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Sample records for upper respiratory disease

  1. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Ga??zka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szo?tys, Edyta; Sm??ka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Rados?aw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardle...

  2. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete's health were discussed.

  3. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  4. Upper respiratory tract infection, heterologous immunisation and meningococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Tobi, H.; Dankert, J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an episode of upper respiratory tract infection or heterologous immunisation is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of meningococcal disease, data from 377 cases of meningococcal disease and their household contacts (n = 1124) were analysed by conditional logistic

  5. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: Fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  6. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  7. FEATURES OF THE MICROBIOME OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shabaldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the metagenome of the upper respiratory tract in children showed the presence of five major bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Were revealed population differences in the distribution of weights of the above listed phyla, but subject to the dominance of the Firmicutes. Proved the role of environmental factors and time of year for representation in these biotopes of the phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Recurrent respiratory infections, hypertrophy of the tonsils of the lymphoid pharyngeal ring, secretory middle ear infections in children is associated with carriage of Haemophilus (H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, Gemella (G. haemolysans, G. morbillorum, G. sanguinis, Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. intermedius, S. agalactiae. 

  8. Mass mortality of eastern box turtles with upper respiratory disease following atypical cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Price, Steven J; Nowakowski, A Justin; Augustine, Ben; Todd, Brian D

    2017-04-20

    Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease. We recorded deaths of 17 turtles that showed clinical signs of upper respiratory disease among 76 adult turtles encountered in Berea, Kentucky (USA), in 2014. Of the 17 mortalities, 11 occurred approximately 14 d after mean environmental temperature dropped 2.5 SD below the 3 mo mean. Partial genomic sequencing of the major capsid protein from 1 sick turtle identified a ranavirus isolate similar to frog virus 3. Turtles that lacked clinical signs of disease had significantly higher body temperatures (23°C) than sick turtles (21°C) during the mass mortality, but sick turtles that survived and recovered eventually warmed (measured by temperature loggers). Finally, there was a significant negative effect of daily environmental temperature deviation from the 3 mo mean on survival, suggesting that rapid decreases in environmental temperature were correlated with mortality. Our results point to a potential role for environmental temperature variation and body temperature in disease progression and mortality risk of eastern box turtles affected by upper respiratory disease. Given our findings, it is possible that colder or more variable environmental temperatures and an inability to effectively thermoregulate are associated with poorer disease outcomes in eastern box turtles.

  9. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  10. The Relationship Between Air Particulate Levels and Upper Respiratory Disease in Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia (1997-1998)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hastings, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    This study had three objectives: to determine if there is a relationship between air particulate levels and upper respiratory disease in soldiers deployed to Bosnia between 1997-98, to establish a method for linking environmental...

  11. Effects of air pollution on general practitioner consultations for upper respiratory diseases in London

    OpenAIRE

    Hajat, S; Anderson, H; Atkinson, R; Haines, A; Seaton, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Few published studies have examined the effect of air pollution on upper respiratory conditions. Furthermore, most epidemiological studies on air pollution focus on mortality or hospital admissions as the main health outcomes, but very rarely consider the effect in primary care. If pollution effects do exist then the public health impact could be considerable because of the many patient contacts involved. We investigated the relation between air pollution and upper respiratory dis...

  12. Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense. Turtles are known to use olfaction to identify food items, predators, and conspecifics; therefore, it is likely that URTD affects not only their physical well-being but also their behavior and ability to perform necessary functions in the wild. To determine more specifically the impact nasal discharge might have on free-ranging tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), we compared the responses of tortoises with and without nasal discharge and both positive and negative for M. agassizii antibodies to a visually hidden olfactory food stimulus and an empty control. We found that nasal discharge did reduce sense of smell and hence the ability to locate food. Our study also showed that moderate chronic nasal discharge in the absence of other clinical signs did not affect appetite in desert tortoises.

  13. Infectious Disease Prevalence and Factors Associated with Upper Respiratory Infection in Cats Following Relocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Aziz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline relocation is used increasingly in animal welfare to decrease shelter euthanasia rates and increase positive outcomes. Concerns about infectious disease introduction and transmission are often expressed; however, little research has been conducted on even the baseline prevalence of infectious disease following relocation. This study, which collected data on 430 cats relocated through an established program over 7 months, evaluated the prevalence of upper respiratory infection (URI, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and dermatophytosis at one destination agency. The period prevalence was 25.8% for URI, 1.6% for FPV and 0.9% for dermatophytosis. Mixed-effects logistic regression was performed to investigate factors associated with URI. Younger age, increased time in transport, and increased length of stay at the destination agency were associated with increased URI prevalence following relocation. The findings of this study reveal that certain highly contagious and environmentally persistent infectious diseases, such as FPV and dermatophytosis, are uncommon following relocation in an established program; however, URI in relocated cats should be proactively managed. Animal welfare agencies can use this information to guide shelter and relocation operations and mitigate the impact of URI in relocated cats.

  14. Fungi-Induced Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Allergic Diseases: One Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Barac

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Aspergillus can cause different allergic diseases including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS. ABPA is allergic pulmonary disease against Aspergillus antigens. AFRS is a type of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS presented as hypersensitivity reactions to the fungal presence in sinuses. The aim of the present study was to clarify if ABPA and AFRS could be considered as a common disease entity.Methodology: The prospective cohort study included 75 patients with ABPA. Patients were divided into two groups and compared with each other: (i patients with CT confirmation of rhinosinusitis and presence of fungi in sinuses (ABPA+AFRS group and (ii patients without CT or without mycological evidence of AFRS (ABPA group.Results: Findings of this study were: (i AFRS was confirmed in 80% of patients with ABPA; (ii all ABPA+AFRS patients had allergic mucin while fungal hyphae were present in 60% sinonasal aspirate; (iii ABPA+AFRS patients had more often complicated CRS with (nasal polyps NP (p < 0.001 and more severe forms of CRS; (iv culture of sinonasal aspirate revealed fungal presence in 97% patients with ABPA+AFRS; (v patients with ABPA+AFRS had more common positive skin prick test (SPT for A. fumigatus (p = 0.037, while patients without AFRS had more common positive SPT for Alternaria alternata and Penicillium notatum (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively; (vi 67% of ABPA patients had Aspergillus induced AFRS; (vii larger number of fungi was isolated from the air-samples obtained from homes of patients with ABPA+AFRS than from the homes of patients without AFRS, while the most predominant species were A. fumigatus and A. niger isolated from almost 50% of the air-samples.Conclusion: The pathogenesis of ABPA and AFRS is similar, and AFRS can be considered as the upper airway counterpart of ABPA. Fungi-induced upper and lower respiratory tract allergic diseases present common entity. Next studies

  15. Etiologic and epidemiologic analysis of bacterial infectious upper respiratory disease in Thoroughbred horses at the Seoul Race Park

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Seung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Lee, Young-Woo; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Infectious upper respiratory disease (IURD) of Thoroughbred racehorses has been a frequent problem (29.6% of incidence) at the Seoul Race Park (Korea). Risk factors for IURD include the season with a high transfer rate (summer and fall), the stabling period (≤ 3 months), and age (2 to 3 years old), suggesting that the movement and new environment may have depressed the immune system of the horses and decreased their ability to respond properly to pathogens. The bacterial strains (n = 98) isol...

  16. Seroepidemiology of upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary B.; Berry, Kristin H.; Schumacher, Isabella M.; Nagy, Kenneth A.; Christopher, Mary M.; Klein, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Several factors have combined with an upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) to produce declines on some population numbers of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in the western USA. This study was designed to determine the seroepidemiology of URTD in a population of wild adult tortoises at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA) study site in Kern County (California, USA). Prior to initiation of the study, there was a dramatic decline in the number of individuals in this population. At each individual time point, samples were obtained from 12 to 20 tortoises with radiotransmitters during winter, spring, summer, and fall from 1992 through 1995. During the course of the study, 35 animals were sampled at one or more times. Only 10 animals were available for consistent monitoring throughout the 4 yr period. Specific antibody (Ab) levels to Mycoplasma agassizii were determined for individual tortoises by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Specific Ab levels were not influenced by the gender of the tortoise. Levels of Ab and distribution of ELISA+, ELISA– and suspect animals were not consistently affected by season within a single year or for a season among the study years. Significantly more tortoises presented with clinical signs in 1992 and 1995. The profile of ELISA+ animals with clinical signs shifted from 5% (1992) to 42% (1995). In 1992, 52% of tortoises lacked clinical signs and were ELISA–. In 1995, this category accounted for only 19% of tortoises. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that URTD was present in this population as evidenced by the presence of ELISA+ individual animals, and that the infectious agent is still present as evidenced by seroconversion of previously ELISA– animals during the course of the study. There is evidence to suggest that animals may remain ELISA+ without showing overt disease, a clinical pattern consistent with the chronic nature of most mycoplasmal infections. Further, there are

  17. Effect of gentle stroking and vocalization on behaviour, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease in anxious shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourkow, Nadine; Hamon, Sara C; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-11-01

    Emotional, behavioural, and health benefits of gentle stroking and vocalizations, otherwise known as gentling, have been documented for several species, but little is known about the effect of gentling on cats in stressful situations. In this study, 139 cats rated as anxious upon admission to an animal shelter were allocated to either a Gentled or Control group. Cats were gentled four times daily for 10 min over a period of 10 days, with the aid of a tool for cats that were too aggressive to handle. The cats' mood, or persistent emotional state, was rated daily for 10 d as Anxious, Frustrated or Content. Gentled cats were less likely to have negatively valenced moods (Anxious or Frustrated) than Control cats (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=0.61 CI 0.42-0.88, P=0.007). Total secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) was quantified from faeces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gentled cats had increased S-IgA (6.9 ± 0.7 logeμg/g) compared to Control cats (5.9 ± 0.5 logeμg/g) (Pincrease in shedding over time in Control cats (23%, 35%, 52% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively), but not in gentled cats (32%, 26%, 30% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively) (P=0.001). Onset of upper respiratory disease was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, in particular ocular and/or nasal discharge. Control cats were 2.4 (CI: 1.35-4.15) times more likely to develop upper respiratory disease over time than gentled cats (Pincrease production of S-IgA, and reduce the incidence of upper respiratory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota in horses: bacterial communities associated with health and mild asthma (inflammatory airway disease) and effects of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stephanie L; Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Alexander, Trevor; Léguillette, Renaud

    2017-08-23

    The microbial composition of the equine respiratory tract, and differences due to mild equine asthma (also called Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD)) have not been reported. The primary treatment for control of IAD in horses are corticosteroids. The objectives were to characterize the upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota associated with respiratory health and IAD, and to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on these bacterial communities using high throughput sequencing. The respiratory microbiota of horses was dominated by four major phyla, Proteobacteria (43.85%), Actinobacteria (21.63%), Firmicutes (16.82%), and Bacteroidetes (13.24%). Fifty genera had a relative abundance > 0.1%, with Sphingomonas and Pantoea being the most abundant. The upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota differed in healthy horses, with a decrease in richness in the lower airways, and 2 OTUs that differed in abundance. There was a separation between bacterial communities in the lower respiratory tract of healthy and IAD horses; 6 OTUs in the tracheal community had different abundance with disease status, with Streptococcus being increased in IAD horses. Treatment with dexamethasone had an effect on the lower respiratory tract microbiota of both heathy and IAD horses, with 8 OTUs increasing in abundance (including Streptococcus) and 1 OTU decreasing. The lower respiratory tract microbiota differed between healthy and IAD horses. Further research on the role of Streptococcus in IAD is warranted. Dexamethasone treatment affected the lower respiratory tract microbiota, which suggests that control of bacterial overgrowth in IAD horses treated with dexamethasone could be part of the treatment strategy.

  19. Association between polymorphic markers of IL-10 gene and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract in children living under technogenic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Borisovna Masnavieva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of infant morbidity. Disturbances of functioning of the immune system play an important role in their development. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a key regulator of the immune response. Mononucleotide substitutions at positions (-1082, (-819 and (-592 of IL-10 gene results in low level of the protein production. Our purpose was to study the associations between polymorphic markers of IL-10 gene and chronic respiratory diseases in children living under conditions of anthropogenic pressure. 189 adolescents living in a city with high levels of air pollution and 82 from a city with a moderate level of contamination were examined. Children with chronic upper airway pathology in remission were identified. Blood samples from all children were tested for allelic variants -1082G / A, -592C / A, -819C / T of IL-10 gene in. Analysis of associations between polymorphic variants and the presence of chronic respiratory diseases was conducted. The -592C allele of IL-10 gene was less common among children with chronic diseases of the respiratory tract living in conditions of moderate air pollution than in the healthy comparison group. Similar association has not been established in thr group of children living in conditions of high air pollution. Thus, the C allele of the polymorphic -592C/A locus marks resistance to the development of a chronic disease of the upper respiratory tract in children living in conditions of moderate air pollution, while in conditions of high level of pollution contribution of genetic factors in its development is leveled.

  20. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  1. Cage size, movement in and out of housing during daily care, and other environmental and population health risk factors for feline upper respiratory disease in nine North American animal shelters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denae C Wagner

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory infection (URI is not an inevitable consequence of sheltering homeless cats. This study documents variation in risk of URI between nine North American shelters; determines whether this reflects variation in pathogen frequency on intake or differences in transmission and expression of disease; and identifies modifiable environmental and group health factors linked to risk for URI. This study demonstrated that although periodic introduction of pathogens into shelter populations may be inevitable, disease resulting from those pathogens is not. Housing and care of cats, particularly during their first week of stay in an animal shelter environment, significantly affects the rate of upper respiratory infection.

  2. Cage size, movement in and out of housing during daily care, and other environmental and population health risk factors for feline upper respiratory disease in nine North American animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Denae C; Kass, Philip H; Hurley, Kate F

    2018-01-01

    Upper respiratory infection (URI) is not an inevitable consequence of sheltering homeless cats. This study documents variation in risk of URI between nine North American shelters; determines whether this reflects variation in pathogen frequency on intake or differences in transmission and expression of disease; and identifies modifiable environmental and group health factors linked to risk for URI. This study demonstrated that although periodic introduction of pathogens into shelter populations may be inevitable, disease resulting from those pathogens is not. Housing and care of cats, particularly during their first week of stay in an animal shelter environment, significantly affects the rate of upper respiratory infection.

  3. Upper respiratory tract infections in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clifton L; Diehl, Jason J

    2007-07-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) represent the most common acute illnesses in the general population and account for the leading acute diagnoses in the outpatient setting. Given the athlete's expectation to return to activity as soon as possible, the sports medicine physician should be able to accurately diagnose and aggressively treat these illnesses. This article discusses the common pathogens, diagnosis, treatment options, and return-to-play decisions for URTIs, with a focus on the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and infectious mononucleosis in the athlete.

  4. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  5. [Upper respiratory tract infections and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle

    2010-08-11

    Upper respiratory tract infections are frequent in athletes. Mainly of viral origin, they are treated symptomatically. Infectious mononucleosis is associated with an estimated 2% per hundred risk of splenic rupture, which occurs between day four and twenty one of the illness. Therefore return to play guidelines recommend avoiding, exercice during the first twenty one days. Physical exercise seems to influence the immune system, depending on the intensity and length of it. But the relationship between physical exercise and risk of infections remains controversial: some articles showing an increase in risk, whereas others suggesting a certain degree of protection, in athletes. The actual generally accepted working theory is the J-curve proposed by Nieman. This model remains to be formally proven.

  6. Nasopharyngeal polymicrobial colonization during health, viral upper respiratory infection and upper respiratory bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture. NP colonization rates of multiple otopathogens during health were significantly lower than during viral URI, and during URI they were lower than at onset of upper respiratory bacterial infection in both AOM infection-prone and non-prone children. AOM infection-prone children had higher polymicrobial colonization rates than non-prone children during health, viral URI and AOM. Polymicrobial colonization rates of AOM infection-prone children during health were equivalent to that of non-prone children during viral URI, and during viral URI were equivalent to that of non-prone during AOM infection. Spn colonization was positively associated with NTHi and Mcat colonization during health, but negatively during AOM infection. The infection-prone patients more frequently have multiple potential bacterial pathogens in the NP than the non-prone patients. Polymicrobial interaction in the NP differs during health and at onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  8. Management of upper respiratory tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major ... by a watery nasal discharge, which after one to three days becomes .... iron supplementation is remarkably effective in areas where iron.

  9. [The response of the upper respiratory tract to the impact of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamadiev, R A; Ismagilov, Sh M

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review characterizes the environmental conditions in the Russian Federation in general and the Republic of Tatarstan in particular with special reference to the influence of atmospheric pollution on the development and the clinical picture of the diseases of the respiratory organs including pathology of the upper respiratory tract in the populations of the industrial centres and other environmentally unfriendly areas. The views of the domestic and foreign authors concerning the role of the environmental factors in the clinical picture of the upper respiratory tract disorders are described in detail. The authors emphasize the necessity of the further investigationsinto this problem and the development of the methods for the prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory react.

  10. The influence of psychological stress on upper respiratory infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert; Bovberg, Dana

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the available evidence for the hypothesis that reduced resistance caused by psychological stress may influence the development of clinical disease in those exposed to an infectious agent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 27 prospective studies...... examining the association between psychological stress and subsequent upper respiratory infection (URI). RESULTS: The results revealed a significant overall main effect of psychological stress on the risk of developing URI (effect size correlation coefficient, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.......15-0.27). Further analyses showed that effect sizes for the association did not vary according to type of stress, how URI was assessed, or whether the studies had controlled for preexposure. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analytical findings confirmed the hypothesis that psychological stress is associated with increased...

  11. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. [Undernutrition in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, lung cancer, infections, including also tuberculosis constitute the most frequent diseases in the word. Undernutrition frequently accompanies these diseases. Early diagnosis of malnutrition and implementation of appropriate treatment is very important. A nutritional interview and anthropometric examinations, such as body mass index, fat free mass and fat mass are used to diagnose it. Nutritional therapy affects the course and prognosis of these diseases. Diet should be individually adjusted to the calculated caloric intake that increases during exacerbation of disease, because of increased respiratory effort. Too large supply of energy can cause increase metabolism, higher oxygen consumption and PaCO2 increase each dangerous for patients with respiratory insufficiency. Main source of carbohydrates for these patients should be products with low glycemic index and with high dietary fiber contents. Large meals should be avoided since they cause rapid satiety, abdominal discomfort and have negative impact on the work of the respiratory muscles, especially of the diaphragm. Dietary supplements can be used in case of ineffectiveness of diet or for the patients with severe undernutrition.

  13. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  14. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  15. Cardiovascular risk and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis: sleep study, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life: a prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Santos, Israel; Danaga, Aline Roberta; de Carvalho Aguiar, Isabella; Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Dias, Ismael Souza; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Martins, Aline Almeida; Ferraz, Leonardo Macario; Fonsêca, Nina Teixeira; Fernandes, Virgilio; Fernandes, Vinicius Alves Thomaz; Lopes, Viviane Cristina Delgado; Leitão Filho, Fernando Sérgio Studart; Nacif, Sérgio Roberto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Giannasi, Lílian Christiane; Romano, Salvatore; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Araujo, Ana Karina Fachini; Dellê, Humberto; Souza, Nadia Karina Guimarães; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2013-10-08

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most serious public health problems. The increasing prevalence of CKD in developed and developing countries has led to a global epidemic. The hypothesis proposed is that patients undergoing dialysis would experience a marked negative influence on physiological variables of sleep and autonomic nervous system activity, compromising quality of life. A prospective, consecutive, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial is proposed to address the effect of dialysis on sleep, pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics, upper airway collapsibility, autonomic nervous activity, depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life in patients with CKD. The measurement protocol will include body weight (kg); height (cm); body mass index calculated as weight/height(2); circumferences (cm) of the neck, waist, and hip; heart and respiratory rates; blood pressures; Mallampati index; tonsil index; heart rate variability; maximum ventilatory pressures; negative expiratory pressure test, and polysomnography (sleep study), as well as the administration of specific questionnaires addressing sleep apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life. CKD is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence has increased in part by the increased life expectancy and increasing number of cases of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Sleep disorders are common in patients with renal insufficiency. Our hypothesis is that the weather weight gain due to volume overload observed during interdialytic period will influence the degree of collapsibility of the upper airway due to narrowing and predispose to upper airway occlusion during sleep, and to investigate the negative influences of haemodialysis in the physiological variables of sleep, and autonomic nervous system, and respiratory mechanics and thereby compromise the quality of life of patients. The protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian

  16. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  17. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piters, Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen; Huijskens, Elisabeth G. W.; Wyllie, Anne L.; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Wang, Xinhui; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J.; Rossen, John W. A.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Bogaert, Debby

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently

  18. Parental views of antibiotic use in children with upper respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents towards antibiotics use for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at 10 private outpatients' pediatric clinics across Amman-Jordan from September to December 2013. During the study period, ...

  19. Upper respiratory infections and barotrauma among commercial pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Nina Monrad; Klokker, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health incapacitation is a serious threat to flight safety. Therefore, a study conducted 10 yr ago examined the incidents of ear-nose-throat (ENT) barotrauma and upper respiratory infection (URI) among commercial pilots and found that a large number continued to carry out their duties...

  20. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  1. Enabling factors for antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Radzeviciene Jurgute, Ruta; Bjerrum, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . This study aimed to explore experiences of GPs in Lithuania and the Russian Federation with regard to antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections. By such means it might be possible to reveal external enabling factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in these countries. Method. Five...... for political leadership to encourage clinically grounded antibiotic use; over-the-counter sale of antibiotics; designation of antibiotics as reimbursable medications; supervision by external oversight institutions; lack of guidelines for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections; and pharmaceutical......Abstract Introduction. General practitioners (GPs) write about 80% of all antibiotic prescriptions, the greatest number of them for patients with respiratory tract infections. However, there is a lack of research targeting the influence of external factors on antibiotic prescribing by physicians...

  2. Zonography in acute respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, V.S.; Fetisova, V.M.; Kozorez, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiography was performed in 94 patients whose initial condition was assessed as acute respiratory disease. Radioscopy with x-ray image amplifier, roentgenography and zonography were used. Pulmonary changes were found in 61 persons. In 45 of them acute pneumonia was revealed, in 16 changes in the pulmonary pattern assessed as residual manifestations of pneumonia. Changes in 30 patients with pneumonia and 16 patients with residual manifestations were detected by zonography only

  3. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  4. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, P<0.0005). Highly similar differences were observed between microbiota profiles of young adult pneumonia patients and their healthy controls. Clustering resulted in 11 (sub)clusters including 95% (386/405) of samples. We observed three microbiota profiles strongly associated with pneumonia (P<0.05) and either dominated by lactobacilli (n=11), Rothia (n=51) or Streptococcus (pseudo)pneumoniae (n=42). In contrast, three other microbiota clusters (in total n=183) were correlated with health (P<0.05) and were all characterized by more diverse profiles containing higher abundances of especially Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella and Leptotrichia. For the remaining clusters (n=99), the association with health or disease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with

  5. Effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections: open randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardweg, M.T. van den; Boonacker, C.W.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoes, A.W.; Schilder, A.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. DESIGN: Open randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 11 general hospitals and two academic centres. PARTICIPANTS: 111 children aged 1-6 with recurrent upper respiratory tract

  6. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  7. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  8. Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    and tuberculosis), parasitic lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... Methods: A literature search on global warming and respiratory diseases was carried out through the internet .... (COPD) The main factor to consider here is.

  9. [Relationship between sulfur dioxide pollution and upper respiratory outpatients in Jiangbei, Ningbo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhao, Fengmin; Qian, Xujun; Xu, Guozhang; He, Tianfeng; Shen, Yueping; Cai, Yibiao

    2015-07-01

    To describe the daily average concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Ningbo, and to analysis the health impacts it caused in upper respiratory disease. With outpatients log and air pollutants monitoring data matched in 2011-2013, the distributed lag non-linear models were used to analysis the relative risk of the number of upper respiratory patients associated with SO2, and also excessive risk, and the inferred number of patients due to SO2 pollution. The daily average concentration of SO2 didn't exceed the limit value of second class area. The coefficient of upper respiratory outpatient number and daily average concentration of SO2 matched was 0.44,with the excessive risk was 10% to 18%, the lag of most SO2 concentrations was 4 to 6 days. It could be estimated that about 30% of total upper respiratory outpatients were caused by SO2 pollution. Although the daily average concentration of SO2 didn't exceed the standard in 3 years, the health impacts still be caused with lag effect.

  10. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR, parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses.

  11. Method of X-ray examination of upper respiratory tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Surenchik, V.I.; Shuster, M.A.; Sal'nikova, Eh.A.

    1982-01-01

    Method of X-ray examination of upper respiratory tracts by radiography both in direct and lateral projection with an introduction of radiocontrast media through tracheostoma is described. The main objective of the invention is to improve accuracy of diagnostics of larynx and trachea cicatrix structures in children. The objective is attained by the examination under general anesthesia; barium sulfate is simultaneously introduced through laryngoscope and tracheostoma, and polypositional radiography is accomplished just in the moment of air introduction under 130-170 mm Hg pressure in the amounts of 60-200 ml

  12. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  13. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  14. Dynamic upper respiratory abnormalities in Thoroughbred racehorses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier E. Mirazo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper airway endoscopy at rest has been the diagnostic method of choice for equine upper respiratory tract (URT conditions. Development of high-speed treadmill endoscopy improved the sensitivity of URT endoscopy by allowing observation of the horse’s nasopharynx and larynx during exercise. However, treadmill exercise may not always accurately represent the horse’s normal exercise as track surface, rider, tack and environmental variables are altered. Recently, the development of dynamic overground endoscopy (DOE has addressed some of these shortcomings. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the URT abnormalities detected during DOE in racehorses presenting with poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Patient records of Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing DOE from November 2011 to August 2012 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, primary complaint, distance exercised, maximum speed and dynamic airway abnormalities detected. Fifty-two horses underwent DOE for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. The main abnormalities detected included axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (40%, vocal cord collapse (35%, abnormal arytenoid function (33% and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (25%. A total of 40 horses were diagnosed with one or more abnormalities of the URT (77%. Fifteen horses (29% had a single abnormality and 25 horses (48% had multiple abnormalities. This study showed that DOE is a useful technique for investigating dynamic disorders of the URT in racehorses in South Africa. The total number and type of dynamic pathological conditions were comparable with those identified in similar populations in other geographical locations.

  15. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  16. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    . The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. RESULTS: The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory...

  17. Factors influencing the development of otitis media among Sicilian children affected by upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martines, Francesco; Salvago, Pietro; Ferrara, Sergio; Messina, Giuseppe; Mucia, Marianna; Plescia, Fulvio; Sireci, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infection is a nonspecific term used to describe an acute infection involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Upper respiratory tract infections in children are often associated with Eustachian tube dysfunction and complicated by otitis media, an inflammatory process within the middle ear. Environmental, epidemiologic and familial risk factors for otitis media (such as sex, socioeconomic and educational factors, smoke exposure, allergy or duration of breastfeeding) have been previously reported, but actually no data about their diffusion among Sicilian children with upper respiratory tract infections are available. To investigate the main risk factors for otitis media and their prevalence in Sicilian children with and without upper respiratory tract infections. A case-control study of 204 children with upper respiratory tract infections who developed otitis media during a 3 weeks monitoring period and 204 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventeen epidemiologically relevant features were inventoried by means of standardized questionnaires and skin tests were performed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the association between risk factors and occurrence of otitis media. Otitis media resulted strongly associated to large families, low parental educational attainment, schooling within the third years of life (potitis media in the presence of asthma, cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, snoring and apnea (potitis media in children exposed to smoke respectively of 166% and 277% (potitis media are common childhood diseases strongly associated with low parental educational attainment (p=0.0001), exposure to smoke (p=0.0001), indoor exposure to mold (p=0.0001), laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (p=0.0002) and the lack of breast-feeding (p=0.0014); an increased risk of otitis media recurrences was observed in the presence of allergy, persistent cough and runny nose (p=0

  18. An estimation of US horse-owner/caregiver willingness-to-pay for daily use and infectious upper respiratory disease treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, M L; Pendell, D L; Costanigro, M; Traub-Dargatz, J

    2018-07-01

    Equine injury and disease cause two types of costs for those financially responsible for treating and caring for the infected horse(s); direct costs of treating the horse and indirect cost of lost use of the horse for a period of time to the user of the horse (daily horse use). Indirect costs are more difficult to estimate but pose significant financial implications for equine-owners/caregivers. Additionally, there exists a gap in existing research regarding the valuation of infectious treatment options in horses. To estimate the value a US horse-owner/caregiver places on daily horse use and describe respondents' willingness-to-pay for various attributes of equine treatment options. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was provided to equine-owners and caretakers, and owner demographic, horse care and horse use information from respondents were requested. Additionally, respondents were presented with hypothetical disease treatment options with the following attributes: daily dosage, number of days of rest required, route of administration and out-of-pocket cost to the owner/caretaker through a choice experiment. Data were analysed using a rank-ordered logit analysis and willingness-to-pay estimates for daily use and treatment options were calculated. Results suggest that the average horse-owner with an uninsured and insured horse is willing to pay $12.07 (95% confidence interval: -$15.01, -$9.69) and $17.95 (95% confidence interval: -$25.30, -$11.20) per day to reduce lost use days required (due to need for rest) respectively. Respondents showed preferences for oral administration over treatments requiring i.m. injections. As this study employed an online survey it was subjected to self-selection bias and a sample size calculation was not performed. Veterinarians and pharmaceutical companies may use these results when promoting various treatment options to horse-owners/caregivers and in product development. Additionally, promotion efforts may be

  19. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF IBUPROFEN IN THERAPY FOR VIRAL UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Skugarevskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of use of ibuprofen in cases of viral upper respiratory tract infections (Vuri in children of early childhood has proved its' safety and efficacy. This medical agent has not only terminate fever but also diminished some other symptoms of Vuri.Key words: ibuprofen, viral upper respiratory tract infections, children.

  20. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Grith L.

    2018-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  1. Rhinovirus genome variation during chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tapparel

    Full Text Available Routine screening of lung transplant recipients and hospital patients for respiratory virus infections allowed to identify human rhinovirus (HRV in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, including immunocompromised hosts chronically infected with the same strain over weeks or months. Phylogenetic analysis of 144 HRV-positive samples showed no apparent correlation between a given viral genotype or species and their ability to invade the lower respiratory tract or lead to protracted infection. By contrast, protracted infections were found almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, thus suggesting that host factors rather than the virus genotype modulate disease outcome, in particular the immune response. Complete genome sequencing of five chronic cases to study rhinovirus genome adaptation showed that the calculated mutation frequency was in the range observed during acute human infections. Analysis of mutation hot spot regions between specimens collected at different times or in different body sites revealed that non-synonymous changes were mostly concentrated in the viral capsid genes VP1, VP2 and VP3, independent of the HRV type. In an immunosuppressed lung transplant recipient infected with the same HRV strain for more than two years, both classical and ultra-deep sequencing of samples collected at different time points in the upper and lower respiratory tracts showed that these virus populations were phylogenetically indistinguishable over the course of infection, except for the last month. Specific signatures were found in the last two lower respiratory tract populations, including changes in the 5'UTR polypyrimidine tract and the VP2 immunogenic site 2. These results highlight for the first time the ability of a given rhinovirus to evolve in the course of a natural infection in immunocompromised patients and complement data obtained from previous experimental inoculation studies in immunocompetent volunteers.

  2. Obesity and common respiratory diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2017-06-01

    Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Kurnatowska, Agnieszka K

    2007-01-01

    Fungi, in comparison with other pathogenic factors, have high pathogenicity. The number of fungal species which are able to infect people is over 500. The upper respiratory tract and ear have permanent contact with external environment which makes their ontocenoses open to continuous exchange of microorganisms of which they consist. In etiology of inflammatory processes 21 species which belonging to 3 genera (Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) of fungi play important role. Administration of antifungal drugs can be: prophylactic, empiric preemptive and therapeutic. Physicians may prescribe antibiotics (mainly pollens: amphotericin B, natamycin and nystatin) and chemiotherapeutics (mainly azoles and fluorpirymidins, pigments, chlorhexidine and chlorquinaldol). In ENT practice topical and systemic drugs can be administrated. Topical lozenges include amphotericin B, clotrimazole, chlorhexidine or chlorquinaldol and oral gels: nystatin and miconazole. Some of drugs are in the form of suspension/solution, which can be used for inhalation, into the sinus, for swabbing or for lavage: amphotericin B, natamycin, nystatin, clotrimazol, flucytosine, miconazole, fluconazole, vorykonazole, caspofungin. It should be underlined that only a few of dugs can be absorbed from the digestive tract: flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, vorykonazole.

  4. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  5. Impact of nasopharyngeal microbiota on the development of respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of whether and how respiratory microbiota composition can prime the immune system and provide colonisation resistance, limiting consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections, is essential to improving the prevention and therapy of respiratory disorders. Modulation of dysbiotic ecosystems or reconstitution of missing microbes might be a possible measure to reduce respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to analyse the role of nasopharyngeal microbiota in the development of respiratory tract disease in paediatric-age subjects. PubMed was used to search for all studies published over the last 15 years using the following key words: "microbiota" or "microbioma" and "nasopharyngeal" or "respiratory" or "nasal" and "children" or "paediatric" or "infant". Analysis of the literature showed that respiratory microbiota can regulate health and disease development in the respiratory tract. Like the gut microbiota, the respiratory microbiota is established at birth, and early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children. Protective and dangerous bacteria have been identified, and this can be considered the base for developing new approaches to diseases that respond poorly to traditional interventions. Reconstitution of missing microbes can be achieved by the administration of pre- and probiotics. Modulation of respiratory microbiota by favouring colonisation of the upper respiratory tract by beneficial commensals can interfere with the proliferation and activity of resident pathobionts and is a possible new measure to reduce the risk of disease. However, further studies are needed because a deeper understanding of these and related issues can be transferred to clinical practice.

  6. Cochrane Commentary: Probiotics For Prevention of Acute Upper Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, who are at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyze 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI [at least one episode: odds ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.76, P school absence (OR: 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute URTI (rate ratio: 0

  7. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  8. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J. Maselli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  9. Respiratory diseases and their effects on respiratory function and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erck-Westergren, E; Franklin, S H; Bayly, W M

    2013-05-01

    Given that aerobic metabolism is the predominant energy pathway for most sports, the respiratory system can be a rate-limiting factor in the exercise capacity of fit and healthy horses. Consequently, respiratory diseases, even in mild forms, are potentially deleterious to any athletic performance. The functional impairment associated with a respiratory condition depends on the degree of severity of the disease and the equestrian discipline involved. Respiratory abnormalities generally result in an increase in respiratory impedance and work of breathing and a reduced level of ventilation that can be detected objectively by deterioration in breathing mechanics and arterial blood gas tensions and/or lactataemia. The overall prevalence of airway diseases is comparatively high in equine athletes and may affect the upper airways, lower airways or both. Diseases of the airways have been associated with a wide variety of anatomical and/or inflammatory conditions. In some instances, the diagnosis is challenging because conditions can be subclinical in horses at rest and become clinically relevant only during exercise. In such cases, an exercise test may be warranted in the evaluation of the patient. The design of the exercise test is critical to inducing the clinical signs of the problem and establishing an accurate diagnosis. Additional diagnostic techniques, such as airway sampling, can be valuable in the diagnosis of subclinical lower airway problems that have the capacity to impair performance. As all these techniques become more widely used in practice, they should inevitably enhance veterinarians' diagnostic capabilities and improve their assessment of treatment effectiveness and the long-term management of equine athletes. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Associations between pathogens in the upper respiratory tract of young children: interplay between viruses and bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno R van den Bergh

    Full Text Available High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children. Investigating presence of and associations between these pathogens in healthy individuals is still a rather unexplored field of research, but may have implications for interpreting findings during disease.We selected 986 nasopharyngeal samples from 433 6- to 24-month-old healthy children that had participated in a randomized controlled trial. We determined the presence of 20 common respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by conventional culture methods. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaires. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses followed by partial correlation analysis to identify the overall pattern of associations. S. pneumoniae colonization was positively associated with the presence of H. influenzae (adjusted odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.16, M. catarrhalis (1.78, 1.29-2.47, human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.19-2.22 and enteroviruses (1.97, 1.26-3.10, and negatively associated with S. aureus presence (0.59, 0.35-0.98. H. influenzae was positively associated with human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.22-2.18 and respiratory syncytial viruses (2.78, 1.06-7.28. M. catarrhalis colonization was positively associated with coronaviruses (1.99, 1.01-3.93 and adenoviruses (3.69, 1.29-10.56, and negatively with S. aureus carriage (0.42, 0.25-0.69. We observed a strong positive association between S. aureus and influenza viruses (4.87, 1.59-14.89. In addition, human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses were positively correlated (2.40, 1.66-3.47, as were enteroviruses and human bocavirus, WU polyomavirus, parainfluenza viruses, and human parechovirus. A negative association was observed between human rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.Our data revealed high viral and

  11. Risk factors and features of recurrent bacterial complications of upper respiratory tract viral infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpenko A.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for recurrent bacterial complications of the upper respiratory tract viral infection (URTI in children, as well as the clinical and immunological features of the course of such complications. We enrolled 214 children aged 3-18 years with URTIs complicated with acute otitis media or acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Frequency of bacterial complications of URI in 128 children was low (group I and in 86 children it met the criteria of recurrent course (group II. In addition to the standard examination, lysozyme levels in the oropharyngeal secretion were determined three times during the disease. It was found that children of group II were characterized by an early debut of respiratory morbidity (at the age of 6.00 (4.00, 12.00 months against 13.00 (4.50, 16.00 months in children of group I (p<0,0001, as well as a longer duration of catarrhal and intoxication syndromes in similar forms of the disease. The most significant risk factors for the formation of the recurring complication pattern were maternal smoking (OR=2.73, 95% CI [1.34, 5.48], along with gastroenterological pathology and frequent URTI in the mother and a shortened period of breastfeeding. In children with recurrent bacterial complications of URTI, there was an impaired local resistance of the upper respiratory tract mucous membranes (as a decrease in the concentrations of lysozyme in all periods of the disease, which persisted after recovery.

  12. Sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Anna E; Hepgul, Nilay; Kon, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field. We contrast assessments of sarcopenia, which consider muscle mass and function, with assessments of frailty, which often additionally consider social, cognitive and psychological domains. Frailty is emerging as an important syndrome in respiratory disease, being strongly associated with poor outcome. We also unpick the relationship between sarcopenia, frailty and skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic respiratory disease and reveal these as interlinked but distinct clinical phenotypes. Suggested areas for future work include the application of sarcopenia and frailty models to restrictive diseases and population-based samples, prospective prognostic assessments of sarcopenia and frailty in relation to common multidimensional indices, plus the investigation of exercise, nutritional and pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease. PMID:27923981

  13. Asthma disease management and the respiratory therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallstrom, Thomas J; Myers, Timothy R

    2008-06-01

    The role of the respiratory therapist (RT) is expanding with the growing acceptance and use of the disease-management paradigm for managing chronic diseases. RTs are key members of the asthma disease-management team, in acute-care settings, patients' homes, out-patient clinics, emergency departments, and in the community. Utilizing RTs as disease managers allows patients to be treated faster and more appropriately, discharged to home sooner, and decreases hospital admissions. RT are leaders in the emerging field of asthma disease management.

  14. Prescribing patterns for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice in France and in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, S.; Vaillant, M. le; Schellevis, F.; Clerc, P.; Verheij, R.; Pelletier-Fleury, N.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: France and the Netherlands are often presented as two contrasting countries with regard to drug prescriptions and consumption. This study aimed to analyse general practitioners' (GP's) prescription patterns for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). METHODS: Data on diagnoses and

  15. Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, N. R.; Nielsen, A. B. S.; Munck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in two countries with different prevalence of antimicrobial resistance: Denmark and Iceland.Design: A cross-sectional study. Settings and subjects. General practitioners (GPs...

  16. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Bi Rong; Wu, Taixiang

    2015-02-03

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyse 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI (at least one episode: odds ratio (OR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.76, P value school absence (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute

  17. Exercising upper respiratory videoendoscopic evaluation of 100 nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E J; Martin, B B; Boston, R C; Parente, E J

    2011-01-01

    Although well documented in racehorses, there is paucity in the literature regarding the prevalence of dynamic upper airway abnormalities in nonracing performance horses. To describe upper airway function of nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance via exercising upper airway videoendoscopy. Medical records of nonracing performance horses admitted for exercising evaluation with a chief complaint of abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance were reviewed. All horses had video recordings of resting and exercising upper airway endoscopy. Relationships between horse demographics, resting endoscopic findings, treadmill intensity and implementation of head and neck flexion during exercise with exercising endoscopic findings were examined. Dynamic upper airway obstructions were observed in 72% of examinations. Head and neck flexion was necessary to obtain a diagnosis in 21 horses. Pharyngeal wall collapse was the most prevalent upper airway abnormality, observed in 31% of the examinations. Complex abnormalities were noted in 27% of the examinations. Resting laryngeal dysfunction was significantly associated with dynamic arytenoid collapse and the odds of detecting intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) during exercise in horses with resting DDSP was only 7.7%. Exercising endoscopic observations were different from the resting observations in 54% of examinations. Dynamic upper airway obstructions were common in nonracing performance horses with respiratory noise and/or poor performance. Resting endoscopy was only helpful in determining exercising abnormalities with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. This study emphasises the importance of exercising endoscopic evaluation in nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance for accurate assessment of dynamic upper airway function. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Mueller, Beat

    2018-03-06

    Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care? Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure, antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.

  19. Environmental factors in respiratory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, D D

    1958-01-01

    Absence rates of postmen due to bronchitis was found to be definitely associated with pollution and even more so if the ratio of postmen-postal clerk morbidity is used as an index. Bronchitis morbidity correlated with frequency of heavy fogs but very little with population density or overcrowding. In contrast, infectious diseases showed strong correlation with the latter two but not with fog. Minor infections among younger bronchitics were similar in frequency in all areas but led to more frequent complications and absence from work in older postmen living in polluted areas. Smoking acts synergistically.

  20. The development of lavage procedures for the upper and lower respiratory tract of the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Grainne; Quinn, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    New techniques for routine bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL) and nasal flushing in the anaesthetized cat which are safe, reproducible and simple to use have been developed. Five adult mixed-breed cats from a specific pathogen-free colony were selected, fasted overnight and weighed. The feeding tube was passed through the endotracheal tube and down the trachea until it became wedged in the bronchus. Nasal flushing was then immediately carried out after the BPL with the endotracheal tube in position. Radiological and fluoroscopic examinations were carried out to determine the position of the feeding tube in the lung. Lateral and dorsoventral views of the thorax of each cat were taken. These examinations identified the tube most frequently in the caudal lobe of the lung. The lavage techniques described provide a definite procedure for investigating the cellular and humoral mechanisms operating in the upper and lower respiratory tract of the cat. These methods can be used to sample directly the cellular and humoral constituents contributing to defence mechanisms in the feline respiratory tract and to monitor the local changes accompanying respiratory disease

  1. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. The myocardium functional reserve indicators in junior children with recurrent acute upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ovcharenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The problem of early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in children is relevant throughout the world and in Ukraine, as in childhood the health and quality of life of an adult are formed. The psychoemotional stress in junior children as well as increasingly complicating school curriculum, information overload with electronic gadgets, increased frequency of colds in children cause physical inactivity. In addition, infectious agents have a toxic effect on the myocardium, altering its functional state. All these together adversely affect the formation and development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of children. The aim was to study the functional reserve of the myocardium in junior children, depending on the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Materials and methods. The study examined 1109 children aged 6 to 9 years old. The URTI incidence was analyzed depending on the age. In the study, the children were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of the children with URTI — 210. Group 2 involved the children with occasional URTI — 899. Results. Among 210 surveyed children with upper respiratory infections 171 schoolboys (81.4 % had reduced functional reserve of the myocardium, which is consistent with findings from other studies. In children aged 7 and 9 years old, the number of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium varies from 70 to 82 % in seven-year children, among the schoolboys aged 6 and 8 years old the incidence of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium increased from 83 to 100 % in six-year children. Conclusions. Children with URTI have a reduced functional reserve of the myocardium. Children with episodic URTI have higher rates of functional reserve of the myocardium, therefore reducing the incidence of URTI will lead to the improvement of the myocardium functional state.

  3. [Inpatients days in patients with respiratory diseases and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; González-Cruz, Herminia; Casa-Medina, Guillermo; García-Sancho, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process that has been associated with the severity of respiratory diseases. In Mexico a prevalence of 78% was found in population with social security and > 60 years old. The aim of this study is to establish the association between periodontal disease and respiratory diseases according to the inpatient days. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2011. We included hospitalized patients, ≥ 18 years of age, without sedation or intubated. A dentist classified patients into two groups according to the severity of the periodontal disease: mild-to-moderate and severe. We estimated medians of inpatient days by disease and severity. Negative binomial models were adjusted to estimate incidence rate ratios and predicted inpatient days. 3,059 patients were enrolled. The median of observed and predicted inpatient days was higher in the group of severe periodontal disease (p disease, tuberculosis, and influenza had the highest incidence rates ratios of periodontal disease (p periodontal disease is positively -associated with inpatient days of patients with respiratory diseases.

