming method by enabling uncertainties presented as probability density functions and discrete intervals to be effectively incorporated within the optimization framework. It could not only provide information on the benefits of the allocation plan to the decision makers but also measure the extreme expected loss on the second-stage penalty cost. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of water resources management. Results showed that that could help managers generate feasible and balanced risk-aversion allocation plans, and analyze the trade-offs between system stability and economy.

  3. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  4. An Optimization Model for Kardeh Reservoir Operation Using Interval-Parameter, Multi-stage, Stochastic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rastegaripour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates water allocation of Kardeh Reservoir to domestic and agricultural users using an Interval Parameter, Multi-stage, Stochastic Programming (IMSLP under uncertainty. The advantages of the method include its dynamics nature, use of a pre-defined policy in its optimization process, and the use of interval parameter and probability under uncertainty conditions. Additionally, it offers different decision-making alternatives for different scenarios of water shortage. The required data were collected from Khorasan Razavi Regional Water Organization and from the Water and Wastewater Co. for the period 1988-2007. Results showed that, under the worst conditions, the water deficits expected to occur for each of the next 3 years will be 1.9, 2.55, and 3.11 million cubic meters for the domestic use and 0.22, 0.32, 0.75 million cubic meters for irrigation. Approximate reductions of 0.5, 0.7, and 1 million cubic meters in the monthly consumption of the urban community and enhanced irrigation efficiencies of about 6, 11, and 20% in the agricultural sector are recommended as approaches for combating the water shortage over the next 3 years.

  5. Influence of late-stage chronic kidney disease on overall survival in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma following radical nephroureterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chen Wen

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Patients with late-stage CKD had a higher risk of having poor OS. Patients with concomitant bladder tumor had a greater risk of having bladder cancer recurrence despite primary tumor stage. Concomitant bladder tumor, however, had no effect on OS and CSS in this study.

  6. Home-based Neurologic Music Therapy for Upper Limb Rehabilitation with Stroke Patients at Community Rehabilitation Stage - a Feasibility Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Street

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impairment of upper limb function following stroke is more common than lower limb impairment and is also more resistant to treatment. Several lab-based studies with stroke patients have produced statistically significant gains in upper limb function when using musical instrument playing and techniques where rhythm acts as an external time-keeper for the priming and timing of upper limb movements. Methods: For this feasibility study a small sample size of 14 participants (3 – 60 months post stroke has been determined through clinical discussion between the researcher and study host in order to test for management, feasibility and effects, before planning a larger trial determined through power analysis. A cross-over design with five repeated measures will be used, whereby participants will be randomized into either a treatment (n=7 or wait list control (n=7 group. Intervention will take place twice weekly over 6 weeks. The ARAT and 9HPT will be used to measure for quantitative gains in arm function and finger dexterity, pre/post treatment interviews will serve to investigate treatment compliance and tolerance. A lab based EEG case comparison study will be undertaken to explore audio-motor coupling, brain connectivity and neural reorganization with this intervention, as evidenced in similar studies. Discussion: Before evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based intervention in a larger scale study, it is important to assess whether implementation of the trial methodology is feasible. This study investigates the feasibility, efficacy and patient experience of a music therapy treatment protocol comprising a chart of 12 different instrumental exercises and variations, which aims at promoting measurable changes in upper limb function in hemiparetic stroke patients. The study proposes to examine several new aspects including home-based treatment and dosage, and will provide data on recruitment, adherence and variability of outcomes.

  7. Home-based neurologic music therapy for upper limb rehabilitation with stroke patients at community rehabilitation stage-a feasibility study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Alexander J; Magee, Wendy L; Odell-Miller, Helen; Bateman, Andrew; Fachner, Jorg C

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of upper limb function following stroke is more common than lower limb impairment and is also more resistant to treatment. Several lab-based studies with stroke patients have produced statistically significant gains in upper limb function when using musical instrument playing and techniques where rhythm acts as an external time-keeper for the priming and timing of upper limb movements. For this feasibility study a small sample size of 14 participants (3-60 months post stroke) has been determined through clinical discussion between the researcher and study host in order to test for management, feasibility and effects, before planning a larger trial determined through power analysis. A cross-over design with five repeated measures will be used, whereby participants will be randomized into either a treatment (n = 7) or wait list control (n = 7) group. Intervention will take place twice weekly over 6 weeks. The ARAT and 9HPT will be used to measure for quantitative gains in arm function and finger dexterity, pre/post treatment interviews will serve to investigate treatment compliance and tolerance. A lab based EEG case comparison study will be undertaken to explore audio-motor coupling, brain connectivity and neural reorganization with this intervention, as evidenced in similar studies. Before evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based intervention in a larger scale study, it is important to assess whether implementation of the trial methodology is feasible. This study investigates the feasibility, efficacy and patient experience of a music therapy treatment protocol comprising a chart of 12 different instrumental exercises and variations, which aims at promoting measurable changes in upper limb function in hemiparetic stroke patients. The study proposes to examine several new aspects including home-based treatment and dosage, and will provide data on recruitment, adherence and variability of outcomes.

  8. Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Payment for Renal Dialysis Services Furnished to Individuals With Acute Kidney Injury, and End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This rule updates and makes revisions to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS) for calendar year (CY) 2018. It also updates the payment rate for renal dialysis services furnished by an ESRD facility to individuals with acute kidney injury (AKI). This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD Quality Incentive Program (QIP), including for payment years (PYs) 2019 through 2021.

  9. Pattern of improvement in upper limb pointing task kinematics after a 3-month training program with robotic assistance in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Ophélie; Duret, Christophe; Laborne, François-Xavier; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie

    2017-10-13

    When exploring changes in upper limb kinematics and motor impairment associated with motor recovery in subacute post stroke during intensive therapies involving robot-assisted training, it is not known whether trained joints improve before non-trained joints and whether target reaching capacity improves before movement accuracy. Twenty-two subacute stroke patients (mean delay post-stroke at program onset 63 ± 29 days, M2) underwent 50 ± 17 (mean ± SD) 45-min sessions of robot-assisted (InMotion™) shoulder/elbow training over 3 months, in addition to conventional occupational therapy. Monthly evaluations (M2 to M5) included Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FM), with subscores per joint, and four robot-based kinematic measures: mean target distance covered, mean velocity, direction accuracy (inverse of root mean square error from straight line) and movement smoothness (inverse of mean number of zero-crossings in the velocity profile). We assessed delays to reach statistically significant improvement for each outcome measure. At M5, all clinical and kinematic parameters had markedly improved: Fugl-Meyer, +65% (median); distance covered, +87%; mean velocity, +101%; accuracy, +134%; and smoothness, +96%. Delays to reach statistical significance were M3 for the shoulder/elbow Fugl-Meyer subscore (+43%), M4 for the hand (+80%) and M5 for the wrist (+133%) subscores. For kinematic parameters, delays to significant improvements were M3 for distance (+68%), velocity (+65%) and smoothness (+50%), and M5 for accuracy (+134%). An intensive rehabilitation program combining robot-assisted shoulder/elbow training and conventional occupational therapy was associated with improvement in shoulder and elbow movements first, which suggests focal behavior-related brain plasticity. Findings also suggested that recovery of movement quantity related parameters (range of motion, velocity and smoothness) might precede that of movement quality (accuracy). EudraCT 2016-005121-36 . Date of

  10. A Three-Stage Birandom Program for Unit Commitment with Wind Power Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of large-scale wind power adds a significant uncertainty to power system planning and operating. The wind forecast error is decreased with the forecast horizon, particularly when it is from one day to several hours ahead. Integrating intraday unit commitment (UC adjustment process based on updated ultra-short term wind forecast information is one way to improve the dispatching results. A novel three-stage UC decision method, in which the day-ahead UC decisions are determined in the first stage, the intraday UC adjustment decisions of subfast start units are determined in the second stage, and the UC decisions of fast-start units and dispatching decisions are determined in the third stage is presented. Accordingly, a three-stage birandom UC model is presented, in which the intraday hours-ahead forecasted wind power is formulated as a birandom variable, and the intraday UC adjustment event is formulated as a birandom event. The equilibrium chance constraint is employed to ensure the reliability requirement. A birandom simulation based hybrid genetic algorithm is designed to solve the proposed model. Some computational results indicate that the proposed model provides UC decisions with lower expected total costs.

  11. Hungry Horse Dam fisheries mitigation program: Fish passage and habitat improvement in the Upper Flathead River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, W.L.; Deleray, M.; Marotz, B.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects

  12. Comparison of CFD-calculations of centrifugal compressor stages by NUMECA Fine Turbo and ANSYS CFX programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y. B.; Voinov, I. B.; Drozdov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used for centrifugal compressors design and flow analysis. The calculation results are dependent on the chosen software, turbulence models and solver settings. Two of the most widely applicable programs are NUMECA Fine Turbo and ANSYS CFX. The objects of the study were two different stages. CFD-calculations were made for a single blade channel and for full 360-degree flow paths. Stage 1 with 3D impeller and vaneless diffuser was tested experimentally. Its flow coefficient is 0.08 and loading factor is 0.74. For stage 1 calculations were performed with different grid quality, a different number of cells and different models of turbulence. The best results have demonstrated the Spalart-Allmaras model and mesh with 1.854 million cells. Stage 2 with return channel, vaneless diffuser and 3D impeller with flow coefficient 0.15 and loading factor 0.5 was designed by the known Universal Modeling Method. Its performances were calculated by the well identified Math model. Stage 2 performances by CFD calculations shift to higher flow rate in comparison with design performances. The same result was obtained for stage 1 in comparison with measured performances. Calculated loading factor is higher in both cases for a single blade channel. Loading factor performance calculated for full flow path (“360 degrees”) by ANSYS CFX is in satisfactory agreement with the stage 2 design performance. Maximum efficiency is predicted accurately by the ANSYS CFX “360 degrees” calculation. “Sector” calculation is less accurate. Further research is needed to solve the problem of performances mismatch.

  13. Setting safety stocks in multi-stage inventory systems under rolling horizon mathematical programming models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulaksil, Y.; Fransoo, J.C.; van Halm, E.N.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of determining safety stocks in multi-item multi-stage inventory systems that face demand uncertainties. Safety stocks are necessary to make the supply chain, which is driven by forecasts of customer orders, responsive to (demand) uncertainties and to achieve

  14. A Theoretical Model for the Four-Stage Music-Industry Internship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenbeck, Lyn

    1996-01-01

    Describes student development through experiential learning in a four-stage internship within a college music-industry curriculum, and uses the Steinaker-Bell experiential taxonomy to show how embedding a multistage internship throughout the curriculum, rather than at the end, greatly enhances learning. Suggests ways in which the multistage…

  15. Effects of a sitting boxing program on upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhyuck; Gong, Jihwan; Yim, Jongeun

    2017-01-01

    Boxing training including traditional stretching, muscular strength training, and duration training would be considered to be effective for improved functional stretching, dynamic balance, walking speed, and quality of life. We aimed to investigate upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients before and after a sitting boxing program. Twenty-six participants were randomly allocated to a boxing group (n = 13) and control group (n = 13) after the upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of Life were recorded. The boxing group underwent a sitting boxing program (3 times/week) as well as conventional physical therapy (3 times/week) for 6 weeks. The control group only underwent conventional physical therapy (3 times/week) for 6 weeks. The Manual Functional Test (MFT), non-affected hand grip, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), velocity moment with eye opened, 10-m Walk Test (10 MWT), and Stroke-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire (SS-QOL) were significantly improved in the boxing group (p boxing group compared to the control group (p boxing program group had positive effects on upper extremity function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients.

  16. An inexact two-stage stochastic robust programming for residential micro-grid management-based on random demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, L.; Niu, D.X.; Huang, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a stochastic robust optimization problem of residential micro-grid energy management is presented. Combined cooling, heating and electricity technology (CCHP) is introduced to satisfy various energy demands. Two-stage programming is utilized to find the optimal installed capacity investment and operation control of CCHP (combined cooling heating and power). Moreover, interval programming and robust stochastic optimization methods are exploited to gain interval robust solutions under different robustness levels which are feasible for uncertain data. The obtained results can help micro-grid managers minimizing the investment and operation cost with lower system failure risk when facing fluctuant energy market and uncertain technology parameters. The different robustness levels reflect the risk preference of micro-grid manager. The proposed approach is applied to residential area energy management in North China. Detailed computational results under different robustness level are presented and analyzed for providing investment decision and operation strategies. - Highlights: • An inexact two-stage stochastic robust programming model for CCHP management. • The energy market and technical parameters uncertainties were considered. • Investment decision, operation cost, and system safety were analyzed. • Uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals and probability distributions

  17. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  18. Immature murine NKT cells pass through a stage of developmentally programmed innate IL-4 secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickgreber, Nina; Farrand, Kathryn J.; van Panhuys, Nicholas; Knight, Deborah A.; McKee, Sara J.; Chong, Mei L.; Miranda-Hernandez, Socorro; Baxter, Alan G.; Locksley, Richard M.; Le Gros, Graham; Hermans, Ian F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the production of the canonical Th2 cytokine IL-4 by NKT cells directly in vivo using IL-4-substituting strains of reporter mice that provide faithful and sensitive readouts of cytokine production without the confounding effects of in vitro stimulation. Analysis in naïve animals revealed an “innate” phase of IL-4 secretion that did not need to be triggered by administration of a known NKT cell ligand. This secretion was by immature NKT cells spanning Stage 1 of the maturation process in the thymus (CD4+ CD44lo NK1.1− cells) and Stage 2 (CD4+ CD44hi NK1.1− cells) in the spleen. Like ligand-induced IL-4 production by mature cells, this innate activity was independent of an initial source of IL-4 protein and did not require STAT6 signaling. A more sustained level of innate IL-4 production was observed in animals on a BALB/c background compared with a C57BL/6 background, suggesting a level of genetic regulation that may contribute to the “Th2-prone” phenotype in BALB/c animals. These observations indicate a regulated pattern of IL-4 expression by maturing NKT cells, which may endow these cells with a capacity to influence the development of surrounding cells in the thymus. PMID:22941735

  19. A primal-dual decomposition based interior point approach to two-stage stochastic linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); C.L. Dert (Cees); K.P.B. Oldenkamp; S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDecision making under uncertainty is a challenge faced by many decision makers. Stochastic programming is a major tool developed to deal with optimization with uncertainties that has found applications in, e.g. finance, such as asset-liability and bond-portfolio management.

  20. Online Certificate Program Moves Participants to Advanced Stages of Concern for Social Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.; Stofer, Kathryn A.

    2017-01-01

    Social marketing is an underused strategy that agricultural educators can employ to bring about behavior change. We designed an online certificate program for Extension professionals and other educators based on an identified need for social marketing professional development. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) served as the conceptual…

  1. A multi-stage stochastic program for supply chain network redesign problem with price-dependent uncertain demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan; Keyvanshokooh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we address a multi-period supply chain network redesign problem in which customer zones have price-dependent stochastic demand for multiple products. A novel multi-stage stochastic program is proposed to simultaneously make tactical decisions including products' prices and strategic...... redesign decisions. Existing uncertainty in potential demands of customer zones is modeled through a finite set of scenarios, described in the form of a scenario tree. The scenarios are generated using a Latin Hypercube Sampling method and then a forward scenario construction technique is employed...

  2. A mathematical programming framework for early stage design of wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of alternative wastewater treatment technologies and stricter effluent requirements make the optimal treatment process selection for wastewater treatment plant design a complicated problem. This task, defined as wastewater treatment process synthesis, is currently based on e...... the design problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (Non)linear Programming problem e MI(N)LP e and solved. A case study is formulated and solved to highlight the application of the framework. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... on expert decisions and previous experiences. This paper proposes a new approach based on mathematical programming to manage the complexity of the problem. The approach generates/identifies novel and optimal wastewater treatment process selection, and the interconnection between unit operations to create...

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of the high-Cr podiform chromitites of the Köycegiz ophiolite, southwest Turkey: implications for the multi-stage evolution of the oceanic upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fahui; Yang, Jingsui; Dilek, Yildirim; Wang, ChunLian; Hao, Xiaolin; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lian, Dongyang

    2018-03-01

    Ophiolites exposed across the western Tauride belt in Turkey represent tectonically emplaced fragments of oceanic lithosphere obducted onto the continental margin following the closure of the Neotethys Ocean during the Late Cretaceous. The ultramafic massif of Köycegiz, which is located in the ophiolitic belt of southwestern Turkey, is a major source of metallurgical chromitite ore. The massif comprises a base of tectonized harzburgite with minor dunite overlain by a magmatic sequence of wehrlite, pyroxenite, troctolite and gabbro. Only sparse refractory chromitites occur within the harzburgites; in contrast, the upper and middle sections of the peridotite sequence contain abundant metallurgical chromitites. The peridotites record abundant evidence of mantle metasomatism on various scales, as the Fo values of olivine in harzburgite are 90.1-95.4, whereas those in dunite are 90.1-91.8. The compositions of the melts passing through the peridotites changed gradually from arc tholeiite to boninite due to melt-rock reactions, thus producing more Cr-rich chromitites in the upper part of the body. Most of the chromitites have high Cr numbers (77-78), although systematic changes in the compositions of the olivine and chromian spinel occur from the harzburgites to the dunite envelopes to the chromitites, reflecting melt-rock reactions. The calculated ΔlogfO2 (FMQ) values range from - 2.77 to + 1.03 in the chromitites, - 2.73 to -0.01 in the harzburgites, and - 1.65 to + 0.45 in the dunites. All of the available evidence suggests that the Köycegiz ophiolite formed in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) mantle wedge. These models indicate that the harzburgites represent the products of first-stage melting and low degrees of melt-rock interaction that occurred in a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environment. In contrast, the chromitites and dunites represent the products of second-stage melting and related refertilization, which occurred in an SSZ environment.

  4. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  5. [Effects of a physical training program on quantitative neurological indices in mild stage type 2 spinocerebelar ataxia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Avila, I; Fernández-Vieitez, J A; Martínez-Góngora, E; Ochoa-Mastrapa, R; Velázquez-Manresa, M G

    Type 2 spinocerebelar ataxia (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative disease with higher prevalence and incidence in Holguín province, Cuba. At present, there is not any drug to counteract the loss of coordinative motor capacities of these patients. Thus physical training seems to be the only way to attenuate the course of disease. To evaluate the effectiveness of a physical training program on quantitative neurological indices in SCA2 patients. A samples of 87 SCA2 patients were studied. All subjects underwent a six month physical exercise program based on coordination, balance and muscular conditioning exercises. Quantitative tests were applied to all patients both before and after the application of the exercise program. Comparisons between pretest versus posttest values were made to evaluate the improvement in neurological indices. All neurological indices both with open eyes and closed eyes significantly improved from pretest to posttest. Static balance, evaluated by Romberg test, also enhanced with training. The exercise training program significantly improved the neurological indices in SCA2 patient with mild stage of disease.

  6. Yield curve event tree construction for multi stage stochastic programming models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Poulsen, Rolf

    Dynamic stochastic programming (DSP) provides an intuitive framework for modelling of financial portfolio choice problems where market frictions are present and dynamic re--balancing has a significant effect on initial decisions. The application of these models in practice, however, is limited....... Indeed defining a universal and tractable framework for fully ``appropriate'' event trees is in our opinion an impossible task. A problem specific approach to designing such event trees is the way ahead. In this paper we propose a number of desirable properties which should be present in an event tree...

  7. Adobe Flash 11 Stage3D (Molehill) Game Programming Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kaitila, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Written in an informal and friendly manner, the style and approach of this book will take you on an exciting adventure. Piece by piece, detailed examples help you along the way by providing real-world game code required to make a complete 3D video game. Each chapter builds upon the experience and achievements earned in the last, culminating in the ultimate prize - your game! If you ever wanted to make your own 3D game in Flash, then this book is for you. This book is a perfect introduction to 3D game programming in Adobe Molehill for complete beginners. You do not need to know anything about S

  8. Rigid Origami via Optical Programming and Deferred Self-Folding of a Two-Stage Photopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glugla, David J; Alim, Marvin D; Byars, Keaton D; Nair, Devatha P; Bowman, Christopher N; Maute, Kurt K; McLeod, Robert R

    2016-11-02

    We demonstrate the formation of shape-programmed, glassy origami structures using a single-layer photopolymer with two mechanically distinct phases. The latent origami pattern consisting of rigid, high cross-link density panels and flexible, low cross-link density creases is fabricated using a series of photomask exposures. Strong optical absorption of the polymer formulation creates depth-wise gradients in the cross-link density of the creases, enforcing directed folding which enables programming of both mountain and valley folds within the same sheet. These multiple photomask patterns can be sequentially applied because the sheet remains flat until immersed into a photopolymerizable monomer solution that differentially swells the polymer to fold and form the origami structure. After folding, a uniform photoexposure polymerizes the absorbed solution, permanently fixing the shape of the folded structure while simultaneously increasing the modulus of the folds. This approach creates sharp folds by mimicking the stiff panels and flexible creases of paper origami while overcoming the traditional trade-off of self-actuated materials that require low modulus for folding and high modulus for mechanical robustness. Using this process, we demonstrate a waterbomb base capable of supporting 1500 times its own weight.

  9. A Two-Stage Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programming Approach to the Smart House Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoe, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Yoichi; Fukushima, Masao

    A “Smart House” is a highly energy-optimized house equipped with photovoltaic systems (PV systems), electric battery systems, fuel cell cogeneration systems (FC systems), electric vehicles (EVs) and so on. Smart houses are attracting much attention recently thanks to their enhanced ability to save energy by making full use of renewable energy and by achieving power grid stability despite an increased power draw for installed PV systems. Yet running a smart house's power system, with its multiple power sources and power storages, is no simple task. In this paper, we consider the problem of power scheduling for a smart house with a PV system, an FC system and an EV. We formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming problem, and then extend it to a stochastic programming problem involving recourse costs to cope with uncertain electricity demand, heat demand and PV power generation. Using our method, we seek to achieve the optimal power schedule running at the minimum expected operation cost. We present some results of numerical experiments with data on real-life demands and PV power generation to show the effectiveness of our method.

  10. A Citizen Science Program for Monitoring Lake Stages in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, A.; Drum, A.; Rubsam, J.; Watras, C. J.; Cellar-Rossler, A.

    2011-12-01

    Historical data indicate that surface water levels in northern Wisconsin are fluctuating more now than they did in the recent past. In the northern highland lake district of Vilas County, Wisconsin, concern about record low lake levels in 2008 spurred local citizens and lake associations to form a lake level monitoring network comprising citizen scientists. The network is administered by the North Lakeland Discovery Center (NLDC, a local NGO) and is supported by a grant from the Citizen Science Monitoring Program of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). With technical guidance from limnologists at neighboring UW-Madison Trout Lake Research Station, citizen scientists have installed geographic benchmarks and staff gauges on 26 area lakes. The project engages citizen and student science participants including homeowners, non-profit organization member-participants, and local schools. Each spring, staff gauges are installed and referenced to fixed benchmarks after ice off by NLDC and dedicated volunteers. Volunteers read and record staff gauges on a weekly basis during the ice-free season; and maintain log books recording lake levels to the nearest 0.5 cm. At the end of the season, before ice on, gauges are removed and log books are collected by the NLDC coordinator. Data is compiled and submitted to a database management system, coordinated within the Wisconsin Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS), a statewide information system managed by the WDNR in Madison. Furthermore, NLDC is collaborating with the SWIMS database manager to develop data entry screens based on records collected by citizen scientists. This program is the first of its kind in Wisconsin to utilize citizen scientists to collect lake level data. The retention rate for volunteers has been 100% over the three years since inception, and the program has expanded from four lakes in 2008 to twenty-six lakes in 2011. NLDC stresses the importance of long-term monitoring and the

  11. CERTIFICATION - The final and critical stage of every civil or military aviation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile STEFAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a general rule the final step in every aviation program is the certification of the airplane, an important step in which the airplane, the engins and the equipments are checked by an authority or commission according to the airworthiness rules. The main scope of the certification is to promote a safe aviation product and to protect the general public from unnecessary risk. In all the contries the national authorieties require a civil certificability for all the parts or equipments and a full aircraft certification for a new or wholly modified airplane. The military aircrafts must pased and respond to a specific way of certification and many actual efforts are done in order to unify the diffrent national rules in this field. This paper presents the existing situation in the certification of civil and military airplans and the actual measures done for the unification of certification procedures in the world.

