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Sample records for upper plate deformation

  1. Holocene faulting in the Bellingham forearc basin: upper-plate deformation at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Cascadia forearc takes up most of the strain transmitted northward via the Oregon Coast block from the northward-migrating Sierra Nevada block. The north-south contractional strain in the forearc manifests in upper-plate faults active during the Holocene, the northern-most components of which are faults within the Bellingham Basin. The Bellingham Basin is the northern of four basins of the actively deforming northern Cascadia forearc. A set of Holocene faults, Drayton Harbor, Birch Bay, and Sandy Point faults, occur within the Bellingham Basin and can be traced from onshore to offshore using a combination of aeromagnetic lineaments, paleoseismic investigations and scarps identified using LiDAR imagery. With the recognition of such Holocene faults, the northernmost margin of the actively deforming Cascadia forearc extends 60 km north of the previously recognized limit of Holocene forearc deformation. Although to date no Holocene faults are recognized at the northern boundary of the Bellingham Basin, which is 15 km north of the international border, there is no compelling tectonic reason to expect that Holocene faults are limited to south of the international border.

  2. The Devils Mountain Fault zone: An active Cascadia upper plate zone of deformation, Pacific Northwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Greene, H. Gary

    2018-02-01

    The Devils Mountain Fault Zone (DMFZ) extends east to west from Washington State to just south of Victoria, British Columbia, in the northern Strait of Juan de Fuca of Canada and the USA. Recently collected geophysical data were used to map this fault zone in detail, which show the main fault trace, and associated primary and secondary (conjugate) strands, and extensive northeast-southwest oriented folding that occurs within a 6 km wide deformation zone. The fault zone has been active in the Holocene as seen in the offset and disrupted upper Quaternary strata, seafloor displacement, and deformation within sediment cores taken close to the seafloor expression of the faults. Data suggest that the present DMFZ and the re-activated Leech River Fault may be part of the same fault system. Based on the length and previously estimated slip rates of the fault zone in Washington State, the DMFZ appears to have the potential of producing a strong earthquake, perhaps as large as magnitude 7.5 or greater, within 2 km of the city of Victoria.

  3. The northern Lesser Antilles oblique subduction zone: new insight about the upper plate deformation, 3D slab geometry and interplate coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaillou, B.; Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.

    2017-12-01

    In subduction zones, the 3D geometry of the plate interface is thought to be a key parameter for the control of margin tectonic deformation, interplate coupling and seismogenic behavior. In the northern Caribbean subduction, precisely between the Virgin Islands and northern Lesser Antilles, these subjects remain controversial or unresolved. During the ANTITHESIS cruises (2013-2016), we recorded wide-angle seismic, multichannel reflection seismic and bathymetric data along this zone in order to constrain the nature and the geometry of the subducting and upper plate. This experiment results in the following conclusions: 1) The Anegada Passage is a 450-km long structure accross the forearc related to the extension due to the collision with the Bahamas platform. 2) More recently, the tectonic partitioning due to the plate convergence obliquity re-activated the Anegada Passage in the left-lateral strike-slip system. The partitioning also generated the left-lateral strike-slip Bunce Fault, separating the accretionary prism from the forearc. 3) Offshore of the Virgin Islands margin, the subducting plate shows normal faults parallel to the ancient spreading center that correspond to the primary fabric of the oceanic crust. In contrast, offshore of Barbuda Island, the oceanic crust fabric is unresolved (fracture zone?, exhumed mantle? ). 4) In the direction of the plate convergence vector, the slab deepening angle decreases northward. It results in a shallower slab beneath the Virgin Islands Platform compared to the St Martin-Barbuda forearc. In the past, the collision of the Bahamas platform likely changed the geodynamic settings of the northeastern corner of the Caribbean subduction zone and we present a revised geodynamic history of the region. Currently, various features are likely to control the 3D geometry of the slab: the margin convexity, the convergence obliquity, the heterogeneity of the primary fabric of the oceanic crust and the Bahamas docking. We suggest that

  4. Diverse rupture modes for surface-deforming upper plate earthquakes in the southern Puget Lowland of Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prehistory of the southern Puget Lowland, in the north-south compressive regime of the migrating Cascadia forearc, reflects diverse earthquake rupture modes with variable recurrence. Stratigraphy and Bayesian analyses of previously reported and new 14C ages in trenches and cores along backthrust scarps in the Seattle fault zone restrict a large earthquake to 1040–910 cal yr B.P. (2σ), an interval that includes the time of the M 7–7.5 Restoration Point earthquake. A newly identified surface-rupturing earthquake along the Waterman Point backthrust dates to 940–380 cal yr B.P., bringing the number of earthquakes in the Seattle fault zone in the past 3500 yr to 4 or 5. Whether scarps record earthquakes of moderate (M 5.5–6.0) or large (M 6.5–7.0) magnitude, backthrusts of the Seattle fault zone may slip during moderate to large earthquakes every few hundred years for periods of 1000–2000 yr, and then not slip for periods of at least several thousands of years. Four new fault scarp trenches in the Tacoma fault zone show evidence of late Holocene folding and faulting about the time of a large earthquake or earthquakes inferred from widespread coseismic subsidence ca. 1000 cal yr B.P.; 12 ages from 8 sites in the Tacoma fault zone limit the earthquakes to 1050–980 cal yr B.P. Evidence is too sparse to determine whether a large earthquake was closely predated or postdated by other earthquakes in the Tacoma basin, but the scarp of the Tacoma fault was formed by multiple earthquakes. In the northeast-striking Saddle Mountain deformation zone, along the western limit of the Seattle and Tacoma fault zones, analysis of previous ages limits earthquakes to 1200–310 cal yr B.P. The prehistory clarifies earthquake clustering in the central Puget Lowland, but cannot resolve potential structural links among the three Holocene fault zones.

  5. Linking plate reconstructions with deforming lithosphere to geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R. D.; Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Seton, M.; Spasojevic, S.; Williams, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    define the thickness of the thermal lithosphere for different continental types, with the exception of the deforming areas that are fully dynamic. Finally, we introduce a "slab assimilation" method in which the thermal structure of the slab, derived analytically, is progressively assimilated into the upper mantle through time. This method not only improves the continuity of slabs in forward models with imposed plate motions, but it also allows us to model flat slab segments that are particularly relevant for understanding dynamic surface topography. When it comes to post-processing and visualisation, GPlates allows the user to import time-dependent model output image stacks to visualise mantle properties (e.g. temperature) at a given depth through time, with plate boundaries and other data attached to plates overlain. This approach provides an avenue to simultaneously investigate the contributions of lithospheric deformation and mantle flow to surface topography. Currently GPlates is being used in conjunction with the codes CitcomS, Terra, BEMEarth and the adaptive mesh refinement code Rhea. A GPlates python plugin infrastructure makes it easy to extend interoperability with other geodynamic modelling codes.

  6. Mechanics and Partitioning of Deformation of the Northwestern Okhostk Plate, Northeast Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Mackey, K.; Fujita, K.

    2007-12-01

    The tectonic evolution and present day deformation of northeastern Russia remains one of the major challenges in plate tectonics. Arguments over the existence of at least a separate Okhotsk plate between North America and Eurasia appear to be resolved on the basis of the latest GPS studies combined with elastic modeling. The question of the mechanical behaviour of the Okhotsk plate, caught between the slowly, obliquely converging North American and Eurasian plates now becomes important. We present an analysis of geological lineaments, micro-seismicity, total seismic moment release and seismic deformation rate and GPS campaign data and global plate tectonic model data (REVEL) to estimate the likelihood of future seismicity and the relative amount of elastic and viscous deformation of the lithosphere of the northwestern Okhotsk plate. We find that it is likely that the Okhotsk plate is cracked into slivers, but that rates of relative motion of these slivers are close to indistinguishable from the behaviour of a single, rigid plate. The analysis also suggests the upper bound for large earthquakes in the region to be Mw 7-7.5 which we expect to occur only on the plate boundary fault itself. This fits geological evidence for a long term offset rate 5-10 times higher on the major plate boundary fault than other lineaments cutting the Okhotsk plate itself.

  7. Mechanical design and analysis of focal plate for gravity deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Hongzhuan; Li, Kexuan; Zhou, Zengxiang

    2014-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. To conduct accurate deformation measurement for focal plate in different status, a 6-DOF hexapod platform was used for attitude adjustment. For the small adjustment range of a classic 6-DOF hexapod platform, an improved structural arrangement method was proposed in the paper to achieve ultimate adjustment of the focal plate in horizontal and vertical direction. To validate the feasibility of this method, an angle change model which used ball hinge was set up for the movement and base plate. Simulation results in MATLAB suggested that the ball hinge angle change of movement and base plate is within the range of the limiting angle in the process of the platform plate adjusting to ultimate attitude. The proposed method has some guiding significance for accurate surface measurement of focal plate.

  8. Evolution of fuel plate parameters during deformation in rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durazzo, M., E-mail: mdurazzo@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Vieira, E.; Urano de Carvalho, E.F. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, Santa Catarina Federal University, Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP routinely produces the nuclear fuel necessary for operating its research reactor, IEA-R1. This fuel consists of fuel plates containing U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al composites as the meat, which are fabricated by rolling. The rolling process currently deployed was developed based on information obtained from literature, which was used as a premise for defining the current manufacturing procedures, according to a methodology with an essentially empirical character. Despite the current rolling process being perfectly stable and highly reproducible, it is not well characterized and is therefore not fully known. The objective of this work is to characterize the rolling process for producing dispersion fuel plates. Results regarding the evolution of the main parameters of technological interest, after each rolling pass, are presented. Some defects that originated along the fuel plate deformation during the rolling process were characterized and discussed. The fabrication procedures for manufacturing the fuel plates are also presented. - Highlights: •Evolution of defects when manufacturing dispersion fuel plates. •Aspects of dispersion fuel plates fabrication. •What happen during the manufacturing of dispersion fuel plates? •Clarifying the deformation of fuel plates by rolling.

  9. Numerical modeling of intraplate seismicity with a deformable loading plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, B. D.; Capitanio, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    We use finite element modeling to investigate on the stress loading-unloading cycles and earthquakes occurrence in the plate interiors, resulting from the interactions of tectonic plates along their boundary. We model a visco-elasto-plastic plate embedding a single or multiple faults, while the tectonic stress is applied along the plate boundary by an external loading visco-elastic plate, reproducing the tectonic setting of two interacting lithospheres. Because the two plates deform viscously, the timescale of stress accumulation and release on the faults is self-consistently determined, from the boundary to the interiors, and seismic recurrence is an emerging feature. This approach overcomes the constraints on recurrence period imposed by stress (stress-drop) and velocity boundary conditions, while here it is unconstrained. We illustrate emerging macroscopic characteristics of this system, showing that the seismic recurrence period τ becomes shorter as Γ and Θ decreases, where Γ = ηI/ηL the viscosity ratio of the viscosities of the internal fault-embedded to external loading plates, respectively, and Θ = σY/σL the stress ratio of the elastic limit of the fault to far-field loading stress. When the system embeds multiple, randomly distributed faults, stress transfer results in recurrence period deviations, however the time-averaged recurrence period of each fault show the same dependence on Γ and Θ, illustrating a characteristic collective behavior. The control of these parameters prevails even when initial pre-stress was randomly assigned in terms of the spatial arrangement and orientation on the internal plate, mimicking local fluctuations. Our study shows the relevance of macroscopic rheological properties of tectonic plates on the earthquake occurrence in plate interiors, as opposed to local factors, proposing a viable model for the seismic behavior of continent interiors in the context of large-scale, long-term deformation of interacting tectonic

  10. Crustal deformation and volcanism at active plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor

    Most of Earth's volcanoes are located near active tectonic plate boundaries, where the tectonic plates move relative to each other resulting in deformation. Likewise, subsurface magma movement and pressure changes in magmatic systems can cause measurable deformation of the Earth's surface. The study of the shape of Earth and therefore studies of surface deformation is called geodesy. Modern geodetic techniques allow precise measurements (˜1 mm accuracy) of deformation of tectonic and magmatic systems. Because of the spatial correlation between tectonic boundaries and volcanism, the tectonic and volcanic deformation signals can become intertwined. Thus it is often important to study both tectonic and volcanic deformation processes simultaneously, when one is trying to study one of the systems individually. In this thesis, I present research on crustal deformation and magmatic processes at active plate boundaries. The study areas cover divergent and transform plate boundaries in south Iceland and convergent and transform plate boundaries in Central America, specifically Nicaragua and El Salvador. The study is composed of four main chapters: two of the chapters focus on the magma plumbing system of Hekla volcano, Iceland and the plate boundary in south Iceland; one chapter focuses on shallow controls of explosive volcanism at Telica volcano, Nicaragua; and the fourth chapter focuses on co- and post-seismic deformation from a Mw = 7.3 earthquake which occurred offshore El Salvador in 2012. Hekla volcano is located at the intersection of a transform zone and a rift zone in Iceland and thus is affected by a combination of shear and extensional strains, in addition to co-seismic and co-rifting deformation. The inter-eruptive deformation signal from Hekla is subtle, as observed by a decade (2000-2010) of GPS data in south Iceland. A simultaneous inversion of this data for parameters describing the geometry and source characteristics of the magma chamber at Hekla, and

  11. Distributed sensing signal analysis of deformable plate/membrane mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Yue, Honghao; Deng, Zongquan; Tzou, Hornsen

    2017-11-01

    Deformable optical mirrors usually play key roles in aerospace and optical structural systems applied to space telescopes, radars, solar collectors, communication antennas, etc. Limited by the payload capacity of current launch vehicles, the deformable mirrors should be lightweight and are generally made of ultra-thin plates or even membranes. These plate/membrane mirrors are susceptible to external excitations and this may lead to surface inaccuracy and jeopardize relevant working performance. In order to investigate the modal vibration characteristics of the mirror, a piezoelectric layer is fully laminated on its non-reflective side to serve as sensors. The piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements so that microscopic distributed sensing signals can be explored. In this paper, the deformable mirror is modeled as a pre-tensioned plate and membrane respectively and sensing signal distributions of the two models are compared. Different pre-tensioning forces are also applied to reveal the tension effects on the mode shape and sensing signals of the mirror. Analytical results in this study could be used as guideline of optimal sensor/actuator placement for deformable space mirrors.

  12. Deformation of high performance concrete plate under humid tropical weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niken, C.; Elly, T.; Supartono, FX; Laksmi, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the relationship between surrounding relative humidity and temperature on deformation behavior of one sample concrete plate with compressive strength of 60MPa. This research was done in Indonesia that is in humid tropical weather. A specimens measuring 3000 mm × 1600 mm × 150 mm were used. The behavior was obtained by using four embedded vibrating wire strain gauges (VWESG). As a result there is a very strong relationship between humidity and deformation at the age range of 7 until 21 days. The largest deformation occurs in the corner and the fluctuation of deformation in side position is larger than in the corner and in the middle. The peaks of surrounding relative humidity were fully followed by the deepest valley of deformation on time in the corner, while in another position the range delay time was 8 - 11 hours. There is a strong relationship between surrounding temperature and deformation at the range of 7 until 14 days. The influenced of surrounding relative humidity to concrete behavior is faster and longer than surrounding temperature. The influence of surrounding temperature in humid tropical weather was shorter than in non-humid tropical weather.

  13. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Eurasia (EU) - North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on the EU-OK-NA triple junction and is thus caught and compressed between converging EU and NA. We suggest that this leads to a coherent and understandable large scale deformation pattern of mostly northwest-southeast trending strike-slip faults which split Northwest OK into several extruding slivers. When the fault geometry is analysed together with space geodetic and focal mechanism data it suggests a central block which is extruding faster bordered east and west by progressively slower extruding blocks until the OK plate boundary faults are encountered. Taking into account elastic loading from both the intra-OK faults and the OK-Pacific (PA) boundary reconciles geodetic motions with geologic slip rates on at least the OK-NA boundary which corresponds to the Ulakhan fault.

  14. Parametric study of the deformation of dispersion fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Edeval; Leal Neto, Ricardo Mendes; Durazzo, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN-CNEN/SP produces routinely the nuclear fuel necessary for operating its research reactor, IEA-R1. This fuel consists of fuel plates containing U 3 Si 2 -Al composites as the meat, which are fabricated by rolling. The rolling process currently deployed was developed with base on information obtained from literature, which were used as premises for defining the current manufacturing procedures, according to a methodology with essentially empirical character. Despite the current rolling process to be perfectly stable and highly reproducible, it is not well characterized and therefore is not fully known. The objective of this work is to characterize the rolling process for producing fuel plates, presenting results of the evolution of all parameters of technological interest, after each rolling pass, obtaining information along the fuel plate deformation during the rolling process. (author)

  15. Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.

    1986-06-01

    Research effort on behalf of the Crustal Dynamics Project focused on the development of methodologies suitable for the analysis of space-geodetic data sets for the estimation of crustal motions, in conjunction with results derived from land-based geodetic data, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data. These methodologies were used to provide estimates of both global plate motions and intraplate deformation in the western U.S. Results from the satellite ranging experiment for the rate of change of the baseline length between San Diego and Quincy, California indicated that relative motion between the North American and Pacific plates over the course of the observing period during 1972 to 1982 were consistent with estimates calculated from geologic data averaged over the past few million years. This result, when combined with other kinematic constraints on western U.S. deformation derived from land-based geodesy, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data, places limits on the possible extension of the Basin and Range province, and implies significant deformation is occurring west of the San Andreas fault. A new methodology was developed to analyze vector-position space-geodetic data to provide estimates of relative vector motions of the observing sites. The algorithm is suitable for the reduction of large, inhomogeneous data sets, and takes into account the full position covariances, errors due to poorly resolved Earth orientation parameters and vertical positions, and reduces baises due to inhomogeneous sampling of the data. This methodology was applied to the problem of estimating the rate-scaling parameter of a global plate tectonic model using satellite laser ranging observations over a five-year interval. The results indicate that the mean rate of global plate motions for that interval are consistent with those averaged over several million years, and are not consistent with quiescent or greatly accelerated plate motions. This methodology was also

  16. Does permanent extensional deformation in lower forearc slopes indicate shallow plate-boundary rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Kopp, H.; Behrmann, J. H.; Lange, D.; Klaucke, I.; Barrientos, S.; Diaz-Naveas, J.; Barckhausen, U.; Reichert, C.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic rupture of the shallow plate-boundary can result in large tsunamis with tragic socio-economic consequences, as exemplified by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To better understand the processes involved in shallow earthquake rupture in seismic gaps (where megathrust earthquakes are expected), and investigate the tsunami hazard, it is important to assess whether the region experienced shallow earthquake rupture in the past. However, there are currently no established methods to elucidate whether a margin segment has repeatedly experienced shallow earthquake rupture, with the exception of mechanical studies on subducted fault-rocks. Here we combine new swath bathymetric data, unpublished seismic reflection images, and inter-seismic seismicity to evaluate if the pattern of permanent deformation in the marine forearc of the Northern Chile seismic gap allows inferences on past earthquake behavior. While the tectonic configuration of the middle and upper slope remains similar over hundreds of kilometers along the North Chilean margin, we document permanent extensional deformation of the lower slope localized to the region 20.8°S-22°S. Critical taper analyses, the comparison of permanent deformation to inter-seismic seismicity and plate-coupling models, as well as recent observations from other subduction-zones, including the area that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, suggest that the normal faults at the lower slope may have resulted from shallow, possibly near-trench breaking earthquake ruptures in the past. In the adjacent margin segments, the 1995 Antofagasta, 2007 Tocopilla, and 2014 Iquique earthquakes were limited to the middle and upper-slope and the terrestrial forearc, and so are upper-plate normal faults. Our findings suggest a seismo-tectonic segmentation of the North Chilean margin that seems to be stable over multiple earthquake cycles. If our interpretations are correct, they indicate a high tsunami hazard posed by the yet un

  17. Active Deformation in the Overriding Plate Associated with Temporal Changes of the Philippine Sea Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.; Van Horne, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed geologic evidence linking changes over time in Philippine Sea plate (PHS) motion and intracontinental deformation in central and southwest (SW) Japan during the Pliocene and after. In the early Pliocene, subduction of the PHS plate under SW Japan restarted in a northerly direction after period of deceleration or cessation. Later, motion changed to a more westerly direction. Corresponding geological changes found in the overriding plate include unconformities in the forearc basins, changes in slip sense on faults, depocenter migration, re-organization of drainage systems and volcanism. Quaternary intraplate deformation is prominent north of the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) inactive segment, above a shallow flat slab. In contrast, less Quaternary tectonic activity is found north of the MTL active segment which lies over a steadily-slipping portion of the subducting slab that behaves as a less-deformed rigid block. Depocenters and active thrusting have migrated north/northwestward over the past 5 My above the shallow flat slab segment of the PHS. We reconstructed the Plio-Pleistocene migration history using Neogene stratigraphy and shallow seismic reflection profiles. We see shallow PHS slab contact with the lower continental crust in our deep seismic reflection profiles, which may explain its enhanced downward drag of the overriding plate and synchronous strong compression in the crust. We find evidence of more westerly PHS plate subduction since the middle Pleistocene in (1) unconformities in the Kumano forearc basin deposits in SW Japan, (2) drastic stream captures in Shikoku, and (3) concordant changes in fault slip sense from thrust to dextral slip along the MTL. Oblique subduction could have induced stronger horizontal stress in the overriding plate above the shallow flat slab which could account for the increasing geologic slip rate observed on active structures. During four repetitions of megathrust earthquake sequences since the 17th century

  18. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plate using New Higher Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Abbas Sadiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a theoretical analysis depending on the new higher order . element in shear deformation theory for simply supported cross-ply laminated plate is developed. The new displacement field of the middle surface expanded as a combination of exponential and trigonometric function of thickness coordinate with the transverse displacement taken to be constant through the thickness. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved using Navier solution method to obtain the deflection and stresses under uniform sinusoidal load. The effect of many design parameters such as number of laminates, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on static behavior of the laminated composite plate has been studied. The modal of the present work has been verified by comparing the results of shape functions with that were obtained by other workers. Result shows the good agreement with 3D elasticity solution and that published by other researchers.

  19. Elasto-plastic deformation and plate weakening due to normal faulting in the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Jian

    2018-06-01

    We investigated variations in the elasto-plastic deformation of the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench through an analysis of flexural bending and normal fault characteristics together with geodynamic modeling. Most normal faults were initiated at the outer-rise region and grew toward the trench axis with strikes mostly subparallel to the local trench axis. The average trench relief and maximum fault throws were measured to be significantly greater in the southern region (5 km and 320 m, respectively) than the northern and central regions (2 km and 200 m). The subducting plate was modeled as an elasto-plastic slab subjected to tectonic loading at the trench axis. The calculated strain rates and velocities revealed an array of normal fault-like shear zones in the upper plate, resulting in significant faulting-induced reduction in the deviatoric stresses. We then inverted for solutions that best fit the observed flexural bending and normal faulting characteristics, revealing normal fault penetration to depths of 21, 20, and 32 km beneath the seafloor for the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively, which is consistent with the observed depths of the relocated normal faulting earthquakes in the central Mariana Trench. The calculated deeper normal faults of the southern region might lead to about twice as much water being carried into the mantle per unit trench length than the northern and central regions. We further calculated that normal faulting has reduced the effective elastic plate thickness Te by up to 52% locally in the southern region and 33% in both the northern and central regions. The best-fitting solutions revealed a greater apparent angle of the pulling force in the southern region (51-64°) than in the northern (22-35°) and central (20-34°) regions, which correlates with a general southward increase in the seismically-determined dip angle of the subducting slab along the Mariana Trench.

  20. Treatment of the Upper Extremity Contracture/Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Scott N; Agranovich, Olga; Pajardi, Giorgio E; Novelli, Chiara; Baindurashvili, Alexey G; Trofimova, Svetlana I; Abdel-Ghani, Hisham; Kochenova, Evgenia; Prosperpio, Giulietta; Jester, Andrea; Yilmaz, Güney; Şenaran, Hakan; Kose, Oksana; Butler, Lesley

    Patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita have a characteristic upper extremity resting posture consisting of internal rotation of the shoulders, elbow extension, flexed wrists, thumb-in palm deformities, and variable degrees of finger contractures. Treatment of these patients is aimed at improving independence and performance of activities of daily living. Although each area needs to be assessed independently for the most appropriate surgical procedure, often multiple areas can be addressed at the same operative setting. This limits the number of anesthetic exposures and cast immobilization time. The following is a synopsis of treatment strategies presented at the second international symposium on Arthrogryposis which took place in St Petersburg in September 2014.

  1. Deformation in Micro Roll Forming of Bipolar Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Pereira, M.; Rolfe, B.; Daniel, W.; Weiss, M.

    2017-09-01

    Micro roll forming is a new processing technology to produce bipolar plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) from thin stainless steel foil. To gain a better understanding of the deformation of the material in this process, numerical studies are necessary before experimental implementation. In general, solid elements with several layers through the material thickness are required to analyse material thinning in processes where the deformation mode is that of bending combined with tension, but this results in high computational costs. This pure solid element approach is especially time-consuming when analysing roll forming processes which generally involves feeding a long strip through a number of successive roll stands. In an attempt to develop a more efficient modelling approach without sacrificing accuracy, two solutions are numerically analysed with ABAQUS/Explicit in this paper. In the first, a small patch of solid elements over the strip width and in the centre of the “pre-cut” sheet is coupled with shell elements while in the second approach pure shell elements are used to discretize the full sheet. In the first approach, the shell element enables accounting for the effect of material being held in the roll stands on material flow while solid elements can be applied to analyse material thinning in a small discrete area of the sheet. Experimental micro roll forming trials are performed to prove that the coupling of solid and shell elements can give acceptable model accuracy while using shell elements alone is shown to result in major deviations between numerical and experimental results.

  2. Current deformation rates and extrusion of the northwestern Okhotsk plate, northeast Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.

    2006-01-01

    Northeast Asia is a region of broad deformation resulting from the convergence of the Eurasian (EU) and North American (NA) plates. Part of this convergence has been suggested to be relieved by the extrusion and deformation of the Okhotsk plate (OK). Three models for the deformation of the seismically active northwestern corner of the Okhotsk plate, based on different modes of deformation partitioning, are calculated and compared to observations from GPS, seismicity, and geology. The results suggest that this region is being extruded southeastward and deforming internally by a mixture of pure contraction, ``smooth'' extrusion, and ``rigid'' extrusion. Calculated extrusion rates are ~3-5.5 mm/yr, comparable to estimates from geologic data, and internal deformation rates are ~3.0 × 10-9 yr -1. Internal deformation may be only partially accommodated by seismicity, but the short time span of seismic data leaves this subject to large uncertainty.

  3. Neotectonic deformation in Tunisia (North of the African plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Kadri, Ali; Delvaux, Damien; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Braham, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    In Tunisia, at the extreme North of the African plate, the neotectonic context is largely influenced by the Eurasia-Africa convergence. The aim of this work is to characterize the neotectonic regime that affected this region during Quaternary. Field work investigations integrated with published data allowed to evidence a spatial-temporal variation of the tectonic stress regime during this period. The spatial repartition of the different types of Quaternary to historical deformation shows a North-South neotectonic zoning in Tunisia. After lower Pleistocene, the Tellian domain (Maghrebides) in the North and its Atlassic foreland in central Tunisia are affected by NNW-SSE compression. It generated E-W to NE-SW folds and reverse faults, well developed in the Plio-Quaternary molassic basins of Kechabta and Jendouba (Northern Tunisia). In the Atlas, the major E-W and N-S pre-existing faults have been reactivated with dextral and sinistral strike-slip kinematic respectively, associated to en-echelon folds (Kasserine, N-S Axis, Northern Chott belt...). After the Tyrrhenian, a submeridian compressional regime affected Northern Tunisia (e.g., Bizerte region) and was responsible for the E-W folding of marine strata. More to the South, in the Tunisian Sahel, transtensional tectonics with a NW-SE horizontal maximal compression (SHmax) deformed the Tyrrhenian marine series (Khénis, Skanès, Monastir…). During the Holocene and up to present-day times, N-S compressional tectonics reactivated the E-W pre-existing faults with a reverse movement in Northern Tunisia (Bulla Regia, Utica …), generating historical earthquakes. In Central Tunisia, the Aqueduct of Cherichira (built around AD 850) is displaced by a N-S normal fault. Similarly, a mosaic of a roman house is shifted by 10 cm, along a N-S sinistral normal fault. These deformations evidence a transtensional tectonic regime. During the Quaternary, all the NW-SE oriented grabens are subsiding (e.g., Bizerte Lake, Grombalia

  4. Observations of Quasi-Love Waves in Tibet Indicates Coherent Deformation of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Park, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The high uplift of the Tibet area is caused by the continental collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The style of deformation along with the collision is still being debated, particularly whether the deformation is vertically coherent or not, i.e., whether the upper mantle deforms coherently with the crust. In this work, we have used quasi-Love (QL) waves to constrain the anisotropy pattern around the Tibet region. The existence of anisotropy gradients has been identified with the observations of QL waves, which is a converted Rayleigh-wave motion that follows the arrival of the Love wave. Further, the locations of the anisotropy gradients have been pinned with the delay time between the Love wave and the QL wave, which is determined from cross-correlation. Our results show that the frequency content of Tibetan QL wave is centered around 10 mHz, indicating the depth range of anisotropy should be in the asthenosphere. Most of the scatterers of QL wave that we can detect lie outside the Tibet Plateau. Their distribution correlates well with the boundary of the Persia-Tibet- Burma orogeny, which has been identified from surface geologic data. This correlation, between surface geology and upper mantle anisotropy inferred from QL observations at the orogenic boundary, suggests that the crust and upper mantle of the orogeny are deforming coherently. Other scatterers that are off the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogenic boundary mostly cluster in two locations, the Tarim Basin, and the Bangong-Nujiang Suture, where there could exist contrasting anisotropy patterns in the upper mantle. The deformation in the Tibet region is complicated, yet our research suggests a vertically coherent deformation style of the upper mantle in Tibet.

  5. Intra-continental subduction and contemporaneous lateral extrusion of the upper plate: insights into Alps-Adria interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Inge; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2017-04-01

    A series of physical analogue experiments were performed to simulate intra-continental subduction contemporaneous with lateral extrusion of the upper plate to study the interferences between these two processes at crustal levels and in the lithospheric mantle. The lithospheric-scale models are specifically designed to represent the collision of the Adriatic microplate with the Eastern Alps, simulated by an intra-continental weak zone to initiate subduction and a weak confined margin perpendicular to the direction of convergence in order to allow for extrusion of the lithosphere. The weak confined margin is the analog for the opening of the Pannonian back-arc basin adjacent to the Eastern Alps with the direction of extension perpendicular to the strike of the orogen. The models show that intra-continental subduction and coeval lateral extrusion of the upper plate are compatible processes. The obtained deformation structures within the extruding region are similar compared to the classical setup where lateral extrusion is provoked by lithosphere-scale indentation. In the models a strong coupling across the subduction boundary allows for the transfer of abundant stresses to the upper plate, leading to laterally varying strain regimes that are characterized by crustal thickening near a confined margin and dominated by lateral displacement of material near a weak lateral confinement. During ongoing convergence the strain regimes propagate laterally, thereby creating an area of overlap characterized by transpression. In models with oblique subduction, with respect to the convergence direction, less deformation of the upper plate is observed and as a consequence the amount of lateral extrusion decreases. Additionally, strain is partitioned along the oblique plate boundary leading to less subduction in expense of right lateral displacement close to the weak lateral confinement. Both oblique and orthogonal subduction models have a strong resemblance to lateral extrusion

  6. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Eurasia (EU) – North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on ...

  7. Thermal flexural analysis of cross-ply laminated plates using trigonometric shear deformation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwaraj Marotrao Ghugal

    Full Text Available Thermal stresses and displacements for orthotropic, two-layer antisymmetric, and three-layer symmetric square cross-ply laminated plates subjected to nonlinear thermal load through the thickness of laminated plates are presented by using trigonometric shear deformation theory. The in-plane displacement field uses sinusoidal function in terms of thickness co-ordinate to include the shear deformation effect. The theory satisfies the shear stress free boundary conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. The present theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing equations and boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. The validity of present theory is verified by comparing the results with those of classical plate theory and first order shear deformation theory and higher order shear deformation theory.

  8. Plate rotations, fault slip rates, fault locking, and distributed deformation in northern Central America from 1999-2017 GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A. P.; DeMets, C.; Briole, P.; Cosenza, B.; Flores, O.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Hernandez, D.; Kostoglodov, V.; La Femina, P. C.; Lord, N. E.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; McCaffrey, R.; Molina, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Staller, A.; Rogers, R.

    2017-12-01

    We describe plate rotations, fault slip rates, and fault locking estimated from a new 100-station GPS velocity field at the western end of the Caribbean plate, where the Motagua-Polochic fault zone, Middle America trench, and Central America volcanic arc faults converge. In northern Central America, fifty-one upper-plate earthquakes caused approximately 40,000 fatalities since 1900. The proximity of main population centers to these destructive earthquakes and the resulting loss of human life provide strong motivation for studying the present-day tectonics of Central America. Plate rotations, fault slip rates, and deformation are quantified via a two-stage inversion of daily GPS position time series using TDEFNODE modeling software. In the first stage, transient deformation associated with three M>7 earthquakes in 2009 and 2012 is estimated and removed from the GPS position time series. In Stage 2, linear velocities determined from the corrected GPS time series are inverted to estimate deformation within the western Caribbean plate, slip rates along the Motagua-Polochic faults and faults in the Central America volcanic arc, and the gradient of extension in the Honduras-Guatemala wedge. Major outcomes of the second inversion include the following: (1) Confirmation that slip rates on the Motagua fault decrease from 17-18 mm/yr at its eastern end to 0-5 mm/yr at its western end, in accord with previous results. (2) A transition from moderate subduction zone locking offshore from southern Mexico and parts of southern Guatemala to weak or zero coupling offshore from El Salvador and parts of Nicaragua along the Middle America trench. (3) Evidence for significant east-west extension in southern Guatemala between the Motagua fault and volcanic arc. Our study also shows evidence for creep on the eastern Motagua fault that diminishes westward along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary.