  4. HEART DISEASE IN CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Babachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between heart disease and infectious pathogens is well known. Despite the high frequency of cardiac pathology in infectious diseases, it is rarely diagnosed because of lack of specific clinical  and  laboratory  symptoms. It is especially  difficult to diagnose in  children. Airborne  infections in the structure of infectious morbidity of children occupy a leading place.The aim of this work was to study the nature of the lesions of the heart  in children suffering from acute infection of the respiratory tract.Materials and  methods: 341 children with acute respiratory infection of moderate severity were surveyed by a method of ECG dispersion mapping. Cardiac  pathology has not previously been determined in these children. Signs of disease of the heart was identified in 76 children (22%. Further study included instrumental (ECG, ECHO-KG,  daily monitoring of ECG, biochemical and  etiological (ELISA, PCR, immunocytochemical research  methods for determining the nature of the damage to the heart and the etiology of the disease.Results. Myocarditis was diagnosed in 2%  of children, a violation of repolarization – in 21%,  heart  rhythm disorders  – in 35%  (AV – blockade in 4%.  Most  often  signs  of heart disease were detected in children with Epstein-Barr virus (32%, streptococcal (28%, cytomegalovirus (25%, herpesvirus type  6 infection (24%. Pathogens from the  group of acute respiratory virus infections were identified in 28%, enterovirus – in  10%,  Haemophilus influenzae – in  10%, Mycoplasma pneumonia – in 10%,  Pneumococcus – in 9%, Chlamydia – in 9%, Parvovirus B19 – in 6%.Conclusion. Sensitive screening test  to  detect cardiac pathology is the method of ECG dispersion mapping. Heart damage in children with respiratory diseases in 60% of cases is associated with  mixed infections. Timely  diagnosis of lesions of the heart in infectious diseases in children allows to adjust the

  5. Association between air pollution and general practitioner visits for respiratory diseases in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, TW; Tam, W; Wun, YT; Wong, CM; Yu, ITS; Wong, AHS

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have explored the relation between air pollution and general practitioner (GP) consultations in Asia. Clinic attendance data from a network of GPs were studied, and the relationship between daily GP consultations for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and non-URTI respiratory diseases and daily air pollutant concentrations measured in their respective districts was examined. Methods: A time series study was performed in 2000-2002 using data on daily patient cons...

  6. Nanoparticle-based therapy for respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA L. DA SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging science with the potential to create new materials and strategies involving manipulation of matter at the nanometer scale (<100 nm. With size-dependent properties, nanoparticles have introduced a new paradigm in pharmacotherapy – the possibility of cell-targeted drug delivery with minimal systemic side effects and toxicity. The present review provides a summary of published findings, especially regarding to nanoparticle formulations for lung diseases. The available data have shown some benefits with nanoparticle-based therapy in the development of the disease and lung remodeling in respiratory diseases. However, there is a wide gap between the concepts of nanomedicine and the published experimental data and clinical reality. In addition, studies are still required to determine the potential of nanotherapy and the systemic toxicity of nanomaterials for future human use.

  7. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, H R; Smit, G P A; Kuks, J B M; Grevink, R G; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2008-10-18

    A 23-year-old woman and a 13-year-old boy were diagnosed with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease. The woman had muscle pain, fatigue and bilateral ophthalmoplegia--symptoms consistent with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The boy had aspecific symptoms; eventually, reduced activity of complex 1 was found to be the cause of the mitochondrial respiratory chain disease in the boy and his mother, who had suffered from unexplained fatigue and muscle pain for 15 years. Mitochondrial diseases often involve several organ systems. Diagnosis can be difficult, because laboratory tests such as serum and urinary lactate and creatine kinase have low sensitivity and specificity. Biochemical assessment of muscle biopsy can reveal reduced oxidation ATP synthesis and sometimes specific abnormalities in individual protein complexes. DNA analysis may be helpful in demonstrating mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or deletions. The goal of treatment is to increase mitochondrial ATP production, improve clinical symptoms and enhance stamina. Replacement of the following substances (also referred to as cofactors) may be attempted: co-enzyme Q10, antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), riboflavin, thiamine, creatine and carnitine. Evidence regarding the optimal treatment approach is lacking; one usually has to rely on observing effects in the individual patient.

  8. BACTERIAL PROFILE, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY AND RESISTANCE OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN UPPER EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Agmy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI account for a considerable proportion of morbidity and antibiotic use. We aimed to identify the causative bacteria, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of hospitalized adult patients due to LRTI in Upper Egypt. METHODS: A multicentre prospective study was performed at 3 University Hospitals for 3 years. Samples included sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL for staining and culture, and serum for serology. Samples were cultured on 3 bacteriological media (Nutrient, Chocolate ,MacConkey's agars.Colonies were identified via MicroScan WalkAway-96. Pneumoslide IgM kit was used for detection of atypical pathogens via indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: The predominant isolates in 360 patients with CAP were S.pneumoniae (36%, C. pneumoniae (18%, and M. pneumoniae (12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, macrolides, and cefepime. A higher of resistance was recorded for doxycycline, cephalosporins, and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors. The predominant isolates in 318 patients with HAP were, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA (23%, K. pneumoniae (14%, and polymicrobial in 12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Very high resistance was recorded for β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors and cephalosporins. The predominant organisms in 376 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD were H. influnzae (30%, S. pneumoniae (25%, and M. catarrhalis(18%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, macrolides and cefepime. A higher rate of resistance was recorded for aminoglycosides and cephalosporins CONCLUSIONS: The most predominant bacteria for CAP in Upper Egypt are S. pneumoniae and atypical organisms, while that for HAP are MRSA and Gram negative bacteria. For acute exacerbation of COPD,H.influnzae was the commonest organism. Respiratory quinolones

  9. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  10. [Study of etiologic factors of infectious diseases of respiratory tract in school-age children during period of remission of a respiratory disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭorov, R V; Chereshneva, M V; Chereshnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    Detect features of microflora of upper respiratory tract on the example of flora of palatine tonsils and level of antibodies against intracellular parasites as markers of etiologic factors of respiratory infections in school-age children in remission period. 466 children from frequently and episodically ill groups were examined. Bacteriologic study of smears from the surface of palatine tonsils was carried out in all the children. By using EIA with the corresponding commercial test systems IgG level against Herpes simplex virus, Cytomegalovirus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human respiratory syncytial virus was determined in blood sera according to instruction manual. During remission period of infectious process in the structure of microflora of upper respiratory tract in frequently ill children characteristic differences from their episodically ill peers were detected. In children with frequent respiratory infections a higher occurrence of antibodies against intracellular causative agents of these diseases was also detected. In the group of frequently ill, a direct correlation between frequency of infectious diseases of respiratory tract and occurrence of carriage of pathogenic and opportunistic microorgan isms as well as increase of antibodies against Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus, C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae was detected. Higher occurrence ofintra- and extra-cellular infectious agents as well as their associations may be considered as one of the reasons of insufficient effectiveness of prophylaxis measures in frequently ill children.

  11. Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. T. Areas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance bands (ERB combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle strength warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10 or the control group (CG, n=10. Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and inspiratory pressure (MIP were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. RESULTS: PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p<0.05. In addition, there were significant differences between the TG and CG regarding ∆MIP (p=0.01 and ∆MEP (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: PNF combined with ERB can have a positive impact on respiratory muscle strength. These results may be useful with respect to cardiopulmonary chronic diseases that are associated with reduced respiratory muscle strength.

  12. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Upper Respiratory Infection: Demographic and Health History Predictors of URI (Upper Respiratory Illness) During Basic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-05

    Symptom Reporting scores represent hypochondriasis , somatic responses to acute stress, or simple response biases in filling out questionnaires. The...laboratory settings which presumably are not as stressful as basic training and may tend, therefore, to minimize the expression of hypochondriasis ... somatization , and related factors that could be important in basic training. However: the present findings make it clear that even if the upper limit of the

  13. CFD heat transfer simulation of the human upper respiratory tract for oronasal breathing condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Farahmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries due to inhalation of hot gas are commonly encountered when dealing with fire and combustible material, which is harmful and threatens human life. In the literature, various studies have been conducted to investigate heat and mass transfer characteristics in the human respiratory tract (HRT. This study focuses on assessing the injury taking place in the upper human respiratory tract and identifying acute tissue damage, based on level of exposure. A three-dimensional heat transfer simulation is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software to study the temperature profile through the upper HRT consisting of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, trachea, and the first two generations of bronchi. The model developed is for the simultaneous oronasal breathing during the inspiration phase with a high volumetric flow rate of 90 liters/minute and the inspired air temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. The geometric model depicting the upper HRT is generated based on the data available and literature cited. The results of the simulation give the temperature distribution along the center and the surface tissue of the respiratory tract. This temperature distribution will help to assess the level of damage induced in the upper respiratory tract and appropriate treatment for the damage. A comparison of nasal breathing, oral breathing, and oronasal breathing is performed. Temperature distribution can be utilized in the design of the respirator systems where inlet temperature is regulated favoring the human body conditions.

  14. Effect of formaldehyde on the upper respiratory tract _ormal flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde is a chemical that is used to fix a tissue after death or removal from the body to prevent autolysis and putrefaction. Exposure to formaldehyde can occur as a result of occupation. Objective: To determine the effect of the formaldehyde on the throat and nasal flora of upper respiratory tract of rabbits ...

  15. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  16. Hand Hygiene Program Decreases School Absenteeism Due to Upper Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor-Martinez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Fernández-Sánchez, Carmen; Strizzi, Jenna M.; Torres-Alegre, Pilar; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizer to prevent school absenteeism due to upper respiratory infections (URIs). Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, and open study on a sample of 1341 children 4-12 years old, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow-up. The…

  17. STUDY ON CAMPHOR-FREE NATURAL TOPICAL MEDICINE FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI are the most common acute illnesses that are often of viral origin. Cough and chest congestion are the common symptoms of this disease. Children are prescribed with drugs that are considered to relive the symptoms of this disease. The topical medications contain vegetable camphor for more than a century that relieve chest congestion and cough caused by URTI. The use of camphor in such products remains questionable especially in children who are more sensitive to its side effects. Herbion “Chest Rub” for children is a camphor-free formulation that contains eucalyptus oil mixture, menthol,turpentine and clove oils and is used to relieve symptoms of URTI.The objective of the present investigationwas to determine the effectiveness of the chest rub inchildren suffering with congestion and cough caused by URTI. The study compared the results of the chest rub applied to a group of infected children with a placebo group. Patients were selected randomly on the basis of the criteria set for the study. The results indicated that the chest rub was quite effective in majority of the cases in relieving the symptoms of URTI as compared to the placebo group.

  18. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and asthma, are common diseases with a prevalence of 30-40% worldwide and are thus of great global public health importance. Allergic inflammation may influence the immunity against infections, so atopic individuals could be susceptible to respiratory infections. No previous population-based study has addressed the relation between atopy and respiratory infections in adulthood. We assessed the relation between atopic disease, specific IgE antibodies and the occurrence of upper and lower respiratory infections in the past 12 months among working-aged adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 1008 atopic and non-atopic adults 21-63 years old was conducted. Information on atopic diseases, allergy tests and respiratory infections was collected by a questionnaire. Specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens were measured in serum. Adults with atopic disease had a significantly increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI; including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted risk ratio (RR 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 3.52 and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted RR 1.55 (1.14, 2.10. The risk of LRTIs increased with increasing level of specific IgE (linear trend P = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that working-aged adults with atopic disease experience significantly more LRTIs and URTIs than non-atopics. The occurrence of respiratory infections increased with increasing levels of specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens, showing a dose-response pattern with LRTIs. From the clinical point of view it is important to recognize that those with atopies are a risk group for respiratory infections, including more severe LRTIs.

  19. Antibiotic resistance profiling and microbiota of the upper respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease ...

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Saeed, M.A.; Jafri, S.R.A.; Raza, M.; Kundi, Z.U.; Hyder, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    The association of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its pulmonary manifestation is well known however the exact underlying mechanism is unclear. The medical literature is deluged with studies on relationship between Gear and its pulmonary manifestations. The aim of this study was to 1) determine prevalence of GER in children with rLRTI, wheezing and asthma. 2) determine prevalence of asymptomatic respiratory anomalies in children with clinical reflux 3) determine effectiveness of anti-reflux therapy in clinical control of asthma, wheezing and rLRTI. Children were included in the study if they presented either with rLRTI, wheezing, Bronchial asthma or Clinical suspicion of GER without any respiratory symptoms. The GER study comprised esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux and lung aspiration studies. Acquisition and processing were according to predetermined protocol. Segmental and global esophageal transit times, GER according to duration of episode and volume of refluxed liquid, Reflux severity, Gastric retention at 30 minutes, Gastric emptying time, Presence of lung aspiration were calculated for each study. All children underwent Barium studies on a separate day. Clinical follow-up was done every 3 months and GER study was repeated every 6 months up to one year. The patient's therapy was determined by local protocols at discretion of clinicians. GER scintigraphy was performed in 43 patients (age range 5 months -12 years). Gastroesophageal reflux of varying degrees was observed in 10 children (23.25%) in all groups. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to severity of GER. The direct correlation was found between GER and reflux index. The results of GER scintigraphy were compared with Barium studies and results were found to be superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in detecting disease. It was possible to objectively evaluate and monitor response to therapy after medical treatment in few cases with help of follow

  1. Effect of transoral tracheal wash on respiratory mechanics in dogs with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Meghan E; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; deLaforcade, Armelle M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (C stat ) and static resistance (R stat ), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P -value of mechanics, as observed by a reduction in C stat , presumably due to airway flooding and collapse. While no long-lasting effects were noted in these clinical patients, this effect should be considered when performing TOTW on dogs with respiratory diseases. Respiratory mechanics testing using a CCV was feasible and may be a useful clinical testing approach.

  2. DYNAMIC CHANGES IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT MICROFLORA OF THE BLACK SEA AND PACIFIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS IN NOOGENIC HABITAT: POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF ENVIROMENTAL CONDITIONS.

    OpenAIRE

    T. Tserodze; D. Jgenti; M. Mgeladze; I. Gambashidze; N. Chkheidze; E. Jaiani; E. Didebulidze; N. Janelidze; R. Goradze; M. Tediashvili.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious diseases of upper respiratory tract (URT) represent serious problem for marine mammals adapted to noogenic conditions. Anthropogenic contamination of pool water is considered as an important source of potentially harmful bacteria. The changes in climatic conditions, nutrition and stress of animals living in an artificial environment can result in bacterial overgrowth and disease development with possible spread in the community. Treatment of already advanced disease is complicated ...

  3. Scintigraphic Evaluation of Esophageal Motility and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Patients Presenting with Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalachandran, Jaykanth; Simon, Shelley; Elangoven, Indirani; Jain, Avani; Sivathapandi, Thangalakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The purpose is to evaluate the findings and utility of esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) and gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) in patients presenting with upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms suspected to be due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged between 19 and 60 years underwent nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (NPL), ETS, and GES. Correlation between GER, esophageal motility, and NPL was evaluated. Inclusion criteria include patients with recurrent URT symptoms such as chronic dry cough/hoarseness of voice and itching/foreign body sensation in throat. Those with typical gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of GER, URT symptoms relieved by antibiotics, surgical intervention in abdomen, cardiac/hepatobiliary diseases, etc. were excluded from the study. Results: Significant correlation was found between GER and NPL in 28/30 patients. More the grade of reflux, more severe was the NPL findings. Two patients with Grade II reflux had normal NPL suggesting structural inflammatory changes due to acidic pH of refluxate which have not yet manifested or symptoms could be due to nonacid refluxate. Incidence of esophageal motility disorder was statistically significant in patients with GER disease (GERD). Patients who had symptoms, but no demonstrable GER showed delayed ET in supine position suggesting the presence of esophageal motility disorder even before GERD. Conclusion: GES demonstrated GER in patients presenting with URT symptoms without typical GI symptoms. ETS showed coexistence of esophageal motility disorder in most patients presenting with URT symptoms even without an associated reflux disease. We hypothesize that primary abnormal esophageal motility leads to delayed esophageal clearance and consequently to URT symptoms. Addition of ETS to GES is easily feasible with no significant additional cost, time, or radiation burden. PMID:29430111

  4. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  5. Chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Ellen Fischer; Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009.......To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009....

  6. Respiratory Diseases in Children: studies in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe work presented in this thesis covers various aspects of the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of various respiratory symptoms and diseases in children frequently encountered in general practice. These respiratory tract symptoms and diseases can be categorized into symptoms and

  7. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  8. Air pollution and emergency department visits for respiratory diseases: A multi-city case crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Kousha, Termeh; Castner, Jessica; Dales, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease exacerbations and emergencies. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ambient air pollutants and emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory conditions in nine districts across the province of Ontario in Canada. Health, air pollutant (PM 2.5 , NO 2 , O 3 , and SO 2 ), and meteorological data were retrieved from April 2004 to December 2011. Respiratory diseases were categorized as: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, including bronchiectasis) and acute upper respiratory diseases. A case-crossover design was used to test the associations between ED visits and ambient air pollutants, stratified by sex and season. For COPD among males, positive results were observed for NO 2 with lags of 3-6 days, for PM 2.5 with lags 1-8, and for SO 2 with lags of 4-8 days. For COPD among females, positive results were observed for O 3 with lags 2-4 days, and for SO 2 among lags of 3-6 days. For upper respiratory disease emergencies among males, positive results were observed for NO 2 (lags 5-8 days), for O 3 , (lags 0-6 days), PM 2.5 (all lags), and SO 2 (lag 8), and among females, positive results were observed for NO 2 for lag 8 days, for O 3 , PM 2.5 among all lags. Our study provides evidence of the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and increased risk of ED visits for upper and lower respiratory diseases in an environment where air pollutant concentrations are relatively low. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The treatment of allergic rhinitis improves the recovery from asthma and upper respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Sarti

    Full Text Available Forty-six asthmatic children with repeated respiratory infections presented symptoms of allergic rhinitis. All patients were treated locally for allergic rhinitis either with disodium cromoglycate or beclomethasone dipropionate. After six months of treatment, 95% of the children showed improvement of allergic rhinitis and 84% improvement of bronchial asthma, as well as fewer infections. We concluded that allergic rhinitis plays an important role in facilitating infections of the upper respiratory tract, and a possible association of rhinitis, viral infections and bronchial asthma is discussed.

  10. Effect of intensive education on knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding upper respiratory infections among urban Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elaine L; Ferng, Yu-Hui; McLoughlin, Jennifer Wong; Wang, Shuang; Morse, Stephen S

    2009-01-01

    Although upper respiratory infections (URIs) take a major social and economic toll, little research has been conducted to assess the impact of educational interventions on knowledge, attitudes, and practices of community members regarding prevention and treatment of URIs, particularly among recently immigrated urban Latinos who may not be reached by the mainstream healthcare system. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a culturally appropriate, home-based educational intervention on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prevention and treatment of URIs among urban Latinos. Using a pretest-posttest design, Spanish-language educational materials available from sources such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were adapted based on feedback from community focus groups and provided to households during an in-person home visit every 2 months (generally three to four visits). Outcome data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices were collected in home-based interviews using an 85-item instrument adapted and pilot tested from three other validated instruments. Nonparametric and multiple linear regression analyses were used to summarize data and identify predictors of knowledge scores. Four hundred twenty-two households had complete data at baseline and 6 months. Knowledge and attitude scores were improved significantly, and use of alcohol hand sanitizer and rates of influenza vaccine were increased significantly (all p effectiveness of such a person-intensive intervention, the long-term outcomes, and whether less intensive interventions might be equally effective.

  11. Gene editing as a promising approach for respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yichun; Liu, Yang; Su, Zhenlei; Ma, Yana; Ren, Chonghua; Zhao, Runzhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory diseases, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, are dysfunctions of the nasopharynx, the trachea, the bronchus, the lung and the pleural cavity. Symptoms of chronic respiratory diseases, such as cough, sneezing and difficulty breathing, may seriously affect the productivity, sleep quality and physical and mental well-being of patients, and patients with acute respiratory diseases may have difficulty breathing, anoxia and even life-threatening respiratory failure. Respiratory diseases are generally heterogeneous, with multifaceted causes including smoking, ageing, air pollution, infection and gene mutations. Clinically, a single pulmonary disease can exhibit more than one phenotype or coexist with multiple organ disorders. To correct abnormal function or repair injured respiratory tissues, one of the most promising techniques is to correct mutated genes by gene editing, as some gene mutations have been clearly demonstrated to be associated with genetic or heterogeneous respiratory diseases. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems are three innovative gene editing technologies developed recently. In this short review, we have summarised the structure and operating principles of the ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 systems and their preclinical and clinical applications in respiratory diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  13. X-ray upper airway changes in individuals suffering from obstructive respiratory disorders during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhov, A.A.; Rabukhina, N.A.; Nerobeev, A.I.; Vasil'ev, A.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Obstructive respiratory disorders during sleep present an important medical and social problem. Serious dysfunctions of cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine and other vital systems of the body reduce longevity and life quality. On the other hand, load nocturnal snore and abnormal during sleepiness cause great damage to family life, reduce working capacity and induce accidents. X-ray visualization of the upper airways is essential in diagnosing obstructive upper airway states and selecting patients for surgical treatment. The paper presents the author's own experience in using various X-ray diagnostic methods in patients with chronic snore and obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome [ru

  14. Human milk reduces outpatient upper respiratory symptoms in premature infants during their first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaymore Bier, Jo-Ann; Oliver, Tanya; Ferguson, Anne; Vohr, Betty R

    2002-01-01

    To determine if ingestion of human milk after discharge reduces symptoms of infections in premature infants. Follow-up of 39 infants with birth weights milk and 15 of whom received only formula after discharge, was carried out. Mothers were given a calendar on which they recorded any signs of infections and feeding and day-care information. Data were collected at 1 month after discharge and at 3, 7, and 12 months corrected age. Results show no differences between groups in birth weight, gestation, gender, maternal age, parental tobacco use, number of siblings, and day-care attendance. Socioeconomic status score was higher in the human milk group. Infants who received human milk had fewer days of upper respiratory symptoms at 1 month after discharge (pmilk post discharge is associated with a reduction of upper respiratory symptoms in premature infants during their first year of life.

  15. NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercos-Pita, J. L.; Cal, I. R.; Duque, D.; de Moreta, G. Sanjuán

    2018-02-01

    The tool NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software, is here described. As a free software, researchers and professionals are welcome to obtain, analyze, improve and redistribute it, potentially increasing the rate of development, and reducing at the same time ethical conflicts regarding medical applications which cannot be analyzed. Additionally, the tool has been optimized for the specific task of reading upper respiratory tract Computerized Tomography scans, and producing 3D geometries. The reconstruction process is divided into three stages: preprocessing (including Metal Artifact Reduction, noise removal, and feature enhancement), segmentation (where the nasal cavity is identified), and 3D geometry reconstruction. The tool has been automatized (i.e. no human intervention is required) a critical feature to avoid bias in the reconstructed geometries. The applied methodology is discussed, as well as the program robustness and precision.

  16. Sleep apnoea during upper respiratory infection and metabolic alkalosis in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu e Silva, F A; MacFadyen, U M; Williams, A; Simpson, H

    1986-01-01

    Three to four hour polygraphic sleep studies were carried out in 10 infants, five with upper respiratory infection and five with metabolic alkalosis secondary to vomiting during and after recovery from illness. During upper respiratory infection, the main abnormality detected was brief (greater than 3 less than 6 seconds) or prolonged (greater than 6 seconds) attacks of obstructive apnoea. Other indices of apnoea were similar to recovery data. Gross body movements were also increased. In infants with metabolic alkalosis indices of central apnoea were significantly increased when compared with recovery or case control data. Prolonged (greater than 15 seconds) attacks of central apnoea and obstructive apnoea (greater than 6 seconds) were only observed during illness. Gross body movements and periodic breathing were also increased. These findings suggest that the functional consequences of apparently 'mild' illnesses in young infants may be greater than is generally suspected and perhaps relevant to mechanism(s) of death in sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:3789786

  17. [Neuromuscular disease: respiratory clinical assessment and follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Villa Asensi, J R; Luna Paredes, M C; Osona Rodríguez de Torres, F B; Peña Zarza, J A; Larramona Carrera, H; Costa Colomer, J

    2014-10-01

    Patients with neuromuscular disease are an important group at risk of frequently suffering acute or chronic respiratory failure, which is their main cause of death. They require follow-up by a pediatric respiratory medicine specialist from birth or diagnosis in order to confirm the diagnosis and treat any respiratory complications within a multidisciplinary context. The ventilatory support and the cough assistance have improved the quality of life and long-term survival for many of these patients. In this paper, the authors review the pathophysiology, respiratory function evaluation, sleep disorders, and the most frequent respiratory complications in neuromuscular diseases. The various treatments used, from a respiratory medicine point of view, will be analyzed in a next paper. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence, etiology, and symptomatology of upper respiratory illness in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Luke; Brown, Wendy J; Pyne, David B; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P; McCormack, Joseph G; Locke, A Simon; Fricker, Peter A

    2007-04-01

    Upper respiratory illness (URI) is the most common medical condition affecting elite athletes. The aims of this study were to identify and evaluate the incidence, pathogenic etiology, and symptomatology of acute URI during a 5-month training and competition period. Thirty-two elite and 31 recreationally competitive triathletes and cyclists, and 20 sedentary controls (age range 18.0-34.1 yr) participated in a prospective surveillance study. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were collected from subjects presenting with two or more defined upper respiratory symptoms. Swabs were analyzed using microscopy, culture, and PCR testing for typical and atypical respiratory pathogens. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-44) was used to assess symptomatology and functional impairment. Thirty-seven URI episodes were reported in 28 subjects. Incidence rate ratios for illness were higher in both the control subjects (1.93, 95% CI: 0.72-5.18) and elite athletes (4.50, 1.91-10.59) than in the recreationally competitive athletes. Infectious agents were identified in only 11 (two control, three recreationally competitive, and six elite) out of 37 illness episodes. Rhinovirus was the most common respiratory pathogen isolated. Symptom and functional impairment severity scores were higher in subjects with an infectious pathogen episode, particularly on illness days 3-4. The results confirm a higher rate of URI among elite athletes than recreationally competitive athletes during this training and competition season. However, because pathogens were isolated in fewer than 30% of URI cases, further study is required to uncover the causes of unidentified but symptomatic URI in athletes. Despite the common perception that all URI are infections, physicians should consider both infectious and noninfectious causes when athletes present with symptoms.

  19. Effect of physiotherapy in respiratory diseases during healing stays

    OpenAIRE

    Schneebergerová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Title: Effect of physiotherapy in respiratory diseases during healing stays Objective: The main objective of this work is to analyze the importance of physiotherapy as one of the treatments used in the care of pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Method: In the theoretic part of the dissertation anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract, respiratory biomechanics, problems of asthma bronchiale, possibilities of asthma treatment, prevention and improvement of quality of life in child...

  20. Advanced Role of Neutrophils in Common Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases, always being a threat towards the health of people all over the world, are most tightly associated with immune system. Neutrophils serve as an important component of immune defense barrier linking innate and adaptive immunity. They participate in the clearance of exogenous pathogens and endogenous cell debris and play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases. However, the pathological mechanism of neutrophils remains complex and obscure. The traditional roles of neutrophils in severe asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD, pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis had already been reviewed. With the development of scientific research, the involvement of neutrophils in respiratory diseases is being brought to light with emerging data on neutrophil subsets, trafficking, and cell death mechanism (e.g., NETosis, apoptosis in diseases. We reviewed all these recent studies here to provide you with the latest advances about the role of neutrophils in respiratory diseases.

  1. NORMAL NASOPHARYNGEAL MICROFLORA AS A RESERVOIR OF MULTIRESISTANT STRAINS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minukhin V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharinheal carriage of bacteria may play a central role in the development and spread of respiratory infections. In addition, so-called "healthy" carriage is often transformed under the influence of various factors into an active infection.It is necessary to take into account not only the range of possible pathogens, but also trends in the development of antibiotic resistance of leading etiologic agents while choosing tactics of antimicrobial therapy. The investigation was designed to study the role of normal microflora of the nasopharynx as a reservoir of resistant strains of respiratory infections. Materials and Methods. Fifty three healthy individuals and 168 patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections who had been treated in CEHC "Kharkiv Municipal Clinical Hospital № 30" were examined. Microbiological study included isolation and identification of pathogens in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health Care № 535 from 22.04.1985., determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics by diffusion method according to the Order of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine № 167 from 05.04.2007. Results and discussion. Bacteriological study of nasal swabs of healthy people showed that the composition of the microflora of the nasopharynx contained potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Among the isolated microorganisms essential place was occupied by S. epidermidis and S. aureus, both in monoculture and association. Epidermal staphylococcus was isolated in 36 % and Staphylococcus aureus in 27% of cases. Pneumococcus and hemolytic streptococcus of group A were isolated in 23 and 14% of cases, respectively. One hundred and eighty strains of opportunistic microorganisms were isolated in the study of nasopharyngeal microflora of patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. The leading role belonged to S. pyogenes (40.5% and S.epidermidis (33,3%. S. aureus (12,8% and S.pneumoniae (10,6% were next

  2. Role of fluorographic examinations in diagnosis of respiratory system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'derman, A.M.; Tsurkan, E.P.; Moskovchuk, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    Materials are considered on the role of fluorography in diagnosis of posttuberculous changes and chromic respiratory system diseases during total epidemiologic examination of 7791 adults from urban and rural population. A scheme is developed that characterize diagnosed pathology of respiratory organs with references to medical establishments rendering medical supervision and forms of supervision. It is shown that fluorograhic examination of the population provide an early diagnosis of both tuberculosis, neoplastic diseases and nonspecific pulmonary diseases that have no visible clinical symptomatology

  3. How to avoid the inappropriate use of antibiotics in upper respiratory tract infections? A position statement from an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltcher, Otávio Bejzman; Kosugi, Eduardo Macoto; Sakano, Eulalia; Mion, Olavo; Testa, José Ricardo Gurgel; Romano, Fabrizio Ricci; Santos, Marco Cesar Jorge; Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; Mitre, Edson Ibrahim; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Roithmann, Renato; Padua, Francini Greco; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Lubianca Neto, José Faibes; Sá, Leonardo Conrado Barbosa; Pignatari, Shirley Shizue Nagata; Avelino, Melissa Ameloti Gomes; Caixeta, Juliana Alves de Souza; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha; Tamashiro, Edwin

    Bacterial resistance burden has increased in the past years, mainly due to inappropriate antibiotic use. Recently it has become an urgent public health concern due to its impact on the prolongation of hospitalization, an increase of total cost of treatment and mortality associated with infectious disease. Almost half of the antimicrobial prescriptions in outpatient care visits are prescribed for acute upper respiratory infections, especially rhinosinusitis, otitis media, and pharyngotonsillitis. In this context, otorhinolaryngologists play an important role in orienting patients and non-specialists in the utilization of antibiotics rationally and properly in these infections. To review the most recent recommendations and guidelines for the use of antibiotics in acute otitis media, acute rhinosinusitis, and pharyngotonsillitis, adapted to our national reality. A literature review on PubMed database including the medical management in acute otitis media, acute rhinosinusitis, and pharyngotonsillitis, followed by a discussion with a panel of specialists. Antibiotics must be judiciously prescribed in uncomplicated acute upper respiratory tract infections. The severity of clinical presentation and the potential risks for evolution to suppurative and non-suppurative complications must be taken into 'consideration'. Periodic revisions on guidelines and recommendations for treatment of the main acute infections are necessary to orient rationale and appropriate use of antibiotics. Continuous medical education and changes in physicians' and patients' behavior are required to modify the paradigm that all upper respiratory infection needs antibiotic therapy, minimizing the consequences of its inadequate and inappropriate use. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging of respiratory muscles in neuromuscular disease: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, L; Ciet, P; van der Ploeg, A T; Brusse, E; van der Beek, N A M E; Wielopolski, P A; de Bruijne, M; Tiddens, H A W M; van Doorn, P A

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness frequently occurs in patients with neuromuscular disease. Measuring respiratory function with standard pulmonary function tests provides information about the contribution of all respiratory muscles, the lungs and airways. Imaging potentially enables the study of different respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, separately. In this review, we provide an overview of imaging techniques used to study respiratory muscles in neuromuscular disease. We identified 26 studies which included a total of 573 patients with neuromuscular disease. Imaging of respiratory muscles was divided into static and dynamic techniques. Static techniques comprise chest radiography, B-mode (brightness mode) ultrasound, CT and MRI, and are used to assess the position and thickness of the diaphragm and the other respiratory muscles. Dynamic techniques include fluoroscopy, M-mode (motion mode) ultrasound and MRI, used to assess diaphragm motion in one or more directions. We discuss how these imaging techniques relate with spirometric values and whether these can be used to study the contribution of the different respiratory muscles in patients with neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Combined effects of leaks, respiratory system properties and upper airway patency on the performance of home ventilators: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaixian; Rabec, Claudio; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus; Hardy, Sébastien; Aouf, Sami; Escourrou, Pierre; Roisman, Gabriel

    2017-11-21

    Combined effects of leaks, mechanical property of respiratory system and upper airway (UA) patency on patient-ventilator synchrony (PVA) and the level of clinically "tolerable" leaks are not well established in home ventilators. We comparatively assessed on a bench model, the highest leak level tolerated without inducing significant asynchrony ("critical leak") in three home ventilators (Astral 150, Trilogy 100 and Vivo 60; noted as A150, T100 and V60 respectively) subjected to three simulated diseased respiratory conditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obesity hypoventilation (OHS) and neuromuscular disorders (NMD), with both open and closed UA. Also, total leak values in the device reports were compared to the bench-measured values. With open UA, all ventilators were able to avoid asynchrony up to a 30 L/min leak and even to 55 L/min in some cases. UA closure and respiratory diseases especially OHS influenced PVA. With closed UA, the critical leak of A150 and T100 remained higher than 55 L/min in COPD and OHS, while for V60 decreased to 41 and 33 L/min respectively. In NMD with closed UA, only T100 reached a high critical leak of 69 L/min. Besides, inspiratory trigger sensitivity change was often necessary to avoid PVA. Home ventilators were able to avoid PVA in high-level leak conditions. However, asynchrony appeared in cases of abnormal mechanical properties of respiratory system or closed UA. In case of closed UA, the EPAP should be adjusted prior to the inspiratory trigger. Not applicable.

  6. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  7. Can the Pelargonium sidoides root extract EPs® 7630 prevent asthma attacks during viral infections of the upper respiratory tract in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Fulya; Yaman, Melih

    2013-01-15

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation. Viral infection initiates an immune inflammatory response that may produce asthma attacks. There is no effective preventing therapy for asthma attack during upper respiratory tract viral infections. To investigate the efficacy of 5 days of Pelargonium sidoides therapy for preventing asthma attack during upper respiratory tract viral infections. Sixty one asthmatic children with upper respiratory tract viral infection were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized to receive Pelargonium sidoides daily for 5 days (n=30) or not (n=31). Before and after treatment, they all were examined and symptom scores were determined. Following five days treatment, children were evaluated whether or not they had an asthma attack. Treatment with Pelargonium sidoides was not associated with a statistically significant differences in fever and muscle aches (p>0.05, Chi-square test). There were significant differences in cough frequency and nasal congestion between the groups (pasthma attack between the groups (pasthma attack. Our study shows that Pelargonium sidoides may prevent asthma attacks during upper respiratory tract viral infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood socioeconomic status, telomere length, and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Turner, Ronald B; Marsland, Anna L; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng; Epel, Elissa S; Doyle, William J

    2013-11-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood and adolescence has been found to predict greater susceptibility to common cold viruses in adults. Here, we test whether low childhood SES is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in adulthood, and whether telomere length mediates the association between childhood SES and susceptibility to acute upper respiratory disease in adulthood. At baseline, 196 healthy volunteers reported whether they currently owned their home and, for each year of their childhood, whether their parents owned the family home. Volunteers also had blood drawn for assessment of specific antibody to the challenge virus, and for CD8+ CD28- T-lymphocyte telomere length (in a subset, n=135). They were subsequently quarantined in a hotel, exposed to a virus (rhinovirus [RV] 39) that causes a common cold and followed for infection and illness (clinical cold) over five post-exposure days. Lower childhood SES as measured by fewer years of parental home ownership was associated with shorter adult CD8+ CD28- telomere length and with an increased probability of developing infection and clinical illness when exposed to a common cold virus in adulthood. These associations were independent of adult SES, age, sex, race, body mass, neuroticism, and childhood family characteristics. Associations with infections and colds were also independent of pre-challenge viral-specific antibody and season. Further analyses do not support mediating roles for smoking, alcohol consumption or physical activity but suggest that CD8+ CD28- cell telomere length may act as a partial mediator of the associations between childhood SES and infection and childhood SES and colds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of allergy and upper respiratory tract symptoms in runners of the London marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson-Ansley, Paula; Howatson, Glyn; Tallent, Jamie; Mitcheson, Kelly; Walshe, Ian; Toms, Chris; DU Toit, George; Smith, Matt; Ansley, Les

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of self-reported upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms in athletes has been traditionally associated with opportunistic infection during the temporal suppression of immune function after prolonged exercise. There is little evidence for this, and a competing noninfectious hypothesis has been proposed, whereby the exercise-induced immune system modulations favor the development of atopy and allergic disease, which manifests as URT symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the association between allergy and URT symptoms in runners after an endurance running event. Two hundred eight runners from the 2010 London Marathon completed the validated Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUA) and had serum analyzed for total and specific immunoglobulin E response to common inhalant allergens. Participants who completed the marathon and nonrunning controls who lived in the same household were asked to complete a diary on URT symptoms. Forty percent of runners had allergy as defined by both a positive AQUA and elevated specific immunoglobulin E. Forty-seven percent of runners experienced URT symptoms after the marathon. A positive AQUA was a significant predictor of postmarathon URT symptoms in runners. Only 19% of nonrunning controls reported symptoms. The prevalence of allergy in recreational marathon runners was similar to that in elite athletes and higher than that in the general population. There was a strong association between a positive AQUA and URT symptoms. The low proportion of households in which both runners and nonrunners were symptomatic suggests that the nature of symptoms may be allergic or inflammatory based rather than infectious. Allergy is a treatable condition, and its potential effect on performance and health may be avoided by accurate clinical diagnosis and management. Both athletes' and coaches' awareness of the potential implications of poorly managed allergy needs to be raised.

  10. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  11. RSV-induced bronchiolitis but not upper respiratory tract infection is accompanied by an increased nasal IL-18 response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, Inesz J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Koopman, Laurens P.; Kleinjan, Alex; van Middelkoop, Barbara C.; de Waal, Leon; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Neijens, Herman J.; Fokkens, Wytske J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in the local nasal immune response between bronchiolitis and upper respiratory tract infection induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Nasal brush samples were obtained from 14 infants with RSV bronchiolitis and from 8 infants with

  12. Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Children : An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuesens, Emiel B. M.; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Visser, Eline G.; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Hop, Wim C. J.; van Adrichem, Leon N. A.; Weber, Frank; Moll, Henriette A.; Broekman, Berth; Berger, Marjolein Y.; van Rijsoort-Vos, Tineke; van Belkum, Alex; Schutten, Martin; Pas, Suzan D.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Hartwig, Nico G.; Vink, Cornelis; van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.

    Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is thought to be a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. The diagnosis of M. pneumoniae RTIs currently relies on serological methods and/or the detection of bacterial DNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT). It is conceivable, however,

  13. Airway Reflux, Cough and Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Ian D.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. The adjacent respiratory structures are also at risk from material ejected from the proximal oesophagus as a result of the failure of anatomical and physiological barriers. There is evidence of the influence of reflux on several respiratory and otorhinological conditions and although in many cases the precise mechanism has yet to be elucidated, the association alone opens potential novel avenues of therapy to clinicians struggling to treat patients with apparently intractable respiratory complaints. This review provides a description of the airway reflux syndrome, its effects on the lung and current and future therapeutic options. PMID:23251752

  14. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Chronic coffee consumption and respiratory disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo

    2018-03-01

    The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. Methods The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of su...

  17. Airway inflammation and upper respiratory tract infection in athletes: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermon, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) is regarded as the most common medical condition affecting both highly trained and elite athletes, in particular those participating in endurance events. The causes of these disturbances, also occurring during training, remain unclear. Viruses such as rhinovirus, adenovirus and para-influenza virus are frequently reported as the source of URTI. However, in a few comprehensive laboratory and epidemiological studies which reported at least a 30% incidence of URTI, no identifiable pathogens were either reported or studied. A recent, longitudinal study investigated symptomatology and pathogenic etiology in sedentary controls, recreational and elite athletes. The highest incidence of URTI occurred in elite athletes. However; only 11 out of 37 illness episodes overall had pathogenic origins, and most of the unidentified upper respiratory illnesses were shorter in duration and less severe than infectious ones. This concept of inflammation without infection in athletes is quite new and leads us to consider other explanatory pathophysiological conditions. Increases in airway neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes have been described under resting conditions in endurance sports, swimmers and cross-country skiers. These inflammatory patterns may be due to pollutants or chlorine-related compounds in swimmers. After intense exercise similar airways cellular profiles have been reported, with a high amount of bronchial epithelial cells. This increase in airway inflammatory cells in athletes can result from a hyperventilation-induced increase in airway osmolarity stimulating bronchial epithelial cells to release chemotactic factors. Fortunately, in most cases, these inflammatory cells express rather low level of adhesion molecules, explaining why airway inflammation may appear blunted in athletes despite numerous inflammatory cellular elements. However it can be hypothesized that a transient loss of control of this local inflammation, due

  18. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  19. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incidence of skin and respiratory diseases among Danish hairdressing apprentices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Majken H.; Winther, Lone; Johnsen, Claus R.

    2017-01-01

    .8% of the hairdressing apprentices had left the trade, and 70.3% of these had left because of health complaints. The most frequently reported reasons for leaving were musculoskeletal pain (47.4%) and skin diseases (47.4%), followed by respiratory symptoms (23.7%). Conclusions: Hairdressing apprentices are at increased......Background: Hairdressing is one of the professions with the highest risk of occupational skin and respiratory diseases. The incidence of these diseases in hairdressing apprentices has been studied only sparsely. Objective: To determine the incidence of skin and respiratory diseases in hairdressing...... apprentices, and to explore whether hairdressing apprentices leave the trade during training because of these diseases. Methods: A 3-year follow-up questionnaire study was conducted among 248 hairdressing apprentices and a control group comprising 816 young adults from the general population. Results...

  1. Effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming GUO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function and conscious state of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease (SCVD.  Methods A total of 27 patients with SCVD were divided into control group (N = 17 and observation group (N = 10. Control group received routine drug and rehabilitation treatment, and observation group was added respiratory function training based on routine treatment. The respiratory rate, tidal volume (TV, heart rate, blood pressure and artery oxygen saturation (SaO2 of patients were monitored by breathing machine before and after 4-week treatment. Meanwhile, arterial blood gas analysis was used to detect arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, oxygenation index, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and pH value. At the same time, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS was used to evaluate the conscious state of patients.  Results All patients successfully completed 4-week rehabilitation training, without asphyxia, arrhythmia or other adverse events. Compared with before training, the respiratory rate (P = 0.006 and pH value (P = 0.010 were significantly decreased, while SaO2 (P = 0.001, oxygenation index (P = 0.000 and GCS scores (P = 0.004, 0.017 were significantly increased in both groups of patients after training. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups on respiratory function indexes and GCS scores after training (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusions Respiratory function training did not significantly improve the respiratory function and conscious state of patients with SCVD, yet to be further studied. Randomized controlled clinical trials with larger, layered samples and long-term prognosis observation are needed. Examination method of respiratory function of SCVD patients is also a topic to be explored.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.007

  2. [Development of expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-hua; Chen, You-ling; Yan, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    To develop an internet-based expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases. SaaS system was used to build architecture; pattern of forward reasoning was applied for inference engine design; ASP.NET with C# from the tool pack of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used for website-interview medical expert system.The database of the system was constructed with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The developed expert system contained large data memory and high efficient function of data interview and data analysis for diagnosis of various diseases.The users were able to perform this system to obtain diagnosis for common respiratory diseases via internet. The developed expert system may be used for internet-based diagnosis of various respiratory diseases,particularly in telemedicine setting.

  3. The role of neutrophils in the upper and lower respiratory tract during influenza virus infection of mice

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    Reading Patrick C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophils have been shown to play a role in host defence against highly virulent and mouse-adapted strains of influenza virus, however it is not clear if an effective neutrophil response is an important factor moderating disease severity during infection with other virus strains. In this study, we have examined the role of neutrophils during infection of mice with influenza virus strain HKx31, a virus strain of the H3N2 subtype and of moderate virulence for mice, to determine the role of neutrophils in the early phase of infection and in clearance of influenza virus from the respiratory tract during the later phase of infection. Methods The anti-Gr-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb RB6-8C5 was used to (i identify neutrophils in the upper (nasal tissues and lower (lung respiratory tract of uninfected and influenza virus-infected mice, and (ii deplete neutrophils prior to and during influenza virus infection of mice. Results Neutrophils were rapidly recruited to the upper and lower airways following influenza virus infection. We demonstrated that use of mAb RB6-8C5 to deplete C57BL/6 (B6 mice of neutrophils is complicated by the ability of this mAb to bind directly to virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Thus, we investigated the role of neutrophils in both the early and later phases of infection using CD8+ T cell-deficient B6.TAP-/- mice. Infection of B6.TAP-/- mice with a low dose of influenza virus did not induce clinical disease in control animals, however RB6-8C5 treatment led to profound weight loss, severe clinical disease and enhanced virus replication throughout the respiratory tract. Conclusion Neutrophils play a critical role in limiting influenza virus replication during the early and later phases of infection. Furthermore, a virus strain of moderate virulence can induce severe clinical disease in the absence of an effective neutrophil response.