  12. Transitioning home: A four-stage reintegration hospital discharge program for adolescents hospitalized for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Sima; Kohn, Yoav; Avichezer, Mazal; Sapir, Benjamin; Levy, Sharon; Canetti, Laura; Kianski, Ela; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Yaffa

    2015-10-01

    Treatment for adolescents with eating disorders (ED) is multidimensional and extends after hospitalization. After participating in a four-step reintegration plan, treatment success including post-discharge community and social reintegration were examined from perspectives of patients, family members, and healthcare providers. Six pairs of patients and parents, and seven parents without their children were interviewed 2 to 30 months following discharge. All but two adolescents were enrolled in, or had completed school. Five worked in addition to school, and three completed army or national service. Twelve were receiving therapeutic care in the community. Adolescents with ED can benefit from a systematic reintegration program, and nurses should incorporate this into care plans. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Trial Protocol: Home-based exercise programs to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling older people: study protocol for the BEST (Balance Exercise Strength Training at Home randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Bates

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Falling when older is a major public health issue. There is compelling evidence to show that specific exercise programs can reduce the risk and rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Another major health issue for older people living in the community is upper limb dysfunction, including shoulder pain. Home-based exercise programs appeal to some older people, due to their convenience. Research questions: This trial aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based lower limb exercise program compared with a home-based upper limb exercise program to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling people aged 65+ years. Design: Randomised, controlled trial. Participants and setting: A total of 576 community-dwelling people will be recruited from the Illawarra and Shoalhaven regions of New South Wales, Australia. Intervention: Participants will be randomised to either a home-based lower limb exercise intervention or a home-based upper limb exercise intervention. The lower limb program is designed to improve balance and strength in the lower limbs. The upper limb program is designed to improve upper limb strength and mobility. Participants will attend three group-based instruction sessions to learn and progress the exercises, and will be instructed to perform the exercises three times per week at home for 12 months. Outcome measures: The two primary outcomes will be fall rates, recorded with monthly calendars for a 12-month period, and upper limb dysfunction, measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include: lower limb strength and balance; shoulder strength and mobility; physical activity; quality of life; attitudes to exercise; proportion of fallers; fear of falling; and health and community service use. The cost-effectiveness of both exercise programs from a health and community service provider perspective will be evaluated

  14. Trial Protocol: Home-based exercise programs to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling older people: study protocol for the BEST (Balance Exercise Strength Training) at Home randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Amanda; Furber, Susan; Tiedemann, Anne; Ginn, Karen; van den Dolder, Paul; Howard, Kirsten; Bauman, Adrian; Chittenden, Catherine; Franco, Lisa; Kershaw, Michelle; Sherrington, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Falling when older is a major public health issue. There is compelling evidence to show that specific exercise programs can reduce the risk and rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Another major health issue for older people living in the community is upper limb dysfunction, including shoulder pain. Home-based exercise programs appeal to some older people, due to their convenience. This trial aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based lower limb exercise program compared with a home-based upper limb exercise program to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling people aged 65+ years. Randomised, controlled trial. A total of 576 community-dwelling people will be recruited from the Illawarra and Shoalhaven regions of New South Wales, Australia. Participants will be randomised to either a home-based lower limb exercise intervention or a home-based upper limb exercise intervention. The lower limb program is designed to improve balance and strength in the lower limbs. The upper limb program is designed to improve upper limb strength and mobility. Participants will attend three group-based instruction sessions to learn and progress the exercises, and will be instructed to perform the exercises three times per week at home for 12 months. The two primary outcomes will be fall rates, recorded with monthly calendars for a 12-month period, and upper limb dysfunction, measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include: lower limb strength and balance; shoulder strength and mobility; physical activity; quality of life; attitudes to exercise; proportion of fallers; fear of falling; and health and community service use. The cost-effectiveness of both exercise programs from a health and community service provider perspective will be evaluated. Negative binomial regression models will be used to estimate the between-group difference in fall rates. Modified

  15. Is there a role for upper-extremity intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation as a bridge-to-recovery or a bridge-to-transplant in the treatment of end-stage heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaejike, Nnamdi; Son, Andre Y; Milano, Carmelo A; Daneshmand, Mani A

    2017-10-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: Is there a role for upper-extremity intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation (UE-IABP) in the treatment of end-stage heart failure? Altogether 230 papers were found using the reported search, of which 6 papers represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Of the 163 bridge-to-transplantation (BTT) patients, 141 (86.5%) were successfully transplanted and of the 9 bridge-to-recovery (BTR) patients, 6 (66.7%) were successfully weaned from the device. Length of support ranged from 3 to 152 days, and the most frequent complications were device malfunction or migration necessitating exchange or repositioning, occurring at a collective rate of 37.3%. UE-IABP is a minimally invasive and cost-effective strategy that provides haemodynamic support while preserving both the mediastinum and the functional status in BTR and BTT patients who may not tolerate more invasive modes of mechanical circulatory support. We conclude that UE-IABP can be used as a bridge-to-recovery (BTR) or transplant (BTT) in patients with end-stage heart failure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  17. Health and Recovery Program in Increasing Physical Activity Level in Stage IA-IIIA Endometrial Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Cancer Survivor; Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7

  18. ORNL TNS program: microwave start-up of tokamak plasmas near electron cyclotron and upper hybrid resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Borowski, S.K.

    1977-12-01

    The scenario of toroidal plasma start-up with microwave initiation and heating near the electron cyclotron frequency is suggested and examined here. We assume microwave irradiation from the high field side and an anomalously large absorption of the extraordinary waves near the upper hybrid resonance. The dominant electron energy losses are assumed to be due to magnetic field curvature and parallel drifts, ionization of neutrals, cooling by ions, and radiation by low Z impurities. It is shown by particle and energy balance considerations that electron temperatures around 250 eV and densities of 10 12 to 10 13 cm -3 can be maintained, at least in a narrow region near the upper hybrid resonance, with modest microwave powers in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) (120 kW at 28 GHz) and The Next Step (TNS) (0.57 MW at 120 GHz). The loop voltages required for start-up from these initial plasmas are also estimated. It is shown that the loop voltage can be reduced by a factor of five to ten from that for unassisted start-up without an increase in the resistive loss in volt-seconds. If this reduction in loop voltage is verified in the ISX experiments, substantial savings in the cost of power supplies for the ohmic heating (OH) and equilibrium field (EF) coils can be realized in future large tokamaks

  19. Combined Two-Stage Stochastic Programming and Receding Horizon Control Strategy for Microgrid Energy Management Considering Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwen Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids (MGs are presented as a cornerstone of smart grids. With the potential to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources (RES in a flexible and environmental way, the MG concept has gained even more attention. Due to the randomness of RES, load, and electricity price in MG, the forecast errors of MGs will affect the performance of the power scheduling and the operating cost of an MG. In this paper, a combined stochastic programming and receding horizon control (SPRHC strategy is proposed for microgrid energy management under uncertainty, which combines the advantages of two-stage stochastic programming (SP and receding horizon control (RHC strategy. With an SP strategy, a scheduling plan can be derived that minimizes the risk of uncertainty by involving the uncertainty of MG in the optimization model. With an RHC strategy, the uncertainty within the MG can be further compensated through a feedback mechanism with the lately updated forecast information. In our approach, a proper strategy is also proposed to maintain the SP model as a mixed integer linear constrained quadratic programming (MILCQP problem, which is solvable without resorting to any heuristics algorithms. The results of numerical experiments explicitly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed strategy for both island and grid-connected operating modes of an MG.

  20. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Annual Status Report, 1999: Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, macroinvertebrate sampling was initiated in Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, and the Open River reach of the Mississippi River, and La Orange Pool of the Illinois River as part of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  1. Associations between Poor Sleep Quality and Stages of Change of Multiple Health Behaviors among Participants of Employee Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Using the Transtheoretical Model of behavioral change, this study evaluates the relationship between sleep quality and the motivation and maintenance processes of healthy behavior change. The current study is an analysis of data collected in 2008 from an online health risk assessment (HRA) survey completed by participants of the Kansas State employee wellness program (N=13,322). Using multinomial logistic regression, associations between self-reported sleep quality and stages of change (i.e. precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) in five health behaviors (stress management, weight management, physical activities, alcohol use, and smoking) were analyzed. Adjusted for covariates, poor sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of contemplation, preparation, and in some cases action stage when engaging in the health behavior change process, but generally a lower likelihood of maintenance of the healthy behavior. The present study demonstrated that poor sleep quality was associated with an elevated likelihood of contemplating or initiating behavior change, but a decreased likelihood of maintaining healthy behavior change. It is important to include sleep improvement as one of the lifestyle management interventions offered in EWP to comprehensively reduce health risks and promote the health of a large employee population.

  2. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stage 8. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, I.; Demaziere, C.; Arzhanov, V.

    2003-01-01

    This report constitutes Stage 8 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. A brief proposal for the continuation of this program in stage 9 is also given at the end of the report. The program executed in Stage 8 consists of three parts and the work performed in each part is summarized below. In Stage 7, an anomaly localisation algorithm was presented and applied to the Forsmark-1 channel instability event. This investigation was carried out with a set of static data that were typical of a generic BWR model, since no data except the Local Power Range Monitors (LPRMs) time signals recorded during the instability event were made accessible to us at that time. In the present Stage, these static data were obtained from Vattenfall Fuel AB, who used the SIMULATE-3 code. The first Section of this report is thus devoted to this anomaly localisation but this time with a relevant set of data, both regarding the static core conditions and regarding the LPRMs time signals. The noise source pointed out by the localisation algorithm was once again found to be very close to an unseated fuel assembly discovered during the fuel outage following the instability event. The localisation procedure relies in fact on the prior calculation of the reactor transfer function, carried out via the neutron noise simulator first presented in Stage 6 and later improved in Stage 7. The neutron noise simulator was also improved in this Stage. More precisely, a 2-D 2- group static core simulator was developed in order to calculate the static flux and the associated eigenvalue with a spatial discretization scheme compatible with the one in use in the neutron noise simulator, i.e. finite differences. It has generally been assumed that the Decay Ratio (DR), a parameter characterizing the stability of BWRs, is a space-independent parameter of the reactor, i.e. it is independent of which LPRM is used in the core to

  3. The C. elegans tailless/Tlx homolog nhr-67 regulates a stage-specific program of linker cell migration in male gonadogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mihoko; Sternberg, Paul W

    2009-12-01

    Cell migration is a common event during organogenesis, yet little is known about how migration is temporally coordinated with organ development. We are investigating stage-specific programs of cell migration using the linker cell (LC), a migratory cell crucial for male gonadogenesis of C. elegans. During the L3 and L4 larval stages of wild-type males, the LC undergoes changes in its position along the migratory route, in transcriptional regulation of the unc-5 netrin receptor and zmp-1 zinc matrix metalloprotease, and in cell morphology. We have identified the tailless homolog nhr-67 as a cell-autonomous, stage-specific regulator of timing in LC migration programs. In nhr-67-deficient animals, each of the L3 and L4 stage changes is either severely delayed or never occurs, yet LC development before the early L3 stage or after the mid-L4 stage occurs with normal timing. We propose that there is a basal migration program utilized throughout LC migration that is modified by stage-specific regulators such as nhr-67.

  4. Research and development program in reactor diagnostics and monitoring with neutron noise methods. Stage 7. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, I.; Demaziere, C.; Arzhanov, V.

    2001-08-01

    This report constitutes stage 7 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. A proposal for the continuation of this program in stage 8 is also given at the end of the report. In stage 6, the basic principles of a 3-D fully coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic simulator in the frequency domain were presented. The neutronic model relied on the two-group diffusion approximation, whereas the thermal-hydraulic algorithms relied on the so called 'lumped' model. The key element of this simulator was that only the static data were required which could be obtained from the Studsvik Scandpower CASMO-4/TABLES-3/ SIMULATE-3 code package. The simulator was developed with this underlying idea, which means that the calculation of the static fluxes and the eigenvalue were avoided. Depending on what kind of spatial discretization scheme which is used in the noise simulator to calculate the 'leakage' noise, it is not granted that the system remains critical by using the group constants supplied by SIMULATE. Nevertheless, when the system is critical, the balance equations should be fulfilled in all nodes with respect to the discretization scheme used. In concrete terms, the calculation of the static fluxes and eigenvalue can be avoided if the system is brought back to criticality by modifying the cross-sections so that the balance equations are always fulfilled with the chosen spatial discretization scheme. This approach was used in this study with the finite difference scheme. As pointed out in stage 6, the finite difference scheme is relatively inefficient compared to finite elements or nodal methods, but on the other hand it is rather easy to implement. These two more sophisticated schemes are planned to be investigated at a later stage, but for the time being the simulator relying on the finite difference scheme was improved as much as possible so that a 2-D entirely neutronic model could be

  5. River water quality management considering agricultural return flows: application of a nonlinear two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Ali; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Soltani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new fuzzy methodology is developed to optimize water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers under uncertainty. An interactive two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming (ITSFP) method is utilized to handle parameter uncertainties, which are expressed as fuzzy boundary intervals. An iterative linear programming (ILP) is also used for solving the nonlinear optimization model. To accurately consider the impacts of the water and waste load allocation strategies on the river water quality, a calibrated QUAL2Kw model is linked with the WWLA optimization model. The soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP) simulation model is utilized to determine the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow. To control pollution loads of agricultural networks, it is assumed that a part of each agricultural return flow can be diverted to an evaporation pond and also another part of it can be stored in a detention pond. In detention ponds, contaminated water is exposed to solar radiation for disinfecting pathogens. Results of applying the proposed methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern region of Iran illustrate its effectiveness and applicability for water and waste load allocation in rivers. In the planning phase, this methodology can be used for estimating the capacities of return flow diversion system and evaporation and detention ponds.

  6. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0 to severe infection (4 with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for genotypes in the first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program in Florida. Data were collected from 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and replicated check cultivars in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % infection, and severity in each family and progeny of female parent were determined, and their coefficients of variation (CV within and among families (females were estimated. Considerable variation exists in rust ratings among families or females. The families and female parents with high susceptibility or resistance to brown rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study can help scientists to evaluate sugarcane crosses and parents for brown rust disease, to use desirable parents for crossing, and to improve genetic resistance to brown rust in breeding programs.

  7. Preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards at Chalmers - Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Pazsit, Imre

    2004-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed at the Dept. of Reactor Physics at Chalmers Univ. of Technology in the second stage of the preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards and nuclear material management. The program is aimed at utilizing the experimental facilities as well as the experience in reactor physics, criticality safety, signal processing and unfolding, and experimental nuclear techniques, in tackling problems in non-destructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. During the present project, the following three main subjects were dealt with: first tests and pilot measurements were performed with one of the two newly acquired {sup 252}Cf detectors that were obtained from JNC Japan; the second exercise of the ESARDA benchmark. which consisted of the evaluation of the pulse train generated by Los Alamos Laboratory for multiplicity counting was performed and reported to the organisers of the benchmark; the modified Monte-Carlo code MCNP-PoliMi was installed, tested and work started for generating (although outside the ESARDA benchmark), pulse train data as obtained from various neutron sources with or without the presence of fissile material, as detected with an Active Well Coincidence Counter.

  8. Preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards at Chalmers - Stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Pazsit, Imre

    2004-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed at the Dept. of Reactor Physics at Chalmers Univ. of Technology in the second stage of the preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards and nuclear material management. The program is aimed at utilizing the experimental facilities as well as the experience in reactor physics, criticality safety, signal processing and unfolding, and experimental nuclear techniques, in tackling problems in non-destructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. During the present project, the following three main subjects were dealt with: first tests and pilot measurements were performed with one of the two newly acquired 252 Cf detectors that were obtained from JNC Japan; the second exercise of the ESARDA benchmark. which consisted of the evaluation of the pulse train generated by Los Alamos Laboratory for multiplicity counting was performed and reported to the organisers of the benchmark; the modified Monte-Carlo code MCNP-PoliMi was installed, tested and work started for generating (although outside the ESARDA benchmark), pulse train data as obtained from various neutron sources with or without the presence of fissile material, as detected with an Active Well Coincidence Counter

  9. Design of problem-specific evolutionary algorithm/mixed-integer programming hybrids: two-stage stochastic integer programming applied to chemical batch scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urselmann, Maren; Emmerich, Michael T. M.; Till, Jochen; Sand, Guido; Engell, Sebastian

    2007-07-01

    Engineering optimization often deals with large, mixed-integer search spaces with a rigid structure due to the presence of a large number of constraints. Metaheuristics, such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), are frequently suggested as solution algorithms in such cases. In order to exploit the full potential of these algorithms, it is important to choose an adequate representation of the search space and to integrate expert-knowledge into the stochastic search operators, without adding unnecessary bias to the search. Moreover, hybridisation with mathematical programming techniques such as mixed-integer programming (MIP) based on a problem decomposition can be considered for improving algorithmic performance. In order to design problem-specific EAs it is desirable to have a set of design guidelines that specify properties of search operators and representations. Recently, a set of guidelines has been proposed that gives rise to so-called Metric-based EAs (MBEAs). Extended by the minimal moves mutation they allow for a generalization of EA with self-adaptive mutation strength in discrete search spaces. In this article, a problem-specific EA for process engineering task is designed, following the MBEA guidelines and minimal moves mutation. On the background of the application, the usefulness of the design framework is discussed, and further extensions and corrections proposed. As a case-study, a two-stage stochastic programming problem in chemical batch process scheduling is considered. The algorithm design problem can be viewed as the choice of a hierarchical decision structure, where on different layers of the decision process symmetries and similarities can be exploited for the design of minimal moves. After a discussion of the design approach and its instantiation for the case-study, the resulting problem-specific EA/MIP is compared to a straightforward application of a canonical EA/MIP and to a monolithic mathematical programming algorithm. In view of the

  10. SLS Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Steve; Holladay, Jon; Jones, Davey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Provide an overview of SLS DUUS type capability requirements to provide context for possible International Partner collaboration. Addition of a DUUS would greatly increase exploration mission capture and performance margin for cis-Lunar and Near Earth System exploration campaigns.

  11. Research and development program in reactor diagnostics and monitoring with neutron noise methods. Stage 7. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, I.; Demaziere, C.; Arzhanov, V. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Reactor Physics; Garis, N.S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    This report constitutes stage 7 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. A proposal for the continuation of this program in stage 8 is also given at the end of the report. In stage 6, the basic principles of a 3-D fully coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic simulator in the frequency domain were presented. The neutronic model relied on the two-group diffusion approximation, whereas the thermal-hydraulic algorithms relied on the so called 'lumped' model. The key element of this simulator was that only the static data were required which could be obtained from the Studsvik Scandpower CASMO-4/TABLES-3/ SIMULATE-3 code package. The simulator was developed with this underlying idea, which means that the calculation of the static fluxes and the eigenvalue were avoided. Depending on what kind of spatial discretization scheme which is used in the noise simulator to calculate the 'leakage' noise, it is not granted that the system remains critical by using the group constants supplied by SIMULATE. Nevertheless, when the system is critical, the balance equations should be fulfilled in all nodes with respect to the discretization scheme used. In concrete terms, the calculation of the static fluxes and eigenvalue can be avoided if the system is brought back to criticality by modifying the cross-sections so that the balance equations are always fulfilled with the chosen spatial discretization scheme. This approach was used in this study with the finite difference scheme. As pointed out in stage 6, the finite difference scheme is relatively inefficient compared to finite elements or nodal methods, but on the other hand it is rather easy to implement. These two more sophisticated schemes are planned to be investigated at a later stage, but for the time being the simulator relying on the finite difference scheme was improved as much as possible so that a 2-D entirely

  12. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: Data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report is a detailed assessment of groundwater quality at several hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites are located in an area defined as the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes that have been established at the Y-12 Plant in an effort to unify and coordinate site-specific monitoring activities for planning and reporting purposes. Section 2.0 contains background information and a discussion of the 1990 program objectives. An overview of the complex hydrogeologic system in the UEFPCHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1990 assessment data, a review of groundwater geochemistry and background water quality, detailed descriptions of groundwater contaminant plumes, and a discussion regarding the quality of groundwater exiting the UEFPCHR are presented in Section 4.0. Findings of the 1990 assessment program are summarized in Section 5.0. Modifications to the assessment monitoring program proposed for 1991 are presented in Section 6.0, and a list of references (Section 7.0) concludes the report. 20 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Research and development program in reactor diagnostics and monitoring with neutron noise methods. Stage 6. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, I.; Demaziere, C.; Avdic, S.; Dahl, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor Physics

    2000-07-15

    The program executed in Stage 6 consists of three parts and the work performed in each part is summarized below. In Stage 5 experimental and numerical investigations were made of the applicability of using the gradient of the static flux to locate a neutron source in a water tank. The measurements were made with a recently developed very small optical fibre detector, and the supporting calculations done with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. In the present Stage, the work was extended to the investigation of the true neutron current. Based on the same thin fibre detector, a detector capable of measuring the neutron current was constructed. This was achieved by covering one side of the detector with a cadmium cladding. With this detector, laboratory measurements were carried out the same way as with the gradient detector in the previous stage. A neutron source located in a water tank was used and the flux and the current measured in points with varying distance from the source. The direction of the neutron current vector indicates the direction of the source from the measurement point, and the ratio of the absolute value of the current to the flux can be used to estimate the distance to the source. For the latter, values of the same ratio as a function of the source-detector distance must be available from theory or calculations. We have used earlier MCNP calculations of the gradient/flux ratio for this purpose. The results show that it is possible to measure the true neutron current with the detector construction and, by comparing them to MCNP calculations, to determine the distance to the source and thereby also determine the position of the source. In the previous stage, we have developed a numerical finite-difference code which can be used to calculate the dynamic adjoint (i.e. the transfer function) in a heterogeneous 1-D reactor system and in two-group diffusion theory. The purpose in this Stage was to extend the calculations to 2-D and 3-D cases. This was achieved

  14. Genomic prediction in early selection stages using multi-year data in a hybrid rye breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vasquez, Angela-Maria; Gordillo, Andres; Schmidt, Malthe; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-05-31

    The use of multiple genetic backgrounds across years is appealing for genomic prediction (GP) because past years' data provide valuable information on marker effects. Nonetheless, single-year GP models are less complex and computationally less demanding than multi-year GP models. In devising a suitable analysis strategy for multi-year data, we may exploit the fact that even if there is no replication of genotypes across years, there is plenty of replication at the level of marker loci. Our principal aim was to evaluate different GP approaches to simultaneously model genotype-by-year (GY) effects and breeding values using multi-year data in terms of predictive ability. The models were evaluated under different scenarios reflecting common practice in plant breeding programs, such as different degrees of relatedness between training and validation sets, and using a selected fraction of genotypes in the training set. We used empirical grain yield data of a rye hybrid breeding program. A detailed description of the prediction approaches highlighting the use of kinship for modeling GY is presented. Using the kinship to model GY was advantageous in particular for datasets disconnected across years. On average, predictive abilities were 5% higher for models using kinship to model GY over models without kinship. We confirmed that using data from multiple selection stages provides valuable GY information and helps increasing predictive ability. This increase is on average 30% higher when the predicted genotypes are closely related with the genotypes in the training set. A selection of top-yielding genotypes together with the use of kinship to model GY improves the predictive ability in datasets composed of single years of several selection cycles. Our results clearly demonstrate that the use of multi-year data and appropriate modeling is beneficial for GP because it allows dissecting GY effects from genomic estimated breeding values. The model choice, as well as ensuring

  15. Effectiveness of a nutrition education program for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Morante, Juan José; Sánchez-Villazala, Almudena; Cutillas, Ruben Cañavate; Fuentes, Mari Carmen Conesa

    2014-01-01

    In end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, malnutrition is mainly addressed from a pharmacological but not educational point of view. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement a nutritional education program (NEP) and to evaluate and compare its effectiveness in the treatment and prevention of malnutrition with oral supplementation (OS)-the standard treatment in these patients. This study was a longitudinal, 4-month prospective study. The study was conducted from January to May 2012 in the Hemodialysis Fresenius Medical Care Clinic of Murcia. One hundred twenty patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis were randomly assigned to a NEP or to OS. Patients assigned to the NEP group followed an educational program for 4 months that aimed to improve general nutritional knowledge and included culinary recommendations and an elaboration of balanced menus. The OS group received a nutritional supplement during the hemodialysis procedure. The main outcome measure was certain biochemical markers of nutritional and metabolic status. Nutrition knowledge was also evaluated. After 4 months of intervention, nutritional knowledge was increased in all patients (P values, and other biochemical parameters improved significantly in both groups (P < .050 in all cases), although other parameters such as C-reactive protein were impaired only in the NEP group. The NEP was at least as effective as OS for preventing and even treating malnutrition in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis, improving their nutritional status, which may result in a long-term decrease in the mortality and morbidity of these patients. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of a community-based program for suicide prevention among elders with early-stage dementia: A controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Pill; Yang, Jinhyang

    The purpose of this study was to develop a small-group-focused suicide prevention program for elders with early-stage dementia and to assess its effects. This was a quasi-experimental study with a control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 62 elders diagnosed with early-stage dementia who were receiving care services at nine daycare centers in J City Korea participated in this study. The experimental group participated in the suicide prevention program twice a week for 5 weeks with a pretest and two posttests The developed suicide prevention program had a significant effect on the perceived health status, social support, depression, and suicidal ideation of elders with early-stage dementia. Nurses should integrate risk factors such as depression and protective factors such as health status and social support into a suicide prevention program. This community-based program in geriatric nursing practice can be effective in preventing suicide among elders with early-stage dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  18. Optimizing Water Allocation under Uncertain System Conditions for Water and Agriculture Future Scenarios in Alfeios River Basin (Greece—Part B: Fuzzy-Boundary Intervals Combined with Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Bekri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimal water allocation within a river basin still remains a great modeling challenge for engineers due to various hydrosystem complexities, parameter uncertainties and their interactions. Conventional deterministic optimization approaches have given their place to stochastic, fuzzy and interval-parameter programming approaches and their hybrid combinations for overcoming these difficulties. In many countries, including Mediterranean countries, water resources management is characterized by uncertain, imprecise and limited data because of the absence of permanent measuring systems, inefficient river monitoring and fragmentation of authority responsibilities. A fuzzy-boundary-interval linear programming methodology developed by Li et al. (2010 is selected and applied in the Alfeios river basin (Greece for optimal water allocation under uncertain system conditions. This methodology combines an ordinary multi-stage stochastic programming with uncertainties expressed as fuzzy-boundary intervals. Upper- and lower-bound solution intervals for optimized water allocation targets and probabilistic water allocations and shortages are estimated under a baseline scenario and four water and agricultural policy future scenarios for an optimistic and a pessimistic attitude of the decision makers. In this work, the uncertainty of the random water inflows is incorporated through the simultaneous generation of stochastic equal-probability hydrologic scenarios at various inflow positions instead of using a scenario-tree approach in the original methodology.

  19. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  20. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, P.S.A.; Oliveira, F.; Raupp, Fernanda M.P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which a...

  1. Site study plan for Upper Aquifer Hydrology Clusters, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas, 15 wells at 5 locations will be completed in the Ogallala Formation and Dockum Group. The purposes of the wells, which are called Upper Aquifer (2) establish background hydrologic and water quality conditions, (3) provide analysis, (4) monitor responses of the shallow hydrologic system to site activities and nearby pumpage for irrigation, (5) collect water samples from both saturated and unsaturated materials to help define recharge rates and ground-water flow patterns, (6) monitor variations on water quality, and (7) define ground-water resources near the site. The test wells will be installed during a 14-month period starting about 1-1/2 years after site characterization activities begin. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 44 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Myocutaneous pedicle flap combined with a free skin graft for upper eyelid reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter B

    2010-01-01

    Repair of large upper eyelid defects can be accomplished by both 1-stage and 2-stage techniques some of which are complicated and time consuming. I here present a simple 1-stage technique for upper eyelid reconstruction....