  9. Inverse transient thermoelastic deformations in thin circular plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bessel's functions with the help of the integral transform technique. Thermoelastic deformations are discussed with the help of temperature and are illustrated numer- ically. Keywords. Inverse transient; thermoelastic deformation. 1. Introduction. The inverse thermoelastic problem consists of determination of the temperature, ...

  10. Structural control of the upper plate on the down-dip segmentation of subduction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Barbot, S.; Karato, S. I.; Shibazaki, B.; Matsuzawa, T.; Tapponnier, P.

    2017-12-01

    The geodetic and seismic discoveries of slow earthquakes in subduction zones have provided the observational evidence for the existence of the transition between megathrust earthquakes and the creeping behaviors. However, the mechanics behind slow earthquakes, and the period differential motion between the subducting slab and the overlying plate below the seismogenic zone, remain controversial. In Nankai subduction zone, the very-low-frequency earthquakes (VLFE), megathrust earthquakes, long-term slow earthquakes (duration of months or years) and the episodic tremor and slip zone (ETS) are located within the accretionary prism, the continental upper crust, the continental lower crust and the upmost mantle of the overriding plate, respectively. We use the rate-and-state friction law to simulate the periodic occurrence of VLFEs, megathrust earthquakes and the tremors in the ETS zone because of relatively high rock strength within these depth ranges. However, it is not feasible to use frictional instabilities to explain the long-term slow earthquakes in the lower crust where the ductile rock physics plays a significant role in the large-scale deformation. Here, our numerical simulations show that slow earthquakes at the depth of the lower crust may be the results of plastic instabilities in a finite volume of ductile material accompanying by the grain-size evolution. As the thickness of the fault zone increases with depth, deformation becomes distributed and the dynamic equilibrium of grain size, as a competition between thermally activated grain growth and damage-related grain size reduction, results in cycles of strain acceleration and strain deficit. In addition, we took into account the elevated pore pressure in the accretinary prism which is associated with small stress drop and low-frequency content of VLFEs and may contribute to the occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes. Hence, in our numerical simulations for the plate boundary system in Nankai, the down

  11. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, D.K.; Kant, Tarun; Srinivas, K.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature

  12. Reconstruction of Northeast Asian Deformation Integrated with Western Pacific Plate Subduction since 200 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Gurnis, M.; Ma, P.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    The configuration and kinematics of continental deformation and its marginal plate tectonics on the Earth's surface are intrinsic manifestations of plate-mantle coupling. The complex interactions of plate boundary forces result in plate motions that are dominated by slab pull and ridge push forces and the effects of mantle drag; these interactions also result in continental deformation with a complex basin-mountain architecture and evolution. The kinematics and evolution of the western Pacific subduction and northeast Asian continental-margin deformation are a first-order tectonic process whose nature and chronology remains controversial. This paper implements a "deep-time" reconstruction of the western Pacific subduction, continental accretion or collision and basin-mountain deformation in northeast Asia since 200 Ma based on a newly revised global plate model. The results demonstrate a NW-SE-oriented shortening from 200-137 Ma, a NWW-SEE-oriented extension from 136-101 Ma, a nearly N-S-oriented extension and uplift with a short-term NWW-SEE-oriented compressional inversion in northeast China from 100-67 Ma, and a NW-SE- and nearly N-S-oriented extension from 66 Ma to the present day. The western Pacific oceanic plate subducted forward under East Asia along Mudanjiang-Honshu Island during the Jurassic, and the trenches retreated to the Sikhote-Alin, North Shimanto, and South Shimanto zones from ca. 137-128 Ma, ca. 130-90 Ma, and in ca. 60 Ma, respectively. Our time-dependent analysis of plate motion and continental deformation coupling suggests that the multi-plate convergent motion and ocean-continent convergent orogeny were induced by advance subduction during the Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous. Our analysis also indicates that the intra-continent rifting and back-arc extension were triggered by trench retreat during the Cretaceous and that the subduction of oceanic ridge and arc were triggered by trench retreat during the Cenozoic. Therefore, reconstructing

  13. Plate Like Convection with Viscous Strain Weakening and Corresponding Surface Deformation Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, L.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    How plate tectonic surface motions are generated by mantle convection on Earth and possibly other terrestrial type planets has recently become more readily accessible with fully dynamic convection computations. However, it remains debated how plate-like the behavior in such models truly is, and in particular how the well plate boundary dynamics are captured in models which typically exclude the effects of deformation history and memory. Here, we analyze some of the effects of viscous strain weakening on plate behavior and the interactions between interior convection dynamics and surface deformation patterns. We use the finite element code CitcomCU to model convection in a 3D Cartesian model setup. The models are internally heated, with an Arrhenius-type temperature dependent viscosity including plastic yielding and viscous strain weakening (VSW) and healing (VSWH). VSW can mimic first order features of more complex damage mechanisms such as grain-size dependent rheology. Besides plate diagnostic parameters (Plateness, Mobility, and Toroidal: Poloidal ratio) to analyze the tectonic behavior our models, we also explore how "plate boundaries" link to convective patterns. In a first model series, we analyze general surface deformation patterns without VSW. In the early stages, deformation patterns are clearly co-located with up- and downwelling limbs of convection. Along downwellings strain-rates are high and localized, whereas upwellings tend to lead to broad zones of high deformation. At a more advanced stage, however, the plates' interior is highly deformed due to continuous strain accumulation and resurfaced inherited strain. Including only VSW leads to more localized deformation along downwellings. However, at a more advanced stage plate-like convection fails due an overall weakening of the material. This is prevented including strain healing. Deformation pattern at the surface more closely coincide with the internal convection patterns. The average surface

  14. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.

    2015-10-22

    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  15. Analytical study of cover plate welding deformation of the radial plate of the ITER toroidal field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Junji; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuru

    2009-09-01

    The winding pack (WP) of the Toroidal Field (TF) coil of ITER consists of 7 double-pancakes (DPs). In the DP, the conductor is embedded in a groove of a radial plate (RP), and cover plates (CP) are welded to the RP teeth to fix the conductors in the RP groove. The dimensions of the DP are 15 m in height and 9 m in width while the tolerances of the DP are very severe, such as a flatness of 2 mm and an in-plane deviation of a few millimeters. It is therefore required to reduce the deformation of the DP by CP welding. In order to estimate welding deformation, the authors apply an analytical method in which the CP welding deformation of the DP can be calculated using inherent strain evaluated from welding deformation measured using a RP mock-up. Calculated results indicate that out-of-plane distortion can be kept to within required tolerances, but in-plane deformation is larger than allowed when welding thickness is 2.5 mm. The in-plane deformation is mainly caused by the bending of the curved RP region. Therefore, reducing the welding thickness at the curved region emerges as the most promising solution of this issue. Calculated results assuming a welding thickness of 1 mm at the curved region show that the in-plane deformation conforms to required tolerances. Furthermore, since the maximum out-of-plane deformation is within tolerances but marginal, an alternative design in which the number of welding lines is half that of the reference design, is proposed not only to improve the out-of-plane distortion but also to simplify the manufacture of the DP. It is found that the alternative design is effective in reducing welding distortion. (author)

  16. Rapid Grain Size Reduction in the Upper Mantle at a Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, S. B.; Scott, J.; Prior, D. J.; Lubicich, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    A few spinel peridotite xenoliths found near the Alpine Fault, New Zealand, exhibit a mylonitic texture and, locally, an extremely fine 30 micron grain size. The harzburgite xenoliths were emplaced in a 200 km-long elongate dike zone interpreted as a gigantic tension fracture or Reidel shear associated with Alpine Fault initiation 25 Ma. The presence of thin ( 1 mm) ultramylonite zones with px-ol phase mixing and fine grain sizes, minimal crustal-scale strain associated with the dike swarm, and the absence of mylonites at four of the five xenolith localities associated with the dike swarm indicate that upper mantle deformation was highly localized. Strings of small, recrystallized grains (planes in 3D) are found in the interiors of olivine porphyroclasts. In some cases, bands 1-2 grains thick are traced from the edges of olivine grains and terminate in their interiors. Thicker zones of recrystallized grains are also observed crossing olivine porphyroclasts without apparent offset of the unrecrystallized remnants of the porphyroclasts. We suggest a brittle-plastic origin for these features since the traditional recrystallization mechanisms associated with dislocation creep require much more strain than occurred within these porphyroclasts. Analogous microstructures in quartz and feldspar in mid-crust deformation zones are attributed to brittle-plastic processes. We hypothesize that such fine-grained zones were the precursors of the observed, higher-strain ultramylonite zones. Given the size of the new grains preserved in the porphyroclasts ( 100 micron) and a moho temperature > 650°C, grain growth calculations indicate that the observed brittle-plastic deformation occurred <10,000 yrs. prior to eruption. It is likely then that either brittle-plastic deformation was coeval with the ductile shearing occurring in the ultramylonite bands, or possibly, if deformation can be separated into brittle-plastic (early) and ductile (later) phases, that the entire localization

  17. Natural Frequency of F.G. Rectangular Plate by Shear Deformation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrjerdi, Ali; Sapuan, S M; Shahzamanian, M M; Mustapha, F; Zahari, R; Bayat, M

    2011-01-01

    Natural frequency of functionally graded (F.G.) rectangular plate is carried out by using second-order shear deformation theory (SSDT). The material properties of functionally graded rectangular plates, except the Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness of the plate in accordance with the exponential law distribution. The equations of motion are obtained by energy method. Numerical results for functionally graded plates are given in dimensionless graphical forms and the effects of material properties on natural frequency are determined.

  18. Prediction of deformations of steel plate by artificial neural network in forming process with induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Truong Thinh; Yang, Young Soo; Bae, Kang Yul; Choi, Sung Nam

    2009-01-01

    To control a heat source easily in the forming process of steel plate with heating, the electro-magnetic induction process has been used as a substitute of the flame heating process. However, only few studies have analyzed the deformation of a workpiece in the induction heating process by using a mathematical model. This is mainly due to the difficulty of modeling the heat flux from the inductor traveling on the conductive plate during the induction process. In this study, the heat flux distribution over a steel plate during the induction process is first analyzed by a numerical method with the assumption that the process is in a quasi-stationary state around the inductor and also that the heat flux itself greatly depends on the temperature of the workpiece. With the heat flux, heat flow and thermo-mechanical analyses on the plate to obtain deformations during the heating process are then performed with a commercial FEM program for 34 combinations of heating parameters. An artificial neural network is proposed to build a simplified relationship between deformations and heating parameters that can be easily utilized to predict deformations of steel plate with a wide range of heating parameters in the heating process. After its architecture is optimized, the artificial neural network is trained with the deformations obtained from the FEM analyses as outputs and the related heating parameters as inputs. The predicted outputs from the neural network are compared with those of the experiments and the numerical results. They are in good agreement

  19. Strength and Deformation Rate of Plate Boundaries: The Rheological Effects of Grain Size Reduction, Structure, and Serpentinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, L.; Gueydan, F.

    2016-12-01

    Global strain rate maps reveal 1000-fold contrasts between plate interiors, oceanic or continental diffuse plate boundaries and narrow plate boundaries. Here, we show that rheological models based on the concepts of shear zone localization and the evolution of rock structure upon strain can explain these strain rate contrasts. Ductile shear zones constitute a mechanical paradox in the lithosphere. As every plastic deformation mechanism is strain-rate-hardening, ductile rocks are expected to deform at low strain rate and low stress (broad zone of deformation). Localized ductile shear zones require either a localized forcing (locally high stress) or a thermal or structural anomaly in the shear zone; either can be inherited or develop progressively as rocks deform. We previously identified the most effective process at each depth level of the lithosphere. In the upper crust and middle crust, rocks fabric controls localization. Grain size reduction is the most efficient mechanism in the uppermost mantle. This analysis can be generalized to consider a complete lithospheric section. We assume strain rate does not vary with depth and that the depth-integrated strength of the lithospheric does not change over time, as the total force is controlled by external process such as mantle convection and plate and slab buoyancy. Reducing grain size from a coarse value typical of undeformed peridotite to a value in agreement with the stress level (piezometer) while letting that stress vary from depth to depth (the integrated stress remains the same) increases the lithospheric strain rate by about a factor of 1000. This can explain the development of diffuse plate boundaries. The slightly higher strain rate of continental plate boundary may reflect development of a layered rock fabric in the middle crust. Narrow plate boundaries require additional weakening process. The high heat flux near mid-ocean ridge implies a thin lithosphere, which enhances stress (for constant integrated

  20. A combined rigid/deformable plate tectonic model for the evolution of the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. G.; Glover, C. T.; Adriasola Munoz, A. C.; Harris, J. P.; Goodrich, M.

    2012-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are essential for placing geological information in its correct spatial context, understanding depositional environments, defining basin dimensions and evolution, and serve as a basis for palaeogeographic mapping and for palaeo-climate modelling. Traditional 'rigid' plate reconstructions often result in misfits (overlaps and underfits) in the geometries of juxtaposed plate margins when restored to their pre-rift positions. This has been attributed to internal deformation pre- and/or syn- continental break-up. Poorly defined continent-ocean boundaries add to these problems. To date, few studies have integrated continental extension within a global model. Recent plate tectonic reconstructions based on the relative motions of Africa, Madagascar, India and Antarctica during the break-up of eastern Gondwana have not taken into account the effects of deformation; particularly between India and Madagascar, and India and the Seychelles. A deformable plate model is in development that builds on the current rigid plate model to describe the complex multiphase break-up history between Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles and India, the associated magmatic activity and subsequent India/Eurasia collision. The break-up of eastern Gondwana occurred in the mid Jurassic by rifting between Africa and the India-Madagascar-Australian-Antarctica plates, followed by the Late Jurassic drift of India away from Australia and the Cretaceous break-up of Australia and Antarctica. The northwards drift of the Seychelles-India block in the Tertiary was accommodated by the opening of the Laxmi Basin. This was followed by the eruption of the extensive Deccan flood basalts and the separation of India and the Seychelles. Crustal domains on volcanic margins can be very difficult to define due to the accretion of magmatic material. On these margins, there is much speculation on the position of the continent-ocean boundary and the timing of rifting and sea-floor spreading. The

  1. Uncertainty evaluation in the self-alignment test of the upper plate of a press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, Alexandre S; E Sousa, J Alves

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a method to evaluate uncertainty of the self-alignment test of the upper plate of a press according to EN 12390-4:2000. The method, the algorithms and the sources of uncertainty are described

  2. Pacific plate slab pull and intraplate deformation in the early Cenozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Butterworth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Large tectonic plates are known to be susceptible to internal deformation, leading to a~range of phenomena including intraplate volcanism. However, the space and time dependence of intraplate deformation and its relationship with changing plate boundary configurations, subducting slab geometries, and absolute plate motion is poorly understood. We utilise a buoyancy-driven Stokes flow solver, BEM-Earth, to investigate the contribution of subducting slabs through time on Pacific plate motion and plate-scale deformation, and how this is linked to intraplate volcanism. We produce a series of geodynamic models from 62 to 42 Ma in which the plates are driven by the attached subducting slabs and mantle drag/suction forces. We compare our modelled intraplate deformation history with those types of intraplate volcanism that lack a clear age progression. Our models suggest that changes in Cenozoic subduction zone topology caused intraplate deformation to trigger volcanism along several linear seafloor structures, mostly by reactivation of existing seamount chains, but occasionally creating new volcanic chains on crust weakened by fracture zones and extinct ridges. Around 55 Ma, subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi ridge reconfigured the major tectonic forces acting on the plate by replacing ridge push with slab pull along its northwestern perimeter, causing lithospheric extension along pre-existing weaknesses. Large-scale deformation observed in the models coincides with the seamount chains of Hawaii, Louisville, Tokelau and Gilbert during our modelled time period of 62 to 42 Ma. We suggest that extensional stresses between 72 and 52 Ma are the likely cause of large parts of the formation of the Gilbert chain and that localised extension between 62 and 42 Ma could cause late-stage volcanism along the Musicians volcanic ridges. Our models demonstrate that early Cenozoic changes in Pacific plate driving forces only cause relatively minor changes in Pacific

  3. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  4. Upper-Mantel Earthquakes in the Australia-Pacific Plate Boundary Zone and the Roots of the Alpine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, C. M.; Warren-Smith, E.; Townend, J.; Stern, T. A.; Lamb, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Seismicity in the upper mantle in continental collision zones is relatively rare, but observed around the world. Temporary seismometer deployments have repeatedly detected mantle earthquakes at depths of 40-100 km within the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone beneath the South Island of New Zealand. Here, the transpressive Alpine Fault constitutes the primary plate boundary structure linking subduction zones of opposite polarity farther north and south. The Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) has been operating continuously since November 2008 along a 50 km-long section of the central Alpine Fault, where the rate of uplift of the Southern Alps is highest. To date it has detected more than 40 small to moderate-sized mantle events (1≤ML≤3.9). The Central Otago Seismic Array (COSA) has been in operation since late 2012 and detected 15 upper mantle events along the sub-vertical southern Alpine Fault. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the occurrence of upper mantle seismicity in the South Island, including intra-continental subduction (Reyners 1987, Geology); high shear-strain gradients due to depressed geotherms and viscous deformation of mantle lithosphere (Kohler and Eberhart-Phillips 2003, BSSA); high strain rates resulting from plate bending (Boese et al. 2013, EPSL), and underthrusting of the Australian plate (Lamb et al. 2015, G3). Focal mechanism analysis reveals a variety of mechanisms for the upper mantle events but predominantly strike-slip and reverse faulting. In this study, we apply spectral analysis to better constrain source parameters for these mantle events. These results are interpreted in conjunction with new information about crustal structure and low-frequency earthquakes near the Moho and in light of existing velocity, attenuation and resistivity models.

  5. Components of soft tissue deformations in subjects with untreated angle's Class III malocclusions: thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1998-01-01

    While the dynamics of maxillo-mandibular allometry associated with treatment modalities available for the management of Class III malocclusions currently are under investigation, developmental aberration of the soft tissues in untreated Class III malocclusions requires specification. In this study, lateral cephalographs of 124 prepubertal European-American children (71 with untreated Class III malocclusion; 53 with Class I occlusion) were traced, and 12 soft-tissue landmarks digitized. Resultant geometries were scaled to an equivalent size and mean Class III and Class I configurations compared. Procrustes analysis established statistical difference (P thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis indicated that both affine and non-affine transformations contribute towards the deformation (total spline) of the averaged Class III soft tissue configuration. For non-affine transformations, partial warp 8 had the highest magnitude, indicating large-scale deformations visualized as a combination of columellar retrusion and lower labial protrusion. In addition, partial warp 5 also had a high magnitude, demonstrating upper labial vertical compression with antero-inferior elongation of the lower labio-mental soft tissue complex. Thus, children with Class III malocclusions demonstrate antero-posterior and vertical deformations of the maxillary soft tissue complex in combination with antero-inferior mandibular soft tissue elongation. This pattern of deformations may represent gene-environment interactions, resulting in Class III malocclusions with characteristic phenotypes, that are amenable to orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic manipulations.

  6. Use of 3D Printed Bone Plate in Novel Technique to Surgically Correct Hallux Valgus Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Dupont, Kenneth M.; Safranski, David L.; Blair, Jeremy; Buratti, Dawn; Zeetser, Vladimir; Callahan, Ryan; Lin, Jason; Gall, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) printing offers many potential advantages in designing and manufacturing plating systems for foot and ankle procedures that involve small, geometrically complex bony anatomy. Here, we describe the design and clinical use of a Ti-6Al-4V ELI bone plate (FastForward™ Bone Tether Plate, MedShape, Inc., Atlanta, GA) manufactured through 3-D printing processes. The plate protects the second metatarsal when tethering suture tape between the first and second metatarsals and is a part of a new procedure that corrects hallux valgus (bunion) deformities without relying on doing an osteotomy or fusion procedure. The surgical technique and two clinical cases describing the use of this procedure with the 3-D printed bone plate are presented within. PMID:28337049

  7. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.A.C.; Govers, R.; Wortel, R.

    2014-01-01

    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the “Bahamas Collision”) is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. We propose that a second

  8. Plate-Tectonic Circulation is Driven by Cooling From the Top and is Closed Within the Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2001-12-01

    . Plate motions are driven by subduction, the passive falling away of oceanic lithosphere which is negatively buoyant because of top-down cooling. Slabs have top and bottom rolling hinges and sink subvertically (inclinations of slabs mark their positions, not trajectories) into the transition zone, where they are laid down on, and depress, the 660-km discontinuity. Rollback of upper hinges into subducting plates is required by plate behavior at all scales. That fronts of overriding plates advance at rollback velocity is required by common preservation atop their thin leading edges of little-deformed fore-arc basins. Convergence velocity also commonly equals rollback but is faster in some arcs. Steeply-sinking inclined slabs push sublithospheric upper mantle forward into the shrinking ocean from which they came, forcing seafloor spreading therein, and pull overriding plates behind them. Continental plates pass over sunken slabs like tanks above their basal treads, and material from, and displaced rearward by, sunken slabs is cycled into pull-apart oceans opening behind the continents, thus transferring mantle from shrinking to enlarging oceans. Hot mantle displaced above slabs enables backarc spreading. Spreading ridges, in both shrinking and enlarging oceans, are passive byproducts of subduction, and migrate because it is more energy efficient to process new asthenosphere than to get partial melt from increasingly distant sources. A plate-motion framework wherein hinges roll back, ridges migrate, Antarctica is approximately fixed, and intraplate deformation is integrated may approximate an absolute reference to sluggish lower mantle, whereas the hotspot frame is invalid, and the no-net-rotation frame minimizes trench and ridge motions.

  9. A New Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory for Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Hassaine Daouadji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical formulation, Navier’s solutions of rectangular plates based on a new higher order shear deformation model are presented for the static response of functionally graded plates. This theory enforces traction-free boundary conditions at plate surfaces. Shear correction factors are not required because a correct representation of transverse shearing strain is given. Unlike any other theory, the number of unknown functions involved is only four, as against five in case of other shear deformation theories. The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Numerical illustrations concern flexural behavior of FG plates with metal-ceramic composition. Parametric studies are performed for varying ceramic volume fraction, volume fractions profiles, aspect ratios, and length to thickness ratios. Results are verified with available results in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static bending behavior of functionally graded plates.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of the Deformation of Functionally Graded Plates under Thermomechanical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Alshorbagy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order shear deformation plate model, accounting for the exact neutral plane position, is exploited to investigate the uncoupled thermomechanical behavior of functionally graded (FG plates. Functionally graded materials are mainly constructed to operate in high temperature environments. Also, FG plates are used in many applications (such as mechanical, electrical, and magnetic, where an amount of heat may be generated into the FG plate whenever other forms of energy (electrical, magnetic, etc. are converted into thermal energy. Several simulations are performed to study the behavior of FG plates, subjected to thermomechanical loadings, and focus the attention on the effect of the heat source intensity. Most of the previous studies have considered the midplane neutral one, while the actual position of neutral plane for functionally graded plates is shifted and should be firstly determined. A comparative study is performed to illustrate the effect of considering the neutral plane position. The volume fraction of the two constituent materials of the FG plate is varied smoothly and continuously, as a continuous power function of the material position, along the thickness of the plate.

  11. Vibration Analysis of a Magnetoelectroelastic Rectangular Plate Based on a Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shooshtari

    Full Text Available Abstract Free vibration of a magnetoelectroelastic rectangular plate is investigated based on the Reddy's third-order shear deformation theory. The plate rests on an elastic foundation and it is considered to have different boundary conditions. Gauss's laws for electrostatics and magnetostatics are used to model the electric and magnetic behavior. The partial differential equations of motion are reduced to a single partial differential equation and then by using the Galerkin method, the ordinary differential equation of motion as well as an analytical relation for the natural frequency of the plate is obtained. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed model and to investigate the effects of several parameters on the vibration frequency of the considered smart plate.

  12. Automated local line rolling forming and simplified deformation simulation method for complex curvature plate of ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local line rolling forming is a common forming approach for the complex curvature plate of ships. However, the processing mode based on artificial experience is still applied at present, because it is difficult to integrally determine relational data for the forming shape, processing path, and process parameters used to drive automation equipment. Numerical simulation is currently the major approach for generating such complex relational data. Therefore, a highly precise and effective numerical computation method becomes crucial in the development of the automated local line rolling forming system for producing complex curvature plates used in ships. In this study, a three-dimensional elastoplastic finite element method was first employed to perform numerical computations for local line rolling forming, and the corresponding deformation and strain distribution features were acquired. In addition, according to the characteristics of strain distributions, a simplified deformation simulation method, based on the deformation obtained by applying strain was presented. Compared to the results of the three-dimensional elastoplastic finite element method, this simplified deformation simulation method was verified to provide high computational accuracy, and this could result in a substantial reduction in calculation time. Thus, the application of the simplified deformation simulation method was further explored in the case of multiple rolling loading paths. Moreover, it was also utilized to calculate the local line rolling forming for the typical complex curvature plate of ships. Research findings indicated that the simplified deformation simulation method was an effective tool for rapidly obtaining relationships between the forming shape, processing path, and process parameters.

  13. Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.

  14. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  15. The effects of rheological decoupling on slab deformation in the Earth's upper mantle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Androvičová, A.; Čížková, H.; van den Berg, A.

    2013-01-01

    Processes within subduction zones have a major influence on the plate dynamics and mantle convection. Subduction is controlled by a combination of many parameters and there is no simple global relationship between the resulting slab geometry and deformation and any specific subduction parameter.

  16. Parametric study of the deformation of U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Edeval

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN-CNEN/SP produces routinely the nuclear fuel necessary for operating its research reactor, IEA-R1. This fuel consists of fuel plates containing U 3 Si 2 -Al composites as the meat, which are fabricated by rolling. The rolling process currently deployed was developed with base on information obtained from literature, which were used as premises for defining the current manufacturing procedures, according to a methodology with essentially empirical character. Despite the current rolling process to be perfectly stable and highly reproducible, it is not well characterized and therefore is not fully known. The objective of this work is to characterize the rolling process for producing fuel plates, specifically the evolution of dimensional parameters of the fuel plate as a function of its deformation in the rolling process. Results are presented in terms of the evolution of the thickness of the fuel meat and cladding of the fuel plate along the deformation, as well as the terminals defects, microstructure and porosity of the fuel meat. (author)

  17. Deformation Behavior of Reverse Deep Drawing of 5A06 Aluminum Alloy Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhi-chao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The limit drawing ratio is influenced by the bending and unbending effect during reverse deep drawing of plate. The 5A06 aluminum alloy plate widely applied in aerospace industry was used, and the reverse deep drawing of the 4.5mm thick plate was investigated experimentally and numerically. The stress and strain distributions of plate were analyzed, the deformation behaviour was discussed for three types of cross section of die during the reverse deep drawing process; moreover, the changing rule of strain paths with the die profile was also discussed. Results show that a maximum radial stress is induced by the bending effect at the transient region between the inside die radius and straight wall, where a radial stress and strain gradient along the thickness direction appears and the fracture is easy to occur. For the semi-circle profiled die structure, the limited punch stroke is 203mm which is increased by 40% than that for the die with a planar profile section. The semi-circle profiled die structure can reduce the bending effect, effectively reduce the stress gradient and the maximum stress value in the transient region, and is helpful to improve the limit drawing ratio of the 5A06 aluminum alloy plate.

  18. Analysis of the Mechanism of Longitudinal Bending Deformation Due to Welding in a Steel Plate by Using a Numerical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Yan, Jieshen; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu Yeong [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Yeongcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Welding deformation is a permanent deformation that is caused in structures by welding heat. Welding distortion is the primary cause of reduced productivity, due to welded structural strength degradation, low dimensional accuracy, and appearance. As a result, research and numerous experiments are being carried out to control welding deformation. The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanism of longitudinal bending deformation due to welding. Welding experiments and numerical analyses were performed for this study. The welding experiments were performed on 4 mm and 8.5 mm thickness steel plates, and the numerical analysis was conducted on the welding deformation using the FE software MSC.marc.

  19. The potential influence of subduction zone polarity on overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    A geodynamic model exists, the westward lithospheric drift model, in which the variety of overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angles is explained by the polarity of subduction zones. The model predicts overriding plate extension, a fixed trench and a steep slab dip for

  20. Plumes do not Exist: Plate Circulation is Confined to Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2002-12-01

    Plumes from deep mantle are widely conjectured to define an absolute reference frame, inaugurate rifting, drive plates, and profoundly modify oceans and continents. Mantle properties and composition are assumed to be whatever enables plumes. Nevertheless, purported critical evidence for plume speculation is false, and all data are better interpreted without plumes. Plume fantasies are made ever more complex and ad hoc to evade contradictory data, and have no predictive value because plumes do not exist. All plume conjecture derives from Hawaii and the guess that the Emperor-Hawaii inflection records a 60-degree change in Pacific plate direction at 45 Ma. Paleomagnetic latitudes and smooth Pacific spreading patterns disprove any such change. Rationales for other fixed plumes collapse when tested, and hypotheses of jumping, splitting, and gyrating plumes are specious. Thermal and physical properties of Hawaiian lithosphere falsify plume predictions. Purported tomographic support elsewhere represents artifacts and misleading presentations. Asthenosphere is everywhere near solidus temperature, so melt needs a tensional setting for egress but not local heat. Gradational and inconsistent contrasts between MORB and OIB are as required by depth-varying melt generation and behavior in contrasted settings and do not indicate systematically unlike sources. MORB melts rise, with minimal reaction, through hot asthenosphere, whereas OIB melts react with cool lithosphere, and lose mass, by crystallizing refractories and retaining and assimilating fusibles. The unfractionated lower mantle of plume conjecture is contrary to cosmologic and thermodynamic data, for mantle below 660 km is more refractory than that above. Subduction, due to density inversion by top-down cooling that forms oceanic lithosphere, drives plate tectonics and upper-mantle circulation. It organizes plate motions and lithosphere stress, which controls plate boundaries and volcanic chains. Hinge rollback is the

  1. Interactive deformation registration of endorectal prostate MRI using ITK thin plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M Rex; Krishnan, Karthik

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging with an endorectal coil allows high-resolution imaging of prostate cancer and the surrounding normal organs. These anatomic details can be used to direct radiotherapy. However, organ deformation introduced by the endorectal coil makes it difficult to register magnetic resonance images for treatment planning. In this study, plug-ins for the volume visualization software VolView were implemented on the basis of algorithms from the National Library of Medicine's Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK). Magnetic resonance images of a phantom simulating human pelvic structures were obtained with and without the endorectal coil balloon inflated. The prostate not deformed by the endorectal balloon was registered to the deformed prostate using an ITK thin plate spline (TPS). This plug-in allows the use of crop planes to limit the deformable registration in the region of interest around the prostate. These crop planes restricted the support of the TPS to the area around the prostate, where most of the deformation occurred. The region outside the crop planes was anchored by grid points. The TPS was more accurate in registering the local deformation of the prostate compared with a TPS variant, the elastic body spline. The TPS was also applied to register an in vivo T(2)-weighted endorectal magnetic resonance image. The intraprostatic tumor was accurately registered. This could potentially guide the boosting of intraprostatic targets. The source and target landmarks were placed graphically. This TPS plug-in allows the registration to be undone. The landmarks could be added, removed, and adjusted in real time and in three dimensions between repeated registrations. This interactive TPS plug-in allows a user to obtain a high level of accuracy satisfactory to a specific application efficiently. Because it is open-source software, the imaging community will be able to validate and improve the algorithm.

  2. The Lagrangian Multiplier Method of Finding Upper and Lower Limits to Critical Stresses of Clamped Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    geometrica ~ boundary condi- tions of the problem. (2) The energy of the load-plate system is computed for this deflection surface and is then minimized...and interpolating to find the k that makes the seriw vanish. The correct value of m is that which gives the lowest value of k. For two half waves (m=2...the square plate, the present rekdively simple upper- and lower-limit calcula- tions show that his est,imatd limit of error is correct for this case

  3. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  4. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie

    2010-07-01

    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie; Á rnadó ttir, Thó ra; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Decriem, Judicaë l; Hooper, Andrew John

    2010-01-01

    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Influence of Flexibility Coefficient on the Size of Internal Forces and Deformations in Circular Plates on Elastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Mirela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study which deals with the behavior of the circular plates in bending theory, considering the soil-structure interaction under Winkler's hypothesis. It was intended to illustrate the variation of internal forces and deformations according to the flexibility coefficient of plates considering three models: a fixed solid circular plate subjected to a uniformly distributed load, a fixed solid circular plate acted by a displacement applied on the exterior contour and a solid plate subjected to a temperature gradient. For this study the computation relations were written as a product between a dimensional and a non-dimensional factor, the last one indicating the variation of internal forces and deformations. For each type of action there are presented results obtained using the finite element method to illustrate the differences between this method and the analytical computation.

  7. Continued Trenchward Procession of Upper Plate GPS Sites Following the 2012 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T. E.; Newman, A. V.; Protti, M.