  4. Genetic Testing for Respiratory Disease: Are We There Yet?

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    Peter D Paré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human genome project promised a revolution in health care – the development of ‘personalized medicine’, where knowledge of an individual’s genetic code enables the prediction of risk for specific diseases and the potential to alter that risk based on preventive measures and lifestyle modification. The present brief review provides a report card on the progress toward that goal with respect to respiratory disease. Should generalized population screening for genetic risk factors for respiratory disease be instituted? Or not?

  5. Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Care: A Randomized Study Using Aromatic Herbs

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    Eran Ben-Arye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial whose aim was to investigate the clinical effects of aromatic essential oils in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The trial was conducted in six primary care clinics in northern Israel. A spray containing aromatic essential oils of five plants (Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Origanum syriacum, and Rosmarinus officinalisas applied 5 times a day for 3 days and compared with a placebo spray. The main outcome measure was patient assessment of the change in severity of the most debilitating symptom (sore throat, hoarseness or cough. Sixty patients participated in the study (26 in the study group and 34 in the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 20 minutes following the spray use, participants in the study group reported a greater improvement in symptom severity compared to participants in the placebo group (=.019. There was no difference in symptom severity between the two groups after 3 days of treatment (=.042. In conclusion, spray application of five aromatic plants reported in this study brings about significant and immediate improvement in symptoms of upper respiratory ailment. This effect is not significant after 3 days of treatment.

  6. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  7. Effects of Depth of Propofol and Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Upper Airway Collapsibility, Respiratory Genioglossus Activation, and Breathing in Healthy Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Jeroen C P; Pierce, Eric; Diaz-Gil, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    . Measurements included bispectral index, genioglossus electromyography, ventilation, hypopharyngeal pressure, upper airway closing pressure, and change in end-expiratory lung volume during mask pressure drops. RESULTS: A total of 393 attempted breaths during occlusion maneuvers were analyzed. Upper airway......BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics and propofol impair upper airway stability and possibly respiratory upper airway dilator muscle activity. The magnitudes of these effects have not been compared at equivalent anesthetic doses. We hypothesized that upper airway closing pressure is less negative...... closing pressure was significantly less negative at deep versus shallow anesthesia (-10.8 ± 4.5 vs. -11.3 ± 4.4 cm H2O, respectively [mean ± SD]) and correlated with the bispectral index (P airway at deep anesthesia. Respiratory genioglossus activity during airway...

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV RNA loads in peripheral blood correlates with disease severity in mice

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    Torres Juan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity. Methods Balb/c mice were inoculated with live RSV, heat-inactivated RSV or medium. A subset of RSV-infected mice was treated with anti-RSV antibody 72 h post-inoculation. RSV RNA loads were measured by PCR in peripheral blood from day 1-21 post-inoculation and were correlated with upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads, the systemic cytokine response, lung inflammation and pulmonary function. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the localization of RSV antigens in the respiratory tract and peripheral blood. Results RSV RNA loads were detected in peripheral blood from day 1 to 14 post-inoculation, peaked on day 5 and significantly correlated with nasal and lung RSV loads, airway obstruction, and blood CCL2 and CXCL1 expression. Treatment with anti-RSV antibody reduced blood RSV RNA loads and improved airway obstruction. Immunostaining identified RSV antigens in alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. Conclusions RSV RNA was detected in peripheral blood upon infection with live RSV, followed a time-course parallel to viral loads assessed in the respiratory tract and was significantly correlated with RSV-induced airway disease.

  9. Acute exacerbations and deaths in the group of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases in the city of Lodzin relation to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiatczak, J; Olejnik, A

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution episodes (sulfur dioxide and dust) on the morbidity and mortality of a group of people suffering from upper respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease was studied by examining air monitoring data and health statistics (ambulance service records and death certificates) for the city of Lodz. During the month of January in 1971, when the atmospheric pollution reached a 7-year peak, ambulance station statistics revealed the incidnce of acute cardiovascular and respiratory diseases to be at a maximum. The number of deaths from these diseases reached a maximum of 18 on the first day of the episode; on subsequent days, however, the mortalities returned to average.

  10. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  11. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santus, Pierachille; Russo, Antonio; Madonini, Enzo; Allegra, Luigi; Blasi, Francesco; Centanni, Stefano; Miadonna, Antonio; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Amaducci, Sandro

    2012-10-18

    Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association between air pollution levels and ERAs for acute respiratory conditions. The effects of air pollutants were investigated at lag 0 to lag 5, lag 0-2 and lag 3-5 in both single and multi-pollutant models, adjusted for daily weather variables. An increase in ozone (O(3)) levels at lag 3-5 was associated with a 78% increase in the number of ERAs for asthma, especially during the warm season. Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) proved to be a risk factor for pneumonia at lag 0-2 and in the warm season increased the risk of ERA by 66%. A significant association was found between ERAs for COPD exacerbation and levels of sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), CO, nitrate dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)). The multipollutant model that includes all pollutants showed a significant association between CO (26%) and ERA for upper respiratory tract diseases at lag 0-2. For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, only CO (OR 1.19) showed a significant association. Exposure to environmental pollution, even at typical low levels, can increase the risk of ERA for acute respiratory diseases and exacerbation of obstructive lung diseases in the general population.

  12. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  13. Mortality, diarrhea and respiratory disease in Danish dairy heifer calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiten, M.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    system (conventional/organic), season (summer/winter) and calf mortality risk, diarrhea, signs of respiratory disease and ocular discharge, respectively, for dairy heifer calves aged 0–180 days. Sixty Danish dairy herds, 30 conventional and 30 organic, were visited once during summer and once during......Diarrhea and respiratory disease are major health problems for dairy calves, often causing calf mortality. Previous studies have found calf mortality to be higher in organic dairy herds compared to conventional herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between production...... variables and in certain age groups, dependent on production system and season....

  14. Oligonucleotide Therapy for Obstructive and Restrictive Respiratory Diseases

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    Wupeng Liao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology. Corticosteroids have been widely prescribed for the treatment of asthma, COPD, and IPF. However, the effectiveness of corticosteroids as an anti-inflammatory drug is limited by steroid resistance in severe asthma, the majority of COPD cases, and pulmonary fibrosis. There is an urgent medical need to develop target-specific drugs for the treatment of these respiratory conditions. Oligonucleotide therapies, including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, small interfering RNA (siRNA, and microRNA (miRNA are now being evaluated both pre-clinically and clinically as potential therapeutics. The mechanisms of action of ASO and siRNA are highly target mRNA specific, ultimately leading to target protein knockdown. miRNA has both biomarker and therapeutic values, and its knockdown by a miRNA antagonist (antagomir has a broader but potentially more non-specific biological outcome. This review will compile the current findings of oligonucleotide therapeutic targets, verified in various respiratory disease models and in clinical trials, and evaluate different chemical modification approaches to improve the stability and potency of oligonucleotides for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  15. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

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    Carlos Polanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010 taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  16. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

  17. [Gastro-esophageal reflux and chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirou, S; Germaud, P; Bruley des Varannes, S; Magnan, A; Blanc, F-X

    2015-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) frequently occurs in association with chronic respiratory diseases although the casual link is not always clear. Several pathophysiological and experimental factors are considered to support a role for GERD in respiratory disease. Conversely, respiratory diseases and bronchodilator treatment can themselves exacerbate GERD. When cough or severe asthma is being investigated, GERD does not need to be systematically looked for and a therapeutic test with proton pump inhibitors is not always recommended. pH impedance monitoring is now the reference diagnostic tool to detect non acid reflux, a form of reflux for which proton pump inhibitor treatment is ineffective. Recent data have shown a potential role of GERD in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation, leading to discussions about the place of surgery in this context. However, studies using pH impedance monitoring are still needed to better understand and manage the association between GERD and chronic respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Infecciones respiratorias altas recurrentes: Algunas consideraciones Recurrent upper respiratory infections: Some considerations

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    Mirta Álvarez Castelló

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones respiratorias agudas constituyen la primera causa de consultas médicas y de morbilidad, tanto en los países desarrollados como en los países en vías de desarrollo. Los niños menores de 5 años tienen algunas características fisiológicas e inmunológicas que los hacen más susceptibles para presentar estos procesos respiratorios. A pesar que las infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas concentran habitualmente la atención por su mayor complejidad, costo del tratamiento y complicaciones, son las altas las que se presentan en mayor número en la consulta ambulatoria. Por la frecuente presentación en la consulta de alergología y por la carga de ansiedad que se genera en los familiares de estos niños con infecciones respiratorias recurrentes, nos decidimos a realizar una revisión sobre algunos aspectos de interés relacionados con ellas. Nuestro objetivo es mejorar el conocimiento de estas entidades, para identificar aquellos niños con mayor riesgo de presentar recurrencia de estas infecciones respiratorias. Estas entidades, que en su mayoría son de etiología viral y curso limitado, son causa importante de uso y abuso de medicamentos, entre ellos, los antibióticos, con efectos perjudiciales en la salud de los niños.Acute respiratory infections are the first cause of visits to the physician's offices and of morbidity in the developing and developed countries. Children under 5 have some physiological and immunological characteristics that make them more susceptible to present these respiratory processes. In spite of the fact that the lower respiratory infection usually attracts the attention due to their greater complexity, cost of treatment and complications, the upper are more frequent at the outpatient department. Due to their common presentation at the allergology department and to the load of anxiety generated in the relatives of these children with recurrent respiratory infections, it was decided to make a review of

  19. Coordinated Respiratory Motor Activity in Nerves Innervating the Upper Airway Muscles in Rats.

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    Satoshi Tachikawa

    Full Text Available Maintaining the patency of the upper airway during breathing is of vital importance. The activity of various muscles is related to the patency of the upper airway. In the present study, we examined the respiratory motor activity in the efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles to determine the movements of the upper airway during respiration under normocapnic conditions (pH = 7.4 and in hypercapnic acidosis (pH = 7.2. Experiments were performed on arterially perfused decerebrate rats aged between postnatal days 21-35. We recorded the efferent nerve activity in a branch of the cervical spinal nerve innervating the infrahyoid muscles (CN, the hypoglossal nerve (HGN, the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN with the phrenic nerve (PN. Inspiratory nerve discharges were observed in all these nerves under normocapnic conditions. The onset of inspiratory discharges in the CN and HGN was slightly prior to those in the SLN and RLN. When the CO2 concentration in the perfusate was increased from 5% to 8% to prepare for hypercapnic acidosis, the peak amplitudes of the inspiratory discharges in all the recorded nerves were increased. Moreover, hypercapnic acidosis induced pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, SLN, and RLN. The onset of pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, and SLN was prior to that of discharges in the RLN. These results suggest that the securing of the airway that occurs a certain time before dilation of the glottis may facilitate ventilation and improve hypercapnic acidosis.

  20. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

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    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  1. Are the Saudi parents aware of antibiotic role in upper respiratory tract infections in children?

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    Abdulaziz S. Alrafiaah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI is considered to be the most common reason for children’s visits to emergency departments or outpatient clinics. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics are currently major public health problems worldwide. This study aimed to assess Saudi parents’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding the use of antibiotics in URTIs in children.This cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi Arabia using a previously validated questionnaire, which was distributed using Twitter. A total of 385 individuals completed the questionnaire. For the majority of the participants (77%, physicians were the primary source of information regarding the use of antibiotics. Forty-four percent of parents agreed that most URTIs are caused by viruses, and 81% were aware that inappropriate use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance. Fever was the primary symptom (27% that led parents to ask for prescriptions for antibiotics. Although women had a higher attitude score (p = 0.01, there was no difference between genders regarding knowledge and practice. Older participants (41 years or more had a lower attitude score (p = 0.02. Furthermore, participants with five children or more had lower attitude and practice scores (p = 0.006, 0.04, respectively. Participants who lived in large cities had greater knowledge compared to the inhabitants of small cities (p = 0.01. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrated that most of the participants were educated but lacked knowledge regarding antibiotic use in URTIs in children. This lack of knowledge led to inappropriate attitude and practice. Thus, launching public educational campaigns and encouraging physicians to educate parents regarding the proper use of antibiotics are recommended. Keywords: Upper respiratory tract infections, Parents, Children, Antibiotic, Saudi Arabia

  2. Mucosal immunity and upper respiratory tract symptoms in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Schumann, Moritz; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a 12-week endurance-training intervention on salivary proteins and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URS) in 25 young men. Saliva samples of 25 recreational male endurance runners (age 34.6 years, body mass index = 23.8 kg·m(-2), peak aerobic capacity = 47.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were collected before (PRE) and after (POST) the training intervention, in a fasting state, as well as both before and after a maximal incremental treadmill run. The training consisted of both continuous and interval training sessions, 4-6 times per week based on the polarized training approach. Participants filled in Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 and were retrospectively divided into 2 groups according to whether they reported URS (URS group, n = 13) or not (HEALTHY group, n = 12). Basal salivary immunoglobulin A (sa-sIgA) levels were significantly higher (+70%, p < 0.05) in the HEALTHY group both at PRE and POST whereas no significant differences were observed in salivary immunoglobulin M, salivary immunoglobulin G, lysozyme, or salivary α-amylase activity (sAA). Sa-sIgA concentration at PRE significantly correlated with the number of sick-days (R = -0.755, p < 0.001) in all subjects. The incremental treadmill run acutely increased sAA significantly (p < 0.05) at PRE (200%) and POST (166%) in the HEALTHY group but not in the URS group. This study demonstrated that subjects, who experienced URS during the 12 weeks of progressive endurance training intervention, had significantly lower basal sa-sIgA levels both before and after the experimental endurance training period. In addition to sa-sIgA, acute sAA response to exercise might be a possible determinant of susceptibility to URS in endurance runners.

  3. A mixed methods study to understand patient expectations for antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaarslev, Christina; Yee, Melissa; Chan, Georgi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Khan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it. This study used a sequential mixed methods approach: a nationally representative cross sectional survey ( n  = 1509) and four focus groups. The outcome of interest was expectation and demand for an antibiotic from a doctor when presenting with a cold or flu. The study found 19.5 % of survey respondents reported that they would expect the doctor to prescribe antibiotics for a cold or flu. People younger than 65 years of age, those who never attended university and those speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to expect or demand antibiotics for a cold or flu. People who knew that 'antibiotics don't kill viruses' and agreed that 'taking an antibiotic when one is not needed means they won't work in the future' were less likely to expect or demand antibiotics. The main reasons for expecting antibiotics were believing that antibiotics are an effective treatment for a cold or flu and that they shortened the duration and potential deterioration of their illness. The secondary reason centered around the value or return on investment for visiting a doctor when feeling unwell. Our study found that patients do not appear to feel they have a sufficiently strong incentive to consider the impact of their immediate use of antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance. The issue of antibiotic resistance needs to be explained and reframed as a more immediate health issue with dire consequences to ensure the success of future health campaigns.

  4. A mixed methods study to understand patient expectations for antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gaarslev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it. Methods This study used a sequential mixed methods approach: a nationally representative cross sectional survey (n = 1509 and four focus groups. The outcome of interest was expectation and demand for an antibiotic from a doctor when presenting with a cold or flu. Results The study found 19.5 % of survey respondents reported that they would expect the doctor to prescribe antibiotics for a cold or flu. People younger than 65 years of age, those who never attended university and those speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to expect or demand antibiotics for a cold or flu. People who knew that ‘antibiotics don’t kill viruses’ and agreed that ‘taking an antibiotic when one is not needed means they won’t work in the future’ were less likely to expect or demand antibiotics. The main reasons for expecting antibiotics were believing that antibiotics are an effective treatment for a cold or flu and that they shortened the duration and potential deterioration of their illness. The secondary reason centered around the value or return on investment for visiting a doctor when feeling unwell. Conclusion Our study found that patients do not appear to feel they have a sufficiently strong incentive to consider the impact of their immediate use of antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance. The issue of antibiotic resistance needs to be explained and reframed as a more immediate health issue with dire consequences to ensure the

  5. Histologic and Molecular Correlation in Shelter Cats with Acute Upper Respiratory Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rachel E.; Wagner, Denae C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Pesavento, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a descriptive study designed to correlate diagnostic real-time PCR results with histopathologic lesions in cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory infection (URI). The study occurred over a 9-month period in a single open-intake animal shelter. Cats that were selected for euthanasia by the shelter staff and additionally had URI were included in the study, for a total of 22 study cats. Combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Necropsy was performed on all cats, and a complete set of respiratory tract tissues was examined by histopathology. Among 22 cats, 20 were qPCR positive for FHV-1, 7 for M. felis, 5 for FCV, 1 for C. felis, and 0 for B. bronchiseptica. Nine cats were positive for two or more pathogens. Histopathologic lesions were present in all cats, with consistent lesions in the nasal cavity, including acute necroulcerative rhinitis in 16 cats. Histologic or antigenic detection of FHV-1 was seen in 18 of 20 cats positive for FHV-1 by qPCR. No lesions that could be specifically attributed to FCV, M. felis, or C. felis were seen, although interpretation in this cohort could be confounded by coinfection with FHV-1. A significant agreement was found between the amount of FHV-1 DNA determined by qPCR and the presence of specific histopathologic lesions for FHV-1 but not for the other respiratory pathogens. PMID:21562109

  6. Histologic and molecular correlation in shelter cats with acute upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rachel E; Wagner, Denae C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2011-07-01

    This is a descriptive study designed to correlate diagnostic real-time PCR results with histopathologic lesions in cats with clinical signs of upper respiratory infection (URI). The study occurred over a 9-month period in a single open-intake animal shelter. Cats that were selected for euthanasia by the shelter staff and additionally had URI were included in the study, for a total of 22 study cats. Combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Necropsy was performed on all cats, and a complete set of respiratory tract tissues was examined by histopathology. Among 22 cats, 20 were qPCR positive for FHV-1, 7 for M. felis, 5 for FCV, 1 for C. felis, and 0 for B. bronchiseptica. Nine cats were positive for two or more pathogens. Histopathologic lesions were present in all cats, with consistent lesions in the nasal cavity, including acute necroulcerative rhinitis in 16 cats. Histologic or antigenic detection of FHV-1 was seen in 18 of 20 cats positive for FHV-1 by qPCR. No lesions that could be specifically attributed to FCV, M. felis, or C. felis were seen, although interpretation in this cohort could be confounded by coinfection with FHV-1. A significant agreement was found between the amount of FHV-1 DNA determined by qPCR and the presence of specific histopathologic lesions for FHV-1 but not for the other respiratory pathogens.

  7. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various upper gastrointestinal problems was 84.7%. The use of medication that can reduce the H. pylori density was common among the infected patients, as history of antibiotics use, acid suppressant use and medications for eradication treatment were ...

  8. 28 CFR 79.65 - Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) administered and reported in... Program will treat as equivalent to a diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis any diagnosis of “restrictive lung... that the claimant contracted a nonmalignant respiratory disease, including pulmonary fibrosis, fibrosis...

  9. Deadly Respiratory Disease in Wild Chimpanzees

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-04-19

    Dr. Tony Goldberg, Professor of Epidemiology at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Associate Director for Research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Global Health Institute, discusses an outbreak of rhinovirus C in chimpanzees in Uganda.  Created: 4/19/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/19/2018.

  10. Prospective study of probiotic supplementation results in immune stimulation and improvement of upper respiratory infection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial. Subjects received a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus paracasei (at least 3 × 107 colony forming units (CFU ml−1, Lactobacillus casei 431® (at least 3 × 107 CFU ml−1 and Lactobacillus fermentium PCC® (at least 3 × 106 CFU ml−1 or an identical placebo without probiotics for a 12-week study period. The consumption of probiotics significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory infection (p < 0.023 and flu-like symptoms with an oral temperature higher than 38 °C (p < 0.034 as compared to the placebo group. Subjects that consumed probiotics demonstrated a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in the serum (p < 0.001 and sIgA in the gut (p < 0.010 as compared to the placebo group and a significant higher level of serum IFN-γ (p < 0.001 and gut sIgA (p < 0.001 as compared to their baseline test results. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the serum IL-4, IL-10, IgA, IgG or IgM between the probiotics and the placebo groups. Results of this study demonstrated that probiotics were safe and effective for fighting the common cold and influenza-like respiratory infections by boosting the immune system. Keywords: Probiotics, Upper respiratory infections, Human microbiota, IFN-γ, sIgA

  11. Influence of weather on respiratory and heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, W W; Spicer, C C; Wilson, J M.G.

    1961-01-01

    Correlation of hospital admissions (patients >15 yr of age with respiratory disease) with temperature and air pollution (smoke concentration) indicate that each had an effect on admissions to London hospitals. Each could exert an independent effect; it was impossible to decide which had the greater effect. Study of RAF morbidity supported meteorological effect but could neither support nor deny effect of pollution (limited data). No correlations were evident for cardiovascular disease.

  12. Air pollution and respiratory diseases – a problematic risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihălţan, Florin; Deleanu, Oana; Nemeș, Roxana; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra

    2016-01-01

    Pollution was a neglected factor for years in all the research that took in the viewfinder was examined in the risk factors in of respiratory diseases. Considering the concerns of politicians, scientists, doctors, which have intensified upgraded especially after the last climate “summit”, “summit” climatological we found it necessary to have a review of the effects of pollution, pathogenic mechanisms of interaction, and some diseases strongly influenced by pollutants such as COPD, asthma, bronchialand bronchial and lung cancer.

  13. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  15. Codetection of respiratory syncytial virus in habituated wild western lowland gorillas and humans during a respiratory disease outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  16. Respiratory muscle strength in children with mild bronchial asthma disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Neumannová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be decreased in patients with asthma; however, it is not well-documented whether a mild bronchial asthma disease can affect respiratory muscle strength in children and can be associated with higher presence of breathing difficulties. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to compare respiratory muscle strength between children with asthma and age-matched healthy children. The next aim of this study was to assess the incidence of decreased respiratory muscle strength in children with asthma and healthy children and assess the effect of decreased respiratory muscle strength on the incidence of breathing difficulties. Methods: Children with mild bronchial asthma (n = 167 and age-matched, healthy children (n = 100 were recruited into this study. Pulmonary function tests, maximal inspiratory (PImax and expiratory (PEmax mouth pressures and the incidence of breathing difficulty were evaluated in children with asthma and healthy controls. Results: The inspiratory muscle strength was similar between children with asthma and healthy children. Conversely, the expiratory muscle strength was lower in asthmatic children. There was a statistically significant difference between girls with asthma and healthy girls (PEmax = 81.7 ± 29.8% vs. 100.1 ± 23.7% of predicted, p < .001. PEmax was significantly higher in boys with asthma than in girls with asthma (PEmax = 92.9 ± 26.4 % vs. 81.7 ± 29.8% of predicted, p = .03. A higher incidence of breathing difficulties during physical activity (uphill walking, running, swimming was confirmed in children with asthma with lower respiratory muscle strength. Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of decreased expiratory muscle strength in children with asthma; therefore, respiratory muscle strength should be tested in these children, especially in those who are symptomatic.

  17. The Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Daily Hospital Visits for Various Respiratory Diseases and the Relevant Medical Expenditures in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The evidence concerning the acute effects of ambient air pollution on various respiratory diseases was limited in China, and the attributable medical expenditures were largely unknown. From 2013 to 2015, we collected data on the daily visits to the emergency- and outpatient-department for five main respiratory diseases and their medical expenditures in Shanghai, China. We used the overdispersed generalized additive model together with distributed lag models to fit the associations of criteria air pollutants with hospital visits, and used the linear models to fit the associations with medical expenditures. Generally, we observed significant increments in emergency visits (8.81–17.26% and corresponding expenditures (0.33–25.81% for pediatric respiratory diseases, upper respiratory infection (URI, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD for an interquartile range increase of air pollutant concentrations over four lag days. As a comparison, there were significant but smaller increments in outpatient visits (1.36–4.52% and expenditures (1.38–3.18% for pediatric respiratory diseases and upper respiratory infection (URI. No meaningful changes were observed for asthma and lower respiratory infection. Our study suggested that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution may induce the occurrences or exacerbation of pediatric respiratory diseases, URI, and COPD, leading to considerable medical expenditures upon the patients.

  18. The Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Daily Hospital Visits for Various Respiratory Diseases and the Relevant Medical Expenditures in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yue; Yao, Yili; Chen, Renjie; Zhou, Xianghong; Kan, Haidong

    2018-02-28

    The evidence concerning the acute effects of ambient air pollution on various respiratory diseases was limited in China, and the attributable medical expenditures were largely unknown. From 2013 to 2015, we collected data on the daily visits to the emergency- and outpatient-department for five main respiratory diseases and their medical expenditures in Shanghai, China. We used the overdispersed generalized additive model together with distributed lag models to fit the associations of criteria air pollutants with hospital visits, and used the linear models to fit the associations with medical expenditures. Generally, we observed significant increments in emergency visits (8.81-17.26%) and corresponding expenditures (0.33-25.81%) for pediatric respiratory diseases, upper respiratory infection (URI), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for an interquartile range increase of air pollutant concentrations over four lag days. As a comparison, there were significant but smaller increments in outpatient visits (1.36-4.52%) and expenditures (1.38-3.18%) for pediatric respiratory diseases and upper respiratory infection (URI). No meaningful changes were observed for asthma and lower respiratory infection. Our study suggested that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution may induce the occurrences or exacerbation of pediatric respiratory diseases, URI, and COPD, leading to considerable medical expenditures upon the patients.

  19. HEAT AND MOISTURE EXCHANGE CAPACITY OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT AND THE EFFECT OF TRACHEOTOMY BREATHING ON ENDOTRACHEAL CLIMATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Renske J.; Muller, Sara H.; Vincent, Andrew; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements

  20. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); S. Chutinimitkul (Salin); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by

  1. Heat and moisture exchange capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements

  2. Respiratory disease, behavior, and survival of mountain goat kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Anderson, Christopher A.; Clark, Nicholas J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Plummer, Paul J.; Cox, Mike; Mcadoo, Caleb; Wolff, Peregrine L.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a threat to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Bighorn sheep in the East Humboldt Mountain Range (EHR), Nevada, USA, experienced a pneumonia epizootic in 2009–2010. Testing of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) that were captured or found dead on this range during and after the epizootic detected bacteria commonly associated with bighorn sheep pneumonia die‐offs. Additionally, in years subsequent to the bighorn sheep epizootic, the mountain goat population had low kid:adult ratios, a common outcome for bighorn sheep populations that have experienced a pneumonia epizootic. We hypothesized that pneumonia was present and negatively affecting mountain goat kids in the EHR. From June–August 2013–2015, we attempted to observe mountain goat kids with marked adult females in the EHR at least once per week to document signs of respiratory disease; identify associations between respiratory disease, activity levels, and subsequent disappearance (i.e., death); and estimate weekly survival. Each time we observed a kid with a marked adult female, we recorded any signs of respiratory disease and collected behavior data that we fit to a 3‐state discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) to predict a kid's state (active vs. sedentary) and its probability of disappearing. We first observed clinical signs of respiratory disease in kids in late July–early August each summer. We observed 8 of 31 kids with marked adult females with signs of respiratory disease on 13 occasions. On 11 of these occasions, the HMM predicted that kids were in the sedentary state, which was associated with increased probability of subsequent death. We estimated overall probability of kid survival from June–August to be 0.19 (95% CI = 0.08–0.38), which was lower than has been reported in other mountain goat populations. We concluded that respiratory disease was present in the mountain goat kids in the EHR and negatively affected their activity levels and survival

  3. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  4. Probiotics for the treatment of upper and lower respiratory-tract infections in children: systematic review based on randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Véras de Araujo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the effect of probiotics on the symptoms, duration of disease, and the occurrence of new episodes of upper and lower respiratory infections in healthy children. SOURCES: In order to identify eligible randomized controlled trials, two reviewers accessed four electronic databases [MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus (Elsevier, Web of Science, and Cochrane (Cochrane VHL], as well as ClinicalTrials.gov until January 2015. Descriptors were determined by using the Medical Subject Headings tool, following the same search protocol. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Studies showed to be heterogeneous regarding strains of probiotics, the mode of administration, the time of use, and outcomes. The present review identified 11 peer-reviewed, randomized clinical trials, which analyzed a total of 2417 children up to 10 incomplete years of age. In the analysis of the studies, reduction in new episodes of disease was a favorable outcome for the use of probiotics in the treatment of respiratory infections in children. It is noteworthy that most of these studies were conducted in developed countries, with basic sanitation, health care, and strict, well-established and well-organized guidelines on the use of probiotics. Adverse effects were rarely reported, demonstrating probiotics to be safe. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the encouraging results - reducing new episodes of respiratory infections - the authors emphasize the need for further research, especially in developing countries, where rates of respiratory infections in children are higher when compared to the high per capita-income countries identified in this review.

  5. Prospective study on antibiotics misuse among infants with upper respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Manal F; Tamim, Hala; Jamal, Diana; Mumtaz, Ghina; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid

    2009-06-01

    The judicious prescription of antibiotics has become a central focus of professional and public health measures to combat the spread of resistant organisms. A one-year multi-center prospective follow-up study of 1,320 healthy infants was conducted. The study aim was to determine the prevalence and identify the predictors of antibiotics misuse in viral respiratory illnesses among healthy infants in the first year of life. Infants born between August 2001 and February 2002 were recruited through the clinics and dispensaries of 117 pediatricians located in the Greater Beirut area of Lebanon. On each routine visit from birth until one year of life, pediatricians reported any episodes of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; common cold) and bronchiolitis, as well as the treatment type, duration, and dose. Predictors that were considered included infant, maternal, and pediatrician characteristics. Of the 1,320 recruited infants, 770 (58.3%) had common cold or acute bronchiolitis on at least one occasion during the study period. Pediatricians prescribed antibiotics at least once in 21.4% of cases diagnosed as the common cold and 45.5% of cases of acute bronchiolitis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that antibiotics misuse was more common among infants born to mothers with lower educational levels (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.3). Furthermore, pediatricians tend to prescribe antibiotics in dispensaries more often than in private clinics (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3). This study shows a substantial quantity of antibiotics prescriptions for common cold and acute bronchiolitis in our population. Our findings suggest that lower maternal education and pediatricians working in dispensaries (versus private clinics) are associated with increased antibiotics misuse.

  6. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been crosssectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of t...

  7. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Korona-Glowniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  8. The effect of profiling report on antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fozi K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI is a common encounter in primary care and mostly viral in origin. Despite frequent reminders to primary care providers on judicious use of antibiotics for URTI, the practice is still rampant. Methods: As part of quality improvement initiative, an intervention was designed by distributing a profiling report on individual prescriber’s performance in comparison to colleagues on usage of antibiotic for URTI. The data were generated from electronic health record in three public primary care clinics in Malaysia and emailing monthly throughout 2011 to all providers. Results: There were 22,328 consultations for URTI in 2010 and 22,756 in 2011 with the incidence rates of URTI among overall consultations of 15.7% and 15.9% respectively. 60 doctors and medical assistants had performed consultations during the 2 year period. Following the intervention in 2011, the prescription rate of antibiotic for URTI is significantly reduced from 33.5% in 2010 to 23.3 % in 2011. Before intervention, individual prescription rate varies from 9.7% to 88.9% and reduced to 4.3% to 50.5% after intervention. Conclusion: Profiling report is a potential method of changing antibiotic prescribing habit among public primary care providers in Malaysia especially if the baseline adherence was poor and higher variation of prescribing rate.

  9. Study on doctor shopping behavior: insight from patients with upper respiratory tract infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Jye; Lin, Shu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Based on the actual medical records of ambulatory care visits, this study analyzed patients' healthcare seeking behavior and doctor shopping behavior (DSB), and investigated the underlying factors and the impact on the depletion of the healthcare resources for health policy makers to build a better health delivery system. Among a cohort comprised of 200,000 patients randomly chosen from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan in 2004, only the patients seeking ambulatory care visits for upper respiratory tract infection (URI) were analyzed. Among the 45,951 URI patients, 2875 of them exhibited DSB (prevalence 6.3%). The DSB showed a reverse U-shaped relationship with the patient age (the highest DSB in age 18-34 years). The episodes of the URI had a negative impact on the DSB. The odds ratios of gender and the frequency of consultation versus DSB were 1.10 and 4.72, respectively, and the depletion of days of medication and repeat prescription increased with doctor shopping. Health education to raise DSB awareness is necessary, especially for female's age 18-34 years. Implementing a proper referral system with efficient data exchange, setting up control parameters in the IC cards, and strengthening the integrated care plan could reduce the unnecessary waste of the healthcare resources.

  10. Relationship between dental erosion and respiratory symptoms in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhong-Gao; Jiang, Guang-Shui; Guo, Cheng-Hao

    2010-11-01

    Both dental erosion and respiratory symptoms are extra-oesophageal manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this study was to determine whether dental erosion was correlated with respiratory symptoms in GERD patients. 88 GERD patients were recruited and assigned to three groups mainly according to the frequency of respiratory symptoms: Group I: never; Group II: occasional (1-2 days a week or less); Group III: frequent (3-5 days a week or more). All patients underwent medical evaluations, including medical history, questionnaire answering and alimentary tract examinations. Dental examinations were carried out on these patients and 36 healthy controls. Dental erosions were measured by modified method of Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index (TWI). Location and severity of dental erosion were recorded. The prevalence of dental erosion in Group III (64.52%) was higher (pdental erosion with TWI scores ranging from 1 to 4. Though proportion of dental erosion with Score 2 (7/20) in Group III was higher than that in Group I (2/11) and Group II (3/12), there was no statistical significance in the proportions of erosion scores among three patient groups. Correlation coefficient between airway symptoms and scores of dental erosion was 0.231 (perosion of upper incisor was seen in 8 persons (72.7%) in Group I, 9 persons (75%) in Group II and 16 persons (80%) in Group III (p>0.05). Labial erosion of upper incisors was found in 1 person in Groups I and II respectively and 4 persons in Group III. All patients with labial erosion on upper incisors had palatal erosion, except 1 patient in Group III. In GERD patients, dental erosions are more prevalent in patients with frequent respiratory symptoms than those in patients with occasional and without respiratory symptoms. Palatal erosion of upper incisor is the main manifestation in patients. Acid reflux is the main causative factor of dental erosion in GERD patients with airway symptoms. Copyright © 2010

  11. Codetection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Habituated Wild Western Lowland Gorillas and Humans During a Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  12. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gill

    2013-01-24

    Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.

  13. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Methods: Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. Results: From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. Conclusion: The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.

  14. Correlation Between Occurrence and Deterioration of Respiratory Diseases and Air Pollution Within the Legally Permissible Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnjar, Kristina; Pintarić, Sanja; Mornar Jelavić, Marko; Nesek, Višnja; Ostojić, Jelena; Pleština, Sanja; Šikić, Aljoša; Pintarić, Hrvoje

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the unknown effect of air pollutants on the occurrence or deterioration of respiratory diseases in the area with a humid continental climate. This retrospective study included 5868 patients with respiratory symptomatology (upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), pneumonia, acute bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma) admitted to emergency department (ED). The number of patients, values of meteorological parameters (mean daily values of air temperature pressure and relative humidity) and concentrations of air pollution particles (≤10 μm (PM10), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were collected during a two-year ( July 2008 - June 2010) period. There were 1839 (31.3%), 1712 (29.2%), 1313 (22.4%), 614 (10.5%) and 390 (6.6%) patients with pneumonia, COPD, URTI, acute bronchitis and asthma, respectively. The mean daily concentrations of NO2 (25.9 (1.7-89.7) μg/m3), O3 (47.1 (4.7-135.4) μg/m3) and PM10 particles (25.7 (4.6-146.6) μg/m3) were below the legally defined thresholds. Among other results, the occurrence of respiratory diseases showed positive Spearman's correlation with the values of air humidity (days 0-3, r=0.15 to 0.19), PM10(days 0-3, r=0.10 to 0.13) and NO2 concentrations (day 0, r=0.11), and negative correlation with the values of air temperature (days 0-3, r=-0.36 to -0.34), pressure (day 0, r=-0.10) and O3 concentrations (days 0-3, r=-0.21 to -0.22) (prespiratory diseases showed correlation with weather conditions and air pollutants despite the legally permitted values in the region with a humid continental climate.

  15. Oligometastatic Disease in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer - How to Proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Berlth, Felix; Plum, Patrick S; Betzler, Christopher; Stippel, Dirk L; Popp, Felix; Bruns, Christiane J

    2017-03-01

    In the present study we review and discuss the current evidence and suggest how to proceed in the management of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer. An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant articles was performed. Both the search for 'oligometastasis', 'oligometastases', 'oligometastatic', 'oligometastatic disease' as well as 'esophageal' and 'esophageal cancer' and the search for 'oligometastasis', 'oligometastases', 'oligometastatic', 'oligometastatic disease' as well as 'gastric', 'gastric cancer', 'stomach', and 'stomach cancer' yielded very few studies. Most data need to be extrapolated in general studies on oligometastatic diseases of different origins. No randomized controlled trial could be found. In the absence of data to formulate recommendations on how to proceed in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer, a more aggressive treatment of oligometastatic disease can be considered in patients whose tumors show a more favorable neoplastic behavior after the 'test of time'. The RENAISSANCE study will certainly deliver important data regarding this aspect.

  16. Occupational lung disease survey of respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeagney, T F P; Addley, K; Asanati, K

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory physicians are likely to encounter occupational lung disease (OLD) in their daily practice. To assess the profile of cases being encountered by general respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland (NI) and determine satisfaction with training, confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD. An online survey of all consultant respiratory physicians currently practising in NI. Questions assessed the numbers of new cases seen over the preceding year, case type, satisfaction with specialist registrar training in OLD and degree of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. Of the 40 consultants identified, the response rate was 80% (n = 32) with 94% of respondents (n = 30) indicating they had dealt with patients suspected of having occupation-related respiratory symptoms. The most commonly encountered OLDs were pleural plaques (91% of respondents), occupational asthma (88%), asbestosis (84%), non-asbestosis pulmonary fibrosis (76%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (67%) and mesothelioma (66%). Just over one third of consultants (36%, n = 10) indicated a lack of confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD with almost half (48%) dissatisfied with OLD training as a registrar and a further 78% (n = 25) indicating they would value additional training in OLD as a consultant. The majority of respiratory consultants in NI encountered OLD in their day to day practice and half were dissatisfied with their specialist registrar training in OLD and express a lack of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. This highlights the need for additional training at both registrar and consultant level. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

  18. Biomass fuel exposure and respiratory diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Abhijeet; Garg, Rajiv; Giridhar, Giridhar B

    2012-10-01

    One half of the world's population relies on biomass fuel as the primary source of domestic energy. Biomass fuel exposure causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality in humans. This is especially true in the context of developing countries, which account for 99% of the world's biomass fuel use. Biomass fuel consists of fire wood, dung cakes, agricultural crop residues such as straw, grass, and shrubs, coal fuels and kerosene. Together, they supply 75% of the domestic energy in India. An estimated three-quarters of Indian households use biomass fuel as the primary means for domestic cooking. Ninety percent of rural households and 32% of urban households cook their meals on a biomass stove. There are wide variations between the rural and urban households regarding the specific type of biomass fuel used. Globally, almost 2 million deaths per year are attributable to solid fuel use, with more than 99% of these occurring in developing countries. Biomass fuel accounts for 5-6% of the national burden of disease. Burning biomass fuels emits toxic fumes into the air that consist of small solid particles, carbon monoxide, polyorganic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. Exposure to biomass fuels has been found to be associated with many respiratory diseases such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and asthma. Biomass fuel exposure is closely related to the burden of disease in India. Hopes are that future studies will examine the morbidity associated with biomass exposure and seek to prevent it. Concerted efforts to improve stove design and transition to high-efficiency low-emission fuels may reduce respiratory disease associated with biomass fuel exposure.

  19. Update on the "Dutch hypothesis" for chronic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic obstructive lung disease show increased airways responsiveness to histamine. We investigated the hypothesis that increased airways responsiveness predicts the development and remission of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We used data from 24-year follow......-up (1965-90) of 2684 participants in a cohort study in Vlagtwedde and Vlaardingen, Netherlands. Increased airways responsiveness was defined as a PC10 value (concentration of histamine for which challenge led to a 10% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) of less than 8 mg/ml. Information on respiratory...... symptoms was collected by means of a standard questionnaire every 3 years. Logistic regression was used to control for age, area of residence, cigarette smoking status, and sex. FINDINGS: Participants with increased airways responsiveness (1281 observations) were more likely than those without increased...

  20. X-ray diagnosis and treatment for severe respiratory complications during cardiac catheterizations on pediatric congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cheng; Zhao Shihua; Jiang Shiliang; Huang Lianjun; Xu Zhongying; Ling Jian; Zheng Hong; Xie Ruolan; Lu Minjie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the radiological features of severe respiratory complications during cardiac catheterizations on pediatric congenital heart disease so as to make early diagnosis and treatment. We also intend to find the mechanism of these complications. Methods: A total of 9 pediatric cases with severe respiratory complications during cardiac catheterizations were included in the study. The clinical manifestations, radiological features, and corresponding treatments were reviewed. Results: Most of the cases had severe hypoxia, with 6 cases presenting with bradycardia. Opacification of two lung fields was found in 7 cases, pulmonary edema in 1 case, and atelectasis of the upper right lung in 1 case. With intubation, oxygen inhalation and administration of certain drugs, all cases were saved except 1 case with pulmonary edema. Conclusion: Severe respiratory complications during cardiac catheterizations on pediatric congenital heart disease are emergent and critical, and they often presented with various manifestations. Early diagnosis and correct treatment are the key to successful salvage. (authors)

  1. Are Upper-Body Axial Symptoms a Feature of Early Parkinson’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Baille, Guillaume; Delval, Arnaud; Tard, Céline; Perez, Thierry; Danel-Buhl, Nicolas; Seguy, David; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Delliaux, Marie; Dujardin, Kathy; Defebvre, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Background Axial disorders are considered to appear late in the course of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The associated impact on quality of life (QoL) and survival and the lack of an effective treatment mean that understanding and treating axial disorders is a key challenge. However, upper-body axial disorders (namely dysarthria, swallowing and breathing disorders) have never been prospectively assessed in early-stage PD patients. Objectives To characterize upper-body axial symptoms and QoL in consecutive patients with early-stage PD. Methods We prospectively enrolled 66 consecutive patients with early-stage PD (less than 3 years of disease progression) and assessed dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory function (relative to 36 controls) using both objective and patient-reported outcomes. Results The mean disease duration was 1.26 years and the mean UPDRS motor score was 19.4 out of 108. 74% of the patients presented slight dysarthria (primarily dysprosodia). Men appeared to be more severely affected (i.e. dysphonia). This dysfunction was strongly correlated with low swallowing speed (despite the absence of complaints about dysphagia), respiratory insufficiency and poor QoL. Videofluorography showed that oral-phase swallowing disorders affected 60% of the 31 tested patients and that pharyngeal-phase disorders affected 21%. 24% of the patients reported occasional dyspnea, which was correlated with anxiety in women but not in men. Marked diaphragmatic dysfunction was suspected in 42% of the patients (predominantly in men). Conclusion Upper body axial symptoms were frequent in men with early-stage PD, whereas women presented worst non-motor impairments. New assessment methods are required because currently available tools do not reliably detect these upper-body axial disorders. PMID:27654040

  2. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Harish, Yashoda; Hiremath, Shivalingaswamy; Puranik, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs) index. The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18%) whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%), diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%), and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%), in comparison to the controls (6.18%). From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease.

  3. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs index. Results: The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18% whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%, diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%, and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%, in comparison to the controls (6.18%. Conclusion: From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease.

  4. SIgA response and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections during intensified training in youth basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, H; Aoki, M S; Freitas, C G; Arruda, Afs; Drago, G; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an intensified training phase followed by a tapering phase on the salivary immunoglobulin A concentration and on the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms in young male basketball players. The session rating of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the internal training load, and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 questionnaire was used to assess URTI symptoms. The Yo-Yo IR1 test and saliva collection were carried out at the beginning of the study (T1), after the intensified phase (T2), and after tapering (T3). A higher internal training load was observed for the intensified phase compared with the tapering phase (t=19.10; ptraining load followed by a tapering period negatively affects the mucosal immune function with no significant change in severity of URTI in young basketball players.