  3. Compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitite in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex (Scotland): Implications for chromitite petrogenesis and late-stage alteration in the upper mantle portion of a supra-subduction zone ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E. J.; O'Driscoll, B.; Lenaz, D.; Gertisser, R.; Kronz, A.

    2013-03-01

    The mantle sequence of the ~ 492 Ma Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC; Scotland) contains abundant compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitite bodies enclosed in elongate dunite lenses in the vicinity of the petrological Moho. Chromitite petrogenesis and late-stage alteration events recorded in these seams are examined here using petrography, mineral chemistry and crystal structural data. The resistant nature of Cr-spinel to serpentinisation and other late-stage alteration means that primary igneous compositions are preserved in unaltered crystal cores. Chromitite mineralogy and texture from five sampled localities at The Viels, Hagdale, Harold's Grave, Nikka Vord and Cliff reveal significant inter-pod chemical heterogeneity. The Cr-spinel mineral chemistry is consistent with supra-subduction zone melt extraction from the SOC peridotites. The occurrence of chromitite seams in the centres of the dunite lenses combined with variable Cr-spinel compositions at different chromitite seam localities supports a model of chromitite formation from spatially (and temporally?) fluctuating amounts of melt-rock interaction through channelised and/or porous melt flow. Pervasive serpentinisation of the SOC has led to the almost complete replacement of the primary (mantle) silicate mineral assemblages with serpentine (lizardite with minor chrysotile and antigorite). Magmatic sulphide (e.g., pentlandite) in dunite and chromitite is locally converted to reduced Ni-sulphide varieties (e.g., heazlewoodite and millerite). A post-serpentinisation (prograde) oxidisation event is recorded in the extensively altered Cliff chromitite seams in the west of the studied area, where chromitite Cr-spinel is extensively altered to ferritchromit. The ferritchromit may comprise > 50% of the volume of the Cliff Cr-spinels and contain appreciable quantities of 1-2 μm inclusions of sperrylite (PtAs2) and Ni-arsenide, signifying the coeval formation of these minerals with ferritchromit at

  4. Implementation of equity in resource allocation for regional earthquake risk mitigation using two-stage stochastic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mohammad R; Peyghaleh, Elnaz

    2015-03-01

    This article presents a new methodology to implement the concept of equity in regional earthquake risk mitigation programs using an optimization framework. It presents a framework that could be used by decisionmakers (government and authorities) to structure budget allocation strategy toward different seismic risk mitigation measures, i.e., structural retrofitting for different building structural types in different locations and planning horizons. A two-stage stochastic model is developed here to seek optimal mitigation measures based on minimizing mitigation expenditures, reconstruction expenditures, and especially large losses in highly seismically active countries. To consider fairness in the distribution of financial resources among different groups of people, the equity concept is incorporated using constraints in model formulation. These constraints limit inequity to the user-defined level to achieve the equity-efficiency tradeoff in the decision-making process. To present practical application of the proposed model, it is applied to a pilot area in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Building stocks, structural vulnerability functions, and regional seismic hazard characteristics are incorporated to compile a probabilistic seismic risk model for the pilot area. Results illustrate the variation of mitigation expenditures by location and structural type for buildings. These expenditures are sensitive to the amount of available budget and equity consideration for the constant risk aversion. Most significantly, equity is more easily achieved if the budget is unlimited. Conversely, increasing equity where the budget is limited decreases the efficiency. The risk-return tradeoff, equity-reconstruction expenditures tradeoff, and variation of per-capita expected earthquake loss in different income classes are also presented. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Evaluation of the prognostic value of Okuda, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program, and Japan Integrated Staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jinsil; Shim, Su Jung; Lee, Ik Jae; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of staging systems, as well as to identify the staging system with the best prognostic value, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: From 1992 to 2003, a total of 305 patients undergoing radiotherapy for HCC were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were classified before radiation therapy by the following systems: tumor-node-metastasis (TNM), Okuda, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), and Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) score. Cumulative survival rates were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method, and were statistically compared using the log-rank test. Results: Median survival time was 11 months. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates were 45.1%, 24.5%, 14.7%, 10.3%, and 6.4%, respectively. Significant differences in survival were observed between all TNM stages, between CLIP scores 2, 3 and 5, 6, as well as between JIS scores 1, 2, and 2, 3. Conclusions: Among the systems studied, the TNM staging approach appeared to be the best predictor of prognosis. Staging systems that reflect liver disease status (Okuda stage, CLIP, and JIS score) showed limitations in stratifying patients undergoing radiotherapy into different prognostic groups

  6. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stage 11 and 12. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, C.; Pazsit, I.; Demaziere, C.; Dahl, O.; Mileshina, L.

    2006-06-01

    This report describes the results obtained during Stage 11 and 12 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The long-term goals are elaborated in more detail in e.g. the Final Reports of stage 1 and 2 (SKI Report 95:14 and 96:50). Higher order eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the diffusion equation, describing a static core, have lost their significance when doing calculations in realistic systems, since there are usually made by nodal methods or other direct numerical techniques. However, there are situations when knowledge of the higher order modes is still useful. Such case is the separation of the global and regional flux oscillations in the case of BWR instability. Another case is the investigation of the stability properties of large inhomogeneous cores, which is usually quantified with the so-called eigenvalue separation, ES=1/k 1 - 1/k 0 where k 0 and k 1 , are the fundamental and first higher order eigenvalues, respectively. Numerical codes used for ICMF calculations usually do not have the option of calculating the higher order eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. In idealised systems, these can be calculated with semi-analytical methods. In order to get insight into the characteristics of the higher order eigenmodes of the neutron flux and the adjoint, these were calculated in a reflected homogeneous system with two-group theory. The adjoint eigenmodes are necessary if an orthogonality property needs to be used, such as the separation of the modes from a flux shape which is a sum of several eigenmodes. At the same time, the so-called numerical noise simulator, developed at the Dept., was extended such that it became suitable for the calculation of the higher order eigenmodes, both direct and adjoint ones. This simulator can treat real inhomogeneous cores, with an input deck compatible with that of SIMULATE. The simulator was used to calculate the eigenfunctions and

  7. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stage 11 and 12. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, C.; Pazsit, I.; Demaziere, C.; Dahl, O.; Mileshina, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2006-06-15

    This report describes the results obtained during Stage 11 and 12 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The long-term goals are elaborated in more detail in e.g. the Final Reports of stage 1 and 2 (SKI Report 95:14 and 96:50). Higher order eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the diffusion equation, describing a static core, have lost their significance when doing calculations in realistic systems, since there are usually made by nodal methods or other direct numerical techniques. However, there are situations when knowledge of the higher order modes is still useful. Such case is the separation of the global and regional flux oscillations in the case of BWR instability. Another case is the investigation of the stability properties of large inhomogeneous cores, which is usually quantified with the so-called eigenvalue separation, ES=1/k{sub 1} - 1/k{sub 0} where k{sub 0} and k{sub 1}, are the fundamental and first higher order eigenvalues, respectively. Numerical codes used for ICMF calculations usually do not have the option of calculating the higher order eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. In idealised systems, these can be calculated with semi-analytical methods. In order to get insight into the characteristics of the higher order eigenmodes of the neutron flux and the adjoint, these were calculated in a reflected homogeneous system with two-group theory. The adjoint eigenmodes are necessary if an orthogonality property needs to be used, such as the separation of the modes from a flux shape which is a sum of several eigenmodes. At the same time, the so-called numerical noise simulator, developed at the Dept., was extended such that it became suitable for the calculation of the higher order eigenmodes, both direct and adjoint ones. This simulator can treat real inhomogeneous cores, with an input deck compatible with that of SIMULATE. The simulator was used to calculate the

  8. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  9. Programmed cell death 6 interacting protein (PDCD6IP) and Rabenosyn-5 (ZFYVE20) are potential urinary biomarkers for upper gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husi, Holger; Skipworth, Richard J E; Cronshaw, Andrew; Stephens, Nathan A; Wackerhage, Henning; Greig, Carolyn; Fearon, Kenneth C H; Ross, James A

    2015-06-01

    Cancer of the upper digestive tract (uGI) is a major contributor to cancer-related death worldwide. Due to a rise in occurrence, together with poor survival rates and a lack of diagnostic or prognostic clinical assays, there is a clear need to establish molecular biomarkers. Initial assessment was performed on urine samples from 60 control and 60 uGI cancer patients using MS to establish a peak pattern or fingerprint model, which was validated by a further set of 59 samples. We detected 86 cluster peaks by MS above frequency and detection thresholds. Statistical testing and model building resulted in a peak profiling model of five relevant peaks with 88% overall sensitivity and 91% specificity, and overall correctness of 90%. High-resolution MS of 40 samples in the 2-10 kDa range resulted in 646 identified proteins, and pattern matching identified four of the five model peaks within significant parameters, namely programmed cell death 6 interacting protein (PDCD6IP/Alix/AIP1), Rabenosyn-5 (ZFYVE20), protein S100A8, and protein S100A9, of which the first two were validated by Western blotting. We demonstrate that MS analysis of human urine can identify lead biomarker candidates in uGI cancers, which makes this technique potentially useful in defining and consolidating biomarker patterns for uGI cancer screening. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Program plan for correction of US instrument degradation or failure in the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, G.S.; Chen, Y.S.; Shotkin, L.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents, as of September, 1986, the investigation of the failure or degradation of some of the advanced two-phase flow instruments supplied by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to the German Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF). These instruments include Tie-Plate Drag Bodies (DBs), Breakthrough Detectors (BTDs), Loop Drag Disc (DD) paddles, Fluid Distribution Grid (FDG) sensors, and Liquid Level Detector (LLD) sensors. The exact causes for these instrument degradations or failures are not known, but several potential causes have been identified. For DBs and BTDs, the primary mechanism for the degradation appears to be a leakage in the Inconel 600 strain gage encapsulation and the subsequent burnout of the strain gage elements. Excessive loads appear to be the cause of the degradation or failure of the drag discs. The degradation cause for most of the FDGs and LLDs may be either steam/water erosion or mechanical abrasion of the sapphire sensor tips. However, some of the FDG tips were found to be cracked also. The corrective actions are being directed towards identification of the primary causes for the instrument degradation or failure and methods of preventing recurrance and toward minimizing the impact on the test program. All possible action items are being reviewed to arrange them in terms of priority and the likelihood of success so that the best results can be obtained under the constraints of a fixed amount of resources and limited time

  11. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I of the upper limb - treatment based on Stress Loading Program: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sarturi Ponte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of an individual suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CPRS I becomes limited, because this syndrome causes signs and symptoms located in the affected limb, and may occur in other parts. From this premise, this study aims to present the contributions of Occupational Therapy and the Rehabilitation Stress Loading Program for a subject with CRPS I in the upper limb, attended by the Group of Pain from the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM, Rio Grande do Sul state. This research is characterized as a case study, experimental, which deals with pre and post occupational therapy intervention. The instruments used for data collection were the protocols of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH, the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM, the Visual Analogue Scale, and goniometry (EVA. After assessment, the subject was exposed to the treatment of compressive active resistive exercises; after this treatment was completed, the subject was reassessed. It was observed that the treatment applied has contributed to the reduction of the pain and to the improvement in the Range of Motion (ROM of the subject. The use of the stress protocol and active compression contributed significantly to the reduction of pain, ADM gain and occupational performance improvement.

  12. A hypothesis for the evolution of the upper layers of the neocortex through co-option of the olfactory cortex developmental program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLuzzati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is unique to mammals and its evolutionary origin is still highly debated. The neocortex is generated by the dorsal pallium ventricular zone, a germinative domain that in reptiles give rise to the dorsal cortex. Whether this latter allocortical structure contains homologues of all neocortical cell types it is unclear. Recently we described a population of DCX+/Tbr1+ cells that is specifically associated with the layer II of higher order areas of both the neocortex and of the more evolutionary conserved piriform cortex. In a reptile similar cells are present in the layer II of the olfactory cortex and the DVR but not in the dorsal cortex. These data are consistent with the proposal that the reptilian dorsal cortex is homologous only to the deep layers of the neocortex while the upper layers are a mammalian innovation. Based on our observations we extended these ideas by hypothesizing that this innovation was obtained by co-opting a lateral and/or ventral pallium developmental program. Interestingly, an analysis in the Allen brain atlas revealed a striking similarity in gene expression between neocortical layers II/III and piriform cortex. We thus propose a model in which the early neocortical column originated by the superposition of the lateral olfactory and dorsal cortex. This idea is consistent with previous hypotheses that the peri-allocortex (i.e insular and perirhinal cortex may represent the more ancient neocortical part. Our model may have also interesting implications in the study of sensory processing in both neocortex and piriform cortex. The great advances in deciphering the molecular logic of the amniote pallium developmental programs will hopefully enable to directly test our hypotheses in the next future.

  13. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  14. Improvement of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics by means of choreography at a stage of the specialized basic preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove experimentally the technique of improvement of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics by means of choreography at a stage of the specialized basic preparation. Material & Methods: the following methods of the research were used: theoretical analysis and synthesis of data of special scientific and methodical literature; pedagogical supervision; pedagogical testing; methods of mathematical statistics. 10 competitive programs of woman’s pair in acrobatics are analyzed before and after the pedagogical experiment. Results: the estimated results of the technique of execution of the competitive program of each woman’s pair separately were received on the basis of a rating scale of criterion of implementation of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics (Rules of FIG, 2013–2016. The dynamic of the level of the competitive program of each woman’s pair separately is defined. Conclusions: it is established that additional resources of choreography influence significantly the level of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics at a stage of the specialized basic preparation

  15. Stages of change of behavior in women on a multi-professional program for treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilaqua, Cheila Aparecida; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-10-10

    to ascertain the effectiveness of an intervention program in relation to anthropometric measurements and stage of readiness for behavioral change in women with excess weight. the intervention group (IG) was made up of 13 women, and the control group (CG), by 20. The intervention lasted 16 weeks, and included the practice of guided physical activity three times a week, and health education once a week. The application of the questionnaire on stage of readiness for behavioral change, and the anthropometric evaluations, were undertaken at two points - before and after the period of intervention. The statistical analysis involved tests of comparison and association. in general, at the first point, the participants in the two groups were predisposed to make changes in what they ate and in their physical activity. However, significant difference was only observed in relation to weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and readiness for change among the members of the intervention group. the intervention programmed was effective in weight loss, reduction of waist circumference and waist-hip ratio, and in changing behaviors related to the practicing of physical exercise and eating habits. verificar a efetividade de um programa de intervenção sobre medidas antropométricas e o estágio de prontidão para mudança de comportamento em mulheres com excesso de peso. o grupo intervenção (GI) foi constituído por 13 mulheres e o grupo controle por 20. A intervenção teve duração de 16 semanas e incluiu prática de atividade física orientada três vezes na semana e educação em saúde uma vez na semana. A aplicação do questionário de estágio de prontidão para mudança de comportamento e as avaliações antropométricas foram realizadas em dois momentos, antes e após o período de intervenção. A análise estatística envolveu testes de comparação e associação. em geral, no momento inicial, as participantes dos dois grupos estavam

  16. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stage 10. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaziere, C.; Pazsit, I.; Sunde, S.; Wright, J.

    2004-12-01

    This report constitutes Stage 10 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The program executed in Stage 10 consists of three parts and the work performed in each part is summarized below. A so-called 2-D 2-group neutron noise simulator was previously developed at the Department of Reactor Physics. This simulator is able to calculate the space-dependence of the neutron noise induced by localised or spatially-distributed absorbers of variable strength or by vibrating absorbers. These calculations are performed in the 2-group diffusion approximation and can treat an arbitrary heterogeneous 2-D system. The goal of the present investigation is to use the simulator for unfolding purposes, i.e. to reconstruct the noise source from the detector readings. This task is particularly challenging since the number of detectors available in a commercial PWR can be very low. In this study, five detectors are assumed to be present and evenly distributed in the core. Furthermore, only localised absorbers of variable strength are considered as perturbations. Numerical simulations were first carried out to verify that the space-dependent local and global components of the neutron noise were overwhelmingly large compared to the point-kinetic term of the neutron noise whose spatial structure does not depend on the position of the perturbation. The significance of the space-dependent global component is that its relaxation length is large enough, so that several neutron detectors can monitor it. Therefore, the neutron noise induced at the position of the detectors is itself a function of the position of the perturbation. Unfolding procedures could thus be considered. Prior to performing any unfolding, the type of the noise source has to be determined, since the algorithms developed in this report are based on the assumption of an absorber of variable strength. Such a noise source can also be

  17. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  18. Knowledge, skills, and behavior improvements on peer educators and low-income Hispanic participants after a stage of change-based bilingual nutrition education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J; Kendall, P

    2000-06-01

    A nutrition education program, entitled La Cocina Saludable, was designed according to the Stage of Change Model and implemented in ten southern Colorado counties. The objectives were to improve the nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors that lead to healthy lifestyles in a low-income Hispanic population. The content of the program included nutrition information designed to help mothers of preschool children provide for their children's nutritional needs. Previous studies suggest that low-income Hispanics often demonstrate low intakes of vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, and protein, and high rates of diabetes, obesity, and infections. Additionally, this population presents many obstacles for nutrition educators including limited resources, child care, transportation, time, language, culture, literacy, health beliefs, and, in some cases, the transient nature of the population. The program attempted to overcome these barriers by incorporating a flexible program format carried out by abuela (Hispanic grandmother) educators using the processes described in the Stage of Change Model. The program was evaluated using a knowledge, skills and behavior pre-test, post-test, and six-month follow-up survey on both the abuela educators as well as the actual class participants. Results of the peer education training sessions suggest that this type of training program can be effective in increasing the knowledge, skills, and behavior of peer educators as well as reduce need for retraining for educators who continuously teach classes. Additionally, the results suggest that this type of program can be effective in changing selected nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors leading to healthy lifestyles for low-income Hispanic mothers of preschool children.

  19. 76 FR 40497 - Medicare Program; Changes to the End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System for CY 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... problems accessing any of the Addenda to the proposed and final rules that are posted on the CMS Web site.... Statement of Need 3. Overall Impact B. Detailed Economic Analysis 1. CY 2012 End-Stage Renal Disease... transition) period during which ESRD facilities receive a blend of payments under the prior basic case-mix...

  20. 76 FR 18930 - Medicare Programs: Changes to the End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System Transition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Payment System Transition Budget-Neutrality Adjustment AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services... in the CY 2011 ESRD Prospective Payment System (PPS) final rule for renal dialysis services provided...-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System'', hereinafter, referred to as the CY 2011 ESRD PPS final...

  1. Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Based Nutrition Programming: Evidence for a New Approach in Regions with High Burden of Acute Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Sylvie; Bekele, Yodit; Yun, Oliver; Harczi, Géza; Ouannes, Marie; Shepherd, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background In therapeutic feeding programs (TFP), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) shows advantages over weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an independent criterion for screening children 6–59 months old. Here we report outcomes and treatment response from a TFP using MUAC ≤118 mm or oedema as sole admission criteria for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Methods Patient data from September 2007 to March 2009 for children admitted by MUAC ≤118 mm or oedema to a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) TFP in Burkina Faso were retrospectively analyzed. Analysis included anthropometric measurements at admission and discharge, program outcomes and treatment response. Results Of 24,792 patient outcomes analyzed, nearly half (48.8%; n = 12,090) were admitted with MUAC 116–118 mm. Most patients (88.7%; n = 21,983) were 6–24 months old. At admission, 52.7% (n = 5,041) of those with MUAC 116–118 mm had a WHZ <−3 SD. At discharge, 89.1% (n = 22,094) recovered (15% weight gain or oedema resolution), 7.9% (n = 1,961) defaulted, 1.5% (n = 384) failed to respond to treatment, and 1.0% (n = 260) died. Average weight gain was 5.4 g/kg/day, and average MUAC gain was 0.42 mm/day. Patients with MUAC ≤114 mm at admission had higher average daily weight and MUAC gains at discharge compared to those admitted with MUAC 116–118 mm, but those in the latter category required longer lengths of stay to achieve recovery (P<0.001). Conclusion This analysis suggests that MUAC ≤118 mm as TFP admission criterion is a useful alternative to WHZ. Regarding treatment response, rates of weight and MUAC gain were acceptable. Applying 15% weight gain as discharge criterion resulted in longer lengths of stay for less malnourished children. Since MUAC gain parallels weight gain, it may be feasible to use MUAC as both an admission and discharge criterion. PMID:23189140

  2. Simulator program as a form of implementation of electronic teaching tools for self-study of foreign students at the stage of pre-university training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy O. Savel'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions of empowerment the organization of classroom and extracurricular self-study of foreign students at the stage of pre-university training through the implementation of electronic teaching tools as a component of computer training facilities in educational process are considered. Classification of modern electronic teaching tools as a component of computer hardware training, developed on the basis of modern information and communication technologies is offered. Version of program-simulator "Introductory course" is offered. The program is created by means of WEB-programming and uses training material of introductory course. Introductory course is one of the most important elements of teaching of scientific style of speech within the language training for the foreign students at the preparatory faculty.

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit (USAW) was investigated from November 2006 through March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Upper Santa Ana Watershed study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within USAW, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. Ninety of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Nine wells were selected to provide additional understanding of specific water-quality issues identified within the basin (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Dissolved gases, and isotopes of nitrogen gas and of dissolved nitrate also were measured in order to investigate the sources and occurrence of

  4. Compliance to consensus recommendations, surgeon's experience, and introduction of a quality assurance and management program: influence on therapy of early-stage ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommoss, Stefan; Harter, Philipp; Traut, Alexander; Strutas, Deivis; Riegler, Nina; Buhrmann, Christine; Gomez, Ruth; du Bois, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    State-of-the-art surgical staging and adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage ovarian carcinoma have an impact on patient's outcome, but compliance to guidelines and consensus recommendations is still poor. This article reports on our results before and after introduction of a quality assurance and management program in our clinic in 2001. Patients with ovarian carcinoma limited to the pelvis who underwent primary surgery in our hospital from 1997 to October 2007 were eligible for this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of compliance with our management program and physician's experience in ovarian carcinoma surgery on achieving both standards of surgery and chemotherapy. In a total of 117 women, a significant impact on adherence to guideline-defined comprehensive surgical staging was found for poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (odds ratio [OR], 22.16; confidence interval [CI] 3.2-152.0; P = 0.002) and year of surgery before 2001 (OR, 47.60; CI, 9.20-245.22; P grading less than G3 (OR, 4.14; CI, 1.20-14.22; P = 0.02) was a statistically significant predictor for receiving standard adjuvant chemotherapy. Survival analyses showed a trend toward improved survival for patients having received guideline-adopted therapy, but event numbers were too low for adequate analyses. The introduction of a quality assurance program for treatment of ovarian carcinoma represents a major improvement of patient care. It led to a higher compliance with consensus recommendations and showed already a trend toward improved outcome. Further outcome research should focus on methods for implementation of guidelines in daily practice in institutions caring for patients with ovarian carcinoma.

  5. End-Stage Renal Disease Outcomes among the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Creatinine Safety Program (Creatinine SureNet): Opportunities to Reflect and Improve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J; Batech, Michael; Danforth, Kim N; Rutkowski, Mark P; Jacobsen, Steven J; Kanter, Michael H

    2017-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) creatinine safety program (Creatinine SureNet) identifies and outreaches to thousands of people annually who may have had a missed diagnosis for chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to determine the value of this outpatient program and evaluate opportunities for improvement. Longitudinal cohort study (February 2010 through December 2015) of KPSC members captured into the creatinine safety program who were characterized using demographics, laboratory results, and different estimations of glomerular filtration rate. Age- and sex-adjusted rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were compared with those in the overall KPSC population. Among 12,394 individuals, 83 (0.7%) reached ESRD. The age- and sex-adjusted relative risk of ESRD was 2.7 times higher compared with the KPSC general population during the same period (94.7 vs 35.4 per 100,000 person-years; p creatinine measurements, only 13% had a urine study performed (32% among patients with confirmed CKD). Our study found a higher incidence of ESRD among individuals captured into the KPSC creatinine safety program. If the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation were used, fewer people would have been captured while improving the accuracy for diagnosing CKD. Urine testing was low even among patients with confirmed CKD. Our findings demonstrate the importance of a creatinine safety net program in an integrated health system but also suggest opportunities to improve CKD care and screening.

  6. Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Elvira

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

  7. LHC@home takes centre stage : some of the people behind the CPSS and LHC@home programs

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Frank Schmidt (AB), Jukka Klem (Helsinki Institute of Physics), Andreas Wagner (IT), Eric McIntosh (IT) and Ben Segal (IT). The program of LHC@home, which aims to use the computing power of PCs when the screen saver is activated, is being relauched as part of the World Year of Physics.

  8. PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY REPLENISHMENT CONTROL FOR A TWO-ECHELON LOGISTICS NETWORK UNDER DEMAND UNCERTAINTY: A TWO-STAGE STOCHASTIC PROGRAMING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.A. Cunha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we propose a novel methodology for replenishment and control systems for inventories of two-echelon logistics networks using a two-stage stochastic programming, considering periodic review and uncertain demands. In addition, to achieve better customer services, we introduce a variable rationing rule to address quantities of the item in short. The devised models are reformulated into their deterministic equivalent, resulting in nonlinear mixed-integer programming models, which are then approximately linearized. To deal with the uncertain nature of the item demand levels, we apply a Monte Carlo simulation-based method to generate finite and discrete sets of scenarios. Moreover, the proposed approach does not require restricted assumptions to the behavior of the probabilistic phenomena, as does several existing methods in the literature. Numerical experiments with the proposed approach for randomly generated instances of the problem show results with errors around 1%.