    2015-12-01

    When studying subduction zone deformation one is often forced to consider a region significantly landward of the trench. The Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica presents a unique opportunity to obtain rich datasets from land in relatively close proximity to an active megathrust. A recent moment magnitude (Mw) 7.6 earthquake in September 2012 on this portion of the Middle America Trench affords an opportunity to constrain the ongoing postseismic deformation on the subduction interface between the Cocos and Caribbean plates. GPS campaigns occupying 22 sites were undertaken immediately following the earthquake in September-December 2012 and most recently in March 2015. Combined with data from a network of 17 continuous GPS in the region, we analyze the spatial and temporal changes in the postseismic velocity field. Another campaign is planned for 2017, in conjunction with our ongoing analysis of the continuous GPS network. After 2.5 years, campaign GPS results indicate significant trenchward motion of at least 7 cm, relative to a fixed Caribbean plate, for all sites up to the volcanic chain. Maximum values of 22 cm are observed above and updip of the coseismic rupture zone. The trench-parallel component of the displacement field is small, with few deviations between sites. Together these observations are substantially more self-similar over a larger region than what was observed for the coseismic offset. This implies that there may be a low stress differential across the upper plate, suggesting that the subduction interface environment, including the mainshock and surrounding area, has remained relatively weak following the earthquake. By utilizing a dense and long-term geodetic network we will report on initial modeling that aims to characterize the evolution of afterslip. The effect of regional aftershocks, including an Mw 6.5 in October 2012, and viscoelastic mantle relaxation will be considered to establish the necessity of such effects in robustly accounting for

  8. A Novel Higher-Order Shear and Normal Deformable Plate Theory for the Static, Free Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chao Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form solution of a special higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory is presented for the static situations, natural frequencies, and buckling responses of simple supported functionally graded materials plates (FGMs. Distinguished from the usual theories, the uniqueness is the differentia of the new plate theory. Each individual FGM plate has special characteristics, such as material properties and length-thickness ratio. These distinctive attributes determine a set of orthogonal polynomials, and then the polynomials can form an exclusive plate theory. Thus, the novel plate theory has two merits: one is the orthogonality, where the majority of the coefficients of the equations derived from Hamilton’s principle are zero; the other is the flexibility, where the order of the plate theory can be arbitrarily set. Numerical examples with different shapes of plates are presented and the achieved results are compared with the reference solutions available in the literature. Several aspects of the model involving relevant parameters, length-to-thickness, stiffness ratios, and so forth affected by static and dynamic situations are elaborate analyzed in detail. As a consequence, the applicability and the effectiveness of the present method for accurately computing deflection, stresses, natural frequencies, and buckling response of various FGM plates are demonstrated.

  9. Studying the active deformation of distributed plate boundaries by integration of GNSS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    In the last decade GNSS networks installed for different purposes have proliferated in Italy and now provide a large amount of data available to geophysical studies. In addition to the existing regional and nation-wide scientific GNSS networks developed by ASI (http://geodaf.mt.asi.it), INGV (http://ring.gm.ingv.it) and OGS (http://crs.inogs.it/frednet), a large number (> 400) of continuously-operating GPS stations have been installed in the framework of regional and national networks, both publicly-operated and commercial, developed to provide real-time positioning capability to surveyors. Although the quality of the data and metadata associated to these stations is generally lower with respect to the "scientific" CGPS stations, the increased density and redundancy in crustal motion information, resulting in more than 500 stations with more than 2.5 years of observations, significantly increase the knowledge of the active deformation of the Italian territory and provides a unique image of the crustal deformation field. The obtained GPS velocity field is analysed and various features ranging from the definition of strain distribution and microplate kinematics within the plate boundary, to the evaluation of tectonic strain accumulation on active faults are presented in this work. Undeforming, aseismic regions (Sardinia, Southern Apulia) provide test sites to evaluate the lower bound on the accuracy achievable to measure tectonic deformation. Integration of GNSS networks significantly improves the resolution of the strain rate field in Central Italy showing that active deformation is concentrated in a narrow belt along the crest of the Apennines, consistently with the distribution of the largest historical and recent earthquakes. Products derived from dense GPS velocity and strain rate fields include map of earthquake potential developed under the assumption that the rate of seismic moment accumulation measured from geodesy distributes into earthquake sizes that

  10. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and softening behaviour have been investigated in an aluminum plate heavily deformed by equal channel angular extrusion and subsequently annealed at 170 °C. It is found that at this temperature the microstructure evolves by coarsening with no apparent signs of recrystallization...... even after 2 h of annealing. Both coarsening and softening are rapid within first 10 minutes of annealing followed by a slower evolution with increasing annealing duration. Evidence of triple junction (TJ) motion during coarsening is obtained by inspecting the microstructure in one region using...... the electron backscatter diffraction technique both before and after annealing for 10 minutes. The fraction of fast-migrating TJs is found to strongly depend of the type of boundaries composing a junction. The greatest fraction of fast-migrating TJs is in the group, where all boundaries forming a junction...

  11. Upper bounds of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben from GPS data - First results from GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Frederic; Knoepfler, Andreas; Mayer, Michael; Ulrich, Patrice; Heck, Bernhard

    2010-05-01

    In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, EOST) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK) of Karlsruhe University (TH) established a transnational cooperation called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative these institutions are cooperating in order to establish a highly precise and highly sensitive network of permanently operating GNSS sites for the detection of crustal movements in the Upper Rhine Graben region. At the beginning, the network consisted of the permanently operating GNSS sites of SAPOS®-Baden-Württemberg, different data providers in France (e.g. EOST, Teria, RGP) and some further sites (e.g. IGS). In July 2009, the network was extended to the South when swisstopo (Switzerland) and to the North when SAPOS®-Rheinland-Pfalz joined GURN. Therefore, actually the GNSS network consists of approx. 80 permanently operating reference sites. The presentation will discuss the actual status of GURN, main research goals, and will present first results concerning the data quality as well as time series of a first reprocessing of all available data since 2002 using GAMIT/GLOBK (EOST working group) and the Bernese GPS Software (GIK working group). Based on these time series, the velocity as well as strain fields will be calculated in the future. The GURN initiative is also aiming for the estimation of the upper bounds of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben region.

  12. Seismic evidence for central Taiwan magnetic low and deep-crustal deformation caused by plate collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Win-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Crustal seismic velocity structure was determined for the northern Taiwan using seismic travel-time data to investigate the northeastern extension of the northern South China Sea's high-magnetic belt. In order to increase the model resolution, a joint analysis of gravity anomaly and seismic travel-time data have been conducted. A total of 3385 events had been used in the inversion that was collected by the Central Weather Bureau Seismological Network from 1990 to 2015. The main features of the obtained three-dimensional velocity model are: (1) a relatively high Vp zone with velocity greater than 6.5 km/s is observed in the middle to lower crust, (2) the high Vp zone generally parallels to the north-south structural trending of the Chuchih fault and Hsuehshan Range, (3) at 25 km depth-slice, the high Vp zone shows structural trends change from northeastward to northward in central Taiwan, where the values of high-magnetic anomalies are rapidly decreasing to low values. A combination of seismic, GPS, and structural interpretations suggests that the entire crust has been deformed and demagnetized in consequence of the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and the Asian continental margin. We suggest that the feature of sharp bending of the high Vp zone would migrate southwestward and cause further crustal deformation of the Peikang High in the future.

  13. Lithospheric strength in the active boundary between the Pacific Plate and Baja California microplate constrained from lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; van der Werf, Thomas; Kriegsman, Leo M.; Kronenberg, Andreas; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.

    2017-04-01

    The lower crust is the most poorly understood of the lithospheric layers in terms of its rheology, particularly at active plate boundaries. We studied naturally deformed lower crustal xenoliths within an active plate boundary, in order to link their microstructures and rheological parameters to the well-defined active tectonic context. The Baja California shear zone (BCSZ), located at the western boundary of the Baja California microplate, comprises the active boundary accommodating the relative motion between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The basalts of the Holocene San Quintin volcanic field carry lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths, which sample the Baja California microplate lithosphere in the vicinity of the BCSZ. The lower crustal xenoliths range from undeformed gabbros to granoblastic two-pyroxene granulites. Two-pyroxene geothermometry shows that the granulites equilibrated at temperatures of 690-920 oC. Phase equilibria (P-T pseudosections using Perple_X) indicate that symplectites with intergrown pyroxenes, plagioclase, olivine and spinel formed at 3.6-5.4 kbar, following decompression from pressures exceeding 6 kbar. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the water content of plagioclase varies among the analyzed xenoliths; plagioclase is relatively dry in two xenoliths while one xenolith contains hydrated plagioclase grains. Microstructural observations and analysis of the crystallographic texture provide evidence for deformation of plagioclase by a combination of dislocation creep and grain boundary sliding. To constrain the strength of the lower crust and upper mantle near the BCSZ we estimated the differential stress using plagioclase and olivine grain size paleopiezomtery, respectively. Differential stress estimates for plagioclase range from 10 to 32 MPa and for olivine are 30 MPa. Thus the active microplate boundary records elevated crustal temperatures, heterogeneous levels of hydration, and low strength in both the lower crust and

  14. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.; Ruch, Joel; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.

    2015-01-01

    on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages

  15. A 2D Daubechies finite wavelet domain method for transient wave response analysis in shear deformable laminated composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, C. V.; Theodosiou, T. C.; Rekatsinas, C. S.; Saravanos, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    An efficient numerical method is developed for the simulation of dynamic response and the prediction of the wave propagation in composite plate structures. The method is termed finite wavelet domain method and takes advantage of the outstanding properties of compactly supported 2D Daubechies wavelet scaling functions for the spatial interpolation of displacements in a finite domain of a plate structure. The development of the 2D wavelet element, based on the first order shear deformation laminated plate theory is described and equivalent stiffness, mass matrices and force vectors are calculated and synthesized in the wavelet domain. The transient response is predicted using the explicit central difference time integration scheme. Numerical results for the simulation of wave propagation in isotropic, quasi-isotropic and cross-ply laminated plates are presented and demonstrate the high spatial convergence and problem size reduction obtained by the present method.

  16. A higher order shear deformation theory for laminated anisotropic plates and its application in defence industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.

    1992-01-01

    Composite materials have been used for centuries, brick reinforced with straw, laminated iron-steel swords, gun-barrels and concrete, to name but a few. Today industrial innovations improved energy planning, uncertain availability have created a greater interest in search of new materials. Now that increasingly performance requirements are forcing many conventional materials to the limit, the engineer's approach of fitting the design to the properties is changing into one of finding materials with the right properties to meet the demand of design, service of economics. The use of composite materials have progressed through several stages in past two and half decade. First, demonstration pieces were built with the idea of let's see if we can build one. For second stage, replacement pieces, part of the objective was to test a part designed to replace a metal part in an existing application. The last stage is actual production pieces designed from the beginning to be fabricated wholly from composite. This last goal is being approached in deliberate, conservation and multistage fashion. A substantial composite technology has been developed and awaits further challenge. In this paper new higher order shear deformable theory for anisotropic laminated composite is presented. The finite element method is used to get static and dynamic solution for the plate with and without damping effects. Finally, example and discussion are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the theory presented herein. (author)

  17. Global crustal movement and tectonic plate boundary deformation constrained by the ITRF2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Ze

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the newly released International Terrestrial Reference Frame(ITRF2008 by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS, a new global plate model ITRF2008 plate for the major plates is established. This ITRF2008-derived model is analyzed in comparison with NNR-NUVEL1A model, which is mainly based on geological and geophysical data. The Eurasia and Pacific plates display obvious differences in terms of the velocity fields derived from the two plate motion models. Plate acceleration is also introduced to characterize the differences of the two velocity fields which obtained from ITRF2008 -plate and NNR-NUVEL1A models for major individual plates. The results show that the Africa, South America and Eurasia plates are undergoing acceleration, while the North America and Australia plates are in the state of deceleration motion.

  18. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pengwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  19. Folded fabric tunes rock deformation and failure mode in the upper crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, F; Dobbs, M R; Zanchetta, S; Vinciguerra, S

    2017-11-10

    The micro-mechanisms of brittle failure affect the bulk mechanical behaviour and permeability of crustal rocks. In low-porosity crystalline rocks, these mechanisms are related to mineralogy and fabric anisotropy, while confining pressure, temperature and strain rates regulate the transition from brittle to ductile behaviour. However, the effects of folded anisotropic fabrics, widespread in orogenic settings, on the mechanical behaviour of crustal rocks are largely unknown. Here we explore the deformation and failure behaviour of a representative folded gneiss, by combining the results of triaxial deformation experiments carried out while monitoring microseismicity with microstructural and damage proxies analyses. We show that folded crystalline rocks in upper crustal conditions exhibit dramatic strength heterogeneity and contrasting failure modes at identical confining pressure and room temperature, depending on the geometrical relationships between stress and two different anisotropies associated to the folded rock fabric. These anisotropies modulate the competition among quartz- and mica-dominated microscopic damage processes, resulting in transitional brittle to semi-brittle modes under P and T much lower than expected. This has significant implications on scales relevant to seismicity, energy resources, engineering applications and geohazards.

  20. Cenozoic intraplate tectonics in Central Patagonia: Record of main Andean phases in a weak upper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, G. M.; Echaurren, A.; Folguera, A.; Likerman, J.; Encinas, A.; García, H. P. A.; Dal Molin, C.; Valencia, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Contraction in intraplate areas is still poorly understood relative to similar deformation at plate margins. In order to contribute to its comprehension, we study the Patagonian broken foreland (PBF) in South America whose evolution remains controversial. Time constraints of tectonic events and structural characterization of this belt are limited. Also, major causes of strain location in this orogen far from the plate margin are enigmatic. To unravel tectonic events, we studied the Cenozoic sedimentary record of the central sector of the Patagonian broken foreland (San Bernardo fold and thrust belt, 44°30‧S-46°S) and the Andes (Meseta de Chalia, 46°S) following an approach involving growth-strata detection, U-Pb geochronology and structural modeling. Additionally, we elaborate a high resolution analysis of the effective elastic thickness (Te) to examine the relation between intraplate contraction location and variations in lithospheric strength. The occurrence of Eocene growth-strata ( 44-40 Ma) suggests that contraction in the Andes and the Patagonian broken foreland was linked to the Incaic phase. Detection of synextensional deposits suggests that the broken foreland collapsed partially during Oligocene to early Miocene. During middle Miocene times, the Quechua contractional phase produced folding of Neogene volcanic rocks and olistostrome deposition at 17 Ma. Finally, the presented Te map shows that intraplate contraction related to Andean phases localized preferentially along weak lithospheric zones (Te < 15 km). Hence, the observed strain distribution in the PBF appears to be controlled by lateral variations in the lithospheric strength. Variations in this parameter could be related to thermo-mechanical weakening produced by intraplate rifting in Paleozoic-Mesozoic times.

  1. Effect of Chord Splice Joints on Force Distribution and Deformations in Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The span of roof trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates) makes it often necessary to use splice joints in the top and bottom chords. In the finite element models used for design of the trusses these splice joints are normally assumed to be either rotationally stiff or pinned....... Timber-to-timber contact and non-linear elastic behaviour are included in the model. Results from tests with joints under fourpoint bending are compared with predictions given by TrussLab, and a good agreement is found. Splice joints in trusses with nail plates may be assumed to be rotationally stiff...... if their deformation has no significant effect upon the distribution of member forces according to Eurocode 5. Two simple guidelines for the design and location of splice joints are given in Eurocode 5 for treating the splice joints as rotationally stiff. The reasonability of these guidelines and the influence...

  2. Dynamics of upper mantle rocks decompression melting above hot spots under continental plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepechko, Yury; Sorokin, Konstantin; Sharapov, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Numeric 2D simulation of the decompression melting above the hot spots (HS) was accomplished under the following conditions: initial temperature within crust mantle section was postulated; thickness of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle is determined by the mantle rheology and position of upper asthenosphere boundary; upper and lower boundaries were postulated to be not permeable and the condition for adhesion and the distribution of temperature (1400-2050°C); lateral boundaries imitated infinity of layer. Sizes and distribution of lateral points, their symmetry, and maximum temperature varied between the thermodynamic condition for existences of perovskite - majorite transition and its excess above transition temperature. Problem was solved numerically a cell-vertex finite volume method for thermo hydrodynamic problems. For increasing convergence of iterative process the method of lower relaxation with different value of relaxation parameter for each equation was used. The method of through calculation was used for the increase in the computing rate for the two-layered upper mantle - lithosphere system. Calculated region was selected as 700 x (2100-4900) km. The time step for the study of the asthenosphere dynamics composed 0.15-0.65 Ma. The following factors controlling the sizes and melting degree of the convective upper mantle, are shown: a) the initial temperature distribution along the section of upper mantleb) sizes and the symmetry of HS, c) temperature excess within the HS above the temperature on the upper and lower mantle border TB=1500-2000oC with 5-15% deviation but not exceed 2350oC. It is found, that appearance of decompression melting with HS presence initiate primitive mantle melting at TB > of 1600oC. Initial upper mantle heating influence on asthenolens dimensions with a constant HS size is controlled mainly by decompression melting degree. Thus, with lateral sizes of HS = 400 km the decompression melting appears at TB > 1600oC and HS

  3. Plate Motion and Crustal Deformation Estimated with Geodetic Data from the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Heflin, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    We use geodetic data taken over four years with the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate: (1) motion between six major plates and (2) motion relative to these plates of ten sites in plate boundary zones. The degree of consistency between geodetic velocities and rigid plates requires the (one-dimensional) standard errors in horizontal velocities to be approx. 2 mm/yr. Each of the 15 angular velocities describing motion between plate pairs that we estimate with GPS differs insignificantly from the corresponding angular velocity in global plate motion model NUVEL-1A, which averages motion over the past 3 m.y. The motion of the Pacific plate relative to both the Eurasian and North American plates is observed to be faster than predicted by NUVEL-1A, supporting the inference from Very Long B ase- line Interferometry (VLBI) that motion of the Pacific plate has speed up over the past few m.y. The Eurasia-North America pole of rotation is estimated to be north of NUVEL-1A, consistent with the independent hypothesis that the pole has recently migrated northward across northeast Asia to near the Lena River delta. Victoria, which lies above the main thrust at the Cascadia subduction zone, moves relative to the interior of the overriding plate at 30% of the velocity of the subducting plate, reinforcing the conclusion that the thrust there is locked beneath the continental shelf and slope.

  4. Correction of coronal plane deformities around the knee using a tension band plate in children younger than 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta M Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guided growth through temporary hemiepiphysiodesis has gained acceptance as the preferred primary treatment in treating pediatric lower limb deformities as it is minimally invasive with a lesser morbidity than the traditional osteotomy. The tension band plate is the most recent development in implants used for temporary hemiepiphysiodesis. Our aim was to determine its safety and efficacy in correcting coronal plane deformities around the knee in children younger than 10 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 children under the age of 10 were operated for coronal plane deformities around the knee with a single extra periosteal tension band plate and two nonlocking screws. All the children had a pathological deformity for which a detailed preoperative work-up was carried out to ascertain the cause of the deformity and rule out physiological ones. The average age at hemiepiphysiodesis was 5 years 3 months (range: 2 years to 9 years 1 month. Results: The plates were inserted for an average of 15.625 months (range: 7 months to 29 months. All the patients showed improvement in the mechanical axis. Two patients showed partial correction. Two cases of screw loosening were observed. In the genu valgum group, the tibiofemoral angle improved from a preoperative mean of 19.89° valgus (range: 10° valgus to 40° valgus to 5.72° valgus (range: 2° varus to 10° valgus. In patients with genu varum the tibiofemoral angle improved from a mean of 28.27° varus (range: 13° varus to 41° varus to 1.59° valgus (range: 0-8° valgus. Conclusion: Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis through the application of the tension band plate is an effective method to correct coronal plane deformities around the knee with minimal complications. Its ease and accuracy of insertion has extended the indication of temporary hemiepiphysiodesis to patients younger than 10 years and across a wide variety of diagnosis including pathological physis, which were traditionally

  5. TPS-HAMMER: improving HAMMER registration algorithm by soft correspondence matching and thin-plate splines based deformation interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Yap, Pew-Thian; Kim, Minjeong; Shen, Dinggang

    2010-02-01

    We present an improved MR brain image registration algorithm, called TPS-HAMMER, which is based on the concepts of attribute vectors and hierarchical landmark selection scheme proposed in the highly successful HAMMER registration algorithm. We demonstrate that TPS-HAMMER algorithm yields better registration accuracy, robustness, and speed over HAMMER owing to (1) the employment of soft correspondence matching and (2) the utilization of thin-plate splines (TPS) for sparse-to-dense deformation field generation. These two aspects can be integrated into a unified framework to refine the registration iteratively by alternating between soft correspondence matching and dense deformation field estimation. Compared with HAMMER, TPS-HAMMER affords several advantages: (1) unlike the Gaussian propagation mechanism employed in HAMMER, which can be slow and often leaves unreached blotches in the deformation field, the deformation interpolation in the non-landmark points can be obtained immediately with TPS in our algorithm; (2) the smoothness of deformation field is preserved due to the nice properties of TPS; (3) possible misalignments can be alleviated by allowing the matching of the landmarks with a number of possible candidate points and enforcing more exact matches in the final stages of the registration. Extensive experiments have been conducted, using the original HAMMER as a comparison baseline, to validate the merits of TPS-HAMMER. The results show that TPS-HAMMER yields significant improvement in both accuracy and speed, indicating high applicability for the clinical scenario. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial variations of earthquake occurrence and coseismic deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Wenzel, F.

    2015-05-01

    Seismic activity in the densely populated Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is an aspect in the public, political, and industrial decision making process. The spatial analysis of magnitude-frequency distributions provides valuable information about local seismicity patterns and regional seismic hazard assessment and can be used also as a proxy for coseismic deformation to explore the seismo-tectonic setting of the URG. We combine five instrumental and one historic earthquake bulletins to obtain for the first time a consistent database for events with local magnitudes ML ≥ 2.0 in the whole URG and use it for the determination of magnitude frequencies. The data processing results in a dataset with 274 Poisson distributed instrumentally recorded earthquakes within the URG between 01/1971 and 02/2012 and 34 historic events since the year 1250. Our analysis reveals significant b-value variations along the URG that allow us to differentiate four distinct sections (I-IV) with significant differences in earthquake magnitude distributions: I: Basel region in the Swiss-France-German border region (b = 0.83), II: region between Mulhouse and Freiburg in the southern URG (b = 1.42), III: central URG (b = 0.93), and IV: northern URG (b = 1.06). High b-values and thus a relatively low amount of high magnitude events in the Freiburg section are possibly a consequence of strongly segmented, small-scale structures that are not able to accumulate high stresses. We use the obtained magnitude-frequency distributions and representative source mechanisms for each section to determine coseismic displacement rates. A maximum horizontal displacement rate of 41 μm/a around Basel is found whereas only 8 μm/a are derived for the central and northern URG. A comparison with geodetic and geological constraints implies that the coseismic displacement rates cover less than 10% of the overall displacement rates, suggesting a high amount of aseismic deformation in the URG.

  7. STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHERE AND SEISMOTECTONIC DEFORMATIONS IN CONTACT ZONE OF LITHOSPHERIC PLATES IN THE SUMATRA ISLAND REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kuchay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inversion seismic tomography algorithm (ITS was used to calculate 3D seismic anomalies models for velocities of P- and S-waves in the zone of the Sunda arc, Indonesia. In the area under study, strong earthquakes (M>4.8 are clustered in the zone of high P-wave velocities. Earthquake hypocenters are located in zones of both high and low velocity anomalies of S-waves. The giant Sumatra earthquake (December 26, 2004, Mw=9.0 ruptured the greatest fault length of any recorded earthquake, and the rupture started in the area wherein the sign of P-wave velo­city anomalies is abruptly changed. We calculated seismotectonic deformations (STD from data on mechanisms of 2227 earthquakes recorded from 1977 to 2013, and our calculations show that the STD component, that controls vertical extension of rocks, is most stable through all the depth levels. In the marginal regions at the western and eastern sides of the Sunda arc, the crustal areas (depths from 0 to 35 km are subject to deformations which sign is opposite to that of deformations in the central part. Besides, at depths from 70 to 150 km beneath the Sumatra earthquake epicentre area, the zone is subject to deformations which sign is opposite to that of deformations in the studied part of the Sunda arc. For earthquakes that may occur in the crust in the Sunda arc in the contact zone of the plates, maximum magnitudes depend on the direction of pressure imposed by the actively subducting plate, which is an additional criteria for determining the limit magnitude for the region under study. 

  8. Impact of lower plate structure on upper plate deformation at the NW Sumatran convergent margin from seafloor morphology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Sibuet, J-C; McNeill, L.; Henstock, T.J; Dean, S.; Gutscher, M-A.; Dessa, J; Permana, H.; Singh, S.C; Leau, H.; White, N.; Carton, H.; Malod, J.A.; Rangin, C.; Aryawan, K.G.; Chaubey, A.K.; Chauhan, A.; Galih, D.R.; Greenroyd, C.J; Laesanpura, A.; Prihantono, J.; Royle, G.; Shankar, U.

    forearc from the Sunda trench to the submarine volcanic arc just north of Sumatra. A slope gradient analysis of the combined dataset accurately highlights those portions of the seafloor shaped by active tectonic, depositional and/or erosional processes...

  9. Plate convergence, crustal delamination, extrusion tectonics and minimization of shortening work as main controlling factors of the recent Mediterranean deformation pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Babbucci

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the time-space distribution of major post middle Miocene deformation events in the Central-Eastern Mediterranean region, deduced from the relevant literature, can be coherently explained as a consequence of the convergence between the Africa/Arabia and Eurasia blocks. This plate convergence has mainly been accommodated by the consumption of the thinnest parts of the Northern African (Ionian and Levantine basins and peri-Adriatic margins. During each evolutionary phase the space distribution of trench zones is controlled by the basic physical requirement of minimizing the work of horizontal forces, induced by plate convergence, against the resisting forces, i.e., the cohesion of the upper brittle crustal layer and the buoyancy forces at the consuming boundaries. The significant changes of tectonic styles which determined the transition from one phase to the next, like those which occurred around the Messinian and the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, were determined by the suture of consuming boundaries. When such an event occurs, the system must activate alternative consuming processes to accommodate the convergence of the major confining blocks. The observed deformations in the study area suggest that this tectonic reorganization mostly developed by the lateral extrusion of crustal wedges away from the sutured borders. This mechanism allowed the translation of maximum horizontal stresses from the locked collisional fronts to the zones where consumable lithosphere was still present, in order to activate the next consuming processes. The extensional episodes which led to the formation of basins and troughs in the Tyrrhenian and Aegean zones are interpreted as secondary effects of the outward escape of crustal wedges, like those which occurred in response to longitudinal compressional regimes in the Apennines and Aegean regions.

  10. Spatial arrangement and size distribution of normal faults, Buckskin detachment upper plate, Western Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Hundley, T. H.; Hooker, J. N.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Fault arrays typically include a wide range of fault sizes and those faults may be randomly located, clustered together, or regularly or periodically located in a rock volume. Here, we investigate size distribution and spatial arrangement of normal faults using rigorous size-scaling methods and normalized correlation count (NCC). Outcrop data from Miocene sedimentary rocks in the immediate upper plate of the regional Buckskin detachment-low angle normal-fault, have differing patterns of spatial arrangement as a function of displacement (offset). Using lower size-thresholds of 1, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 m, displacements range over 5 orders of magnitude and have power-law frequency distributions spanning ∼ four orders of magnitude from less than 0.001 m to more than 100 m, with exponents of -0.6 and -0.9. The largest faults with >1 m displacement have a shallower size-distribution slope and regular spacing of about 20 m. In contrast, smaller faults have steep size-distribution slopes and irregular spacing, with NCC plateau patterns indicating imposed clustering. Cluster widths are 15 m for the 0.1-m threshold, 14 m for 0.01-m, and 1 m for 0.001-m displacement threshold faults. Results demonstrate normalized correlation count effectively characterizes the spatial arrangement patterns of these faults. Our example from a high-strain fault pattern above a detachment is compatible with size and spatial organization that was influenced primarily by boundary conditions such as fault shape, mechanical unit thickness and internal stratigraphy on a range of scales rather than purely by interaction among faults during their propagation.

  11. Earthquake recurrence and magnitude and seismic deformation of the northwestern Okhotsk plate, northeast Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Mackey, K.

    2011-02-01

    Recorded seismicity from the northwestern Okhotsk plate, northeast Asia, is currently insufficient to account for the predicted slip rates along its boundaries due to plate tectonics. However, the magnitude-frequency relationship for earthquakes from the region suggests that larger earthquakes are possible in the future and that events of ˜Mw 7.5 which should occur every ˜100-350 years would account for almost all the slip of the plate along its boundaries due to Eurasia-North America convergence. We use models for seismic slip distribution along the bounding faults of Okhotsk to conclude that relatively little aseismic strain release is occurring and that larger future earthquakes are likely in the region. Our models broadly support the idea of a single Okhotsk plate, with the large majority of tectonic strain released along its boundaries.

  12. A novel approach to modeling plate deformations in fluid–structure interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, T.K., E-mail: howartre@onid.oregonstate.edu [Oregon State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering & Radiation Health Physics, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Marcum, W.R., E-mail: marcumw@engr.orst.edu [Oregon State University, Department of Nuclear Engineering & Radiation Health Physics, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Jones, W.F. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels & Materials Department, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A new method for computing fluid structure interactions of flat plates is presented herein. • The method is validated through consideration of a single plate subject to hydraulic loading. • The model is compared against solution forms computed via ABAQUS and experimental data. • The model compares well against experimental data and the commercial computational code. - Abstract: As computational power increases, so does the desire to use computational simulations while designing fuel plates. The downside is multi-physics simulations – or more specifically, fluid–structure interactions (FSI) as addressed herein – require a larger amount of computational resources. Current simulations of a single plate can take weeks on a desktop computer, thus requiring the use of multiple servers or a cluster for FSI simulations. While computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes coupled to computational structural mechanics (CSM) codes can provide a wealth of information regarding flow patterns, there should be some skepticism in whether or not they are the only means of achieving the desired solution. When the parameters of interest are the onset of plate collapse and the associated fluid channel velocities, coupled CFD–CSM simulations provide superfluous information. The paper provides an alternative approach to solving FSI problems using a 1-D, semi-analytical model derived from first principles. The results are compared and contrasted to the numerical and experimental work performed by Kennedy et al. (2014. Experimental Investigation of Deflection of Flat Aluminium Plates Under Variable Velocity Parallel Flow, Columbia: University of Missouri TherMec Research Group).

  13. A novel approach to modeling plate deformations in fluid–structure interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, T.K.; Marcum, W.R.; Jones, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for computing fluid structure interactions of flat plates is presented herein. • The method is validated through consideration of a single plate subject to hydraulic loading. • The model is compared against solution forms computed via ABAQUS and experimental data. • The model compares well against experimental data and the commercial computational code. - Abstract: As computational power increases, so does the desire to use computational simulations while designing fuel plates. The downside is multi-physics simulations – or more specifically, fluid–structure interactions (FSI) as addressed herein – require a larger amount of computational resources. Current simulations of a single plate can take weeks on a desktop computer, thus requiring the use of multiple servers or a cluster for FSI simulations. While computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes coupled to computational structural mechanics (CSM) codes can provide a wealth of information regarding flow patterns, there should be some skepticism in whether or not they are the only means of achieving the desired solution. When the parameters of interest are the onset of plate collapse and the associated fluid channel velocities, coupled CFD–CSM simulations provide superfluous information. The paper provides an alternative approach to solving FSI problems using a 1-D, semi-analytical model derived from first principles. The results are compared and contrasted to the numerical and experimental work performed by Kennedy et al. (2014. Experimental Investigation of Deflection of Flat Aluminium Plates Under Variable Velocity Parallel Flow, Columbia: University of Missouri TherMec Research Group).

  14. Cenozoic lithospheric deformation in Northeast Asia and the rapidly-aging Pacific Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Moresi, Louis; Zhao, Dapeng; Sandiford, Dan; Whittaker, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Northeast Asia underwent widespread rifting and magmatic events during the Cenozoic. The geodynamic origins of these tectonic events are often linked to Pacific plate subduction beneath Northeast Asia. However, the Japan Sea did not open until the late Oligocene, tens of millions of years after Pacific Plate subduction initiation in the Paleocene. Moreover, it is still not clear why the Baikal Rift Zone extension rate increased significantly after the late Miocene, while the Japan Sea opening ceased at the same time. Geodynamic models suggest these enigmatic events are related to the rapidly-aging Pacific Plate at the trench after Izanagi-Pacific spreading ridge subduction. Subduction of the young Pacific Plate delayed the Japan Sea opening during the Eocene while advection of the old Pacific Plate towards the trench increases seafloor age rapidly, allowing the Japan Sea to open after the early Miocene. The Japan Sea opening promotes fast trench retreat and slab stagnation, with subduction-induced wedge zone convection gradually increasing its extent during this process. The active rifting center associated with wedge zone convection upwelling also shifts inland-ward during slab stagnation, preventing further Japan Sea spreading while promoting the Baikal Rift Zone extension. Our geodynamic model provides a good explanation for the temporal-spatial patterns of the Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic events in Northeast Asia.