  5. Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : assessment of respiratory muscle activity and the benefits of noninvasive ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duiverman, Marieke Leontine

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with two main topics. First, we investigated respiratory muscle function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) by surface electromyography. Second, we focused on the benefits of noninvasive ventilation in patients with respiratory failure, both in restrictive pulmonary

  6. Occupational risk factors for chronic respiratory disease in a New Zealand population using lifetime occupational history.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansell, A.; Ghosh, R.E.; Poole, S.; Zock, J.P.; Weatherall, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Travers, J.; Beasley, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate associations between respiratory disease and occupational exposures in a New Zealand urban population, the Wellington Respiratory Survey. Methods: Multiple regression analyses in a population sample of 1017 individuals aged 25 to 74 years with spirometry and questionnaire

  7. Facebook, stress, and incidence of upper respiratory infection in undergraduate college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Jay; Bynog, Pamela; McGehee, Hope; Oakland, Joshua C; Quirk, Shannon; Taga, Carlee; Taylor, Morgan

    2012-12-01

    Having a large social network is generally beneficial to health. However, it is unclear how Internet-based social networks might influence health. Chronic stress can have negative health consequences, and some data suggest that Facebook could be a new source of psychological stress. Thus, we examined undergraduate college student perceptions of Facebook use and incidence of upper respiratory infections (URIs). We hypothesized that subjects with more diverse networks (i.e., more friends on Facebook) would have fewer URIs than their less diverse counterparts; that subjects reporting Facebook-induced stress would be more susceptible to URIs; and that subjects with more diverse networks who report Facebook-induced stress would be less susceptible to URIs than subjects with less diverse social networks who reported Facebook-induced stress. In this prospective study, healthy college students completed online questionnaires that assessed use and perceptions of Facebook and technology, and then were interviewed weekly for 10 weeks to track incidence of URI. URI episodes were defined by a symptom-based criterion. The social network size was significantly related to the rate of URI, such that, the larger the social network, the greater the incidence rate of URI. Most (85.7 percent) respondents experienced some degree of Facebook-induced stress. The effects of Facebook-induced stress on incidence of URI varied across the social network size, such that, the impact of stress on the URI incidence rate increased with the size of the social network. These results are largely in contrast to our hypotheses, but clearly suggest an association between Facebook use, psychological stress, and health.

  8. Effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses, ibuprofen and caffeine on reaction time and alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Nutt, David J

    2014-05-01

    Compared with healthy individuals, those with upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) report reduced alertness and have slower reaction times. It is important to evaluate medication that can remove this behavioural malaise. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a combination of ibuprofen plus caffeine with ibuprofen and caffeine alone, and placebo on malaise associated with URTIs, as measured by psychomotor performance and mood testing. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four medication conditions as follows: 200 mg ibuprofen and 100 mg caffeine; 200 mg ibuprofen; 100 mg caffeine; placebo. A single oral dose was given and testing followed for 3 h. Efficacy variables were based on the volunteers' performance, measured by psychomotor performance and mood. The pre-drug results confirmed that those with an URTI had a more negative mood and impaired performance. Results from the simple reaction time task, at both 55- and 110-min post-dosing, showed that a single-dose of caffeinated products (I200/C100 and CAF100) led to significantly faster reaction times than IBU200 and placebo. These effects were generally confirmed with the other performance tasks. Subjective measures showed that the combination of ibuprofen and caffeine was superior to the other conditions. There were no serious adverse events reported, and study medication was well tolerated. The results from the post-drug assessments suggest that a combination of ibuprofen and caffeine was the optimum treatment for malaise associated with URTIs in that it had significant effects on objective performance and subjective measures.

  9. Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) sinus tumors are associated with coinfections by potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Karen A; Rouse, Natalie M; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Griffin, Karen A; Killion, Halcyon J; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Edwards, William H; Quackenbush, Sandra L; Miller, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) sinus tumors are hyperplastic to neoplastic, predominantly stromal masses of the paranasal sinuses that expand the sinus lining and obstruct the sinus cavities. Obstruction of the sinus cavities and disruption of normal sinus lining anatomy may interfere with clearance of bacterial pathogens from the upper respiratory tract. To examine this possibility, we explored whether the presence of sinus tumor features (tumor score) affected the likelihood of detecting potentially pathogenic bacteria from upper respiratory sinus lining tissues in bighorn sheep. We developed or used existing PCR assays for the detection of leukotoxigenic Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in sinus lining tissues collected from 97 bighorn sheep in Colorado, US from 2009 to 2012. With the use of logistic regression analyses we found that tumor score was a good predictor of the probability of detecting potentially pathogenic bacteria in sinus lining tissues; we were more likely to detect potentially pathogenic bacteria from samples with high tumor scores. These findings add to our understanding of possible mechanisms for the maintenance and shedding of bacterial agents from the upper respiratory tracts of bighorn sheep.

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal Involvement in Crohn Disease: Histopathologic and Endoscopic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Liege; Hernandez-Oquet, Rafael Enrique; Deshpande, Amar R; Moshiree, Baharak

    2015-11-01

    Studies describing the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) Crohn disease (CD) and its histopathologic changes have been inconsistent as a result of different definitions used for upper GI involvement, diverse populations, and varying indications for endoscopy. We reviewed the literature describing endoscopic findings and histologic lesions in gastric and duodenal mucosa of patients with established CD. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for gastroduodenal biopsy findings in patients with CD from 1970 to 2014. We included all retrospective and prospective studies in adults. We calculated the prevalence of the most common endoscopic and histopathological findings among patients with overall CD and upper GI CD. Of the 385 articles identified, 20 eligible studies were included. A total of 2511 patients had CD and 815 had upper GI CD. In the CD group, the most common histopathological finding was nonspecific gastric inflammation in 32% of patients, followed by gastric granuloma in 7.9%. Focal gastritis was prevalent in 30.9% of patients. In the upper GI CD group, gastric inflammation was present in 84% of patients, followed by duodenal inflammation in 28.2% and gastric granuloma in 23.2%. The most common gastric endoscopic finding in patients with CD was erythema in 5.9%, followed by erosions in 3.7%. Duodenal endoscopic findings included ulcers and erythema in 5.3% and 3.0% of patients, respectively. We found a prevalence of 34% for CD involving the upper GI tract across these 20 studies. Routine upper endoscopy with biopsies of the upper GI tract in the diagnostic workup of patients with CD can correctly classify the distribution and extent of the disease.

  11. Respiratory pathology in vibroacoustic disease: 25 years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno A.A. Castelo Branco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory pathology induced by low frequency noise (LFN, <500 Hz, including infrasound is not a novel subject given that in the 1960's, within the context of U.S. and U.S.S.R. Space Programs, other authors have already reported its existence. Within the scope of vibroacoustic disease (VAD, a whole-body pathology caused by excessive exposure to LFN, respiratory pathology takes on specific features. Initially, respiratory pathology was not considered a consequence of LFN exposure; but today, LFN can be regarded as a major agent of disease that targets the respiratory system. The goal of this report is to put forth what is known to date on the clinical signs of respiratory pathology seen in VAD patients. Methods: Data from the past 25 years of research will be taken together and presented. Results: In persons exposed to LFN on the job, respiratory complaints appear after the first 4 years of professional activity. At this stage, they disappear during vacation periods or when the person is removed form his /her workstation for other reasons. With long-term exposure, more serious situations can arise, such as, atypical pleural effusion, respiratory insufficiency, fibrosis and tumours. There is no correlation with smoking habits. In LFN--exposed animal models, morphological changes of the pleura, and loss of the phagocytic ability of pleural mesothelial cells (explaining the atypical pleural effusions. Fibrotic lesions and neo-vascularization were observed along the entire respiratory tract. Fibrosis lesions and neovascularisation were observed throughout the respiratory tract of the animals seen. Pre-malignant lesions, metaplasia e displasia, were also identified. Discussion: LFN is an agent of disease and the respiratory tract is one of its preferential targets. The respiratory pathology associated with VAD needs further in-depth studies in order to achieve a greater understanding, and develop methods of pharmacological intervention

  12. Characteristics of respiratory tract disease in horses inoculated with equine rhinitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hewson, Joanne; Shewen, Patricia; Nagy, Eva; Viel, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    To develop a method for experimental induction of equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) infection in equids and to determine the clinical characteristics of such infection. 8 ponies (age, 8 to 12 months) seronegative for antibodies against ERAV. PROCEDURES-Nebulization was used to administer ERAV (strain ERAV/ON/05; n = 4 ponies) or cell culture medium (control ponies; 4) into airways of ponies; 4 previously ERAV-inoculated ponies were reinoculated 1 year later. Physical examinations and pulmonary function testing were performed at various times for 21 days after ERAV or mock inoculation. Various types of samples were obtained for virus isolation, blood samples were obtained for serologic testing, and clinical scores were determined for various variables. ERAV-inoculated ponies developed respiratory tract disease characterized by pyrexia, nasal discharge, adventitious lung sounds, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Additionally, these animals had purulent mucus in lower airways up to the last evaluation time 21 days after inoculation (detected endoscopically). The virus was isolated from various samples obtained from lower and upper airways of ERAV-inoculated ponies up to 7 days after exposure; this time corresponded with an increase in serum titers of neutralizing antibodies against ERAV. None of the ponies developed clinical signs of disease after reinoculation 1 year later. Results of this study indicated ERAV induced respiratory tract disease in seronegative ponies. However, ponies with neutralizing antibodies against ERAV did not develop clinical signs of disease when reinoculated with the virus. Therefore, immunization of ponies against ERAV could prevent respiratory tract disease attributable to that virus in such animals.

  13. Osteopetrosis-like disease in a cat with respiratory distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, M.; Takaishi, Y.; Nagae, H.; Watanabe, N.; Hasegawa, D.; Taniguchi, A.; Orima, H.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) were performed in an 8-year-old, spayed female cat with chronic effort respiration at the inspiration phase and stertor. Increased bone opacity in the areas of the head, neck and thorax were observed on radiography. MR images showed no signal intensity on both transverse T1WI and T2WI of the nasal cavity. CT revealed increased bone density and hypertrophy of the nasal turbinate and a narrowed nasal passage. From these results, we concluded this case had osteopetrosis-like disease, and that the respiratory distress was caused by hypertrophy of the nasal turbinate

  14. Expectation to nuclear medicine in the field of respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Yukio; Kambe, Masayuki; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an expectation to the nuclear medicine for the early detection of pulmonary function abnormalities. The expectation includes: (1) To fill up the functional and qualitative diagnosis of respiratory diseases, (2) To improve the clinical nuclear laboratory tests by such methods like no effort and no risk for examinee, (3) To detect in the early stage of local pulmonary abnormalities, (4) To develop the clinical nuclear laboratory tests in order to measure some pulmonary functions at the same times and continuously, (5) To simplify the procedures in the clinical nuclear laboratory tests, and (6) To combine the clinical pulmonary function tests and clinical nuclear laboratory tests. (author)

  15. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory diseases among U.S. military personnel: countering emerging threats.

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, G. C.; Callahan, J. D.; Hawksworth, A. W.; Fisher, C. A.; Gaydos, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and review the impact of the diseases they cause, past efforts to control these diseases in U.S. military personnel, as well as current treat...

  17. Medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children (≤12 years in Kampala city, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Ocan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A recall period of two weeks (14 days was used in during data collection. Results The prevalence of giving children non-prescription antimicrobial medicines was 44.8% (38.3-52.2. The most common disease symptoms that the children reportedly had included flu, 84.9% (331/390, cough, 83.1% (324/390, and undefined fever, 69.7% (272/390. Medicines commonly given to children included, paracetamol 53.1% (207/390, Coartem 29.7% (116/390, cough linctus 20.8% (81/390, amoxicillin 18.9% (74/390, Co-trimoxazole 18.5% (72/390, and diphenhydramine 15.4% (60/390. The major sources of medicines given to the children was hospital/clinic, 57.26% (223/390. Most of the children, 81% were given more than one medicine at a time. The majority, 62.3% (243/390 of the care takers who gave the children medicine during the recent illness were not aware of any medicine (s that should not be given to children. The predictors of non-prescription use of antimicrobial medicines in managing symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children included, medicines obtained from drug shop (PR: 1.45, CI: 1.14-1.85, medicines at home (PR: 1.8, CI: 0.83-1.198 and type of medicine (antimalarial (PR: 2.8, CI: 1.17-6.68. Conclusion Children are commonly given multiple medicines during episodes of acute upper respiratory

  18. Medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children (≤12 years) in Kampala city, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocan, Moses; Aono, Mary; Bukirwa, Clare; Luyinda, Emmanuel; Ochwo, Cathy; Nsambu, Elastus; Namugonza, Stella; Makoba, Joseph; Kandaruku, Enock; Muyende, Hannington; Nakawunde, Aida

    2017-09-21

    Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years) in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years) during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A recall period of two weeks (14 days) was used in during data collection. The prevalence of giving children non-prescription antimicrobial medicines was 44.8% (38.3-52.2). The most common disease symptoms that the children reportedly had included flu, 84.9% (331/390), cough, 83.1% (324/390), and undefined fever, 69.7% (272/390). Medicines commonly given to children included, paracetamol 53.1% (207/390), Coartem 29.7% (116/390), cough linctus 20.8% (81/390), amoxicillin 18.9% (74/390), Co-trimoxazole 18.5% (72/390), and diphenhydramine 15.4% (60/390). The major sources of medicines given to the children was hospital/clinic, 57.26% (223/390). Most of the children, 81% were given more than one medicine at a time. The majority, 62.3% (243/390) of the care takers who gave the children medicine during the recent illness were not aware of any medicine (s) that should not be given to children. The predictors of non-prescription use of antimicrobial medicines in managing symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children included, medicines obtained from drug shop (PR: 1.45, CI: 1.14-1.85), medicines at home (PR: 1.8, CI: 0.83-1.198) and type of medicine (antimalarial) (PR: 2.8, CI: 1.17-6.68). Children are commonly given multiple medicines during episodes of acute upper respiratory tract infections with most antimicrobial

  19. Climate change, air pollution, and allergic respiratory diseases: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The rising trend in prevalence of allergic respiratory disease and bronchial asthma, observed over the last decades, can be explained by changes occurring in the environment, with increasing presence of biologic, such as allergens, and chemical atmospheric trigger factors able to stimulate the sensitization and symptoms of these diseases. Many studies have shown changes in production, dispersion, and allergen content of pollen and spores because of climate change with an increasing effect of aeroallergens on allergic patients. Over the last 50 years, global earth's temperature has markedly risen likely because of growing emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by human activity, have a major impact on the biosphere and human environment.Urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions are correlated to an increase in the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy prevalent in people who live in urban areas compared with those who live in rural areas. Measures of mitigation need to be applied for reducing future impacts of climate change on our planet, but until global emissions continue to rise, adaptation to the impacts of future climate variability will also be required.

  20. Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-02-16

    A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD.

  1. The sensitivity and the specifity of rapid antigen test in streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol, Yesim; Akan, Hulya; Izbirak, Guldal; Tekkanat, Zuhal Tazegun; Gunduz, Tehlile Silem; Hayran, Osman; Yilmaz, Gulden

    2010-06-01

    It is aimed to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. The other goal of the study is to help in giving clinical decisions in upper respiratory tract infections according to the age group, by detection of sensitivity and positive predictive values of the rapid tests and throat cultures. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending to our university hospital between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Throat samples were obtained by swabs from the throat and transported in the Stuart medium and Quickvue Strep A [Quidel, San Diego, USA] cassette test was applied and for culture, specimen was inoculated on 5% blood sheep agar and identified according to bacitracin and trimethoprim-sulphametaxazole susceptibility from beta hemolytic colonies. During the dates between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008, from 453 patients both rapid antigen detection and throat culture were evaluated. Rapid antigen detection sensitivity and specificity were found to be 64.6% and 96.79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.95% whereas negative predictive value was 92.82%. Kappa index was 0.91. When the results were evaluated according to the age groups, the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of rapid antigen detection in children were 70%, 90.3% and in adults 59.4%, 70.4%. When bacterial infection is concerned to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use, rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) is a reliable method to begin immediate treatment. To get the maximum sensitivity of RSAT, the specimen collection technique used and education of the health care workers is important. While giving clinical decision, it must be taken into consideration that the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the RSAT is quite

  2. Consumer knowledge and perceptions about antibiotics and upper respiratory tract infections in a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Ian; Hollingworth, Samantha; Pudmenzky, Alex; Rossato, Laurence; Syed, Shahzad; Kairuz, Therése

    2015-12-01

    Overuse of antibiotics is a global concern and the World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned of relapsing to an era with no effective antibiotics. In Australia, various national consumer campaigns had been running since 2000, and the concern was prioritised in 2011, when the need for a national approach to address antibiotic resistance was identified. The aim of this study was to explore consumer attitudes and knowledge about (upper respiratory tract) infections, colds and flu, and antibiotics, and to identify factors contributing to antibiotic misuse which could be addressed by tailored patient counselling. A community pharmacy in an area of Brisbane, Australia. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed among pharmacy consumers. Perceptions of, and knowledge about antibiotics were measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale of agreement/disagreement. The proportion of self-diagnosers and non self-diagnosers who agreed/disagreed with the attitude statement, "I know that I need antibiotics before I visit my doctor"; and the proportion of mistaken and non-mistaken who agreed/disagreed with the statement, "I will get better faster if I take antibiotics when I have a cold or flu". Over a third of the 252 participants believed that they would recover faster by taking antibiotics when suffering from a cold or flu, and nearly one-fifth felt that antibiotics would cure viral infections. More females (62.2 vs. 43.9 %) self-diagnosed (p = 0.002) although more males (42.1 vs. 30.8 %) were mistaken about the efficacy of antibiotics for treating colds and flus. Mistaken respondents were more likely than non-mistaken respondents to self-diagnose (p = 0.01). This study confirms a lack of knowledge among consumers about the efficacy of antibiotics in treating viral infections despite education campaigns. The findings strongly suggest there is a need for pharmacists and other health care professionals to elicit consumer beliefs and understanding about antibiotics

  3. Effect and toxicity of endoluminal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in centrally located tumors of the upper respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.; Wannenmacher, M.; Becker, H.; Herth, F.; Fritz, P.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To assess effect an toxicity of high-dose-rate afterloading (HDR) alone or in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in centrally located tumors of the upper respiratory tract. Patients and Methods: From 1987 to 1996, 55 patients were treated. Twenty-one patients (group A1: 17 non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC], A2: 4 metastases from other malignancies) were treated using HDR alone due to a relapse after external beam irradiation. In 34 previously untreated and inoperable patients (group B1: 27 NSCLC, B2: 7 metastases from other malignancies) HDR was given as a boost after EBRT (30 to 60 Gy, median 50). HDR was carried out with a 192 Ir source (370 GBq). The brachytherapy dose (group A: 5 to 27 Gy, median 20; B: 10 to 20 Gy, median 15) was prescribed to 1 cm distance from the source axis. A distanciable applicator was used in 39/55 patients. Results: In group A1, a response rate (CR, PR) of 53% (group B1: 77%) was reached. The median survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 5 months in group A1 (B1: 20 months). The 1-, 3- and 5-year local progression free survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were 66% (15%), 52% (0%), and 37% (0%) in group B1 (group A1). Prognostic favorable factors in group B1 were a tumor diameter 70. Grade-1 or 2 toxicity (RTOG/EORTC) occurred in 0% in group A and in 6% in group B. We observed no Grad-3 or 4 toxicity. Complications caused by persistent or progressive local disease occurred in 3 patients in goup A (fatal hemorrhage, tracheomediastinal fistula, hemoptysis) and in 2 patients in group B (fatal hemorrhage, hemoptysis). Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy is an effective treatment with moderate side effects. In combination with external beam irradiation long-term remissions can be reached in one third of the patients. (orig.) [de

  4. Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdhanie Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a reference. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. Results The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p 30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014. Severity (95.7% and duration of illness (82.5% influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75% and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%. Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86% and the waiting time for results is too long (51%. Conclusions Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary

  5. Reduced nasal IL-10 and enhanced TNFalpha responses during rhinovirus and RSV-induced upper respiratory tract infection in atopic and non-atopic infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, I. J.; van Drunen, C. M.; Koevoet, J. L. M.; Koopman, L. P.; Hop, W. C. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Neijens, H. J.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    Rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the most prevalent inducers of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in infants and may stimulate immune maturation. To estimate the amount of immune stimulation, nasal immune responses were examined during rhinovirus and RSV-induced URTI in

  6. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xu

    Full Text Available Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing.Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender.A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%, 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%, 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53% and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%. The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%. The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure.PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.

  7. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Li, Xia; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.

  8. Regulatory peptides in the upper respiratory system and oral cavity of man. An immunocytochemical and radioimmunological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser-Kronberger, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study a dense network of peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the upper respiratory system and the oral cavity of man was investigated. The occurrence, distribution and concentrations of regulatory peptide immunoreactivities in human nasal mucosa, soft palate, ventricular fold, vocal cord, epiglottis, subglottis, glandula submandibularis and glandula parotis were investigated using highly efficient immunocytochemical and radio-immunological methods. In the tissues investigated vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and other derivatives from the VIP-precursor (peptide histidine methionine = PHM), prepro VIP (111-122)), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and its C-flanking peptide (CPON), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, neurokinin A, bombesin-flanking peptide and somatostatin were detected. The regulatory peptides demonstrated also included the recently isolated peptides helospectin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP). Single endocrine-like cells were for the first time demonstrated within the respiratory epithelium and in the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa and soft palate and in groups within ducts. Ultrastructural immunelectronmicroscopy was performed using an ABC-pre-embedding method. In addition, semithin Epon resin sections were immunostained. The concentrations of VIP, NPY, CGRP, substance P and neurokinin A were measured using radioimmunological methods. The peptide immunoreactivities demonstrated in a dense network of neuronal structures and endocrine cells give indication for the presence of a complex regulatory system with potent physiological mechanisms in the upper respiratory system and allocated tissues of man

  9. Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with End -Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahani S.T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to define the prevalence of the upper Gastrointestinal (GI lesions, dyspeptic symptoms, H.pylori infection, and the impact of duration of dialysis on upper GI symptoms and lesions of children with End-stage renal disease. We studied 69 children with ESRD who were under regular hemodialysis therapy in our department. The age of the patients were between 4-18 years (mean: 11.3. 57(82.6% of 69 patients had GI symptoms and 12(17.4% were symptom free, the prevalence of each symptom in 57 symptomatic children was as follows: anorexia 48(84.2%, nausea/vomiting 39 (68.4%, belching/heartburn 20(35%, abdominal distention 15(26.3%, and epigastric pain 8(14%. 65(92.4% of 69 patients with ESRD had pathologic lesions and the most common lesion was gastritis .There was no case of gastric angiodysplasia in our patients. 15(21.7% of 69 patients had H. pylori infection. The prevalence of H.pylori infection in non-uremic children with upper GI symptoms is about 27% in our pediatric gastroenterology department, so there was no significant difference in prevalence of H.pylori infection between uremic and non-uremic children in our study (p value = 0.4735. There was no significant relationship between duration of dialysis and dyspeptic symptoms or upper GI lesions (p values were 0.8775 and 0.7435, respectively. Conclusions: Upper GI disorders are very common in children with ESRD, even when they have no upper GI symptoms, the most common lesion is gastritis. The prevalence of H.pylori infection is not different between children with ESRD and non-uremic children with upper GI symptoms, and duration of hemodialysis therapy has no significant effect on prevalence of GI symptoms and lesions.

  10. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  11. 76 FR 28789 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the availability of a draft Alert entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease from...

  12. The role of vitamin D in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Tena, Jaime; El Hachem Debek, Abdulkader; Hernández Gutiérrez, Cristina; Izquierdo Alonso, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    There has been growing interest in recent years in the extraosseous effects of vitamin D. In this article, we review the physiology of vitamin D, the physiopathological effects associated with vitamin D deficit and the available evidence on its etiopathogenic role in respiratory diseases. Given the pleiotropic actions of vitamin D, it is biologically plausible that the deficit of this vitamin could play a pathogenic role of in the development of various respiratory diseases. However, the many epidemiological studies that have shown an association between low vitamin D levels and a higher risk of developing various respiratory diseases or a poorer prognosis if they do appear, were unable to show causality. Post-hoc analyses of some clinical trials, particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, appear to suggest that some patient subtypes may benefit from correction of a vitamin D deficit. In this respect, it would be interesting to determine if the interindividual differences found in the effect of vitamin D deficit and responses to correcting this deficit could be explained by the genetic variants involved in vitamin D metabolism. Ultimately, only appropriately designed clinical trials will determine whether 25-OHD supplements can prevent or improve the course of the various respiratory diseases in which an epidemiological association between prognosis and vitamin D deficit has been described. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Status of acute upper respiratory infection, influenza-like illness, and influenza vaccination coverage among community residents in Jinan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Shaoxia; Wang, Wei; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Wen; Han, Debiao; Liu, Ti; Wu, Julong; Li, Zhong; Wang, Xianjun; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the status of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI) among community residents in Jinan in 2015, and to make a understand of the patient's medical treatment behavior and influenza vaccination coverage status in 2014. Balloting method and convenient sampling method were used to launch a household survey. The residents who had been in Jinan for more than 3 months were selected, to investigate the residents' attack ratio of acute upper respiratory and influenza-like from Jan. 8 to Feb. 7, 2015. Totally, 1 300 persons from 410 families were involved in this survey which recovered 1 241 valid questionnaires with the efficiency of 95.5%. Based on the national age-urban demographic statistics in 2010, the attack rates of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness were estimated by the direct standardization method, and the influenza vaccination rates were also calculated in this study. χ(2)-test method was used to compare the different status of incidence and vaccination among residents with different features. The attack rate of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness in Jinan from January 8, 2015 to February 7, 2015 were 30.2% (375 cases), and 6.1% (76 cases), respectively, with a standardized rate of 29.1% and 5.4%. 5.3% (66 cases) of the residents have vaccinated with the influenza vaccine inoculation, with an adjusted rate of 3.8%. The attack rate difference of acute upper respiratory tract infections was statistically significant between each age group (χ(2)=17.121, P= 0.002). The 0-4 age group had a highest attack rate (45.4%) of acute respiratory infection, while the 15-24 age group got the lowest (26.5%). 38.9% (146 cases) of patients went for a treatment in hospital. Among them, 37.7% (55 cases) of them selected the county level hospitals for treatment, 37.7% (55 cases) selected the community level hospitals, and 24.6% (36 cases) selected the individual clinic. Significant differences of

  14. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  15. Daytime napping and increased risk of incident respiratory diseases: symptom, marker, or risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-07-01

    We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-vascular interventional therapy for respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Hongjian; Chen Liping; Wang Hui; Cheng Yongde

    2009-01-01

    To review the recent literature relating to non-vascular interventional therapy of respiratory diseases. Metal airway stent insertion can immediately relieve tracheobronchial obstruction and improve pulmonary function. However, as there is a high occurrence of the restenosis after stent insertion, it should be very careful to use metal stenting to treat the benign airway obstruction. Compared with traditional lung volume reduction surgery in treating severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction appears to be effective, safe and less invasive, although its clinical usefullness need to be further proved. Endoscopic occlusion of bronchial fistula represents an effective alternative to surgical treatment. Percutaneous lung biopsy under ultrasound or CT guidance has been applied successfully in the management of both benign and malignant lesions. (authors)

  17. Respiratory tract disease from thermosetting resins. Study of an outbreak in rubber tire workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    doPico, G A; Rankin, J; Chosy, L W; Reddan, W G; Barbee, R A; Gee, B; Dickie, H A

    1975-08-01

    An outbreak of upper and lower respiratory tract inflammatory disease and conjunctivitis among synthetic rubber tire workers occurred. The outbreak began after the introduction of a new thermosetting resin, containing resorcinol and a trimere of methylene aminoacetronitrile, into the rubber tire carcass stock formulation. Two hundred ten workers were affected. Characteristically, symptoms improved during periods of sick leave or vacation, recurring upon the workers' return to the plant. Chest radiograms disclosed pneumonic infiltrates in about one fourth of the cases. Pulmonary function studies detected abnormal airways dynamics as well as abnormal diffusing capacity in more than one third of the workers tested. Lung biopsy showed evidence of focal interstitial fibrosis and peribronchiolar and perivascular chronic inflammatory reaction. The illness was ascribed to volatile products released during the manufacture of synthetic rubber tires. The exact chemical nature of these products is unknown.

  18. Validation of a short form Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Highstrom Alex D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS is an illness-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire outcomes instrument. Objectives Research questions were: 1 How well does the WURSS-21 assess the symptoms and functional impairments associated with common cold? 2 How well can this instrument measure change over time (responsiveness? 3 What is the minimal important difference (MID that can be detected by the WURSS-21? 4 What are the descriptive statistics for area under the time severity curve (AUC? 5 What sample sizes would trials require to detect MID or AUC criteria? 6 What does factor analysis tell us about the underlying dimensional structure of the common cold? 7 How reliable are items, domains, and summary scores represented in WURSS? 8 For each of these considerations, how well does the WURSS-21 compare to the WURSS-44, Jackson, and SF-8? Study Design and Setting People with Jackson-defined colds were recruited from the community in and around Madison, Wisconsin. Participants were enrolled within 48 hours of first cold symptom and monitored for up to 14 days of illness. Half the sample filled out the WURSS-21 in the morning and the WURSS-44 in the evening, with the other half reversing the daily order. External comparators were the SF-8, a 24-hour recall general health measure yielding separate physical and mental health scores, and the eight-item Jackson cold index, which assesses symptoms, but not functional impairment or quality of life. Results In all, 230 participants were monitored for 2,457 person-days. Participants were aged 14 to 83 years (mean 34.1, SD 13.6, majority female (66.5%, mostly white (86.0%, and represented substantive education and income diversity. WURSS-21 items demonstrated similar performance when embedded within the WURSS-44 or in the stand-alone WURSS-21. Minimal important difference (MID and Guyatt's responsiveness index were 10.3, 0.71 for the WURSS-21 and 18.5, 0

  19. Optimising experimental research in respiratory diseases: an ERS statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonniaud, Philippe; Fabre, Aurélie; Frossard, Nelly; Guignabert, Christophe; Inman, Mark; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Maes, Tania; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin; Uhlig, Stefan; White, Eric; Witzenrath, Martin; Bellaye, Pierre-Simon; Crestani, Bruno; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, Gisli; Joos, Guy; Magnan, Antoine; Maitre, Bernard; Maus, Ulrich A; Reinhold, Petra; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Richeldi, Luca; Kolb, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models. Focus was put on their specific benefits and limitations. This will result in more efficient use of resources and greater reduction in the numbers of animals employed, thereby enhancing the ethical standards and translational capacity of experimental research.The task force statement addresses general issues of experimental research (ethics, species, sex, age, ex vivo and in vitro models, gene editing). The statement also includes research recommendations on modelling asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung infections, acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension.The task force stressed the importance of using multiple models to strengthen validity of results, the need to increase the availability of human tissues and the importance of standard operating procedures and data quality. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  20. Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köndgen, Sophie; Leider, Michaela; Lankester, Felix; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes. PMID:21931664

  1. The global burden of chronic respiratory disease in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, P; Jarvis, D; Perez-Padilla, R

    2015-01-01

    With an aging global population, chronic respiratory diseases are becoming a more prominent cause of death and disability. Age-standardised death rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highest in low-income regions of the world, particularly South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, although airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in these areas. Airflow obstruction is, by contrast, more common in regions with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. COPD mortality is much more closely related to the prevalence of a low forced vital capacity which is, in turn, associated with poverty. Mortality from asthma is less common than mortality from COPD, but it is also relatively more common in poorer areas, particularly Oceania, South and South-East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Again this contrasts with the asthma prevalence among adults, which is highest in high-income regions. In high-income areas, mortality due to asthma, which is predominantly an adult problem, has fallen substantially in recent decades with the spread of new guidelines for treatment that emphasise the use of inhaled steroids to control the disease. Although mortality rates have been falling, the prevalence of atopy has been increasing between generations in Western Europe. Changes in the prevalence of wheeze among adults has been more varied and may have been influenced by the reduction in smoking and the increase in the use of inhaled steroids.

  2. A study of the barrier function of the upper respiratory tract covering epithelium in the event of combined respiratory tract injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Kolev, K.; Dermendzhiev, Kh.; Nikolova, M.; Kantardzhiev, V.

    1976-01-01

    Functional and morphologic impairment of upper respiratory tract mucous membranes after chronic exposure to the three major occupational noxious agents in ore mining - radon-222, silica dust, and respirable dust - has been studied experimentally. Over a 6-month period, rats were given daily treatments, with the agents applied either individually or in combination. Radon-222 (at 1 x 10 -10 Ci/l, corresponding to the maximum permissible concentrotion in uranium mine atmospheres) and respirable dust (dispersed silicogen at 100 mg/m 3 ) were administered four hours daily in toxicological chambers. Monodisperse silica dust was given by tracheal tube, at 50 mg in 1 ml of saline per rat. At the end of the treatment period, the barrier function of the respiratory epithelium was tested, and found to have been affected, by measuring beta radioactivity in blood following introduction into -the animal's nasopharynx of a 32 P-labelled staphylococcus culture. The most severe degree if impairment was found to result from simultaneous exposure to radon and respirable dust. Any of ti'e agents given individually caused a similar degree of impairment. Intratracheal administration of silicic acid anhydride appeared to have no deleterious consequences. The evidence for functional impairment was supported by histologic findings, indicating Jevelopment of ulcerous bronchitis, metaplasia of cylindrical epithelium, etc., after both individual and combined radon exposure. (A.B.)

  3. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-08-01

    Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of surgery: clear or green nasal secretion, dry or moist cough, nasal congestion, or fever. RAE such as laryngospasm, bronchospasm, oxygen desaturation and sustained cough were collected before induction, during intubation, during extubation, after extubation and in the postanesthesia care unit. Forty-five patients had RAE. The patients with RAE were younger than those without RAE. There were more passive smokers and a greater number of intubation attempts in patients with RAE than in those without RAE. The type of surgery and type of inhalation agents were not different between patients with and without RAE. Passive smoking was the only independent risk factor for RAE. In children with an active URI using orotracheal tube and inhalation anesthetics, passive smoking is an important risk factor for RAE.

  4. The Effect of Renal Transplantation on Respiratory Muscle Strength in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tavana, Sasan; Mirzaei, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory involvement in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is attributed to protein calorie imbalance that is caused by the disease process, and hemodialysis and is generally referred to as uremic myopathy. This results in calcification of respiratory muscles such as diaphragm and intercostal muscles. There are limited data about respiratory muscle strength in patients with CKD. We intended to evaluate the effect of kidney ...

  5. Effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children with infantile-onset Pompe disease and respiratory muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison N; Crisp, Kelly D; Moss, Tronda; Strollo, Katherine; Robey, Randy; Sank, Jeffrey; Canfield, Michelle; Case, Laura E; Mahler, Leslie; Kravitz, Richard M; Kishnani, Priya S

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness is a primary therapeutic challenge for patients with infantile Pompe disease. We previously described the clinical implementation of a respiratory muscle training (RMT) regimen in two adults with late-onset Pompe disease; both demonstrated marked increases in inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength in response to RMT. However, the use of RMT in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease has not been previously reported. We report the effects of an intensive RMT program on maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) using A-B-A (baseline-treatment-posttest) single subject experimental design in two pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease. Both subjects had persistent respiratory muscle weakness despite long-term treatment with alglucosidase alfa. Subject 1 demonstrated negligible to modest increases in MIP/MEP (6% increase in MIP, d=0.25; 19% increase in MEP, d=0.87), while Subject 2 demonstrated very large increases in MIP/MEP (45% increase in MIP, d=2.38; 81% increase in MEP, d=4.31). Following three-month RMT withdrawal, both subjects maintained these strength increases and demonstrated maximal MIP and MEP values at follow-up. Intensive RMT may be a beneficial treatment for respiratory muscle weakness in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease.

  6. Oligometastatic Disease in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer – How to Proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Berlth, Felix; Plum, Patrick S.; Betzler, Christopher; Stippel, Dirk L.; Popp, Felix; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the present study we review and discuss the current evidence and suggest how to proceed in the management of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer. Methods An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant articles was performed. Results Both the search for ‘oligometastasis', ‘oligometastases', ‘oligometastatic’, ‘oligometastatic disease’ as well as ‘esophageal’ and ‘esophageal cancer’ and the search for ‘oligometastasis', ‘oligometastases', ‘oligometastatic’, ‘oligometastatic disease’ as well as ‘gastric’, ‘gastric cancer’, ‘stomach’, and ‘stomach cancer’ yielded very few studies. Most data need to be extrapolated in general studies on oligometastatic diseases of different origins. No randomized controlled trial could be found. Conclusion In the absence of data to formulate recommendations on how to proceed in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer, a more aggressive treatment of oligometastatic disease can be considered in patients whose tumors show a more favorable neoplastic behavior after the ‘test of time’. The RENAISSANCE study will certainly deliver important data regarding this aspect. PMID:28612014

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of Kimura's disease presenting in the upper extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gi Won; Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Young Mi; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Sung-Moon; Suh, Jin-Suck; Jung, Soo-Jin

    2014-12-01

    To describe ultrasound findings of Kimura's disease arising in the upper extremities. Five patients with Kimura's disease confirmed by surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists and a pathologist. All six lesions involved the epitrochlear area and appeared as partially (n = 5) or poorly (n = 1) marginated subcutaneous masses with the presence of curvilinear hyperechoic bands intermingled within the hypoechoic components by US. Moderate (n = 4) to severe (n = 2) vascular signals were observed in some proportion of the hyperechoic bands by color Doppler US. The associated findings were the increased echogenicity of surrounding subcutaneous fat (n = 6) and adjacent lymphadenopathy (n = 4). Microscopic examination showed proliferation of lymphoid follicles with prominent germinal centers and intervening fibrosis. In this study, Kimura's disease arising in the upper extremities showed a partially defined hypoechoic subcutaneous mass with internal hyperechoic bands and moderate-to-severe vascularities, increased echogenicity of the surrounding subcutaneous fat and adjacent lymphadenopathy on US. Thus, when these US features are observed in the typical epitrochlear region of an Asian individual, especially if accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia, Kimura's disease should be considered as a possible diagnosis.

  8. Frequency of viral etiology in symptomatic adult upper respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cirlene da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Results presented in this report suggest that respiratory viral infections are largely under diagnosed in immunocompetent adults. Although the majority of young adult infections are not life-threatening they may impose a significant burden, especially in developing countries since these individuals represent a large fraction of the working force.

  9. A complex homeopathic preparation for the symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections associated with the common cold: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedel, Volker; Klein, Peter

    2006-03-01

    The use of complementary medicines is large and growing in both the United States and Europe. To compare the effects of a complex homeopathic preparation (Engystol; Heel GmbH, Baden-Baden, Germany) with those of conventional therapies with antihistamines, antitussives, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on upper respiratory symptoms of the common cold in a setting closely related to everyday clinical practice. Nonrandomized, observational study over a treatment period of maximally two weeks. Eighty-five general and homeopathic practices in Germany. Three hundred ninety-seven patients with upper respiratory symptoms of the common cold. Engystol-based therapy or common over-the-counter treatments for the common cold. Patients receiving this homeopathic treatment were allowed other short-term medications, but long-term use of analgesics, antibiotics, and antiinflammatory agents was not permitted. Patients were allowed nonpharmacological therapies such as vitamins, thermotherapies, and others. The effects of treatment were evaluated on the variables fatigue, sensation of illness, chill/tremor, aching joints, overall severity of illness, sum of all clinical variables, temperature, and time to symptomatic improvement. Both treatment regimens provided significant symptomatic relief, and this homeopathic treatment was noninferior in a noninferiority analysis. Significantly more patients (P cold in patients and practitioners choosing an integrative approach to medical care.

  10. Heat and moisture exchange capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheenstra, Renske J; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements in 10 patients with head and neck cancer with a temporary precautionary tracheotomy during successive 10-minute periods of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing in a randomized sequence. End-inspiratory temperatures of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing were 31.1, 31.3, and 28.3°C, respectively. End-inspiratory humidity measurements of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing were 29.3, 28.6, and 21.1 mgH₂O/L, respectively. There was a trend toward lower end-inspiratory humidity in patients with radiotherapy or with large surgery-induced oropharyngeal mucosal defects, whereas temperatures were similar. This study gives objective information about the HME capacity of the upper respiratory tract in patients with head and neck cancer with precautionary tracheotomy, and thus provides target values for HMEs for laryngectomized and tracheotomized patients. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  11. Respiratory-Gated MRgHIFU in Upper Abdomen Using an MR-Compatible In-Bore Digital Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Auboiroux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To demonstrate the technical feasibility and the potential interest of using a digital optical camera inside the MR magnet bore for monitoring the breathing cycle and subsequently gating the PRFS MR thermometry, MR-ARFI measurement, and MRgHIFU sonication in the upper abdomen. Materials and Methods. A digital camera was reengineered to remove its magnetic parts and was further equipped with a 7 m long USB cable. The system was electromagnetically shielded and operated inside the bore of a closed 3T clinical scanner. Suitable triggers were generated based on real-time motion analysis of the images produced by the camera (resolution 640×480 pixels, 30 fps. Respiratory-gated MR-ARFI prepared MRgHIFU ablation was performed in the kidney and liver of two sheep in vivo, under general anaesthesia and ventilator-driven forced breathing. Results. The optical device demonstrated very good MR compatibility. The current setup permitted the acquisition of motion artefact-free and high resolution MR 2D ARFI and multiplanar interleaved PRFS thermometry (average SNR 30 in liver and 56 in kidney. Microscopic histology indicated precise focal lesions with sharply delineated margins following the respiratory-gated HIFU sonications. Conclusion. The proof-of-concept for respiratory motion management in MRgHIFU using an in-bore digital camera has been validated in vivo.

  12. Bactericidal/Permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 in airway host protection and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Clemente J; Cohn, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 (BPIFA1), formerly known as SPLUNC1, is one of the most abundant proteins in respiratory secretions and has been identified with increasing frequency in studies of pulmonary disease. Its expression is largely restricted to the respiratory tract, being highly concentrated in the upper airways and proximal trachea. BPIFA1 is highly responsive to airborne pathogens, allergens, and irritants. BPIFA1 actively participates in host protection through antimicrobial, surfactant, airway surface liquid regulation, and immunomodulatory properties. Its expression is modulated in multiple lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory malignancies, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of BPIFA1 in pulmonary pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. This review highlights the versatile properties of BPIFA1 in antimicrobial protection and its roles as a sensor of environmental exposure and regulator of immune cell function. A greater understanding of the contribution of BPIFA1 to disease pathogenesis and activity may clarify if BPIFA1 is a biomarker and potential drug target in pulmonary disease.

  13. Impact of a new respiratory amplitude-based gating technique in evaluation of upper abdominal PET lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Gucht, Axel, E-mail: axel.vandergucht@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Princesse Grace, Monaco (Monaco); Serrano, Benjamin [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Princesse Grace, Monaco (Monaco); Hugonnet, Florent; Paulmier, Benoît [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Princesse Grace, Monaco (Monaco); Garnier, Nicolas [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Princesse Grace, Monaco (Monaco); Faraggi, Marc [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Princesse Grace, Monaco (Monaco)

    2014-03-15

    PET acquisition requires several minutes which can lead to respiratory motion blurring, to increase partial volume effect and SUV under-estimation. To avoid these artifacts, conventional 10-min phase-based respiratory gating (PBRG) can be performed but is time-consuming and difficult with a non-compliant patient. We evaluated an automatic amplitude-based gating method (AABG) which keeps 35% of the counts at the end of expiration to minimize respiratory motion. We estimated the impact of AABG on upper abdominal lesion detectability, quantification and patient management. Methods: We consecutively included 31 patients (82 hepatic and 25 perihepatic known lesions). Each patient underwent 3 acquisitions on a Siemens Biograph mCT (4 rings and time-of-flight): a standard free-breathing whole-body (SWB, 5–7 steps/2.5 min per step, 3.3 ± 0.4 MBq/kg of 18F-FDG), a 10-min PBRG with six bins and a 5-min AABG method. All gated acquisitions were performed with an ANZAI respiratory gating system. SUV{sub max} and target to background ratio (TBR, defined as the maximum SUV of the lesion divided by the mean SUV of a region of interest drawn in healthy liver) were compared. Results: All 94 lesions in SWB images were detected in the gated images. 10-min PBRG and 5-min AABG acquisitions respectively revealed 9 and 13 new lesions and relocated 7 and 8 lesions. Four lesions revealed by 5-min AABG were missed by 10-min PBRG in 3 non-compliant patients. Both gated methods failed to relocate 2 lesions seen on SWB acquisition. Compared to SWB, TBR increased significantly with 10-min PBRG and with 5-min AABG (respectively 41 ± 59%, p = 4.10–3 and 66 ± 75%, p = 6.10–5) whereas SUV{sub max} did not (respectively 14 ± 43%, p = 0.29 with 10-min PBRG, and 24 ± 46%, p = 0.11 with 5-min AABG). Conclusion: The AABG is a fast and a user-friendly respiratory gating method to increase detectability and quantification of upper abdominal lesions compared to the conventional PBRG procedure and

  14. Respirable antisense oligonucleotides: a new drug class for respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Makoto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respirable antisense oligonucleotides (RASONs, which attenuate specific disease-associated mRNAs, represent a new class of respiratory therapeutics with considerable potential. RASONs overcome previous obstacles that have impeded the development of antisense therapeutics targeting diseases in other organ systems. RASONs are delivered directly to the target tissue via inhalation; their uptake seems to be enhanced by cationic properties inherent in pulmonary surfactant, and, because of the markedly different target properties of mRNA and proteins, they can have very long durations of effect compared with traditional drugs targeting the protein of the same gene. RASONs contain chemical modifications that decrease their degradation by cellular nucleases. However, total insensitivity to nucleases is probably not an optimal design criterion for RASONs, because moderate nuclease sensitivity can prevent their systemic delivery, decreasing the potential for systemic toxicity. EPI-2010 is a 21-mer phosphorothioate RASON that attenuates bronchoconstriction, inflammation and surfactant depletion in preclinical models of human asthma, has a duration of effect of seven days, and seems to undergo minimal systemic delivery.