  9. [Development of an integrative cognitive rehabilitation program for brain injured patients in the post-acute stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young Ran; Seo, Wha Sook; Seo, Yeon Ok

    2005-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation program that can be easily applied to brain injured patients by family members or nurses in community or hospital settings. A Systemic literature review design was used. Thirty-three related studies were reviewed. Based on the results of the literature review, the training tasks for attention were designated to enhancing 4 hierarchical areas, i.e., focused, selective, alternating, and divided attention. On the other hand, the memory rehabilitation tasks mainly consisted of mnemonic skills, such as the association method which helps patients memorize given information by linking together common attributes, the visual imagery method, and self-instruction method. The problem solving rehabilitation program included a task of games or plays which stimulated the patients' curiosity and interest. The training tasks for problem solving were to encourage the process of deriving reasonable solutions for a problematic situation resembling real problems that the patients were faced with in their everyday life. It is expected that the cognitive rehabilitation program developed from this study could help patients having difficulty in their every day life, due to a reduced cognitive ability resulting from brain injury, to effectively adapt to every day life.

  10. Tool for evaluating the evolution Space Weather Regional Warning Centers under the innovation point of view: the Case Study of the Embrace Space Weather Program Early Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a tool for measuring the evolutional stage of the space weather regional warning centers using the approach of the innovative evolution starting from the perspective presented by Figueiredo (2009, Innovation Management: Concepts, metrics and experiences of companies in Brazil. Publisher LTC, Rio de Janeiro - RJ). It is based on measuring the stock of technological skills needed to perform a certain task that is (or should) be part of the scope of a space weather center. It also addresses the technological capacity for innovation considering the accumulation of technological and learning capabilities, instead of the usual international indices like number of registered patents. Based on this definition, we have developed a model for measuring the capabilities of the Brazilian Study and Monitoring Program Space Weather (Embrace), a program of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has gone through three national stages of development and an international validation step. This program was created in 2007 encompassing competence from five divisions of INPE in order to carry out the data collection and maintenance of the observing system in space weather; to model processes of the Sun-Earth system; to provide real-time information and to forecast space weather; and provide diagnostic their effects on different technological systems. In the present work, we considered the issues related to the innovation of micro-processes inherent to the nature of the Embrace program, not the macro-economic processes, despite recognizing the importance of these. During the development phase, the model was submitted to five scientists/managers from five different countries member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) who presented their evaluations, concerns and suggestions. It was applied to the Embrace program through an interview form developed to be answered by professional members of regional warning centers. Based on the returning

  11. Research program in reactor core diagnostics with neutron noise methods: Stage 3. Final report; Forskningsprogram angaaende haerddiagnostik med neutronbrusmetoder. Etapp 3. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, I.; Garis, N.S.; Karlsson, J.; Racz, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor Physics

    1997-09-01

    Stage 3 of the program has been executed 96-04-12. The long term goal is to develop noise methods for identification and localization of perturbations in reactor cores. The main parts of the program consist of modelling the noise source, calculation of the space- and frequency dependent transfer function, calculation of the neutron noise via a convolution of the transfer function of the system and the noise source, i.e. the perturbation, and finally finding an inversion or unfolding procedure to determine noise source parameters from the neutron noise. Most previous work is based on very simple (analytical) reactor models for the calculation of the transfer function as well as analytical unfolding methods. The purpose of this project is to calculate the transfer function in a more realistic model as well as elaborating powerful inversion methods that do not require analytical transfer functions. The work in stage 3 is described under the following headlines: Further investigation of simplified models for the calculation of the neutron noise; Further investigation of methods based on neural networks; Further investigation of methods for detecting the vibrations and impacting of detectors; Application of static codes for determination of the neutron noise using the adiabatic approximation. 12 refs, 18 figs.

  12. Risk-Based Two-Stage Stochastic Optimization Problem of Micro-Grid Operation with Renewables and Incentive-Based Demand Response Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Sheikhahmadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The operation problem of a micro-grid (MG in grid-connected mode is an optimization one in which the main objective of the MG operator (MGO is to minimize the operation cost with optimal scheduling of resources and optimal trading energy with the main grid. The MGO can use incentive-based demand response programs (DRPs to pay an incentive to the consumers to change their demands in the peak hours. Moreover, the MGO forecasts the output power of renewable energy resources (RERs and models their uncertainties in its problem. In this paper, the operation problem of an MGO is modeled as a risk-based two-stage stochastic optimization problem. To model the uncertainties of RERs, two-stage stochastic programming is considered and conditional value at risk (CVaR index is used to manage the MGO’s risk-level. Moreover, the non-linear economic models of incentive-based DRPs are used by the MGO to change the peak load. The numerical studies are done to investigate the effect of incentive-based DRPs on the operation problem of the MGO. Moreover, to show the effect of the risk-averse parameter on MGO decisions, a sensitivity analysis is carried out.

  13. A novel two-stage stochastic programming model for uncertainty characterization in short-term optimal strategy for a distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Abdollah; Charwand, Mansour; Siano, Pierluigi; Nezhad, Ali Esmaeel; Sarno, Debora; Gitizadeh, Mohsen; Raeisi, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    In order to supply the demands of the end users in a competitive market, a distribution company purchases energy from the wholesale market while other options would be in access in the case of possessing distributed generation units and interruptible loads. In this regard, this study presents a two-stage stochastic programming model for a distribution company energy acquisition market model to manage the involvement of different electric energy resources characterized by uncertainties with the minimum cost. In particular, the distribution company operations planning over a day-ahead horizon is modeled as a stochastic mathematical optimization, with the objective of minimizing costs. By this, distribution company decisions on grid purchase, owned distributed generation units and interruptible load scheduling are determined. Then, these decisions are considered as boundary constraints to a second step, which deals with distribution company's operations in the hour-ahead market with the objective of minimizing the short-term cost. The uncertainties in spot market prices and wind speed are modeled by means of probability distribution functions of their forecast errors and the roulette wheel mechanism and lattice Monte Carlo simulation are used to generate scenarios. Numerical results show the capability of the proposed method. - Highlights: • Proposing a new a stochastic-based two-stage operations framework in retail competitive markets. • Proposing a Mixed Integer Non-Linear stochastic programming. • Employing roulette wheel mechanism and Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation.

  14. Teen Dating Violence Prevention: Cluster-Randomized Trial of Teen Choices, an Online, Stage-Based Program for Healthy, Nonviolent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Deborah A; Johnson, Janet L; Welch, Carol A; Prochaska, Janice M; Paiva, Andrea L

    2016-07-01

    Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of Teen Choices , a 3-session online program that delivers assessments and individualized guidance matched to dating history, dating violence experiences, and stage of readiness for using healthy relationship skills. For high risk victims of dating violence, the program addresses readiness to keep oneself safe in relationships. Twenty high schools were randomly assigned to the Teen Choices condition ( n =2,000) or a Comparison condition ( n =1,901). Emotional and physical dating violence victimization and perpetration were assessed at 6 and 12 months in the subset of participants (total n =2,605) who reported a past-year history of dating violence at baseline, and/or who dated during the study. The Teen Choices program was associated with significantly reduced odds of all four types of dating violence (adjusted ORs ranging from .45 to .63 at 12 months follow-up). For three of the four violence outcomes, participants with a past-year history of that type of violence benefited significantly more from the intervention than students without a past-year history. The Teen Choices program provides an effective and practicable strategy for intervention for teen dating violence prevention.

  15. Cardiovascular risk and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis: sleep study, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life: a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Santos, Israel; Danaga, Aline Roberta; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Dias, Ismael Souza; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Martins, Aline Almeida; Ferraz, Leonardo Macario; Fonsêca, Nina Teixeira; Fernandes, Virgilio; Fernandes, Vinicius Alves Thomaz; Lopes, Viviane Cristina Delgado; Leitão Filho, Fernando Sérgio Studart; Nacif, Sérgio Roberto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Giannasi, Lílian Christiane; Romano, Salvatore; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Araujo, Ana Karina Fachini; Dellê, Humberto; Souza, Nadia Karina Guimarães; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2013-10-08

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height(2); circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian

  16. The role of stages in designing English syllabus development for the students of electrical engineering study program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imron, Aly

    2017-09-01

    Developing syllabus is badly needed to anticipate the quick progress of the educational era and revision of the existing one when it is considered not to meet a demand of clearness, efficiency, and pedagogic view. Polytechnic education product goes professional worker`s candidate in the workplace. Therefore, the subject given is designed as proper as possible which is closely and in line with the job place. The research problem is stated with: what is the suitable English syllabus for the technical student by using communicative approach. The method used consists of some stages, namely: 1. Doing the needs survey; 2. Deciding the purpose of the course; 3. Choosing the syllabus type; 4. Writing the proto syllabus; 5. Writing syllabus product for the technical students; 6. Expect validation and revising; and 7. Implementation of class procedure and revising the final product. The research uses the questionnaire and interview for collecting the data. The result shows that the syllabus developed are appropriate based on the input from students, teachers, subject specialist, and reviewer.

  17. A production planning model considering uncertain demand using two-stage stochastic programming in a fresh vegetable supply chain context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jordi; Pla, Lluis M; Solsona, Francesc; Pagès, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Production planning models are achieving more interest for being used in the primary sector of the economy. The proposed model relies on the formulation of a location model representing a set of farms susceptible of being selected by a grocery shop brand to supply local fresh products under seasonal contracts. The main aim is to minimize overall procurement costs and meet future demand. This kind of problem is rather common in fresh vegetable supply chains where producers are located in proximity either to processing plants or retailers. The proposed two-stage stochastic model determines which suppliers should be selected for production contracts to ensure high quality products and minimal time from farm-to-table. Moreover, Lagrangian relaxation and parallel computing algorithms are proposed to solve these instances efficiently in a reasonable computational time. The results obtained show computational gains from our algorithmic proposals in front of the usage of plain CPLEX solver. Furthermore, the results ensure the competitive advantages of using the proposed model by purchase managers in the fresh vegetables industry.

  18. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance

  19. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-10-03

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance.

  20. The "Romsås in Motion" community intervention: program exposure and psychosocial mediated relationships to change in stages of change in physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenum Anne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting process evaluations of health promoting interventions, and measuring the effectiveness of specific intervention components, may help in the understanding of program failure or success. The purposes of the present study were to examine adults' exposure to and involvement in specific components of a three year long pseudo-experimental community-based physical activity intervention, and to examine the relationship between such exposure and participation and changes in stages of change in physical activity and psychosocial mediators. Methods 1497 persons in the intervention group attended the baseline survey in 2000 (50.6% and 1204 (80.4 of baseline attendees provided data on the outcome variables of the present study. In 2003, 1089 were still living in the area, and were re-invited to follow-up assessments. Current analyses are based on the 603 persons (mean age 49 ± 10 years who provided baseline and follow-up data for the current purposes (56.6% follow-up rate. Process data, stages of change in physical activity, and potential psychosocial mediators of change in physical activity were assessed by questionnaires. The theory-based intervention was composed of communication, physical activity, environmental and participatory components. Data were analysed using frequency and descriptive statistics, Chi-square and t-tests, and regression analyses. Results Exposure and participation rates in the various intervention components varied greatly (1.5–92.7%. Participation in walking groups and aerobic exercise groups, as well as having seen the "Walk the stairs"-poster were significantly and positively related to change in stages of change in physical activity (β = .12, p = .011; β = .211, p Conclusion Findings revealed that particular intervention components, such as participation in physical activity groups, were more strongly related to forward transition in stages of change in physical activity than others. These

  1. A discussion for the evolution model of Pb isotope of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and its interpretation to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kaixing; Hu Ruizhong; Bi Xianwu; Zhang Qian; Peng Jiantang

    2003-01-01

    Thirty Pb isotope data of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan have the similar trends with the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves but apparently deviate from it on the lead isotope composition programs, which may suggest Pb isotope of the upper mantle in the area of western Yunnan might have two stage evolution history though not fit very well to the Stacey-Kramers' two stage model growth curves. In this paper, a two-stage growth curves which can better fit the Pb isotope data was constructed based on the lead isotope data of the upper mantle in western Yunnan and the principle that Stacey and Kramers constructed the two-stage model and a reasonable interpretation was given to the lead isotopic compositions of the regional alkali-rich porphyries and their related rocks using the model. (authors)

  2. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  3. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  4. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  5. Upper atmosphere research at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemesha, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Upper atmosphere research at INPE is mainly concerned with the chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere, upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and the middle thermosphere. Experimental work includes lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol, measurements of stratospheric ozone by Dobson spectrophotometers and by balloon and rocket-borne sondes, lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium, and photometric observations of O, O 2 , OH and Na emissions, including interferrometric measurements of the OI6300 emission for the purpose of determing thermospheric winds and temperature. The airglow observations also include measurements of a number of emissions produced by the precipitation of energetic neutral particles generated by charge exchange in the ring current. Some recent results of INPE's upper atmosphere program are presented. (Author) [pt

  6. Upper plenum mixing in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Parameswaran, V.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the emergency core cooling injection into the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor has been formulated and implemented into the TRACB02 computer program. The model consists of a spray model and a submerged jet model. The submerged jet model is used when the spray nozzles are covered by a two-phase mixture, and the spray model is used when the nozzles are uncovered. The upper plenum model has been assessed by comparison to an upper plenum mixing test in the Steam Sector Test Facility. It is found that the model accurately predicts the phenomena in the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor

  7. Implementation of the Blended Care Self-Management Program for Caregivers of People With Early-Stage Dementia (Partner in Balance): Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Lizzy Mm; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Smeets, Claudia Mj; Kempen, Gertrudis Ijm; Verhey, Frans Rj

    2017-12-19

    Caring for a family member with dementia puts caregivers at risk of overburdening. Electronic health (eHealth) support for caregivers offers an opportunity for accessible tailored interventions. The blended care self-management program "Partner in Balance" (PiB) for early-stage dementia caregivers was executed in Dutch dementia care organizations. The program combines face-to-face coaching with tailored Web-based modules. Next to an evaluation of program effectiveness, an evaluation of sampling and intervention quality is essential for the generalizability and interpretation of results. The aim of this study was to describe the process evaluation from the perspective of both family caregivers (participants) and professionals delivering the intervention (coaches) to determine internal and external validity before the effect analysis and aid future implementation. Implementation, sampling, and intervention quality were evaluated with quantitative and qualitative data from logistical research data, coach questionnaires (n=13), and interviews with coaches (n=10) and participants (n=49). Goal attainment scaling was used to measure treatment-induced change. Analyses were performed with descriptive statistics and deductive content analysis. The participation rate of eligible caregivers was 51.9% (80/154). Recruitment barriers were lack of computer and lack of need for support. Young age and employment were considered recruitment facilitators. All coaches attended training and supervision in blended care self-management. Deviations from the structured protocol were reported on intervention time, structure, and feedback. Coaches described an intensified relationship with the caregiver post intervention. Caregivers appreciated the tailored content and positive feedback. The blended structure increased their openness. The discussion forum was appreciated less. Overall, personal goals were attained after the program (T>50). Implementation barriers included lack of financing

  8. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  9. The Community Mentorship Program: Providing Community-Engagement Opportunities for Early-Stage Clinical and Translational Scientists to Facilitate Research Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Cecilia M; Kubicek, Katrina; Robles, Marisela; Kiger, Holly; Dzekov, Jeanne

    2017-02-01

    A goal of the Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute (SC-CTSI) at the University of Southern California and Children's Hospital Los Angeles is to train early-stage clinical and translational scientists (CTSs) to conduct research that improves the health of diverse communities. This goal aligns well with the Institute of Medicine's recommendations emphasizing community engagement in biomedical research that facilitates research translation. The Community Mentorship Program (CMP), created to complement community-engaged research didactics, matches CTSs with community mentors who help them identify and complete community-engaged experiences that inform their research. The CMP was piloted in 2013-2015 by the SC-CTSI Workforce Development and Community Engagement cores. The CMP team matched three CTSs (assistant professors pursuing mentored career development awards) with mentors at community-based organizations (CBOs) aligned with their research interests. Each mentor-mentee pair signed a memorandum of understanding. The CMP team checked in regularly, monitoring progress and addressing challenges in CTSs' completion of their community-engaged experience. Each pair completed at least one community-engaged activity informing the CTS's research. In exit interviews, the CTSs and CBO mentors expressed satisfaction with the program and stated that they would continue to work together. The CTSs reported that the program provided opportunities to develop networks outside academia, build trust within the community, and receive feedback and learn from individuals in communities affected by their research. The CMP will be expanded to include all eligible early-career CTSs and promoted for use in similar settings outside the SC-CTSI.

  10. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  11. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Graduate Student Program. [FIRE CIRRUS-II examination of coupling between an upper tropospheric cloud system and synoptic-scale dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

  12. Efficacy of a multimodal rehabilitation program in a dental hygienist with upper quadrant disorders. Description of a case report with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, S; Monticone, M

    2009-01-01

    Many musculoskeletal disorders are work-related. For the success of treatment, it is essential to promptly recognize these cases and introduce a specific intervention able to act on the causes. In Literature many activities predisposing workers to incorrect posture and long maintained attitudes are highlighted. The professionals involved in dental hygiene are among these. For these patients it is not sufficient to just reduce pain, but it is necessary to have a broader approach to rehabilitation, which can also act on neuromuscular imbalances induced by work. The article describes the case of a dental hygienist with upper quadrant disorders treated by physiotherapy and education. Particular importance during treatment was given to postural re-education. The treatment lasted two months (8 sessions, 1 session per week). The outcomes introduced were Visual Analogue Scale, VAS (70/100 at the beginning and 0/100 at the end of treatment) and Neck Pain and Disability Scale, NPDS (62.5/100 at the beginning and 3/100 at the end of treatment); at 12-month follow-up, VAS was 10/100 and NPDS was 19/100. A multimodal rehabilitation, with emphasis to musculoskeletal imbalance correction, proved to be useful in a patient who maintained prolonged flexion and rotation of the spine, front shoulder closure, and arm suspension due to occupational daily activities. The improvements lasted over time.

  13. A decision rule based on goal programming and one-stage models for uncertain multi-criteria mixed decision making and games against nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gaspars-Wieloch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with games against nature and multi-criteria decision making under uncertainty along with scenario planning. We focus on decision problems where a deterministic evaluation of criteria is not possible. The procedure we propose is based on weighted goal programming and may be applied when seeking a mixed strategy. A mixed strategy allows the decision maker to select and perform a weighted combination of several accessible alternatives. The new method takes into consideration the decision maker’s preference structure (importance of particular goals and nature (pessimistic, moderate or optimistic attitude towards a given problem. It is designed for one-shot decisions made under uncertainty with unknown probabilities (frequencies, i.e. for decision making under complete uncertainty or decision making under strategic uncertainty. The procedure refers to one-stage models, i.e. models considering combinations of scenarios and criteria (scenario-criterion pairs as distinct meta-attributes, which means that the novel approach can be used in the case of totally independent payoff matrices for particular targets. The algorithm does not require any information about frequencies, which is especially desirable for new decision problems. It can be successfully applied by passive decision makers, as only criteria weights and the coefficient of optimism have to be declared.

  14. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  15. Upper Atmosphere Research Report Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-12-30

    as a whol,. The history of the program was given in some detail in the first report*. The part of the Naval Research Laboratory in upper atmosphere...5B and 6. The third gage was installed as a service to the spectroscopy program. The gago elements were simply 6 watt, 110 volt Mazda pilot *1 lamps

  16. Lathlike upper bainite in a silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Zhao Zhenbo; Bhole, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of upper bainite formed isothermally at 400 deg. C for different holding times in a 1.83 wt.% silicon steel have been investigated by optical metallograph, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the early stage of upper bainitic transformation, lathlike bainite whose individual lath ferrite is separated by the thin film type of retained austenite is obtained. As the isothermal holding times are increased, the blocky region consisting of retained austenite and martensite is also found. The stability of retained austenite in lathlike upper bainite is studied in relation to the isothermal treatment times, and the heat treatment conditions. The results show that an optimum combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the formation of bainitic ferrite (BF) and a large amount of thin film carbon-enriched retained austenite in the upper bainite

  17. Stage theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)

  18. Optimal Land Use Management for Soil Erosion Control by Using an Interval-Parameter Fuzzy Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guo-He; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and public health problems, and such land degradation can be effectively mitigated through performing land use transitions across a watershed. Optimal land use management can thus provide a way to reduce soil erosion while achieving the maximum net benefit. However, optimized land use allocation schemes are not always successful since uncertainties pertaining to soil erosion control are not well presented. This study applied an interval-parameter fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming approach to generate optimal land use planning strategies for soil erosion control based on an inexact optimization framework, in which various uncertainties were reflected. The modeling approach can incorporate predefined soil erosion control policies, and address inherent system uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals, fuzzy sets, and probability distributions. The developed model was demonstrated through a case study in the Xiangxi River watershed, China's Three Gorges Reservoir region. Land use transformations were employed as decision variables, and based on these, the land use change dynamics were yielded for a 15-year planning horizon. Finally, the maximum net economic benefit with an interval value of [1.197, 6.311] × 109 was obtained as well as corresponding land use allocations in the three planning periods. Also, the resulting soil erosion amount was found to be decreased and controlled at a tolerable level over the watershed. Thus, results confirm that the developed model is a useful tool for implementing land use management as not only does it allow local decision makers to optimize land use allocation, but can also help to answer how to accomplish land use changes.

  19. Optimal land use management for soil erosion control by using an interval-parameter fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guo-He; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and public health problems, and such land degradation can be effectively mitigated through performing land use transitions across a watershed. Optimal land use management can thus provide a way to reduce soil erosion while achieving the maximum net benefit. However, optimized land use allocation schemes are not always successful since uncertainties pertaining to soil erosion control are not well presented. This study applied an interval-parameter fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming approach to generate optimal land use planning strategies for soil erosion control based on an inexact optimization framework, in which various uncertainties were reflected. The modeling approach can incorporate predefined soil erosion control policies, and address inherent system uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals, fuzzy sets, and probability distributions. The developed model was demonstrated through a case study in the Xiangxi River watershed, China's Three Gorges Reservoir region. Land use transformations were employed as decision variables, and based on these, the land use change dynamics were yielded for a 15-year planning horizon. Finally, the maximum net economic benefit with an interval value of [1.197, 6.311] × 10(9) $ was obtained as well as corresponding land use allocations in the three planning periods. Also, the resulting soil erosion amount was found to be decreased and controlled at a tolerable level over the watershed. Thus, results confirm that the developed model is a useful tool for implementing land use management as not only does it allow local decision makers to optimize land use allocation, but can also help to answer how to accomplish land use changes.

  20. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  1. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  2. The effects of a 12-week program of static upper extremity weight bearing exercises on weight bearing in children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The  major  objective  of  this  study  was  to  quantify  the  effects  of a  12-week  program  of  weight  bearing  exercises  on  weight  borne  through  the hand and grip pressures in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. This study also sought to monitor the change in spasticity immediately following weight-bearing  exercises.  A  quasi-experimental,  one  group  pre-test,  post-test  study  was used. Eleven children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy from a special school in KwaZulu Natal participated after fully informed written consent. The intervention consisted of a 12-week program of weight bearing. The Tekscan Grip system was used to quantify weight borne through the hand during extended arm prone and quadruped positions and whilst holding a pencil and a tumbler. The modified Ashworth grading of spasticity was used to monitor spasticity. The data was analysed using the random effects GLS model Wald Chi Square test. Significant increases in contact pressure in extended arms prone (p=0,012 and quadruped (p=0,002 and when holding a pencil (p=0,045 was noted post-test compared to pre-test. Significant increases in contact area of the hand was also noted in prone (p=0,000, quadruped (p=0, 03 at assessment 7 and when holding a pencil (p=0,035.  A significant decrease in spasticity during elbow extension (p=0,004, and wrist flexion (p=0,026 and extension (p=0,004 was noted. An overall significant effect of static weight bearing exercises on weight borne through the hands, grip strength and spasticity justifies the use of static weight-bearing in therapy.

  3. Optimal and centralized reservoir management for drought and flood protection via Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming on the Upper Seine-Aube River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavico, Mattia; Raso, Luciano; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seine river region is an extremely important logistic and economic junction for France and Europe. The hydraulic protection of most part of the region relies on four controlled reservoirs, managed by EPTB Seine-Grands Lacs. Presently, reservoirs operation is not centrally coordinated, and release rules are based on empirical filling curves. In this study, we analyze how a centralized release policy can face flood and drought risks, optimizing water system efficiency. The optimal and centralized decisional problem is solved by Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) method, minimizing an operational indicator for each planning objective. SDDP allows us to include into the system: 1) the hydrological discharge, specifically a stochastic semi-distributed auto-regressive model, 2) the hydraulic transfer model, represented by a linear lag and route model, and 3) reservoirs and diversions. The novelty of this study lies on the combination of reservoir and hydraulic models in SDDP for flood and drought protection problems. The study case covers the Seine basin until the confluence with Aube River: this system includes two reservoirs, the city of Troyes, and the Nuclear power plant of Nogent-Sur-Seine. The conflict between the interests of flood protection, drought protection, water use and ecology leads to analyze the environmental system in a Multi-Objective perspective.

  4. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  5. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  6. Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) Integral Structure Development Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, Jim; Hamilton, Brent; Burton, Randy; Crockett, Dave; Taylor, Zach

    2004-01-01

    .... AFRL/VS is developing a wide range of tank concepts that include linerless cryogenic tankage, self-healing cryogenic tankage, hydrogen peroxide compatible tankage, volumetrically efficient toroidal (donut shaped...

  7. Deployable Drag Device for Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Deorbit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the biggest problems facing spaceflight today is the accumulation of orbital debris because it threatens the successful operation and lifespan of existing...

  8. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6.89 kPa (1psi) band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Complete destratification of the liquid and ullage was achieved at these fill levels. The axial jet was effective in providing tank pressure control within the same pressure control band at the 90% fill level. However, at the 50% level, the system reached a point at which it was unable to extract enough energy to keep up with the heat leak into the tank. Due to a hardware problem, the recirculation pump operated well below the axial jet design flow rate. Therefore, it is likely that the performance of the axial jet would have improved had the pump operated at the proper flow rate. A CFD model is being used to determine if the desired axial jet performance would be achieved if a higher pump flow rate were available. Testing conducted thus far has demonstrated that both TVS concepts can be effective in destratifying a propellant tank, rejecting stored heat energy, and thus, controlling tank pressure.