  15. A New Comprehensive Model for Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure of the European Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, A.; Danecek, P.; Molinari, I.; Postpischl, L.; Schivardi, R.; Serretti, P.; Tondi, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new comprehensive model of crustal and upper mantle structure of the whole European Plate — from the North Atlantic ridge to Urals, and from North Africa to the North Pole — describing seismic speeds (P and S) and density. Our description of crustal structure merges information from previous studies: large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness and seismic parameters. Most original information refers to P-wave speed, from which we derive S speed and density from scaling relations. This a priori crustal model by itself improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps, as derived from GRACE satellite data, over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. In the inversion for transversely isotropic mantle structure, we use group speed measurements made on European event-to-station paths, and use a global a priori model (S20RTS) to ensure fair rendition of earth structure at depth and in border areas with little coverage from our data. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies beneath the Alpine mobile belt, and fast lithospheric signatures under the two main Mediterranean subduction systems (Aegean and Tyrrhenian). We map compressional wave speed inverting ISC travel times (reprocessed by Engdahl et al.) with a non linear inversion scheme making use of finite-difference travel time calculation. The inversion is based on an a priori model obtained by scaling the 3D mantle S-wave speed to P. The new model substantially confirms images of descending lithospheric slabs and back-arc shallow asthenospheric regions, shown in

  16. Rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation in upper mantle flow near plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Donna; Castelnau, Olivier; Dawson, Paul; Boyce, Donald

    2016-04-01

    Observations of anisotropy provide insight into upper mantle processes. Flow-induced mineral alignment provides a link between mantle deformation patterns and seismic anisotropy. Our study focuses on the rheologic effects of crystal preferred orientation (CPO), which develops during mantle flow, in order to assess whether corresponding anisotropic viscosity could significantly impact the pattern of flow. We employ a coupled nonlinear numerical method to link CPO and the flow model via a local viscosity tensor field that quantifies the stress/strain-rate response of a textured mineral aggregate. For a given flow field, the CPO is computed along streamlines using a self-consistent texture model and is then used to update the viscosity tensor field. The new viscosity tensor field defines the local properties for the next flow computation. This iteration produces a coupled nonlinear model for which seismic signatures can be predicted. Results thus far confirm that CPO can impact flow pattern by altering rheology in directionally-dependent ways, particularly in regions of high flow gradient. Multiple iterations run for an initial, linear stress/strain-rate case (power law exponent n=1) converge to a flow field and CPO distribution that are modestly different from the reference, scalar viscosity case. Upwelling rates directly below the spreading axis are slightly reduced and flow is focused somewhat toward the axis. Predicted seismic anisotropy differences are modest. P-wave anisotropy is a few percent greater in the flow 'corner', near the spreading axis, below the lithosphere and extending 40-100 km off axis. Predicted S-wave splitting differences would be below seafloor measurement limits. Calculations with non-linear stress/strain-rate relation, which is more realistic for olivine, indicate that effects are stronger than for the linear case. For n=2-3, the distribution and strength of CPO for the first iteration are greater than for n=1, although the fast seismic

  17. Magnetic Fluid-Based Squeeze Film Behaviour in Curved Porous-Rotating Rough Annular Plates and Elastic Deformation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Shimpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been directed to study and analyze the squeeze film performance between rotating transversely rough curved porous annular plates in the presence of a magnetic fluid lubricant considering the effect of elastic deformation. A stochastic random variable with nonzero mean, variance, and skewness characterizes the random roughness of the bearing surfaces. With the aid of suitable boundary conditions, the associated stochastically averaged Reynolds' equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution in turn, which results in the calculation of the load-carrying capacity. The graphical representations establish that the transverse roughness, in general, adversely affects the performance characteristics. However, the magnetization registers a relatively improved performance. It is found that the deformation causes reduced load-carrying capacity which gets further decreased by the porosity. This investigation tends to indicate that the adverse effect of porosity, standard deviation and deformation can be compensated to certain extent by the positive effect of the magnetic fluid lubricant in the case of negatively skewed roughness by choosing the rotational inertia and the aspect ratio, especially for suitable ratio of curvature parameters.

  18. Calculation of the deformation limits for failure affected wide plate tensile specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G T.M.; Meijers, P [TNO-IWECO, Delft (Netherlands); Lorenz, H [INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)

    1977-07-01

    In 1972 the German reactor safety commission recommended, with respect to the safety concept of the SNR 300 concerning an hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), to design the complete plant against an mechanical energy release of 370 MWs and the reactor vessel against 150 MWs. In 1976 it has been decided to design the reactor vessel system against the defined energy release of 370 MWs. This change greatly increased the extent of design activities with regard to HCDA questions. The integrity proof will be given by deformation analysis of the reactor vessel using continuous mechanical computer codes and by comparison of the maximum deformations to verified design limits. The deformation behavior of the vessel system during the HCDA has been analysed by computer codes which describe the pulse and pressure distribution for all elements by which the geometry has been modelled. Simultaneously the codes calculate the hydrodynamic processes and the time and position dependent stress and strain distributions. The accuracy of these complicated computer codes describing pressure and deformation behavior will be evaluated by an experimental series of explosion tests on vessels.

  19. Calculation of the deformation limits for failure affected wide plate tensile specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, G.T.M.; Meijers, P.; Lorenz, H.

    1977-01-01

    In 1972 the German reactor safety commission recommended, with respect to the safety concept of the SNR 300 concerning an hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), to design the complete plant against an mechanical energy release of 370 MWs and the reactor vessel against 150 MWs. In 1976 it has been decided to design the reactor vessel system against the defined energy release of 370 MWs. This change greatly increased the extent of design activities with regard to HCDA questions. The integrity proof will be given by deformation analysis of the reactor vessel using continuous mechanical computer codes and by comparison of the maximum deformations to verified design limits. The deformation behavior of the vessel system during the HCDA has been analysed by computer codes which describe the pulse and pressure distribution for all elements by which the geometry has been modelled. Simultaneously the codes calculate the hydrodynamic processes and the time and position dependent stress and strain distributions. The accuracy of these complicated computer codes describing pressure and deformation behavior will be evaluated by an experimental series of explosion tests on vessels

  20. Vibrations And Deformations Of Moderately Thick Plates In Stochastic Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywiński Maksym

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with some chosen aspects of stochastic dynamical analysis of moderately thick plates. The discretization of the governing equations is described by the finite element method. The main aim of the study is to provide the generalized stochastic perturbation technique based on classical Taylor expansion with a single random variable.

  1. Fingerprint Matching by Thin-plate Spline Modelling of Elastic Deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Gerez, Sabih H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel minutiae matching method that describes elastic distortions in fingerprints by means of a thin-plate spline model, which is estimated using a local and a global matching stage. After registration of the fingerprints according to the estimated model, the number of matching

  2. Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from deformable steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woong; Lee, Heon-Joo; Shin, Hyunho

    2002-01-01

    Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using a full three-dimensional explicit finite element method. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models. Experiments were also carried out and the results supported the predictions of the numerical analysis

  3. Numerical analysis on interactions between fluid flow and structure deformation in plate-fin heat exchanger by Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-cheng; Wei, Xiu-ting; Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wei, Zhen-wen

    2018-03-01

    The fluid-structure interaction performance of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) with serrated fins in large scale air-separation equipment was investigated in this paper. The stress and deformation of fins were analyzed, besides, the interaction equations were deduced by Galerkin method. The governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer in PFHE were deduced by finite volume method (FVM). The distribution of strain and stress were calculated in large scale air separation equipment and the coupling situation of serrated fins under laminar situation was analyzed. The results indicated that the interactions between fins and fluid flow in the exchanger have significant impacts on heat transfer enhancement, meanwhile, the strain and stress of fins includes dynamic pressure of the sealing head and flow impact with the increase of flow velocity. The impacts are especially significant at the conjunction of two fins because of the non-alignment fins. It can be concluded that the soldering process and channel width led to structure deformation of fins in the exchanger, and degraded heat transfer efficiency.

  4. Study on deformation behavior and life evaluation method for SUS304 notched plate under bending creep fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Yoshio; Satoh, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Yukio; Kuwabara, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Creep-fatigue tests were carried out on notched plates under cyclic bending loads out of plane at 550degC, and the local strain at the notch-root and micro crack propagation behavior were measured. Then, inelastic analysis was performed for the experiment by using three kinds of constitutive models, such as kinematic hardening, ORNL and Ohno models. From the comparison of the experiment with the results of analysis, the following conclusions were obtained. (1) Creep strain caused at the notch-root during load holding was negligibly small compared with plastic strain, so that the neighborhood of the notch-root is subjected to constrained strain type damage. (2) The strain range at the notch-root can be calculated from the results of elastic-plastic analysis for monotonic loading independent of the constitutive models used, where the cyclic stress-strain relationship was used as the material monotonic deformation property. (3) The mean strain calculated was consistent with the experimental value in case of kinematic hardening or ORNL model, while not in case of Ohno model. (4) A method for predicting the crack initiation life of a notched plate has been proposed on the basis of micro-crack propagation behavior obtained by a fundamental creep-fatigue test. (author)

  5. Load bearing and deformation behaviour of dynamically loaded wide plate specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julisch, P.; Haedrich, H.J.; Stadtmueller, W.; Sturm, D.

    1989-01-01

    For the testing of large-scale specimens, a 12 MN-High Loading Rate Tensile Testing Machine was designed and built at MPA Stuttgart. The aim was to determine the influence of high loading rates on the stress and strain behaviour of unwelded and welded components of ferritic and austenitic materials. This new generation of testing machines is driven by a propellant charge, and generates a maximum tensile force of 12 MN with a piston velocity of 25 m/s after a stroke of 20 mm, or a maximum velocity of 60 m/s after a stroke of 400 mm. In a first test programme, welded and unwelded wide plate specimens made of material X 6 CrNi 18 11 were tested at room temperature with different strain rates from 10 -3 /s to 63/s. In addition to a description of the 12 MN-High Loading Rate Tensile Testing Machine, the results of the high loading rate tensile tests performed will be presented and compared with quasistatically tested wide plate specimens. (orig.)

  6. Microstructural analysis and calcite piezometry on hydrothermal veins: Insights into the deformation history of the Cocos Plate at Site U1414 (IODP Expedition 344).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Jennifer; Kurz, Walter; Rogowitz, Anna

    2017-08-01

    In this study we present microstructural data from hydrothermal veins in the sedimentary cover and the igneous basement recovered from Hole U1414A, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344 (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project), to constrain deformation mechanism operating in the subducting Cocos Plate. Cathodoluminescence studies, mechanical e-twin piezometry and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses of carbonate veins were used to give insights into the deformation conditions and to help to understand the tectonic deformation history of the Cocos Plate offshore Costa Rica. Analyses of microstructures in the sedimentary rocks and in the basalt of the igneous basement reveal brittle deformation, as well as crystal-plastic deformation of the host rock and the vein material. Cathodoluminescence images showed that in the basalt fluid flow and related precipitation occurred over several episodes. The differential stresses, obtained from two different piezometers using the same parameter (twin density), indicate various mean differential stresses of 49 ± 11 and 69 ± 30 MPa and EBSD mapping of calcite veins reveals low-angle subgrain boundaries. Deformation temperatures are restricted to the range from 170°C to 220°C, due to the characteristics of the existing twins and the lack of high-temperature intracrystalline deformation mechanisms (>220°C). The obtained results suggest that deformation occurred over a period associated with changes of ambient temperatures, occurrence of fluids and hydrofracturing, induced differential stresses due to the bending of the plate at the trench, and related seismic activity.

  7. Proceedings of steam generator sludge deposition in recirculating and once through steam generator upper tube bundle and support plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.L.; Harvego, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    The development of remedial measures of shot peening have given nuclear utilities viable measures to address primary water stress corrosion cracking to extend steam generator life. The nuclear utility industry is now faced with potential replacement of steam generators in nuclear power plants due to stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attach in crevice locations on the secondary side of steam generators at tube support plates and at the crevice at the top of the tube sheet. Significant work has been done on developing and understanding of the effects of sludge buildup on the corrosion process at these locations. This session was envisioned to provide a forum for the development of an understanding of the mechanisms which control the transport and deposition of sludge on the secondary side of steam generators. It is hoped that this information will aid utilities in monitoring the progression of fouling of these crevices by further knowledge in where to look for the onset of support plate crevice fouling. An understanding of the progression of fouling from upper tube support plates to those lower in the steam generator where higher temperatures cause the corrosion process to initiate first can aid the nuclear utility industry in developing remedial measures for this condition and in providing a forewarning of when to apply such remedial measures

  8. Asymmetric free vibrations of laminated annular cross-ply circular plates including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Spline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, K.K.; Kim, Kyung Su; Lee, Jang Hyun [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Asymmetric free vibrations of annular cross-ply circular plates are studied using spline function approximation. The governing equations are formulated including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Assumptions are made to study the cross-ply layered plates. A system of coupled differential equations are obtained in terms of displacement functions and rotational functions. These functions are approximated using Bickley- type spline functions of suitable order. Then the system is converted into the eigenvalue problem by applying the point collocation technique and suitable boundary conditions. Parametric studies have been made to investigate the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia on frequency parameter with respect to the circumferential node number, radii ratio and thickness to radius ratio for both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply plates using various types of material properties. (orig.)

  9. LES with acoustics and FSI for deforming plates in gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Per, E-mail: pnilsson@tuv-nord.com [European Spallation Source, Lund (Sweden); Lillberg, Eric [Westinghouse, Vaesteras (Sweden); Wikstroem, Niklas [FS Dynamics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This concerns Flow Induced Vibrations (FIV) in nuclear reactors and numerical analysis of such. Special attention is paid to structural excitation by sound generated remotely and turbulent flow around the structure. One hypothesis was that these phenomena can interact, so that the structure accumulates more energy from the flow if it also excited by sound from another source. In the studies, Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) is simulated with Large Eddy Simulations (LESs). It is shown possible to simulate excitation due to both acoustic and turbulence loads using the reported methods, at least qualitatively. The excitation levels are even of the right order of magnitude in some parts. However, there are some shortcomings in the modeling. The most important is perhaps the lack of non-reflecting boundary conditions. Another problem is the strong numerical damping in combination with demanding numerics for the selected solid solution methodology. Three cases are simulated, two for validation and one applied about steam dryers. For the applied case, it is concluded unlikely that excitation by the acoustic and turbulence loads can interact. The main reason is that the flow is controlled more by static geometrical factors, such as solid rotation sharp edges, than small deformations due to vibrations.

  10. Geometrically nonlinear resonance of higher-order shear deformable functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite annular sector plates excited by harmonic transverse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza

    2018-02-01

    This article presents an attempt to study the nonlinear resonance of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) annular sector plates excited by a uniformly distributed harmonic transverse load. To this purpose, first, the extended rule of mixture including the efficiency parameters is employed to approximately obtain the effective material properties of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates. Then, the focus is on presenting the weak form of discretized mathematical formulation of governing equations based on the variational differential quadrature (VDQ) method and Hamilton's principle. The geometric nonlinearity and shear deformation effects are considered based on the von Kármán assumptions and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory, respectively. The discretization process is performed via the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method together with numerical differential and integral operators. Then, an efficient multi-step numerical scheme is used to obtain the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the FG-CNTRC annular sector plates near their primary resonance as the frequency-response curve. The accuracy of the present results is first verified and then a parametric study is presented to show the impacts of CNT volume fraction, CNT distribution pattern, geometry of annular sector plate and sector angle on the nonlinear frequency-response curve of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates with different edge supports.

  11. Creep deformation behavior of weld metal and heat affected zone on 316FR steel thick plate welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Hiromichi; Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kinugawa, Junichi; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Monma, Yoshio; Nakazawa, Takanori

    1999-01-01

    Using hot-rolled 316FR stainless plate (50 mm thick) and 16Cr-8Ni-2Mo filler wire, a narrow-gap welded joint was prepared by GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process. In addition to conventional round bar specimens of base metals and weld metal, full-thickness joint specimens were prepared for creep test. Creep tests were conducted at 550degC in order to examine creep deformation and rupture behavior in the weld metal of the welded joint. Creep strain distribution on the surface of the joint specimen was measured by moire interferometry. In the welded joint, creep strength of the weld metal zone apart from the surface was larger than that in the vicinity of the surface due to repeating heat cycles during welding. Creep strain and creep rate within the HAZ adjacent to the weld metal zone were smaller than those within the base metal zone. Creep rate of the weld metal zone in the welded joint was smaller than that of the weld metal specimen due to the restraint of the hardened HAZ adjacent to the zone. The full-thickness welded joint specimens showed longer lives than weld metal specimens, though the lives of the latter was shorter than those of the base metal (undermatching). In the full-thickness welded joint specimen, crack started from the last pass layer of the weld metal zone and fracture occurred at the zone. From the results mentioned above, in order to evaluate the creep properties of the welded joint correctly, it is necessary to conduct the creep test using the full-thickness welded joint specimen which includes the weakest zones of the weld metal, the front and back sides of the plate. (author)

  12. Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, M. G.

    2014-06-17

    This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, M. G.; Munch, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Study of Upper Bound Methods for the Calculation of Residual Deformations After Shakedown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange-Hansen, Preben

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: None of the published formulae for obtaining upper bounds for residual deflections in elastoplastic structures with quasistatically varying loads (shakedown problems) has been able to result in theoretical maximum values of residual deflections. Therefore, the purpose of the report is to...

  15. Crustal and upper mantle investigations of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    The evolution of the Caribbean --- South America plate boundary has been a matter of vigorous debate for decades and many questions remain unresolved. In this work, and in the framework of the BOLIVAR project, we shed light on some aspects of the present state and the tectonic history of the margin by using different types of geophysical data sets and techniques. An analysis of controlled-source traveltime data collected along a boundary-normal profile at ˜65°W was used to build a 2D P-wave velocity model. The model shows that the Caribbean Large Igenous Province is present offshore eastern Venezuela and confirms the uniformity of the velocity structure along the Leeward Antilles volcanic belt. In contrast with neighboring profiles, at this longitude we see no change in velocity structure or crustal thickness across the San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. A 2D gravity modeling methodology that uses seismically derived initial density models was developed as part of this research. The application of this new method to four of the BOLIVAR boundary-normal profiles suggests that the uppermost mantle is denser under the South American continental crust and the island arc terranes than under the Caribbean oceanic crust. Crustal rocks of the island arc and extended island arc terranes of the Leeward Antilles have a relatively low density, given their P-wave velocity. This may be caused by low iron content, relative to average magmatic arc rocks. Finally, an analysis of teleseismic traveltimes with frequency-dependent kernels produced a 3D P-wave velocity perturbation model. The model shows the structure of the mantle lithosphere under the study area and clearly images the subduction of the Atlantic slab and associated partial removal of the lower lithosphere under northern South America. We also image the subduction of a section of the Caribbean plate under South America with an east-southeast direction. Both the Atlantic and Caribbean subducting slabs penetrate the

  16. Congenital terminal transverse deformity of upper limb: clinical and radiological findings in a sporadic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sajid; Afzal, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Congenital transverse limb anomalies are rare, which affect upper and/or lower limbs and may accompany several syndromic malformations. We present a sporadic male subject with congenital, unilateral transverse arrest of the left hand. The affected arm was observed to be short with reduced zeugopod and truncated palm. Fingers were represented by five bead-like nubbins. Roentgenographic examination revealed short radius and ulna with hypoplastic distal heads, absent carpals/metacarpals, and a hypoplastic bony island in each nubbin. Consanguinity was denied, and the subject had no symptoms in the orofacial, neurological and skeletal systems. Detailed clinical data with literature survey is presented.

  17. SEISMOTECTONIC DEFORMATION IN THE CONTACT AREA OF THE NAZCA AND SOUTH AMERICAN LITHOSPHERIC PLATES IN RELATION TO THE FEBRUARY 27, 2010 MW 8.8 MAULE EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Dyadkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data on earthquake focal mechanisms, we estimated seismotectonic deformation related to the 2010 Мw 8.8 Maule earthquake and analyzed the deformation at different depths. In the main seismic dislocation of the Maule earthquake and the northern area, the deformation field to a depth of 70 km is typical of subduction zones as evidenced by shortening in the direction of the oceanic plate subduction. Below a depth of 70 km, the deformation pattern changes sharply to horizontal stretching. After the main seismic event, as well as before it, nearlatitudinal shortening was dominant in the focal zone, while the region of the main seismic dislocations was surrounded by separate areas of near-latitudinal stretching, which is an opposite type of deformation. We conducted a detailed analysis of the seismotectonic deformations in the oceanic uplift area to the west of the deep-water trough and identified local zones of near-latitudinal stretching near the southern and northern boundaries of the future Maule earthquake zone. Detecting such zones can provide important data for early forecasting of regions wherein strong subduction-related earthquakes are being prepared.

  18. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes along the Arakan subduction belt recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Min, Soe; Aung, Lin Thu; Than, Oo; Tun, Soe Thura

    2018-02-01

    Upper-plate structures that splay out from the megathrusts are common features along major convergent plate boundaries. However, their earthquake and tsunami hazard potentials have not yet received significant attention. In this study, we identified at least one earthquake event that may have been produced by an upper-plate splay fault offshore western Myanmar, based on U-Th ages of uplifted coral microatolls. This event is likely an earthquake that was documented historically in C.E. 1848, with an estimated magnitude between 6.8 and 7.2 based on regional structural characteristics. Such magnitude is consistent with the observed co-seismic uplift amount of ∼0.5 m. Although these events are smaller in magnitude than events produced by megathrusts, they may produce higher earthquake and tsunami hazards for local coastal communities due to their proximity. Our results also indicate that earthquake events with co-seismic uplift along the coast may not necessarily produce a flight of marine terraces. Therefore, using only records of uplifted marine terraces as megathrust earthquake proxies may overlook the importance of upper-plate splay fault ruptures, and underestimate the overall earthquake frequency for future seismic and tsunami hazards along major subduction zones of the world.

  19. Reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects with a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    To review and present the results of a one-step method employing a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft for reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects after tumour surgery. This was a retrospective case-series of 8 patients who underwent reconstruction of the upper eyelid after tumour removal. The horizontal defect involved 50-75% of the lid (3 pts.), more than 75% (3 pts.), and more than 75% plus the lateral canthus (2 pts.). The posterior lamella was reconstructed with contralateral upper eyelid tarsal plate. The anterior lamella was reconstructed with a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in 7 patients, leaving a raw surface under the brow which was covered with a free skin graft. In 1 patient with little skin left under the brow, the anterior lamella was reconstructed with a bi-pedicle orbicularis muscle flap together with a free skin graft. All patients healed without necrosis, did not suffer from lagophthalmos, achieved reasonable cosmesis, and did not need lubricants. In one patient, a contact lens was necessary for three weeks because of corneal erosion. One patient still needs a contact lens 3 months after excision to avoid eye discomfort. Large upper eyelid defects can be reconstructed with a free tarsal plate graft and a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in combination with a free skin graft. Two-step procedures can probably be avoided in most cases.

  20. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  1. Syn-kinematic palaeogeographic evolution of the West European Platform: correlation with Alpine plate collision and foreland deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sissingh, W.

    Sequence stratigraphic correlations indicate that intermittent changes of the kinematic far-field stress-field regimes, and the associated geodynamic re-organisations at the plate-tectonic contacts of the African, Apulian, Iberian and European plates, affected the Tertiary palaeogeographic evolution

  2. Flow induced deformation and collapse of a thin rectangular plate with application to the Engineering Test Reactor nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This work examines a single flat fuel plate bounded by two channels and determines static plate deflections, resultant forces and bending stresses due to pressure differential and hydrodynamic loadings. The classical then reactangular plate equations are used to model the fuel plate. These equations contain as an input the hydrodynamic loading function for modeling the fluid-structural interaction. Two models of the channel flow are developed. One assumes the accelerating potential core flow is laminar with developing two-dimensional laminar boundary layers being formed on the channel walls. The Schlichting entry length solution for developing laminar flow is found to be valid the entire length of the channel. The second model assumes the core flow is fully-developed turbulent the entire length of the channel. Hydrodynamic loading functions are developed for both flow models containing parameters for fluid density, fluid velocity, Reynolds number and channel and plate dimensions. Hence the effects of each parameter can be examined independently. A criterion is developed for predicting ETR fuel plate collapse at high channel flow velocities, 1067 cm/s (420 in/sec) (R/sub e/ = 60,000). The criterion predicts that in order to prevent ETR plate collapse the inlet velocities between channels must not differ by more than 2%

  3. Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina

    2014-08-20

    In North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.

  4. Plate boundary deformation in North Iceland during 1992–2009 revealed by InSAR time-series analysis and GPS

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2014-01-01

    In North Iceland, extensional plate motion is accommodated by the Northern Volcanic Zone, a set of en-echelon volcanic systems, and the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, a transform offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge consisting of two parallel transform lineaments. The southern lineament, the Húsavík–Flatey fault, is a 100 km-long right-lateral strike slip fault that has not ruptured for more than 140 years and poses a significant seismic hazard to Húsavík, a fishing town located by the fault, and to other coastal communities. We present results of InSAR time-series analysis data spanning almost two decades (1992–2009) that show extensional and interseismic deformation within the Northern Volcanic Zone and the on-shore part of the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The results also exhibit transient inflation at Theistareykir volcano, deflation at Krafla central volcano and a broad uplift north of Krafla. The current plate extension is not uniform across the Northern Volcanic Zone, but concentrated at the western fissures of the Theistareykir volcanic system and the outermost fissures of the Krafla fissure swarm. We combine a back-slip plate boundary model with a set of point pressure sources representing volcanic changes to describe the current extensional plate boundary deformation and update the previous estimations of the locking depth and slip rate of the Húsavík–Flatey fault that were based on GPS data alone. Using different combinations of input data, we find that the Húsavík–Flatey fault has a locking depth of 6–10 km and, with a slip rate of 6–9 mm/yr, is accommodating about a third of the full transform motion. We furthermore show that while the InSAR data provide important constraints on the volcanic deformation within the NVZ, they do not significantly improve the model parameter estimation for the HFF, as the dense GPS network appears to better capture the deformation across the fault.

  5. Thermal stability of a highly-deformed warm-rolled tungsten plate in the temperature range 1100–1250 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, A., E-mail: aalz@dtu.dk [Section of Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Denmark and China (Denmark); Juul Jensen, D. [Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals, Section of Materials Science and Advanced Characterization, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Denmark and China (Denmark); Luo, G.-N. [Fusion Reactor Materials Science and Technology Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Denmark and China (Denmark); Pantleon, W. [Section of Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Association EURATOM-DTU (Denmark); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Denmark and China (Denmark)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Annealing kinetics of highly-deformed tungsten up to 190 h between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. • Loss of mechanical strength characterized by Vickers hardness measurements. • Two distinct stages of recovery and recrystallization identified and described by established models. • Activation energy of recrystallization lower than after moderate deformation of tungsten. • Comparable to activation energy of grain boundary diffusion due to abundance of low angle boundaries. - Abstract: Pure tungsten is considered as armor material for the most critical parts of fusion reactors (i.e. the divertor and the first wall), among other reasons due to its high melting point (3422 °C) and recrystallization temperature. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to a high plastic strain by 90% thickness reduction was investigated by isothermal annealing for up to 190 h in the temperature range between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. Vickers hardness testing allowed tracking the changes in mechanical properties caused by recovery and recrystallization. The hardness evolution could be rationalized in terms of a logarithmic recovery kinetics and a Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov recrystallization kinetics accounting for an incubation time of recrystallization. The observed time spans for recrystallization and the corresponding recrystallization activation energy for this highly deformed plate suggest that large plastic deformations (e.g. applied during shaping) are only suitable to produce tungsten components to be used at relatively low temperatures (up to 900 °C for a 2 years lifespan). Higher operation temperatures will lead to fast degradation of the microstructure during operation.

  6. Thermal stability of a highly-deformed warm-rolled tungsten plate in the temperature range 1100–1250 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, A.; Juul Jensen, D.; Luo, G.-N.; Pantleon, W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annealing kinetics of highly-deformed tungsten up to 190 h between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. • Loss of mechanical strength characterized by Vickers hardness measurements. • Two distinct stages of recovery and recrystallization identified and described by established models. • Activation energy of recrystallization lower than after moderate deformation of tungsten. • Comparable to activation energy of grain boundary diffusion due to abundance of low angle boundaries. - Abstract: Pure tungsten is considered as armor material for the most critical parts of fusion reactors (i.e. the divertor and the first wall), among other reasons due to its high melting point (3422 °C) and recrystallization temperature. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to a high plastic strain by 90% thickness reduction was investigated by isothermal annealing for up to 190 h in the temperature range between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. Vickers hardness testing allowed tracking the changes in mechanical properties caused by recovery and recrystallization. The hardness evolution could be rationalized in terms of a logarithmic recovery kinetics and a Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov recrystallization kinetics accounting for an incubation time of recrystallization. The observed time spans for recrystallization and the corresponding recrystallization activation energy for this highly deformed plate suggest that large plastic deformations (e.g. applied during shaping) are only suitable to produce tungsten components to be used at relatively low temperatures (up to 900 °C for a 2 years lifespan). Higher operation temperatures will lead to fast degradation of the microstructure during operation.

  7. Learning from EDF investigations on SG divider plates and vessel head nozzles. Evidence of prior deformation effect on stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforge, D.; Duisabeau, L.; Miloudi, S.; Thebault, Y.; Couvant, T.; Vaillant, F.; Lemaire, E.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel Based alloys Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) has been a major concern for all the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) utilities since the beginning of the seventies. At EDF, the nineties were marked by the occurrence of cracks on vessel head nozzles. These cracks were responsible for a leak at Bugey 3 vessel head, which was the precursor leading to the replacement of all vessel heads. From 2002, new cases of Stress Corrosion Cracking were reported on Steam Generator (SG) Divider Plates (SGDP) welded junctions. These cracks are periodically inspected inservice and reparations could be performed in case of a significant evolution of the phenomenon even if the safety issue is less relevant than for the vessel head nozzles. Both issues have led to an important non-destructive testing (NDT) program and to destructive investigations campaigns. NDT were performed on an exhaustive basis for all vessel head nozzles and for all the divider plates of 900 MWe plants. Destructive investigations were performed on more than 30 vessel head nozzles and on 6 divider plates. The last investigations were performed on samples from two decommissioned Steam Generators of Chinon B1 which present SCC cracks. In this paper, the main conclusions driven from the analysis of both NDT and destructive investigation results are reported and a comparison of the behaviours of divider plates and vessel head nozzles is given. Results give evidence that prior plastic deformation of the components before operation is fundamental for the further environmental behaviour of the material. Analysis of field experience based on parameters characteristics of prior deformation and parameters characteristics of material microstructure can be used to account for the components which are the most sensitive to SCC cracking. Some perspectives on SCC predictive models are also presented. (authors)

  8. Evidence for Sexual Dimorphism in the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus mjosi (Ornithischia, Stegosauria) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Evan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusive evidence for sexual dimorphism in non-avian dinosaurs has been elusive. Here it is shown that dimorphism in the shape of the dermal plates of Stegosaurus mjosi (Upper Jurassic, western USA) does not result from non-sex-related individual, interspecific, or ontogenetic variation and is most likely a sexually dimorphic feature. One morph possessed wide, oval plates 45% larger in surface area than the tall, narrow plates of the other morph. Intermediate morphologies are lacking as principal component analysis supports marked size- and shape-based dimorphism. In contrast, many non-sex-related individual variations are expected to show intermediate morphologies. Taphonomy of a new quarry in Montana (JRDI 5ES Quarry) shows that at least five individuals were buried in a single horizon and were not brought together by water or scavenger transportation. This new site demonstrates co-existence, and possibly suggests sociality, between two morphs that only show dimorphism in their plates. Without evidence for niche partitioning, it is unlikely that the two morphs represent different species. Histology of the new specimens in combination with studies on previous specimens indicates that both morphs occur in fully-grown individuals. Therefore, the dimorphism is not a result of ontogenetic change. Furthermore, the two morphs of plates do not simply come from different positions on the back of a single individual. Plates from all positions on the body can be classified as one of the two morphs, and previously discovered, isolated specimens possess only one morph of plates. Based on the seemingly display-oriented morphology of plates, female mate choice was likely the driving evolutionary mechanism rather than male-male competition. Dinosaur ornamentation possibly served similar functions to the ornamentation of modern species. Comparisons to ornamentation involved in sexual selection of extant species, such as the horns of bovids, may be appropriate in predicting the

  9. Refined Modeling of Flexural Deformation of Layered Plates with a Regular Structure Made from Nonlinear Hereditary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of constitutive equations of the Rabotnov nonlinear hereditary theory of creep, the problem on the rheonomic flexural behavior of layered plates with a regular structure is formu-lated. Equations allowing one to describe, with different degrees of accuracy, the stress-strain state of such plates with account of their weakened resistance to transverse shear were ob-tained. From them, the relations of the nonclassical Reissner- and Reddytype theories can be found. For axially loaded annular plates clamped at one edge and loaded quasistatically on the other edge, a simplified version of the refined theory, whose complexity is comparable to that of the Reissner and Reddy theories, is developed. The flexural strains of such metal-composite annular plates in shortterm and long-term loadings at different levels of heat action are calcu-lated. It is shown that, for plates with a relative thickness of order of 1/10, neither the classical theory, nor the traditional nonclassical Reissner and Reddy theories guarantee reliable results for deflections even with the rough 10% accuracy. The accuracy of these theories decreases at elevated temperatures and with time under long-term loadings of structures. On the basic of relations of the refined theory, it is revealed that, in bending of layered metal-composite heat-sensitive plates under elevated temperatures, marked edge effects arise in the neighborhood of the supported edge, which characterize the shear of these structures in the transverse direction

  10. The influence of walls and upper tie plate slots on the flooding mechanism in fuel elements with and without heat transfer between steam and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatz, R.; Mewes, D.

    1989-01-01

    The counter-current flow of steam and water was experimentally investigated for the upper part of a PWR fuel element. The actual geometrical shape of the nuclear equipment was simulated by various types of plates, in which bore holes and slots were arranged in different positions. The experiments were performed with and without an installed, unheated rod bundle below the plates. The water was injected at saturated and subcooled temperatures in order to observe the effects of heat transfer on counter-current flow. With increasing steam velocity the flooding occurs initially in the tie-plate area. If the rod bundle is installed in the flow duct, a part of the downwards flowing water is transported upwards from the region of the upper grid spacer to the plate. Heat transfer between the phases can cause in the counter-current flow region an instable transition from downward to near complete upward directed liquid flow. In comparison to experiments with saturated water injection, flooding occurs at larger steam velocities. Different flooding correlations, which are known from the literature, were compared with the experimental data to appraise their applicability to counter-current flow in the core of PWRs. (orig.)

  11. Deformation associated to exhumation by detachment faulting of upper mantle rocks in a fossil Ocean Continent Transition: The example of the Totalp unit in SE Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, S.; Manatschal, G.; Cannat, M.

    2013-12-01

    The exhumation of upper mantle rocks along detachment faults is widespread at Mid-Ocean Ridges and at the Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) of rifted continental margins. Thermo-mechanical models indicate that significant strain softening of the fault rocks in the footwall is required in order to produce such large fault offsets. Our work focuses on deformation textures, and the associated mineralogy in ultramafic rocks sampled in the upper levels of the footwall next to the exhumation fault. We present two OCT examples, the Totalp relict of a paleo-Tethys OCT exposed in SE Switzerland, and the Iberian distal margin (ODP Leg 173 Site 1070). We built a new geological map and a section of the Totalp unit near Davos (SE Switzerland) and interpreted this area as a local exposure of a paleo-seafloor that is formed by an exhumed detachment surface and serpentinized peridotites. The top of the exhumed mantle rocks is made of ophicalcites that resulted from the carbonation of serpentine under static conditions at the seafloor. The ophicalcites preserve depositional contacts with Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments. These sequences did not exceed prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphic facies conditions, and locally escaped Alpine deformation. Thin mylonitic shear zones as well as foliated amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks have been mapped. The age of these rocks and the link with the final exhumation history are yet unknown but since amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks can be found as clasts in cataclasites related to the detachment fault, they pre-date detachment faulting. Our petrostructural study of the exhumed serpentinized rocks also reveals a deformation gradient from cataclasis to gouge formation within 150m in the footwall of the proposed paleo-detachment fault. This deformation postdates serpentinization. It involves a component of plastic deformation of serpentine in the most highly strained intervals that has suffered pronounced grain-size reduction and

  12. Aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Bonin Islands normal-faulting earthquake: Implication for deformation of the Pacific Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; No, T.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.; Sato, T.; Noguchi, N.; Nakamura, T.