  15. Neuromuscular disease and respiratory physiology in children: putting lung function into perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauroux, Brigitte; Khirani, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    Neuromuscular diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders of the muscle, nerve or neuromuscular junction. The respiratory muscles are rarely spared in neuromuscular diseases even if the type of muscle involvement, severity and time course greatly varies among the different diseases. Diagnosis of respiratory muscle weakness is crucial because of the importance of respiratory morbidity and mortality. Presently, routine respiratory evaluation is based on non-invasive volitional tests, such as the measurement of lung volumes, spirometry and the maximal static pressures, which may be difficult or impossible to obtain in some young children. Other tools or parameters are thus needed to assess the respiratory muscle weakness and its consequences in young children. The measurement of oesogastric pressures can be helpful as they allow the diagnosis and quantification of paradoxical breathing, as well as the assessment of the strength of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles by means of the oesophageal pressure during a maximal sniff and of the gastric pressure during a maximal cough. Sleep assessment should also be part of the respiratory evaluation of children with neuromuscular disease with at least the recording of nocturnal gas exchange if polysomnography is not possible or unavailable. This improvement in the assessment of respiratory muscle performance may increase our understanding of the respiratory pathophysiology of the different neuromuscular diseases, improve patient care, and guide research and innovative therapies by identifying and validating respiratory parameters. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children in Ningbo, China: A time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pei-Wen; Wang, Jian-Bing; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Shen, Peng; Chai, Peng-Fei; Li, Die; Jin, Ming-Juan; Tang, Meng-Ling; Lu, Huai-Chu; Lin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are main causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Air pollution has been recognized as an important contributor to development and exacerbation of respiratory infections. However, few studies are available in China. In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of air pollution on hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections among children under 15 years in Ningbo, China. Poisson generalized models were used to estimate the associations between air pollution and hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections adjusted for temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects. We found that four pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , and SO 2 ) were significantly associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections. The effect estimates for acute upper respiratory infections tended to be higher (PM 2.5 ER = 3.46, 95% CI 2.18, 4.76; PM 10 ER = 2.81, 95% CI 1.93, 3.69; NO 2 ER = 11.27, 95% CI 8.70, 13.89; SO 2 ER = 15.17, 95% CI 11.29, 19.19). Significant associations for gaseous pollutants (NO 2 and SO 2 ) were observed after adjustment for particular matter. Stronger associations were observed among older children and in the cold period. Our study suggested that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with hospital visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections in Ningbo.

  17. A rare disease in an atypical location - Kimura's Disease of the upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Alan Cheuk Si; Lau, Vince Wing Hang [Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hong Kong (China); Au Yeung, Rex Kwok Him [University of Hong Kong, Department of Pathology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-12-15

    Kimura's disease is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder predominantly affecting young Asian male patients, occurring mainly in the head and neck regions. Kimura's disease of the upper extremity is extremely rare, and previous case reports in the literature show similar imaging characteristics with consistent location at the medial epitrochlear region, predominantly with unilateral involvement. We present the first reported case of Kimura's disease affecting the anterolateral aspect of the upper arm, sparing the medial epitrochlear region, illustrating that with typical MR appearance and serology, the involvement of this rare disease in an atypical location still warrants consideration of this diagnosis. There was also bilateral asymmetrical involvement in our patient, suggesting the possibility of a propensity for Kimura's disease affecting the upper extremities to have bilateral involvement, which may necessitate imaging of the clinically asymptomatic contralateral limb in these patients for early lesion identification and treatment. (orig.)

  18. A rare disease in an atypical location - Kimura's Disease of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Alan Cheuk Si; Lau, Vince Wing Hang; Au Yeung, Rex Kwok Him

    2015-01-01

    Kimura's disease is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder predominantly affecting young Asian male patients, occurring mainly in the head and neck regions. Kimura's disease of the upper extremity is extremely rare, and previous case reports in the literature show similar imaging characteristics with consistent location at the medial epitrochlear region, predominantly with unilateral involvement. We present the first reported case of Kimura's disease affecting the anterolateral aspect of the upper arm, sparing the medial epitrochlear region, illustrating that with typical MR appearance and serology, the involvement of this rare disease in an atypical location still warrants consideration of this diagnosis. There was also bilateral asymmetrical involvement in our patient, suggesting the possibility of a propensity for Kimura's disease affecting the upper extremities to have bilateral involvement, which may necessitate imaging of the clinically asymptomatic contralateral limb in these patients for early lesion identification and treatment. (orig.)

  19. Respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation to hop (Humulus lupulus) during harvest and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K

    2014-11-01

    There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic antibodies: A new era in the treatment of respiratory diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sécher, T; Guilleminault, L; Reckamp, K; Amanam, I; Plantier, L; Heuzé-Vourc'h, N

    2018-05-04

    Respiratory diseases affect millions of people worldwide, and account for significant levels of disability and mortality. The treatment of lung cancer and asthma with therapeutic antibodies (Abs) is a breakthrough that opens up new paradigms for the management of respiratory diseases. Antibodies are becoming increasingly important in respiratory medicine; dozens of Abs have received marketing approval, and many more are currently in clinical development. Most of these Abs target asthma, lung cancer and respiratory infections, while very few target chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - one of the most common non-communicable causes of death - and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we review Abs approved for or in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory diseases. We notably highlight their molecular mechanisms, strengths, and likely future trends. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory disease in hospitalized adult patients in a tertiary care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; González-Cruz, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    Severe periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process associated with systemic diseases. To determine the prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory diseases among hospitalized patients at the Institute of Respiratory Diseases "Ismael Cosio Villegas" (INER) in 2011. A cross-sectional study was developed. The severe periodontal disease was diagnosed by the Department of Stomatology. The International Classification of Diseases 10th revision was used. A multinomial logistic was fit to estimate relative-risk. Three thousand and fifty-nine patients were included; 772/3,059 (25.2%) had severe periodontal disease. After controlling for age, sex, inpatient days, death, and socioeconomic status, the infectious respiratory diseases that were significantly associated with severe periodontal disease were: HIV/AIDS (RR: 10.6; 95% CI: 9.1-23.3; p abscess (RR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6-7.8; p = 0.002). Lung cancer and pleural diseases were also significantly associated with severe periodontal disease. High prevalence of severe periodontal disease was observed in the different respiratory diseases. Severe periodontal disease was associated with both infectious and non-infectious respiratory diseases. It is important to study an oral health intervention.

  2. The role of the local microbial ecosystem in respiratory health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2015-08-19

    Respiratory tract infections are a major global health concern, accounting for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young children and elderly individuals. Traditionally, highly common bacterial respiratory tract infections, including otitis media and pneumonia, were thought to be caused by a limited number of pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. However, these pathogens are also frequently observed commensal residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) and form-together with harmless commensal bacteria, viruses and fungi-intricate ecological networks, collectively known as the 'microbiome'. Analogous to the gut microbiome, the respiratory microbiome at equilibrium is thought to be beneficial to the host by priming the immune system and providing colonization resistance, while an imbalanced ecosystem might predispose to bacterial overgrowth and development of respiratory infections. We postulate that specific ecological perturbations of the bacterial communities in the URT can occur in response to various lifestyle or environmental effectors, leading to diminished colonization resistance, loss of containment of newly acquired or resident pathogens, preluding bacterial overgrowth, ultimately resulting in local or systemic bacterial infections. Here, we review the current body of literature regarding niche-specific upper respiratory microbiota profiles within human hosts and the changes occurring within these profiles that are associated with respiratory infections. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Compliance with therapy in children with respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöni, M H; Horak, E; Nikolaizik, W H

    1995-01-01

    Compliance with medical treatment was evaluated in 89 children and adolescents with respiratory diseases using two methods of assessment: a double blinded covert recording of the use of an air compressor for nebulization of drugs and the determination of theophylline levels in serum. In the covert monitoring of inhalation the overall compliance with the prescribed medication was 47.6%. In the open randomized theophylline trial, 56%-71% of the patients (according to uncontrolled or controlled intake of the drug) received a dosage of theophylline which was too low to achieve a sufficient serum level in the range of 10-20 mg/l. This, however, was also due to the fact that in 72% of the cases physicians prescribed doses which were substantially below the recommended amount of drug according to age and weight. It is, therefore, concluded that compliance of medication is based on the patients adherence to the medication, to the efficacy of the drug itself and the attitude of the physician.

  4. Ebola virus disease: Effects of respiratory protection on healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mohammed Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa sends an alarming message to all countries in the world, to increase the level of coordination and application of preventive measures globally to avoid a disastrous epidemic in the World, as the current situation in West Africa is critical especially after the World Health Organization increased the alarming level to an emergency in public health all over the world. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are important because they can readily spread within a hospital or mortuary setting, there is no effective cure or vaccine, they have a high mortality rate and they are difficult to recognize and diagnose rapidly. WHO has recommended respiratory protection for HCWs performing certain tasks such as aerosol-generating procedures, laboratory procedures, and autopsies. Particulate respirators are designed to help reduce the wearer’s exposure to certain airborne particles. The most effective way to block aerosolized particles is to use either a half-face or a full-face respirator. HCWs still need shoe covers, a full face respirator and latex or nitrile gloves to decrease the risk of Ebola virus contamination.

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Proactive Tobacco Treatment among Smokers with and without Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Anne C; Clothier, Barbara A; Japuntich, Sandra J; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Hammett, Patrick; Burgess, Diana J; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2018-03-01

    Adults with chronic lower respiratory disease differ in their barriers to smoking cessation but also suffer from tobacco-related health concerns, which may motivate quit attempts. Few studies have examined differences in tobacco treatment response between smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. We examined the effectiveness of a proactive outreach program for cessation among smokers with and without chronic lower respiratory disease. Subgroup analysis of the Veterans Victory over Tobacco Study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of proactive outreach and the choice of tobacco treatments compared with usual care. Smokers identified via the electronic medical record were proactively offered phone-based counseling and care coordination to receive medication from their Veterans Affairs providers or in-person care. We compared the response among those with and without an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis of a chronic lower respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). We used stratification by propensity scores to adjust for imbalanced covariates between groups with and without chronic lower respiratory disease within each treatment arm, using complete case analysis accounting for the stratified sampling by site. The study participants were predominantly older, white, male smokers. Overall, 19.6% had chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 3,307 had outcome data with the following assignments to the intervention: proactive care: n = 1,272 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 301 with chronic lower respiratory disease; usual care: n = 1,387 without chronic lower respiratory disease, n = 347 with chronic lower respiratory disease. A total of 1,888 had both complete baseline and outcome data and were included in the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses (n = 3,307), among individuals with

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    George Cosmin Nadas; Flore Chirila; Cosmina Bouari; Nicodim Fit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders...

  7. Personalized Medicine for Chronic Respiratory Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis, Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Diseases, and Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Helmut J F; Wassilew, Nasstasja; Köhler, Niklas; Olaru, Ioana D; Günther, Gunar; Herzmann, Christian; Kalsdorf, Barbara; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Terhalle, Elena; Rolling, Thierry; Lange, Christoph; Heyckendorf, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic respiratory infectious diseases are causing high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Tuberculosis, a major cause of chronic pulmonary infection, is currently responsible for approximately 1.5 million deaths per year. Although important advances in the fight against tuberculosis have been made, the progress towards eradication of this disease is being challenged by the dramatic increase in multidrug-resistant bacilli. Nontuberculous mycobacteria causing pulmonary disease and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are emerging infectious diseases. In contrast to other infectious diseases, chronic respiratory infections share the trait of having highly variable treatment outcomes despite longstanding antimicrobial therapy. Recent scientific progress indicates that medicine is presently at a transition stage from programmatic to personalized management. We explain current state-of-the-art management concepts of chronic pulmonary infectious diseases as well as the underlying methods for therapeutic decisions and their implications for personalized medicine. Furthermore, we describe promising biomarkers and techniques with the potential to serve future individual treatment concepts in this field of difficult-to-treat patients. These include candidate markers to improve individual risk assessment for disease development, the design of tailor-made drug therapy regimens, and individualized biomarker-guided therapy duration to achieve relapse-free cure. In addition, the use of therapeutic drug monitoring to reach optimal drug dosing with the smallest rate of adverse events as well as candidate agents for future host-directed therapies are described. Taken together, personalized medicine will provide opportunities to substantially improve the management and treatment outcome of difficult-to-treat patients with chronic respiratory infections. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David A; Nymon, Amanda B; Ringelberg, Carol S; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may contribute in the development of lung disease. MicroRNAs are ubiquitous regulators of human biology and emerging evidence indicates altered microRNA expression modulates respiratory disease processes. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the epigenetic and cellular mechanisms influencing regional differences in lung disease by investigating effect of hypoxia on regional microRNA expression in the lung. All studies were performed using primary alveolar macrophages ( n  = 10) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( n  = 16) isolated from human subjects. MicroRNA was assayed via the NanoString nCounter microRNA assay. Divergent molecular patterns of microRNA expression were observed in alternate lung lobes, specifically noted was disparate expression of miR-93 and miR-4454 in alveolar macrophages along with altered expression of miR-451a and miR-663a in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Gene ontology was used to identify potential downstream targets of divergent microRNAs. Targets include cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, molecules that could have a significant impact on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Our findings show variant regional microRNA expression associated with hypoxia in alveolar macrophages and BAL fluid in the lung-upper vs lower lobe. Future studies should address whether these specific microRNAs may act intracellularly, in a paracrine/endocrine manner to direct the innate immune response or may ultimately be involved in pulmonary host-to-pathogen trans

  9. A 12-month follow-up of an influenza vaccination campaign based on voluntary adherence: report on upper-respiratory symptoms among volunteers and non-volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páris Ali Ramadan

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Routine immunization of groups at high risk for influenza has been progressively implemented as a matter of Brazilian public health policy. Although the benefits of the vaccination for healthy young adults are still controversial, it has been offered yearly to hundreds of thousands of Brazilian workers, generally as part of wellness initiatives in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of subjects that accepted or refused to be vaccinated against influenza and to report on respiratory symptoms in both groups, one year after the campaign date. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Workers at a subsidiary of an international bank in São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 124 persons that did not accept and 145 that voluntarily accepted the vaccine completed 12 months of follow-up. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Data concerning gender, age, tobacco use, and any history of chronic respiratory illness such as asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, and repetitive upper-respiratory infections, were recorded at the time of vaccination. After that, workers were asked monthly by questionnaire or telephone about respiratory symptoms, days of work lost and medical consultations. RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant differences regarding age (P = 0.004 with the vaccinated group (V being younger than the non-vaccinated (NV one, and with reference to previous repetitive upper-respiratory infections being higher among the V group (P < 0.0001. During the follow-up, the V group reported more occurrences of upper respiratory symptoms (P < 0.0001, due to both non-influenza (P < 0.0001 and influenza-like illness (P = 0.045. Differences were also found between V and NV groups concerning days off work and number of medical consultations due to upper-respiratory symptoms and non-influenza illness. Gender and history of repetitive upper-respiratory infections were the best predictors of influenza-like illness-related events. CONCLUSIONS

  10. Stimulation of Respiratory Motor Output and Ventilation in a Murine Model of Pompe Disease by Ampakines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMallah, Mai K; Pagliardini, Silvia; Turner, Sara M; Cerreta, Anthony J; Falk, Darin J; Byrne, Barry J; Greer, John J; Fuller, David D

    2015-09-01

    Pompe disease results from a mutation in the acid α-glucosidase gene leading to lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Respiratory insufficiency is common, and the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment, enzyme replacement, has limited effectiveness. Ampakines are drugs that enhance α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor responses and can increase respiratory motor drive. Recent work indicates that respiratory motor drive can be blunted in Pompe disease, and thus pharmacologic stimulation of breathing may be beneficial. Using a murine Pompe model with the most severe clinical genotype (the Gaa(-/-) mouse), our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that ampakines can stimulate respiratory motor output and increase ventilation. Our second objective was to confirm that neuropathology was present in Pompe mouse medullary respiratory control neurons. The impact of ampakine CX717 on breathing was determined via phrenic and hypoglossal nerve recordings in anesthetized mice and whole-body plethysmography in unanesthetized mice. The medulla was examined using standard histological methods coupled with immunochemical markers of respiratory control neurons. Ampakine CX717 robustly increased phrenic and hypoglossal inspiratory bursting and reduced respiratory cycle variability in anesthetized Pompe mice, and it increased inspiratory tidal volume in unanesthetized Pompe mice. CX717 did not significantly alter these variables in wild-type mice. Medullary respiratory neurons showed extensive histopathology in Pompe mice. Ampakines stimulate respiratory neuromotor output and ventilation in Pompe mice, and therefore they have potential as an adjunctive therapy in Pompe disease.

  11. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan

    OpenAIRE

    Santus Pierachille; Russo Antonio; Madonini Enzo; Allegra Luigi; Blasi Francesco; Centanni Stefano; Miadonna Antonio; Schiraldi Gianfranco; Amaducci Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. Methods We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association bet...

  12. Effect of upper costal and costo-diaphragmatic breathing types on electromyographic activity of respiratory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celhay, Isabel; Cordova, Rosa; Miralles, Rodolfo; Meza, Francisco; Erices, Pia; Barrientos, Camilo; Valenzuela, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in young-adult subjects with different breathing types. This study included 50 healthy male subjects with complete natural dentition, and no history of orofacial pain or craniomandibular-cervical-spinal disorders. Subjects were classified into two groups: upper costal breathing type, and costo-diaphragmatic breathing. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Electromyographic activity was recorded during the following tasks: (1) normal quiet breathing; (2) speaking the word 'Mississippi'; (3) swallowing saliva; and (4) forced deep breathing. Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity was not significantly different between breathing types, whereas diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal than costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P<0·05; Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test). Diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type.

  13. Acupuncture therapy for fever induced by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in military medical service: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, SeungWon; Shin, KyoungHo; Jung, WooSang; Moon, SangKwan; Cho, KiHo

    2014-12-01

    We report the cases of eight military patients with fever (≥38°C) induced by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) who requested treatment with acupuncture in the military medical service room. All patients were treated immediately after diagnosis with classical acupuncture (GV14, GB20, TE8 points) and a new type of acupuncture, equilibrium acupuncture (Feibing and Ganmao points). After one treatment session (20 min), reduction of body temperature was confirmed in all patients. Accompanying symptoms such as headache, myalgia and nasal obstruction also showed a tendency to decrease. Within 3 days of treatment, six of the eight patients had recovered from the URTI. No adverse effects of acupuncture treatment were reported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics...... affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day...... care absences on web-based questionnaires. RESULTS: Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2...

  15. Association between indoor air pollution and respiratory disease in companion dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Hui; Lo, Pei-Ying; Wu, Huey-Dong; Chang, Chinhao; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2018-05-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) leads to important respiratory morbidity and mortality in humans. Companion dogs and cats share the same household environment with their owners and are exposed to IAP. Pets with respiratory disease are more commonly exposed to indoor air pollutants in their homes and to worse air quality than pets without respiratory disease. Three hundred and forty-eight animals (230 dogs and 118 cats) were recruited. Dogs and cats attending the National Taiwan University Veterinary Hospital were prospectively enrolled over a 12-month period. Questionnaires were collected from pet owners regarding the status of signs of respiratory problem of animals and air pollutants in their homes. Clinical assessment was performed by veterinarians on all animals included in the case-control study and the presence/absence of respiratory disease and diagnoses were recorded. Individual exposure to particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) was estimated in the domestic microenvironment of the animals. Dogs with respiratory disease were more commonly exposed to incense burning than control dogs (30 versus 13%, P = .045), but household PM2.5 level was not different between dogs with and without respiratory disease [median 30.8 μg/m 3 , range 10.8-214.2 versus median 38.2 μg/m 3 , range 5.4-69.4, P = .57]. Signalment factors (age, body weight, and body condition score) instead of IAP factors were associated with respiratory disease in dogs using multivariable logistic regression. In contrast, household PM2.5 level was significantly higher in cats with respiratory disease than in control cats [median 38.6 μg/m 3 , range 17.8-131.2 versus median 27.4 μg/m 3 , range 15.4-70.0, P = .017]. Cats living in households with PM2.5 > 35 μg/m 3 were more likely to have respiratory disease than those living in households with acceptable levels of PM2.5 (OR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.12-15.27, P = .03). The link between IAP and respiratory disease in dogs is

  16. Human milk probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract infections in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, José; Cañabate, Francisco; Sempere, Luis; Vela, Francisco; Sánchez, Ana R; Narbona, Eduardo; López-Huertas, Eduardo; Geerlings, Arjan; Valero, Antonio D; Olivares, Mónica; Lara-Villoslada, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a follow-on formula containing Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 (L. fermentum) on the incidence of infections in infants between the ages of 6 and 12 months. A randomized double-blinded controlled study including infants at the age of 6 months was conducted. Infants were assigned randomly to either follow-on formula supplemented with L. fermentum plus galactooligosaccharide (experimental group, EG), or the same formula supplemented with only galactooligosaccharide (control group, CG). The main outcome was the incidence of infections for the 6-month duration of the study. The EG showed a significant 46% reduction in the incidence rate (IR) of gastrointestinal infections (EG: 0.196 ± 0.51, CG: 0.363 ± 0.53, IR ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.307-0.950, P = 0.032), 27% reduction in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (EG: 0.969 ± 0.96, CG: 1.330 ± 1.23, IR ratio 0.729, 95% CI 0.46-1.38, P = 0.026), and 30% reduction in the total number of infections (EG: 1.464 ± 1.15, CG: 2.077 ± 1.59, IR ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.46-1.38, P = 0.003), at the end of the study period compared with CG. Administration of a follow-on formula with L. fermentum CECT5716 may be useful for the prevention of community-acquired gastrointestinal and upper respiratory infections.

  17. Upper respiratory tract infection and mucosal immunity in young ice hockey players during the pre-tournament training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orysiak, Joanna; Witek, Konrad; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Zembron-Lacny, Agnieszka; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2018-02-27

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 17 days of training during preparation for the Ice Hockey Under 18 World Championship of the Polish ice hockey national team on the mucosal immune function and monitor upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence before, during and after the competition. Twelve male ice hockey players (age 17.7±0.5 years) were recruited for this study. The first saliva/blood collection took place at the beginning of the training camp (without training at the training camp), the second one was conducted on the 9th day of the training camp immediately after the intensification of training, and the third collection was carried out on the 13th day of training (4 days before leaving for the World Championship) in the tapering phase. To assess the mucosal immune function, concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), sIgA1, and sIgA2 were analyzed in saliva. Cortisol concentration and creatine kinase activity were determined in blood, as indicators of stress and muscle damage, respectively. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 questionnaire was used to assess URTI symptoms. A significant increase in the sIgA1 and sIgA2 concentrations was observed in the third collection compared with the second time point (114.45±33.00 vs 77.49±27.29 and 88.97±25.33 vs 71.65±32.44 U, respectively). There were no statistically significant correlations between the URTI incidence and saliva variables. In conclusion, the tapering period positively affects the mucosal immune function, especially sIgA1 and sIgA2 concentrations, with no significant change in frequency of URTI in young ice hockey players.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Porcine Polyomavirus from Nasal Swabs of Pigs with Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Smith, Catherine; Bishop, Brian; Stewart, Chelsea; Simonson, Randy

    2018-04-26

    Metagenomic sequencing of pooled nasal swabs from pigs with unexplained respiratory disease identified a large number of reads mapping to a previously uncharacterized porcine polyomavirus. Sus scrofa polyomavirus 2 was most closely related to betapolyomaviruses frequently detected in mammalian respiratory samples. Copyright © 2018 Hause et al.

  19. PROGRAM RATIONALE OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION IN CHILDREN WITH FREQUENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Deryusheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex clinical and laboratory examination of 146 children aged 2—3 years attending kindergarten were presented. The leading predictors of frequent respiratory disease: disturbance of microbiocenosis oropharyngeal mucosa, immunoglobulins decrease, respiratory allergic pathology were established and scientifically substantiated. The results obtained prove the main directions of therapeutic and preventive measures.

  20. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  1. Mortality from Respiratory Diseases Associated with Opium Use – A Population Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharavi, Samad; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul DP; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. Methods We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. Results During the follow-up period 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 95% CI; 3.13 (2.42-4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61-5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. never use (Ptrendopium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18-3.25) and 3.71 (2.76-4.96), respectively. Conclusion Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases. PMID:27885167

  2. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Saffold cardiovirus genotype 3 from upper respiratory infection patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsuey-Li; Lin, Ting-Han; Chiu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lee, Chia-Chi; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Lin, Jih-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) belongs to the Cardiovirus genus of Picornaviridae family, and may be a relevant new human pathogen; Thus far, eleven genotypes have been identified. The SAFV type 3 (SAFV-3) is thought to be the major genotype and is detected relatively frequently in children with acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illness. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of SAFV-3 remain unclear. To investigate the genomic and epidemiologic profiles of SAFV-3 infection in Taiwan. Virus was detected in respiratory samples from children suffering for URI. SAFV-3 isolates were detected by isolation on cell culture and IF assay. The molecular typing was performed by RT-PCR and was sequenced to compare with reference strains available in the NCBI GeneBank. Serum samples were collected from 2005 to 2013 in Taiwan for seroprevalence investigation. A total of 226 specimens collected from children with URIs, 22 (9.73%) were positive for SAFV-3. The majority of SAFV-3 infections were found in children less than 6 years of age (14 of 22, 63.6%). Genetic analysis of VP1 coding region of Taiwanese isolates shown an 83.2-97.7% difference from other available SAFV-3 sequences in NCBI GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed there is three genetic groups of SAFV-3 co-circulated in Taiwan during the study period. In addition, seroprevalence investigation results indicated that SAFV-3 infection occurs early in life and 43.7-77.8% of children aged between 6 months to 9 years old, had neutralizing antibodies against SAFV-3. SAFV-3 may have circulated in Taiwan for some time and it appears to be one of the etiological agents responsible for URIs in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exonic variants associated with development of aspirin exacerbated respiratory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Shin

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD is one phenotype of asthma, often occurring in the form of a severe and sudden attack. Due to the time-consuming nature and difficulty of oral aspirin challenge (OAC for AERD diagnosis, non-invasive biomarkers have been sought. The aim of this study was to identify AERD-associated exonic SNPs and examine the diagnostic potential of a combination of these candidate SNPs to predict AERD. DNA from 165 AERD patients, 397 subjects with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA, and 398 normal controls were subjected to an Exome BeadChip assay containing 240K SNPs. 1,023 models (210-1 were generated from combinations of the top 10 SNPs, selected by the p-values in association with AERD. The area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves was calculated for each model. SNP Function Portal and PolyPhen-2 were used to validate the functional significance of candidate SNPs. An exonic SNP, exm537513 in HLA-DPB1, showed the lowest p-value (p = 3.40×10-8 in its association with AERD risk. From the top 10 SNPs, a combination model of 7 SNPs (exm537513, exm83523, exm1884673, exm538564, exm2264237, exm396794, and exm791954 showed the best AUC of 0.75 (asymptotic p-value of 7.94×10-21, with 34% sensitivity and 93% specificity to discriminate AERD from ATA. Amino acid changes due to exm83523 in CHIA were predicted to be "probably damaging" to the structure and function of the protein, with a high score of '1'. A combination model of seven SNPs may provide a useful, non-invasive genetic marker combination for predicting AERD.

  4. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans: Mental Health Diagnoses are Associated with Respiratory Disease Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatore, Christopher G; Falvo, Michael J; Nugent, Shannon; Carlson, Kathleen

    2018-05-01

    Many veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have concomitant respiratory conditions and mental health conditions. We wanted to evaluate the association of mental health diagnoses with respiratory disease diagnoses among post-deployment veterans. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans who were discharged from the military or otherwise became eligible to receive Veterans Health Administration services. The primary exposure was receipt of a mental health diagnosis and the primary outcome was receipt of a respiratory diagnosis as recorded in the electronic health record. We used multivariable adjusted logistic regression to measure the associations of mental health diagnoses with respiratory diagnoses and conducted several analyses exploring the timing of the diagnoses. Among 182,338 post-deployment veterans, 14% were diagnosed with a respiratory condition, 77% of whom had a concomitant mental health diagnosis. The incidence rates were 5,363/100,000 person-years (p-y), 587/100,000 p-y, 1,450/100,000 p-y, and 233/100,000 p-y for any respiratory disease diagnosis, bronchitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive lung disease diagnoses, respectively, after the date of first Veterans Health Administration utilization. Any mental health diagnosis was associated with increased odds for any respiratory diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.37-1.46). The association of mental health diagnoses and subsequent respiratory disease diagnoses was stronger and more consistent than the converse. Many Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans are diagnosed with both respiratory and mental illnesses. Comprehensive plans that include care coordination with mental health professionals and treatments for mental illnesses may be important for many veterans with respiratory diseases.

  5. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karla Kristine Dames da; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2015-07-01

    Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=-0.65, pdisease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p90%). We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  6. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Kristine Dames da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm as well as values for the inspiration (Zi and expiration cycles (Ze at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi and expiration (Zbe, respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. RESULTS: Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p90%. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the following: (1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2 this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3 the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  7. High rates of respiratory symptoms and airway disease in mental health inpatients in a tertiary centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Andrew J; Hay, Karen; Chadwick, Alex; Siskind, Dan; Sheridan, Judith

    2018-04-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) have a lower life expectancy due in part to a higher prevalence of cardiac and metabolic disease. Less is known of the prevalence of respiratory disease in this group. This cross-sectional, observational study aimed to assess the prevalence of symptoms associated with respiratory disease in patients admitted to an inpatient mental health unit. A convenience sample of 82 inpatients had a structured interview and questionnaire completed. The questionnaire included self-reported diagnoses of common diseases and screening questions designed to detect respiratory disease and sleep disordered breathing. Targeted spirometry was performed on the basis of symptoms and smoking status. Patients reported high rates of respiratory symptoms, including wheezing (38%) and dyspnoea (44%); 52% of patients reported daily tobacco use. Productive cough was significantly associated with tobacco use (P disease (COPD) of whom six did not have a formal diagnosis of COPD previously. People with SMI have high rates of respiratory symptoms with a high prevalence of COPD on spirometry. Half of the COPD cases were not previously diagnosed, suggesting a hidden burden of respiratory disease in patients with SMI. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Mortality from respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associations with environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory infections (RI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been identified by the World Health Organization as conditions which may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. We examined the associations between environmental quality and U.S. county m...

  9. [Detection of respiratory tract diseases among rural population during the team-work mass screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, E Z; Galkin, V B; Stepanova, G Ia

    1990-01-01

    A screening complex for the examination of the rural population has been worked out to detect bronchopulmonary pathology and form groups of risk for respiratory diseases. The complex of methods included compulsory questionnaires and ++fluoro-functional examination, spirometry if indicated and bacterial tests. Out of 1, 131 persons examined, 328 were found to have respiratory diseases. Chronic non-specific respiratory diseases were detected in 103 subjects, including 62 of them having obstructive bronchitis. A risk group developing chronic non-specific respiratory diseases, including 202 persons with disturbed ventilation activity of the lungs, post-tuberculous inadequate changes and other pathology. Pulmonary tuberculosis was registered in 7 subjects. The given data indicate the necessity of a complex examination of the population.

  10. Unlicensed and off-label prescription of respiratory drugs to children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W. 't Jong (Geert); I.A. Eland (Ingo); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.N. van den Anker (John); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMany respiratory drugs are not available in formulations suitable for infants and toddlers. Efficacy and safety research is mostly restricted to older children. However, respiratory drugs are frequently used in children for common diseases like asthma, upper and

  11. Prediction of acute respiratory disease in current and former smokers with and without COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Russell P; Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A A; Santorico, Stephanie A; Make, Barry J; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John E; Washko, George R; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J Michael; Hersh, Craig P; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K; van Beek, Edwin J R; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD.

  12. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  13. Current possibilities of anti-inflammatory therapy in children with acute respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    E. E. Lokshina; O. V. Zaytseva

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives an update on the pathogenesis of acute respiratory diseases, the basis for which is inflammation of the airway mucosal lining. It reflects the results of a comparative clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of the anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride used in the combination therapy for respiratory diseases in children. The findings allow one to recommend the use of fenspiride to treat this condition in children.

  14. Current possibilities of anti-inflammatory therapy in children with acute respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Lokshina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an update on the pathogenesis of acute respiratory diseases, the basis for which is inflammation of the airway mucosal lining. It reflects the results of a comparative clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of the anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride used in the combination therapy for respiratory diseases in children. The findings allow one to recommend the use of fenspiride to treat this condition in children.

  15. Antimicrobial use Guidelines for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappin, M. R.; Blondeau, J.; Boothe, D.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available...... veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats....

  16. Effect of metabolic alkalosis on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, R.; Goldstein, M.; Phillipson, E.; Ho, M.; Hammeke, M.; Feldman, R.; Handelsman, S.; Halperin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven instances of a mixed acid-base disorder consisting of chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis were recognized in eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Correction of the metabolic alkalosis led to substantial improvement in blood gas values and clinical symptoms. Patients with mixed chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis constitute a common subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention; these patients benefit from correction of the metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21028

  17. A study on a relationship between prevalence of respiratory disease and air pollution in two areas

    OpenAIRE

    五島,正規

    2000-01-01

    There have been many studies on the relationship between prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease and air pollution. This study was conducted by organized efforts of a regional medical association. Every member of the association reported the numbers of patients with respiratory diseases such as asthmatic bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, and bronchial asthma, and the total number of patients who consulted him/her. The former report was conducted in K city, and this study was of the Y ar...

  18. Statistical Methodological Issues in Studies of Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyndman, R.J.; Erbas, B.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown short term associations between levels of air pollution and respiratory disease in countries of diverse populations, geographical locations and varying levels of air pollution and climate. The aims of this paper are: (1) to assess the sensitivity of the observed pollution effects to model specification, with particular emphasis on the inclusion of seasonally adjusted covariates; and (2) to study the effect of air pollution on respiratory disease...

  19. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners as related to height, radiation, smoking, and latent period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; James, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    A prospective mortality study using a life table method was done on 3366 white underground uranium miners, and 1231 surface workers. Observed deaths were found to exceed those expected from respiratory cancer, pneumoconiosis and related diseases, and accidents related to work. Exposure - response relationships with radiation varied with cigarette smoking and with height of workers. Of four factors involved in both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (height, free silica, cigarette smoking and alpha radiation), radiation was considered to be most important

  20. Differential susceptibility according to gender in the association between air pollution and mortality from respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Marcio Sacramento de; Leon,Antônio Ponce de; Mattos,Inês Echenique; Koifman,Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the association between air pollution and deaths from respiratory diseases, considering differential susceptibility according to gender. The authors used daily deaths from respiratory diseases (ICD-10, J00-J99), PM10, SO2, and O3 levels, and meteorological indicators in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from January 2002 to December 2006. The association was estimated by Poisson regression using generalized additive models, where the increase in risk of deaths f...

  1. Phyto-inhalation for treatment of complications of acute respiratory viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalations (inhalation of medicinal substances are one of the effective ways to treat upper respiratory tract diseases and colds. Inhalation therapy is used to treat rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, which can be complications of acute respiratory viral infections. The main rules of inhalation are as follows to conduct the procedure better after 1.5 hours after eating; clothes should not impede breathing; the procedure can be carried out only while sitting or standing; solution for the inhaler for treatment of bronchitis should be fresh; it is necessary to strictly keep the prescribed dosage; the time of the procedure should also be respected — usually it is from 1 to 4 minutes, sometimes for adults up to 10 minutes, for children the inhalation period is shorter — 1–2 minutes. Contraindications to inhalation are body temperature above 37.5 degrees; propensity to nasal blee­ding in a patient; propensity to increased arterial pressure, with cardiovascular failure; purulent inflammation of the tonsils; respiratory failure. The procedure should be stopped immediately in case of appearance of adverse symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, difficulty in breathing. Therefore, inhalations must be prescribed by a doctor after examination of a patient. During inhalations in rhinitis, you should try to inhale the vapor through the nose. For effective treatment of rhinitis, inhalations from conife­rous plants are very suitable: fir, pine, juniper, larch, from steamed dried chamomile flowers, mint, and blackberry leaves. Honey inhalations can be used for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. Medical herbal inhalation for children should be carried out from the age of two years. This must be done under the constant supervision of an adult. Leaves of coniferous trees: pine, fir, if or juniper, cedar

  2. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, S.; De Goede, M.P.M.; Van Doornen, L.J.P.; Van de Schoot, R.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related

  3. Effects of Long-Haul Transmeridian Travel on Subjective Jet-Lag and Self-Reported Sleep and Upper Respiratory Symptoms in Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.

  4. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and demand for antibiotics in patients with upper respiratory tract infections is hardly different in female versus male patients as seen in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Kathrine; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics is a major public health concern. General practitioners (GPs) prescribe most antibiotics, often for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and have in general been shown to prescribe antibiotics more often to women. No studies have examined...

  5. Occupational upper airway disease: how work affects the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Steelant, B.; Fokkens, W.; Nemery, B.; Hellings, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the upper airways is common and can arbitrarily be divided into rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Infection and allergy represent two well-characterized and most frequently diagnosed etiologies of upper airway inflammation. Persistent upper airway inflammation caused by agents

  6. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 on immune response to influenza vaccination and upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lillian; Tarnow, Inge; Eskesen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics can modulate the immune system in healthy individuals and may help reduce symptoms related to respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei 431 (Chr...... inhibition) 21 d after vaccination. Other outcomes were seroconversion rate and mean titers, influenza A-specific antibodies and incidence, and duration and severity of upper respiratory symptoms. Antibiotic use and use of health care resources were recorded. RESULTS: There was no effect of L. casei 431...... on immune responses to influenza vaccination. Generalized linear mixed modeling showed a shorter duration of upper respiratory symptoms in the probiotic group compared with placebo (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 6.1 d vs. 7.3 ± 9.7 d, P = 0.0059) in the last 3 wk of the intervention period. No statistically significant...

  7. Burden of Respiratory Disease in Korea: An Observational Study on Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma, COPD, and Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kwang Ha; Ahn, Hae Ryun; Park, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Jong Woong; Nam, Gui Hyun; Hong, Soon Kwan; Kim, Mee Ja; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Lin, Horng Chyuan; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Baidya, Santwona; Wang, De Yun; Cho, Sang Heon

    2016-11-01

    The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) study is a cross-sectional, observational one which has used a standard protocol to examine the disease and economic burden of allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and rhinosinusitis across the Asia-Pacific region. Here, we report on symptoms, healthcare resource use, work impairment, and associated costs in Korea. Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Participants and their treating physician completed a survey detailing respiratory symptoms, healthcare resource use, and work productivity and activity impairment. Costs included direct medical cost and indirect cost associated with lost work productivity. The study enrolled 999 patients. Patients were often diagnosed with multiple respiratory disorders (42.8%), with asthma/AR and AR/rhinosinusitis the most frequently diagnosed combinations. Cough or coughing up phlegm was the primary reason for the medical visit in patients with a primary diagnosis of asthma and COPD, whereas nasal symptoms (watery runny nose, blocked nose, and congestion) were the main reasons in those with AR and rhinosinusitis. The mean annual cost for patients with a respiratory disease was US$8,853 (SD 11,245) per patient. Lost productivity due to presenteeism was the biggest contributor to costs. Respiratory disease has a significant impact on disease burden in Korea. Treatment strategies for preventing lost work productivity could greatly reduce the economic burden of respiratory disease.

  8. Wearable technology: role in respiratory health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliverti, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In the future, diagnostic devices will be able to monitor a patient's physiological or biochemical parameters continuously, under natural physiological conditions and in any environment through wearable biomedical sensors. Together with apps that capture and interpret data, and integrated enterprise and cloud data repositories, the networks of wearable devices and body area networks will constitute the healthcare's Internet of Things. In this review, four main areas of interest for respiratory healthcare are described: pulse oximetry, pulmonary ventilation, activity tracking and air quality assessment. Although several issues still need to be solved, smart wearable technologies will provide unique opportunities for the future or personalised respiratory medicine.

  9. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: More than an upper motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, L; Fenu, S; Stevanin, G; Durr, A

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of rare inherited neurological diseases characterized by extreme heterogeneity in both their clinical manifestations and genetic backgrounds. Based on symptoms, HSPs can be divided into pure forms, presenting with pyramidal signs leading to lower-limb spasticity, and complex forms, when additional neurological or extraneurological symptoms are detected. The clinical diversity of HSPs partially reflects their underlying genetic backgrounds. To date, 76 loci and 58 corresponding genes [spastic paraplegia genes (SPGs)] have been linked to HSPs. The genetic diagnosis is further complicated by the fact that causative mutations of HSP can be inherited through all possible modes of transmission (autosomal-dominant and -recessive, X-linked, maternal), with some genes showing multiple inheritance patterns. The pathogenic mutations of SPGs primarily lead to progressive degeneration of the upper motor neurons (UMNs) comprising corticospinal tracts. However, it is possible to observe lower-limb muscle atrophy and fasciculations on clinical examination that are clear signs of lower motor neuron (LMN) involvement. The purpose of this review is to classify HSPs based on their degree of motor neuron involvement, distinguishing forms in which only UMNs are affected from those involving both UMN and LMN degeneration, and to describe their differential diagnosis from diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Modern features of infants’ feeding and its impact on respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duka K.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of infants’ feeding connected with the incidence of respiratory diseases. Rationality and duration of breast feeding does not cause doubts. But unfortunately today, only 60-80% of children under the age of 6 months are exclusively breastfed. Naturally, this causes impact on disease incidence of such children. Formation of bronchopulmonary pathology is of particular interest. The basis of modern research is the concept of programmed impact of nutrition in early childhood on health in lateryears. We have determined the dependence of respiratory diseases incidence in children of early age on duration of exclusively breast feeding. Not only frequent respiratory diseases, but formation of bronchitis, pneumonia or other complications of their course is of importance. The study included questioning of mothers and children under 7 years of age, clinical, radiological and laboratory investigations in the hospital in case of respiratory disease. All studies were conducted in accordance with the characteristics of diet quality of the child in the first year of life with the following biostatistical processing. 601 children aged from 3 months to 7 years were examined. It was found that the duration of breast feeding in the region is 89% only to the age of 6-months, and up to 1 year the percentage of breastfed children reduces to 38%. This affected the resistance of children to respiratory infections, especially in the first year of life. Children exclusively breastfed up to 1 year suffer from respiratory diseases 1-2 times per year. In children over one year of age breast feeding does not affect the frequency of respiratory pathology. Increase of respiratory diseases frequency in children aged 3-5 years is due to attending preschool institutions and increasing contacts between children, which significantly reduces their resistance.

  11. 76 FR 30366 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [FR Doc. 2011...

  12. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection. Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI. Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS. Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions. Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  13. Detection of a group 2 coronavirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erles, Kerstin; Toomey, Crista; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe

    2003-01-01

    An investigation into the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease was carried out in a large rehoming kennel. Tissue samples taken from the respiratory tract of diseased dogs were tested for the presence of coronaviruses using RT-PCR with conserved primers for the polymerase gene. Sequence analysis of four positive samples showed the presence of a coronavirus with high similarity to both bovine and human coronavirus (strain OC43) in their polymerase and spike genes, whereas there was a low similarity to comparable genes in the enteric canine coronavirus. This canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCV) was detected by RT-PCR in 32/119 tracheal and 20/119 lung samples, with the highest prevalence being detected in dogs with mild clinical symptoms. Serological analysis showed that the presence of antibodies against CRCV on the day of entry into the kennel decreased the risk of developing respiratory disease

  14. Modifications of the National Early Warning Score for patients with chronic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N. E.; Rasmussen, L. S.; Petersen, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    System (CROS), the Chronic Respiratory Early Warning Score (CREWS) and the Salford NEWS (S-NEWS) affected NEWS total scores and NEWS performance. METHODS: In an observational study, we included patients with chronic respiratory disease. The frequency of use of CROS and the NEWS total score changes caused...... and specialist consultation' total score intervals to lower intervals. CONCLUSION: Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System was frequently used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS reduced sensitivity for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Using the methodology prevalent......BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) uses physiological variables to detect deterioration in hospitalized patients. However, patients with chronic respiratory disease may have abnormal variables not requiring interventions. We studied how the Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override...

  15. Air pollution and hospitalization for respiratory diseases among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The result of statistical modeling using gener-alized linear Poisson regression showed that PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations had statistically significant positive association with number of respira-tory admissions of children. Conclusion: This study confirms the findings of previ-ous studies about the ...