  9. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  10. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  11. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  13. Dental Age Estimation (DAE): Data management for tooth development stages including the third molar. Appropriate censoring of Stage H, the final stage of tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Lucas, Victoria S

    2015-11-01

    The final stage of dental development of third molars is usually helpful to indicate whether or not a subject is aged over 18 years. A complexity is that the final stage of development is unlimited in its upper border. Investigators usually select an inappropriate upper age limit or censor point for this tooth development stage. The literature was searched for appropriate data sets for dental age estimation and those that provided the count (n), the mean (x¯), and the standard deviation (sd) for each of the tooth development stages. The Demirjian G and Demirjian H were used for this study. Upper and lower limits of the Stage G and Stage H data were calculated limiting the data to plus or minus three standard deviations from the mean. The upper border of Stage H was limited by appropriate censoring at the maximum value for Stage G. The maximum age at attainment from published data, for Stage H, ranged from 22.60 years to 34.50 years. These data were explored to demonstrate how censoring provides an estimate for the correct maximum age for the final stage of Stage H as 21.64 years for UK Caucasians. This study shows that confining the data array of individual tooth developments stages to ± 3sd provides a reliable and logical way of censoring the data for tooth development stages with a Normal distribution of data. For Stage H this is inappropriate as it is unbounded in its upper limit. The use of a censored data array for Stage H using Percentile values is appropriate. This increases the reliability of using third molar Stage H alone to determine whether or not an individual is over 18 years old. For Stage H, individual ancestral groups should be censored using the same technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Upper limb treatment technigues for stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Kornet

    2017-03-01

    It was considered that the most important elements of the treatment used in the rehabilitation of the paretic upper limb are: exercise matching the anti-spasm pattern, maintaining appropriate position for exercise that provide an approximation of the shoulder joint and the use of cross-facilitation. The study indicates that the treatment of a post stroke upper limb should be based on the: physiotherapy, kinesiotherapy and specific positioning - all of them corresponding to a given stage of the disease. The work also presents the most frequently used methods, especially highlighting: the Prorioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF, Bobath, Brunnstrom, CIMT and OIT. It was also shown that in order to enhance the effects of a post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation, it should be extended by modern methods such as Mirror Therapy, Virtual Reality or Robot-assisted Therapy.

  15. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

  16. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime encompasses many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared under the auspices of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program) that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas where contaminants from Y-12 operations are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) are presented in Appendix A. Brief data summary tables referenced in each section are contained within the text; supplemental information and extensive data tables are provided in Appendix B

  18. NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercos-Pita, J. L.; Cal, I. R.; Duque, D.; de Moreta, G. Sanjuán

    2018-02-01

    The tool NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software, is here described. As a free software, researchers and professionals are welcome to obtain, analyze, improve and redistribute it, potentially increasing the rate of development, and reducing at the same time ethical conflicts regarding medical applications which cannot be analyzed. Additionally, the tool has been optimized for the specific task of reading upper respiratory tract Computerized Tomography scans, and producing 3D geometries. The reconstruction process is divided into three stages: preprocessing (including Metal Artifact Reduction, noise removal, and feature enhancement), segmentation (where the nasal cavity is identified), and 3D geometry reconstruction. The tool has been automatized (i.e. no human intervention is required) a critical feature to avoid bias in the reconstructed geometries. The applied methodology is discussed, as well as the program robustness and precision.

  19. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  20. Upper Grades Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, David; Beane, Pam

    1983-01-01

    Presents programming ideas using LOGO, activity for converting flowchart into a computer program, and a Pascal program for generating music using paddles. Includes the article "Helping Computers Adapt to Kids" by Philip Nothnagle; a program for estimating length of lines is included. (JN)

  1. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  2. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part I consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part I GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1995 Part I GWQR for the East Fork Regime to the TDEC in February 1996. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality

  3. Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Coverage and Payment for Renal Dialysis Services Furnished to Individuals With Acute Kidney Injury, End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program Bid Surety Bonds, State Licensure and Appeals Process for Breach of Contract Actions, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program and Fee Schedule Adjustments, Access to Care Issues for Durable Medical Equipment; and the Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    This rule updates and makes revisions to the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Prospective Payment System (PPS) for calendar year 2017. It also finalizes policies for coverage and payment for renal dialysis services furnished by an ESRD facility to individuals with acute kidney injury. This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD Quality Incentive Program, including the inclusion of new quality measures beginning with payment year (PY) 2020 and provides updates to programmatic policies for the PY 2018 and PY 2019 ESRD QIP. This rule also implements statutory requirements for bid surety bonds and state licensure for the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) Competitive Bidding Program (CBP). This rule also expands suppliers' appeal rights in the event of a breach of contract action taken by CMS, by revising the appeals regulation to extend the appeals process to all types of actions taken by CMS for a supplier's breach of contract, rather than limit an appeal for the termination of a competitive bidding contract. The rule also finalizes changes to the methodologies for adjusting fee schedule amounts for DMEPOS using information from CBPs and for submitting bids and establishing single payment amounts under the CBPs for certain groupings of similar items with different features to address price inversions. Final changes also are made to the method for establishing bid limits for items under the DMEPOS CBPs. In addition, this rule summarizes comments on the impacts of coordinating Medicare and Medicaid Durable Medical Equipment for dually eligible beneficiaries. Finally, this rule also summarizes comments received in response to a request for information related to the Comprehensive ESRD Care Model and future payment models affecting renal care.

  4. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  5. Upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) from Satellite-tracked drifting buoys (drifters) as part of the Global Drifter Program for Hawaii region 1980/02/01 - 2009/03/31 (NODC Accession 0063296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite-tracked drifting buoys ("drifters") collect measurements of upper ocean currents and sea surface temperatures (SST) around the world as part of the Global...

  6. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  7. The New Digital [St]age: Barriers to the Adoption and Adaptation of New Technologies to Deliver Extension Programming and How to Address Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of social media and the need for statewide program cohesiveness, The Ohio State University Extension has the opportunity to position itself as a catalyst for technology adoption and adaptation nationwide. Unfortunately, many barriers exist to the successful use and implementation of technology, including an organizational structure…

  8. Economic evaluation of a multi-stage return to work program for workers on sick-leave due to low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Anema, J.R.; Tulder, M.W. van; Bongers, P.M.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Mechelen, W. van

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a return to work (RTW) program for workers on sick-leave due to low back pain (LBP), comparing a workplace intervention implemented between 2 to 8 weeks of sick-leave with usual care, and a clinical intervention after 8 weeks of

  9. Economic evaluation of a multi-stage return to work program for workers on sick leave due to low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Anema, J.R.; van Tulder, M.; Bongers, P.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van Mechelen, W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a return to work (RTW) program for workers on sick-leave due to low back pain (LBP), comparing a workplace intervention implemented between 2 to 8 weeks of sick-leave with usual care, and a clinical intervention after 8 weeks of

  10. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  11. Blade row dynamic digital compression program. Volume 2: J85 circumferential distortion redistribution model, effect of Stator characteristics, and stage characteristics sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, W. A.; Steenken, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of dynamic digital blade row compressor model studies of a J85-13 engine are reported. The initial portion of the study was concerned with the calculation of the circumferential redistribution effects in the blade-free volumes forward and aft of the compression component. Although blade-free redistribution effects were estimated, no significant improvement over the parallel-compressor type solution in the prediction of total-pressure inlet distortion stability limit was obtained for the J85-13 engine. Further analysis was directed to identifying the rotor dynamic response to spatial circumferential distortions. Inclusion of the rotor dynamic response led to a considerable gain in the ability of the model to match the test data. The impact of variable stator loss on the prediction of the stability limit was evaluated. An assessment of measurement error on the derivation of the stage characteristics and predicted stability limit of the compressor was also performed.

  12. SPECIFIC SUBJECTS OF LICENSE ACADEMIC PROGRAM - AN IMPORTANT STAGE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE MILITARY LEADERS AT NATIONAL MILITARY UNIVERSITY, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Stoyanova PETROVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an approved request by the Head of National Military University it is conducting research on motivation in military formations of the example of Vasil Levski National Military University in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. Subject of the study is motivation for training and military activities of the cadets and the objects of the study are students in professional military direction in "Organization and management of military units at the tactical level," Land forces faculty at the National Military University of Bulgaria. The article presents results of the study at second item - "Do you agree that the study of specialized topics is an important stage of your professional development of future military leader?". The interviewees were cadets who graduated through the following academic years - 2013/2014, 2014/2015, 2015/2016.

  13. Adolescence as a critical stage in the MCH Life Course Model: commentary for the Leadership Education in Adolescent Health (LEAH) interdisciplinary training program projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Jean Emans, S; Rickert, Vaughn I; Adger, Hoover; Spear, Bonnie; Irwin, Charles E; Kreipe, Richard E; Walker, Leslie R; Resnick, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    The Life Course Perspective (LCP), or Model, is now a guiding framework in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) activities, including training, supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. As generally applied, the LCP tends to focus on pre- through post-natal stages, infancy and early childhood, with less attention paid to adolescents as either the "maternal" or "child" elements of MCH discourse. Adolescence is a distinct developmental period with unique opportunities for the development of health, competence and capacity and not merely a transitional phase between childhood and adulthood. Adequately addressing adolescents' emergent and ongoing health needs requires well-trained and specialized professionals who recognize the unique role of this developmental period in the LCP.

  14. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  15. Report from upper atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carignan, G.R.; Roble, R.G.; Mende, S.B.; Nagy, A.F.; Hudson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the understanding of the thermosphere resulted from the analysis of data accrued through the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, and observations from rockets, balloons, and ground based instruments. However, new questions were posed by the data that have not yet been answered. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been less thoroughly studied because of the difficulty of accessibility on a global scale, and many rather fundamental characteristics of these regions are not well understood. A wide variety of measurement platforms can be used to implement various parts of a measurement strategy, but the major thrusts of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program would require Explorer-class missions. A remote sensing mission to explore the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and one and two Explorer-type spacecraft to enable a mission into the thermosphere itself would provide the essential components of a productive program of exploration of this important region of the upper atomsphere. Theoretical mission options are explored

  16. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  17. Bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of tumors of the upper urothelium is high in our country, apart from their relation to specific regions (BEN and PBEN and their frequent bilateralism. Bilateral forms are present in significant percentage and are followed, in most cases, by renal failure, which speaks in favor of conservative surgery, if possible. Objective: The aim of the study was to present epidemiological, pathoanatomical and clinical characteristics of bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium and evaluate the Results of their treatment. Method: Our retrospective study analyzed 12 patients with bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium who were treated in the period from 1992 to 1996, according to their epidemiological, clinical, pathoanatomical and pathohistological characteristics, type of surgical treatment and relevant success. Results: In the observed period, bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium were found in 8.2% of our patients. In the group of 12 patients, 5 females and 7 males, 11 cases were from the region of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN. Renal failure was recorded in high percentage (66%. Radical surgical treatment - total nephroureterectomy was performed in 9 kidney units, and conservative operation in 15 units. Relapse significantly depended on tumor stage and grade, not on type of surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Five-year survival was 58.33%; major cause of death was associated with further evolution of tumor, recurrence and tumor dissemination, respectively, while renal failure complications were the cause of death in one case. Conclusion: The success of treatment mainly depends on tumor stage and grade and not on type of surgical Method in conservative treatment, but renal failure and its complications are an important risk factor in these patients.

  18. Spatial Structure and Temporal Variation of Fish Communities in the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chick, John H; Ickes, Brian S; Pegg, Mark A; Barko, Valerie A; Hrabik, Robert A; Herzog, David P

    2005-01-01

    Variation in community composition (presence/absence data) and structure (relative abundance) of Upper Mississippi River fishes was assessed using data from the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  19. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  20. Acceptability and preliminary feasibility of an internet/CD-ROM-based education and decision program for early-stage prostate cancer patients: randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Michael A; Mohamed, Nihal E; Butz, Brian P; Bar-Chama, Natan; Stock, Richard; Cesaretti, Jamie; Hassan, Waleed; Samadi, David; Hall, Simon J

    2012-01-13

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men in the United States. Management options for localized disease exist, yet an evidence-based criterion standard for treatment still has to emerge. Although 5-year survival rates approach 98%, all treatment options carry the possibility for significant side effects, such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. It is therefore recommended that patients be actively involved in the treatment decision process. We have developed an Internet/CD-ROM-based multimedia Prostate Interactive Educational System (PIES) to enhance patients' treatment decision making. PIES virtually mirrors a health center to provide patients with information about prostate cancer and its treatment through an intuitive interface, using videos, animations, graphics, and texts. (1) To examine the acceptability and feasibility of the PIES intervention and to report preliminary outcomes of the program in a pilot trial among patients with a new prostate cancer diagnosis, and (2) to explore the potential impact of tailoring PIES treatment information to participants' information-seeking styles on study outcomes. Participants (n = 72) were patients with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer who had not made a treatment decision. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 experimental conditions: (1) control condition (providing information through standard National Cancer Institute brochures; 26%), and PIES (2) with tailoring (43%) and (3) without tailoring to a patient's information-seeking style (31%). Questionnaires were administrated before (t1) and immediately after the intervention (t2). Measurements include evaluation and acceptability of the PIES intervention, monitoring/blunting information-seeking style, psychological distress, and decision-related variables (eg, decisional confidence, feeling informed about prostate cancer and treatment, and treatment preference). The PIES program was well accepted by patients and did not interfere

  1. Symptom management strategies for men with early-stage prostate cancer: results from the Prostate Cancer Patient Education Program (PC PEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Alok; Kowalkowski, Marc A; Hart, Tae; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Hoffman, David J; Knight, Sara J; Caroll, Peter R; Latini, David M

    2013-12-01

    While the literature on prostate cancer health-related quality of life has grown extensively, little is known about symptom management strategies used by men to manage treatment-related side effects and the effectiveness of those strategies. We collected 628 symptom management reports from 98 men treated for localized prostate cancer. Participants were recruited from email lists and a prostate cancer clinic in Northern California. Data were collected using the Critical Incident Technique. Symptom management reports were assigned to categories of urinary, sexual, bowel, mental health, systemic, or "other." We calculated descriptive statistics by symptom type and management strategy effectiveness. The most common symptoms were urinary (26 %) and sexual (23 %). Participants' symptom management strategies varied widely, from medical and surgical interventions (20 %) to behavioral strategies (11 %) to diet and lifestyle interventions (12 %). The effectiveness of symptom management strategies varied, with sexual symptoms being managed effectively only 47 % of the time to mental health symptom management strategies considered effective 89 % of the time. Doing nothing was a commonly reported (15 %) response to symptoms and was effective only 14 % of the time. Men report the least effectiveness in symptom management for sexual dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment. Including men's experience with managing treatment side effects may be an important way to improve survivorship programs and make them more acceptable to men. More work is needed to find out why men frequently do nothing in response to symptoms when effective solutions exist and how providers can successfully engage such men.

  2. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  3. ''Playstation eyetoy games'' improve upper extremity-related motor functioning in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuzer, G; Senel, A; Atay, M B; Stam, H J

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of ''Playstation EyeToy Games'' on upper extremity motor recovery and upper extremity-related motor functioning of patients with subacute stroke. The authors designed a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, 4-week trial, with follow-up at 3 months. A total of 20 hemiparetic inpatients (mean age 61.1 years), all within 12 months post-stroke, received 30 minutes of treatment with ''Playstation EyeToy Games'' per day, consisting of flexion and extension of the paretic shoulder, elbow and wrist as well as abduction of the paretic shoulder or placebo therapy (watching the games for the same duration without physical involvement into the games) in addition to conventional program, 5 days a week, 2-5 hours/day for 4 weeks. Brunnstrom's staging and self-care sub-items of the functional independence measure (FIM) were performed at 0 month (baseline), 4 weeks (post-treatment), and 3 months (follow-up) after the treatment. The mean change score (95% confidence interval) of the FIM self-care score (5.5 [2.9-8.0] vs 1.8 [0.1-3.7], P=0.018) showed significantly more improvement in the EyeToy group compared to the control group. No significant differences were found between the groups for the Brunnstrom stages for hand and upper extremity. ''Playstation EyeToy Games'' combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program have a potential to enhance upper extremity-related motor functioning in subacute stroke patients.

  4. A bi-level programming for multistage co-expansion planning of the integrated gas and electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    as the generation capacities, while the lower-level is formulated as an optimal economic dispatch under the operational constraints given by the upper-level decision. To solve the bi-level multi-stage programming problem, a hybrid algorithm is proposed combining the modified binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO...... power systems. The system operation is optimized and embedded in the planning horizon. A bi-level multi-stage programming problem is formulated to minimize the investment cost plus the operational cost. The upper-level optimizes the expansion plan and determines the network topology as well......) and the interior point method (IPM). The BPSO is used for the upper-level sub-problem, and the IPM is adopted for the lower-level sub-problem. Numerical case studies have been carried out on the practical gas and electricity transmission network in western Denmark. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness...

  5. Survival Following Kidney Sparing Management of Upper Urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival Following Kidney Sparing Management of Upper Urinary Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma is Adversely Affected By Prior History of Bladder Cancer. ... The tumor biology rather than the surgical approach dictates prognosis. Patients with higher stage and grade disease may be better served with a more aggressive ...

  6. Programmed Death-1 expression on Epstein Barr virus specific CD8+ T cells varies by stage of infection, epitope specificity, and T-cell receptor usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Greenough

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programmed Death-1 (PD-1 is an inhibitory member of the CD28 family of molecules expressed on CD8+ T cells in response to antigenic stimulation. To better understand the role of PD-1 in antiviral immunity we examined the expression of PD-1 on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells during acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM and convalescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using flow cytometry, we observed higher frequencies of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells and higher intensity of PD-1 expression on EBV-specific CD8+ T cells during AIM than during convalescence. PD-1 expression during AIM directly correlated with viral load and with the subsequent degree of CD8+ T cell contraction in convalescence. Consistent differences in PD-1 expression were observed between CD8+ T cells with specificity for two different EBV lytic antigen epitopes. Similar differences were observed in the degree to which PD-1 was upregulated on these epitope-specific CD8+ T cells following peptide stimulation in vitro. EBV epitope-specific CD8+ T cell proliferative responses to peptide stimulation were diminished during AIM regardless of PD-1 expression and were unaffected by blocking PD-1 interactions with PD-L1. Significant variability in PD-1 expression was observed on EBV epitope-specific CD8+ T cell subsets defined by V-beta usage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations suggest that PD-1 expression is not only dependent on the degree of antigen presentation, but also on undefined characteristics of the responding cell that segregate with epitope specificity and V-beta usage.

  7. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete's health were discussed.

  8. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  9. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  10. Social Development Training Project. Stage I and Stage II. [The Granville Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Vivienne C., Ed.

    The book presents a training program developed at the Granville Work Preparation Centre in Australia, to teach mildly retarded adolescents basic social skills and competencies. The program is divided into two stages, with a total of 17 different skill areas. Stage 1 covers self-awareness, social/interpersonal skills, relaxation and behavioral self…

  11. A mechanism for upper airway stability during slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, David G; Saboisky, Julian P; Deyoung, Pam; Matteis, Paul; Jordan, Amy S; Trinder, John; Smales, Erik; Hess, Lauren; Guo, Mengshuang; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-04-01

    The severity of obstructive sleep apnea is diminished (sometimes markedly) during slow wave sleep (SWS). We sought to understand why SWS stabilizes the upper airway. Increased single motor unit (SMU) activity of the major upper airway dilating muscle (genioglossus) should improve upper airway stability. Therefore, we hypothesized that genioglossus SMUs would increase their activity during SWS in comparison with Stage N2 sleep. The activity of genioglossus SMUs was studied on both sides of the transition between Stage N2 sleep and SWS. Sleep laboratory. Twenty-nine subjects (age 38 ± 13 yr, 17 males) were studied. SWS. Subjects slept overnight with fine-wire electrodes in their genioglossus muscles and with full polysomnographic and end tidal carbon dioxide monitors. Fifteen inspiratory phasic (IP) and 11 inspiratory tonic (IT) units were identified from seven subjects and these units exhibited significantly increased inspiratory discharge frequencies during SWS compared with Stage N2 sleep. The peak discharge frequency of the inspiratory units (IP and IT) was 22.7 ± 4.1 Hz in SWS versus 20.3 ± 4.5 Hz in Stage N2 (P sleep (82.6 ± 39.5 %TI, P sleep (12.6 ± 3.1 Hz, P = 0.035). There was minimal recruitment or derecruitment of units between SWS and Stage N2 sleep. Increased genioglossus SMU activity likely makes the airway more stable and resistant to collapse throughout the respiratory cycle during SWS.

  12. Scientific Reasoning and Its Relationship with Problem Solving: The Case of Upper Primary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamali, Mahmoud A.; Daher, Wajeeh M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of scientific reasoning of upper primary stage (grades 4-7) science teachers based on their use of a problem-solving strategy. The study sample (N = 138; 32 % male and 68 % female) was randomly selected using stratified sampling from an original population of 437 upper primary school teachers. The…

  13. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  14. Summary Stage 2018 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed January 1, 2018 and forward. 2018 version applies to every site and/or histology combination, including lymphomas and leukemias. Historically, also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  15. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  16. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children.

  17. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  18. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical Studies Research Brain Donation ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  20. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  1. Stages and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  2. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  4. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  5. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Motility Disorders in Women, Gastroparesis, and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Jasmine K; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the sex differences in upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility for both healthy and common dysmotility conditions. It focuses on gastroesophageal reflux disease and other esophageal motor disorders for the esophagus and on gastroparesis and accelerated gastric emptying for the stomach. It also describes differences in upper GI motility signs and symptoms during each female hormonal stage (ie, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, perimenopause, menopause) for both healthy participants and those suffering from one of the aforementioned upper GI dysmotility conditions. More research still needs to be conducted to better understand sex differences in upper GI motility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the omentum. The cancer ... lymph nodes behind the peritoneum. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to the ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  12. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  13. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  14. Mammal extinctions in the Vallesian (Upper Miocene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti, J.; Moya-Sola, S.

    The term Vallesian was created by Crusafont (1950) to designate the first European Mammalian palaeofaunas containing the equid Hipparion, the remainder of the faunas being composed of typical elements coming from the Middle Miocene such as Micromeryx, Euprox, Sansanosmilus, Pseudaelurus, and Listriodon. Thus, the Aragonian-Vallesian boundary does not show a strong change among European Miocene mammalian faunas (Agusti et al., 1984). On the other hand, the Lower Vallesian/Upper Vallesian transition corresponds to a major biotic crisis. This boudnary is characterized by the disappearence of most of the Aragonian artiodactyl forms such as Protragocerus, Miotragocerus, Listriodon, Hyotherium, Parachleusastochoerus, etc. Among the rodents, this crisis affects the family Eomyidae and most of the cricetid and glirid species. On the other hand, a number of eastern elements appear in the area at the same time. This is the case of the suid Schizochoerus and the murid Progonomys. Other eastern forms are Tragoportax, Graecoryx, Adcrocuta, Paramachairodus, Microstonyx, etc. Most of these are typical elements of the next Mammal stage, the Turolian. Thus, whereas the Lower Vallesian fauna has a typical Aragonian composition except for Hipparion. After the Middle Vallesian event, the Upper Vallesian faunas are already largely Turolian in character. The possible factors involved in this extinction event are discussed.

  15. Staged theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)

  16. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  17. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lin

    Full Text Available Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group. The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6% ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1% to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  18. Teaching Quantum Physics in Upper Secondary School in France:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautesse, Philippe; Vila Valls, Adrien; Ferlin, Fabrice; Héraud, Jean-Loup; Chabot, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems in trying to understand quantum physics is the nature of the referent of quantum theory. This point is addressed in the official French curriculum in upper secondary school. Starting in 2012, after about 20 years of absence, quantum physics has returned to the national program. On the basis of the historical construction…

  19. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  20. Progress of the ECRH Upper Launcher design for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, D.; Aiello, G.; Bruschi, A.; Chavan, R.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Gagliardi, M.; Garcia, V.; Goodman, T.P.; Grossetti, G.; Heemskerk, C.; Henderson, M.A.; Kasparek, W.; Krause, A.; Landis, J.-D.; Meier, A.; Moro, A.; Platania, P.; Plaum, B.; Poli, E.