    2011-12-01

    A Mw 7.4 normal-faulting earthquake occurred 150 km east of Chichi-jima Island, Bonin Islands, Japan on December 21, 2010 (UTC). This is an earthquake occurred within the Pacific plate beneath the outer trench-slope region along the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. According to Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the associated tsunami was observed over a wide area along the Pacific coast of Japan. Normal faulting earthquakes in outer trench-slope region are a result of the bending of the incoming/subducting oceanic plates. The bending-related normal faults cutting the oceanic plate are likely associated with hydration of the oceanic plate prior to subduction [e.g., Ranero et al., 2003]. The normal faulting earthquakes can be a key to understand deformation and resulting hydration of the oceanic plate. That is also important for consideration of tsunami generation in shallow outer trench-slope region. Aftershock observation of the 2010 Bonin Islands earthquake were conducted by R/V Kairei of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs). First OBS was deployed in the source area on December 25, 2010 and retrieved on January 7, 2011. Other 4 OBSs were deployed on January 6 and 7 and retrieved on March 11 and 12, 2011. Overall aftershocks distributed in a 130 km long area extended in a NW-SE direction although Izu-Bonin trench extends N-S direction in this area. Most of the aftershocks were located at depths shallower than 30 km, corresponding to the oceanic crust and the uppermost mantle of the Pacific plate. The aftershocks show a complicated distribution. In the central part of the aftershock area, aftershocks formed three subparallel lines with roughly 15 km intervals oriented NW-SE direction. In the southeastern part of the aftershock area away from the trench, the aftershocks distributed along ESE-WNW direction. We estimated aftershock

  13. Localisation of deformations of the midfacial complex in subjects with class III malocclusions employing thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1997-11-01

    This study determines deformations of the midface that contribute to a class III appearance, employing thinplate spline analysis. A total of 135 lateral cephalographs of prepubertal children of European-American descent with either class III malocclusions or a class I molar occlusion were compared. The cephalographs were traced and checked, and 7 homologous landmarks of the midface were identified and digitised. The data sets were scaled to an equivalent size and subjected to Procrustes analysis. These statistical tests indicated significant differences (P spline analysis indicated that both affine and nonaffine transformations contribute towards the total spline for the averaged midfacial configuration. For nonaffine transformations, partial warp 3 had the highest magnitude, indicating the large scale deformations of the midfacial configuration. These deformations affected the palatal landmarks, and were associated with compression of the midfacial complex in the anteroposterior plane predominantly. Partial warp 4 produced some vertical compression of the posterior aspect of the midfacial complex whereas partial warps 1 and 2 indicated localised shape changes of the maxillary alveolus region. large spatial-scale deformations therefore affect the midfacial complex in an anteroposterior axis, in combination with vertical compression and localised distortions. These deformations may represent a developmental diminution of the palatal complex anteroposteriorly that, allied with vertical shortening of midfacial height posteriorly, results in class III malocclusions with a retrusive midfacial profile.

  14. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we document field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region from the Triassic to the present. To this end, we provide detailed mapping of the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern flanks of Mt. Ih Bogd that contains the widest variety of rock-time units in the area. We carry out geochronological analysis of basaltic lavas and basement granite in the area. We demonstrate that a crystalline basement with a 502 ± 8 Ma granitoid (U/Pb underwent two phases of basin formation in the Mesozoic, which we date with new 40Ar/39Ar lava ages of 218.5 ± 1.5, 123.2 ± 0.7 and 124.8 ± 1.2 Ma, respectively. Both phases are linked to deposition of fluvio-lacustrine sediments and trap-like basaltic volcanics, with cumulative thicknesses of 1000–1500 m. Both basins were likely north-facing half-grabens that developed under ∼N–S extension, but were subsequently overthrusted by Paleozoic and older crystalline basement during a less well constrained, but likely mid-Cretaceous phase of N–S shortening and basin inversion. Our results are consistent with recent seismic imaging of rift basins ∼100 km to the NE of the study area where a similar history was reconstructed. The multiple phases of intra-plate deformation appear to have parallel structural trends, most likely due to reactivated Paleozoic basement structures created during the original terrane amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt continental crust. This strong basement heterogeneity may predispose it to reactivation, and make it sensitive to changes in the overall stress field of the Eurasian plate driven by forces at its margins and base. Detailed study of Mongolia's multi-stage tectonic history may thus provide a key proxy for the long

  15. Rheological and structural inheritance : key parameters for intra-plate deformation. A study based on analogue models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calignano, E.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain ranges are impressive tectonic features that characterize the Earth’s surface. Their formation is often associated with regions where two tectonic plates, making up the Earth surface, collide, as in the case of the Himalaya. While the surface is forced to uplift, the displacement of rocks

  16. Arabian Plate Deformation: The role of inherited structures in the localization of strain in the Red Sea extensional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaajani, T.; Furlong, K.; Malservisi, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Red Sea rift structural architecture changes dramatically along strike from narrow localized spreading (with creation of new oceanic crust) in the south to asymmetrical diffuse extension north of 21 ° latitude. The region of diffuse extension falls within a triangle that is bounded to the east by the Sarhan graben, (a Cenozoic failed rift), to the west by the northern Red Sea Rift, and to the south by the Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. Geological observations appear to show that tectonic stresses acting on inherited structures within the NW Arabian margin are associated with the region of diffuse extension. In contrast, in the southern Red Sea, a single strong block within the SW Arabian margin led to localize the extension there. Using current velocities from more than 30 GNSS stations distributed within the Arabian plate, we are able to map its rigidity and the distribution of strain along the plate margin. The data show that the transition between the two styles of extension within the Red Sea (crustal accretion vs crustal extension) corresponds with a transition between rigid behavior and diffuse extension within the Arabian Plate. This suggests that the preexisting structures within the Arabian plate play a significant role in the style of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  17. Instability and deformation in the sedimentary cover on the upper slope of the southern Aquitaine continental margin, north of the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonthier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic and core data have recently been collected on the shelf break and the upper part of the slope of the south Aquitaine continental margin. They reveal the major role played by mass-flow gravity processes in deposit erosion and redistribution, modelling of the sea-bed, and transfer of sediment toward the deep-sea. The study region is bounded in the south by the Capbreton canyon. The northern area, which shows a smooth morphology, is characterised by small-scale deformations due to sediment creep or low-amplitude slide processes. The deformations are associated with mini listric-like faults that bound packets of sediments in which the deposit geometry is typical of constructional sediment waves. These sediment waves result from the interaction of depositional and gravity deformation processes. In the southern area, closer to the canyon, wave-like structures are still present but mostly of smaller size. They only result from gravity deformation processes without any evidence of constructional processes. In the vicinity of the Capbreton canyon, the shelf break and upper slope have a much more uneven morphology with sedimentary reliefs, escarpments and depressions directed toward the canyon thalweg. The depressions look like slide scars, and could be the result of regressive slides initiated at the top of the canyon flank. The age of the sliding event responsible for the formation of the depression observed today could be middle to upper Quaternary. Since their formation, these depressions act as conduits that channel the transfer of shelf sediment into the canyon, as demonstrated by the occurrence of a meandering channel on the sea-floor of one depression.

  18. A feasibility study to investigate the use of thin-plate splines to account for prostate deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, Niranjan; McCurdy, Boyd; Hnatov, Alex; Dubey, Arbind

    2005-01-01

    Image registration is an important step in the radiotherapy treatment planning process. It provides a method of fusing different types of diagnostic imaging information. One such application is to combine magnetic resonance spectroscopic images (MRSI) of the prostate with anatomical MRI and/or computed tomography images that are routinely used in the radiation treatment planning of prostate cancer. MRSI provides in vivo information related to the underlying metabolic activity of tissues, and can be related to the presence of cancer. However, the inflated endorectal coil required during MRS imaging poses a potential problem by deforming the prostate when it is filled with ∼100 cm 3 of air during image acquisition. This pushes the prostate superiorly/anteriorly, deforming the prostate and consequently the spectroscopic imaging data in a nonlinear manner. In this application, the coil-deformed MRS images are warped back to a non-deformed state, using a single data set. A nonlinear warping algorithm is presented to achieve this. Results indicate that the algorithm attains an accuracy of 97% (4 cm 3 difference) when reproducing the total prostate volume compared to a Radiation Oncologist defined prostate volume. This difference is slightly smaller than the measured intra-operator variance of ±1.5 cm 3 (deflated coil) and the measured algorithm variance of ±1.0 cm 3 . Additionally, intraprostatic nodules were used to assess the accuracy of the warping algorithm in regions inside the prostate. While choosing anatomical tie points along the external prostate surface, analysis of the nodules revealed the algorithm accuracy reduced to 63-93%

  19. Shear wave splitting and upper mantle deformation in French Polynesia: Evidence for small-scale heterogeneity related to the Society hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R. M.; Okal, E. A.

    1998-07-01

    We determined shear wave splitting parameters at four island sites in French Polynesia: Tiputa (TPT) on Rangiroa in the Tuamotu archipelago; Papeete (PPT) on Tahiti in the Society Islands; Tubuai (TBI) in the Cook-Austral island chain; and Rikitea (RKT) on Mangareva in the Gambier Islands. We also examined splitting at Pitcairn (PTCN) on Pitcairn Island; because of the short time of operation of PTCN, our results there are preliminary. We find substantial differences in splitting, most likely caused by variable upper mantle deformation beneath the five stations. At TPT the fast split shear wave (ϕ) direction is N66°W±4°, parallel to the current Pacific-hotspots relative motion (APM) vector; the delay time between fast and slow waves is 1.3±0.2 s. At PPT, on Tahiti, we could detect no splitting despite many clear SKS observations. At TBI, on Tubuai we detected splitting with a delay time of 1.1±0.1 s and a ϕ direction midway between the local APM direction and the fossil spreading direction (N86°W±2°), as locally indicated by the nearby Austral Fracture Zone. At RKT in the Gambier Islands, ϕ trends N53°W±6°, 16° clockwise of the local APM azimuth, and delay time at RKT is 1.1±0.1 s. Results at PTCN include ϕ near N38°W±9° and a delay time of 1.1±0.3 s. These different results imply variable upper mantle deformation beneath the five sites. We interpret splitting at TPT and, possibly, RKT as indicative of asthenospheric flow or shear in the APM direction beneath the stations. At PPT, azimuthal isotropy indicates deformed upper mantle with a vertical symmetry axis, or absence of strong or consistently oriented mantle deformation fabric beneath Tahiti. Either effect could be related to recent hotspot magmatism on Tahiti. At TBI, splitting may be complicated by juxtaposition of different lithospheric thicknesses along the nearby Austral Fracture Zone, resulting in perturbation of asthenospheric flow. The absence of splitting related to fossil

  20. Thermal stability of a highly-deformed warm-rolled tungsten plate in the temperature range 1100 °C to 1250 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso Lopez, Angel; Juul Jensen, Dorte; Luo, G.-N.

    2015-01-01

    plastic strain by 90% thickness reduction was investigated by isothermal annealing for up to 190 h in the temperature range between 1100 °C and 1250 °C. Vickers hardness testing allowed tracking the changes in mechanical properties caused by recovery and recrystallization. The hardness evolution could......Pure tungsten is considered as armor material for the most critical parts of fusion reactors (i.e. the divertor and the first wall), among other reasons due to its high melting point (3422 °C) and recrystallization temperature. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to a high...... suggest that large plastic deformations (e.g. applied during shaping) are only suitable to produce tungsten components to be used at relatively low temperatures (up to 900 °C for a 2 years lifespan). Higher operation temperatures will lead to fast degradation of the microstructure during operation....

  1. Reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects with a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    skin graft. RESULTS: All patients healed without necrosis, did not suffer from lagophthalmos, achieved reasonable cosmesis, and did not need lubricants. In one patient, a contact lens was necessary for three weeks because of corneal erosion. One patient still needs a contact lens 3 months after...... excision to avoid eye discomfort. CONCLUSION: Large upper eyelid defects can be reconstructed with a free tarsal plate graft and a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in combination with a free skin graft. Two-step procedures can probably be avoided in most cases....

  2. Plate boundary deformation of the Pacific plate. Two case studies. (1) Crustal structure of the northwestern Vizcaino block and Gorda escarpment, offshore northern California, and implications for postsubduction deformation of a paleoaccretionary margin. (2) A focused look at the Alpine fault, New Zealand: Seismicity, focal mechanisms and stress observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Beate

    Two examples of Pacific rim plate boundary deformation are presented. In the first part of the thesis crustal models are derived for the northwestern part of the Vizcaino block in California using marine seismic and gravity data collected by the Mendocino Triple Junction Seismic Experiment. A northwest-southeast trending kink in the Moho is imaged and interpreted to have formed under compression by reactivation of preexisting thrust faults in the paleoaccretionary prism at the seaward margin of the Vizcaino block. The study suggests that the deformation resulted from mainly north-south compression between the Pacific-Juan de Fuca plates across the Mendocino transform fault and predates late Pliocene Pacific-North America plate convergence. In the second part, 195 earthquakes recorded during the duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) are analysed. Precise earthquake locations and focal mechanisms provide unprecedented detail of the seismotectonics in the central South Island. The short term (6 month) SAPSE seismicity is compared with long term (8 years) seismicity recorded by the New Zealand National Seismic network and the Lake Pukaki network. The seismicity rate of the Alpine fault is low, but comparable to locked sections of the San Andreas fault, with large earthquakes expected. Changes of the depth of the seismogenic zone, generally uniform at about 10--12 km, occur only localised over distances smaller than 30 km, suggesting that thermal perturbations must be of similar scale. This implies that the thermal effects of the uplift of the Southern Alps do not change the seismogenic depth significantly and are not in accordance with most of the present thermal models. Both the Hope and Porters Pass fault zones are seismically active and deformation is accommodated near the fault zones and in the adjacent crust. North of Mt Cook, a triangular shaped region along the Alpine fault is characterised by absence of earthquakes. We interpret this

  3. Seismological observations at the Northern Andean region of Colombia: Evidence for a shallowly subducting Caribbean Slab and an extensional regime in the upper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, G.; Cardona, A.; Yarce, J.; Alvira, D.; Poveda, E.

    2013-05-01

    A number of seismological observations, among which we can mention teleseismic travel time residuals, P to S receiver functions and Pn velocity quantification, suggest a clear distinction between the seismic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle between the plains on the Caribbean coast of Colombia and the mountains at the Northern Andean region. Absolute and relative travel time residuals indicate the presence of a seismically fast material in the upper mantle beneath northern Colombia; preliminary results of Pn studies show a region of relatively slow Pn velocities (between 7.8 and 7.9 km/s) underneath the Caribbean coast, contrasting with values greater than 8 km/s beneath the Central and Western cordilleras of Colombia, and the Pacific coast; receiver functions suggest a significantly thinner crust beneath the Caribbean coast, with a crustal thickness between 25 and 30 km, than beneath the Northern Andean zone at the cordilleras of Colombia, where it exceeds 40 km and reaches about 57 km at the location of Bogota. Besides the obviuos discrepancies that appear in response to different topography, we think that the seismological observations are a consequence of the presence of two very distinct slab segments beneath Colombia and contrasting behaviors of the upper plate, which correspond to Caribbean and Nazca subductions. Our seismic observations can be explained by a shallowly subducting Caribbean Plate, in the absence of an asthenospheric wedge, that steepens at about the location of the Bucaramanga nest, and a thinned continental crust that reflects an extensional component linked to oblique convergence of the Caribbean, which contrasts with the crustal thickening in the Andean Cordillera linked to crustal shortening and Nazca plate subuction. These new data are consistent with the idea of of a relatively warm Nazca slab of Neogene age which seems to have a relatively frontal convergence, and a colder, more buoyant Caribbean slab which represents an

  4. Transient thermal stresses in an orthotropic rectangular plate with convective heat transfer at upper and lower surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Takanori; Ito, Masahiko; Saito, Koichi.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, anisotropic materials have been used widely for reactor core elements and fast flying objects, therefore, the problem of thermal stress in anisotropic bodies has been studied actively. In this study, the unsteady plane thermal stress in an orthotropic rectangular thin plate heated by the temperature of ambient medium was analyzed, taking the heat transfer on both surfaces into account. The influence that the anisotropy of material constants and the heat transfer on both surfaces exert on the temperature and thermal stress of the plate was examined. Moreover, in order to investigate into the effect of the aspect ratio of the plate on the temperature and thermal stress, the unsteady distributions of temperature and thermal stress in an orthotropic semi-infinite band, of which the end surfaces are heated by ambient medium, were analyzed. The numerical calculation was carried out, and the results are shown. Before, it was difficult to satisfy the boundary condition related to shearing stress, accordingly, the analysis has not been performed, but in this study, it was shown that the analysis is possible. (Kako, I.)

  5. Active tectonic deformation of the western Indian plate boundary: A case study from the Chaman Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupa, Wanda E.; Khan, Shuhab D.; Huang, Jingqiu; Khan, Abdul S.; Kasi, Aimal

    2017-10-01

    Collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in two spatially offset subduction zones, the Makran subduction zone to the south and the Himalayan convergent margin to the north. These zones are linked by a system of left-lateral strike-slip faults known as the Chaman Fault System, ∼1200 km, which spans along western Pakistan. Although this is one of the greatest strike-slip faults, yet temporal and spatial variation in displacement has not been adequately defined along this fault system. This study conducted geomorphic and geodetic investigations along the Chaman Fault in a search for evidence of spatial variations in motion. Four study areas were selected over the span of the Chaman Fault: (1) Tarnak-Rud area over the Tarnak-Rud valley, (2) Spinatizha area over the Spinatizha Mountain Range, (3) Nushki area over the Nushki basin, and (4) Kharan area over the northern tip of the Central Makran Mountains. Remote sensing data allowed for in depth mapping of different components and faults within the Kohjak group. Wind and water gap pairs along with offset rivers were identified using high-resolution imagery and digital-elevation models to show displacement for the four study areas. The mountain-front-sinuosity ratio, valley height-to-width-ratio, and the stream-length-gradient index were calculated and used to determine the relative tectonic activity of each area. These geomorphic indices suggest that the Kharan area is the most active and the Tarnak-Rud area is the least active. GPS data were processed into a stable Indian plate reference frame and analyzed. Fault parallel velocity versus fault normal distance yielded a ∼8-10 mm/yr displacement rate along the Chaman Fault just north of the Spinatizha area. InSAR data were also integrated to assess displacement rates along the fault system. Geodetic data support that ultra-slow earthquakes similar to those that strike along other major strike-slip faults, such as the San Andreas Fault System, are

  6. Importance of the Decompensative Correction of the Gravity Field for Study of the Upper Crust: Application to the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    The isostatic correction represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With this correction it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. However, even this reduction does not show the full gravity effect of unknown anomalies in the upper crust since their impact is substantially reduced by the isostatic compensation. We analyze a so-called decompensative correction of the isostatic anomalies, which provides a possibility to separate these effects. It was demonstrated that this correction is very significant at the mid-range wavelengths and may exceed 100 m/s2 (mGal), therefore ignoring this effect would lead to wrong conclusions about the upper crust structure. At the same time, the decompensative correction is very sensitive to the compensation depth and effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere. Therefore, these parameters should be properly determined based on other studies. Based on this technique, we estimate the decompensative correction for the Arabian plate and surrounding regions. The amplitude of the decompensative anomalies reaches ±250 m/s2 10-5 (mGal), evidencing for both, large density anomalies of the upper crust (including sediments) and strong isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere. These results improve the knowledge about the crustal structure in the Middle East.

  7. A computed tomographic anatomical study of the upper sacrum. Application for a user guide of pelvic fixation with iliosacral screws in adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubory, Arnaud; Bouloussa, Houssam; Riouallon, Guillaume; Wolff, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Widely used in traumatic pelvic ring fractures, the iliosacral (IS) screw technique for spino-pelvic fixation remains anecdotal in adult spinal deformity. The objective of this study was to assess anatomical variability of the adult upper sacrum and to provide a user guide of spino-pelvic fixation with IS screws in adult spinal deformity. Anatomical variability of the upper sacrum according to age, gender, height and weight was sought on 30 consecutive pelvic CT-scans. Thus, a user guide of spino-pelvic fixation with IS screws was modeled and assessed on ten CT-scans as described below. Two invariable landmarks usable during the surgical procedure were defined: point A (corresponding to the connector binding the IS screw to the spinal rod), equidistant from the first posterior sacral hole and the base of the S1 articular facet and 10 mm-embedded into the sacrum; point B (corresponding to the tip of the IS screw) located at the junction of the anterior third and middle third of the sacral endplate in the sagittal plane and at the middle of the endplate in the coronal plane. Point C corresponded to the intersection between the A-B direction and the external facet of the iliac wing. Three-dimensional reconstructions modeling the IS screw optimal direction according to the A-B-C straight line were assessed. Age had no effect on the anatomy of the upper sacrum. The distance between the base of the S1 superior articular facet and the top of the first posterior sacral hole was correlated with weight (r = 0.6; 95% CI [0.6-0.9]); p guide of spinopelvic fixation with IS screws seems to be reliable and reproducible independently of age, gender and morphologic characteristics but needs clinical assessment. Level IV.

  8. Crack-arrest behavior in SEN wide plates of low-upper-shelf base metal tested under nonisothermal conditions: WP-2 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Bass, B.R.; Robinson, G.C. Jr.; Iskander, S.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Fields, R.J.; deWit, R.; Low, S.R.; Schwartz, C.W.

    1990-08-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting analytical and experimental studies aimed at understanding the circumstances that would initiate the growth of an existing crack in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the conditions leading to arrest of a propagating crack. Objectives of these studies are to determine (1) if the material will exhibit crack-arrest behavior when the driving force on a crack exceeds the ASME limit, (2) the relationship between K Ia and temperature, and (3) the interaction of fracture modes (arrest, stable crack growth, unstable crack growth, and tensile instability) when arrest occurs at high temperatures. In meeting these objectives, crack-arrest data are being developed over an expanded temperature range through tests involving large thermally shocked cylinders, pressurized thermally shocked vessels, and wide-plate specimens. The wide-plate specimens provide the opportunity for a significant number of data points to be obtained at relatively affordable costs. These tests are designed to provide fracture-toughness measurements approaching or above the onset of the Charpy upper-shelf regime in a rising toughness region and with an increasing driving force. This document discusses test methodology and results. 23 refs., 92 figs., 25 tabs

  9. Low upper-shelf toughness, high transition temperature test insert in HSST [Heavy Section Steel Technology] PTSE-2 [Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiment-2] vessel and wide plate test specimens: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.

    1987-02-01

    A piece of A387, Grade 22 Class 2 (2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo) steel plate specially heat treated to produce low upper-shelf (LUS) toughness and high transition temperature was installed in the side wall of Heavy Section Steel Technology (HHST) vessel V-8. This vessel is to be tested by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the Pressurized Thermal Shock Experiment-2 (PTSE-2) project of the HSST program. Comparable pieces of the plate were made into six wide plate specimens and other samples. These samples underwent tensile tests, Charpy tests, and J-integral tests. The results of these tests are given in this report

  10. Crustal structure and tectonic deformation of the southern Ecuadorian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahorrano, Alcinoe; Collot, Jean-Yves; Sage, Françoise; Ranero, César R.

    2010-05-01

    Multichannel seismic lines acquired during the SISTEUR cruise (2000) provide new constraints on the structure and deformation of the subduction zone at the southern Ecuadorian margin, from the deformation front to the continental shelf of the Gulf of Guayaquil. The pre-stack depth migrated images allows to characterise the main structures of the downgoing and overriding plates and to map the margin stratigraphy in order to propose a chronology of the deformation, by means of integrating commercial well data and industry seismic lines located in the gulf area. The 100-km-long seismic lines show the oceanic Nazca plate underthrusting the South American plate, as well as the subduction channel and inter-plate contact from the deformation front to about 90 km landward and ~20 km depth. Based on seismic structure we identify four upper-plate units, consisting of basement and overlaying sedimentary sequences A, B and C. The sedimentary cover varies along the margin, being few hundreds of meters thick in the lower and middle slope, and ~2-3 km thick in the upper slope. Exceptionally, a ~10-km -thick basin, here named Banco Peru basin, is located on the upper slope at the southernmost part of the gulf. This basin seems to be the first evidence of the Gulf of Guayaquil opening resulting from the NE escaping of the North Andean Block. Below the continental shelf, thick sedimentary basins of ~6 to 8 km occupy most of the gulf area. Tectonic deformation across most of the upper-plate is dominated by extensional regime, locally disturbed by diapirism. Compression evidences are restricted to the deformation front and surrounding areas. Well data calibrating the seismic profiles indicate that an important portion of the total thickness of the sedimentary coverage of the overriding plate are Miocene or older. The data indicate the extensional deformation resulting from the NE motion of the North Andean Block and the opening of the Gulf of Guayaquil, evolves progressively in age

  11. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Waveguide module comprising a first plate with a waveguide channel and a second plate with a raised portion in which a sealing layer is forced into the waveguide channel by the raised portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.; Liedtke, Richard; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Halligan, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing a sealing layer of malleable material to seal gaps, etc., at a joint between edges of a waveguide channel formed in a first plate and a surface of a clamping plate. A compression pad is included in the surface of the clamping plate and is dimensioned such that the upper surface of the pad is less than the area of the waveguide channel opening on the first plate. The sealing layer is placed between the waveguide plate and the clamping plate, and during assembly of the waveguide module, the compression pad deforms a portion of the sealing layer such that it ingresses into the waveguide channel opening. Deformation of the sealing layer results in the gaps, etc., to be filled, improving the operational integrity of the joint.

  13. Global Models of Ridge-Push Force, Geoid, and Lithospheric Strength of Oceanic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatsente, Rezene

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in the interior of oceanic plates is important because ridge-push force is one of the principal forces driving plate motion. Here, I assess the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in oceanic plates by comparing the magnitude of the ridge-push force to the integrated strength of oceanic plates. The strength is determined based on plate cooling and rheological models. The strength analysis includes low-temperature plasticity (LTP) in the upper mantle and assumes a range of possible tectonic conditions and rheology in the plates. The ridge-push force has been derived from the thermal state of oceanic lithosphere, seafloor depth and crustal age data. The results of modeling show that the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in oceanic plates mainly depends on rheology and predominant tectonic conditions. If a lithosphere has dry rheology, the estimated strength is higher than the ridge-push force at all ages for compressional tectonics and at old ages (>75 Ma) for extension. Therefore, under such conditions, oceanic plates may not respond to ridge-push force by intraplate deformation. Instead, the plates may transmit the ridge-push related stress in their interior. For a wet rheology, however, the strength of young lithosphere (stress may dissipate in the interior of oceanic plates and diffuses by intraplate deformation. The state of stress within a plate depends on the balance of far-field and intraplate forces.

  14. Evaluation of the Pseudostatic Analyses of Earth Dams Using FE Simulation and Observed Earthquake-Induced Deformations: Case Studies of Upper San Fernando and Kitayama Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Akhlaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the accuracy of the pseudostatic approach is governed by the accuracy with which the simple pseudostatic inertial forces represent the complex dynamic inertial forces that actually exist in an earthquake. In this study, the Upper San Fernando and Kitayama earth dams, which have been designed using the pseudostatic approach and damaged during the 1971 San Fernando and 1995 Kobe earthquakes, were investigated and analyzed. The finite element models of the dams were prepared based on the detailed available data and results of in situ and laboratory material tests. Dynamic analyses were conducted to simulate the earthquake-induced deformations of the dams using the computer program Plaxis code. Then the pseudostatic seismic coefficient used in the design and analyses of the dams were compared with the seismic coefficients obtained from dynamic analyses of the simulated model as well as the other available proposed pseudostatic correlations. Based on the comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the pseudostatic seismic coefficients are evaluated and discussed.

  15. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    shrinking oceans, forcing rapid Pacific spreading. Slabs suck forward overriding arcs and continental lithosphere, plus most subjacent mantle above the transition zone. Changes in sizes of oceans result primarily from transfer of oceanic lithosphere, so backarcs and expanding oceans spread only slowly. Lithosphere parked in, or displaced from, the transition zone, or mixed into mid-upper mantle, is ultimately recycled, and regional variations in age of that submerged lithosphere may account for some regional contrasts in MORB. Plate motions make no kinematic sense in either the "hotspot" reference frame (HS; the notion of fixed plumes is easily disproved) or the no-net-rotation frame (NNR) In both, for example, many hinges roll forward, impossible with gravity drive. Subduction-drive predictions are fulfilled, and paleomagnetic data are satisfied (as they are not in HS and NNR), in the alternative framework of propulsionless Antarctica fixed relative to sluggish lower mantle. Passive ridges migrate away from Antarctica on all sides, and migration of these and other ridges permits tapping fresh asthenosphere. (HS and NNR tend to fix ridges). Ridge migration and spreading rates accord with subduction drive. All trenches roll back when allowance is made for back-arc spreading and intracontinental deformation. Africa rotates slowly toward subduction systems in the NE, instead of moving rapidly E as in HS and NNR. Stable NW Eurasia is nearly stationary, instead of also moving rapidly, and S and E Eurasian deformation relates to subduction and rollback. The Americas move Pacificward at almost the full spreading rates of passive ridges behind them. Lithosphere has a slow net westward drift. Reference: W.B. Hamilton, An alternative Earth, GSA Today, in press.

  16. Spatial distribution of reflection intensity of the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate, near the main slip area of the Boso Slow Slip Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, A.; Sato, T.; Shinohara, M.; Mochizuki, K.; Yamada, T.; Uehira, K.; Shimbo, T.; Machida, Y.; Hino, R.; Azuma, R.

    2017-12-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, Japan, the Pacific plate (PAC) is subducting westward beneath the Honshu Island Arc (HIA) and the Philippine Sea plate (PHS), while the PHS is subducting northwestward under the HIA. Such tectonic interactions have caused various seismic events such as the Boso Slow Slip Events (SSEs). To better understand these seismic events, it is important to determine the structure under this region. In May 2017, we published 2D P-wave velocity structure under the survey area, and showed geometry of the upper surface of PHS (UPHS) and reflection intensity variation along it. From our result and previous studies, relatively strong reflection from the UPHS can be observed near the main slip area of Boso SSEs, and such reflective area may relate with the Boso SSEs. However, it is still insufficient to link both only from the 2D models and further work is needed to reveal spatial distribution of the strong reflection area. From July to August 2009, we conducted a marine seismic experiment using airgun as source off the east coast of the Boso Peninsula. Airgun was shot along the 4 survey lines, and 27 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were deployed in the survey area. In our presentation, we used 18 OBSs to determine 3D P-wave velocity structure. We estimated 3D velocity structure from airgun data recorded in the OBSs by using the FAST (Zelt and Barton, 1998). Next, we picked the reflection traveltimes likely reflected from the UPHS and applied them to the Traveltime mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006) to estimate spatial locations of the reflectors. As a result, reflections from the UPHS seem to concentrate near the main slip area of the Boso SSEs and an area where the serpentine seamount chain of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone is subducting. Acknowledgement The marine seismic experiment was conducted by R/V Hakuhou-maru of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, and the OBSs were retrieved by Shincho-maru of Shin-Nihon-Kaiji co. Ltd. (Present

  17. Deformation mechanisms in the San Andreas Fault zone - a comparison between natural and experimentally deformed microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diggelen, Esther; Holdsworth, Robert; de Bresser, Hans; Spiers, Chris

    2010-05-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) in California marks the boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is located 9 km northwest of the town of Parkfield, CA and provide an extensive set of samples through the SAF. The SAFOD drill hole encountered different lithologies, including arkosic sediments from the Salinian block (Pacific plate) and claystones and siltstones from the Great Valley block (North American plate). Fault deformation in the area is mainly by a combination of micro-earthquakes and fault creep. Deformation of the borehole casing indicated that the SAFOD drill hole cross cuts two actively deforming strands of the SAF. In order to determine the deformation mechanisms in the actively creeping fault segments, we have studied thin sections obtained from SAFOD phase 3 core material using optical and electron microscopy, and we have compared these natural SAFOD microstructures with microstructures developed in simulated fault gouges deformed in laboratory shear experiments. The phase 3 core material is divided in three different core intervals consisting of different lithologies. Core interval 1 consists of mildly deformed Salinian rocks that show evidence of cataclasis, pressure solution and reaction of feldspar to form phyllosilicates, all common processes in upper crustal rocks. Most of Core interval 3 (Great Valley) is also only mildly deformed and very similar to Core interval 1. Bedding and some sedimentary features are still visible, together with limited evidence for cataclasis and pressure solution, and reaction of feldspar to form phyllosilicates. However, in between the relatively undeformed rocks, Core interval 3 encountered a zone of foliated fault gouge, consisting mostly of phyllosilicates. This zone is correlated with one of the zones of localized deformation of the borehole casing, i.e. with an actively deforming strand of the SAF. The fault gouge zone shows a strong, chaotic

  18. Kinematics of a former oceanic plate of the Neotethys revealed by deformation in the Ulukışla basin (Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürer, Derya; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Matenco, Liviu; Corfu, Fernando; Cascella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Kinematic reconstruction of modern ocean basins shows that since Pangea breakup a vast area in the Neotethyan realm was lost to subduction. Here we develop a first-order methodology to reconstruct the kinematic history of the lost plates of the Neotethys, using records of subducted plates accreted

  19. Upper and Middle Crustal Velocity Structure of the Colombian Andes From Ambient Noise Tomography: Investigating Subduction-Related Magmatism in the Overriding Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Esteban; Julià, Jordi; Schimmel, Martin; Perez-Garcia, Nelson

    2018-02-01

    New maps of S velocity variation for the upper and middle crust making up the northwestern most corner of South America have been developed from cross correlation of ambient seismic noise at 52 broadband stations in the region. Over 1,300 empirical Green's functions, reconstructing the Rayleigh wave portion of the seismic wavefield, were obtained after time and frequency-domain normalization of the ambient noise recordings and stacking of 48 months of normalized data. Interstation phase and group velocity curves were then measured in the 6-38 s period range and tomographically inverted to produce maps of phase and group velocity variation in a 0.5° × 0.5° grid. Velocity-depth profiles were developed for each node after simultaneously inverting phase and group velocity curves and combined to produce 3-D maps of S velocity variation for the region. The S velocity models reveal a 7 km thick sedimentary cover in the Caribbean region, the Magdalena Valley, and the Cordillera Oriental, as well as crustal thicknesses in the Pacific and Caribbean region under 35 km, consistent with previous studies. They also display zones of slow velocity at 25-35 km depth under regions of both active and inactive volcanism, suggesting the presence of melts that carry the signature of segmented subduction into the overriding plate. A low-velocity zone in the same depth range is imaged under the Lower Magdalena Basin in the Caribbean region, which may represent either sublithospheric melts ponding at midcrustal levels after breaching through a fractured Caribbean flat slab or fluid migration through major faults within the Caribbean crust.