  16. Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Gaston, Benjamin; Folkerts, Gert

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade a plethora of studies have unravelled the multiple roles of nitric oxide (NO) in airway physiology and pathophysiology. In the respiratory tract, NO is produced by a wide variety of cell types and is generated via oxidation of l-arginine that is catalyzed by the enzyme NO

  17. Association between air pollution and general outpatient clinic consultations for upper respiratory tract infections in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson W S; Wong, Tze Wai; Ng, Lorna; Wong, Samuel Y S; Kung, Kenny K L; Wong, Andromeda H S

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health, but few have examined the effects of air pollution on service utilisation in the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations due to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in general outpatient clinics (GOPCs) in Hong Kong. Daily data on the numbers of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs, the concentrations of major air pollutants, and the mean values of metrological variables were retrospectively collected over a 3-year period (2008-2010, inclusive). Generalised additive models were constructed to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations, and to derive the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of GOPC consultations for a unit increase in the concentrations of air pollutants. The mean daily consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs ranged from 68.4 to 253.0 over the study period. The summary relative risks (and 95% CI) of daily consultations in all GOPCs for the air pollutants PM10, NO2, O3, and SO2 were 1.005 (1.002, 1.009), 1.010 (1.006, 1.013), 1.009 (1.006, 1.012), and 1.004 (1.000, 1.008) respectively, per 10 µg/m(3) increase in the concentration of each pollutant. Significant associations were found between the daily number of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs and the concentrations of air pollutants, implying that air pollution incurs a substantial morbidity and increases the burden of primary health care services.

  18. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  19. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Rashidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. Materials and Methods: The geographic information system (GIS, pollutant standards index (PSI measurements, and remote Sensing (RS technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Results: Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  20. Relation of air pollution with epidemiology of respiratory diseases in isfahan, Iran from 2005 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Maasoumeh; Ramesht, Mohammad Hossein; Zohary, Moein; Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Rashidi, Zeinab; Rouzbahani, Reza

    2013-12-01

    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) scientists shows that long-term exposure to air pollutants increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to the health effects of ozone, fine particles, and other airborne toxicants. Air pollution factors are considered as one of the underlying causes of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to determine the association of respiratory diseases documented in medical records and air pollution (Map distribution) of accumulation in Isfahan province, Iran. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences from different points can be observed. The geographic information system (GIS), pollutant standards index (PSI) measurements, and remote Sensing (RS) technology were used after entering data in the mapping information table; spatial distribution was mapped and distribution of Geographical Epidemiology of Respiratory Diseases in Isfahan province (Iran) was determined in this case study from 2005 to 2009. Space with tracing the distribution of respiratory diseases was scattered based on the distribution of air pollution in the points is an important part of this type of diseases in Isfahan province where air pollution was more abundant. The findings of this study emphasis on the importance of preventing the exposure to air pollution, and to control air pollution product industries, to improve work environmental health, and to increase the health professionals and public knowledge in this regard.

  1. Progress in Vaccine-Preventable and Respiratory Infectious Diseases-First 10 Years of the CDC National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchat, Anne; Anderson, Larry J; Rodewald, Lance E; Cox, Nancy J; Hajjeh, Rana; Pallansch, Mark A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Jernigan, Daniel B; Wharton, Melinda

    2018-07-01

    The need for closer linkages between scientific and programmatic areas focused on addressing vaccine-preventable and acute respiratory infections led to establishment of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. During its first 10 years (2006-2015), NCIRD worked with partners to improve preparedness and response to pandemic influenza and other emergent respiratory infections, provide an evidence base for addition of 7 newly recommended vaccines, and modernize vaccine distribution. Clinical tools were developed for improved conversations with parents, which helped sustain childhood immunization as a social norm. Coverage increased for vaccines to protect adolescents against pertussis, meningococcal meningitis, and human papillomavirus-associated cancers. NCIRD programs supported outbreak response for new respiratory pathogens and oversaw response of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Other national public health institutes might also find closer linkages between epidemiology, laboratory, and immunization programs useful.

  2. Spontaneous pneumothorax after upper mantle radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszat, L.; Basrur, V.; Tadros, A.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1981, 158 of 256 consecutive adult patients received upper mantle (UM) radiation therapy as part of initial treatment of Hodgkin disease at the Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre. Chemotherapy was also part of the initial treatment in 21 of 158 patients who received UM radiation therapy. Spontaneous pneumothorax was observed in six of 158 patients during remission after UM radiation therapy in this series. Three cases were incidental findings on follow-up radiographs, but three other patients were seen initially with symptoms of spontaneous pneumothorax. The entity occurred in three of 21 patients (14%) treated with UM radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and in three of 137 (2%) treated with UM radiation therapy (P < .05). Within the range of UM doses (3,500-4,000 cGy in 4 weeks), higher dose was not associated with higher risk of spontaneous pneumothorax. Although these cases of spontaneous pneumothorax are clustered in an age range classic for this entity, the incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in this group of patients is higher than the anticipated lifetime incidence of 1:500 for the general population. This risk of spontaneous pneumothorax after UM radiation therapy may be even higher in patients who also receive chemotherapy

  3. Infectious respiratory disease outbreaks and pregnancy: occupational health and safety concerns of Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen P; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Dow, Darcie; Amaratunga, Carol A

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of emergency and critical care nurses' perceptions of occupational response and preparedness during infectious respiratory disease outbreaks including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. Healthcare workers, predominantly female, face occupational and personal challenges in their roles as first responders/first receivers. Exposure to SARS or other respiratory pathogens during pregnancy represents additional occupational risk for healthcare workers. Perceptions of occupational reproductive risk during response to infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were assessed qualitatively by five focus groups comprised of 100 Canadian nurses conducted between 2005 and 2006. Occupational health and safety issues anticipated by Canadian nurses for future infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were grouped into four major themes: (1) apprehension about occupational risks to pregnant nurses; (2) unknown pregnancy risks of anti-infective therapy/prophylaxis; (3) occupational risk communication for pregnant nurses; and (4) human resource strategies required for pregnant nurses during outbreaks. The reproductive risk perceptions voiced by Canadian nurses generally were consistent with reported case reports of pregnant women infected with SARS or emerging influenza strains. Nurses' fears of fertility risks posed by exposure to infectious agents or anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis are not well supported by the literature, with the former not biologically plausible and the latter lacking sufficient data. Reproductive risk assessments should be performed for each infectious respiratory disease outbreak to provide female healthcare workers and in particular pregnant women with guidelines regarding infection control and use of anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis.

  4. Respiratory muscle function and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charususin, Noppawan; Dacha, Sauwaluk; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc; Von Leupoldt, Andreas; Reijnders, Thomas; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Langer, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is common and contributes to dyspnea and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Improving dynamic function of respiratory muscles during exercise might help to reduce symptoms and improve exercise capacity. Areas covered: The aims of this review are to 1) summarize physiological mechanisms linking respiratory muscle dysfunction to dyspnea and exercise limitation; 2) provide an overview of available therapeutic approaches to better maintain load-capacity balance of respiratory muscles during exercise; and 3) to summarize current knowledge on potential mechanisms explaining effects of interventions aimed at optimizing dynamic respiratory muscle function with a special focus on inspiratory muscle training. Expert commentary: Several mechanisms which are potentially linking improvements in dynamic respiratory muscle function to symptomatic and functional benefits have not been studied so far in COPD patients. Examples of underexplored areas include the study of neural processes related to the relief of acute dyspnea and the competition between respiratory and peripheral muscles for limited energy supplies during exercise. Novel methodologies are available to non-invasively study these mechanisms. Better insights into the consequences of dynamic respiratory muscle dysfunction will hopefully contribute to further refine and individualize therapeutic approaches in patients with COPD.

  5. Noninvasive Respiratory Management of Patients With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R

    2017-08-01

    This review article describes definitive noninvasive respiratory management of respiratory muscle dysfunction to eliminate need to resort to tracheotomy. In 2010 clinicians from 22 centers in 18 countries reported 1,623 spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis users of noninvasive ventilatory support (NVS) of whom 760 required it continuously (CNVS). The CNVS sustained their lives by over 3,000 patient-years without resort to indwelling tracheostomy tubes. These centers have now extubated at least 74 consecutive ventilator unweanable patients with DMD, over 95% of CNVS-dependent patients with SMA1, and hundreds of others with advanced neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) without resort to tracheotomy. Two centers reported a 99% success rate at extubating 258 ventilator unweanable patients without resort to tracheotomy. Patients with myopathic or lower motor neuron disorders can be managed noninvasively by up to CNVS, indefinitely, despite having little or no measurable vital capacity, with the use of physical medicine respiratory muscle aids. Ventilator-dependent patients can be decannulated of their tracheostomy tubes.

  6. Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Disease in Hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Skoufi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function. Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group. Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed. Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (p<0.001 and higher FeNO values (p=0.012 were observed in hairdressers. A larger working area and presence of window ventilation were associated with better pulmonary function. Conclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.

  7. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Wintertime Vitamin D Supplementation on Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Young Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglipay, Mary; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Loeb, Mark B; Thorpe, Kevin; Chen, Yang; Laupacis, Andreas; Mamdani, Muhammad; Macarthur, Colin; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Mazzulli, Tony; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-07-18

    Epidemiological studies support a link between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and a higher risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections. However, whether winter supplementation of vitamin D reduces the risk among children is unknown. To determine whether high-dose vs standard-dose vitamin D supplementation reduces the incidence of wintertime upper respiratory tract infections in young children. A randomized clinical trial was conducted during the winter months between September 13, 2011, and June 30, 2015, among children aged 1 through 5 years enrolled in TARGet Kids!, a multisite primary care practice-based research network in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Three hundred forty-nine participants were randomized to receive 2000 IU/d of vitamin D oral supplementation (high-dose group) vs 354 participants who were randomized to receive 400 IU/d (standard-dose group) for a minimum of 4 months between September and May. The primary outcome was the number of laboratory-confirmed viral upper respiratory tract infections based on parent-collected nasal swabs over the winter months. Secondary outcomes included the number of influenza infections, noninfluenza infections, parent-reported upper respiratory tract illnesses, time to first upper respiratory tract infection, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at study termination. Among 703 participants who were randomized (mean age, 2.7 years, 57.7% boys), 699 (99.4%) completed the trial. The mean number of laboratory-confirmed upper respiratory tract infections per child was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.91-1.19) for the high-dose group and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.90-1.16) for the standard-dose group, for a between-group difference of 0.02 (95% CI, -0.17 to 0.21) per child. There was no statistically significant difference in number of laboratory-confirmed infections between groups (incidence rate ratio [RR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.80-1.16). There was also no significant difference in the median time to the first laboratory-confirmed infection: 3.95 months

  8. Quality of Care for Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases: Data for Accreditation Plan in Primary Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Szwamel, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena

    There are scarce reports in the literature on factors affecting the assessment of the quality of care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Such information is relevant in the accreditation process on implementing the healthcare. The study group consisted of 133 adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases and 125 adult patients with chronic non-respiratory diseases. In the present study, the level of satisfaction from healthcare provided by the primary healthcare unit, disease acceptance, quality of life, health behaviors, and met needs were examined, as well as associations between variables with the use of correspondence analysis. The results are that in patients with chronic respiratory diseases an increase in satisfaction depends on the improvement of well-being in the mental sphere. The lack of problems with obtaining a referral to a specialist and a higher level of fulfilled needs also have a positive effect. Additionally, low levels of satisfaction should be expected in those patients with chronic respiratory diseases who wait for an appointment in front of the office for a long time, report problems with obtaining a referral to additional tests, present a low level of health behaviors, and have a low index of benefits.

  9. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Ni, Dao-feng; Wang, Jian; Gao, Zhi-qiang

    2009-07-05

    Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrophysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  10. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jing; NI Dao-feng; WANG Jian; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). Methods We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. Results An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. Conclusions We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrephysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  11. Astragalus in the Prevention of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome: Evidence-Based Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To explore whether Astragalus or its formulations could prevent upper respiratory infection in children with nephrotic syndrome and how best to use it. Methods. We transformed a common clinical question in practice to an answerable question according to the PICO principle. Databases, including the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2012, PUBMED (1966–2012.8, CBM (1978–2012.8, VIP (1989–2012.8, and CNKI (1979–2012.8, were searched to identify Cochrane systematic reviews and clinical trials. Then, the quality of and recommendations from the clinical evidence were evaluated using the GRADEpro software. Results. The search yielded 537 papers. Only two studies with high validity were included for synthesis calculations. The results showed that Astragalus granules could effectively reduce URTI in children with nephrotic syndrome compared with prednisone treatment alone (23.9% versus 42.9%; RR = 0.56 and 95% CI = 0.33–0.93. The dose of Astragalus granules was 2.25 gram (equivalent to 15 gram crude Astragalus twice per day, at least for 3–6 months. The level of evidence quality was low, but we still recommended the evidence to the patient according to GRADEpro with the opinion of the expert. Followup showed the incidence of URTI in this child decreased significantly. Conclusions. Astragalus granules may reduce the incidence of URTI in children with nephrotic syndrome.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotic use for upper respiratory tract infections: a survey of Thai students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan; Kaewmang, Kanchana

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections (URI) among students at different educational levels (Grade 12 students and high vocational students) and to examine factors influencing antibiotic use for URI. A cross sectional questionnaire survey was used with students in one large and one small city in Thailand. Of 712 respondents, more than 75% of all groups had misconceptions on the benefits of antibiotics. Grade 12 students, especially those in the big city, had the highest knowledge scores about antibiotic use in URI, while high vocational students had the lowest. Incomplete taking of a course of antibiotic treatment recommended by health providers was found in more than 45% of respondents in each group. In addition, approximately half of them had taken antibiotics for less than 5 days. Knowledge about antibiotic use in URI, attitudes towards antibiotic use, attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing for treating colds by physicians and by drugstores, belief in the common use of antibiotics for colds, and expectations of receiving antibiotics from physicians significantly influenced intentions and behaviors about antibiotic use. Students had misconceptions on antibiotic use for URI. The Ministry of Education should incorporate information on proper antibiotic use in the formal health education. Reliable sources of information on the correct use of antibiotics should also be more widely available to improve the use of antibiotics.

  13. Homeopathic Medications as Clinical Alternatives for Symptomatic Care of Acute Otitis Media and Upper Respiratory Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nancy N

    2013-01-01

    The public health and individual risks of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and conventional over-the-counter symptomatic drugs in pediatric treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) and upper respiratory infections (URIs) are significant. Clinical research suggests that over-the-counter homeopathic medicines offer pragmatic treatment alternatives to conventional drugs for symptom relief in children with uncomplicated AOM or URIs. Homeopathy is a controversial but demonstrably safe and effective 200-year-old whole system of complementary and alternative medicine used worldwide. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate that homeopathy accelerates early symptom relief in acute illnesses at much lower risk than conventional drug approaches. Evidence-based advantages for homeopathy include lower antibiotic fill rates during watchful waiting in otitis media, fewer and less serious side effects, absence of drug-drug interactions, and reduced parental sick leave from work. Emerging evidence from basic and preclinical science research counter the skeptics' claims that homeopathic remedies are biologically inert placebos. Consumers already accept and use homeopathic medicines for self care, as evidenced by annual US consumer expenditures of $2.9 billion on homeopathic remedies. Homeopathy appears equivalent to and safer than conventional standard care in comparative effectiveness trials, but additional well-designed efficacy trials are indicated. Nonetheless, the existing research evidence on safety supports pragmatic use of homeopathy in order to “first do no harm” in the early symptom management of otherwise uncomplicated AOM and URIs in children. PMID:24381823

  14. Difficult identification of Haemophilus influenzae, a typical cause of upper respiratory tract infections, in the microbiological diagnostic routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Rebecca; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a key pathogen of upper respiratory tract infections. Its reliable discrimination from nonpathogenic Haemophilus spp. is necessary because merely colonizing bacteria are frequent at primarily unsterile sites. Due to close phylogenetic relationship, it is not easy to discriminate H. influenzae from the colonizer Haemophilus haemolyticus. The frequency of H. haemolyticus isolations depends on factors like sampling site, patient condition, and geographic region. Biochemical discrimination has been shown to be nonreliable. Multiplex PCR including marker genes like sodC, fucK, and hpd or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the P6 gene, or multilocus-sequence-typing is more promising. For the diagnostic routine, such techniques are too expensive and laborious. If available, matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a routine-compatible option and should be used in the first line. However, the used database should contain well-defined reference spectra, and the spectral difference between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus is small. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization is an option for less well-equipped laboratories, but the available protocol will not lead to conclusive results in all instances. It can be used as a second line approach. Occasional ambiguous results have to be resolved by alternative molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  15. The consumption of propolis and royal jelly in preventing upper respiratory tract infections and as dietary supplementation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Yuksel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propolis and royal jelly (RJ, two important honeybee products, have been used commonly all over the World as traditional and ethnopharmacological nutrients since ancient times. Both of them have a lot of active ingredients, which are known to be effective for several medical conditions. In this article, medical databases were searched for the usage of RJ and propolis in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI and as a dietary supplementation, together and separately. 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA is the most prominent active compound showing antimicrobial effect within RJ. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is the most famous one that shows antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect within propolis. When compared with propolis, RJ was found to have richer content for all three main nutrients; proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. More clinical, experimental, and basic studies are needed to find out the best-standardized mixture to cope with URTI in which RJ and propolis will be main ingredients in addition to the other secondary compounds that have health-beneficial effects. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 308-311

  16. Occupational risk factors for chronic respiratory disease in a New Zealand population using lifetime occupational history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Anna; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Poole, Suzanne; Zock, Jan-Paul; Weatherall, Mark; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Travers, Justin; Beasley, Richard

    2014-03-01

    To investigate associations between respiratory disease and occupational exposures in a New Zealand urban population, the Wellington Respiratory Survey. Multiple regression analyses in a population sample of 1017 individuals aged 25 to 74 years with spirometry and questionnaire information, including a lifetime occupational history. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with self-reported exposure to hairdressing, paint manufacturing, insecticides, welding, detergents and with ALOHA Job Exposure Matrix-assessed gases/fumes exposure. The strongest association was for hairdressing (odds ratio 6.91; 95% confidence interval: 2.02 to 23.70). Cumulative exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher FEV₁% (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration) predicted. Analyses were limited by relatively small numbers of cases. Increased risks of objectively defined respiratory disease, which have been previously documented, were not seen. Nevertheless, the study suggested increased risk of respiratory symptoms with various occupational exposures as well as likely healthy worker effect.

  17. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric...... strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The six-minute walk test and the four-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Results......: Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Conclusions: Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be differentially affected by the disease in individual patients...

  18. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Design Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Setting Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Participants 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Interventions Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. Results The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute

  19. Relação entre poluição atmosférica e atendimentos por infecção de vias aéreas superiores no município de São Paulo: avaliação do rodízio de veículos Air pollution and emergency room visits for upper airway respiratory infection disease in São Paulo city: evaluation of vehicle restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Conceição Martins

    2001-11-01

    investigate the relationship between daily levels of air pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2, PM10 and O3 and the daily numbers of elderly patients with upper respiratory infection diseases (URID atended at the Clinics Hospital emergency room service of the University of São Paulo Medical School, during this period. Generalized adittive Poisson regression models were estimated and adjusted by seasonality (non-parametric smoother functions, weather (non-parametric smoother functions and linear terms, weekdays indicator, vehicular restriction indicator periods and the daily number of non respiratory admissions. The effects of air pollutants were estimated based on daily levels and 2 to 7 day moving average. Carbon monoxide (CO and sulphor dioxide (SO2 were associated with URID and these correlations were resistant even with the inclusion of control variables. The vehicular restriction reduced the pollutants levels. However, no reduction in emergency room visits for URID was detected.

  20. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways of upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha 1 -antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state [fr

  1. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M; Lobera, A; Legrand, E [Fondation Bergorie, Bordeaux (France)

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways on upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha/sub 1/-antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state.

  2. Mortality from respiratory diseases associated with opium use: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharravi, Abdolsamad; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50 045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. During the follow-up period, 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to non-malignant aetiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted HR 95% CI 3.13 (2.42 to 4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61 to 5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use versus never use (P trend respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18 to 3.25) and 3.71 (2.76 to 4.96), respectively. Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Chronic respiratory disease, inhaled corticosteroids and risk of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréjak, Claire; Nielsen, Rikke; Thomsen, Vibeke Ø; Duhaut, Pierre; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2013-03-01

    Chronic respiratory disease and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increase the risk of pneumonia. Few data are available on the association of these risk factors with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. This study examined chronic respiratory diseases and ICS use as risk factors in a population-based case-control study encompassing all adults in Denmark with microbiologically confirmed NTM pulmonary disease between 1997 and 2008. The study included 10 matched population controls per case. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute adjusted ORs for NTM pulmonary disease with regard to chronic respiratory disease history. Overall, chronic respiratory disease was associated with a 16.5-fold (95% CI 12.2 to 22.2) increased risk of NTM pulmonary disease. The adjusted OR for NTM disease was 15.7 (95% CI 11.4 to 21.5) for COPD, 7.8 (95% CI 5.2 to 11.6) for asthma, 9.8 (95% CI 2.03 to 52.8) for pneumoconiosis, 187.5 (95% CI 24.8 to 1417.4) for bronchiectasis, and 178.3 (95% CI 55.4 to 574.3) for tuberculosis history. ORs were 29.1 (95% CI 13.3 to 63.8) for patients with COPD on current ICS therapy and 7.6 (95% CI 3.4 to 16.8) for patients with COPD who had never received ICS therapy. Among patients with COPD, ORs increased according to ICS dose, from 28.1 for low-dose intake to 47.5 for high-dose intake (more than 800 μg/day). The OR was higher for fluticasone than for budesonide. Chronic respiratory disease, particularly COPD treated with ICS therapy, is a strong risk factor for NTM pulmonary disease.

  4. Postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction: pathophysiology and preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Meyer, Matthew J; Eikermann, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are responsible for significant increases in hospital cost as well as patient morbidity and mortality; respiratory muscle dysfunction represents a contributing factor. Upper airway dilator muscles functionally resist the upper airway collapsing forces created by the respiratory pump muscles. Standard perioperative medications (anesthetics, sedatives, opioids, and neuromuscular blocking agents), interventions (patient positioning, mechanical ventilation, and surgical trauma), and diseases (lung hyperinflation, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea) have differential effects on the respiratory muscle subgroups. These effects on the upper airway dilators and respiratory pump muscles impair their coordination and function and can result in respiratory failure. Perioperative management strategies can help decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction. Such strategies include minimally invasive procedures rather than open surgery, early and optimal mobilizing of respiratory muscles while on mechanical ventilation, judicious use of respiratory depressant anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents, and noninvasive ventilation when possible.

  5. Detection of canine pneumovirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Judy A; Cardwell, Jacqueline M; Renshaw, Randall W; Dubovi, Edward J; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-12-01

    Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) was recently identified during a retrospective survey of kenneled dogs in the United States. In this study, archived samples from pet and kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom were screened for CnPnV to explore the relationship between exposure to CnPnV and the development of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD). Within the pet dog population, CnPnV-seropositive dogs were detected throughout the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, with an overall estimated seroprevalence of 50% (n = 314/625 dogs). In the kennel population, there was a significant increase in seroprevalence, from 26% (n = 56/215 dogs) on the day of entry to 93.5% (n = 201/215 dogs) after 21 days (P respiratory disease than those that did not seroconvert (P respiratory disease than immunologically naive dogs (P respiratory signs and histopathological changes and in dogs housed for 8 to 14 days, which coincided with a significant increase in the risk of developing respiratory disease compared to the risk of those housed 1 to 7 days (P disease prevention strategy.

  6. Canadian Practice Assessment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Respiratory Specialist Physician Perception Versus Patient Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common respiratory condition and the fourth leading cause of death in Canada. Optimal COPD management requires patients to participate in their care and physician knowledge of patients’ perceptions of their disease.

  7. The Association Between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Giorgi, Michel R. M.; Helder, Herman M.; Lindeman, Robbert-Jan S.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis: Antireflux therapy is incorporated in many treatment protocols for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) because gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) is thought to worsen the disease course of RRP. It is unclear if GERD really aggravates the disease course. The aims of this

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and respiratory disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shazia, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is: to identify any possible relationship between recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and GER, to identify any possible relationship between asthma and GER, to determine the prevalence of GER in children suffering from RLRTI and bronchial asthma, and to evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of different GER diagnostic modalities. Thirty children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and bronchial asthma were evaluated for possible presence of the GER. Radionuclide gastroesophageal scintigraphy was performed in all these 30 patients (age range 6 months - 10 years). Patients also underwent ultrasonography and/or barium swallow or fluoroscopy on separate day. Patients were grouped according to presenting coinplaints and investigative modalities. Group A was the patients of RLRTI, which underwent GER scintigraphy, barium studies and ultrasonography. Group B patients were patients with bronchial asthma who underwent all 3 investigations. Group C was patients with RLRTI who under went GER scintigraphy and barium studies only. Patients with bronchial asthma who underwent barium studies and GER scintigraphy were included in group D. Group E and F were patients with RLRTI and bronchial asthma who underwent ultrasonography and GER scintigraphy only respectively. For each group, reflux index was calculated in all positive patients. GER reflux of varying degrees was observed in 20 % patients. The severity of the clinical symptoms was directly proportional to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux. Reflux index was positively correlating with clinical symptoms as well. When compared with other investigative modalities employed GER scintigraphy was found to be more superior in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Objective assessment of gastroesophageal reflux with the help of GER scintigraphy is feasible and is superior to other modalities and it should be employed much more frequently as an initial investigative procedure

  9. Prevention of Pneumococcal Infection in Children with Chronic Diseases of the Nasopharynx Reduces the Incidence of Other Respiratory Tract Infections: Results of a Comparative Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Vavilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A promising approach to solving the problem of widespread infections of the respiratory tract in children is the use ofspecific prophylaxis against the pneumococcus.Objective: Our aim was to examine the clinical efficacy of PCV13 of children with chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx and the changes of local factors of protection of the upper respiratory tract.Methods: We have evaluated the incidence of respiratory tract and ENT infections in children with chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. Research period: January 2011 — January 2015. Upper airway function examination included cytologic analysis — counting the main cell populations ratio in the common cytoplasm, lysozym activity and secretory immunoglobulin of class A (sIgA in nasal secretions.Results: The study involved 876 children 2–5 years old. Main group (PCV13 amounted to 448 patients, and the control group (unvaccinated 428. Annual dynamic observation showed a significant reduction of acute morbidity by 2 times (p < 0.001, pneumonia by 2.4 times (p = 0.042, acute bronchitis by 2.5 times (p = 0.008, concomitant ENT pathology (acute otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic sinusitis by 2.2 times (p = 0.001 and 2.3 times (p = 0.004, respectively. There was a positive effect of vaccination on the level of local factors of protection of the upper respiratory tract (lysozyme, sIgA, the somatic cell count in nasal secretions.Conclusion: PCV13 vaccination reduces the risk of developing acute respiratory infections and ENT infections in children with chronic diseases of the nasopharynx. This is against the background of recovery in the levels of factors of local immunity.

  10. Seasonal temperature variability and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengzhi; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wong, Chit Ming; Lee, Ruby Siu-Yin; Tian, Linwei

    2018-04-05

    Climate change increases global mean temperature and changes short-term (eg, diurnal) and long-term (eg, intraseasonal) temperature variability. Numerous studies have shown that mean temperature and short-term temperature variability are both associated with increased respiratory morbidity or mortality. However, data on the impact of long-term temperature variability are sparse. We aimed to assess the association of intraseasonal temperature variability with respiratory disease hospitalisations among elders. We ascertained the first occurrence of emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in a prospective Chinese elderly cohort of 66 820 older people (≥65 years) with 10-13 years of follow-up. We used an ordinary kriging method based on 22 weather monitoring stations in Hong Kong to spatially interpolate daily ambient temperature for each participant's residential address. Seasonal temperature variability was defined as the SD of daily mean summer (June-August) or winter (December-February) temperatures. We applied Cox proportional hazards regression with time-varying exposure of seasonal temperature variability to respiratory admissions. During the follow-up time, we ascertained 12 689 cases of incident respiratory diseases, of which 6672 were pneumonia and 3075 were COPD. The HRs per 1°C increase in wintertime temperature variability were 1.20 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.32), 1.15 (1.01 to 1.31) and 1.41 (1.15 to 1.71) for total respiratory diseases, pneumonia and COPD, respectively. The associations were not statistically significant for summertime temperature variability. Wintertime temperature variability was associated with higher risk of incident respiratory diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Distance to human populations influences epidemiology of respiratory disease in desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Ashley A. Coble (formerly Emerson), no longer USGS; Yee, Julie L.; Mack, Jeremy S.; Perry, William M.; Anderson, Kemp M.; Brown, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    We explored variables likely to affect health of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in a 1,183-km2 study area in the central Mojave Desert of California between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated 1,004 tortoises for prevalence and spatial distribution of 2 pathogens, Mycoplasma agassizii and M. testudineum, that cause upper respiratory tract disease. We defined tortoises as test-positive if they were positive by culture and/or DNA identification or positive or suspect for specific antibody for either of the two pathogens. We used covariates of habitat (vegetation, elevation, slope, and aspect), tortoise size and sex, distance from another test-positive tortoise, and anthropogenic variables (distances to roads, agricultural areas, playas, urban areas, and centroids of human-populated census blocks). We used both logistic regression models and regression trees to evaluate the 2 species of Mycoplasma separately. The prevalence of test-positive tortoises was low: 1.49% (15/1,004) for M. agassizii and 2.89% (29/1,004) for M. testudineum. The spatial distributions of test-positive tortoises for the 2 Mycoplasma species showed little overlap; only 2 tortoises were test-positive for both diseases. However, the spatial distributions did not differ statistically between the 2 species. We consistently found higher prevalence of test-positive tortoises with shorter distances to centroids of human-populated census blocks. The relationship between distance to human-populated census blocks and tortoises that are test-positive for M. agassizii and potentially M. testudineum may be related to release or escape of captive tortoises because the prevalence of M. agassizii in captive tortoises is high. Our findings have application to other species of chelonians where both domestic captive and wild populations exist. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Advances in Remote Respiratory Assessments for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroi, Sidney; McNamara, Renae J; McKenzie, David K; Gandevia, Simon; Brodie, Matthew A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality. Advances in remote technologies and telemedicine provide new ways to monitor respiratory function and improve chronic disease management. However, telemedicine does not always include remote respiratory assessments, and the current state of knowledge for people with COPD has not been evaluated. Systematically review the use of remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD, including the following questions: What devices have been used? Can acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) be predicted by using remote devices? Do remote respiratory assessments improve health-related outcomes? The review protocol was registered (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016049333). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COMPENDEX databases were searched for studies that included remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD. A narrative synthesis was then conducted by two reviewers according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Forced expiratory volume assessed daily by using a spirometer was the most common modality. Other measurements included resting respiratory rate, respiratory sounds, and end-tidal carbon dioxide level. Remote assessments had high user satisfaction. Benefits included early detection of AECOPD, improved health-related outcomes, and the ability to replace hospital care with a virtual ward. Remote respiratory assessments are feasible and when combined with sufficient organizational backup can improve health-related outcomes in some but not all cohorts. Future research should focus on the early detection, intervention, and rehabilitation for AECOPD in high-risk people who have limited access to best care and investigate continuous as well as intermittent monitoring.

  13. In-hospital Mortality due to Respiratory Diseases in the Provincial Hospital of Cienfuegos. 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Liuva Leyva Rodríguez; Orlando Morera Álvarez; Daylin Madruga Jiménez; Heidy Caridad Cordero Cabrera; Reinaldo José Pino Blanco

    2016-01-01

    Background: in-hospital mortality is a health indicator commonly used as a measure of quality of care. Respiratory diseases are a major cause of deaths in hospitals. Objective: to describe mortality from respiratory diseases at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos. Methods: a descriptive study of all patients over 18 years old who died from respiratory diseases in the hospital of Cienfuegos from 2010 to 2014 was conducted. The variables analyzed were: age,...

  14. Epidemiological estimates of Respiratory diseases in the hospital population, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Sultana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A cross sectional study was conducted in two types of respiratory patients in hospital population. It was found that tuberculosis (T.B was the most common type (29.66% followed by the asthma (28.08% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (11.31%. Average age of diagnosis was 42.15 ± 0.65 years and average age at present 47.99 ± 0.70 years. Age group 51-60 years was more prone to this disease (21.13%. Most of the patients were married (80.06%. The highest representation of patients with respiratory diseases was observed in 1st birth order (30.36% followed by 2nd (26.49% and 3rd (18.45%, while the lowest was in 10th birth order (0.40%. Tuberculosis, asthma and COPD are the most prevalent types of respiratory diseases. Respiratory diseases were more common in males, in first birth order and in people of age group 51-60 years. This disease was more common in married, unemployed, less educated, and lower socioeconomic status people. Socioeconomic status and urban and rural living had a profound effect on the onset of disease.

  15. Association between daily mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and air pollution in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-Miin; Wei, Hsing-Yu; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the effects of air pollutants on disease and mortality. However, the results remain inconsistent and inconclusive. We thought that the impact of different seasons or ages of people may explain these differences. Measurement of the five pollutants (particulate matter or =65 group). Data on daily mortality caused by respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and all other causes including the two aforementioned was collected by the Taiwan Department of Health (DOH). A time-series regression model was used to analyze the relative risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases due to air pollution in the summer and winter seasons. Risk of death from all causes and mortality from cardiovascular diseases during winter was significantly positively correlated with levels of SO(2), CO, and NO(2) for both groups of subjects and additionally with PM(10) for the elderly (> or =65 years old) group. There were significant positive correlations with respiratory diseases and levels of O(3) for both groups. However, the only significant positive correlation was with O(3) (RR=1.283) for the elderly group during summer. No other parameters showed significance for either group. Our findings contribute to the evidence of an association between SO(2), CO, NO(2), and PM(10) and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, especially among elderly people during the winter season.

  16. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  17. Respiratory Diseases in University Students Associated with Exposure to Residential Dampness or Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lanthier-Veilleux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available University students are frequently exposed to residential dampness or mold (i.e., visible mold, mold odor, dampness, or water leaks, a well-known contributor to asthma, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections. This study aims to: (a describe the prevalence of these respiratory diseases among university students; and (b examine the independent contribution of residential dampness or mold to these diseases. An online survey was conducted in March 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada. Validated questions and scores were used to assess self-reported respiratory diseases (i.e., asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections, residential dampness or mold, and covariates (e.g., student characteristics. Using logistic regressions, the crude and adjusted odd ratios between residential dampness or mold and self-reported respiratory diseases were examined. Results from the participating students (n = 2097; response rate: 8.1% showed high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (32.6%; 95% CI: 30.6–34.7, asthma-like symptoms (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1–25.8 and respiratory infections (19.4%; 95% CI: 17.7–21.2. After adjustment, exposure to residential dampness or mold was associated with allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01–1.55 and asthma-like symptoms (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.37–2.11, but not with respiratory infections (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.85–1.36. Among symptomatic students, this exposure was also associated with uncontrolled and burdensome respiratory symptoms (p < 0.01. University students report a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis, asthma-like symptoms and respiratory infections. A common indoor hazard, residential dampness or mold, may play a role in increasing atopic respiratory diseases and their suboptimal control in young adults. These results emphasize the importance for public health organizations to tackle poor housing conditions, especially amongst university

  18. [The genetic component of chronic respiratory diseases in workers of foundry productions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, D V; Khamitova, R Ya

    Review of the literature shows that currently there is an accumulation of data on the genetic determination of individual susceptibility to adverse industrial factors. Material of the research were high molecular DNA samples isolated from epithelial mouth scrapings in 99 foundry workers. Study of polymorphic variants of interleukin genes was performed by means of the analysis ofproducts of amplification of specific regions of the genome. Homozygous genotype TNF-a (-308A/G) was established to increase the relative risk of shaping of chronic respiratory diseases: with AA alleles - by 6.4 times and GG alleles - by 2.4 times, while the heterozygous genotype (AG) decreases - by 1. 9 times. Polymorphism of gene IL-1β (+3953 T / C) had no significance for the development of respiratory disease. Genotyping interleukins, involved in the inflammatory responses of the bronchopulmonary tract, can be considered as an element ofprimary prevention in industries with a high risk for shaping of respiratory diseases.

  19. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS ...

  20. Statistical analysis aiming at predicting respiratory tract disease hospital admissions from environmental variables in the city of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO₂ and CO, PM₁₀ and O₃, and PM₁₀, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes.

  1. Lost life years due to premature mortality caused by diseases of the respiratory system.

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    Maniecka-Bryła, Irena; Paciej-Gołębiowska, Paulina; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Bryła, Marek

    2018-06-04

    In Poland, as in most other European countries, diseases of the respiratory system are the 4th leading cause of mortality; they are responsible for about 8% of all deaths in the European Union (EU) annually. To assess the socio-economic aspects of mortality, it has become increasingly common to apply potential measures rather than conventionally used ratios. The aim of this study was to analyze years of life lost due to premature deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system in Poland from 1999 to 2013. The study was based on a dataset of 5,606,516 records, obtained from the death certificates of Polish residents who died between 1999 and 2013. The information on deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system, i.e., coded as J00-J99 according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10), was analyzed. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) indicator was used in the study. In the years 1999-2013, the Polish population suffered 280,519 deaths caused by diseases of the respiratory system (4.69% of all deaths). In the period analyzed, a gradual decrease in the standardized death rate was observed - from 46.31 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1999 to 41.02 in 2013. The dominant causes of death were influenza and pneumonia (J09-J18) and chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47). Diseases of the respiratory system were the cause of 4,474,548.92 lost life years. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per person (SEYLLp) was 104.72 per 10,000 males and 52.85 per 10,000 females. The Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per death (SEYLLd) for people who died due to diseases of the respiratory system was 17.54 years of life on average for men and 13.65 years on average for women. The use of the SEYLL indicator provided significant information on premature mortality due to diseases of the respiratory system, indicating the fact that they play a large role in the health status of the Polish

  2. Impact of air pollution on respiratory diseases in children with recurrent wheezing or asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Galeone, Carlotta; Lelii, Mara; Longhi, Benedetta; Ascolese, Beatrice; Senatore, Laura; Prada, Elisabetta; Montinaro, Valentina; Malerba, Stefano; Patria, Maria Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2014-08-07

    Air pollution has many negative health effects on the general population, especially children, subjects with underlying chronic disease and the elderly. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of traffic-related pollution on the exacerbation of asthma and development of respiratory infections in Italian children suffering from asthma or wheezing compared with healthy subjects and to estimate the association between incremental increases in principal pollutants and the incidence of respiratory symptoms. This prospective study enrolled 777 children aged 2 to 18 years (375 with recurrent wheezing or asthma and 402 healthy subjects). Over 12 months, parents filled out a daily clinical diary to report information about respiratory symptoms, type of medication used and healthcare utilization. Clinical data were combined with the results obtained using an air pollution monitoring system of the five most common pollutants. Among the 329 children with recurrent wheezing or asthma and 364 healthy subjects who completed follow-up, children with recurrent wheezing or asthma reported significantly more days of fever (p=0.005) and cough (ppollution and the development of asthma exacerbations and respiratory infections in children born to atopic parents and in those suffering from recurrent wheezing or asthma. These findings suggest that environmental control may be crucial for respiratory health in children with underlying respiratory disease.

  3. Antenatal Determinants of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Late Respiratory Disease in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lindsey A; Wagner, Brandie D; Ingram, David A; Poindexter, Brenda B; Schibler, Kurt; Cotten, C Michael; Dagle, John; Sontag, Marci K; Mourani, Peter M; Abman, Steven H

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms contributing to chronic lung disease after preterm birth are incompletely understood. To identify antenatal risk factors associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory disease during early childhood after preterm birth, we performed a prospective, longitudinal study of 587 preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks and birth weights between 500 and 1,250 g. Data collected included perinatal information and assessments during the neonatal intensive care unit admission and longitudinal follow-up by questionnaire until 2 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, we found that maternal smoking prior to preterm birth increased the odds of having an infant with BPD by twofold (P = 0.02). Maternal smoking was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and respiratory support during the neonatal intensive care unit admission. Preexisting hypertension was associated with a twofold (P = 0.04) increase in odds for BPD. Lower gestational age and birth weight z-scores were associated with BPD. Preterm infants who were exposed to maternal smoking had higher rates of late respiratory disease during childhood. Twenty-two percent of infants diagnosed with BPD and 34% of preterm infants without BPD had no clinical signs of late respiratory disease during early childhood. We conclude that maternal smoking and hypertension increase the odds for developing BPD after preterm birth, and that maternal smoking is strongly associated with increased odds for late respiratory morbidities during early childhood. These findings suggest that in addition to the BPD diagnosis at 36 weeks, other factors modulate late respiratory outcomes during childhood. We speculate that measures to reduce maternal smoking not only will lower the risk for preterm birth but also will improve late respiratory morbidities after preterm birth.

  4. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Involved in Severe Acute Respiratory Disease in Northern Italy during the Pandemic and Postpandemic Period (2009–2011

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    Elena Pariani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009 pandemic, international health authorities recommended monitoring severe and complicated cases of respiratory disease, that is, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We evaluated the proportion of SARI/ARDS cases and deaths due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection and the impact of other respiratory viruses during pandemic and postpandemic period (2009–2011 in northern Italy; additionally we searched for unknown viruses in those cases for which diagnosis remained negative. 206 respiratory samples were collected from SARI/ARDS cases and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR/PCR to investigate influenza viruses and other common respiratory pathogens; also, a virus discovery technique (VIDISCA-454 was applied on those samples tested negative to all pathogens. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus was detected in 58.3% of specimens, with a case fatality rate of 11.3%. The impact of other respiratory viruses was 19.4%, and the most commonly detected viruses were human rhinovirus/enterovirus and influenza A(H3N2. VIDISCA-454 enabled the identification of one previously undiagnosed measles infection. Nearly 22% of SARI/ARDS cases did not obtain a definite diagnosis. In clinical practice, great efforts should be dedicated to improving the diagnosis of severe respiratory disease; the introduction of innovative molecular technologies, as VIDISCA-454, will certainly help in reducing such “diagnostic gap.”

  5. Acoustics based assessment of respiratory diseases using GMM classification.

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    Mayorga, P; Druzgalski, C; Morelos, R L; Gonzalez, O H; Vidales, J

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present a method utilizing lung sounds for a quantitative assessment of patient health as it relates to respiratory disorders. In order to accomplish this, applicable traditional techniques within the speech processing domain were utilized to evaluate lung sounds obtained with a digital stethoscope. Traditional methods utilized in the evaluation of asthma involve auscultation and spirometry, but utilization of more sensitive electronic stethoscopes, which are currently available, and application of quantitative signal analysis methods offer opportunities of improved diagnosis. In particular we propose an acoustic evaluation methodology based on the Gaussian Mixed Models (GMM) which should assist in broader analysis, identification, and diagnosis of asthma based on the frequency domain analysis of wheezing and crackles.

  6. Increased risk of pneumonia in residents living near poultry farms: does the upper respiratory tract microbiota play a role?

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    Smit, Lidwien A M; Boender, Gert Jan; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Rossen, John W A; Koopmans, Marion; Nodelijk, Gonnie; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Yzermans, Joris; Bogaert, Debby; Heederik, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potentially related to particulate matter and endotoxin emissions. We aim to confirm the increased risk of CAP near poultry farms by refined spatial analyses, and we hypothesize that the oropharyngeal microbiota composition in CAP patients may be associated with residential proximity to poultry farms. A spatial kernel model was used to analyze the association between proximity to poultry farms and CAP diagnosis, obtained from electronic medical records of 92,548 GP patients. The oropharyngeal microbiota composition was determined in 126 hospitalized CAP patients using 16S-rRNA-based sequencing, and analyzed in relation to residential proximity to poultry farms. Kernel analysis confirmed a significantly increased risk of CAP when living near poultry farms, suggesting an excess risk up to 1.15 km, followed by a sharp decline. Overall, the oropharyngeal microbiota composition differed borderline significantly between patients living PERMANOVA p  = 0.075). Results suggested a higher abundance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (mean relative abundance 34.9% vs. 22.5%, p  = 0.058) in patients living near poultry farms, which was verified by unsupervised clustering analysis, showing overrepresentation of a S. pneumoniae cluster near poultry farms ( p  = 0.049). Living near poultry farms is associated with an 11% increased risk of CAP, possibly resulting from changes in the upper respiratory tract microbiota composition in susceptible individuals. The abundance of S. pneumoniae near farms needs to be replicated in larger, independent studies.

  7. Effects of zinc and "health belief model" education on upper respiratory infections in hajj travelers: a randomized clinical trial

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    Mahmoudian S.A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The common cold is the most prevalent sickness and an important cause of absence from job. Furthermore, it often disturbs travel, including the practice of hajj, causing the use of many inappropriate drugs by these travelers. The health belief model is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of zinc and health belief model based educational intervention on the behavior of hajj travelers with regard to viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled trial was performed among hajj travelers in 2005. Preventive measures were randomly allocated to four groups: 1- education + zinc sulfate. 2- education + placebo. 3- zinc sulfate only 4- placebo only. Data regarding incidence and duration of URTIs, background disorders, vaccination and health behaviors for cold were gathered by questionnaire by physicians and finally analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using chi-square, t-test and independent samples t-test.Results: A total of 646 travelers were studied. The incidence of common cold in groups receiving zinc were significantly less than that for those receiving the placebo. (P=0.05. However, incidence was statistically the same for those who received education versus those who did not. Use of handkerchief was the most prevalent behavior and use of mask was the least prevalent behavior. Mean duration of symptoms was less in those receiving zinc and education (3.7 days comparing to those who received placebo and education (5.6 days.  Conclusions: This study showed that zinc consumption can decrease the incidence and duration of the common cold. Health belief model based education could promote some preventive behaviors although most people do not take advantage of them. We recommend the use of zinc by those attending hajj.