    2014-01-01

    The design of the ITER ECRH system provides 20 MW millimeter wave power for central plasma heating and MHD stabilization. The system consists of an array of 24 gyrotrons with power supplies coupled to a set of transmission lines guiding the beams to the four upper and the equatorial launcher. The front steering upper launcher design described herein has passed successfully the preliminary design review, and it is presently in the final design stage. The launcher consists of a millimeter wave system and steering mechanism with neutron shielding integrated into an upper port plug with the plasma facing blanket shield module (in-vessel) and a set of ex-vessel waveguides connecting the launcher to the transmission lines. Part of the transmission lines are the ultra-low loss CVD torus diamond windows and a shutter valve, a miter bend section and the feedthroughs integrated in the plug closure plate. These components are connected by corrugated waveguides and form together the first confinement system (FCS). In-vessel, the millimeter-wave system includes a quasi-optical beam propagation system including four mirror sets and a front steering mirror. The millimeter wave system is integrated into a specifically optimized upper port plug providing structural stability to withstand plasma disruption forces and the high heat load from the plasma side with a dedicated blanket shield module. A recent update in the ITER interface definition has resulted in the recession of the upper port plug first wall panels, which is now integrated into the design. Apart from the millimeter wave system the upper port plug houses also a set of shield blocks which provide neutron shielding. An overview of the actual ITER ECRH Upper Launcher is given together with some highlights of the design

  1. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  2. Increasing upper limb training intensity in chronic stroke using embodied virtual reality: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Chevalley, Odile; Schmidlin, Thomas; Garipelli, Gangadhar; Serino, Andrea; Vuadens, Philippe; Tadi, Tej; Blanke, Olaf; Millán, José D R

    2017-11-17

    Technology-mediated neurorehabilitation is suggested to enhance training intensity and therefore functional gains. Here, we used a novel virtual reality (VR) system for task-specific upper extremity training after stroke. The system offers interactive exercises integrating motor priming techniques and embodied visuomotor feedback. In this pilot study, we examined (i) rehabilitation dose and training intensity, (ii) functional improvements, and (iii) safety and tolerance when exposed to intensive VR rehabilitation. Ten outpatient stroke survivors with chronic (>6 months) upper extremity paresis participated in a ten-session VR-based upper limb rehabilitation program (2 sessions/week). All participants completed all sessions of the treatment. In total, they received a median of 403 min of upper limb therapy, with 290 min of effective training. Within that time, participants performed a median of 4713 goal-directed movements. Importantly, training intensity increased progressively across sessions from 13.2 to 17.3 movements per minute. Clinical measures show that despite being in the chronic phase, where recovery potential is thought to be limited, participants showed a median improvement rate of 5.3% in motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity; FMA-UE) post intervention compared to baseline, and of 15.4% at one-month follow-up. For three of them, this improvement was clinically significant. A significant improvement in shoulder active range of motion (AROM) was also observed at follow-up. Participants reported very low levels of pain, stress and fatigue following each session of training, indicating that the intensive VR intervention was well tolerated. No severe adverse events were reported. All participants expressed their interest in continuing the intervention at the hospital or even at home, suggesting high levels of adherence and motivation for the provided intervention. This pilot study showed how a dedicated VR system could deliver high

  3. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  4. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  5. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  6. Validity, reliability, and feasibility of clinical staging scales in dementia: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Tona, Klodiana Daphne; Janssen, Lieneke

    2011-01-01

    New staging systems of dementia require adaptation of disease management programs and adequate staging instruments. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature on validity and reliability of clinically applicable, multidomain, and dementia staging instruments. A total of 23 articles...

  7. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope . Stage II In stage II , cancer has spread: to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis . Also, ... spread to one lymph node in the groin . Cancer has also spread: to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis . Also, ...

  8. Upper limit for Poisson variable incorporating systematic uncertainties by Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    To calculate the upper limit for the Poisson observable at given confidence level with inclusion of systematic uncertainties in background expectation and signal efficiency, formulations have been established along the line of Bayesian approach. A FORTRAN program, BPULE, has been developed to implement the upper limit calculation

  9. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Upper thermal tolerance in red and blue king crab: Sublethal and lethal effects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from a series of experiments that determined the upper thermal tolerance of early benthic stage red and blue king crabs. Experiments...

  10. Forensic age estimation based on magnetic resonance imaging of third molars: converting 2D staging into 3D staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tobel, Jannick; Hillewig, Elke; Verstraete, Koenraad

    2017-03-01

    Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root. All third molars were evaluated in 52 healthy participants aged 14-26 years using MRI in three planes. Three staging methods were investigated by two observers. In sixteen of the participants, MRI findings were compared with findings on panoramic radiographs. Decisive roots were palatal in upper third molars and distal in lower third molars. Fifty-seven per cent of upper third molars were not assessable on the radiograph, while 96.9% were on MRI. Upper third molars were more difficult to evaluate on radiographs than on MRI (p third molars were equally assessable on both imaging techniques (93.8% MRI, 98.4% radiograph), with no difference in level of difficulty (p = .375). Inter- and intra-observer agreement for evaluation was higher in MRI than in radiographs. In both imaging techniques lower third molars showed greater inter- and intra-observer agreement compared to upper third molars. MR images in the sagittal plane proved to be essential for staging. In age estimation, 3T MRI of third molars could be valuable. Some considerations are, however, necessary to transfer known staging methods to this 3D technique.

  11. Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Kevin S.; DeLain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S.; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J.; Irons, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for

  12. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Upper Danube Nature Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosedla, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    When in 1980 the Upper Danube Nature Park was founded as one of 65 nature sanctuaries in Germany there was great diversity of opinions concerning its intended character. The protected region consisting of a geologically outstanding landscape within central Europe is covering the first 80 km the upper Danube where the young river shortly after it's source in the Black Forest is breaking through the narrow canyons of the Jurassic rock plateau of the so-called Suebian Alps and also locates the subterranean passage where the stream is submerging from the surface for nearly ten miles. Since the purpose of nature preservation according to German las is closely combined with the rather contradicting aim of offering an attractive recreation area thus facing the immense impacts of modern mass tourism there are numerous problems which in the course of years have resulted in an intricate patterns of subtle management methods coping with the growing awareness of the ecological balance. (author)

  14. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 1,994 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1993...

  15. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women: Contribution of Upper Body Resistance Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraemer, William

    1999-01-01

    To determine the performance and physiological effects of various physical conditioning programs in women, total body, upper-body resistance training groups, field training and aerobic training groups (n = 11 to 21...

  16. DOD's advanced thermionics program an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) manages a congressionally mandated program in advanced thermionics research. Guided by congressional language to advance the state-of-the-art in the US and support the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program, DSWA efforts concentrate on four areas: an electrically testable design of a high-performance, in-core thermionic fuel element (TFE), the ISUS program, a microminiature thermionic converter and several modeling efforts. The DSWA domestic program is augmented by several small contracts with Russian institutes, awarded under the former TOPAZ International Program that the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization transferred to DSWA. The design effort at General Atomics will result in an electrically testable, multi-cell TFE for in-core conversion, involving system design and advanced collector and emitter technologies. For the ISUS program, DSWA funded a portion of the engine ground demonstration, including development of the power management system and the planar diodes. Current efforts supporting ISUS include continued diode testing and developing an advanced planar diode. The MTC program seeks to design a mass producable, close-spaced thermionic converter using integrated circuit technologies. Modeling and analysis at DSWA involves development of the Reactor System Mass with Thermionics estimation model (RSMASS-T), developing a new thermionic theory, and reviewing applications for the MTC technology. The Russian deliverables include several reports and associated hardware that describe many of its state-of-the-art thermionic technologies and processes

  17. Upper abdominal malignancies (not including esophagus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, Tyvin A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This course will give an overview of the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies in the upper abdomen, with an emphasis on carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas and biliary tract. For each site, information will be presented related to failure patterns with conventional surgical treatment and the indications for surgery for different stages of disease. The possible uses of radiation therapy as an adjuvant to surgical resection will be discussed as well as the use of radiation therapy alone. In addition, the combination of radiation therapy with chemotherapy will be discussed for each of these sites, as well as the information available at present as to the optimal way to combine chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is not generally accepted to have a role in the treatment of patients with adenocarcinomas of the stomach. This is related to the fact that gastric cancer has been standardly treated with surgical resection alone, and delivery of high dose radiation therapy to the upper abdomen can be difficult because of the sensitivity of nearby normal tissues. Nonetheless, data on failure patterns suggest that local recurrence is common in patients with disease through the gastric wall and with positive nodes. Although there is some suggestive data to indicate that radiation therapy is effective as an adjuvant, results of an ongoing trial will be necessary for determination of the exact role of radiation therapy. Possible uses of radiation therapy as preoperative therapy or given alone will also be briefly discussed. Radiation therapy has been often used in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, either alone or combined with surgical resection. Its use is more common for this site both because of the extremely poor prognosis of standard therapies, and because of the difficulty in performing an adequate surgical resection. Data will be reviewed suggesting that radiation therapy has a role when

  18. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  19. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Final report on 3-D experiment project air-water upper plenum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.K.; Mohr, C.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are presented from upper plenum air-water reflood behavior testing performed as part of the program to investigate three-dimensional aspects of PWR LOCA research. Tests described were performed at near ambient temperature and pressure in a plexiglass vessel which included the important features of the upper core and upper plenum regions corresponding to a single fuel bundle in both Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Trojan) and Kraftwerk Union (KKU) PWR designs. The data included observed two-phase flow characteristics, particularly with regard to countercurrent flow, and cinematography of the characteristic upper plenum flow patterns

  1. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  2. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stages of Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ultrasound monitor . The picture can be printed to be looked at later. MRI (magnetic resonance ... procedures may be used in the staging process: Bone scan : A procedure to check if there are ...

  4. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  5. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  6. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  7. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  8. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  9. First Stage Acceptance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    This photograph shows the intense smoke and fire created by the five F-1 engines from a test firing of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) in the S-1C test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  10. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  11. Assessing Upper-Level Winds on Day-of-Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    On the day-or-launch. the 45th Weather Squadron Launch Weather Officers (LWOS) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers to include NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). During launch operations, the payload launch team sometimes asks the LWO if they expect the upper level winds to change during the countdown but the LWOs did not have the capability to quickly retrieve or display the upper-level observations and compare them to the numerical weather prediction model point forecasts. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a capability in the form of a graphical user interface (GUI) that would allow them to plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Kennedy Space Center Doppler Radar Wind Profilers and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station rawinsondes and then overlay model point forecast profiles on the observation profiles to assess the performance of these models and graphically display them to the launch team. The AMU developed an Excel-based capability for the LWOs to assess the model forecast upper-level winds and compare them to observations. They did so by creating a GUI in Excel that allows the LWOs to first initialize the models by comparing the O-hour model forecasts to the observations and then to display model forecasts in 3-hour intervals from the current time through 12 hours.

  12. Engineering issues on the diagnostic port integration in ITER upper port 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Sunil, E-mail: paksunil@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bertalot, Luciano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Cheon, Mun Seong [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Giacomin, Thibaud [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Heemskerk, Cock J.M.; Koning, Jarich F. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Merelhof 2, 2172 HZ Sassenheim (Netherlands); Lee, Hyeon Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nemtcev, Grigorii [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, Akademika Kurchatova sq., Moscow (Russian Federation); Ronden, Dennis M.S. [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Seon, Chang Rae [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Udintsev, Victor; Yukhnov, Nikolay [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Zvonkov, Alexander [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, Akademika Kurchatova sq., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Diagnostic port integration in the upper port 18 of ITER is presented in order to house the three diagnostic systems. • Issue on the neutron shielding in the upper port 18 is addressed and the shut-down dose rate in the interspace is summarized. • The maintenance strategy in the upper port 18 is described. - Abstract: The upper port #18 (UP18) in ITER hosts three diagnostic systems: the neutron activation system, the Vacuum Ultra-Violet spectrometer system, and the vertical neutron camera. These diagnostics are integrated into three infrastructures in the port: the upper port plug, interspace support structure and port cell support structure. The port integration in UP18 is at the preliminary design stage and the current design of the infrastructure as well as the diagnostic integration is described here. The engineering issues related to neutron shielding and maintenance are addressed and the design approach is suggested.

  13. Predictive values of upper gastrointestinal cancer alarm symptoms in the general population - a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Haastrup, Peter Fentz; Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer are poor since many are diagnosed at advanced stages. Fast track endoscopy has been introduced to prompt diagnosis for patients with alarm symptoms that could be indicative of upper GI cancer. However, these symptoms may represent...... to complete a survey comprising of questions on several symptom experiences, including alarm symptoms for upper GI cancer within the past four weeks. The participants were asked about specific symptoms (repeated vomiting, difficulty swallowing, signs of upper GI bleeding or persistent and recent......-onset abdominal pain) and non-specific symptoms (nausea, weight loss, loss of appetite, feeling unwell and tiredness). We obtained information on upper GI cancer diagnosed in a 12-month period after completing the questionnaire from the Danish Cancer Registry. We calculated positive predictive values and positive...

  14. Alarm symptoms of upper gastrointestinal cancer and contact to general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Svendsen, Rikke Pilsgaard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Survival of upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer depends on early stage diagnosis. Symptom-based guidelines and fast-track referral systems have been implemented for use in general practice. To improve diagnosis of upper GI cancer, knowledge on prevalence of alarm symptoms...... between 1.1% ("repeated vomiting") and 3.4% ("difficulty swallowing"). Women had higher odds of experiencing "repeated vomiting" and "persistent and recent-onset abdominal pain", but lower odds of experiencing "upper GI bleeding". The proportion of people contacting their GP with each of the four specific...... alarm symptoms ranged from 24.3% ("upper GI bleeding") to 39.9% ("repeated vomiting"). For each combination of two specific alarm symptoms, at least 52% contacted their GP. CONCLUSION: The specific alarm symptoms of upper GI cancer are not very prevalent in the general population. The proportion of GP...

  15. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  16. S-22: Upper Extremity Plyometric Training for the Pediatric Overhead Athletes; Randomized Controled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Turgut

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION/ PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week upper extremity plyometric training program on upper body explosive power, strength and endurance in pediatric overhead athletes.MATERIALS-METHOD: Twenty-eight female pediatric volleyball players participated in the study. The participants were randomly divided into two study groups: an intervention group (upper extremity plyometric training, n = 14 and a control group (n = 14. All of the participants were assessed before and after a 12-week training program for upper body explosive power, strength and endurance. Statistical comparison was performed using an analysis of variance test. FINDINGS: Comparisons showed that after a 12-week training program, the upper body plyometric training program resulted in more improvements in an overhead medicine-ball throwing distance and a push-up performance when compared to control training. DISCUSSION / CONCLUSION: Compared to regular training, upper body plyometric training resulted in additional improvements in upper body power and strength and endurance among female pediatric volleyball players. The findings of the study provide a basis for developing training protocols for pediatric volleyball players.

  17. "Ballistic Six" Upper-Extremity Plyometric Training for the Pediatric Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Elif; Cinar-Medeni, Ozge; Colakoglu, Filiz F; Baltaci, Gul

    2017-09-19

    The Ballistic Six exercise program includes commonly used upper-body exercises, and the program is recommended for overhead throwing athletes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week the Ballistic Six upper-extremity plyometric training program on upper-body explosive power, endurance, and reaction time in pediatric overhead athletes. Twenty-eight female pediatric volleyball players participated in the study. The participants were randomly divided into 2 study groups: an intervention group (upper-extremity plyometric training in addition to the volleyball training; n = 14) and a control group (the volleyball training only; n = 14). All the participants were assessed before and after a 12-week training program for upper-body power, strength and endurance, and reaction time. Statistical comparison was performed using an analysis of variance test. Comparisons showed that after a 12-week training program, the Ballistic Six upper-body plyometric training program resulted in more improvements in an overhead medicine ball throwing distance and a push-up performance, as well as greater improvements in the reaction time in the nonthrowing arm when compared with control training. In addition, a 12-week training program was found to be effective in achieving improvements in the reaction time in the throwing arm for both groups similarly. Compared with regular training, upper-body plyometric training resulted in additional improvements in upper-body power and strength and endurance among pediatric volleyball players. The findings of the study provide a basis for developing training protocols for pediatric volleyball players.

  18. Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hendrik Koelzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: 1 Validation of prognostic scoring systems for tumor budding in large, multi-center studies 2 Consensus on the optimal assessment method 3 Inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

  19. A comparison of tumor motion characteristics between early stage and locally advanced stage lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z. Henry; Lin, Steven H.; Balter, Peter; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the increasing use of conformal radiation therapy methods for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is necessary to accurately determine respiratory-induced tumor motion. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the motion characteristics of early and locally advanced stage NSCLC tumors in a large population and correlate tumor motion with position, volume, and diaphragm motion. Methods and materials: A total of 191 (94 early stage, 97 locally advanced) non-small cell lung tumors were analyzed for this study. Each patient received a four-dimensional CT scan prior to receiving radiation treatment. A soft-tissue-based rigid registration algorithm was used to track the tumor motion. Tumor volumes were determined based on the gross tumor volume delineated by physicians in the end of expiration phase. Tumor motion characteristics were correlated with their standardized tumor locations, lobe location, and clinical staging. Diaphragm motion was calculated by subtracting the diaphragm location between the expiration and the inspiration phases. Results: Median, max, and 95th percentile of tumor motion for early stage tumors were 5.9 mm, 31.0 mm, and 20.0 mm, which were 1.2 mm, 12 mm, and 7 mm more than those in locally advanced NSCLC, respectively. The range of motion at 95th percentile is more than 50% larger in early stage lung cancer group than in the locally advanced lung cancer group. Early stage tumors in the lower lobe showed the largest motion with a median motion of 9.2 mm, while upper/mid-lobe tumors exhibited a median motion of 3.3 mm. Tumor volumes were not correlated with motion. Conclusion: The range of tumor motion differs depending on tumor location and staging of NSCLC. Early stage tumors are more mobile than locally advanced stage NSCLC. These factors should be considered for general motion management strategies when 4D simulation is not performed on individual basis.

  20. Power generation assets. Energy constraints, upper bounds and hedging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enge, Thomas

    2010-09-20

    The overall topic of this thesis is the valuation of power generation assets under energy and risk constraints. Our focus is on the modeling aspect i.e. to find the right balance between accuracy and computational feasibility. We define a new not yet investigated unit commitment problem that introduces an energy constraint to a thermal power plant. We define a continuous stochastic dynamic program with a nested mixed integer program (MIP). We introduce a fast implementation approach by replacing the MIP with an efficient matrix calculation and use principal component analysis to reduce the number of risk factors. We also provide a fast heuristic valuation approach for comparison. As both models can only provide lower bounds of the asset value, we investigate the theory of upper bounds for a proper validation of our power plant results. We review the primal dual algorithm for swing options by Meinshausen and Hambly and in particular clarify their notation and implementation. Then we provide an extension for swing options with multiple exercises at the same stage that we developed together with Prof. Bender, University of Braunschweig. We outline Prof. Bender's proof and describe the implementation in detail. Finally we provide a risk analysis for our thermal power plant. In particular we investigate strategies to reduce spot price risk to which power plants are significantly exposed. First, we focus on the measurement of spot price risk and propose three appropriate risk figures (Forward delta as opposed to Futures delta, synthetic spot delta and Earnings-at-Risk) and illustrate their application using a business case. Second we suggest risk mitigation strategies for both periods, before and in delivery. The latter tries to alter the dispatch policy i.e. pick less risky hours and accept a (desirably only slightly) smaller return. We introduce a benchmark that weighs risk versus return and that we will call EaR-efficient option value. We propose a mitigation

  1. Common data items in seven European oesophagogastric cancer surgery registries: towards a European upper GI cancer audit (EURECCA Upper GI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steur, W O; Henneman, D; Allum, W H; Dikken, J L; van Sandick, J W; Reynolds, J; Mariette, C; Jensen, L; Johansson, J; Kolodziejczyk, P; Hardwick, R H; van de Velde, C J H

    2014-03-01

    Seven countries (Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom) collaborated to initiate a EURECCA (European Registration of Cancer Care) Upper GI project. The aim of this study was to identify a core dataset of shared items in the different data registries which can be used for future collaboration between countries. Item lists from all participating Upper GI cancer registries were collected. Items were scored 'present' when included in the registry, or when the items could be deducted from other items in the registry. The definition of a common item was that it was present in at least six of the seven participating countries. The number of registered items varied between 40 (Poland) and 650 (Ireland). Among the 46 shared items were data on patient characteristics, staging and diagnostics, neoadjuvant treatment, surgery, postoperative course, pathology, and adjuvant treatment. Information on non-surgical treatment was available in only 4 registries. A list of 46 shared items from seven participating Upper GI cancer registries was created, providing a basis for future quality assurance and research in Upper GI cancer treatment on a European level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Six upper incisors: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneburg, Mirjam; Meller, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes our therapeutic approach taken in a girl with eruption disturbance of the upper anterior teeth. Two supernumerary teeth were involved, which required a combination of orthodontic and surgical treatment. The initial situation in the upper anterior segment was characterized by two supernumerary mesial incisors, ectopic eruption of the distally located lateral incisors, and crowded tooth buds in the canine areas. Key decisions had to be made as to whether any teeth needed to be extracted and, if so, regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Removing teeth too early would have preempted a complete assessment of tooth quality, whereas late extraction would have carried a risk of eruption disturbance. Once the distal lateral incisors had erupted, the supernumerary mesial incisors were extracted and the central incisors (initially located in between) mesialized with a bracket appliance. Following space closure and mesialization of the lateral incisors, a functional appliance was used. Tooth 13 was erupting, while tooth 23 was displaced and subsequently aligned as part of the final bracket treatment. To successfully treat eruption disturbances, a careful diagnostic workup is essential, including informative radiographs, personalized treatment planning, and correct decision-making as to whether teeth need to be extracted and regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Finally, the eruption of the canines should be monitored.

  3. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...

  4. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  5. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  6. Stagings of Divine Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Based on a combination of performativity and historicity royal Danish ceremonilality is analysed with a special regard to coronation ceremonies as a manifestation of the idea of godgiven royal power. Point of departure is the coronation of Christian 4. in 1596 and the theme of stagings of power...

  7. "Stage 40" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill River Union High School, North Clarendon, VT.

    The policies, purposes, and guidelines of "Stage 40," an educational repertory company for students, are presented in this paper, which also explains how the company functions. The paper discusses the company's history, the relationship between the company and academics, and the responsibilities of a company member. Letters by the board…

  8. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  9. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  10. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Nesip Manav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling.

  11. An aegialodontid upper molar and the evolution of mammal dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatin, Alexey V; Averianov, Alexander O

    2006-08-25

    The most obvious key synapomorphy of the therian mammals is the tribosphenic pattern of their molars. Tribosphenic teeth are capable of both shearing and grinding, which substantially increase effectiveness of food processing and, in turn, permit evolution of a wide range of dietary specializations. Functional tribospheny developed repeatedly during mammalian evolution but was successful only in the Boreosphenida. The earliest stage in the development of boreosphenidan tribospheny has remained poorly understood, being documented only by lower molars of aegialodontids. Here, we report a known upper molar of an aegialodontid mammal, Kielantherium, from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia.

  12. Thermal habitat restricts patterns of occurrence in multiple life-stages of a headwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischa P. Turschwell; Stephen R. Balcombe; E. Ashley Steel; Fran Sheldon; Erin E. Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Our lack of knowledge on the spatiotemporal drivers of the distribution of many freshwater fishes, particularly as they differ among life-history stages, is a challenge to conservation of these species. We used 2-stage hurdle models to investigate drivers of occurrence and abundance of locally threatened adult and juvenile Northern River Blackfish in the upper...

  13. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  14. Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article.

  15. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacobi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the frame of the European COST 296 project (Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems, MIERS

    investigations of the climate of the upper atmosphere have been carried out during the last four years to obtain

    new information on the upper atmosphere. Mainly its ionospheric part has been analysed as the ionosphere

    most essential for the propagation of radio waves. Due to collaboration between different European partners

    many new results have been derived in the fields of long-term trends of different ionospheric and related atmospheric

    parameters, the investigations of different types of atmospheric waves and their impact on the ionosphere,

    the variability of the ionosphere, and the investigation of some space weather effects on the ionosphere.


  16. The Upper Miocene of the Rostov Dome (Eastern Paratethys: Implication of the chronostratigraphy and bivalvia-based biostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rostov Dome is located in the south of the Russian Platform. In the Late Miocene this area was embraced by the Eastern Paratethys. The implications of a recently developed Neogene chronostratigraphy to the studied area are discussed. The Sarmatian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Langhian, the entire Serravalian and the lower part of the Tortonian global stages; the Maeotian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Tortonian and the lowermost horizons of the Messinian global stages; the Pontian regional stage corresponds to most of the Messinian and the lowermost Zanclean global stages. A first Bivalvia-based bio-stratigraphic framework is proposed for the territory of the Rostov Dome. Five biozones were established within the Serravalian-Messinian: Tapes vitalianus, Cerastoderma fittoni-Cerastoderma subfittoni, Congeria panticapaea, Congeria amygdaloides navicula and Monodacna pseudocatillus-Prosodacna schirvanica.

  17. The GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vömel, H.; Berger, F. H.; Immler, F. J.; Seidel, D.; Thorne, P.

    2009-04-01

    While the global upper-air observing network has provided useful observations for operational weather forecasting for decades, its measurements lack the accuracy and long-term continuity needed for understanding climate change. Consequently, the scientific community faces uncertainty on such key issues as the trends of temperature in the upper troposphere and stratosphere or the variability and trends of stratospheric water vapour. To address these shortcomings, and to ensure that future climate records will be more useful than the records to date, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) program initiated the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN). GRUAN will be a network of about 30-40 observatories with a representative sampling of geographic regions and surface types. These stations will provide upper-air reference observations of the essential climate variables, i.e. temperature, geopotential, humidity, wind, radiation and cloud properties using specialized radiosondes and complementary remote sensing profiling instrumentation. Long-term stability, quality assurance / quality control, and a detailed assessment of measurement uncertainties will be the key aspects of GRUAN observations. The network will not be globally complete but will serve to constrain and adjust data from more spatially comprehensive global observing systems including satellites and the current radiosonde networks. This paper outlines the scientific rationale for GRUAN, its role in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems, network requirements and likely instrumentation, management structure, current status and future plans.

  18. Global Impact | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through its direct support of clinical research, Frederick National Labactivities are not limited to national programs. The labis actively involved in more than 400 domestic and international studies related to cancer; influenza, HIV, Ebo

  19. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Dovern, A.; Fink, G. R.; Weiss, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients’ everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients’ prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed...

  1. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Science and Computer Engineering, Teacher Training University, 599 Taleghani Avenue, Tehran 15618 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: soleimani_d@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out.

  2. Climatic events and Upper Paleolithic chronology in the Dniester basin : New C-14 results from Cosautsi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haesaerts, P; Borziak, [No Value; Van Der Plicht, J; Damblon, F; Borziak, Ilic; Mook, W.G.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the radiocarbon chronology of the loess deposited during the Upper Pleniglacial (Isotope Stage II) for the key site of Cosautsi (Republic of Moldova), which presents some major problems in C-14 dating. Special care was paid to accurate microstratigraphic positioning of samples, collection

  3. Fire in upper Midwestern oak forest ecosystems: an oak forest restoration and management handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to synthesize what is known about the use of fire to maintain and restore oak forests, woodlands, and savannas of the upper Midwestern United States, with emphasis on Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Included are (1) known physical and ecological effects of fire on oaks from acorn through seedling, established sapling, and mature stages of...