  20. Stress accumulation and release at complex transform plate boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, D.; Furlong, K.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Finite element methods are used to model the dynamics of deformation along complex transform plate boundaries, specifically the San Andreas fault system, California. Effects of mantle rheology and fault geometry on the stress buildup and release are investigated. No prior knowledge of the earthquake cycle time or amount of fault slip is assumed that the results suggest that the San Andreas fault slips at low shear stress (about 15 MPa). Although the maximum stress on the fault is 15 MPa, models with an upper mantle shear zone deforming entirely by dislocation creep accumulate stresses that exceed 100 MPa, a stress level high enough to drive localized dynamic recrystallization and a shift in dominant deformation mechanism to diffusion creep. Models in which the mantle shear zone deform locally by diffusion creep reach a dynamic steady state where lithospheric shear stresses never exceed the specified fault stress anywhere in the model and indicate that the strength of the upper mantle is an important parameter in the dynamics of plate boundary deformation. 17 refs.

  1. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental or felsic terrain and an oceanic or mafic terrain as well as internal crustal convection. Small-scale convection with plume shaped cold downwellings also in the upper mantle is of increased importance compared to the large-scale subduction cycle observed for present temperature conditions. It is also observed that lithospheric downwellings may initiate subduction by

  2. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  3. Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.

  4. Rheological properties of the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Baja California: a microstructural study of xenoliths from San Quintin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Werf, Thomas F.; Chatzaras, Vasileios; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-04-01

    Baja California is an active transtensional rift zone, which links the San Andreas Fault with the East Pacific Rise. The erupted basalts of the Holocene San Quintin volcanic field contain xenoliths, which sample the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Baja California. The aim of this research is to gain insight in the rheology of the lower crust and the upper mantle by investigating the xenolith microstructure. Microstructural observations have been used to determine the dominant deformation mechanisms. Differential stresses were estimated from recrystallized grain size piezometry of plagioclase and clinopyroxene for the lower crust and olivine for the upper mantle. The degree of deformation can be inferred from macroscopic foliations and the deformation microstructures. Preliminary results show that both the lower crust and the upper mantle have been affected by multiple stages of deformation and recrystallization. In addition the dominant deformation mechanism in both the lower crust and the upper mantle is dislocation creep based on the existence of strong crystallographic preferred orientations. The differential stress estimates for the lower crust are 10-29 MPa using plagioclase piezometry and 12-35 MPa using clinopyroxene piezometry. For the upper mantle, differential stress estimates are 10-20 MPa. These results indicate that the strength of the lower crust and the upper mantle are very similar. Our data do not fit with the general models of lithospheric strength and may have important implications for the rheological structure of the lithosphere in transtensional plate margins and for geodynamic models of the region.

  5. Unraveling African plate structure from elevation, geoid and geology data: implications for the impact of mantle flow and sediment transfers on lithospheric deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajolet, Flora; Robert, Alexandra; Chardon, Dominique; Rouby, Delphine

    2017-04-01

    The aim of our project is to simulate the long-wavelength, flexural isostatic response of the African plate to sediment transfers due to Meso-Cenozoic erosion - deposition processes in order to extract the residual topography driven by mantle dynamics. The first step of our project consists in computing crustal and lithospheric thickness maps of the African plate considering its main geological components (cratons, mobile belts, basins, rifts and passive margins of various ages and strengths). In order to consider these heterogeneities, we compute a 2D distribution of crustal densities and thermal parameters from geological data and use it as an input of our modeling. We combine elevation and geoid anomaly data using a thermal analysis, following the method of Fullea et al. (2007) in order to map crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In this approach, we assume local isostasy and consider a four-layer model made of crust and lithospheric mantle plus seawater and asthenosphere. In addition, we compare our results with crustal and lithospheric thickness datasets compiled from bibliography and existing global models. The obtained crustal thicknesses range from 28 to 42km, with the thickest crust confined to the northern part of the West African Craton, the Kaapvaal craton, and the Congo cuvette. The crust in the East African Rift appears unrealistically thick (40-45 km) as it is not isotatically compensated, highlighting the dynamic effect of the African superswell. The thinnest crust (28-34km) follows a central East-West trend coinciding with Cretaceous rifts and the Cameroon volcanic line. The lithosphere reaches 220 km beneath the Congo craton, but remains globally thin (ca. 120-180 km) compared to tomographic models and considering the age of most geological provinces. As for the crust, the thinnest lithosphere is located in areas of Cretaceous-Jurassic rifting, suggesting that the lithosphere did not thermally recover from Mesozoic rifting. A new elastic

  6. Estimation of small surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben area from a combined analysis of PS-InSAR, levelling and GNSS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Leijen, F.J. van; Mayer, M.; Westerhaus, M.; Hanssen, R.F.; Heck, B.

    2015-01-01

    The intra-plate deformation of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in Central Europe is investigated using geodetic measurement techniques. We present a new approach to calculate a combined velocity field from InSAR, levelling and GNSS measurements. As the expected tectonic movements in the URG

  7. Demonstration of accuracy and clinical versatility of mutual information for automatic multimodality image fusion using affine and thin-plate spline warped geometric deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C R; Boes, J L; Kim, B; Bland, P H; Zasadny, K R; Kison, P V; Koral, K; Frey, K A; Wahl, R L

    1997-04-01

    This paper applies and evaluates an automatic mutual information-based registration algorithm across a broad spectrum of multimodal volume data sets. The algorithm requires little or no pre-processing, minimal user input and easily implements either affine, i.e. linear or thin-plate spline (TPS) warped registrations. We have evaluated the algorithm in phantom studies as well as in selected cases where few other algorithms could perform as well, if at all, to demonstrate the value of this new method. Pairs of multimodal gray-scale volume data sets were registered by iteratively changing registration parameters to maximize mutual information. Quantitative registration errors were assessed in registrations of a thorax phantom using PET/CT and in the National Library of Medicine's Visible Male using MRI T2-/T1-weighted acquisitions. Registrations of diverse clinical data sets were demonstrated including rotate-translate mapping of PET/MRI brain scans with significant missing data, full affine mapping of thoracic PET/CT and rotate-translate mapping of abdominal SPECT/CT. A five-point thin-plate spline (TPS) warped registration of thoracic PET/CT is also demonstrated. The registration algorithm converged in times ranging between 3.5 and 31 min for affine clinical registrations and 57 min for TPS warping. Mean error vector lengths for rotate-translate registrations were measured to be subvoxel in phantoms. More importantly the rotate-translate algorithm performs well even with missing data. The demonstrated clinical fusions are qualitatively excellent at all levels. We conclude that such automatic, rapid, robust algorithms significantly increase the likelihood that multimodality registrations will be routinely used to aid clinical diagnoses and post-therapeutic assessment in the near future.

  8. The bright spot in the West Carpathian upper mantle: a trace of the Tertiary plate collision-and a caveat for a seismologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Środa, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    The 2-D full waveform modelling of the mantle arrivals from the CELEBRATION 2000 profiles crossing the Carpathian orogen suggests two possible tectonic models for the collision of ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the European Plate in the West Carpathians in southern Poland and Slovakia. Due to an oblique (NE-SW) convergence of plates, the character of the collision may change along the zone of contact of the plates: in the western part of the area an earlier collision might have caused substantial crustal shortening and formation of a crocodile-type structure, with the delaminated lower crust of ~100km length acting as a north-dipping reflecting discontinuity in the uppermost mantle. In the eastern part, a less advanced collision only involved the verticalization of the subducted slab remnant after a slab break-off. The lower crustal remnant of ~10km size in the uppermost mantle acts as a pseudo-diffractor generating observable mantle arrivals. Due to the similarity of synthetic data generated by both models, the question of the non-uniqueness of seismic data interpretation, that may lead to disparate tectonic inferences, is also discussed.

  9. Comparisons of Different Models on Dynamic Recrystallization of Plate during Asymmetrical Shear Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical shear rolling with velocity asymmetry and geometry asymmetry is beneficial to enlarge deformation and refine grain size at the center of the thick plate compared to conventional symmetrical rolling. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX plays a vital role in grain refinement during hot deformation. Finite element models (FEM coupled with microstructure evolution models and cellular automata models (CA are established to study the microstructure evolution of plate during asymmetrical shear rolling. The results show that a larger DRX fraction and a smaller average grain size can be obtained at the lower layer of the plate. The DRX fraction at the lower part increases with the ascending speed ratio, while that at upper part decreases. With the increase of the offset distance, the DRX fraction slightly decreases for the whole thickness of the plate. The differences in the DRX fraction and average grain size between the upper and lower surfaces increase with the ascending speed ratio; however, it varies little with the change of the speed ratio. Experiments are conducted and the CA models have a higher accuracy than FEM models as the grain morphology, DRX nuclei, and grain growth are taken into consideration in CA models, which are more similar to the actual DRX process during hot deformation.

  10. Comparisons of Different Models on Dynamic Recrystallization of Plate during Asymmetrical Shear Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Lu, Shi-Hong; Gong, Hai; Wu, Yun-Xin

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetrical shear rolling with velocity asymmetry and geometry asymmetry is beneficial to enlarge deformation and refine grain size at the center of the thick plate compared to conventional symmetrical rolling. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) plays a vital role in grain refinement during hot deformation. Finite element models (FEM) coupled with microstructure evolution models and cellular automata models (CA) are established to study the microstructure evolution of plate during asymmetrical shear rolling. The results show that a larger DRX fraction and a smaller average grain size can be obtained at the lower layer of the plate. The DRX fraction at the lower part increases with the ascending speed ratio, while that at upper part decreases. With the increase of the offset distance, the DRX fraction slightly decreases for the whole thickness of the plate. The differences in the DRX fraction and average grain size between the upper and lower surfaces increase with the ascending speed ratio; however, it varies little with the change of the speed ratio. Experiments are conducted and the CA models have a higher accuracy than FEM models as the grain morphology, DRX nuclei, and grain growth are taken into consideration in CA models, which are more similar to the actual DRX process during hot deformation. PMID:29342080

  11. Coupled B-snake grids and constrained thin-plate splines for analysis of 2-D tissue deformations from tagged MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, A A; Chen, Y; Curwen, R W; Mani, V; Sun, J

    1998-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unique in its ability to noninvasively and selectively alter tissue magnetization and create tagged patterns within a deforming body such as the heart muscle. The resulting patterns define a time-varying curvilinear coordinate system on the tissue, which we track with coupled B-snake grids. B-spline bases provide local control of shape, compact representation, and parametric continuity. Efficient spline warps are proposed which warp an area in the plane such that two embedded snake grids obtained from two tagged frames are brought into registration, interpolating a dense displacement vector field. The reconstructed vector field adheres to the known displacement information at the intersections, forces corresponding snakes to be warped into one another, and for all other points in the plane, where no information is available, a C1 continuous vector field is interpolated. The implementation proposed in this paper improves on our previous variational-based implementation and generalizes warp methods to include biologically relevant contiguous open curves, in addition to standard landmark points. The methods are validated with a cardiac motion simulator, in addition to in-vivo tagging data sets.

  12. Connection between end plates and rods in a BWR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cali', G.P.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of the connection between the end plates and the rods of a BWR fuel element is analytically formulated. The behaviour of the springs coupling the rods with the upper plate is analyzed with particular detail since the deformation of these springs affects the forces at the interface of the fuel element structure components. A tool is given to design the springs according to some considerations regarding the mechanical strength of the interacting components as well as the influence of the possible geometrical unevennes of the system that can arise during the fuel element lifetime. (Cali', G.P.)

  13. Importance of the Decompensative Correction of the Gravity Field for Study of the Upper Crust: Application to the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Kaban; Sami El Khrepy; Nassir Al-Arifi

    2017-01-01

    The isostatic correction represents one of the most useful “geological” reduction methods of the gravity field. With this correction it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. However, even this reduction does not show the full gravity effect of unknown anomalies in the upper crust since their impact is substantially reduced by the isostatic compensation. We analyze a so-called decompensative corre...

  14. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the

  15. Quasi-Static Transient Thermal Stresses in an Elliptical Plate due to Sectional Heat Supply on the Curved Surfaces over the Upper Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalsingh Khalsa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to determine quasi-static thermal stresses in a thin elliptical plate which is subjected to transient temperature on the top face with zero temperature on the lower face and the homogeneous boundary condition of the third kind on the fixed elliptical curved surface. The solution to conductivity equation is elucidated by employing a classical method. The solution of stress components is achieved by using Goodier’s and Airy’s potential function involving the Mathieu and modified functions and their derivatives. The obtained numerical results are accurate enough for practical purposes, better understanding of the underlying elliptic object, and better estimates of the thermal effect on the thermoelastic problem. The conclusions emphasize the importance of better understanding of the underlying elliptic structure, improved understanding of its relationship to circular object profile, and better estimates of the thermal effect on the thermoelastic problem.

  16. On the calculation of crack propagation behavior in disks and plates using a mixed finite method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1991-01-01

    According to the linear theory of elasticity, infinitely high stresses occur in the crack tips of cracked components. Plastic flow initiation or previous damage, however, will limit these stress singularities to an upper maximum stress for all real materials. To permit acquisition of this highly localized material behavior, while avoiding a very high physical nonlinear calculation effort for the evaluation of crack propagation behavior in disks and plates, models essentially based on Dugdale and Barenblatt are used. This involves determining the stress and displacement conditions required for the simulation of crack propagation by means of a mixed finite method introducing the disk cutting forces and plate curvatures or moments as unknown quantities. In addition to pure disk and plate problems, also coupled disk-plate problems are covered, where the coupling, on one hand, is due to the consideration of high deformations. (orig.) With 66 figs., 8 tabs [de

  17. Corrección de "labio ondulado" en el síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal Upper lip "ruffle deformity" correction in Melkerson- Rosenthal's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gutiérrez Gómez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal es una entidad rara caracterizada por edema granulomatoso orofacial, episodios de parálisis facial y lengua plegada. La presentación monosintomática de labios se denomina queilitis granulomatosa de Miescher. Clásicamente se ha tratado con múltiples medicamentos con respuesta parcial o insatisfactoria, por lo que el tratamiento ideal es el quirúrgico, que obtiene resultados permanentes y permite al paciente relaciones interpersonales satisfactorias. Sin embargo la corrección propuesta por los diferentes autores disminuye el grosor del labio a expensas de dejar un estigma de deformidad de labio "ondulado" ya que no se acorta el labio en sentido transverso y únicamente se adelgaza. El presente artículo describe el tratamiento propuesto para corregir esta deformidad mediante la resección en bloque del tercio medio del labio superior. Además hace referencia a la afectación del cuello en el caso que presentamos, no descrita en la bibliografía actual al respecto, que daba al paciente un aspecto de cuello de "iguana", y que fue corregida mediante resección en huso y liposucción.Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome is a rare entity characterized by granulomatous orofacial swelling, recurrent facial palsy and lingua plicata. It's monosyntomatic form affecting only lips is known as Miescher granulomatous cheilitis. Many conservative treatments have been proposed to resolve the swelling; however many times they present recurrence or fail to respond. The surgical correction permit permanent improvement and better appearance. The surgical posterior reduction cheiloplastry removing mucosa and submucosa all along the lip proposed by several authors, gives the lips an stigma of the " ruffle" aspect; this is because there is no shortening of the total length of the previously enlarged lip because of the granulomatous swelling. We report the correction of this deformity by total thickness resection of the middle third

  18. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  19. What can the Cretaceous-to-present latitude history of the Lhasa terrane tell us about plate-scale deformation in the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Huang, W.

    2013-12-01

    Published paleomagnetic data from well-dated sedimentary and volcanic rocks from the Lhasa terrane have been re-evaluated in a statistically consistent framework to assess the latitude history of southern Tibet from ~110 Ma to the present. We apply a methodology similar to the one used by the Time-Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative to each paleomagnetic data set to establish coherency within and between paleomagnetic data from Tibet (see Session T023 for more details). Moreover, we use only sedimentary data that have been evaluated for and, where necessary, corrected for sedimentary inclination shallowing. The resulting apparent polar wander path (APWP) shows that the southern margin of the Lhasa terrane at the longitudes of Nepal remained at 20×4°N latitude from ~110 to at least 50 Ma and subsequently drifted northward to its present latitude of 29°N. This latitude history provides a paleomagnetically-determined collision age between the Tibetan Himalaya and the southern margin of Asia that is 49.5×4.5 Ma at 21×4° N latitude. The paleomagnetic age and latitude of this collision may be a few millions of years earlier and ~2° lower if estimates for shortening within the suture zone are considered. When compared to the global APWP of Torsvik et al. (2012) in Eurasian coordinates, the Lhasa APWP indicates that at most 1100×560 km of post-50 Ma India-Asia convergence was partitioned into Asian lithosphere. The lower bound of these paleomagnetic estimates is consistent with the magnitude of upper crustal shortening within Asia calculated from orogen-scale geological reconstructions. An implication is that 1700×560 km or more post-50 Ma India-Asia convergence was partitioned into Greater India. Paleomagnetic data from the Tibetan Himalaya are consistent with >2000 km of extension of Greater Indian lithosphere after break-up from Gondwana but prior to collision with the southern margin of Asia. Cenozoic subduction of this Cretaceous extensional basin following

  20. Defects and boundary layers in non-Euclidean plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmer, J A; Venkataramani, S C

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of non-Euclidean plates with constant negative Gaussian curvature using the Föppl–von Kármán reduced theory of elasticity. Motivated by recent experimental results, we focus on annuli with a periodic profile. We prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the elastic energy that scales like the thickness squared. In particular we show that are only two types of global minimizers—deformations that remain flat and saddle shaped deformations with isolated regions of stretching near the edge of the annulus. We also show that there exist local minimizers with a periodic profile that have additional boundary layers near their lines of inflection. These additional boundary layers are a new phenomenon in thin elastic sheets and are necessary to regularize jump discontinuities in the azimuthal curvature across lines of inflection. We rigorously derive scaling laws for the width of these boundary layers as a function of the thickness of the sheet. (paper)

  1. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  2. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  3. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  4. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.

  6. Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein

  7. Migrating pattern of deformation prior to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake revealed by GRACE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panet, Isabelle; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Narteau, Clément; Remy, Dominique; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2018-05-01

    Understanding how and when far-field continuous motions lead to giant subduction earthquakes remains a challenge. An important limitation comes from an incomplete description of aseismic mass fluxes at depth along plate boundaries. Here we analyse Earth's gravity field variations derived from GRACE satellite data in a wide space-time domain surrounding the Mw 9.0 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We show that this earthquake is the extreme expression of initially silent deformation migrating from depth to the surface across the entire subduction system. Our analysis indeed reveals large-scale gravity and mass changes throughout three tectonic plates and connected slabs, starting a few months before March 2011. Before the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture, the gravity variations can be explained by aseismic extension of the Pacific plate slab at mid-upper mantle depth, concomitant with increasing seismicity in the shallower slab. For more than two years after the rupture, the deformation propagated far into the Pacific and Philippine Sea plate interiors, suggesting that subduction accelerated along 2,000 km of the plate boundaries in March 2011. This gravitational image of the earthquake's long-term dynamics provides unique information on deep and crustal processes over intermediate timescales, which could be used in seismic hazard assessment.

  8. A paleomagnetic investigation of vertical-axis rotations in coastal Sonora, Mexico: Evidence for distributed transtensional deformation during the Proto-Gulf shift from a subduction-dominated to transform-dominated plate boundary in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Scott William

    The history of late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) deformation on the Sonoran margin of the Gulf of California is key to understanding how Baja California was captured by the Pacific plate and how strain was partitioned during the Proto-Gulf period (12.5-6 Ma). The Sierra el Aguaje and Sierra Tinajas del Carmen are located in southwestern coastal Sonora, Mexico, and represent the eastern rifted margin of the central Gulf of California. The ranges are composed of volcanic units and their corresponding volcaniclastic units which are the result of persistent magmatic activity between 20 and 8.8 Ma, including three packages of basalt and andesite that make excellent paleomagnetic recorders. Based on cross cutting relations and geochronologic data for pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic volcanic units, most of the faulting and tilting in the Sierra El Aguaje is bracketed between 11.9 and 9.0 Ma, thus falling entirely within Proto-Gulf time. A paleomagnetic investigation into possible vertical axis rotations in the Sierra el Aguaje has uncovered evidence of clockwise rotations between ~13º and ~105º with possible translations. These results are consistent with existing field relations, which suggest the presence of large (>45°) vertical axis rotations in this region. This evidence includes: a) abrupt changes in the strike of tilted strata in different parts of the range, including large domains characterized by E-W strikes b) ubiquitous NE-SW striking faults with left lateral-normal oblique slip, that terminate against major NW-trending right lateral faults, and c) obliquity between the general strike of tilted strata and the strike of faults. These rotations occurred after 12 Ma and largely prior to 9 Ma, thus falling into the Proto-Gulf period. Such large-scale rotations lend credence to the theory that the area inboard of Baja California was experiencing transtension during the Proto-Gulf period, rather than the pure extension that would be the result of strain partitioning

  9. Deformation of cylindrical vessel and the effect of barrel on deformation under inpulsive pressure of high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iikura, Shoichi; Yashizawa, Hiroyasu; Sasanuma, Katsumi.

    1982-01-01

    According to the research performed so far, the result that the amount of deformation due to impulsive pressure was able to be evaluated by the impulse of impulsive pressure waves has been obtained. The analysis treating impulsive pressure waves as plane waves has been made frequently, but the analysis in which impulsive pressure waves must be treated as spherical waves, or the analysis of a vessel with a barrel (internal cylinder) is complex and difficult. In this report, the results of element test, which was carried out in the Oita Works, Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., in 1973 by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. as the impact resistance test for fast breeder reactors, are rearranged and investigated. The specimens were the cylindrical vessels with upper and lower flanges, and 10 vessels and 9 kinds of barrels were made. Water was used as the pressure medium. The residual deformation and dynamic strain of the vessels and the wave form of pressure waves were measured. The deformation of cylindrical vessels subjected to the impulsive pressure from a point pressure source was able to be evaluated by the impulse distribution in normal direction. The maximum amount of deformation depended on the total plate thickness of barrels. (Kako, I.)

  10. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  11. Role of Transtension in Rifting at the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Transtensional plate motion can be accommodated either in a localized zone of transtensional rifting or over a broader region. Broader zones of deformation can be classified either as diffuse deformation or strain partitioning (one or more major strike-slip shear zones geographically offset from a region of a extensional faulting). The Pacific-North America plate boundary in southwestern North America was transtensional during much of its history and has exhibited the full range of these behaviors at different spatial scales and in different locations, as recorded by fault motions and paleomagnetic rotations. Here we focus on the northern Gulf of California part of the plate boundary (Upper and Lower Delfin basin segments), which has been in a zone of transtensional Pacific-North America plate boundary motion ever since the middle Miocene demise of adjacent Farallon-derived microplates. Prior to the middle Miocene, during the time of microplate activity, this sector of North America experienced basin-and-range normal faults (core complexes) in Sonora. However there is no evidence of continued extensional faulting nor of a Gulf-related topographic depression until after ca 12 Ma when a major ignimbrite (Tuff of San Felipe/ Ignimbrite of Hermosillo) was deposited across the entire region of the future Gulf of California rift in this sector. After 12 Ma, faults disrupted this marker bed in eastern Baja California and western Sonora, and some major NNW-striking right-lateral faults are inferred to have developed near the Sonoran coast causing offset of some of the volcanic facies. However, there are major tectonic rotations of the volcanic rocks in NE Baja California between 12 and 6 Ma, suggesting that the plate boundary motion was still occurring over a broad region. By contrast, after about 6 Ma, diminished rotations in latest Miocene and Pliocene volcanic rocks, as well as fault slip histories, show that plate boundary deformation became localized to a narrower

  12. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  13. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2010-01-01

    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  14. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure and deformation in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Yang, X.; Ouyang, L.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    We conduct a non-linear joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions to obtain the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure in east-central China. In the meanwhile, the lithosphere and upper mantle deformation beneath east-central China is also evaluated with teleseismic shear wave splitting measurements. The resulting velocity model reveals that to the east of the North-South Gravity Lineament, the crust and the lithosphere are significantly thinned. Furthermore, three extensive crustal/lithospheric thinning sub-regions are clearly identified within the study area. This indicates that the modification of the crust and lithosphere in central-eastern China is non-uniform due to the heterogeneity of the lithospheric strength. Extensive crustal and lithospheric thinning could occur in some weak zones such as the basin-range junction belts and large faults. The structure beneath the Dabie orogenic belt is complex due to the collision between the North and South China Blocks during the Late Paleozoic-Triassic. The Dabie orogenic belt is generally delineated by a thick crust with a mid-crust low-velocity zone and a two-directional convergence in the lithospheric scale. Obvious velocity contrast exhibits in the crust and upper mantle at both sides of the Tanlu fault, which suggests the deep penetration of this lithospheric-scale fault. Most of our splitting measurements show nearly E-W trending fast polarization direction which is slightly deviating from the direction of plate motion. The similar present-day lithosphere structure and upper mantle deformation may imply that the eastern NCC and the eastern SCB were dominated by a common dynamic process after late Mesozoic, i.e., the westward subduction of Pacific plate and the retreat of the subduction plate. The westward subduction of the Philippine plate and the long-range effects of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasia plate during Cenozoic may have also contributed to the present

  15. Complex deformation in western Tibet revealed by anisotropic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhao, Junmeng; Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Chunquan; Liu, Hongbing; Hu, Zhaoguo

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism and pattern of deformation beneath western Tibet are still an issue of debate. In this work we present 3-D P- and S-wave velocity tomography as well as P-wave radial and azimuthal anisotropy along the ANTILOPE-I profile and surrounding areas in western Tibet, which are determined by using a large number of P and S arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results show that low-velocity (low-V) zones exist widely in the middle crust, whereas low-V zones are only visible in the lower crust beneath northwestern Tibet, indicating the existence of significant heterogeneities and complex flow there. In the upper mantle, a distinct low-V gap exists between the Indian and Asian plates. Considering the P- and S-wave tomography and P-wave azimuthal and radial anisotropy results, we interpret the gap to be caused mainly by shear heating. Depth-independent azimuthal anisotropy and high-velocity zones exist beneath the northern part of the study region, suggesting a vertically coherent deformation beneath the Tarim Basin. In contrast, tomographic and anisotropic features change with depth beneath the central and southern parts of the study region, which reflects depth-dependent (or decoupled) deformations there. At the northern edge of the Indian lithospheric mantle (ILM), P-wave azimuthal anisotropy shows a nearly east-west fast-velocity direction, suggesting that the ILM was re-built by mantle materials flowing to the north.

  16. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  17. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  18. Large scale deformation of the oceanic lithosphere: insights from numerical modeling of the Indo-Australian intraplate deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, J.; Brandon, V.

    2011-12-01

    The large-scale deformation observed in the Indo-Australian plate seems to challenge tenets of plate tectonics: plate rigidity and narrow oceanic plate boundaries. Its distribution along with kinematic data inversions however suggest that the Indo-Australian plate can be viewed as a composite plate made of three rigid component plates - India, Capricorn, Australia - separated by wide and diffuse boundaries either extensional or compressional. We tested this model using the SHELLS numerical code (Kong & Bird, 1995) where the Indo-Australian plate was meshed into 5281 spherical triangular finite elements. Model boundary conditions are defined only by the plate velocities of the rigid parts of the Indo-Australian plate relative to their neighboring plates. Different plate velocity models were tested. From these boundary conditions, and taking into account the age of the lithosphere, seafloor topography, and assumptions on the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere, SHELLS predicts strain rates within the plate. We also tested the role of fossil fracture zones as potential lithospheric weaknesses. In a first step, we considered different component plate pairs (India/Capricorn, Capricorn/Australia, India/Australia). Since the limits of their respective diffuse boundary (i.e. the limits of the rigid component plates) are not known, we let the corresponding edge free. In a second step, we merged the previous meshes to consider the whole Indo-Australian plate. In this case, the velocities on the model boundaries are all fully defined and were set relative to the Capricorn plate. Our models predict deformation patterns very consistent with that observed. Pre-existing structures of the lithosphere play an important role in the intraplate deformation and its distribution. The Chagos Bank focuses the extensional deformation between the Indian and Capricorn plates. Reactivation of fossil fracture zones may accommodate large part of the deformation both in extensional areas, off

  19. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  20. Brittle deformation during Alpine basal accretion and the origin of seismicity nests above the subduction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Angiboust, Samuel; Monié, Patrick; Oncken, Onno; Guigner, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-01

    Geophysical observations on active subduction zones have evidenced high seismicity clusters at 20-40 km depth in the fore-arc region whose origin remains controversial. We report here field observations of pervasive pseudotachylyte networks (interpreted as evidence for paleo-seismicity) in the now-exhumed Valpelline continental unit (Dent Blanche complex, NW. Alps, Italy), a tectonic sliver accreted to the upper plate at c. 30 km depth during the Paleocene Alpine subduction. Pre-alpine granulite-facies paragneiss from the core of the Valpelline unit are crosscut by widespread, mm to cm-thick pseudotachylyte veins. Co-seismic heating and subsequent cooling led to the formation of Ti-rich garnet rims, ilmenite needles, Ca-rich plagioclase, biotite microliths and hercynite micro-crystals. 39Ar-40Ar dating yields a 51-54 Ma age range for these veins, thus suggesting that frictional melting events occurred near peak burial conditions while the Valpelline unit was already inserted inside the duplex structure. In contrast, the base of the Valpelline unit underwent synchronous ductile and brittle, seismic deformation under water-bearing conditions followed by a re-equilibration at c. 40 Ma (39Ar-40Ar on retrograded pseudotachylyte veins) during exhumation-related deformation. Calculated rheological profiles suggest that pseudotachylyte veins from the dry core of the granulite unit record upper plate micro-seismicity (Mw 2-3) formed under very high differential stresses (>500 MPa) while the sheared base of the unit underwent repeated brittle-ductile deformation at much lower differential stresses (<40 MPa) in a fluid-saturated environment. These results demonstrate that some of the seismicity clusters nested along and above the plate interface may reflect the presence of stiff tectonic slivers rheologically analogous to the Valpelline unit acting as repeatedly breaking asperities in the basal accretion region of active subduction zones.

  1. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  2. A Geometrically—Nonlinear Plate Theory 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlbertC.J.LUO

    1999-01-01

    An approximate plate theory developed in this paper is based on an assumed displacement field,the strains described by a Taylor series in the normal distance from the middle surface,the exact strains of the middle surface and the equations of equilibrium governing the exact configuration of the deformed middle surface,In this theory the exact geometry of the deformed middle surface is used to derive the strains and equilibrium of the plate.Application of this theory does not depend on the constitutive law.THis theory can reduce to some existing nonlinear theories through imposition of constraints.

  3. Numerical modeling of the Indo-Australian intraplate deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Vincent; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2014-05-01

    The Indo-Australian plate is perhaps the best example of wide intraplate deformation within an oceanic plate. The deformation is expressed by an unusual level of intraplate seismicity, including magnitude Mw > 8 events, large-scale folding and deep faulting of the oceanic lithosphere and reactivation of extinct fracture zones. The deformation pattern and kinematic data inversions suggest that the Indo-Australian plate can be viewed as a composite plate made of three rigid component plates - India, Capricorn, Australia - separated by wide and diffuse boundaries undergoing either extensional or compressional deformation. We tested this model using the SHELLS numerical code (Kong & Bird, 1995). The Indo-Australian plate is modeled by a mesh of 5281 spherical triangular finite elements. Mesh edges parallel the major extinct fracture zones so that they can be reactivated by reducing their friction rates. Strength of the plate is defined by the age of the lithosphere and seafloor topography. Model boundary conditions are only defined by the plate velocities predicted by the rotation vectors between rigid components of the Indo-Australian plate and their neighboring plates. Since the mesh limits all belong to rigid plates with fully defined Euler vectors, no conditions are imposed on the location, extent and limits of the diffuse and deforming zones. Using MORVEL plate velocities (DeMets et al., 2010), predicted deformation patterns are very consistent with that observed. Pre-existing structures of the lithosphere play an important role in the intraplate deformation and its distribution. The Chagos Bank focuses most of the extensional deformation between the Indian and Capricorn plates. Agreement between models and observation improves by weakening fossil fracture zones relative to the surrounding crust; however only limited sections of FZ's accommodate deformation. The reactivation of the Eocene FZ's in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) and Wharton Basin (WB) explains the

  4. A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this

  5. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  6. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  8. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates II: Exodus to buckled states

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.