  8. Concurrent acute illness and comorbid conditions poorly predict antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections: a cross-sectional analysis

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    Perencevich Eli N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic use promotes resistance. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for upper respiratory infections (URIs. Our objectives were to describe patterns of URI treatment and to identify patient and provider factors associated with antibiotic use for URIs. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data from the Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service program database. We identified Pennsylvania Medicaid recipients with a URI office visit over a one-year period. Our outcome variable was antibiotic use within seven days after the URI visit. Study variables included URI type and presence of concurrent acute illnesses and chronic conditions. We considered the associations of each study variable with antibiotic use in a logistic regression model, stratifying by age group and adjusting for confounders. Results Among 69,936 recipients with URI, 35,786 (51.2% received an antibiotic. In all age groups, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, URI type and season were associated with antibiotic use. Except for the oldest group, physician specialty and streptococcal pharyngitis were associated with antibiotic use. History of chronic conditions was not associated with antibiotic use in any age group. In all age groups, concurrent acute illnesses and history of chronic conditions had only had fair to poor ability to distinguish patients who received an antibiotic from patients who did not. Conclusion Antibiotic prevalence for URIs was high, indicating that potentially inappropriate antibiotic utilization is occurring. Our data suggest that demographic and clinical factors are associated with antibiotic use, but additional reasons remain unexplained. Insight regarding reasons for antibiotic prescribing is needed to develop interventions to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

  9. Homeopathy in the Age of Antimicrobial Resistance: Is It a Viable Treatment for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixsen, Alison

    2018-05-01

     Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their complications are the most frequent cause of antibiotic prescribing in primary care. With multi-resistant organisms proliferating, appropriate alternative treatments to these conditions are urgently required. Homeopathy presents one solution; however, there are many methods of homeopathic prescribing. This review of the literature considers firstly whether homeopathy offers a viable alternative therapeutic solution for acute URTIs and their complications, and secondly how such homeopathic intervention might take place.  Critical review of post 1994 clinical studies featuring homeopathic treatment of acute URTIs and their complications. Study design, treatment intervention, cohort group, measurement and outcome were considered. Discussion focused on the extent to which homeopathy is used to treat URTIs, rate of improvement and tolerability of the treatment, complications of URTIs, prophylactic and long-term effects, and the use of combination versus single homeopathic remedies.  Multiple peer-reviewed studies were found in which homeopathy had been used to treat URTIs and associated symptoms (cough, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, etc.). Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 8 observational/cohort studies were analysed, 7 of which were paediatric studies. Seven RCTs used combination remedies with multiple constituents. Results for homeopathy treatment were positive overall, with faster resolution, reduced use of antibiotics and possible prophylactic and longer-term benefits.  Variations in size, location, cohort and outcome measures make comparisons and generalisations concerning homeopathic clinical trials for URTIs problematic. Nevertheless, study findings suggest at least equivalence between homeopathy and conventional treatment for uncomplicated URTI cases, with fewer adverse events and potentially broader therapeutic outcomes. The use of non

  10. Antibiotic prescription patterns for upper respiratory tract infections in the outpatient Qatari population in the private sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adeel Ajwad; Navasero, Cristina S; Thomas, Bright; Marri, Salih Al; Katheeri, Huda Al; Thani, Asmaa Al; Khal, Abdullatif Al; Khan, Tasnim; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotics are often inappropriately prescribed for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in developed countries. Data on the proportion of inappropriate prescriptions are lacking from the Middle East and other developing countries. Health insurance claims for all antibiotics prescribed for URTIs in the private sector in the State of Qatar between May 2014 and December 2015 were retrieved. During the study period, health insurance was limited to Qatari nationals. Topical antibiotics were excluded. Data on the prescriber's specialty, as listed with the licensing authority, were also retrieved. Diagnoses were classified as appropriate or inappropriate based on the likelihood of a bacterial etiology that may warrant antibiotic use. A total of 75 733 claims were made during the study period. Of these, 41 556 (55%) were for an appropriate indication, while 34 177 (45%) were for an inappropriate indication. The most common antibiotic classes prescribed were cephalosporins (43% of claims; 44% inappropriate), penicillins (28% of claims; 44% inappropriate), macrolides (19% of claims; 52% inappropriate), and fluoroquinolones (9% of claims; 40% inappropriate). Nearly 5% of antibiotics were prescribed in intravenous formulations. The most common prescribers were General/Family Practice physicians (53% of claims; 50% inappropriate), followed by Pediatrics (18.6% of claims; 36% inappropriate) and Internal Medicine (14.1% of claims; 44% inappropriate). There is a high rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescription for acute URTIs in the private health care sector in the State of Qatar. Further studies are needed to determine the population-based rates across the country. Interventions to decrease inappropriate use in such settings are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of smoking cessation treatment initiated during hospitalization in patients with heart disease or respiratory disease

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    Thaís Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program, delivered by trained health care professionals, in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory disease (RD or heart disease (HD. Methods: Of a total of 393 patients evaluated, we included 227 (146 and 81 active smokers hospitalized for HD and RD, respectively. All participants received smoking cessation treatment during hospitalization and were followed in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program for six months after hospital discharge. Results: There were significant differences between the HD group and the RD group regarding participation in the cognitive-behavioral program after hospital discharge (13.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.003; smoking cessation at the end of follow-up (29% vs. 31%; p < 0.001; and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (3.4% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001. No differences were found between the HD group and the RD group regarding the use of bupropion (11.0% vs. 12.3%; p = 0.92. Varenicline was used by only 0.7% of the patients in the HD group. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking cessation rates at six months after hospital discharge were higher among the patients with RD than among those with HD, as were treatment adherence rates. The implementation of smoking cessation programs for hospitalized patients with different diseases, delivered by the health care teams that treat these patients, is necessary for greater effectiveness in smoking cessation.

  12. Association between Smokefree Legislation and Hospitalizations for Cardiac, Cerebrovascular and Respiratory Diseases: A Meta-Analysis

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    Tan, Crystal E.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Smokefree legislation is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization and death from these diseases. Methods and Results Random effects meta-analysis was conducted by law comprehensiveness to determine the relationship between smokefree legislation and hospital admission or death from cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases. Studies were identified using a systematic search for studies published before November 30, 2011 using Science Citation Index, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase and references in identified papers. Change in hospital admissions (or deaths) in the presence of a smokefree law, duration of follow-up, and law comprehensiveness (workplaces only; workplaces and restaurants; or workplaces, restaurants, and bars) were recorded. Forty-five studies of 33 smokefree laws with median follow-up of 24 months (range 2–57 months) were included. Comprehensive smokefree legislation was associated with significantly lower rates of hospital admissions (or deaths) for all 4 diagnostic groups: coronary events (RR .848, 95% CI .816–.881), other heart disease (RR .610, 95% CI .440–.847), cerebrovascular accidents (RR .840, 95% CI .753–.936), and respiratory disease (RR .760, 95% CI .682–.846). The difference in risk following comprehensive smokefree laws does not change with longer follow-up. More comprehensive laws were associated with larger changes in risk. Conclusions Smokefree legislation was associated with a lower risk of smoking-related cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, with more comprehensive laws associated with greater changes in risk. PMID:23109514

  13. Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

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    Simón Barquera

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

  14. Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

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    Barquera Simón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

  15. State of progress in treating cystic fibrosis respiratory disease

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    Flume Patrick A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the discovery of the gene associated with cystic fibrosis (CF, there has been tremendous progress in the care of patients with this disease. New therapies have entered the market and are part of the standard treatment of patients with CF, and have been associated with marked improvement in survival. Now there are even more promising therapies directed at different components of the pathophysiology of this disease. In this review, our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of lung disease in patients with CF is described, along with the current treatment of CF lung disease, and the therapies in development that offer great promise to our patients.

  16. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  17. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  18. Trends and Patterns of Differences in Chronic Respiratory Disease Mortality Among US Counties, 1980-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Stubbs, Rebecca W; Morozoff, Chloe; Shirude, Shreya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H; Murray, Christopher J L

    2017-09-26

    Chronic respiratory diseases are an important cause of death and disability in the United States. To estimate age-standardized mortality rates by county from chronic respiratory diseases. Validated small area estimation models were applied to deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics and population counts from the US Census Bureau, National Center for Health Statistics, and Human Mortality Database to estimate county-level mortality rates from 1980 to 2014 for chronic respiratory diseases. County of residence. Age-standardized mortality rates by county, year, sex, and cause. A total of 4 616 711 deaths due to chronic respiratory diseases were recorded in the United States from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2014. Nationally, the mortality rate from chronic respiratory diseases increased from 40.8 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 39.8-41.8) deaths per 100 000 population in 1980 to a peak of 55.4 (95% UI, 54.1-56.5) deaths per 100 000 population in 2002 and then declined to 52.9 (95% UI, 51.6-54.4) deaths per 100 000 population in 2014. This overall 29.7% (95% UI, 25.5%-33.8%) increase in chronic respiratory disease mortality from 1980 to 2014 reflected increases in the mortality rate from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by 30.8% [95% UI, 25.2%-39.0%], from 34.5 [95% UI, 33.0-35.5] to 45.1 [95% UI, 43.7-46.9] deaths per 100 000 population), interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis (by 100.5% [95% UI, 5.8%-155.2%], from 2.7 [95% UI, 2.3-4.2] to 5.5 [95% UI, 3.5-6.1] deaths per 100 000 population), and all other chronic respiratory diseases (by 42.3% [95% UI, 32.4%-63.8%], from 0.51 [95% UI, 0.48-0.54] to 0.73 [95% UI, 0.69-0.78] deaths per 100 000 population). There were substantial differences in mortality rates and changes in mortality rates over time among counties, and geographic patterns differed by cause. Counties with the highest mortality rates were found primarily in central Appalachia

  19. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors.

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    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjaer, Anni; Ritz, Christian; Hojsak, Iva; Michaelsen, Kim; Mølgaard, Christian

    2018-03-14

    We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged eight months to 14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day care absences on web-based questionnaires. Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI, and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.65, but was inversely associated with having a pet (OR: 0.43), being cared for by registered child minders compared to day care centres (OR: 0.36), birthweight (OR 0.40) and age at day care enrolment (OR: 0.64). No significant risk factors for LRTIs and diarrhoea were found. Infection risks were associated with environmental factors and factors related to the child. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Climate Change and the Impact on Respiratory and Allergic Disease: 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G

    2018-03-24

    The purpose of this paper is to review allergic respiratory disease related to indoor and outdoor exposures and to examine the impact of known and projected changes in climate. The global burden of disease directly attributed to climate change is very difficult to measure and becomes more challenging when the capacity of humans to adapt to these changes is taken into consideration. Allergic respiratory disease, such as asthma, is quite heterogenous, though closely associated with environmental and consequently immunologic interaction. Where is the tipping point? Our climate has been measurably changing for the past 100 years. It may indeed be the most significant health threat of the twenty-first century, and consequently tackling climate change may be the greatest health opportunity. The impacts of climate change on human health are varied and coming more into focus. Direct effects, such as heatwaves, severe weather, drought, and flooding, are apparent and frequently in the news. Indirect or secondary effects, such as changes in ecosystems and the impact on health, are less obvious. It is these changes in ecosystems that may have the greatest impact on allergic and respiratory diseases. This review will explore some ways that climate change, current and predicted, influences respiratory disease. Discussion will focus on changing pollen patterns, damp buildings with increased mold exposure, air pollution, and heat stress.

  1. Prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases from a rural area in Kerala, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Krishnaveni; Rakesh, P S; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Shanavas, A; Dharman, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. A community based survey was undertaken with an objective to estimate the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and to describe the profile of people with CRDs in the rural area Nilamel health block in Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. A household information sheet and a translated respiratory symptom questionnaire based on International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire was administered to 12,556 people above 15 years, selected randomly from Nilamel health block. Prevalence of self reported asthma was 2.82% (95% CI 2.52-3.12) and that of chronic bronchitis was 6.19% (95% CI 5.76-6.62) while other CRDs which did not fit to either constitute 1.89%. Prevalence of asthma among males was 2.44% (95% CI 2.05-2.85) while that of females was 3.14% (95% CI 2.71-3.57). Chronic bronchitis prevalence was 6.73% and 5.67% among males and females respectively. Although India has devised a programme to combat cancer, diabetes, cardio vascular disease and stroke, none have been devised for chronic respiratory illness till date. Considering high prevalence and its contributions to morbidity and mortality, a comprehensive programme to tackle chronic respiratory diseases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of long term antibiotics in chronic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Babu, K; Kastelik, J; Morjaria, J B

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in the management of respiratory disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD. In those conditions long-term antibiotics can be delivered as nebulised aerosols or administered orally. In CF, nebulised colomycin or tobramycin improve lung function, reduce number of exacerbations and improve quality of life (QoL). Oral antibiotics, such as macrolides, have acquired wide use not only as anti-microbial agents but also due to their anti-inflammatory and pro-kinetic properties. In CF, macrolides such as azithromycin have been shown to improve the lung function and reduce frequency of infective exacerbations. Similarly macrolides have been shown to have some benefits in COPD including reduction in a number of exacerbations. In asthma, macrolides have been reported to improve some subjective parameters, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation; however have no benefits on lung function or overall asthma control. Macrolides have also been used with beneficial effects in less common disorders such as diffuse panbronchiolitis or post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. In this review we describe our current knowledge the use of long-term antibiotics in conditions such as CF, non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD together with up-to-date clinical and scientific evidence to support our understanding of the use of antibiotics in those conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ground-clearing fires in the amazon and respiratory disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Karen dos Santos; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-06-01

    The intentional burning of forest biomass commonly known as "ground-clearing fires" is an age-old and widespread practice in the country and is seen as a major contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases. However, global awareness of their potential impact is relatively recent. The occurrence of large ground-clearing fires in the Brazilian and international scenarios drew attention to the problem, but the measures taken to prevent and/or control the fires are still insufficient. In the Amazon region, with distinct geographical and environmental features from the rest of the country, with its historic process of land occupation, every year the ground-clearing fires expose larger portions of the population making them vulnerable to its effects. In this context, this non-systematic review presents the papers written over the past five years about the fires in the Brazilian Amazon and respiratory illness. The main objective is to provide information for managers and leaders on environmental issues about the problems related to biomass burning in the Amazon region.

  4. Targeting MicroRNA Function in Respiratory Diseases: Mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven eMaltby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate expression of the majority of genes by inhibiting protein translation. Growing literature has identified functional roles for miRNAs across a broad range of biological processes. As such, miRNAs are recognised as potential disease biomarkers and novel targets for therapies. While several miRNA-targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials (e.g. for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and cancer, no therapies have targeted miRNAs in respiratory diseases in the clinic. In this mini-review, we review the current knowledge on miRNA expression and function in respiratory diseases, intervention strategies to target miRNA function and considerations specific to respiratory diseases. Altered miRNA expression profiles have been reported in a number of respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These include alterations in isolated lung tissue, as well as sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and peripheral blood or serum. The observed alterations in easily accessible body fluids (e.g. serum have been proposed as new biomarkers that may inform disease diagnosis and patient management. In a subset of studies, miRNA-targeted interventions also improved disease outcomes, indicating functional roles for altered miRNA expression in disease pathogenesis. In fact, direct administration of miRNA-targeting molecules to the lung has yielded promising results in a number of animal models. The ability to directly administer compounds to the lung holds considerable promise and may limit potential off-target effects and side effects caused by the systemic administration required to treat other diseases.

  5. Non-linear increase of respiratory diseases and their costs under severe air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Wu, Yiyun; Chen, Guangdi; Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Baojing; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-05-01

    China is experiencing severe and persistent air pollution, with concentrations of fine particulate matters (PM 2.5 ) reaching unprecedentedly high levels in many cities. Quantifying the detrimental effects on health and their costs derived from high PM 2.5 levels is crucial because of the unsolved challenges to mitigate air pollution in the following decades. Using the daily monitoring data on PM 2.5 concentrations and clinic visits, we found a non-linear increase of respiratory diseases, but not for other diseases (e.g., digestive diseases) under severe air pollution. We found an increase of respiratory diseases by 1% for each 10 μg m -3 increase in PM 2.5 when the annual average daily PM 2.5 concentration was less than 50 μg m -3 ; while this ratio was doubled (around 2%) with the daily PM 2.5 concentration larger than 50 μg m -3 . Under severe air pollution (PM 2.5 concentration >150 μg m -3 ), the respiratory diseases increased by over 50% compared to that in clean days. Children are more sensitive to the severe air pollution. The increase of clinic visits, especially for adults, was observed mainly in bigger (>500 beds) hospitals. Re-allocating medical resources (e.g., doctors) from big hospitals to community hospitals can benefit the respiratory patients due to air pollution. The total medical cost of clinic visits of respiratory diseases derived from PM 2.5 pollution was estimated at 17.2-57.0 billion Yuan in 2014 in China, accounting for 0.5-1.6% of national total health expenditure. Because these medical costs only represent a small part of total health cost derived from air pollution, the reduction of associated health costs would be an important co-benefit of implementation of air pollution preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital malformations as risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Hjuler, Thomas; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how chronic conditions other than prematurity, heart disease, and Down syndrome affect the risk and severity of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We assess the risk and severity of RSV hospitalization in children with chronic conditions in this register...

  8. Social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kathy; Jit, Mark; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T

    2017-08-11

    The spread of many respiratory infections is determined by contact patterns between infectious and susceptible individuals in the population. There are no published data for quantifying social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong which is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its high population density and connectivity in the air transportation network. We adopted a commonly used diary-based design to conduct a social contact survey in Hong Kong in 2015/16 using both paper and online questionnaires. Participants using paper questionnaires reported more contacts and longer contact duration than those using online questionnaires. Participants reported 13 person-hours of contact and 8 contacts per day on average, which decreased over age but increased with household size, years of education and income level. Prolonged and frequent contacts, and contacts at home, school and work were more likely to involve physical contacts. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups. We evaluated the characteristics of social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong. Our findings could help to improve the design of future social contact surveys, parameterize transmission models of respiratory infectious diseases, and inform intervention strategies based on model outputs.

  9. Closed genomes of seven histophilus somni isolates from beef calves with bovine respiratory disease complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histophilus somni is a fastidious gram-negative opportunistic pathogenic Pasteurellacea that affects multiple organ systems and is one of the principle bacterial species contributing to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feed yard cattle. Here we present seven closed genomes isolated from...

  10. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory diseases: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Liu, Chunli; Lu, Wenju; Li, Mengxi; Hadadi, Cyrus; Wang, Elizabeth Wenqian; Yang, Kai; Lai, Ning; Huang, Junyi; Li, Shiyue; Zhong, Nanshan; Zhang, Nuofu; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Chronic respiratory disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subtype of PH, which lacks clinical epidemiological data in China. Six hundred and ninety three patients hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 were classified by echocardiography according to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP): mild (36≤ PASP increase of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and right ventricular (RV) diameter (>20 mm) were associated with moderate-to-severe PH, while RV [odds ratio (OR) =3.53, 95% CI, 2.17-5.74], NT-proBNP (OR=2.44, 95% CI, 1.51-3.95), HCT (OR=1.03, 95% CI, 1.00-1.07) and PaCO2 (OR=1.01, 95% CI, 1.00-1.03) were independent risk factors. PH related to respiratory diseases is mostly mild to moderate, and the severity is associated with the category of respiratory disease. Increased HCT can be an independent risk factor for PH related to chronic respiratory diseases.

  11. Anti-Aspergillus Activities of the Respiratory Epithelium in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Bertuzzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory epithelia fulfil multiple roles beyond that of gaseous exchange, also acting as primary custodians of lung sterility and inflammatory homeostasis. Inhaled fungal spores pose a continual antigenic, and potentially pathogenic, challenge to lung integrity against which the human respiratory mucosa has developed various tolerance and defence strategies. However, respiratory disease and immune dysfunction frequently render the human lung susceptible to fungal diseases, the most common of which are the aspergilloses, a group of syndromes caused by inhaled spores of Aspergillus fumigatus. Inhaled Aspergillus spores enter into a multiplicity of interactions with respiratory epithelia, the mechanistic bases of which are only just becoming recognized as important drivers of disease, as well as possible therapeutic targets. In this mini-review we examine current understanding of Aspergillus-epithelial interactions and, based upon the very latest developments in the field, we explore two apparently opposing schools of thought which view epithelial uptake of Aspergillus spores as either a curative or disease-exacerbating event.

  12. The European Respiratory Society study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) : recruitment methods and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lofdahl, CG; Postma, DS; Laitinen, LA; Ohlsson, SV; Pauwels, RA; Pride, NB

    The European Respiratory Society's study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) is a multicentre study performed initially in 12 countries to assess the effect of 3 years' treatment with inhaled corticosteroids on lung function decline in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  13. Respiratory disease in relation to outdoor air pollution in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Schindler, Martin; Sharma, Mukesh; Behera, Sailesh N; Katiyar, Kamlesh; Dikshit, Onkar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of outdoor air pollution on respiratory disease in Kanpur, India, based on data from 2006. Exposure to air pollution is represented by annual emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from 11 source categories, established as a geographic information system (GIS)-based emission inventory in 2 km × 2 km grid. Respiratory disease is represented by number of patients who visited specialist pulmonary hospital with symptoms of respiratory disease. The results showed that (1) the main sources of air pollution are industries, domestic fuel burning, and vehicles; (2) the emissions of PM per grid are strongly correlated to the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x); and (3) there is a strong correlation between visits to a hospital due to respiratory disease and emission strength in the area of residence. These results clearly indicate that appropriate health and environmental monitoring, actions to reduce emissions to air, and further studies that would allow assessing the development in health status are necessary.

  14. The Environmental Domain of Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Szwamel, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    The literature lacks reports on the role played by the Environmental domain of quality of life (QoL) in care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Such information has a high potential for implementation in modern medicine based on a 'tailor-made' holistic healthcare model. The purpose of this study was to determine the components that shape the Environmental domain of QoL in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. The study group consisted of 305 adult patients (median age 65 years) with at least one chronic respiratory disease. The greatest contribution to a high value of QoL in the Environmental domain among patients with chronic respiratory diseases was made by the coexistence of high QoL levels in other domains and in satisfaction with QoL. Programs for preventing a decline in QoL in the Environmental domain should include patients with low scores for the above variables as well as those with a low level of education, those who have not shown an improvement in their psychological well-being in the past 12 months, those with a low level of positive mental attitudes or healthy eating habits, a low Camberwell index, and low levels of overall pro-health behavior.

  15. Impairment of complex upper limb motor function in de novo parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.M.; Daffertshofer, A.; Wolters, E.C.M.J.; Beek, P.J.; Berendse, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate complex upper limb motor function in newly diagnosed, untreated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Four different unimanual upper limb motor tasks were applied to 13 newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. In a

  16. John Hutchinson, 1811-1861: the first respiratory disease epidemiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Frank E

    2011-05-01

    In 1844, before a large medical audience in London, John Hutchinson demonstrated the use of measurements of pulmonary function to predict disease. In contrast to standard practice at that time, he conducted an epidemiological investigation that would have been acceptable by today's standards, in which he examined over 2000 people and contrasted healthy and diseased cases. His data clearly indicated how, what he called, "vital capacity" predicted disease. Exploring the history of this young Victorian-era physician is both humbling and instructive for the modern epidemiologist, who has the advantages of the successes of ever more rapid, computer-based, technical approaches to evaluate existing data sources, and fewer opportunities to actually collect primary data from large number of patients using physiologic tools.

  17. A Case Study of Respiratory Disease in a Veal Calf Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palechek, Neil P.; Schoonderwoerd, Matt; Perry, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a central Alberta veal operation, after production capacity had been increased fourfold. Mortality rate reached 24.6% despite agressive antibiotic therapy. A review of the records revealed a cyclical disease pattern in each room. Weekly cleaning of occupied calf rooms was correlated with the disease pattern. Aerosols generated by a high pressure sprayer appeared to trigger transmission of respiratory pathogens in malnourished neonatal calves. Disease occurrence decreased and profitability increased sixfold after the introduction of the following measures: 1) discontinuing the use of the high pressure washer in the occupied calf rooms, 2) feeding calves a better quality milk replacer with supplemental milk for the poorest calves, 3) sale-yard calf purchases were abandoned in favor of direct buying. PMID:17422807

  18. Increased Risk of Upper Respiratory Infection in Military Recruits Who Report Sleeping Less Than 6 h per night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Laurel M; Ward, Mark D; Potter, Claire; Oliver, Samuel J; Jackson, Sarah; Izard, Rachel M; Greeves, Julie P; Walsh, Neil P

    2018-05-09

    Professional sleep associations recommend 7-9 h of sleep per night for young adults. Habitually sleeping less than 6 h per night has been shown to increase susceptibility to common cold in otherwise healthy, adult civilians. However, no investigations have examined the importance of sleep duration on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and loss of training days in military recruits. The purpose of this study was to describe self-reported sleep duration in a large cohort of military recruits and to assess the relationship between reported sleep duration and incidence of URTI's. We hypothesized that recruits who reported sleeping less than the recommended 7-9 h per night during training suffered a greater incidence of URTI and, as a consequence, lost more training days compared with recruits who met sleep recommendations. Participants included 651 British Army recruits aged 22 ± 3 yr who completed 13 wk of basic military training (67% males, 33% females). Participants were members of 21 platoons (11 male, 10 female) who commenced training across four seasons (19% winter, 20% spring, 29% summer, and 32% autumn). At the start and completion of training, participants completed a questionnaire asking the typical time they went to sleep and awoke. Incidence of physician-diagnosed URTI and lost training days due to URTI were retrieved from medical records. Self-reported sleep duration decreased from before to during training (8.5 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 0.8 h; p h sleep per night; however, this increased to 38% during training (X2 = 3.8; p= 0.05). Overall, 49 participants (8%) were diagnosed by a physician with at least one URTI and 3 participants (h per night during training were four times more likely to be diagnosed with URTI compared with participants who slept 7-9 h per night in a logistic regression model (OR 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-12.9, p h per night were four times more likely to be diagnosed with an URTI and lost more training days due to URTI. Since sleep restriction

  19. Atypical pestivirus and severe respiratory disease in calves, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Cirone, Francesco; Cordioli, Paolo; Camero, Michele; Sciarretta, Rossana; Losurdo, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-08-01

    In 2010, a HoBi-like pestivirus was isolated from clinically affected calves in Italy. This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. Isolation of this novel virus from a clinical outbreak may have implications for cattle health and prophylactic programs.

  20. Functional connectivity and information flow of the respiratory neural network in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianchun; De Mazancourt, Marine; Hess, Agathe; Ashadi, Fakhrul R; Klein, Isabelle; Mal, Hervé; Courbage, Maurice; Mangin, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Breathing involves a complex interplay between the brainstem automatic network and cortical voluntary command. How these brain regions communicate at rest or during inspiratory loading is unknown. This issue is crucial for several reasons: (i) increased respiratory loading is a major feature of several respiratory diseases, (ii) failure of the voluntary motor and cortical sensory processing drives is among the mechanisms that precede acute respiratory failure, (iii) several cerebral structures involved in responding to inspiratory loading participate in the perception of dyspnea, a distressing symptom in many disease. We studied functional connectivity and Granger causality of the respiratory network in controls and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), at rest and during inspiratory loading. Compared with those of controls, the motor cortex area of patients exhibited decreased connectivity with their contralateral counterparts and no connectivity with the brainstem. In the patients, the information flow was reversed at rest with the source of the network shifted from the medulla towards the motor cortex. During inspiratory loading, the system was overwhelmed and the motor cortex became the sink of the network. This major finding may help to understand why some patients with COPD are prone to acute respiratory failure. Network connectivity and causality were related to lung function and illness severity. We validated our connectivity and causality results with a mathematical model of neural network. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy involving the modulation of brain activity to increase motor cortex functional connectivity and improve respiratory muscles performance in patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2736-2754, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Primary Lateral Sclerosis and Early Upper Motor Neuron Disease: Characteristics of a Cross-Sectional Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Christina N; Murphy, Alyssa; Loci, Lorena; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kisanuki, Yasushi; Simmons, Zachary; Maragakis, Nicholas J; McVey, April L; Al-Lahham, Tawfiq; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D; Andrews, Jinsy; McDonnell, Erin; Cudkowicz, Merit; Atassi, Nazem

    2016-03-01

    The goals of this study were to characterize clinical and electrophysiologic findings of subjects with upper motor neuron disease and to explore feasibility of clinical trials in this population. Twenty northeast amyotrophic lateral sclerosis consortium (northeast amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) sites performed chart reviews to identify active clinical pure upper motor neuron disease patients. Patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia or meeting revised El Escorial electrodiagnostic criteria for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were excluded. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of minor electromyography (EMG) abnormalities. Two hundred thirty-three subjects with upper motor neuron disease were identified; 217 had available EMG data. Normal EMGs were seen in 140 subjects, and 77 had minor denervation. Mean disease duration was 84 (±80) months for the entire cohort with no difference seen between the 2 groups. No difference was seen in clinical symptoms, disability, or outcome measures between the 2 groups after correcting for multiple comparisons. Minor EMG abnormalities were not associated with phenotypic differences in a clinical upper motor neuron disease population. These findings suggest that subtle EMG abnormalities can not necessarily be used as a prognostic tool in patients with clinical upper motor neuron disease. This study also demonstrates the availability of a large number of patients with upper motor neuron diseases within the northeast amyotrophic lateral sclerosis network and suggests feasibility for conducting clinical trials in this population.

  2. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic respiratory disease among the elderly in South Africa: any association with proximity to mine dumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-04-03

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors such as air pollution from mine dumps, increase the risk of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between proximity to mine dumps and prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in people aged 55 years and older. Elderly persons in communities 1-2 km (exposed) and 5 km (unexposed), from five pre-selected mine dumps in Gauteng and North West Province, in South Africa were included in a cross-sectional study. Structured interviews were conducted with 2397 elderly people, using a previously validated ATS-DLD-78 questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council. Exposed elderly persons had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases than those who were unexposed., Results from the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that living close to mine dumps was significantly associated with asthma (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.20 - 2.05), chronic bronchitis (OR = 1.74; 95 CI: 1.25 - 2.39), chronic cough (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.58 - 2.57), emphysema (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.11 - 2.77), pneumonia (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.77) and wheeze (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.73 - 2.54). Residing in exposed communities, current smoking, ex-smoking, use of paraffin as main residential cooking/heating fuel and low level of education emerged as independent significant risk factors for chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. This study suggests that there is a high level of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases among elderly people in communities located near to mine dumps in South Africa.

  4. Temporal relationships between colds, upper respiratory viruses detected by polymerase chain reaction, and otitis media in young children followed through a typical cold season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Birgit; Alper, Cuneyt M; Mandel, Ellen M; Doyle, William J; Hendley, J Owen

    2007-06-01

    Otitis media is a frequent complication of a viral upper respiratory tract infection, and the reported co-incidence of those diseases increases with assay sensitivity and sampling density. We determined the incidence of otitis-media complications in young children when referenced to cold-like illnesses and to concurrent virus recovery from the nasopharynx. A total of 60 children from 24 families were followed from October 2003 through April 30, 2004, by daily parental recording of illness signs, weekly pneumatic otoscopic examinations, and periodic polymerase chain reaction assay of collected nasal fluids for common viruses. One hundred ninety-nine cold-like illnesses were observed, but a sample for virus assay was not collected concurrent with 71 episodes. Of the remainder, 73% of cold-like illnesses were temporally related to recovery of 1 or a combination of the assayed viruses, with rhinovirus predominating. For non-cold-like illness periods, 54 (18%) of 297 assays were positive for virus, and the virus frequency distribution was similar to that for cold-like illnesses. There were 93 diagnosed otitis-media episodes; 65 (70%) of these occurred during a cold-like illness. For the 79 otitis-media episodes with available nasal samples, 61 (77%) were associated with a positive virus result. In this population, the otitis-media complication rate for a cold-like illness was 33%. A cold-like illness was not a prerequisite for polymerase chain reaction detection of viruses in the nose and nasopharynx of young children. Viral detection by polymerase chain reaction in the absence of a cold-like illness is associated with complications in some subjects. Otitis media is a complication of viral infection both with and without concurrent cold-like illnesses, thus downwardly biasing coincidence estimates that use cold-based illnesses as the denominator.

  5. Risk of Unsuccessful Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Heterogeneous Neuromuscular Diseases: A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nanaura, Hitoki; Kinugawa, Kaoru; Uchihara, Yuto; Ohara, Hiroya; Eura, Nobuyuki; Syobatake, Ryogo; Sawa, Nobuhiro; Takao, Kiriyama; Sugie, Kazuma; Ueno, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    If invasive ventilation can be avoided by performing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), the disease can be effectively managed. It is important to clarify the characteristics of patients with neuromuscular diseases in whom initial NIV is likely to be unsuccessful. We studied 27 patients in stable neuromuscular condition who initially received NIV to manage fatal ARF to identify differences in factors immediately before the onset of ARF a...

  6. High-intensity lower limb endurance training in chronic respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takako; Arizono, Shinichi; Hanada, Masatoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity endurance training is mainly undertaken during pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic respiratory disease. High-intensity endurance training is recommended in many clinical management guidelines. High-intensity endurance training involves training generally at an intensity of at 60-80% of the patient’s peak work capacity or higher. The effects of high-intensity lower limb endurance training have mostly been investigated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD...

  7. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Motility Disorders in Women, Gastroparesis, and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Jasmine K; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the sex differences in upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility for both healthy and common dysmotility conditions. It focuses on gastroesophageal reflux disease and other esophageal motor disorders for the esophagus and on gastroparesis and accelerated gastric emptying for the stomach. It also describes differences in upper GI motility signs and symptoms during each female hormonal stage (ie, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, perimenopause, menopause) for both healthy participants and those suffering from one of the aforementioned upper GI dysmotility conditions. More research still needs to be conducted to better understand sex differences in upper GI motility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  9. Study To Build Method For Analyzing Some Component Of Airborne Which Cause Respiratory Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Anh; Nguyen Thuy Binh; Vuong Thu Bac; Ha Lan Anh; Nguyen Hong Thinh; Duong Van Thang; Nguyen Mai Anh; Vo Tuong Hanh

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol sampler is located at the top of the three floors building of INST. The amount of PM particle and components such as black carbon; chemical elements; violated organic compounds and microorganisms are analyzed by appropriate methods. Using the method of regression and analysis of variance ANOVA to find out correlation between there pollution components and patients treated at the Department of Respiratory in Hanoi E-Hospital. It shown that microorganisms, benzene, toluene, element sulfur and element silica have effects on monthly number of patients treated respiratory diseases at the E-Hospital. (author)

  10. Information system for diagnosis of respiratory system diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, G. V.; Korobova, L. A.; Ivashin, A. L.; Matytsina, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    An information system is for the diagnosis of patients with lung diseases. The main problem solved by this system is the definition of the parameters of cough fragments in the monitoring recordings using a voice recorder. The authors give the recognition criteria of recorded cough moments, audio records analysis. The results of the research are systematized. The cough recognition system can be used by the medical specialists to diagnose the condition of the patients and to monitor the process of their treatment.

  11. Patterns of Human Respiratory Viruses and Lack of MERS-Coronavirus in Patients with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Southwestern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Abdulhaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook enhanced surveillance of those presenting with respiratory symptoms at five healthcare centers by testing all symptomatic outpatients between November 2013 and January 2014 (winter time. Nasal swabs were collected from 182 patients and screened for MERS-CoV as well as other respiratory viruses using RT-PCR and multiplex microarray. A total of 75 (41.2% of these patients had positive viral infection. MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples. Human rhinovirus (hRV was the most detected pathogen (40.9% followed by non-MERS-CoV human coronaviruses (19.3%, influenza (Flu viruses (15.9%, and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV (13.6%. Viruses differed markedly depending on age in which hRV, Flu A, and hCoV-OC43 were more prevalent in adults and RSV, hCoV-HKU1, and hCoV-NL63 were mostly restricted to children under the age of 15. Moreover, coinfection was not uncommon in this study, in which 17.3% of the infected patients had dual infections due to several combinations of viruses. Dual infections decreased with age and completely disappeared in people older than 45 years. Our study confirms that MERS-CoV is not common in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia and shows high diversity and prevalence of other common respiratory viruses. This study also highlights the importance and contribution of enhanced surveillance systems for better infection control.

  12. Aromaphytobalneotherapy in Treatment and Prophylaxis of Frequent Respiratory Infections in Children with Chronic and Disabling Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Konova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In children with chronic pathologies, co-occurring frequent respiratory infections of a prolonged course obstructs and reduce the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures, and adversely affect the adaptation reserves. Hydrotherapeutic factors are widely used for the prevention of colds in children from the first days of life. Addition to the water of medicinal and phytoaromatic preparations increases their efficiency. For patients with chronic pathology, when prescribing balneotherapeutic factors for treatment and prophylaxis of respiratory infections, it is important to take into account the potential risk of adverse effects on the symptoms of the underlying disease. Researches in patients with orthopedic, chronic gastroenterological diseases, spastic forms of cerebral palsy, with co-occurring frequent respiratory infections of a prolonged course in history revealed that addition of medicinal baths based on phytoaromatic preparation, containing eucalyptus oil, to the rehabilitation complex is an effective method of preventing and stopping initial symptoms of respiratory infections. It also contributes to the adaptation reserves of the organism, without adversely affecting the course of the underlying disease.

  13. Association of fine particles with respiratory disease mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xuhong; Zhou, Liangjia; Tang, Meng; Wang, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Short-time exposure to high levels of fine particles (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm; PM2.5) may trigger respiratory disease, but this association has not been determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify the short-time exposure to fine particles on respiratory disease mortality. Published articles were obtained from electronic databases and a validity assessment was used. The meta-analysis was conducted with the incorporation of good-quality studies. After applying the inclusion criteria, 9 articles were included in the study. The methodological qualities of the published studies were good, and every study achieved a score of 3. Fine particles were significantly associated with an increase in respiratory mortality risk (for every 10 μg/m3 increment, rate difference [RD]=1.32%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95%-1.68%; p=.000). These findings indicate that short-time exposure to fine particles could increase the risk of respiratory disease mortality.

  14. Air Quality Awareness Among U.S. Adults With Respiratory and Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C; Boehmer, Tegan K; Damon, Scott A; Sircar, Kanta D; Wall, Hilary K; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Zahran, Hatice S; Garbe, Paul L

    2018-05-01

    Poor air quality affects respiratory and cardiovascular health. Information about health risks associated with outdoor air quality is communicated to the public using air quality alerts. This study was conducted to assess associations of existing respiratory and heart disease with three aspects of air quality awareness: awareness of air quality alerts, discussing with a health professional strategies to reduce air pollution exposure, and avoiding busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure when walking, biking, or exercising outdoors. During 2014-2016, a total of 12,599 U.S. adults participated in summer waves of the ConsumerStyles surveys and self-reported asthma, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, and each aspect of air quality awareness. In 2017, associations between each health condition and air quality awareness were estimated using log binomial and multinomial regression. Overall, 49% of respondents were aware of air quality alerts, 3% discussed with a health professional strategies to reduce air pollution exposure, and 27% always/usually avoided busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure. Asthma was associated with increased prevalence of awareness of air quality alerts (prevalence ratio=1.11, 95% CI=1.04, 1.20), discussing with a health professional (prevalence ratio=4.88, 95% CI=3.74, 6.37), and always/usually avoiding busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure (prevalence ratio=1.13, 95% CI=1.01, 1.27). Heart disease was not associated with air quality awareness. Existing respiratory disease, but not heart disease, was associated with increased air quality awareness. These findings reveal important opportunities to raise awareness of air quality alerts and behavior changes aimed at reducing air pollution exposure among adults at risk of exacerbating respiratory and heart diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Assessment of a strategy for the control of respiratory diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Julio Cesar Rodrigues

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A programme for the control of respiratory diseases in children was conceived for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1986. Its progress thereafter and the epidemiology of the diseases concerned are examined. Apart from an inquiry into the 64 existing State local health authorities, a sample of 18,255 cases of children assisted by the programme at different levels, including both in-patient and outpatient care, is analysed. Each case record included information about identification (child, doctor and health facility, reasons for calling, diagnoses made and outcome of treatment. Further data were also sought from hospitals and from State mortality records. The programme was found to be poorly implemented in the State but, where implemented, it showed itself capable of resolving problems (only 0.5% of the cases could not be handled as also of changing ongoing trends (more than 50% reduction in hospital admission rates. Individual assessment of each item of the programme indicated its bottlenecks. Regarding the epidemiology of respiratory diseases, it is observed that the major burden to health services comes from children aged less than five, and that the most important diseases are wheezing illnesses and pneumonia. Morevoer, they were found to be significantly associated (p = 0.000 so that a child in the community presenting wheezing diseases is 5 times more likely to develop pneumonia than a child with any other respiratory diagnosis. Similarly, among the under five deaths it was found that the risk for pneumonia is 3 times greater for children who died presenting wheezing diseases than it is for children with any other sort of diagnosis. In conclusion, the programme is deemed to be efficient and effective but its efficacy is marred by administrative flaws. The successful control of respiratory problems in childhood is related to a proper appreciation of the importance of wheezing diseases.

  16. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  17. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2011-01-01

    in relation to asthma, chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, and lung function level at examination 2 (1981-1983) or lung function decline established from examinations 1 (1976-1978) to 2 using 4 measures (FEV(1) slope, FEV(1) relative slope, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine......BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976......, the increasing trend in the HR (95% CI) by quartiles of the FEV(1) slope reached a maximum of 3.77 (2.76-5.15) for males, 6.12 (4.63-8.10) for females, and 4.14 (1.57-10.90) for never-smokers. Significant increasing trends were also observed for mortality, with females at higher risk. CONCLUSION: Lung function...

  18. Investments in respiratory infectious disease research 1997-2010: a systematic analysis of UK funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Hayward, Andrew C; Lipman, Marc C; Atun, Rifat

    2014-03-26

    Respiratory infections are responsible for a large global burden of disease. We assessed the public and philanthropic investments awarded to UK institutions for respiratory infectious disease research to identify areas of underinvestment. We aimed to identify projects and categorise them by pathogen, disease and position along the research and development value chain. The UK. Institutions that host and carry out infectious disease research. The total amount spent and number of studies with a focus on several different respiratory pathogens or diseases, and to correlate these against the global burden of disease; also the total amount spent and number of studies relating to the type of science, the predominant funder in each category and the mean and median award size. We identified 6165 infectious disease studies with a total investment of £2·6 billion. Respiratory research received £419 million (16.1%) across 1192 (19.3%) studies. The Wellcome Trust provided greatest investment (£135.2 million; 32.3%). Tuberculosis received £155 million (37.1%), influenza £80 million (19.1%) and pneumonia £27.8 million (6.6%). Despite high burden, there was relatively little investment in vaccine-preventable diseases including diphtheria (£0.1 million, 0.03%), measles (£5.0 million, 1.2%) and drug-resistant tuberculosis. There were 802 preclinical studies (67.3%) receiving £273 million (65.2%), while implementation research received £81 million (19.3%) across 274 studies (23%). There were comparatively few phase I-IV trials or product development studies. Global health research received £68.3 million (16.3%). Relative investment was strongly correlated with 2010 disease burden. The UK predominantly funds preclinical science. Tuberculosis is the most studied respiratory disease. The high global burden of pneumonia-related disease warrants greater investment than it has historically received. Other priority areas include antimicrobial resistance (particularly within

  19. Recent advances in delivery mechanisms for aerosol therapy during pediatric respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue'E; Zhang, Chonglin; Zhen, Qing

    2018-04-01

    The treatment of pediatric surgery diseases via utilization of aerosol delivery mechanisms is in progress for the betterment of pediatric care. Over the years, aerosol therapy has come to play an integral role in the treatment of pediatric respiratory diseases. Inhaled aerosol agents such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and mucolytics are commonly delivered to spontaneously breathing pediatric patients with a tracheostomy. Administering therapeutic inhaled aerosols to pediatric patients is challenging. The pediatric population ranges in age, which means patients with different airway sizes, breathing patterns, and cooperation levels. These patient-related factors impact the deposition of aerosol drugs in the lungs. The present review article will discuss the recent advancements in the delivery mechanisms for aerosol therapy in pediatric patients with respiratory diseases.

  20. Upper Gastrointestinal Disease in Nairobi and Nakuru Counties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Nairobi, Kenya), Ayuo et al (Eldoret, Kenya) have evaluated the UGI disease burden albeit with relatively smaller numbers(1–3,10). Only Missalek had 4000 patients. In addition, no study has been done around the Central Rift region in Kenya. We offer the first audited glimpse of these diseases and their pattern. Gastritis is ...