  4. Summary Staging Manual 2000 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed 2001-2017. 2000 version applies to every anatomic site. It uses all information in the medical record. Also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  6. Smartphone supported upper limb prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepp D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available State of the art upper limb prostheses offer up to six active DoFs (degrees of freedom and are controlled using different grip patterns. This low number of DoFs combined with a machine-human-interface which does not provide control over all DoFs separately result in a lack of usability for the patient. The aim of this novel upper limb prosthesis is both offering simplified control possibilities for changing grip patterns depending on the patients’ priorities and the improvement of grasp capability. Design development followed the design process requirements given by the European Medical Device Directive 93/42 ECC and was structured into the topics mechanics, software and drive technology. First user needs were identified by literature research and by patient feedback. Consequently, concepts were evaluated against technical and usability requirements. A first evaluation prototype with one active DoF per finger was manufactured. In a second step a test setup with two active DoF per finger was designed. The prototype is connected to an Android based smartphone application. Two main grip patterns can be preselected in the software application and afterwards changed and used by the EMG signal. Three different control algorithms can be selected: “all-day”, “fine” and “tired muscle”. Further parameters can be adjusted to customize the prosthesis to the patients’ needs. First patient feedback certified the prosthesis an improved level of handling compared to the existing devices. Using the two DoF test setup, the possibilities of finger control with a neural network are evaluated at the moment. In a first user feedback test, the smartphone based software application increased the device usability, e.g. the change within preselected grip patterns and the “tired muscle” algorithm. Although the overall software application was positively rated, the handling of the prosthesis itself needs to be proven within a patient study to be

  7. The Trailblazer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefney, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the "Three Pillars of Success" for the Trailblazer Program. The topics include: 1) The "Rocket Equation" for SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit); 2) The Rocket I* Barrier; 3) Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Engine; 4) Potential for Reusability; 5) Factors Mitigating RBCC Performance; 6) The "Trailblazer" Program; 7) Trailblazer Performance Goals; 8) Trailblazer Reference Vehicle; and 9) Trailblazer Program Architecture.

  8. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  9. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    , and systems 'hosting' these multiple and complex mobilities are designed and how they are staging these in terms of their physical layout. By analysing specific cases of ‘mobilities design’ related to the four modes of moving; Walk, Bike, Train, and Car, the book uncover important and until now neglected...... is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments, the project...

  10. Stages of chaotic synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. Y.; Dykstra, R.; Hamilton, M. W.; Heckenberg, N. R.

    1998-09-01

    In an experimental investigation of the response of a chaotic system to a chaotic driving force, we have observed synchronization of chaos of the response system in the forms of generalized synchronization, phase synchronization, and lag synchronization to the driving signal. In this paper we compare the features of these forms of synchronized chaos and study their relations and physical origins. We found that different forms of chaotic synchronization could be interpreted as different stages of nonlinear interaction between the coupled chaotic systems. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Device for two-stage cementing of casing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudimov, D A; Goncharevskiy, Ye N; Luneva, L G; Shchelochkov, S N; Shil' nikova, L N; Tereshchenko, V G; Vasiliev, V A; Volkova, V V; Zhdokov, K I

    1981-01-01

    A device is claimed for two-stage cementing of casing. It consists of a body with lateral plugging vents, upper and lower movable sleeves, a check valve with axial channels that's situated in the lower sleeve, and a displacement limiting device for the lower sleeve. To improve the cementing process of the casing by preventing overflow of cementing fluids from the annular space into the first stage casing, the limiter is equipped with a spring rod that is capable of covering the axial channels of the check valve while it's in an operating mode. In addition, the rod in the upper part is equipped with a reinforced area under the axial channels of the check valve.

  12. Functional rehabilitation of upper limb apraxia in poststroke patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    P?rez-M?rmol, Jose Manuel; Garc?a-R?os, M? Carmen; Barrero-Hernandez, Francisco J.; Molina-Torres, Guadalupe; Brown, Ted; Aguilar-Ferr?ndiz, Mar?a Encarnaci?n

    2015-01-01

    Background Upper limb apraxia is a common disorder associated with stroke that can reduce patients? independence levels in activities of daily living and increase levels of disability. Traditional rehabilitation programs designed to promote the recovery of upper limb function have mainly focused on restorative or compensatory approaches. However, no previous studies have been completed that evaluate a combined intervention method approach, where patients concurrently receive cognitive trainin...

  13. [Conservative therapy of cartilage defects of the upper ankle joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenski, U C; Best, N; Bocker, B

    2008-03-01

    Cartilage defects of the upper ankle joint reflect the problem that great force is transmitted and balanced out over a relatively small surface area. As a pathophysiological factor, cartilage-bone contusions play a significant role in the development of cartilage defects of the upper ankle joint. Physiotherapeutic procedures belong to the standard procedures of conservative therapy. The use and selection of the type of therapy is based on empirical considerations and experience and investigations on effectiveness of particular therapies are relatively rare. At present a symptom-oriented therapy of cartilage defects of the upper ankle joint seems to be the most sensible approach. It can be assumed that it makes sense that the symptomatic treatment of cartilage defects or initial stages of arthritis also includes the subsequent symptoms of pain, irritated condition and limited function. This leads to starting points for physiotherapy with respect to pain therapy, optimisation of pressure relationships, avoidance of pressure points, improvement of diffusion and pressure release. In addition to the differential physiotherapeutic findings, the determination of a curative, preventive or rehabilitative procedure is especially important. In physical therapy special importance is placed on a scheduled serial application corresponding to the findings, employing the necessary methods, such as physiotherapy, sport therapy, medical mechanics, manual therapy, massage, electrotherapy and warmth therapy. From this the findings-related therapy is proposed as a practical therapy concept: locomotive apparatus pain therapy, optimisation of pressure relationships, improvement of diffusion and decongestion therapy. Therapy options have been selected base on the current literature and are summarised in tabular form. The art of symptomatic therapy of cartilage defects of the upper ankle joint does not lie in the multitude of sometimes speculative procedures, but in the targeted selection

  14. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 consecutive in and out patients who had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at ...

  15. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  16. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Hussain, Shahid; Lozin, Vadim; Monnot, Jé rô me; Ries, Bernard; Zamaraev, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph

  17. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  18. Sediment transport processes in dune morphology and the transition to upper-stage plane bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duin, Olav

    2015-01-01

    Delta areas around the world are densely populated, and feature an incredible amount of economic activity. Especially with regard to changing climate, it is vital to protect these areas from flooding by rivers. For flood modelling of lowland rivers specifically it is important to understand the

  19. Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the spray bar configuration is that pressure reduction is achieved independent of liquid and vapor location, thereby enhancing the applicability of normal gravity test data to zero gravity conditions. The in-tank components are minimized with the proposed TVS design. Because the recirculation pump is external to the tank, no electrical power penetration of the tank is required for pump or valve operation. This is especially desirable for L02 tanks since the presence of an electrical ignition source in oxygen represents a critical failure mode. Also, since the critical components (pump, motor, valve, orifice) are external to the tank, system checkout and ground servicing/replacement are easier. For zero-g operation, component replacement external to the tank may be a significant benefit. In addition to satisfying the zero g TVS design objectives, the TVS concept tested offers additional benefits to the integrated subcritical cryogenic storage and launch system.

  20. Modeling river dune development and dune transition to upper stage plane bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqshband, Suleyman; van Duin, Olav; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Large asymmetric bedforms known as dunes commonly dominate the bed of sand rivers. Due to the turbulence generation over their stoss and lee sides, dunes are of central importance in predicting hydraulic roughness and water levels. During floods in steep alluvial rivers, dunes are observed to grow

  1. A Sharp View on River Dune Transition to Upper Stage Plane Bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqshband, S.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Mcelroy, B.; Hurther, D.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Sandy river beds are dominated by rhythmic features known as dunes. Experimental investigations of turbulent flow and sediment transport over dunes have predominantly focused on equilibrium flows that are rare in natural rivers. Using a novel acoustic instrument over migrating dunes in a laboratory

  2. A sharp view on river dune transition to upper stage plane bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqshband, S.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Mcelroy, B.; Hurther, D.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Sandy river beds are dominated by rhythmic features known as dunes. Experimental investigations of turbulent flow and sediment transport over dunes have predominantly focused on equilibrium flows that are rare in natural rivers. Using a novel acoustic instrument over migrating dunes in a laboratory

  3. Characterization of the 2012-044C Briz-M Upper Stage Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joseph A.; Matney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The NASA breakup model prediction was close to the observed population for catalog objects. The NASA breakup model predicted a larger population than was observed for objects under 10 cm. The stare technique produces low observation counts, but is readily comparable to model predictions. Customized stare parameters (Az, El, Range) were effective to increase the opportunities for HAX to observe the debris cloud. Other techniques to increase observation count will be considered for future breakup events.

  4. Ares Upper Stage Processes to Implement Model Based Design - Going Paperless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design (CAD) has all but replaced the drafting board for design work. Increased productivity and accuracy should be natural outcomes of using CAD. Going from paper drawings only to paper drawings based on CAD models to CAD models and no drawings, or Model Based Design (MBD), is a natural progression in today?s world. There are many advantages to MBD over traditional design methods. To make the most of those advantages, standards should be in place and the proper foundation should be laid prior to transitioning to MBD. However, without a full understanding of the implications of MBD and the proper control of the data, the advantages are greatly diminished. Transitioning from a paper design world to an electronic design world means re-thinking how information gets controlled at its origin and distributed from one point to another. It means design methodology is critical, especially for large projects. It means preparation of standardized parts and processes as well as strong communication between all parties in order to maximize the benefits of MBD.

  5. High Performance Hybrid Upper Stage for NanoLaunch Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Parabilis Space Technologies, Inc (Parabilis), in collaboration with Utah State University (USU), proposes further development of a low-cost, high-performance launch...

  6. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation ...... the diverse matters of concern into a coherent product or service concept, and 2) in the same process move these diverse holders of the matters of concern into a translated actor network which carry or support the concept.......Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  7. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  8. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  9. Surveillance for stage I nonseminoma testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe treatment results in a large cohort with stage I nonseminoma germ cell cancer (NSGCC) treated in a surveillance program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2007, 1,226 patients with stage I NSGCC, including high-risk patients with vascular invasion......, were observed in a surveillance program. RESULTS: The relapse rate after orchiectomy alone was 30.6% at 5 years. Presence of vascular invasion together with embryonal carcinoma and rete testis invasion in the testicular primary identified a group with a relapse risk of 50%. Without risk factors....... Relapses after 5 years were seen in 0.5% of the whole cohort or in 1.6% of relapsing patients. The majority of relapses (94.4%) belonged to the good prognostic group according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The disease-specific survival at 15 years was 99...

  10. CT evaluation of the damaged upper limb muscle in patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuke, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the changes of CT numbers and cross sectional areas of the muscles, we determined CT scores of the muscle. In twelve patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD), we assessed the difference of CT scores of the muscle and the correlation between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities. CT scores of the subscapularis muscle and infraspinatus muscle were significantly lower than deltoideus muscle at the level of the shoulder, and flexor muscles showed also significantly lower than extensor muscles at the level of the upper extremity. Good correlations between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities were observed in the muscles of shoulder and upper arm. (author)

  11. CT evaluation of the damaged upper limb muscle in patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Hiroshi (Anan Central Hospital, Tokushima (Japan)); Matsuke, Yutaka

    1992-04-01

    In order to evaluate the changes of CT numbers and cross sectional areas of the muscles, we determined CT scores of the muscle. In twelve patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD), we assessed the difference of CT scores of the muscle and the correlation between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities. CT scores of the subscapularis muscle and infraspinatus muscle were significantly lower than deltoideus muscle at the level of the shoulder, and flexor muscles showed also significantly lower than extensor muscles at the level of the upper extremity. Good correlations between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities were observed in the muscles of shoulder and upper arm. (author).

  12. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity: a report from upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Nassar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in a tertiary referral neonatal intensive care unit in upper Egypt and to describe the obstacles faced during implementing the screening protocol for the first time. METHODS: Consecutive infants were enrolled at birth and screened for ROP. We used the UK ROP guideline (May 2008 for infant selection, follow up and treatment. Repeat examinations were performed until retinal vascularisation was complete. RESULTS: Fifty-two infants were enrolled: 24 males and 28 females. Mean gestational age was 31.3wk (±2.8 SD and mean birth weight was 1234.6 g (±221.1 SD. Incidence of ROP was 36.5% (stages 1, 2, 3 and 4a were 9.6%, 9.6%, 15.4% and 1.9% respectively, no stages 4b or 5 were found in this series. Six infants (11.5% died during screening without ROP, 25 infants (48.1% were discharged from screening with retinal vascularisation reaching zone III, 5 infants (9.6% were treated with indirect diode with or without additional cryotherapy and 16 infants (30.8% were lost to follow up. In this series gestational age rather than birth weight was found significantly correlated and predictive (P<0.05 with ROP stages. CONCLUSION: ROP in a single site in Upper Egypt appears to have comparable incidence to other areas worldwide. The main screening obstacle was missing cases due to the absence of a national ROP screening protocol.

  13. Simulation of the interaction of karstic lakes Magnolia and Brooklyn with the upper Floridan Aquifer, southwestern Clay County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stage of Lake Brooklyn, in southwestern Clay County, Florida, has varied over a range of 27 feet since measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey began in July 1957. The large stage changes have been attributed to the relation between highly transient surface-water inflow to the lake and subsurface conduits of karstic origin that permit a high rate of leakage from the lake to the Upper Floridan aquifer. After the most recent and severe stage decline (1990-1994), the U.S. Geological Survey began a study that entailed the use of numerical ground-water flow models to simulate the interaction of the lake with the Upper Floridan aquifer and the large fluctuations of stage that were a part of that process. A package (set of computer programs) designed to represent lake/aquifer interaction in the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-96) and the Three-Dimensional Method-of-Characteristics Solute-Transport Model (MOC3D) simulators was prepared as part of this study, and a demonstration of its capability was a primary objective of the study. (Although the official names are Brooklyn Lake and Magnolia Lake (Florida Geographic Names), in this report the local names, Lake Brooklyn and Lake Magnolia, are used.) In the simulator of lake/aquifer interaction used in this investigation, the stage of each lake in a simulation is updated in successive time steps by a budget process that takes into account ground-water seepage, precipitation upon and evaporation from the lake surface, stream inflows and outflows, overland runoff inflows, and augmentation or depletion by artificial means. The simulator was given the capability to simulate both the division of a lake into separate pools as lake stage falls and the coalescence of several pools into a single lake as the stage rises. This representational capability was required to simulate Lake Brooklyn, which can divide into as many as 10 separate pools at sufficiently low stage. In the

  14. 1994 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,653 collections of fishes from stratified random sad permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1994...

  15. 1991 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,653 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1991...

  16. 1996 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,378 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1996...

  17. 1992 Annual Status Report: A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,221 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during I 992...

  18. 1997 Annual Status Report A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1998-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,797 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1997...

  19. 1998 Annual Status Report: A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,664 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1998...

  20. 1995 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,723 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1995...

  1. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentru Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. The behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied. 2 refs., 8 tabs

  3. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C--1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied

  4. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... is elaborated as being an occasioning as well as a result of socio-technical choices and processes, and points to the role of socio-material as well as discursive practices, which frame and render particular spaces open to management and to the coordination of knowledge flows and ideas in early phases...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  5. Stage II Seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagerman, R.H.; Kotlove, D.J.; Regine, W.; Chung, C.T.; King, G.A.; Dalai, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1985, 32 patients with stage II (21 A,11 B) testicular seminoma were treated with postorchiectomy irradiation to the retroperitoneal and ipsilateral iliac nodes; 28 received elective mediastinal-supraclavicular irradiation. The median follow-up was 8 1/2 years; 29 patients were followed up for over 3 years and 24 for over 5 years. Twenty-eight patients remain alive and well and four have die, two of a second primary cancer. Two patients developed recurrent seminoma in the mediastinum; these patients showed a variant lymphangiographic pattern. Both remain well after further irradiation or irradiation plus chemotherapy. A third patient developed nonseminomatous ''recurrence'' in the radiation field and is well after chemotherapy

  6. Development costs for a nuclear electric propulsion stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Prickett, W. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Development costs are presented for an unmanned nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stage based upon a liquid metal cooled, in-core thermionic reactor. A total of 120 kWe are delivered to the thrust subsystem which employs mercury ion engines for electric propulsion. This study represents the most recent cost evaluation of the development of a reactor power system for a wide range of nuclear space power applications. These include geocentric, and outer planet and other deep space missions. The development program is described for the total NEP stage, based upon specific development programs for key NEP stage components and subsystems.

  7. A two staged condensation of vapors of an isobutane tower in installations for sulfuric acid alkylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, N.P.; Feyzkhanov, R.I.; Idrisov, A.D.; Navalikhin, P.G.; Sakharov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    In order to increase the concentration of isobutane to greater than 72 to 76 percent in an installation for sulfuric acid alkylation, a system of two staged condensation of vapors from an isobutane tower is placed into operation. The first stage condenses the heavier part of the upper distillate of the tower, which is achieved through somewhat of an increase in the condensate temperature. The product which is condensed in the first stage is completely returned to the tower as a live irrigation. The vapors of the isobutane fraction which did not condense in the first stage are sent to two newly installed condensers, from which the product after condensation passes through intermediate tanks to further depropanization. The two staged condensation of vapors of the isobutane tower reduces the content of the inert diluents, the propane and n-butane in the upper distillate of the isobutane tower and creates more favorable conditions for the operation of the isobutane and propane tower.

  8. Timing and Stages of Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stages of puberty Timing and stages of puberty Adolescence and puberty can be so confusing! Here’s some info on what to expect and when: Puberty in girls usually starts between the ages of ...

  9. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD; ESKD Images Kidney anatomy References Fogarty DG, Taal MW. A stepped care approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  10. [Diagnosis of nitrogen content in upper and lower corn leaves based on hyperspectral data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liang; Hu, Ke-Lin; Tian, Ming-Ming; Wei, Dan; Li, Hong; Bai, You-Lu; Zhang, Jun-Zheng

    2013-04-01

    Based on the spectral characters of corn leaf nitrogen content in the space, the spectral models for rapid estimating crop nitrogen content were set up, which is practically meaningful to effectively providing the guidance in fertilization. Spectral technology was applied to explore corn leaves nitrogen content distribution regularity and the relationship between the nitrogen content and plant index was analysed and then the estimation models were built. The results showed N content in upper leaves is higher than that in lower leaves in four growing stages; lower leaves at tassel emerge stage are sensitive to nitrogen losses, which could be used in guiding fertilization in grain production; optimum estimation models were built atjointing stage, the full-grown stage and tasseling stage, The research results provided the proof of crop nutrient analysis and rational fertilization.

  11. COOLING STAGES OF CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Троценко, А. В.

    2011-01-01

    The formalized definition for cooling stage of low temperature system is done. Based on existing information about the known cryogenic unit cycles the possible types of cooling stages are single out. From analyses of these stages their classification by various characteristics is suggested. The results of thermodynamic optimization of final throttle stage of cooling, which are used as working fluids helium, hydrogen and nitrogen, are shown.

  12. LULU analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1983-06-01

    Our analysis program LULU has proven very useful in all stages of experiment analysis, from prerun detector debugging through final data reduction. It has solved our problem of having arbitrary word length events and is easy enough to use that many separate experimenters are now analyzing with LULU. The ability to use the same software for all stages of experiment analysis greatly eases the programming burden. We may even get around to making the graphics elegant someday

  13. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategy for the Explorer program for solar and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents include: executive summary; the Explorer program - background and current status; strategy - level of activity; solar-terrestrial research (solar physics, space plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics)

  15. Science on stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  16. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  17. Climate influences on upper Limpopo River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Limpopo Valley, hydro-meteorology, surface water deficit. * To whom all ... millenia and there is a history of drought impacts on vegetation. (Ekblom et ... water budget of the upper Limpopo River valley using direct.

  18. γ -phlebography of the upper limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacolot, G.; Legendre, P.; Millour, L.; Barra, J.A.; Perramant, M.; Morin, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    γ-phlebography is an easy and repetitive exploration of deep venous thrombosis. This investigation becomes very useful for the upper limbs on account of the present frequency of iatrogenic thrombosis [fr

  19. upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients referred

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... Objective: To determine the pattern of referral and endoscopy ... build a model of a flexible fibre imaging device (2) ..... a retrospective and prospective audit of all upper ... endoscopy should be reserved for the high risk.

  20. Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2

    1977-03-21

    Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.

  1. An approach to the painful upper limb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain in the upper limb is a common presenting complaint in the primary health care setting and the ... disruptions or pathological fracture, as opposed to ... and a neurological assessment of the lower limbs. This is in addition to a thorough.

  2. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  3. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...

  4. [Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy as a Surgical Treatment for Upper Third Early Gastric Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do Joong; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ho

    2017-09-25

    Recently, the incidence of upper third gastric cancer has increased, and with it the number of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) procedures performed has been increasing. However, if ESD is not indicated or non-curable, surgical treatment may be necessary. In the case of lower third gastric cancer, it is possible to preserve the upper part of the stomach; however, in the case of upper third gastric cancer, total gastrectomy is still the standard treatment option, regardless of the stage. This is due to the complications associated with upper third gastric cancer, such as gastroesophageal reflux after proximal gastrectomy rather than oncologic problems. Recently, the introduction of the double tract reconstruction method after proximal gastrectomy has become one of the surgical treatment methods for upper third early gastric cancer. However, since there has not been a prospective comparative study evaluating its efficacy, the ongoing multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial (KLASS-05) comparing laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with double tract reconstruction and laparoscopic total gastrectomy is expected to be important for determining the future of treatment of upper third early gastric cancer.

  5. A summary of the low upper shelf toughness safety margin issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The low upper shelf toughness issue has a long history, beginning with the choice of materials for the submerged arc welding process, but also potentially involving the use of A302-B plate. Criteria for vessels containing low upper shelf materials have usually been expressed in terms of the Charpy upper shelf impact energy. Although these criteria have had several different bases, the range of limiting values for wall thicknesses approaching 229 mm (9 in.) has remained between 54 to 68J (40 to 50 ft lbs). Allowable values for vessels with thinner walls and/or only circumferential low upper shelf welds might conceivably be less. A decision on criteria to be incorporated into the ASME Code is now being made. Choices to be made concern the method for estimating the decrease in upper shelf impact energy, flaw geometry for circumferential welds, statistical significance of toughness values, the choice between J D and J M , reference pressure, safety factors and the inclusion of tearing stability calculations by means of R curve extrapolation. NRC research programs have contributed significantly to the resolution of the low upper shelf issue. These programs embrace all aspects of the issue, including material characterization, large scale testing, analysis and criteria development. 52 refs., 5 figs

  6. Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jagdeesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

  7. Preliminary stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation, including a brief summary of newly discovered oil stain, upper Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Decker, Paul L.; Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys has an ongoing program aimed at evaluating the Mesozoic forearc stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum systems of lower Cook Inlet. Most of our field studies have focused on the Jurassic component of the petroleum system (this report). However, in late July and early August of 2012, we initiated a study of the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation. The Kaguyak Formation is locally well exposed on the upper Alaska Peninsula (fig. 25) and was named by Keller and Reiser (1959) for a sequence of interbedded siltstone and sandstone of upper Campanian to Maastrichtian age that they estimated to be 1,450 m thick.Subsequent work by Detterman and Miller (1985) examined 900 m of section and interpreted the unit as the record of a prograding submarine fan.This interpretation of deep-water deposition contrasts with other Upper Cretaceous rocks exposed along the Alaska Peninsula and lower Cook Inlet that are generally described as nonmarine to shallow marine (Detterman and others, 1996; LePain and others, 2012).Based on foraminifera and palynomorphs from the COST No. 1 well, Magoon (1986) concluded that the Upper Cretaceous rocks were deposited in a variety of water depths and environments ranging from upper bathyal to nonmarine. During our recent fieldwork west and south of Fourpeaked Mountain, we similarly encountered markedly varying lithofacies in the Kaguyak Formation (fig. 25), and we also found oil-stained rocks that are consistent with the existence of an active petroleum system in Upper Cretaceous rocks on the upper Alaska Peninsula and in lower Cook Inlet. These field observations are summarized below.

  8. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  9. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Autoradiography using 125 I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat

  10. Congenital upper lip pit: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the rarest developmental malformations of the lip is congenital lip pits. They are usually seen as bilateral depressions in the vermilion zone of the lip and occur on the paramedian portion of the vermilion border of the lip. They are extremely rare in the upper lip. Lip pits are due to the failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of the lip/notching of lip at an early stage of development with fixation of tissues of the base of the notch. Lip pits have also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders and other malformations. The clinical and pathologic picture and the therapeutic aspects of this condition are discussed in this paper.

  11. [Diagnosis of upper urinary tract tumors. A pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendarp, M; Laguna, M P; de la Rosette, J J M C

    2014-07-01

    Early diagnosis of upper urinary tract tumors is not easy. The development of endoscopic equipment has expanded the group of patients candidates for minimally invasive treatment. Only by providing accurate tumor staging and grading can clinicians decide which patients should be offered conservative therapies. We need diagnostic methods that allow us to make an early and accurate diagnosis for these lesions, as well as safe follow-up. Our proposal is to present a review of the most used diagnostic method, their features, and future diagnostic tools. The diagnostic arsenal requires further improvement. Only through accurate diagnosis, we will be able to safely provide conservative treatment. Developing new diagnostic techniques seem to move us closer to this goal even more. We propose a working algorithm on the management of these lesions.