    2011-05-11

    Morphoelasticity is the theory of growing elastic materials. The theory is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and provides a formulation of the deformation and stresses induced by growth. Following a companion paper, a general theory of growing non-linear elastic Kirchhoff plate is described. First, a complete geometric description of incompatibility with simple examples is given. Second, the stability of growing Kirchhoff plates is analyzed. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  9. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates II: Exodus to buckled states

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.; Goriely, A.; Tabor, M.

    2011-01-01

    Morphoelasticity is the theory of growing elastic materials. The theory is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and provides a formulation of the deformation and stresses induced by growth. Following a companion paper, a general theory of growing non-linear elastic Kirchhoff plate is described. First, a complete geometric description of incompatibility with simple examples is given. Second, the stability of growing Kirchhoff plates is analyzed. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  10. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  11. A Dual Role of Upper Zone of Growth Plate and Cartilage Matrix-Associated Protein in Human and Mouse Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Inhibition of Aggrecanases and Promotion of Bone Turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, M.; Menges, S.; Eitzinger, N.; Gesslein, M.; Botschner, R.; Wormser, L.; Distler, A.; Schlotzer-Schrehardt, U.; Dietel, K.; Distler, J.; Beyer, C.; Gelse, K.; Engelke, K.; Koenders, M.I.; Berg, W.B. van den; Mark, K. von der; Schett, G.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage and subchondral bone changes are closely connected in osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, how these processes are interlinked is, to date, incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanistic role of a cartilage-derived protein, upper zone of growth

  12. Process Development And Simulation For Cold Fabrication Of Doubly Curved Metal Plate By Using Line Array Roll Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, D. S.; Jung, C. G.; Seong, D. Y.; Yang, D. Y.; Han, J. M.; Han, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    For effective manufacturing of a doubly curved sheet metal, a novel sheet metal forming process is proposed. The suggested process uses a Line Array Roll Set (LARS) composed of a pair of upper and lower roll assemblies in a symmetric manner. The process offers flexibility as compared with the conventional manufacturing processes, because it does not require any complex-shaped die and loss of material by blank-holding is minimized. LARS allows flexibility of the incremental forming process and adopts the principle of bending deformation, resulting in a slight deformation in thickness. Rolls composed of line array roll sets are divided into a driving roll row and two idle roll rows. The arrayed rolls in the central lines of the upper and lower roll assemblies are motor-driven so that they deform and transfer the sheet metal using friction between the rolls and the sheet metal. The remaining rolls are idle rolls, generating bending deformation with driving rolls. Furthermore, all the rolls are movable in any direction so that they are adaptable to any size or shape of the desired three-dimensional configuration. In the process, the sheet is deformed incrementally as deformation proceeds simultaneously in rolling and transverse directions step by step. Consequently, it can be applied to the fabrication of doubly curved ship hull plates by undergoing several passes. In this work, FEM simulations are carried out for verification of the proposed incremental forming system using the chosen design parameters. Based on the results of the simulation, the relationship between the roll set configuration and the curvature of a sheet metal is determined. The process information such as the forming loads and torques acting on every roll is analyzed as important data for the design and development of the manufacturing system

  13. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  14. Constraints on the rheology of the lower crust in a strike-slip plate boundary: evidence from the San Quintín xenoliths, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Thomas; Chatzaras, Vasileios; Marcel Kriegsman, Leo; Kronenberg, Andreas; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.

    2017-12-01

    The rheology of lower crust and its transient behavior in active strike-slip plate boundaries remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed a suite of granulite and lherzolite xenoliths from the upper Pleistocene-Holocene San Quintín volcanic field of northern Baja California, Mexico. The San Quintín volcanic field is located 20 km east of the Baja California shear zone, which accommodates the relative movement between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The development of a strong foliation in both the mafic granulites and lherzolites, suggests that a lithospheric-scale shear zone exists beneath the San Quintín volcanic field. Combining microstructural observations, geothermometry, and phase equilibria modeling, we estimated that crystal-plastic deformation took place at temperatures of 750-890 °C and pressures of 400-560 MPa, corresponding to 15-22 km depth. A hot crustal geotherm of 40 ° C km-1 is required to explain the estimated deformation conditions. Infrared spectroscopy shows that plagioclase in the mafic granulites is relatively dry. Microstructures are interpreted to show that deformation in both the uppermost lower crust and upper mantle was accommodated by a combination of dislocation creep and grain-size-sensitive creep. Recrystallized grain size paleopiezometry yields low differential stresses of 12-33 and 17 MPa for plagioclase and olivine, respectively. The lower range of stresses (12-17 MPa) in the mafic granulite and lherzolite xenoliths is interpreted to be associated with transient deformation under decreasing stress conditions, following an event of stress increase. Using flow laws for dry plagioclase, we estimated a low viscosity of 1.1-1.3×1020 Pa ṡ s for the high temperature conditions (890 °C) in the lower crust. Significantly lower viscosities in the range of 1016-1019 Pa ṡ s, were estimated using flow laws for wet plagioclase. The shallow upper mantle has a low viscosity of 5.7×1019 Pa ṡ s

  15. Bunionette deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  16. Motion of the Rivera plate since 10 Ma relative to the Pacific and North American plates and the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Traylen, Stephen

    2000-03-01

    To better understand the influence of Rivera plate kinematics on the geodynamic evolution of western Mexico, we use more than 1400 crossings of seafloor spreading magnetic lineations along the Pacific-Rivera rise and northern Mathematician ridge to solve for rotations of the Rivera plate relative to the underlying mantle and the Pacific and North American plates at 14 times since 9.9 Ma. Our comparison of magnetic anomaly crossings from the undeformed Pacific plate to their counterparts on the Rivera plate indicates that significant areas of the Rivera plate have deformed since 9.9 Ma. Dextral shear along the southern edge of the plate from 3.3-2.2 Ma during a regional plate boundary reorganization deformed the Rivera plate farther into its interior than previously recognized. In addition, seafloor located north of two rupture zones within the Rivera plate sutured to North America after 1.5 Ma. Anomaly crossings from these two deformed regions thus cannot be used to reconstruct motion of the Rivera plate. Finite rotations that best reconstruct Pacific plate anomaly crossings onto their undeformed counterparts on the Rivera plate yield stage spreading rates that decrease gradually by 10% between 10 and 3.6 Ma, decrease rapidly by 20% after ˜3.6 Ma, and recover after 1 Ma. The slowdown in Pacific-Rivera seafloor spreading at 3.6 Ma coincided with the onset of dextral shear across the then-incipient southern boundary of the Rivera plate with the Pacific plate. The available evidence indicates that the Rivera plate has been an independent microplate since at least 10 Ma, contrary to published assertions that it fragmented from the Cocos plate at ˜5 Ma. Motion of the Rivera plate relative to North America has changed significantly since 10 Ma, in concert with significant changes in Pacific-Rivera motion. A significant and robust feature of Rivera-North America motion not previously recognized is the cessation of margin-normal convergence and thus subduction from 2

  17. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  18. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies

  19. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  20. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  1. Use of the modified Stainsby procedure in correcting severe claw toe deformity in the rheumatoid foot: a retrospective review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Queally, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    In claw toe deformity, the plantar plate of the metarsophalangeal joint becomes displaced onto the dorsal aspect of the metatarsal head. The Stainsby procedure replaces the displaced plantar plate to its correct position beneath the metatarsal head.

  2. Deformation of a Low-Cost Ti-6A1-4V Armor Alloy Under Shock Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spletzer, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    .... Examination of the particle velocity histories obtained from specimens of the alloy during 11 plate-on-plate impact/planar shock wave experiments indicates that the alloy deforms in an elastic-plastic manner...

  3. Influence of increasing convergence obliquity and shallow slab geometry onto tectonic deformation and seismogenic behavior along the Northern Lesser Antilles zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Marcaillou, B.; Evain, M.

    2018-06-01

    In subduction zones, the 3D geometry of the plate interface is one of the key parameters that controls margin tectonic deformation, interplate coupling and seismogenic behavior. The North American plate subducts beneath the convex Northern Lesser Antilles margin. This convergent plate boundary, with a northward increasing convergence obliquity, turns into a sinistral strike-slip limit at the northwestern end of the system. This geodynamic context suggests a complex slab geometry, which has never been imaged before. Moreover, the seismic activity and particularly the number of events with thrust focal mechanism compatible with subduction earthquakes, increases northward from the Barbuda-Anguilla segment to the Anguilla-Virgin Islands segment. One of the major questions in this area is thus to analyze the influence of the increasing convergence obliquity and the slab geometry onto tectonic deformation and seismogenic behavior of the subduction zone. Based on wide-angle and multichannel reflection seismic data acquired during the Antithesis cruises (2013-2016), we decipher the deep structure of this subduction zone. Velocity models derived from wide-angle data acquired across the Anegada Passage are consistent with the presence of a crust of oceanic affinity thickened by hotspot magmatism and probably affected by the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene arc magmatism forming the 'Great Arc of the Caribbean'. The slab is shallower beneath the Anguilla-Virgin Islands margin segment than beneath the Anguilla-Barbuda segment which is likely to be directly related to the convex geometry of the upper plate. This shallower slab is located under the forearc where earthquakes and partitioning deformations increase locally. Thus, the shallowing slab might result in local greater interplate coupling and basal friction favoring seismic activity and tectonic partitioning beneath the Virgin Islands platform.

  4. Length-scales of Slab-induced Asthenospheric Deformation from Geodynamic Modeling, Mantle Deformation Fabric, and Synthetic Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Fischer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The viscosity structure of the Earth's interior is critically important, because it places a first order constraint on plate motion and mantle flow rates. Geodynamic models using a composite viscosity based on experimentally derived flow laws for olivine aggregates show that lateral viscosity variations emerge in the upper mantle due to the subduction dynamics. However, the length-scale of this transition is still not well understood. Two-dimensional numerical models of subduction are presented that investigate the effect of initial slab dip, maximum yield stress (slab strength), and viscosity formulation (Newtonian versus composite) on the emergent lateral viscosity variations in the upper-mantle and magnitude of slab-driven mantle flow velocity. Significant viscosity reductions occur in regions of large flow velocity gradients due to the weakening effect of the dislocation creep deformation mechanism. The dynamic reductions in asthenospheric viscosity (less than 1018 Pa s) occur within approximately 500 km from driving force of the slab, with peak flow velocities occurring in models with a lower yield stress (weaker slab) and higher stress exponent. This leads to a sharper definition of the rheological base of the lithosphere and implies lateral variability in tractions along the base of the lithosphere. As the dislocation creep mechanism also leads to mantle deformation fabric, we then examine the spatial variation in the LPO development in the asthenosphere and calculate synthetic shear wave splitting. The models show that olivine LPO fabric in the asthenosphere generally increases in alignment strength with increased proximity to the slab, but can be transient and spatially variable on small length scales. The vertical flow fields surrounding the slab tip can produce shear-wave splitting variations with back-azimuth that deviate from the predictions of uniform trench-normal anisotropy, a result that bears on the interpretation of complexity in shear

  5. Light refraction in sapphire plates with a variable angle of crystal optical axis to the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, V. N.; Ignatenkov, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    The modification of sapphire by inhomogeneous plastic deformation makes it possible to obtain plates with a variable angle of inclination of the crystal optical axis to the plate surface. The refraction of light in this plate at perpendicular and oblique incidence of a parallel beam of rays is considered. The algorithm of calculating the refractive index of extraordinary ray and the birefringence is proposed.

  6. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  7. THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMORODOV О. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.

  8. Pattern of seismic deformation in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pondrelli

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic deformation of the Western Mediterranean was studied with the aim of defining the strain pattern that characterizes the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary in this area. Within different sections along the boundary the cumulative moment tensor was computed over 90 years of seismological data. The results were compared with NUVELlA plate motion model and geodetic data. A stable agreement was found along Northern Africa to Sicily, where only Africa and Eurasia plates are involved. In this zone it is evident that changes in the strike of the boundary correspond to variations in the prevailing geometry of deformation, tectonic features and in the percentage of seismic with respect to total expected deformation. The geometry of deformation of periadriatic sections (Central to Southern Apennines, Eastern Alps and the Eastern Adriatic area agrees well with VLBI measurements and with regional geological features. Seismicity seems to account for low rates, from 3% to 31%, of total expected deformation. Only in the Sicily Strait, characterized by extensional to strike slip deformation, does the ratio reach a higher value (79%. If the amount of deformation deduced from seismicity seems low, because 90 years are probably not representative of the recurrence seismic cycle of the Western Mediterranean, the strain pattern we obtain from cumulative moment tensors is more representative of the kinematics of this area than global plate motion models and better identifies lower scale geodynamic features.

  9. A novel deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive creep tests with strain value up to -0.1 for a [beta]-spodumene glass ceramic are conducted at 1060 C. From the observation of microstructural changes between before and after the creep deformations, it is shown that the grain-boundary sliding takes place via cooperative movement of groups of grains rather than individual grains under the large-scale-deformation. The deformation process and the surface technique used in this work are not only applicable to explain the deformation and flow of two-phase ceramics but also the superplastic deformation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  10. Early Cretaceous dextral transpressional deformation within the Median Batholith, Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The character, timing, and significance of deformation within the Median Batholith has been debated since at least 1967, with allochthonous and autochthonous models proposed to account for internal variations in the character of the batholith. Stewart Island provides excellent exposures of intrabatholithic structures, allowing many aspects of the deformation history within the batholith to be analysed, far removed from the effects of later deformation related to the current plate boundary. Median Batholith rocks in northern and central Stewart Island are deformed by three major structures: the Freshwater Fault System, Escarpment Fault, and Gutter Shear Zone. Lineation orientations, Al in hornblende geobarometry, and Ar-Ar thermochronology indicate up to c. 7 km of NNE-directed uplift of the hanging wall of the Escarpment Fault between c. 110 and 105 Ma. Unlike the Escarpment Fault, a wide range of mineral elongation lineation orientations, including many oblique to the strike and dip of related foliations, characterise both the Gutter Shear Zone and Freshwater Fault System. Lineation and limited sense of shear data indicate dextral-reverse movement on both structures during development of their dominant ductile fabrics. Crosscutting and intrusive relationships indicate movement on the Freshwater Fault System after c. 130 Ma and on the Gutter Shear Zone between 120 and 112 Ma. The amount of movement on the Freshwater Fault System and Gutter Shear Zone remains largely unconstrained. However, the 342 ± 24 Ma age of a granite clast in a Paterson Group lithic tuff horizon at Abrahams Bay overlaps that of Carboniferous plutons in the block immediately south of the Freshwater Fault System, implying that the Paterson Group is little displaced from the basement rocks through which it was erupted. The three structures mapped on Stewart Island form part of a narrow transpressional mobile belt active within the Jurassic-Cretaceous arc on the outboard margin of the Western

  11. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  12. Nonlinear analysis of flexible plates lying on elastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes numerical procedures for analysis of flexible rectangular plates lying on elastic foundation. Computing models are based on the theory of plates with account of transverse shear deformations. The finite difference energy method of discretization is used for reducing the initial continuum problem to finite dimensional problem. Solution procedures for nonlinear problem are based on Newton-Raphson method. This theory of plates and numerical methods have been used for investigation of nonlinear behavior of flexible plates on elastic foundation with different properties.

  13. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  14. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  15. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  16. Upper internals of PWR with coolant flow separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.; Heuze, A.

    1989-01-01

    The upper internals for a PWR has a collecting volume for the coolant merging from the core and an apparatus for separating the flow of coolant. This apparatus has a guide for the control rods, a lower plate perforated to allow the coolant through from the core, an upper plate also perforated to allow the coolant through to the collecting volume and a peripheral binding ring joining the two plates. Each guide comprises an envelope without holes and joined perceptibly tight to the plates [fr

  17. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  18. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  19. Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.

  20. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THICK PLATES ON TWO PARAMETER ELASTIC FOUNDATION UNDER TIME VARIABLE LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgan, Korhan; Daloglu, Ayse T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, behavior of foundation plates with transverse shear deformation under time variable loading is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of thick plates on elastic foundation is derived by using an 8-noded finite element based on Mindlin plate theory. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem which arises when smaller plate thickness is considered for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices. After comparis...

  1. Constraints on the rheology of the lower crust in a strike-slip plate boundary: evidence from the San Quintín xenoliths, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. van der Werf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheology of lower crust and its transient behavior in active strike-slip plate boundaries remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed a suite of granulite and lherzolite xenoliths from the upper Pleistocene–Holocene San Quintín volcanic field of northern Baja California, Mexico. The San Quintín volcanic field is located 20 km east of the Baja California shear zone, which accommodates the relative movement between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The development of a strong foliation in both the mafic granulites and lherzolites, suggests that a lithospheric-scale shear zone exists beneath the San Quintín volcanic field. Combining microstructural observations, geothermometry, and phase equilibria modeling, we estimated that crystal-plastic deformation took place at temperatures of 750–890 °C and pressures of 400–560 MPa, corresponding to 15–22 km depth. A hot crustal geotherm of 40 ° C km−1 is required to explain the estimated deformation conditions. Infrared spectroscopy shows that plagioclase in the mafic granulites is relatively dry. Microstructures are interpreted to show that deformation in both the uppermost lower crust and upper mantle was accommodated by a combination of dislocation creep and grain-size-sensitive creep. Recrystallized grain size paleopiezometry yields low differential stresses of 12–33 and 17 MPa for plagioclase and olivine, respectively. The lower range of stresses (12–17 MPa in the mafic granulite and lherzolite xenoliths is interpreted to be associated with transient deformation under decreasing stress conditions, following an event of stress increase. Using flow laws for dry plagioclase, we estimated a low viscosity of 1.1–1.3×1020 Pa ⋅ s for the high temperature conditions (890 °C in the lower crust. Significantly lower viscosities in the range of 1016–1019 Pa ⋅ s, were estimated using flow laws for wet plagioclase. The

  2. Optimization of geometrical characteristics of perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisavljevic, Igor; Balos, Sebastian; Nikacevic, Milutin; Sidjanin, Leposava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Perforated plate are tested against 12.7 mm API projectile. ► Perforations similar to the projectile diameter offer more efficient core fracture. ► Larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation. ► SEM microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point. - Abstract: In this paper, an attempt was made to design effective non-homogenous armor in form of perforated plate mounted at close distance from basic armor plate. Perforated plate with three perforation diameters: 9, 10 and 11 mm, two ligaments length: 3.5 and 4.5 mm ligaments, set at 0° and 28° angles, were combined to 13 mm basic plate and tested against 12.7 mm API ammunition. It has been shown that larger perforations gave a more efficient core fragmentation, while angled specimens were the only ones that offer full protection against five API shots when the perforated plate was placed at 100 mm from the basic plate. Perforations that are similar in size to the penetrating core diameter offer a more efficient core fracture, leading to a faster fragment separation. This may enable a smaller distance between the add-on perforated and basic plate to be used. Scanning electron microscopy analysis has shown a ductile fracture mode at impact point, with hardness values on plate basic level. On the other hand, a brittle fracture mode with a rise in local hardness measured near impact point is a result of intensive high speed plastic deformation produced by bending stresses. A drop in local hardness measured near impact point, may be the result of intensive cracking that occur due to repeated projectile impact

  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

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    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  7. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  8. Application of the Modified Vlasov Model to the Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgan, Korhan; Daloglu, Ayse T.

    2009-01-01

    The Modified Vlasov Model is applied to the free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundations. The effects of the subsoil depth, plate dimensions and their ratio, the value of the vertical deformation parameter within the subsoil on the frequency parameters of plates on elastic foundations are investigated. A four-noded, twelve degrees of freedom quadrilateral finite element (PBQ4) is used for plate bending analysis based on Mindlin plate theory which is effectively appli...

  9. Disk generator with nearly shockless accelerated driver plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Marsh, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The disk generator, shown in this paper, was first conceived as a useful magnetic field source for a class of in situ plasma experiments. Initial current is supplied (from a capacitor bank) to the generator through radial coaxial cables. It enters the top plate, passes through the central post, and exists through the top of the outer cylindrical glide surface, which is insulated from the top plate. The explosive over the top plate is initiated simultaneously over its upper surface at such a time that the top plate starts its downward motion at about peak initial current. Several conditions were required for the experiments under consideration: the top or driver plate should contact the bottom plate nearly parallel to it; the generator interior should be evacuated; microjetting debris (fluff) arising from the driver plate should be held to a minimum; currents developed should be several tens of megamperes, with values of dI/dt exceeding 10 13 A/s

  10. Stratigraphic record of Pliocene-Pleistocene basin evolution and deformation within the Southern San Andreas Fault Zone, Mecca Hills, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, James C.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Housen, Bernard A.; Dimitroff, Cassidy W.; Messé, Graham T.

    2017-11-01

    A thick section of Pliocene-Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks exposed in the Mecca Hills, California, provides a record of fault-zone evolution along the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas fault (SAF). Geologic mapping, measured sections, detailed sedimentology, and paleomagnetic data document a 3-5 Myr history of deformation and sedimentation in this area. SW-side down offset on the Painted Canyon fault (PCF) starting 3.7 Ma resulted in deposition of the Mecca Conglomerate southwest of the fault. The lower member of the Palm Spring Formation accumulated across the PCF from 3.0 to 2.6 Ma during regional subsidence. SW-side up slip on the PCF and related transpressive deformation from 2.6 to 2.3 Ma created a time-transgressive angular unconformity between the lower and upper members of the Palm Spring Formation. The upper member accumulated in discrete fault-bounded depocenters until initiation of modern deformation, uplift, and basin inversion starting at 0.7 Ma. Some spatially restricted deposits can be attributed to the evolution of fault-zone geometric complexities. However, the deformation events at ca. 2.6 Ma and 0.7 Ma are recorded regionally along 80 km of the SAF through Coachella Valley, covering an area much larger than mapped fault-zone irregularities, and thus require regional explanations. We therefore conclude that late Cenozoic deformation and sedimentation along the SAF in Coachella Valley has been controlled by a combination of regional tectonic drivers and local deformation due to dextral slip through fault-zone complexities. We further propose a kinematic link between the 2.6-2.3 Ma angular unconformity and a previously documented but poorly dated reorganization of plate-boundary faults in the northern Gulf of California at 3.3-2.0 Ma. This analysis highlights the potential for high-precision chronologies in deformed terrestrial deposits to provide improved understanding of local- to regional-scale structural controls on basin

  11. Deformation style and controlling geodynamic processes at the eastern Guadalquivir foreland basin (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Lechado, C.; Pedrera, A.; Peláez, J. A.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; González-Ramón, A.; Henares, J.

    2017-06-01

    The tectonic structure of the Guadalquivir foreland basin becomes complex eastward evolving from a single depocenter to a compartmented basin. The deformation pattern within the eastern Guadalquivir foreland basin has been characterized by combining seismic reflection profiles, boreholes, and structural field data to output a 3-D model. High-dipping NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending normal and reverse fault arrays deform the Variscan basement of the basin. These faults generally affect Tortonian sediments, which show syntectonic features sealed by the latest Miocene units. Curved and S-shaped fault traces are abundant and caused by the linkage of nearby fault segments during lateral fault propagation. Preexisting faults were reactivated either as normal or reverse faults depending on their position within the foreland. At Tortonian time, reverse faults deformed the basin forebulge, while normal faults predominated within the backbulge. Along-strike variation of the Betic foreland basin geometry is supported by an increasing mechanical coupling of the two plates (Alborán Domain and Variscan basement) toward the eastern part of the cordillera. Thus, subduction would have progressed in the western Betics, while it would have failed in the eastern one. There, the initially subducted Iberian paleomargin (Nevado-Filábride Complex) was incorporated into the upper plate promoting the transmission of collision-related compressional stresses into the foreland since the middle Miocene. Nowadays, compression is still active and produces low-magnitude earthquakes likely linked to NNE-SSW to NE-SW preexiting faults reactivated with reverse oblique-slip kinematics. Seismicity is mostly concentrated around fault tips that are frequently curved in overstepping zones.

  12. Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Kalita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nine-node isoparametric plate element in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory is used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutouts. Both thick and thin plate problems are solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this article, primary focus is given to the effect of rotary inertia on natural frequencies of perforated rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia has significant effect on thick plates, while for thin plates the rotary inertia term can be ignored. It is seen that the numerical convergence is very rapid and based on comparison with experimental and analytical data from literature, it is proposed that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Finally, some new numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmark for future research on similar problems.

  13. Dynamic coupled piezothermoelasticity of pyroelectric composite plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidary, F.; Reza Eslami, M.

    2005-01-01

    The equations governing the linear response of coupled piezothermolelastic composite plate, considering the pyroelectric effect, are outlined in this paper. The finite element method with linear shape functions for a first-order shear deformation theory of laminated plates is used to obtain the defections and temperature. The finite element equations are developed for piezothermoelectric sensor and actuator. The governing equations are solved using the time marching method. Numerical results are presented for the conventional active direct proportional control of the plate. Controlled and uncontrolled displacements and temperature responses are graphically illustrated. the corresponding temperature response with consideration of the pyroelectric effects is also presented. Dynamic case studies are carried out to observe the pyroelectric effects in the piezothermoelastic control systems. (authors)

  14. Surgical plate fixation of multiple rib fractures: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Konstantin; Neziri, Dashurie; Stoicovski, Emil; Mitrev, Zan

    2018-05-29

    The healthcare system in developing countries is limited; particularly, medical specialties such as emergency and trauma medicine are underdeveloped. Consequently, trauma injuries sustained in traffic accidents result in chronic morbidity more often than similar cases in developed countries. Multiple rib fractures induce significant patient morbidity. Current international guidelines recommend a multidisciplinary, surgery-based treatment approach to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We admitted a 41-year-old Albanian man to our emergency department following a pedestrian-vehicle accident 5 days earlier. He presented with severe upper thoracic pain, chest deformity, dyspnea, tachycardia, subcutaneous emphysema, and hematoma. Chest radiography pointed to hypoventilated lung fields and a minor pleural effusion. Computed tomographic scans indicated displaced fractures of right lateral ribs 5 -11, hyperdensity regions from bone fragments, and pulmonary contusion. The treatment consisted of surgical fixation of ribs 7-10 using titanium reconstruction plates and cortical locking screws. The patient's clinical condition rapidly improved postoperatively. Follow-up at 6 weeks confirmed a full return to preoperative daily activities and a high quality of life. In this case report, we present a novel and promising development in the field of trauma medicine in the Republic of Macedonia. Trauma injuries can be treated via advanced multidisciplinary medical care according to international standards, allowing optimal health recovery.

  15. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, P.H.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1984-01-01

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges

  16. Instability of a cantilevered flexible plate in viscous channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, T. S.; Lucey, A. D.

    2005-10-01

    The stability of a flexible cantilevered plate in viscous channel flow is studied as a representation of the dynamics of the human upper airway. The focus is on instability mechanisms of the soft palate (flexible plate) that cause airway blockage during sleep. We solve the Navier Stokes equations for flow with Reynolds numbers up to 1500 fully coupled with the dynamics of the plate motion solved using finite-differences. The study is 2-D and based upon linearized plate mechanics. When both upper and lower airways are open, the plate is found to lose its stability through a flutter mechanism and a critical Reynolds number exists. When one airway is closed, the plate principally loses its stability through a divergence mechanism and a critical flow speed exists. However, below the divergence-onset flow speed, flutter can exist for low levels of structural damping in the flexible plate. Our results serve to extend understanding of flow-induced instability of cantilevered flexible plates and will ultimately improve the diagnosis and treatment of upper-airway disorders.

  17. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Micro-electromechanical Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hybrid differential transformation and finite difference method is applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear micro-electromechanical circular plate actuated by combined DC / AC loading schemes. The analysis takes account of the axial residual stress and hydrostatic pressure acting on micro circular plate upper surface. The dynamic response of the plate as a function of the magnitude of the AC driving voltage is explored. Moreover, the effect of the initial gap height on the pull-in voltage of the plate is systematically explored.

  19. Deformable Image Registration of Liver With Consideration of Lung Sliding Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yaoqin; Chao, Ming; Xiong, Guanglei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A feature based deformable registration model with sliding transformation was developed in the upper abdominal region for liver cancer. Methods: A two-step thin-plate spline (bi-TPS) algorithm was implemented to deformably register the liver organ. The first TPS registration was performed to exclusively quantify the sliding displacement component. A manual segmentation of the thoracic and abdominal cavity was performed as a priori knowledge. Tissue feature points were automatically identified inside the segmented contour on the images. The scale invariant feature transform method was utilized to match feature points that served as landmarks for the subsequent TPS registration to derive the sliding displacement vector field. To a good approximation, only motion along superior/inferior (SI) direction of voxels on each slice was averaged to obtain the sliding displacement for each slice. A second TPS transformation, as the last step, was carried out to obtain the local deformation field. Manual identification of bifurcation on liver, together with the manual segmentation of liver organ, was employed as a ''ground truth'' for assessing the algorithm's performance. Results: The proposed two-step TPS was assessed with six liver patients. The average error of liver bifurcation between manual identification and calculation for these patients was less than 1.8 mm. The residual errors between manual contour and propagated contour of liver organ using the algorithm fell in the range between 2.1 and 2.8 mm. An index of Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between manual contour and calculated contour for liver tumor was 93.6% compared with 71.2% from the conventional TPS calculation. Conclusions: A high accuracy (∼2 mm) of the two-step feature based TPS registration algorithm was achievable for registering the liver organ. The discontinuous motion in the upper abdominal region was properly taken into consideration. Clinical implementation of the algorithm will find

  20. Lake sediments as natural seismographs: Earthquake-related deformations (seismites) in central Canadian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, M.; Eyles, N.; Eyles, C. H.; Wallace, K.; Boyce, J. I.

    2014-11-01

    -transparent postglacial silty-clay laminations. Postglacial neotectonic activity is recorded by co-seismic water-escape structures, faults, slumps and debris flows in Lake Simcoe (above a terrane boundary) and especially within lakes Timiskaming and Kipawa, recording ongoing deformation within the WQSZ. High resolution seismo-stratigraphic data presented here support the model that ongoing mid-plate earthquake activity is a consequence of brittle deformation of the upper crust of the North American plate. Such activity appears to have been greatest during deglaciation but continues today.

  1. A Study on the Saving Method of Plate Jigs in Hull Block Butt Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Eun

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of plate jigs is used for alignment of welding line and control of welding deformations in hull block assembly stage. Besides material cost, the huge working man-hours required for working process of plate jigs is one of the obstacles in productivity growth of shipyard. In this study, analysis method was proposed to simulate the welding deformations of block butt joint with plate jigs setting. Using the proposed analysis method, an example simulation was performed for actual panel block joint to investigate the saving method of plate jigs. Results show that it is possible to achieve two objectives of quality accuracy of the hull block and saving the plate jig usage at the same time by deploying the plate jigs at the right places. And the proposed analysis method can be used in establishing guidelines for the proper use of plate jigs in block assembly stage.

  2. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2014-01-01

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how

  3. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  4. Dealing with difficult deformations: Construction of a knowledge-based deformation atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann; Darvann, T.A.; Hermann, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    from pre- to post-surgery using thin-plate spline warping. The registration results are convincing and represent a first move towards an automatic registration method for dealing with difficult deformations due to this type of surgery. New or breakthrough work to be presented: The method provides...... was needed. We have previously demonstrated that non-rigid registration using B-splines is able to provide automated determination of point correspondences in populations of infants without cleft lip. However, this type of registration fails when applied to the task of determining the complex deformation...

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  6. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  7. Paleozoic and Mesozoic deformations in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Kistler, Ronald Wayne

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of structural and stratigraphic data indicates that several periods of regional deformation, consisting of combined folding, faulting, cataclasis, and regional metamorphism, occurred throughout the central Sierra Nevada during Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. The oldest regional deformation occurred alono northward trends during the Devonian and Mississippian periods in most roof pendants containing lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks at the center and along the crest of the range. This deformation is expressed in some roof pendants by an angular unconformity separating older thrice-deformed from younger twice-deformed Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The first Mesozoic deformation, which consisted of uplift and erosion and was accompanied by the onset of Andean-type volcanism during the Permian and Triassic, is expressed by an angular unconformity in several roof pendants from the Saddlebag Lake to the Mount Morrison areas. This unconformity is defined by Permian and Triassic andesitic to rhyolitic metavolcanic rocks unconformably overlying more intensely deformed Pennsylvanian, Permian(?), and older metasedimentary rocks. A later regional deformation occurred during the Triassic along N. 20?_30? W. trends in Permian and Triassic metavolcanic rocks of the Saddlebag Lake and Mount Dana roof pendants, in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Pine Creek roof pendant, and in the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt; the roof pendants are crosscut by Upper Triassic granitic rocks of the Lee Vining intrusive epoch. A still later period of Early and Middle Jurassic regional deformation occurred along N. 30?-60? E. trends in upper Paleozoic rocks of the Calaveras Formation of the western metamorphic belt. A further period of deformation was the Late Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, which occurred along N. 20?_40? W. trends in Upper Jurassic rocks of the western metamorphic belt that are crosscut by Upper Jurassic granitic rocks of the Yosemite intrusive epoch

  8. Comparative analysis of triangular rigid zone models in the mechanical study of drawing processes by upper bound; Analisis compartivo de modelos de bloques rigidos triangulares en el estudio mecanico de procesos de estirado por limite superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, E. M.; Domingo, R.; Gonzalez, C.; Sanz, A.

    2004-07-01

    To study the optimised geometrical configuration to carry out mechanical drawing of plates is the main objective of this paper. To accomplish this objective, a comparative analysis of some suitable geometrical and kinematic configurations of the material located in the deformation zone has been made. Concretely, several triangular rigid zone models have been chosen, for each one, the overall energy involved in the process have been calculated and an estimation of its different components has been made. The calculation of the energy has been achieved applying the Upper Bound Theorem under plane strain and partial friction conditions. In addition, the range of use for the selected configurations has been established. (Author) 19 refs.