  1. Air pollution and other local factors in respiratory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, A S; Reid, D D

    1958-01-01

    A study was conducted of civil servants, principally postmen, to standardize social class and pay in morbidity and mortality correlations with air pollution. This group was also compared with the general population. Frequency of winter fog was related to severe chronic bronchitis in both groups studied. Bronchitis absence rate among postmen working outdoors in areas of high presumptive air pollution was higher than that of indoor male workers. Colds and sore throats show the same selective incidence. There was a steady rise in bronchitis rate with age among postmen whereas that of indoor male workers increased only after age 45. Lung cancer apparently was not related to air pollution. The urban factor in infectious diseases could be the increased chance of contact. Uncontrolled factors in this type of study include: difference in morale, individual-job type selection, job criteria, and sick leave and retirement policy.

  2. Global increases in allergic respiratory disease: the possible role of diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B; Saxon, A

    1996-10-01

    Reading this article will enable the readers to recognize and evaluate i e potential relationship between allergic respiratory disease and polyaromatic hydrocarbons as air pollutants from industrial and automotive fuel sources. In this article we review the long-term trends in the prevalence of allergic airway diseases (rhinitis and asthma). We then examine the epidemiologic and other research data relating to the role that hydrocarbon fuel emissions may have had on allergic respiratory disease. Published literature on the relationship between specific air pollutants and trends in allergic respiratory disease were reviewed. Reports of research on pollutant effects on allergic antibody (IgE) were also studied. In both cases, the Melvyl-Medline database since 1975 was used for literature searches. Older references were identified from the bibliographies of relevant articles and books and with the help of the rare books collection at UCLA's Louis M. Darling Biomedical library. Examination of the historical record indicates that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma have significantly increased in prevalence over the past two centuries. Although the reasons for this increase are not fully elucidated, epidemiologic data suggest that certain pollutants such as those produced from the burning of fossil fuels may have played an important role in the prevalence changes. Also important are studies showing that diesel exhaust, a prototypical fossil fuel, is able to enhance in vitro and in vivo IgE production. Increased levels of the compounds resulting from fossil fuel combustion may be partly responsible for the increased prevalence of allergic respiratory disease. If the nature of these compounds and the mechanisms by which they exacerbate allergic disease can be identified, steps can be taken to reduce the production or the impact of these allergy producing compounds.

  3. Patient presentation and physician management of upper respiratory tract infections: a retrospective review of over 5 million primary clinic consultations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Kenny; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Lam, Augustine; Chan, Christy Ka Yan; Griffiths, Sian; Butler, Chris

    2014-05-13

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) has a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Considerable resources are consumed through health care consultations and prescribed treatment, despite evidence for little or no effect on recovery. Patterns of consultations and care including use of symptomatic medications and antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections are poorly described. We performed a retrospective review of computerized clinical data on patients presenting to all public primary care clinics in Hong Kong with symptoms of respiratory tract infections. International Classification of Primary care (ICPC)codes used to identify patients included otitis media (H71), streptococcal pharyngitis (R72), acute URTI (R74), acute sinusitis (R75), acute tonsillitis (R76), acute laryngitis (R77), and influenza (R80). Sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, chronic illness status, attendance date, type and duration of drug prescribed were also collected. Of the 5,529,755 primary care consultations for respiratory symptoms from 2005 to 2010, 98% resulted in a prescription. Prescription patterns of symptomatic medication were largely similar across the 5 years. In 2010 the mean number of drugs prescribed per consultation was 3.2, of which the commonly prescribed medication were sedating antihistamines (79.9%), analgesia (58.9%), throat lozenges (40.4%) and expectorant cough syrup (33.8%). During the study period, there was an overall decline in antibiotic prescription (8.1% to 5.1%). However, in consultations where the given diagnosis was otitis media (H71), streptococcal pharyngitis (R72), acute sinusitis (R75) or acute laryngitis (R76), over 90% resulted in antibiotic prescription. There was a decline in overall antibiotic prescription over the study period. However, the use of antibiotics was high in some conditions e.g. otitis media and acute laryngitis a. Multiple symptomatic medications were given for upper respiratory tract infections. Further

  4. A study of the post-surgical volumetric changes of oropharyngeal visceral cavity, upper airway and the respiratory function of in mandibular setback surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that the narrowing of pharyngeal airway caused by mandibular setback surgery may associate the upper respiratory tract dysfunctions such as sleep apnea/hypopnea. However, there has been no clear relevance between morphological changes of pharyngeal airway in two dimensional evaluation and the onset of postoperative upper airway dysfunction. The aim of this study is to evaluate volumetric change and relevance of oropharyngeal visceral cavity and upper airway with three-dimensional CT (3DCT) and upper airway function before and after mandibular setback surgery. Thirty three patients (6 males and 27 females) who have had mandibular setback surgery were allocated in this study. The difference between pre- and postoperative position of mandibular bone and hyoid bone as well as volume of airway, and oropharyngeal visceral cavity were measured using 3DCT remodeling images. The evaluation of upper airway function was performed Polysomnograph (PSG) pre- and post surgically. These data were corrected just before the operation, just before discharge (10.2±1.8 days after the operation) and 1 year later. After mandibular setback surgery, the volume of airway and oropharyngeal visceral cavity had significantly decreased. However, there was no correlation in the quantity of mandibular setback and reduction of airway volume. PSG, aggravation of apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was confirmed among 7 out of 26 samples (27%) in the postoperative early stage. In addition, aggravation of minimum SpO 2 , desaturation index and outbreak time of snoring were detected. At the early stage of postoperation, the airway volume decreased and the airway function took a turn for the worse. On the other hand both were recognized to have tendency to recover after 1 year. In this study, there was no correlation in the amount of change of the volume of the airway, oropharyngeal visceral cavity and aggravation of upper airway function. Moreover it was suggested that age and other

  5. Human Metapneumovirus Infection is Associated with Severe Respiratory Disease in Preschool Children with History of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same family as that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, however, it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with a history of severe prematurity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool-age children (≤5 years) with and without history of severe prematurity (prematurity. Preschool children with a history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity, and history of asthma. Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with a history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000–3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the short‐term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000–3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short‐term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time‐series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1 760 000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52 928 for LRD and 74 845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator. PMID:17182644

  7. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-05-01

    This study describes the short-term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000-3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short-term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time-series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1,760,000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52,928 for LRD and 74,845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator.

  8. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator, behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model (SM, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to

  9. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on respiratory quotient of infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteerojntrakool, Orapa; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol; Sritippayawan, Suchada; Jantarabenjakul, Watsamon; Sirimongkol, Pathama; Chomtho, Sirinuch

    2015-01-01

    To compare the respiratory quotient in infants with chronic lung disease before and after receiving a modular diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content. Infants with chronic lung disease from the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were enrolled and assessed for nutritional status, severity of chronic lung disease and dietary intake. Indirect calorimetry was performed using a custom-made airtight canopy with O2 and CO2 sensors. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was calculated from VCO2/VO2 during the period they were fed low carbohydrates (37% of total calories) for at least 24 hours vs. a standard diet (47% carbohydrate). These two formulas were similar in terms of caloric density and protein content. Each patient received at least 100-150 kcal/ kg/day during the study period. Respiratory quotients of the same patient receiving the two diets were compared by using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A total of 14 patients (median age 7 months, range 1-26 months) were recruited. Twelve children had weight for age Z-score below-2SD. Their median weight for age Z-score, length for age Z-score and weight for length Z-score were -2.89, -3.08 and -1.24, respectively. The median RQ measured during the low carbohydrate diet was 0.96 (interquartile range 0.95-0.97), significantly lower than the median RQ during the standard diet, which was 1.04 (0.97-1.10). However, the respiratory rate revealed no significant difference. Two participants with underlying gastroesophageal reflux disease showed higher RQ after low carbohydrate formula feeding, which might be a result of hypersecretion due to its high fat content. Diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content can reduce the RQ in infants with chronic lung disease compared to the standard enteral formula. A 10-percent reduction of carbohydrate content may provide a sizeable effect in this group of patients. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of this finding requires further investigation.

  10. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): strategy and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurendi, Giovanna; Mele, Sonia; Centanni, Stefano; Donner, Claudio F; Falcone, Franco; Frateiacci, Sandra; Lazzeri, Marta; Mangiacavallo, Antonino; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Viegi, Giovanni; Pisanti, Paola; Filippetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The steady increase in incidence of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) now constitutes a serious public health problem. CRDs are often underdiagnosed and many patients are not diagnosed until the CRD is too severe to prevent normal daily activities. The prevention of CRDs and reducing their social and individual impacts means modifying environmental and social factors and improving diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of risk factors (tobacco smoke, allergens, occupational agents, indoor/outdoor air pollution) will significantly impact on morbidity and mortality. The Italian Ministry of Health (MoH) has made respiratory disease prevention a top priority and is implementing a comprehensive strategy with policies against tobacco smoking, indoor/outdoor pollution, obesity, and communicable diseases. Presently these actions are not well coordinated. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), set up by the World Health Organization, envisages national bodies; the GARD initiative in Italy, launched 11/6/2009, represents a great opportunity for the MoH. Its main objective is to promote the development of a coordinated CRD program in Italy. Effective prevention implies setting up a health policy with the support of healthcare professionals and citizen associations at national, regional, and district levels. What is required is a true inter-institutional synergy: respiratory diseases prevention cannot and should not be the responsibility of doctors alone, but must involve politicians/policymakers, as well as the media, local institutions, and schools, etc. GARD could be a significant experience and a great opportunity for Italy to share the GARD vision of a world where all people can breathe freely. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Prevention of Respiratory Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroushzadeh, Sayed Mohammad Ali; Khiveh, Ali; Gerayelimalek, Valiollah

    2016-05-01

    In order to define appropriate plans for respiratory infectious diseases, in accordance with Iranian traditional medicine, one should cover the topic of "havae vabai". "Havae vabai" is related to the epidemics of respiratory infectious diseases. This study is a review of the role of Iranian traditional medicine in the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases .Resources of traditional medicine with the keyword "havae vabai" were reviewed in Noor digital library. The perspective of traditional medicine for the prevention of disease in "havae vabai" is based on self-recuperation and air modification. Items that are mentioned are; refine the surrounding air, move to a proper space, live in a house with no source of water like fountains and limited flow of air, air-drying, use air freshener, smell fruit sticks, use in-house plants, and place a cloth soaked with vinegar in front of the nose. For self-recuperation, reducing body moisture with proper foods and drugs or with vomiting, diarrhea, phlebotomy, wet-cupping, reduction in food and drink intake, avoiding sexual intercourse, bathing, heavy exercise, inactivity, overeating, hunger, thirst, milk, sweets, fish, fatty foods, fruits especially juicy fruits are recommended. The food that tends to have a sour taste, eating meat cooked with sour taste like vinegar is suggested. The use of the solutions offered in traditional medicine to control air is helpful as it can reduce epidemics, such as influenza; that yearly kills many patients with a heavy financial burden.

  12. Respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius) experimentally infected with ball python nidovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Layton, Marylee L; Ossiboff, Robert J; Parker, John S L; Dubovi, Edward J; Stenglein, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation. Clinical signs included oral mucosal reddening, abundant mucus secretions, open-mouthed breathing, and anorexia. Histologic lesions included chronic-active mucinous rhinitis, stomatitis, tracheitis, esophagitis and proliferative interstitial pneumonia. Control snakes remained negative and free of clinical signs throughout the experiment. Our findings establish a causal relationship between nidovirus infection and respiratory disease in ball pythons and shed light on disease progression and transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors for return to work for those with occupational respiratory disease: clinical and structural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeckler, Jeanette M; Cibula, Donald A; Morley, Christopher P; Lax, Michael B

    2013-12-01

    Few occupational researchers have examined "return to work" among patients with work-related respiratory diseases. In addition, prior studies have emphasized individual patient characteristics rather than a more multi-dimensional approach that includes both clinical and structural factors. A retrospective chart review identified patients with occupational respiratory diseases in the Occupational Health Clinical Center, Syracuse, NY between 1991 and 2009. We assessed predictors of work status using an exploratory, sequential mixed methods research design, multinomial (n = 188) and Cox regressions (n = 130). The findings suggest that patients with an increased number of diagnoses, non-union members, and those who took more than a year before clinical presentation had significantly poorer work status outcomes, after adjusting for age, education level, and relevant diagnoses. Efforts to prevent slow return to work after developing occupational respiratory disease should recognize the importance of timely access to occupational health services, disease severity, union membership, and smoking status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genomic characterization of adenovirus serotype 7 isolated in Brazil from acute respiratory disease patients during the period from 1980 to 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAES Marcia T.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty isolates of adenovirus type 7 were analized by restriction enzyme digestion with BamHI, SmaI, EcoRI and HindIII. These isolates were obtained from acute respiratory disease patients during the years 1980 to 1991. Only two genomic types were found: Ad7b and Ad7e, with Ad7b (87.5% being more frequent than Ad7e (12.5%. The genomic type Ad7e appeared in the years 1980, 1981 and 1983. Ad7b appeared in 1982 and it was the only genomic type found from 1984 to 1991. Both genomic types were responsible for lower (LRTI and upper (URTI respiratory tract infection, but the proportion LRTI/URTI is higher for Ad7b (25/6 than for Ad7e (1/4.

  15. Respiratory muscle training with enzyme replacement therapy improves muscle strength in late - onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevnikar, Mitja; Kodric, Metka; Cantarutti, Fabiana; Cifaldi, Rossella; Longo, Cinzia; Della Porta, Rossana; Bembi, Bruno; Confalonieri, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase. This deficiency leads to glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of muscle tissue causing progressive muscular weakness particularly of the respiratory system. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has demonstrated efficacy in slowing down disease progression in infants. Despite the large number of studies describing the effects of physical training in juvenile and adult late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). There are very few reports that analyze the benefits of respiratory muscle rehabilitation or training. The effectiveness of respiratory muscle training was investigated using a specific appliance with adjustable resistance (Threshold). The primary endpoint was effect on respiratory muscular strength by measurements of MIP and MEP. Eight late-onset Pompe patients (aged 13 to 58 years; 4 female, 4 male) with respiratory muscle deficiency on functional respiratory tests were studied. All patients received ERT at the dosage of 20 mg/kg/every 2 weeks and underwent training with Threshold at specified pressures for 24 months. A significant increase in MIP was observed during the follow-up of 24 month: 39.6 cm H 2 O (+ 25.0%) at month 3; 39.5 cm H 2 O (+ 24.9%) at month 6; 39.1 cm H 2 O (+ 23.7%) at month 9; 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 18.2%) at month 12; and 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 17.8%) at month 24. Median MEP values also showed a significant increase during the first 9 months: 29.8 cm H 2 O, (+ 14.3%) at month 3; 31.0 cm H 2 O (+ 18.6) at month 6; and 29.5 cm H 2 O (+ 12.9) at month 9. MEP was then shown to be decreased at months 12 and 24; median MEP was 27.2 cm H 2 O (+ 4.3%) at 12 months and 26.6 cm H 2 O (+ 1.9%) at 24 months. The FVC remain stable throughout the study. An increase in respiratory muscular strength was demonstrated with Threshold training when used in combination with ERT.

  16. Prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Albuquerque-Oliveira, Paulo Rogério

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease granted to employees, as well as the number of lost workdays and costs resulting from those in Brazil between 2003 and 2004. Cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Unified System of Benefits of the Brazilian Institute of Social Security (INSS, Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social) and the Brazilian Social Registry Database. Data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and type of economic activity, as well as type, duration and cost of benefits, were compiled. Respiratory diseases accounted for 1.3% of the total number of temporary social security benefits granted by INSS, with a prevalence rate of 9.92 (per 10,000 employment contracts). Females and individuals older than 50 years of age were the most affected. Non-work-related benefits were more common than were work-related benefits. The most prevalent diseases were pneumonia, asthma and COPD, followed by laryngeal and vocal cord diseases. The most prevalent types of economic activity were auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities. The mean duration of benefits was 209.68 days, with a mean cost of R$ 4,495.30 per occurrence. Respiratory diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leave (mean, 296.72 days) and greater cost (mean, R$ 7,105.74). The most prevalent diseases were airway diseases and pneumonia. Workers from auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities were the most affected. Diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leaves and resulted in greater costs.

  17. Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to siderosis causing symptomatic respiratory disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Liam M; Goddard, Martin; Mahadeva, Ravi

    2008-08-05

    Pulmonary siderosis secondary to the inhalation of iron compounds is a rare condition which, despite striking radiological and histopathological features, has not traditionally been associated with symptoms or functional impairment. Although not the first of its kind, we present an unusual case of pulmonary siderosis with symptomatic respiratory disease, most likely secondary to associated fibrosis. A 66-year-old Caucasian man was referred to the outpatient clinic with a 2-year history of exertional breathlessness. He had worked as an engineer for 20 years where he did a significant amount of welding but always wore a face shield. Clinical, radiological and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary siderosis, with associated fibrosis, most likely related to his occupational welding history. Our report illustrates that symptomatic respiratory disease due to mild peribronchiolar fibrosis can occur with pulmonary siderosis despite wearing a mask. Furthermore, it reinforces the need for all clinicians to compile a detailed occupational history in individuals presenting with breathlessness.

  18. Sugammadex use in difficult intubation due to ankylosing spondylitis and severe restrictive respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Tomak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe anesthesia management of a 50-year-old man scheduled for thoracic spinal reconstruction, presenting with severe restrictive respiratory disease and difficult airway due to ankylosing spondilitis. The patient was unable to extend his head, had difficulty in breathing and sleeping in supine position due to thoracal deformities. The patient was intubated using intubating laryngeal mask airway to overcome the difficulties of limited mouth opening and head extension. He was extubated following administration of sugammadex to obtain optimal conditions in terms of respiratory muscle function and to prevent hypersecretion and bronchospasm. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 398-400Key words: Restrictive lung disease, airway management, laryngeal masks, sugammadex, ankylosing spondylitis

  19. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries-The neglected role of outdoor cooking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Langbein

    Full Text Available Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world's leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards.

  20. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries-The neglected role of outdoor cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world's leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards.

  1. Firewood, smoke and respiratory diseases in developing countries—The neglected role of outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the world’s leading causes of premature child death, claiming the lives of 500,000 children under five annually. This study analyses the role of outdoor cooking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases among children under five years by means of probit regressions using information from 41 surveys conducted in 30 developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. I find that outdoor cooking reduces respiratory diseases among young children aged 0-4 by around 9 percent, an effect that reaches 13 percent among children aged 0-1. The results suggest that simple behavioral interventions, such as promoting outdoor cooking, can have a substantial impact on health hazards. PMID:28658290

  2. Disease spectrum and management of children admitted with acute respiratory infection in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T K P; Nguyen, D V; Truong, T N H; Tran, M D; Graham, S M; Marais, B J

    2017-06-01

    To assess the acute respiratory infection (ARI) disease spectrum, duration of hospitalisation and outcome in children hospitalised with an ARI in Viet Nam. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of ARI admissions to primary (Hoa Vang District Hospital), secondary (Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children) and tertiary (National Hospital of Paediatrics in Ha Noi) level hospitals in Viet Nam over 12 months (01/09/2015 to 31/08/2016). Acute respiratory infections accounted for 27.9% (37 436/134 061) of all paediatric admissions; nearly half (47.6%) of all children admitted to Hoa Vang District Hospital. Most (64.6%) of children hospitalised with an ARI were Viet Nam, characterised by prolonged hospitalisation for relatively mild disease. There is huge potential to reduce unnecessary hospital admission and cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Full-genome analysis of a canine pneumovirus causing acute respiratory disease in dogs, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Decaro

    Full Text Available An outbreak of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD associated to canine pneumovirus (CnPnV infection is reported. The outbreak occurred in a shelter of the Apulia region and involved 37 out of 350 dogs that displayed cough and/or nasal discharge with no evidence of fever. The full-genomic characterisation showed that the causative agent (strain Bari/100-12 was closely related to CnPnVs that have been recently isolated in the USA, as well as to murine pneumovirus, which is responsible for respiratory disease in mice. The present study represents a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of CnPnV and its association with CIRD in dogs. Further studies will elucidate the pathogenicity and epidemiology of this novel pneumovirus, thus addressing the eventual need for specific vaccines.

  4. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo A; Alvarado, Sergio; Neary, Daniel G; Valdes, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan; Aguirre, Juan José; Mena, Marcelo; Pizarro, Roberto; Jofré, Paola; Vera, Mauricio; Olivares, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of allergic diseases of the respiratory passages in the Kazakh SSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshkevich, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    Over a period of 20 years, the authors have been studying the distribution, aetiology and causes of increasing incidence of allergic respiratory diseases in various climatogeographic zones of the Kazakh SSR. Large groups of people living in towns and in the country were examined by various methods. The number of patients seeking advice in health service establishments because of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma was found to increase every year. A number of factors influencing the incidence of disease were pointed out, such as the character of diet, duration of the person's stay, vaccination against brucellosis, pollution of the atmosphere, local flora, climate, and other factors. Morbidity also depended on the methods of studying the epidemiology of respiratory allergoses. The obtained results will help health service authorities in taking specific measures to reduce morbidity from the mentioned pathological condition.

  6. Influenza and other respiratory viruses: standardizing disease severity in surveillance and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Barbara; Conrad, Tim; Myles, Puja; Alchikh, Maren; Ma, Xiaolin; Hoppe, Christian; Tief, Franziska; Chen, Xi; Obermeier, Patrick; Kisler, Bron; Schweiger, Brunhilde

    2017-06-01

    Influenza-Like Illness is a leading cause of hospitalization in children. Disease burden due to influenza and other respiratory viral infections is reported on a population level, but clinical scores measuring individual changes in disease severity are urgently needed. Areas covered: We present a composite clinical score allowing individual patient data analyses of disease severity based on systematic literature review and WHO-criteria for uncomplicated and complicated disease. The 22-item ViVI Disease Severity Score showed a normal distribution in a pediatric cohort of 6073 children aged 0-18 years (mean age 3.13; S.D. 3.89; range: 0 to 18.79). Expert commentary: The ViVI Score was correlated with risk of antibiotic use as well as need for hospitalization and intensive care. The ViVI Score was used to track children with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus, and adenovirus infections and is fully compliant with regulatory data standards. The ViVI Disease Severity Score mobile application allows physicians to measure disease severity at the point-of care thereby taking clinical trials to the next level.

  7. Patterns of upper gastrointestinal diseases based on endoscopy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the patients had abnormal findings with gastritis being the most common (25.8%). It is concluded that gastritis is an important cause of morbidity in Kenya. Oesophagitis, mainly due to gastroesopahageal reflux disease, seems to be on the increase. Gastric cancer is not as rare as previously thought and peptic ...

  8. Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yan; Mi, Shengquan; Zhou, Shuhong; Wang, Shigong; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    Lanzhou is among the most seriously air-polluted cities in China as a whole, due to its unique topography, climate, industrial structure and so on. We studied the relationship between different air pollution and respiratory hospitalizations from 2001 to 2005, the total of respiratory hospital admissions were 28,057. The data were analyzed using Poisson regression models after controlling for the long time trend for air pollutants, the “day of week” effect and confounding meteorological factors. Three air pollutants (PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 ) had a lag effect, the lag was 3–5 days for PM 10 , 1–3 days for SO 2 and 1–4 days for NO 2 . The relative risks were calculated for increases in the inter-quartile range of the pollutants (139 μg/m 3 in PM 10 , 61 μg/m 3 in SO 2 and 31 μg/m 3 in NO 2 ). Results showed that there were significant associations between air pollutants and respiratory hospital admissions, and stronger effects were observed for females and aged ≥65 yrs in Lanzhou. -- There were significant associations between air pollutants and respiratory diseases with lag effect, and the aged and female people are more vulnerable to air pollutants. -- Highlights: • We assess the association between different air pollutants and respiratory diseases in 2001–2005. • The associations are significant and show a lag effect. • The lag was 3–5 days for PM 10 , 1–3 days for SO 2 and 1–4 days for NO 2

  9. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Production of Structured and Unstructured Speaking Tasks: Respiratory Physiologic and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of cognitive-linguistic deficits and respiratory physiologic changes on respiratory support for speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) using two speech tasks: reading and extemporaneous speech. Method: Five women with PD, 9 men with PD, and 14 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage and…

  10. Hospital Admission for Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases Due to Particulate Matter in Ilam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryanoosh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 µm (PM10 has the most undesired adverse effects on human health. Several studies reported a strong correlation between PM levels and hospital admissions owing to chronic and acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives The current study aimed to estimate the effect of PM10 as a primary pollutant on respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations in Ilam, Iran, in 2013. Methods PM10 data was taken from the Ilam environmental protection agency. The annual morbidity including hospital admission for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases due to PM10 exposure were estimated using relative risk (RR and baseline incidence (BI based on world health organization (WHO databases for AirQ2.2.3 model. Results The results showed that the maximum level of PM10 was obtained in summer with a concentration of 491 μg/m3. The cumulative number of excess cases admitted to the hospital for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases were 216 and 84, respectively. Approximately 3.95% of the cases hospitalized due to PM10 occurred during days with concentration levels lower than 20 μg/m3. The highest rate of person-days related to PM10 that led to heath effect among Ahvaz inhabitants was in concentration levels of 40 - 49 µg/m3. Conclusions To reduce the impacts of particulate matter on health status of people in Ilam, necessary training by health systems should be conducted for people, especially those with chronic lung and heart diseases, the elderly and children to reduce their activities on the dusty days.

  11. Quality Assessment of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Respiratory Diseases in China: A Systematic Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Liao, Li-Yue; Liu, Xiao-Qing; He, Wei-Qun; Guan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Hao; Li, Yi-Min

    2015-09-01

    There has been a significant increase in the publication of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for respiratory diseases in China. However, little is known about the quality and potential impacts of these CPGs. Our objective was to critically evaluate the quality of Chinese CPGs for respiratory diseases that were published in peer-reviewed medical journals. A systematic search of scientific literature published between 1979 and 2013 was undertaken to identify and select CPGs that were related to respiratory diseases. Four Chinese databases (the Chinese Biomedical Literature database [CBM], the China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], the VIP database, and the WANFANG database) were used. The quality of eligible guidelines was assessed independently by four reviewers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. The overall agreement among reviewers was evaluated using an intraclass correlation coefficient. A total of 109 guidelines published in 27 medical journals from 1979 to 2013 were evaluated. The overall agreement among reviewers was considered good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.838; 95% CI, 0.812-0.862). The scores of the six AGREE domains were low: 57.3% for scope and purpose (range, 4.2%-80.5%), 23.8% for stakeholder involvement (range, 2.8%-54.2%), 7.7% for rigor of development (range, 0%-27.1%), 59.8% for clarity and presentation (range, 22.2%-80.6%), 10.9% for applicability (range, 0%-22.9%), and 0.6% for editorial independence (range, 0%-16.7%). Scores for all guidelines were below 60%, and only three guidelines (2.8%) were recommended for clinical practice with modifications. The quality of the guidelines was low, and stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, applicability, and editorial independence should be considered in the future development of CPGs for respiratory diseases in China.

  12. Major Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Their Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn

    2016-09-01

    To identify the prevalence, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and correlations of major chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) among the adult population living in Chiang Mai. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in municipal areas of Chiang Mai. All clinical relevant data collected by face-to-face interview was confirmed by pulmonologists. The chest radiographic findings and post-bronchodilator spirometry were done in all subjects. The aeroallergen skin test and rhinoscopy were performed in all chronic rhinitis and asthma subjects. Five hundred seventy four subjects with mean age 52.9±10.0 years, 59.6% female, and 37.5% smokers were recruited. The prevalence of overall CRDs was 59.2%. Chronic rhinitis was the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease (n = 239, 41.6%), followed by asthma (n = 58, 10.1%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 21, 3.7%). The most common abnormal pulmonary function test was restrictive lung disorders (n = 53, 9.6%). Asthma subjects were determined to be more allergic than chronic rhinitis subjects (58.1% vs. 39.9%, p-value = 0.033). Regarding the disease severity, 14.9% of chronic rhinitis and 10.3% of asthma subjects were classified as moderate to severe degree, whereas 81% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects were classified as moderate to very severe degrees. In asthma patients, there were positive association with chronic rhinitis (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.1-7.0, p-value Chiang Mai population was significantly high with overlapped respiratory symptoms and varying disease severity. Additionally, chronic rhinitis had correlation with asthma but not with COPD.

  13. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative: Objectives, design and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study investigating infant viral respiratory illness and the development of asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartert, Tina V; Carroll, Kecia; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Woodward, Kimberly; Minton, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    The 'attack rate' of asthma following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is about 3-4 fold higher than that of the general population; however, the majority of children who develop viral LRTI during infancy do not develop asthma, and asthma incidence has been observed to continuously decrease with age. Thus, we do not understand how viral LRTI either predispose or serve as a marker of children to develop asthma. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative has been established as a longitudinal prospective investigation of infants and their biological mothers. The primary goals are to investigate both the acute and the long-term health consequences of varying severity and aetiology of clinically significant viral respiratory tract infections on early childhood outcomes. Over four respiratory viral seasons, 2004–2008, term, predominantly non-low weight previously healthy infants and their biological mothers were enrolled during an infant's acute viral respiratory illness.Longitudinal follow up to age 6 years is ongoing [corrected]. This report describes the study objectives, design and recruitment results of the over 650 families enrolled in this longitudinal investigation. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative is additionally unique because it is designed in parallel with a large retrospective birth cohort of over 95,000 mother-infant dyads with similar objectives to investigate the role of respiratory viral infection severity and aetiology in the development of asthma. Future reports from this cohort will help to clarify the complex relationship between infant respiratory viral infection severity, aetiology, atopic predisposition and the subsequent development of early childhood asthma and atopic diseases.

  14. Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadre, Shruti K; Duggal, Abhijit; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Krishnan, Sudhir; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zell, Katrina; Guzman, Jorge

    2018-04-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prognosis of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation is believed to be grim in this population. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of patients with underlying severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation.A retrospective study of patients admitted to a quaternary referral medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2008 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of severe COPD and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure.We evaluated 670 patients with an established diagnosis of severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of whom 47% were male with a mean age of 63.7 ± 12.4 years and Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score of 76.3 ± 27.2. Only seventy-nine (12%) were admitted with a COPD exacerbation, 27(4%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 78 (12%) had pneumonia, 78 (12%) had sepsis, and 312 (47%) had other causes of respiratory failure, including pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, etc. Eighteen percent of the patients received a trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days (interquartile range IQR 2-7); the median duration for ICU length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR 2-9) days and the median duration of hospital LOS was 12 (IQR 7-22) days. The overall ICU mortality was 25%. Patients with COPD exacerbation had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation (2 vs 4 days; P = .04), ICU (3 vs 5 days; P = .01), and hospital stay (10 vs 13 days; P = .01). The ICU mortality (9% vs 27%; P respiratory failure. A 1-unit increase in the APACHE III score was associated with a 1% decrease and having an active cancer was associated

  15. Association between exposure to particulate matter and hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Ana Cristina Gobbo; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter and hospitalization for respiratory disease. It was an ecological time series study with daily indicators of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children up to 10 years old, living in Piracicaba, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. A generalized additive Poisson regression model was used. The relative risks were RR = 1.008; 95%CI 1.001;1.016 for lag 1 and RR = 1.009; 95%CI 1.001;1.017 for lag 3. The increment of 10 μg/m3in particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter implies increase in relative risk of between 7.9 and 8.6 percentage points. In conclusion, exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter was associated with hospitalization for respiratory disease in children. PMID:24626559

  16. Respiratory diseases and allergic sensitization in swine breeders: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Luigina; Facchetti, Susanna; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; D'Anna, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    The daily occupation as a swine breeder involves exposure to several bacterial components and organic dusts and inhalation of a large amount of allergens. To investigate the risk of respiratory diseases and atopy in swine breeders compared with the general population living in the same area. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an agricultural area of northern Italy that enrolled a random sample of resident male breeders and non-breeders. Demographic features, comorbidities, and presence of allergic respiratory disease were retrieved through interview. Prick tests for common allergens were performed. An evaluation of pollen and mold in air samples taken inside and outside some swine confinement buildings also was performed. One hundred one male breeders (78 native-born, mean age ± SD 43.0 ± 11.1 years) and 82 non-breeders (43.0 ± 11.1 years) were enrolled. When restricting the analysis to native-born subjects, breeders vs non-breeders showed a lower prevalence of respiratory allergy (12.8% vs 31.1%, respectively, P = .002), asthma (6.4% vs 15.8%, P = .059), rhinitis (16.7% vs 51.2%, P increase, and might decrease, the risk of pollen sensitization and allergic disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Howard; Elon, Lisa; Si, Wenpei; Norris, Sharon L.

    2018-01-01

    With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories and anecdotes, the risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. Our results indicate there is low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique. To measure the true pathogen burden, our team collected 229 environmental samples during the flights. Although eight flights were during Influenza season, all qPCR assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were negative. PMID:29555754

  18. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Weiss, Howard; Elon, Lisa; Si, Wenpei; Norris, Sharon L

    2018-04-03

    With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories and anecdotes, the risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. Our results indicate there is low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique. To measure the true pathogen burden, our team collected 229 environmental samples during the flights. Although eight flights were during Influenza season, all qPCR assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were negative. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. China’s Air Quality and Respiratory Disease Mortality Based on the Spatial Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilong Cao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China’s economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods: Taking into account this spatial imbalance, the paper is based on the spatial panel data model PM2.5. Respiratory disease mortality in 31 Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2008 is taken as the main variable to study the spatial effect and impact of air quality and respiratory disease mortality on a large scale. Results: It was found that there is a spatial correlation between the mortality of respiratory diseases in Chinese provinces. The spatial correlation can be explained by the spatial effect of PM2.5 pollutions in the control of other variables. Conclusions: Compared with the traditional non-spatial model, the spatial model is better for describing the spatial relationship between variables, ensuring the conclusions are scientific and can measure the spatial effect between variables.

  20. China's Air Quality and Respiratory Disease Mortality Based on the Spatial Panel Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qilong; Liang, Ying; Niu, Xueting

    2017-09-18

    Background : Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China's economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods : Taking into account this spatial imbalance, the paper is based on the spatial panel data model PM 2.5 . Respiratory disease mortality in 31 Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2008 is taken as the main variable to study the spatial effect and impact of air quality and respiratory disease mortality on a large scale. Results : It was found that there is a spatial correlation between the mortality of respiratory diseases in Chinese provinces. The spatial correlation can be explained by the spatial effect of PM 2.5 pollutions in the control of other variables. Conclusions : Compared with the traditional non-spatial model, the spatial model is better for describing the spatial relationship between variables, ensuring the conclusions are scientific and can measure the spatial effect between variables.

  1. China’s Air Quality and Respiratory Disease Mortality Based on the Spatial Panel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qilong; Liang, Ying; Niu, Xueting

    2017-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has become an important factor restricting China’s economic development and has subsequently brought a series of social problems, including the impact of air pollution on the health of residents, which is a topical issue in China. Methods: Taking into account this spatial imbalance, the paper is based on the spatial panel data model PM2.5. Respiratory disease mortality in 31 Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2008 is taken as the main variable to study the spatial effect and impact of air quality and respiratory disease mortality on a large scale. Results: It was found that there is a spatial correlation between the mortality of respiratory diseases in Chinese provinces. The spatial correlation can be explained by the spatial effect of PM2.5 pollutions in the control of other variables. Conclusions: Compared with the traditional non-spatial model, the spatial model is better for describing the spatial relationship between variables, ensuring the conclusions are scientific and can measure the spatial effect between variables. PMID:28927016

  2. Collaboration between specialties for respiratory allergies in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises; Linzer, Jeffrey F; Chalmers, Robert J G; Demoly, Pascal

    2017-02-10

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) has been grouping the allergic and hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract under topographic distribution, regardless of the underlying mechanisms, triggers or concepts currently in use for allergic and hypersensitivity conditions. In order to strengthen awareness and deliberate the creation of the new "Allergic or hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract" section of the ICD-11, we here propose make the building process public. The new frame has been constructed to cover the gaps previously identified and was based on consensus academic reports and ICD-11 principles. Constant and bilateral discussion was kept with relevant groups representing specialties and resulted in proposals submission into the ICD-11 online platform. The "Allergic or hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract" section covers 64 entities distributed across five main categories. All the 79 proposals submitted resulted from an intensive collaboration of the Allergy working group, relevant Expert working groups and the WHO ICD governance. The establishment of the ICD-11 "Allergic or hypersensitivity disorders involving the respiratory tract" section will allow the dissemination of the updated concepts to be used in clinical practice by many different specialties and health professionals.

  3. [Prevalence and risk factors of respiratory viral infection in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X B; Ma, X; Gao, Y; Wen, L F; Li, J; Wang, Z Z; Liu, S

    2017-04-12

    Objective: To study the prevalence of respiratory viral infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) exacerbations and to find the factors associated with susceptibility to viral infections. Methods: Eighty patients with exacerbations of COPD and 50 stable COPD patients were recruited. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for a range of 18 different respiratory viruses using PCR. Results: Among the COPD exacerbations, viral infection was detected in 18 episodes (22.5%) . The most common virus was rhinovirus (33.3%), followed by coronavirus(27.8%), parainfluenza(22.2%), metapneumovirus(11.1%) and influenza virus B(5.6%). The prevalence of viral infection was 8% in the stable COPD patients. In multivariate regression analysis fever was found to be significantly associated with viral infections in COPD exacerbations (Odds ratio 4.99, 95% CI 1.51-16.48, P =0.008). Conclusion: Viral respiratory pathogens were more often detected in respiratory specimens from hospitalized patients with AECOPD than those with stable COPD. Rhinovirus was the most common infecting agent identified. The symptom of fever was associated with viral detection.

  4. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT. Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents.

  5. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Replication and clearance of respiratory syncytial virus - Apoptosis is an important pathway of virus clearance after experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2002-01-01

    and clearance in a natural target animal. Replication of BRSV was demonstrated in the luminal part of the respiratory epithelial cells and replication in the upper respiratory tract preceded the replication in the lower respiratory tract. Virus excreted to the lumen of the respiratory tract was cleared...... and the infections with human respiratory syncytial. virus and BRSV have similar clinical, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. In this study we used experimental BRSV infection in calves as a model of respiratory syncytial virus infection to demonstrate important aspects of viral replication......Human respiratory syncytial virus is an important cause of severe respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and in immunocompromised adults. Similarly, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is causing severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in calves. Both viruses are pneumovirus...

  7. Campylobacter gastritis simulating Menetrier's disease by upper gastrointestinal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, J.C.; Gay, B.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Within this decade it has been determined that primary gastritis in both children and adults is frequently associated with infection of the gastric mucosa with Campylobacter pylori. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process in which the mucosa of the gastric antrum is typically most severely involved. Other regions of the stomach may be involved and associated peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenal bulb are frequent. A case of C. pylori gastritis is reported in which involvement of the gastric fundus and body produced severe rugal hypertrophy that resembled Menetrier's disease. (orig.)

  8. Serum C-reactive protein as a diagnostic biomarker in dogs with bacterial respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, S J; Laurila, H P; Lilja-Maula, L I; Melamies, M A; Rantala, M; Rajamäki, M M

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute-phase protein in dogs. Serum concentrations are low in healthy animals, but increase rapidly after inflammatory stimuli. The aim of the study was to investigate CRP concentrations in various respiratory diseases of dogs and to determine if CRP can be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of bacterial respiratory diseases. A total of 106 privately owned dogs with respiratory diseases (17 with bacterial tracheobronchitis [BTB], 20 with chronic bronchitis [CB], 20 with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy [EBP], 12 with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis [CIPF], 15 with cardiogenic pulmonary edema [CPE], and 22 with bacterial pneumonia [BP]) and 72 healthy controls. The study was conducted as a prospective cross-sectional observational study. CRP was measured in serum samples. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic imaging, and selected diagnostic methods such as cytological and microbiological analysis of respiratory samples, echocardiography, and histopathology. Dogs with BP had significantly higher CRP concentrations (median, 121 mg/L; interquartile range, 68-178 mg/L) than dogs with BTB (23, 15-38, P = .0003), CB (13, 8-14, P < .0001), EBP (5, 5-15, P < .0001), CIPF (17, 10-20, P < .0001), or CPE (19, 13-32, P < .0001) and healthy controls (14, 8-20, P < .0001). Dogs with BTB had significantly higher CRP concentrations than dogs with CB (P = .001) or EBP (P < .0001) and healthy controls (P = .029). These results indicate that CRP has potential for use as an additional biomarker, especially in the diagnostics of BP. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Social position and mortality from respiratory diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N; Vestbo, J

    2003-01-01

    ). Although smoking rates were inversely associated with the level of education, the social gradient was not affected by adjustment for smoking. In males, but not in females, there was an additional effect of other indicators of social position, i.e. employment grade (white collar versus blue collar...... disease, which is independent of smoking and is stronger in males. Social disadvantage is a potentially avoidable cause of death from respiratory disease and further research is needed to explain the excess risk in the socioeconomically disadvantaged....

  10. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Noma, Koji; Ito, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Nishimoto, Yukio; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1986-01-01

    From April 1981 through March 1986, 39,363 A-bomb survivors older than 50 years of age underwent chest X-ray examination. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in men (28 %) than in women (13 %). The most common disease was old pulmonary tuberculosis in both men and women. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis was remarkably high in survivors exposed directly to A-bomb radiation, when compared with controls. There was no data suggesting the relationship between the incidence of respiratory disease and exposure status such as the distance from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Chronic Respiratory Diseases in the Regions of Northern Russia: Epidemiological Distinctions in the Results of a National Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, Marine H; Shalnova, Svetlana A; Deev, Alexander D; Drapkina, Oxana M

    2017-07-26

    The aim of the study is to investigate the epidemiological situation regarding chronic respiratory diseases in populations that inhabit different climatic-geographical regions of Russia, and to develop targeted programs for prevention of these diseases. (1) a comparative analysis of the standardized mortality data in Russia and other selected regions of the Russian North using the European standard for respiratory diseases, in a population aged 25-64; and (2) data from a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study, with subjects from three different climatic-geographical regions of Russia. (1) the respiratory disease-related mortality rates in the majority of Russian Northern regions were much higher compared to the national average. Although death rates from chronic lower respiratory diseases were higher among the Northern regions and in the whole of Russia relative to the countries of European Union (EU), the cause of death in the populations of the Northern regions tend to be lower respiratory infections and pneumonia; and (2) despite the absence of any significant differences in the prevalence of smoking, the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (COPD) is significantly higher in Far North Yakutsk compared to the other two regions in this study-Chelyabinsk and Vologda. The status of hyperborean had the highest chance of a significant contribution to COPD and cardiorespiratory pathology among all other risk factors. The results revealed a need for effective targeted strategies for primary and secondary prevention of chronic respiratory diseases for the populations of the Northern regions of Russia. The revealed regional distinctions regarding the prevalence of, and mortality from, chronic respiratory diseases should be taken into consideration when designing integrated programs for chronic non-communicable disease prevention in these regions.

  12. Pasteurella testudinis associated with respiratory disease and septicaemia in leopard (Geochelone pardalis and other tortoises in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Henton

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded isolates of Pasteurella testudinis from South African tortoises kept in captivity is presented. P. testudinis was found in association with respiratory disease in affected animals.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cosmin Nadas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders (nasal discharge aged 6 to 9 weeks in 2 series, using sterile swabs. Samples were initially inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey agar following the characteristics of the colonies and microscopic examination that enabled the identification of bacterial species. Isolated strains were used to flood Mueller-Hinton agar to carry out sensitivity testing. The antibiotics tested were represented by: Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Florfenicol, Enrofloxacin, Marbofloxacin, Penicillin G, Cefquinone, Tulathromycin, Ceftiofur, Tylosin and Cephalotin. Results: Genus Streptococcus have been identified in 23 samples, followed by Staphylococcus identified in 14 samples, and Bacillus spp., in 10 nasal swabs; The most common bacteria associations were represented by Streptococcus-Staphylococcus, Streptococcus-Staphylococcus-Bacillus, and Streptococcus-E.coli. The most efficient antibiotic was Cefquinome (Cobactan, followed by Penicillin G and Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (Amoxiclav; the least effective antibiotics were Florfenicol and Tulathromycin. Conclusions: The study carried out on nasal discharge samples collected from calves with respiratory disorders and their antimicrobial profile testing led to the following conclusions: 1 Low susceptibility to Florfenicol is caused by previous treatments when this molecule was excessively used and without prior sensitivity testing. 2 Cefquinome may represent an emergency therapeutic antibiotic for respiratory

  14. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Traboulsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood, fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks, incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene, metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM. PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP, those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease.

  15. Evaluation of the likelihood of reflux developing in patients with recurrent upper respiratory infections, recurrent sinusitis or recurrent otitis seen in ear-nose-throat outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önal, Zerrin; Çullu-Çokuğraş, Fügen; Işıldak, Hüseyin; Kaytaz, Asım; Kutlu, Tufan; Erkan, Tülay; Doğusoy, Gülen

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is considered a risk factor for recurrent or persistent upper and lower respiratory tract conditions including asthma, chronic cough, sinusitis, laryngitis, serous otitis and paroxysmal laryngospasm. Fifty-one subjects with recurrent (more than three) episodes of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), serous otitis or sinusitis who had been admitted to an earnose- throat (E