  12. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  13. Assessment of the upper motor neuron in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, William; Simon, Neil G; Grosskreutz, Julian; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical signs of upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement are an important component in supporting the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but are often not easily appreciated in a limb that is concurrently affected by muscle wasting and lower motor neuron degeneration, particularly in the early symptomatic stages of ALS. Whilst recent criteria have been proposed to facilitate improved detection of lower motor neuron impairment through electrophysiological features that have improved diagnostic sensitivity, assessment of upper motor neuron involvement remains essentially clinical. As a result, there is often a significant diagnostic delay that in turn may impact institution of disease-modifying therapy and access to other optimal patient management. Biomarkers of pathological UMN involvement are also required to ensure patients with suspected ALS have timely access to appropriate therapeutic trials. The present review provides an analysis of current and recently developed assessment techniques, including novel imaging and electrophysiological approaches used to study corticomotoneuronal pathology in ALS. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  15. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  16. Dynamic of bio-geometric profile indicators of children’s with functionally one ventricle posture at stage of physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Vitomskiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess dynamic of bio-geometric profile quantitative indicators in children with functionally one ventricular at stages of physical rehabilitation. Material: 35 patients were examined during hospital stay and when leaving hospital. Indicators were registered with the help of photo metering and program Ergotherapy. Results: in children we registered great number of posture disorders in frontal (94.3% and sagittal planes (97.1%. In frontal plane the angles, pointing at significant asymmetry of upper limbs in respect to horizontal plane, were increased. In sagittal plane we received angles, which pointed at presence of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. After surgery and stationary stage of rehabilitation static changes were registered in insignificant quantity of the studied angles. After post-clinical physical rehabilitation stage we registered reduction of angles’ values and their approaching to norm. Conclusions: physical rehabilitation at stationary and port clinical stages with the help of correcting exercises positively influence on restoration of posture after surgery and its improvement in the future.

  17. Locally advanced breast cancer (stage III and stage IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, F.F.; Grabert, H.; Lima, G.R. de; Pontes, M.; Ferraro, O.; Santana, A.; Brook, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The results concerning to the treatment of 193 patients with locally advanced breast cancer-stage III and stage IV are analysed. All the patients were treated with radical radiotherapy plus total mastectomy about 6 weeks later; 53 pacients received also chemotherapy (CMF - 12 courses) and 52 were oophorectomized. (M.A.C) [pt

  18. Unusually well preserved casts of halite crystals: A case from the Upper Frasnian of northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychliński, Tomasz; Jaglarz, Piotr; Uchman, Alfred; Vainorius, Julius

    2014-07-01

    Upper Frasnian carbonate-siliciclastics of the Stipinai Formation (northern Lithuania) comprise a bed of calcareous silty arenite with casts of halite crystals, including hopper crystals. Unusually well-preserved casts occur on the lower surface of the bed, while poorly-preserved casts are present on the upper bedding surface. The casts originated as the result of the dissolution of halite crystals which grew in the sediment. The dissolution took place during early stages of diagenesis, when host sediment was soft. Unstable cavities after crystal dissolution were filled by overlying sediment forming their casts. The collapsing sediment form sink-hole deformation structures which disturb wave-ripple cross lamination from the upper part of the bed. Dewatering pipe structures are also present. The casts and accompanying sink-hole and dewatering pipes are classified as the postdepositional deformation structures caused by haloturbation.

  19. Long-Term Lithium Use and Risk of Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Jensen, Boye L

    2015-01-01

    Lithium induces proliferation in the epithelium of renal collecting ducts. A recent small-scale cohort study reported a strong association between use of lithium and increased risk of renal neoplasia. We therefore conducted a large-scale pharmacoepidemiologic study of the association between long...... stratified by stage and subtype of upper urinary tract cancer revealed slight but nonsignificant increases in the ORs for localized disease (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0) and for renal pelvis/ureter cancers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.5-5.4). In conclusion, in our nationwide case-control study, use of lithium......-term use of lithium and risk of upper urinary tract cancer, including renal cell cancer and cancers of the renal pelvis or ureter. We identified all histologically verified upper urinary tract cancer cases in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 from the Danish Cancer Registry. A total of 6477 cases were matched...

  20. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  1. Evaluating a Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzreb, Arthur C.

    Problems in evaluating the success of an institutional resource development program are examined and suggestions are offered for effective assessment. Such a program is seen as a sequence of events in the artful management of people, from the planning stage to obtaining a financial commitment in writing from persons who want to share their assets…

  2. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  3. Growth-related changes of skeletal and upper-airway features in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Karakaya, Jale; Ozgur, Figen; Aksu, Muge

    2015-10-01

    The craniofacial morphology of subjects with cleft lip and palate differs from that of subjects without clefts. Subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate tend to have maxillary retrognathism, a smaller mandible with an obtuse gonial angle, greater anterior upper and lower facial heights, and retroclined maxillary incisors. The purposes of this research were to compare the skeletal and upper-airway features of subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate with the same features in control subjects without clefts and to determine the growth-related changes at different growth stages. The sample comprised 212 subjects divided into 2 groups: 68 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 144 controls without clefts; each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to growth stage using the cervical vertebral maturation stage method. The subgroups were defined as early childhood (stage 1), prepubertal (stage 2), pubertal (stage 3), and postpubertal (stage 4). The cephalometric variables were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. Maxillary position showed no significant differences between the male groups. The maxilla was more prognathic at stage 2 and became more retrognathic at stages 3 and 4 in the females. The mandible was more retrusive in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects at stage 1 in males and at stages 3 and 4 in females. ANB was larger at stages 1 and 2, and it became similar to the controls at stages 3 and 4 in male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Vertical growth was seen in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects regardless of sex, and no change was observed with age. Posterior airway space was narrower in all stages (except for stage 1 in females). Middle airway space was wider after stage 1 in the male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Inferior airway space was narrower in the male bilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the early childhood and pubertal stages. Age

  4. A stage is a stage is a stage: a direct comparison of two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Theo L

    2003-09-01

    L. Kohlberg (1969) argued that his moral stages captured a developmental sequence specific to the moral domain. To explore that contention, the author compared stage assignments obtained with the Standard Issue Scoring System (A. Colby & L. Kohlberg, 1987a, 1987b) and those obtained with a generalized content-independent stage-scoring system called the Hierarchical Complexity Scoring System (T. L. Dawson, 2002a), on 637 moral judgment interviews (participants' ages ranged from 5 to 86 years). The correlation between stage scores produced with the 2 systems was .88. Although standard issue scoring and hierarchical complexity scoring often awarded different scores up to Kohlberg's Moral Stage 2/3, from his Moral Stage 3 onward, scores awarded with the two systems predominantly agreed. The author explores the implications for developmental research.

  5. Primed Physical Therapy Enhances Recovery of Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerley, Suzanne J; Byblow, Winston D; Barber, P Alan; MacDonald, Hayley; McIntyre-Robinson, Andrew; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-05-01

    Recovery of upper limb function is important for regaining independence after stroke. To test the effects of priming upper limb physical therapy with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation. Eighteen adults with first-ever chronic monohemispheric subcortical stroke participated in this randomized, controlled, triple-blinded trial. Intervention consisted of priming with real or sham iTBS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex immediately before 45 minutes of upper limb physical therapy, daily for 10 days. Changes in upper limb function (Action Research Arm Test [ARAT]), upper limb impairment (Fugl-Meyer Scale), and corticomotor excitability, were assessed before, during, and immediately, 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired before and at one month after the intervention. Improvements in ARAT were observed after the intervention period when therapy was primed with real iTBS, but not sham, and were maintained at 1 month. These improvements were not apparent halfway through the intervention, indicating a dose effect. Improvements in ARAT at 1 month were related to balancing of corticomotor excitability and an increase in ipsilesional premotor cortex activation during paretic hand grip. Two weeks of iTBS-primed therapy improves upper limb function at the chronic stage of stroke, for at least 1 month postintervention, whereas therapy alone may not be sufficient to alter function. This indicates a potential role for iTBS as an adjuvant to therapy delivered at the chronic stage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E

  7. Defining the role of sensation, strength, and prehension for upper limb function in cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Beaton, Dorcas; Curt, Armin; Duff, Susan; Jiang, Depeng; Popovic, Milos R; Rudhe, Claudia; Fehlings, Michael G; Verrier, Mary C

    2014-01-01

    Upper limb function plays a significant role in enhancing independence for individuals with tetraplegia. However, there is limited knowledge about the specific input of sensorimotor deficits on upper limb function. Thus the theoretical framework designed to develop the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP) was used as a hypothetical model to analyze the impact of impairment on function. To define the association of impairment (sensation, strength, and prehension measured by the GRASSP) to upper limb function as defined by functional measures (Capabilities of Upper Extremity Questionnaire, Spinal Cord Independence Measure). A hypothetical model representing relationships by applying structural equation modeling was used to estimate the effect of the impairment domains in GRASSP on upper limb function. Data collected on 72 chronic individuals with tetraplegia was used to test the hypothetical model. Structural equation modeling confirmed strong associations between sensation, strength, and prehension with upper limb function, and determined 72% of the variance in "sensorimotor upper limb function" was explained by the model. Statistics of fit showed the data did fit the hypothesized model. Sensation and strength influence upper limb function directly and indirectly with prehension as the mediator. The GRASSP is a sensitive diagnostic tool in distinguishing the relative contribution of strength, sensation and prehension to function. Thus, the impact of interventions on specific domains of impairment and related contribution on clinical recovery of the upper limb can be detailed to optimize rehabilitation programs.

  8. Investigation Stability of Upper Limb Function in Handballers with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorollah Javdaneh

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, functional stability of the unstable shoulder of Hanballers with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit is lower than the functional stability of the healthy subjects; therefore, we suggest that the upper extremity stabilization exercises, specially the closed kinetic chain exercises be added to the shoulder rehabilitation programs.

  9. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  10. Conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, optical backscatter, laser in-situ scattering and transmissivity, acoustic zooplankton biomass, net zooplankton counts, and suspended particle data from the RV HUGH R. SHARP in the upper Chesapeake Bay from February 23 through 26, 2007 as part of the Bio-Physical Interaction in the Turbidity Maximum (BITMAX-II) program (NODC Accession 0062884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains Cruise Reports and CTD data from 8 main cruises in the upper Chesapeake Bay on board the R/V Hugh R. Sharp from February 2007 to October 2008 ....

  11. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  12. Are Upper-Body Axial Symptoms a Feature of Early Parkinson’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Baille, Guillaume; Delval, Arnaud; Tard, Céline; Perez, Thierry; Danel-Buhl, Nicolas; Seguy, David; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Delliaux, Marie; Dujardin, Kathy; Defebvre, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Background Axial disorders are considered to appear late in the course of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The associated impact on quality of life (QoL) and survival and the lack of an effective treatment mean that understanding and treating axial disorders is a key challenge. However, upper-body axial disorders (namely dysarthria, swallowing and breathing disorders) have never been prospectively assessed in early-stage PD patients. Objectives To characterize upper-body axial symptoms and QoL in consecutive patients with early-stage PD. Methods We prospectively enrolled 66 consecutive patients with early-stage PD (less than 3 years of disease progression) and assessed dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory function (relative to 36 controls) using both objective and patient-reported outcomes. Results The mean disease duration was 1.26 years and the mean UPDRS motor score was 19.4 out of 108. 74% of the patients presented slight dysarthria (primarily dysprosodia). Men appeared to be more severely affected (i.e. dysphonia). This dysfunction was strongly correlated with low swallowing speed (despite the absence of complaints about dysphagia), respiratory insufficiency and poor QoL. Videofluorography showed that oral-phase swallowing disorders affected 60% of the 31 tested patients and that pharyngeal-phase disorders affected 21%. 24% of the patients reported occasional dyspnea, which was correlated with anxiety in women but not in men. Marked diaphragmatic dysfunction was suspected in 42% of the patients (predominantly in men). Conclusion Upper body axial symptoms were frequent in men with early-stage PD, whereas women presented worst non-motor impairments. New assessment methods are required because currently available tools do not reliably detect these upper-body axial disorders. PMID:27654040

  13. Interventional studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide a means whereby physiologic and pathophysiologic features can be observed from a unique and noninvasive perspective. While nuclear medicine studies by their very nature lack the high spatial resolution of the radiographic approach, the data derived are readily quantitated and presented in numerical fashion to provide functional and dynamic information in which the influences of interventions may be observed. This chapter outlines the scope of such interventions in studies of the upper GI tract with emphasis on examinations for gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying. The interactions of nutrients, physical maneuvers of pharmacologic agents on nuclear medicine studies of the upper GI tract may be intentional to render a test more sensitive or to evaluate the effect of therapy, or may represent an unintentional side effect that must be taken into account if misinterpretation is to be avoided

  14. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics

  15. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  16. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  17. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2016-08-08

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph classes, such as P4-free graphs or 2K2-free graphs.For classes defined by finitely many forbidden induced subgraphs, the boundary separating difficult instances of the problem from polynomially solvable ones consists of the so called boundary classes.However, none of such classes has been identified so far for the upper dominating set problem.In the present paper, we discover the first boundary class for this problem.

  18. Transfusion strategy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, James; Lang, Eddy

    2015-09-01

    Clinical question Does a hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 70 g/L yield better patient outcomes than a threshold of 90 g/L in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Article chosen Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013;368(1):11-21. Study objectives The authors of this study measured mortality, from any cause, within the first 45 days, in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, who were managed with a hemoglobin threshold for red cell transfusion of either 70 g/L or 90 g/L. The secondary outcome measures included rate of further bleeding and rate of adverse events.

  19. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  20. [Remote intelligent Brunnstrom assessment system for upper limb rehabilitation for post-stroke based on extreme learning machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Yu, Lei; Fu, Jianming; Fang, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    In order to realize an individualized and specialized rehabilitation assessment of remoteness and intelligence, we set up a remote intelligent assessment system of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. By using the remote rehabilitation training sensors and client data sampling software, we collected and uploaded the gesture data from a patient's forearm and upper arm during rehabilitation training to database of the server. Then a remote intelligent assessment system, which had been developed based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm and Brunnstrom stage assessment standard, was used to evaluate the gesture data. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed method, a group of 23 stroke patients, whose upper limb movement functions were in different recovery stages, and 4 healthy people, whose upper limb movement functions were normal, were recruited to finish the same training task. The results showed that, compared to that of the experienced rehabilitation expert who used the Brunnstrom stage standard table, the accuracy of the proposed remote Brunnstrom intelligent assessment system can reach a higher level, as 92.1%. The practical effects of surgery have proved that the proposed system could realize the intelligent assessment of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients remotely, and it could also make the rehabilitation of the post-stroke patients at home or in a community care center possible.

  1. WIMS library update project: first stage extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santo, A.C.F. de; Santos Bastos, W. dos.

    1994-09-01

    This paper reports the results of nine structural lattices obtained through the WIMS-TRACA computer program. This work was performed by request of the managers of the WLU/IAEA project, for the extension of the first stage. These benchmark lattices include regular arrays with heavy water and data of the thorium cycle. Besides K ∞ and K eff (employing the experimental buckling to account for the leakages) spectrum index and ratio at reaction rates are also determined for comparison with the experimental values. The input data for each lattice, are given in the appendix to help exploring possible differences in the results. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 11 tabs

  2. 78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program..., 2009, for the purpose of removing Stage II vapor control requirements for new and upgraded gasoline... Piping for Stage II Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks. In addition, rule 15A-02D...

  3. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  4. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ±0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  5. Membraneous stenosis of the upper oesophagus ('webs')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.L.; Kurtz, B.

    1981-01-01

    Webs of the upper oesophagus are sail-like mucosal folds of unknown aetiology. Small, transverse webs on the anterior wall of the oesophagus are not uncommon incidental findings which are easily overlooked on routine examination. Extensive, circular membranes in the upper oesophagus, on the other hand, are rare; these may lead to severe difficulty with swallowing and may be associated with regurgitation. One example of a transverse, and three cases of circular webs are described, which caused stenosis and dysphagia and which, in some cases, were multiple. The aetiology is discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Schreiber, Trine; Tønnesen, Pia Hvid

    The discussion paper is a publication from the project Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School. The project is a collaboration between the National Library of Education at the Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, and the Royal School of Library and Information Science....... The project is funded by Denmark's Electronic Research Library (DEFF). The discussion paper is published in connection with the conference Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School on 22 April 2010. See video streaming from the conference etc. at www.dpu.dk/info....

  7. Collaborative Tools in Upper Secondary School - Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Degn, Hans-Peter; Bech, Christian Winther

    2013-01-01

    The paper will discuss potentials of digital media to support student engagement and student production in Danish upper secondary education with a specific focus on group work and collaboration. With the latest school reform, upper secondary education in Denmark has experienced an increased focus...... on the system theoretical approach will be described. Third, the findings from the qualitative, and quantitative studies will be presented. The paper concludes that the study demonstrates changes in the way group work is organised by the students using digital media, and a tendency to develop student engagement...

  8. Allogenic controls on the fluvial architecture and fossil preservation of the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Carina E.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Alcober, Oscar A.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation in NW Argentina was deposited in a fluvial system during the synrift filling of the extensional Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin. The expansive exposures of the fluvial architecture and paleosols provide a framework to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental evolution of this basin during the Upper Triassic using continental sequence stratigraphy. The Ischigualasto Formation deposition can be divided into seven sequential sedimentary stages: the 1) Bypass stage; 2) Confined low-accommodation stage; 3) Confined high accommodation stage; 4) Unstable-accommodation stage; 5) Unconfined high-accommodation stage; 6) Unconfined low-accommodation stage; and finally, 7) Unconfined high-accommodation stage. The sedimentary evolution of the Ischigualasto Formation was driven by different allogenic controls such as rises and falls in lake levels, local tectonism, subsidence, volcanism, and climate, which also produced modifications of the equilibrium profile of the fluvial systems. All of these factors result in different accommodations in central and flank areas of the basin, which led to different architectural configurations of channels and floodplains. Allogenic processes affected not only the sequence stratigraphy of the basin but also the vertebrate and plant taphocenosis. Therefore, the sequence stratigraphy can be used not only as a predictive tool related to fossil occurrence but also to understand the taphonomic history of the basin at each temporal interval.

  9. Improvement of Vocational Education Curriculum Implementation through Instructional Materials Production and Utilization in Upper Basic Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoh, Titus M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of curriculum as it relates to vocational education in Nigeria Upper Basic Education Curriculum. The definition of Curriculum development was highlighted to reflect contemporary concepts of curriculum integration. Curriculum development was stressed to include the rudiments necessary in its stages of…

  10. Shut-down dose rate analyses for the ITER electron cyclotron-heating upper launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhorst, Bastian; Serikov, Arkady; Fischer, Ulrich; Lu, Lei [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology INR (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany); Spaeh, Peter; Strauss, Dirk [Institute for Applied Materials IAM (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    The electron cyclotron resonance heating upper launcher (ECHUL) is going to be installed in the upper port of the ITER tokamak thermonuclear fusion reactor for plasma mode stabilization (neoclassical tearing modes and the sawtooth instability). The paper reports the latest neutronic modeling and analyses which have been performed for the ITER reference front steering launcher design. It focuses on the port accessibility after reactor shut-down for which dose rate (SDDR) distributions on a fine regular mesh grid were calculated. The results are compared to those obtained for the ITER Dummy Upper Port. The calculations showed that the heterogeneous ECHUL design gives rise to enhanced radiation streaming as compared to the homogenous dummy upper port. Therefore the used launcher geometry was upgraded to a more recent development stage. The inter-comparison shows a significant improvement of the launchers shielding properties but also the necessity to further upgrade the shielding performance. Furthermore, the analysis for the homogenous dummy upper port, which represents optimal shielding inside the launcher, demonstrates that the shielding upgrade also needs to include the launcher's environment.

  11. An ALMA continuum survey of circumstellar disks in the upper Scorpius OB association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present ALMA 880 μm continuum observations of 20 K- and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association (Upper Sco) that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low-mass stars (0.1-1.6 M {sub ☉}) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 μm dust continuum at ≥3σ with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 M {sub ⊕}. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ≈ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ∼1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3σ. For stellar masses between 0.49 M {sub ☉} and 1.6 M {sub ☉}, the mean dust mass in disks is lower in Upper Sco relative to Taurus by Δlog M {sub dust} = 0.44 ± 0.26.

  12. Modal intersection types, two-level languages, and staged synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Rehof, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    -linguistic framework for staged program synthesis, where metaprograms are automatically synthesized which, when executed, generate code in a target language. We survey the basic theory of staged synthesis and illustrate by example how a two-level language theory specialized from λ∩ ⎕ can be used to understand......A typed λ-calculus, λ∩ ⎕, is introduced, combining intersection types and modal types. We develop the metatheory of λ∩ ⎕, with particular emphasis on the theory of subtyping and distributivity of the modal and intersection type operators. We describe how a stratification of λ∩ ⎕ leads to a multi...... the process of staged synthesis....

  13. A novel voice coil motor-driven compliant micropositioning stage based on flexure mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jiangkun; Tian, Yanling; Li, Zheng; Wang, Fujun; Cai, Kunhai

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a 2-degrees of freedom flexure-based micropositioning stage with a flexible decoupling mechanism. The stage is composed of an upper planar stage and four vertical support links to improve the out-of-plane stiffness. The moving platform is driven by two voice coil motors, and thus it has the capability of large working stroke. The upper stage is connected with the base through six double parallel four-bar linkages mechanisms, which are orthogonally arranged to implement the motion decoupling in the x and y directions. The vertical support links with serially connected hook joints are utilized to guarantee good planar motion with heavy-loads. The static stiffness and the dynamic resonant frequencies are obtained based on the theoretical analyses. Finite element analysis is used to investigate the characteristics of the developed stage. Experiments are carried out to validate the established models and the performance of the developed stage. It is noted that the developed stage has the capability of translational motion stroke of 1.8 mm and 1.78 mm in working axes. The maximum coupling errors in the x and y directions are 0.65% and 0.82%, respectively, and the motion resolution is less than 200 nm. The experimental results show that the developed stage has good capability for trajectory tracking.

  14. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE OF TWO STAGES IN FREE RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Tarnow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I find that exactly two stages can be seen directly in sequential free recall distributions. These distributions show that the first three recalls come from the emptying of working memory, recalls 6 and above come from a second stage and the 4th and 5th recalls are mixtures of the two.A discontinuity, a rounded step function, is shown to exist in the fitted linear slope of the recall distributions as the recall shifts from the emptying of working memory (positive slope to the second stage (negative slope. The discontinuity leads to a first estimate of the capacity of working memory at 4-4.5 items. The total recall is shown to be a linear combination of the content of working memory and items recalled in the second stage with 3.0-3.9 items coming from working memory, a second estimate of the capacity of working memory. A third, separate upper limit on the capacity of working memory is found (3.06 items, corresponding to the requirement that the content of working memory cannot exceed the total recall, item by item. This third limit is presumably the best limit on the average capacity of unchunked working memory.The second stage of recall is shown to be reactivation: The average times to retrieve additional items in free recall obey a linear relationship as a function of the recall probability which mimics recognition and cued recall, both mechanisms using reactivation (Tarnow, 2008.

  15. Successful three stage repair of a large congenital abdominal region defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Agrawal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present two infants born with large, right upper quadrant defects which cannot be categorized as either a gastroschisis or omphalocele. We successfully managed one infant with a three stage repair using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE patch, porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM and delayed surgical closure. The second infant passed away due to parental consent care withdrawal.

  16. Buried paleosols of the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparin, B. F.; Platonova, N. I.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Dudin, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology and chemical and physicochemical properties of paleosols buried at the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1 in Kostenki-Borshchevo district of Voronezh oblast were studied. Four in situ paleosols formed 20-40(45) ka ago were separated in the archaeological excavation. Together with the surface soils, they characterized two different epochs of pedogenesis—the interstadial and interglacial (Holocene) epochs—and three shorter cycles of pedogenesis. The traces of human occupation in the studied hollow in the Late Paleolithic were found in the layers corresponding to the interstadial epoch. The buried paleosols had a simple horizonation: A(W)-C. A shallow thickness of the soil profiles could be due to relatively short periods of pedogenesis and to the shallow embedding by the carbonate geochemical barrier. The degree of the organic matter humification in the paleosols varied from 0.6 to 1.5, which corresponded to the mean duration of the period of biological activity of 60 to 150 days per year characterizing the climatic conditions of the tundra, taiga, forest-steppe, and steppe natural zones. In the excavation Kostenki-1 (2004-2005), soil-sediment sequences composed of five series of lithological layers with soil layers on top of them were found. Their deposition proceeded in two phases—the water phase and the aerial phase—that predetermined the morphology and composition of the soil-sediment sequences. The history of sediment accumulation in the studied hollow consisted of five stages. Similar morphologies and compositions of the soil-sediment sequences corresponding to these stages attest to the cyclic pattern of their development. The stages of sedimentation and soil formation corresponded to cyclic climate fluctuations with changes in the temperature and moisture conditions. A comparative analysis of the morphology and properties of the paleosols and soil-sediment sequences made it possible to characterize the environmental

  17. Emergency readmission following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömdahl, Martin; Helgeson, Johan; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence, clinical predictors, and associated mortality of all-cause emergency readmissions after acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with AUGIB from an area of 600 000 inhabitants in Sweden admitted in a single institution...

  18. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  19. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovern, A; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H

    2012-07-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients' everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients' prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed and ill-treated entity. Based on a systematic literature search, this review summarizes the current tools of diagnosis and treatment strategies for upper limb apraxia. It furthermore provides clinicians with graded recommendations. In particular, a short screening test for apraxia, and a more comprehensive diagnostic apraxia test for clinical use are recommended. Although currently only a few randomized controlled studies investigate the efficacy of different apraxia treatments, the gesture training suggested by Smania and colleagues can be recommended for the therapy of apraxia, the effects of which were shown to extend to activities of daily living and to persist for at least 2 months after completion of the training. This review aims at directing the reader's attention to the ecological relevance of apraxia. Moreover, it provides clinicians with appropriate tools for the reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of apraxia. Nevertheless, this review also highlights the need for further research into how to improve diagnosis of apraxia based on neuropsychological models and to develop new therapeutic strategies.