  9. Finite element analysis of plate rolling of duplex-layer steels for long-period fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jungki; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-01-01

    With same roll speed and same friction coefficient, curvature is formed on rolled product from FEA result. To reduce this curvature and plastic strain which cause reduction in fabricability, two ways are selected; (i) controlling upper/lower roll speed, and (ii) adjusting upper/lower friction coefficient and contacts. Both results shows it can reduce the curvature and equivalent plastic strain of the plate after the rolling. It can be applied in real plate rolling processing and also the next research for pilgering process for tube and pipe production. The FEA results of equivalent stress and plastic deformation distribution are showed in figure 5. The von-Mises equivalent stress distribution showed that the stress is still concentrated on upper Fe-12Cr-2Si layer, however, it also shows that equivalent plastic strain is distributed uniformly comparing with upper and lower roll speed ratio is 1.0. In high temperature liquid metal environment, there are usually two types of corrosion; one is corrosion by dissolution of alloy elements into liquid metal, and another is corrosion by chemical reaction among impurities in liquid metal and structural alloy. There have been some researches to develop new alloys that can form more dense scale on the surface even in wider impurity range and higher temperature range . M.P Short et al. devised functionally graded composite which is composed of two layers . one is a thin corrosion resistant layer and another is thick structural layer which guarantees mechanical strength, creep rupture strength and shows less irradiation swelling

  10. Vibration analysis of orthotropic circular and elliptical nano-plates embedded in elastic medium based on nonlocal Mindlin plate theory and using Galerkin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjomshoa, Amin; Tahani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a continuum model based on the nonlocal elasticity theory is developed for free vibration analysis of embedded ortho tropic thick circular and elliptical nano-plates rested on an elastic foundation. The elastic foundation is considered to behave like a Pasternak type of foundations. Governing equations for vibrating nano-plate are derived according to the Mindlin plate theory in which the effects of shear deformations of nano-plate are also included. The Galerkin method is then employed to obtain the size dependent natural frequencies of nano-plate. The solution procedure considers the entire nano-plate as a single super-continuum element. Effect of nonlocal parameter, lengths of nano-plate, aspect ratio, mode number, material properties, thickness and foundation on circular frequencies are investigated. It is seen that the nonlocal frequencies of the nano-plate are smaller in comparison to those from the classical theory and this is more pronounced for small lengths and higher vibration modes. It is also found that as the aspect ratio increases or the nanoplate becomes more elliptical, the small scale effect on natural frequencies increases. Further, it is observed that the elastic foundation decreases the influence of nonlocal parameter on the results. Since the effect of shear deformations plays an important role in vibration analysis and design of nano-plates, by predicting smaller values for fundamental frequencies, the study of these nano-structures using thick plate theories such as Mindlin plate theory is essential.

  11. Comparison of skeletal stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy among mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation using absorbable plates and screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Hotta, Asami; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuta; Saito, Yuki

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skeletal stability and plate breakage after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with the mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation techniques using absorbable plates and screws. A total of 76 Japanese patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with and without maxillary deformity were divided into 3 groups randomly. A total of 28 patients underwent SSRO with mono-cortical plate fixation, 23 underwent SSRO with bi-cortical plate fixation, and 25 underwent SSRO with hybrid fixation. Skeletal stability and horizontal condylar angle were analyzed by axial, frontal, and lateral cephalograms from before the operation to 1 year postoperatively. Breakage of the plate and screws was observed by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) immediately after surgery and after 1 year. Although there was a significant difference between the mono-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group regarding right MeAg in T1 (P = 0.0488) and occlusal plane in T1 (P = 0.0346), there were no significant differences between the groups for the other measurements in each time interval. In 2 cases, namely, 6 sides in the mono-cortical plate fixation group, breakage of the absorbable plate was found by 3DCT. However, there was no breakage in the bi-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group. This study results suggested that there were no significant differences in the postoperative skeletal stability among the 3 groups, and bi-cortical fixation as well as hybrid fixation was a reliable and useful method to prevent plate breakage even if an absorbable material was used. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of high-density fuel plate fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has continued on the fabrication of fuel plates with equivalent fuel zone loadings approaching 9 gU/cm 3 . Through hot isostatic pressing (HIP), successful diffusion bonds have been made with 1100 Al and 6061 Al alloys. Although additional study is necessary to optimize the procedure, these bonds demonstrated the most critical processing step for proof-of-concept hardware. Two types of prototype highly loaded fuel plates have been fabricated. The first is a fuel plate in which 0.030-in. (0.76-mm) uranium compound wires are bonded within an aluminum cladding; the second, a dispersion fuel plate with uniform cladding and fuel zone thickness. The successful fabrication of these fuel plates derives from the unique ability of the HIP process to produce diffusion bonds with minimal deformation. (orig.)

  13. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  14. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  15. Numerical simulation of springback of medium-thick plates in local hot rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to understand the factors of springback in the local hot rolling of medium-thick steel plates,[Methods] a 3D thermal-elastic-plastic analysis is conducted to investigate the factors affecting the amount of springback. Through a series of numerical analyses,the influence of deformation temperature,temperature field distribution,plate size and local loading are examined. [Results] The results show that when the deformation temperature exceeds a certain level at which material yield stress begins to decrease significantly,the springback will reduce markedly with the increase in temperature. Due to the distribution characteristics of the deformation area,the influence of temperature distribution on springback where the local deformation scale is larger is dominated by the three dimensions of temperature field distribution. Changes in the length and width of the plate have a certain influence on the springback,in which changes to the length of a plate where the local deformation scale is larger have a more obvious influence on springback. The springback of the plate decreases with the increase of local loading. [Conclusions] The results of this study can assist in the optimization of parameters in the automatic hot rolling of thick plates,while also having a basic guiding effect on the further study of springback in the local hot rolling of thick plates.

  16. Optimal design of tunable phononic bandgap plates under equibiaxial stretch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, M S; Guest, James K

    2016-01-01

    Design and application of phononic crystal (PhCr) acoustic metamaterials has been a topic with tremendous growth of interest in the last decade due to their promising capabilities to manipulate acoustic and elastodynamic waves. Phononic controllability of waves through a particular PhCr is limited only to the spectrums located within its fixed bandgap frequency. Hence the ability to tune a PhCr is desired to add functionality over its variable bandgap frequency or for switchability. Deformation induced bandgap tunability of elastomeric PhCr solids and plates with prescribed topology have been studied by other researchers. Principally the internal stress state and distorted geometry of a deformed phononic crystal plate (PhP) changes its effective stiffness and leads to deformation induced tunability of resultant modal band structure. Thus the microstructural topology of a PhP can be altered so that specific tunability features are met through prescribed deformation. In the present study novel tunable PhPs of this kind with optimized bandgap efficiency-tunability of guided waves are computationally explored and evaluated. Low loss transmission of guided waves throughout thin walled structures makes them ideal for fabrication of low loss ultrasound devices and structural health monitoring purposes. Various tunability targets are defined to enhance or degrade complete bandgaps of plate waves through macroscopic tensile deformation. Elastomeric hyperelastic material is considered which enables recoverable micromechanical deformation under tuning finite stretch. Phononic tunability through stable deformation of phononic lattice is specifically required and so any topology showing buckling instability under assumed deformation is disregarded. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (GA) NSGA-II is adopted for evolutionary multiobjective topology optimization of hypothesized tunable PhP with square symmetric unit-cell and relevant topologies are analyzed through finite

  17. Failure analysis of multiple delaminated composite plates due

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work aims at the first ply failure analysis of laminated composite plates with arbitrarily located multiple delaminations subjected to transverse static load as well as impact. The theoretical formulation is based on a simple multiple delamination model. Conventional first order shear deformation is assumed using ...

  18. Deformations of superconformal theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Clay [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Dumitrescu, Thomas T. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intriligator, Kenneth [Department of Physics, University of California,9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  3. Shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate and surrounding regions using Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, J. R.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Biryol, C. B.; Ward, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    volcanism. The Tuz Golu fault has a visible seismic signal down to ~15 km below sea level, and the eastern Inner-Tauride Suture corresponding to the Central Anatolian Fault Zone may extend into the mantle. The Isparta Angle separates the actively extending portion of western Anatolia from the plateau regions in the east, and the largest anomaly (slow velocities) extending into the upper mantle is observed under the western flank of the Isparta Angle, corresponding to the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone. We attribute these slow shear-wave velocities to the effects of complex deformations within the crust as a result of the interactions of the African and Anatolian Plates. In the upper mantle, slow shear-wave velocities are consistent with a slab tear along a STEP fault corresponding to the extensions of the Pliny and Strabo Transform faults, allowing asthenosphere to rise to very shallow depths. The upper mantle beneath the Taurides exhibits very slow shear-wave velocities, in agreement with possible delamination or slab-breakoff (Cosentino et al. 2012) causing rapid uplift in the last 8 million years.

  4. Quantum deformed magnon kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, César; Hernández Redondo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion relation for planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is identified with the Casimir of a quantum deformed two-dimensional kinematical symmetry, E_q(1,1). The quantum deformed symmetry algebra is generated by the momentum, energy and boost, with deformation parameter q=e^{2\\pi i/\\lambda}. Representing the boost as the infinitesimal generator for translations on the rapidity space leads to an elliptic uniformization with crossing transformations implemented through translations by t...

  5. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  6. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  7. How the continents deform: The evidence from tectonic geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Wayne R.

    2009-01-01

    Space geodesy now provides quantitative maps of the surface velocity field within tectonically active regions, supplying constraints on the spatial distribution of deformation, the forces that drive it, and the brittle and ductile properties of continental lithosphere. Deformation is usefully described as relative motions among elastic blocks and is block-like because major faults are weaker than adjacent intact crust. Despite similarities, continental block kinematics differs from global plate tectonics: blocks are much smaller, typically ∼100–1000 km in size; departures from block rigidity are sometimes measurable; and blocks evolve over ∼1–10 Ma timescales, particularly near their often geometrically irregular boundaries. Quantitatively relating deformation to the forces that drive it requires simplifying assumptions about the strength distribution in the lithosphere. If brittle/elastic crust is strongest, interactions among blocks control the deformation. If ductile lithosphere is the stronger, its flow properties determine the surface deformation, and a continuum approach is preferable.

  8. Acoustic impact on the laminated plates placed between barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Gazizullin, R. K.; Fedotenkov, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of previously derived equations, analytical solutions are established on the forced vibrations of two-layer and three-layers rectangular plates hinged in an opening of absolutely rigid walls during the transmission of monoharmonic sound waves. It is assumed that the partition wall is situated between two absolutely rigid barriers, one of them by harmonic oscillation with a given displacements amplitude on the plate forms the incident sound wave, and the other is stationary and has a coating of deformable energy absorbing material with high damping properties. The behavior of acoustic environments in the spaces between the deformable plate and the barriers described by classical wave equation based on the ideal compressible fluid model. To describe the process of dynamic deformation of the energy absorbing coating of fixed barrier, two-dimensional equations of motion based on the use of models transversely soft layer are derived with a linear approximation of the displacement field in the thickness direction of the coating and taking into account the damping properties of the material and the hysteresis model for it. The influence of the physical and mechanical properties of the concerned mechanical system and the frequency of the incident sound wave on the parameters of its insulation properties of the plate, as well as on the parameters of the stress-strain state of the plate has been analyzed.

  9. Divergent plate motion drives rapid exhumation of (ultra)high pressure rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jie; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Gerya, Taras

    2018-06-01

    Exhumation of (ultra)high pressure [(U)HP] rocks by upper-plate divergent motion above an unbroken slab, first proposed in the Western Alps, has never been tested by numerical methods. We present 2D thermo-mechanical models incorporating subduction of a thinned continental margin beneath either a continental or oceanic upper plate, followed by upper-plate divergent motion away from the lower plate. Results demonstrate how divergent plate motion may trigger rapid exhumation of large volumes of (U)HP rocks directly to the Earth's surface, without the need for significant overburden removal by erosion. Model exhumation paths are fully consistent with natural examples for a wide range of upper-plate divergence rates. Exhumation rates are systematically higher than the divergent rate imposed to the upper plate, and the modeled size of exhumed (U)HP domes is invariant for different rates of upper-plate divergence. Major variations are instead predicted at depth for differing model scenarios, as larger amounts of divergent motion may allow mantle-wedge exhumation to shallow depth under the exhuming domes. The transient temperature increase, due to ascent of mantle-wedge material in the subduction channel, has a limited effect on exhumed continental (U)HP rocks already at the surface. We test two examples, the Cenozoic (U)HP terranes of the Western Alps (continental upper plate) and eastern Papua New Guinea (oceanic upper plate). The good fit between model predictions and the geologic record in these terranes encourages the application of these models globally to pre-Cenozoic (U)HP terranes where the geologic record of exhumation is only partly preserved.

  10. How broad and deep is the region of chemical alteration of oceanic plates at trenches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranero, C. R.; Grevemeyer, I.; Barckhausen, U.

    2017-12-01

    Different lines of evidence indicate that oceanic plates are affected by pervasive bending-related deformation approaching ocean trenches. Results from active-seismic work support that deformation provides paths for exchange between hydrosphere and lithosphere, possibly causing chemical alteration of the incoming lithosphere. Much work focused on the potential transformation of peridotite to serpentine in the uppermost mantle of incoming plates, but there is no consensus on the region where it may occur or the intensity of alteration, let alone on limiting factors for the process. Teleseismic (large-great) earthquakes with normal-fault mechanism in the outer rise region have been often called to speculate on the depth of penetration of plate hydration. However, large-great outer-rise earthquakes may be related to stress changes due to slab pull after decoupling along the inter-plate boundary, and not necessarily controlled by bending stresses only. If so, the majority of the time the depth of water percolation may be related to local bending stresses expressed by micro-earthquakes rather than large events. Seismic images and multibeam bathymetry from lithosphere of similar thermal thickness from different trenches display a remarkable variability of the intensity of bending-related deformation along the subduction zones where plate age does not change significantly indicating that the intensity of deformation (not the depth) and perhaps hydration is very variable in space and not controlled by plate age. Seismic images showing hundreds of kilometers perpendicular to the trench into the incoming plate show that the bending-related deformation reaches mantle under the outer rise, well before the lithosphere plunges into the trench and develops the marked bend-faulting fabric observable in bathymetric maps. Thus, alteration occurs in a hundreds-of-km wide area, with deformation intensity related to local characteristics, and deformation depth to plate age.

  11. Spirit Begins Drive Around Home Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,829th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars (Feb. 24, 2009). On Sol 1829, Spirit drove 6.29 meters (21 feet) northwestward, away from the northern edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The track dug by the dragged right-front wheel as the rover drove backward is visible in this image, receding toward the southeast. Rock layers of the northern slope of Home Plate are visible in the upper right portion of the image. In sols prior to 1829, the rover team had been trying to maneuver Spirit to climb onto the northern edge of Home Plate, ready to drive southward across the top of the plateau toward science destinations south of Home Plate. The Sol 1829 drive was the first move of a revised strategy to circle at least partway around Home Plate on the trek toward the sites south of the plateau.

  12. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    serpentinite layer existing near the base of the crust that is interpreted to have been formed at mid-ocean ... Keywords. Diffusive plate boundary; deformation zone; diapiric structure; serpentinized peridotites; crustal structure; ... calculated by applying Eotvos correction and nor- ..... trend of the basement and flat Moho, and.

  13. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  14. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  15. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  16. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  17. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  18. Experimental investigation of the unsteady two-phase flow through perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglia, G.P.

    1985-07-01

    The coolant flow across the perforated dip-plate during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor was simulated in a one-dimensional model. Experiments with a water-air mixture as fluid were run by varying the following parameters: geometry of the dip-plate (perforation ratio, number of the holes), height of the fluid head over the dip-plate, air volumetric fraction, size of the air bubbles, acceleration of the fluid. The pressure drop across the dip-plate, the forces acting on the dip-plate and on the upper plate, acceleration and displacement of the piston, the air volumetric fraction and the size of the air bubbles were measured in a wide range of Strouhal and acceleration numbers. The flow pattern downstream the dip-plate was filmed with a high-speed camera. The following correlations were investigated: resistance coefficients as a function of the acceleration and Strouhal number, time delay of the force on the upper plate as a function of the cavitation number, and forces and impulses acting on the upper plate compared with those acting on the dip-plate. Finally, using high-speed film pictures, the formation of fluid jets downstream the dip-plate was investigated. The following relations were obtained: displacement of the mixture surface and of the jets as a function of the perforation ratio and of the air volumetric fraction, and cavitation volume as a function of the cavitation number. (orig.) [de

  19. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  20. Study of the effect of aggressive media on the long-term stability of reinforced plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelentsov, D.G.; Pochtman, Yu.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many important load-bearing structural elements that operate in agressive media are subjected to simultaneous mechanical and chemical attack. The current status of the problem of designing such members is adequately reflected. It follows from that only a few studies have been devoted to the long-term stability of reinforced plates in aggressive media, and most of them were based on structurally orthotropic theory. Such an approach makes it impossible to construct an adequate model of the deformation process. In particular, it precludes allowance for the effect of the discreteness of the reinforcement on plate stability and determination of changes in the character of deformation of the plate during service

  1. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  2. Post-collisional deformation of the Anatolides and motion of the Arabian indenter: A paleomagnetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, J; Tatar, O; Gursoy, H; Mesci, B L; Kocbulut, F; Huang, B

    2008-01-01

    In the Anatolides of Turkey the neotectonic (post collisional) phase of deformation embraces the period since final closure of the southern arm of Neotethys in mid-Miocene times. The Arabian Shield indenter has continued to deform into the weak Anatolian accretionary collage resulting from subduction of this ocean by a combination of differential movement relative to the African Plate and counterclockwise (CCW) rotation. Much of resulting deformation has been accommodated by slip along major transforms comprising the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) and the northward extension of the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ) but has also been distributed as differential block rotations through the zone of weak crust in between. Facets of this deformation comprise crustal thickening and uplift to produce the Anatolian Plateau, establishment of transform faults and tectonic escape as Arabia has continued to impinge into the Anatolian collage. Paleomagnetic analysis of this deformation is facilitated by the widespread distribution of neotectonic volcanism and graben infills, and rotations relative to the Eurasian reference frame are recognised on two scales. Rapid rotation (up to 5 0 /10,000 years) of small fault blocks is identified between master faults along the intracontinental transforms but deformation does not extend away from these zones and shows that seismogenic upper crust is decoupled from a lower continental lithosphere undergoing continuum deformation. The broad area of weak accreted crust between the transforms is dissected into large fault blocks which exhibit much lower rotation rates (mostly 0 /100,000 years) that vary systematically across the Anatolides. Large CCW rotations near the Arabian indenter diminish westwards to become zero then CW near the limit of tectonic escape in western Turkey. The view that the collage has rotated anticlockwise as a single plate, either uniformly or episodically, during the Neotectonic era is

  3. A GPS Modeling Study of Earthquakes and Deformation in Northern Central America and along the Middle America Trench: 1999 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Andria P.

    Northern Central America is a tectonically complicated region prone to hazardous earthquakes due to the confluence of the Motagua-Polochic fault zone with the Middle America trench and strike-slip faults in the Central America volcanic arc. These three major fault zones converge at the western end of the Caribbean plate where the Cocos plate subducts under the North America and Caribbean plates. Literature from the 1970s and 1980s focused on whether a discrete North America-Caribbean-Cocos plate triple junction existed, and how the relative motions of the upper North America and Caribbean plates were accommodated. The discovery of a fourth major crustal block, the Central America forearc sliver, from seismic and geodetic observations made a three-plate triple junction geometrically impossible and introduced a new set of questions related to how deformation of the upper plate accommodates relative movements between the Caribbean plate, North America plate, and Central America forearc sliver where they intersect in the upper plate. My dissertation uses GPS and numerical modeling to measure and quantify earthquake transients and crustal deformation related to fault interactions in northern Central America and consists of three related chapters. The first chapter of my dissertation is a geodetic study of a M w = 7.4 subduction zone earthquake that occurred in 2012 offshore from our Guatemala GPS (Global Positioning System) network. For this study, I inverted coseismic site offsets and postseismic amplitudes to determine best-fitting coseismic and afterslip rupture distributions on the Middle America trench. I also determined the maximum likely viscoelastic deformation for the earthquake to test whether the transient postseismic deformation was dominated by fault afterslip or viscoelastic flow. This work was published in Geophysical Journal International in January 2015. The second chapter of my dissertation derives a new 200+ site GPS velocity field for northern

  4. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

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  6. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  7. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

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    Full Text Available ... 800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close ... your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ...

  20. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  1. Create Your Plate

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  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  3. Create Your Plate

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  4. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  5. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Is nucleon deformed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1992-01-01

    The surprising answer to this question Is nucleon deformed? is : Yes. The evidence comes from a study of the quark model of the single nucleon and when it is found in a nucleus. It turns out that many of the long standing problems of the Naive Quark Model are taken care of if the nucleon is assumed to be deformed. Only one value of the parameter P D ∼1/4 (which specifies deformation) fits g A (the axial vector coupling constant) for all the semileptonic decay of baryons, the F/D ratio, the pion-nucleon-delta coupling constant fsub(πNΔ), the double delta coupling constant 1 fsub(πΔΔ), the Ml transition moment μΔN and g 1 p the spin structure function of proton 2 . All this gives strong hint that both neutron and proton are deformed. It is important to look for further signatures of this deformation. When this deformed nucleon finds itself in a nuclear medium its deformation decreases. So much that in a heavy nucleus the nucleons are actually spherical. We look into the Gamow-Teller strengths, magnetic moments and magnetic transition strengths in nuclei to study this property. (author). 15 refs

  7. Simulation of Stamping Process of Automotive Panel Considering Die Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Y.T.; Ahn, I.H.; Lee, I.K.; Song, M.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Park, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to see the effect of die deformation on the forming of sheet metals, the draw-ins, strains, and spring-backs of an automotive fender panels are numerically simulated considering the die deformation, which is found by the simultaneous structural analysis of press and dies. By coupling the forming analysis and the structural analysis, the die deformation is simultaneously taken into account in the forming process. Furthermore, for the consideration of load difference transferred among the upper die, punch, and blank holder due to the changes in sheet thickness, the gap elements are employed instead of the blank sheet in the structural analysis. The numerical simulation results of an automotive fender draw panel are compared with the measurements. The comparison of the forming and spring-back analysis results between the rigid die and the deformed die shows that the deformed tool provides more accurate forming and spring-back prediction

  8. Biomechanical study: resistance comparison of posterior antiglide plate and lateral plate on synthetic bone models simulating Danis-Weber B malleolar fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Buscharino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to compare different positions of plates in lateral malleolar Danis-Weber B fractures on synthetic bone: a lateral plate and a posterior antiglide plate. METHODS : Short oblique fractures of distal fibula at the level of the syndesmosys were simulated with a fibular osteotomy in sixteen synthetic fibula bones (Synbone®. Eight fractures were fixed with lateral plating associated with an independent lag screw, and the other eight were fixed with posterior antiglide plating with a lag screw through the plate. A strain gage was installed at the center of each plate at the osteotomy site. Supination and external rotation forces were applied to each of the two groups at the bend. RESULTS : The lateral position plate group suffered more deformity in response to supination forces compared to the group with the posterior antiglide plate, but this result was not statistically significant. In the tests with external rotation forces, the posterior antiglide plating group had significantly higher resistance (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION : When subjected to external rotation forces, osteosynthesis with posterior antiglide plate models simulating type B fractures of the lateral malleolus of the ankle is more resistant than that of the neutralization plate.

  9. Deformable image registration using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppenhof, Koen A. J.; Lafarge, Maxime W.; Moeskops, Pim; Veta, Mitko; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2018-03-01

    Deformable image registration can be time-consuming and often needs extensive parameterization to perform well on a specific application. We present a step towards a registration framework based on a three-dimensional convolutional neural network. The network directly learns transformations between pairs of three-dimensional images. The outputs of the network are three maps for the x, y, and z components of a thin plate spline transformation grid. The network is trained on synthetic random transformations, which are applied to a small set of representative images for the desired application. Training therefore does not require manually annotated ground truth deformation information. The methodology is demonstrated on public data sets of inspiration-expiration lung CT image pairs, which come with annotated corresponding landmarks for evaluation of the registration accuracy. Advantages of this methodology are its fast registration times and its minimal parameterization.

  10. Paléocontraintes et déformations syn- et post-collision Afrique Europe identifiées dans la couverture mésozoïque et cénozoïque du Haut Atlas occidental (Maroc)Syn- and post-collision Africa Europe palaeostresses and deformations identified in the West High-Atlas Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhar, Mostafa

    Palaeostresses and deformation axis reconstruction related to the intracontinental High-Atlas uplift evidences two shortening phases from Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary. The first compression is oriented N20-30°E and is Maastrichtian to Oligocene age; the second one, oriented N120-160°E, is syn-Mio-Pliocene. Tectonic inversion of the lateral to compressive Jurassic regime is contemporaneous with the beginning of Africa and Europe collision. Rotation of the Mio-Pliocene shortening orientation could be linked to the change of the convergence direction between the Africa and Europe plates. To cite this article: M. Amrhar, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 279-285.

  11. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fanuel@students.itb.ac.id; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: prijatna@gd.itb.ac.id; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: irwan.meilano@gd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  12. Mismatch Between Interseismic Ground Deformation and Paleoseismic/Paleogeodetic Observations, Humboldt Bay, Northern California, Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. R.; Williams, T. B.; Leroy, T. H.; Anderson, J. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Gilkerson, W.

    2011-12-01

    studies, like Wang et al., 2003), but Humboldt Bay has regions that subsided coseismically that are also subsiding interseismically. The sense of motion mismatch is probably due to at least (1) upper plate deformation (co- or inter-seismic) and/or (2) some process that is inconsistent with existing subduction zone models. Since the interseismic deformation is found across multiple upper-plate structures it is probably not influenced by those faults. However, coseismic motion on these faults cannot be ruled out. Future geodetic measurements may further reveal the region of locking on the megathrust (and provide a measure for natural hazards), but paleoseismic records and their paleogeodetic record likely better reveal the catastrophic changes we expect in the future as they are measures of coseismic changes.

  13. Effect of matrix cracking and material uncertainty on composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, P.; Umesh, K.; Ganguli, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laminated composite plate model based on first order shear deformation theory is implemented using the finite element method. Matrix cracks are introduced into the finite element model by considering changes in the A, B and D matrices of composites. The effects of different boundary conditions, laminate types and ply angles on the behavior of composite plates with matrix cracks are studied. Finally, the effect of material property uncertainty, which is important for composite material on the composite plate, is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Probabilistic estimates of damage detection reliability in composite plates are made for static and dynamic measurements. It is found that the effect of uncertainty must be considered for accurate damage detection in composite structures. The estimates of variance obtained for observable system properties due to uncertainty can be used for developing more robust damage detection algorithms.

  14. Amniotic Constriction Bands: Secondary Deformities and Their Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Benjamin T; Rayan, Ghazi M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the surgical treatment experience of patients with amniotic constriction bands (ACB) over a 35-year interval and detail consequential limb deformities with emphasis on hands and upper extremities, along with the nature and frequency of their surgical treatment methods. Fifty-one patients were identified; 26 were males and 25 females. The total number of deformities was listed. The total number of operations, individual procedures, and operations plus procedures that were done for each patient and their frequency were recorded. The total number of operations was 117, and total number of procedures was 341. More procedures were performed on the upper extremity (85%) than the lower extremity (15%). Including the primary deformity ACB, 16 different hand deformities secondary to ACB were encountered. Sixteen different surgical methods for the upper extremity were utilized; a primary procedure for ACB and secondary reconstructions for all secondary deformities. Average age at the time of the first procedure was 9.3 months. The most common procedures performed, in order of frequency, were excision of ACB plus Z-plasty, release of partial syndactyly, release of fenestrated syndactyly, full-thickness skin grafts, resection of digital bony overgrowth from amputation stumps, and deepening of first and other digital web spaces. Many hand and upper extremity deformities secondary to ACB are encountered. Children with ACB may require more than one operation including multiple procedures. Numerous surgical methods of reconstruction for these children's secondary deformities are necessary in addition to the customary primary procedure of excision of ACB and Z-plasty.

  15. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier

    2014-01-16

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how eastern Anatolia and its surrounding plates deform. We find that most of the deformation is focused at the North and East Anatolian faults and little intraplate deformation takes place. Anatolia is therefore moving, at least its eastern part, as a uniform block. We estimate the slip velocity and locking depth of the North Anatolian fault at this location to be 20 mm/yr and ~14 km, respectively. High deformation gradient found near the East Anatolian fault, on the other hand, suggests that little stress is accumulating along the eastern sections of that fault.

  16. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  17. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  18. Rheological structure of the lithosphere in plate boundary strike-slip fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; Tikoff, Basil; Kruckenberg, Seth C.; Newman, Julie; Titus, Sarah J.; Withers, Anthony C.; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-04-01

    How well constrained is the rheological structure of the lithosphere in plate boundary strike-slip fault systems? Further, how do lithospheric layers, with rheologically distinct behaviors, interact within the strike-slip fault zones? To address these questions, we present rheological observations from the mantle sections of two lithospheric-scale, strike-slip fault zones. Xenoliths from ˜40 km depth (970-1100 ° C) beneath the San Andreas fault system (SAF) provide critical constraints on the mechanical stratification of the lithosphere in this continental transform fault. Samples from the Bogota Peninsula shear zone (BPSZ, New Caledonia), which is an exhumed oceanic transform fault, provide insights on lateral variations in mantle strength and viscosity across the fault zone at a depth corresponding to deformation temperatures of ˜900 ° C. Olivine recrystallized grain size piezometry suggests that the shear stress in the SAF upper mantle is 5-9 MPa and in the BPSZ is 4-10 MPa. Thus, the mantle strength in both fault zones is comparable to the crustal strength (˜10 MPa) of seismogenic strike-slip faults in the SAF system. Across the BPSZ, shear stress increases from 4 MPa in the surrounding rocks to 10 MPa in the mylonites, which comprise the core of the shear zone. Further, the BPSZ is characterized by at least one order of magnitude difference in the viscosity between the mylonites (1018 Paṡs) and the surrounding rocks (1019 Paṡs). Mantle viscosity in both the BPSZ mylonites and the SAF (7.0ṡ1018-3.1ṡ1020 Paṡs) is relatively low. To explain our observations from these two strike-slip fault zones, we propose the "lithospheric feedback" model in which the upper crust and lithospheric mantle act together as an integrated system. Mantle flow controls displacement and the upper crust controls the stress magnitude in the system. Our stress data combined with data that are now available for the middle and lower crustal sections of other transcurrent fault

  19. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  20. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  1. Stacks with TiN/titanium as the bipolar plate for PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Dongming; Wang, Zaiyi

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a potential alternative for the internal combustion engine. But many problems, such as metallic bipolar plate instead of graphite bipolar plate to decrease the cost, should be solved before its application. Based on the previous results that single cell with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates shows high performance and enough long-time durability, the progress on the stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates is reported in this manuscript. Till now seldom report is focused on stacks because of the complicated processing technique, especially for that with TiN/Ti as bipolar plate. The flow field in the plate is punched from titanium deformation, and two plates are welded by laser welding to form one piece of bipolar plate. The adopted processing techniques for stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plate exhibit advantage and feasibility in industry. The power density by weight for the stack is as high as 1353 W kg −1 , although it still has space to be improved. Next work should be focused on the design of flow channel parameters and flow field type based on plastic deformation of metal materials. -- Highlights: ► The progress on the stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates is reported. ► The adopted processing techniques exhibit feasibility in industry. ► The power density by weight for the stack is as high as 1353 W kg −1 .

  2. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  3. Relative motions of the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates estimated by the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.

  4. Acoustic excitation of containment insulation cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, H.; Rao, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical program has been implemented by NRC-BNL since 1975 at the University of California, Santa Barbara to assess the reliability of the PCRV thermal insulation cover plate and the possible safety problem caused by the failure of this plate. A typical large HTGR PCRV unit [1160 MW(e)] and thermal insulation class A were selected. The upper core cavity is estimated to be the most critical volume where the noise pressure levels are expected to reach 110 to 130 dB (rel. to 2 x 10 -4 dynes/cm 2 ). The noise spectrum in that cavity is a composite of circulator noise, vortex shedding boundary layer turbulence, and flow impingement. Some anticipated safety related problems associated with the thermal insulation failure are examined

  5. Rough horizontal plates: heat transfer and hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisserand, J-C; Gasteuil, Y; Pabiou, H; Castaing, B; Chilla, F [Universite de Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS, 46 Allee d' ltalie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 7 (France); Creyssels, M [LMFA, CNRS, Ecole Centrale Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Gibert, M, E-mail: mathieu.creyssels@ec-lyon.fr [Also at MPI-DS (LFPN) Gottingen (Germany)

    2011-12-22

    To investigate the influence of a rough-wall boundary layer on turbulent heat transport, an experiment of high-Rayleigh convection in water is carried out in a Rayleigh-Benard cell with a rough lower plate and a smooth upper plate. A transition in the heat transport is observed when the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to or smaller than the roughness height. Besides, at larger Rayleigh numbers than the threshold value, heat transport is found to be increased up to 60%. This enhancement cannot be explained simply by an increase in the contact area of the rough surface since the contact area is increased only by a factor of 40%. Finally, a simple model is proposed to explain the enhanced heat transport.

  6. The Importance of Lower Mantle Structure to Plate Stresses and Plate Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, W. E.; Wang, X.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Plate motions and plate stresses are widely assumed as the surface expression of mantle convection. The generation of plate tectonics from mantle convection has been studied for many years. Lithospheric thickening (or ridge push) and slab pull forces are commonly accepted as the major driving forces for the plate motions. However, the importance of the lower mantle to plate stresses and plate motions remains less clear. Here, we use the joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics approach of Wang et al. (2015) to compute the tractions originating from deeper mantle convection and follow the method of Ghosh et al. (2013) to calculate gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) based on Crust 1.0 (Laske et al., 2013). Absolute values of deviatoric stresses are determined by the body force distributions (GPE gradients and traction magnitudes applied at the base of the lithosphere). We use the same relative viscosity model that Ghosh et al. (2013) used, and we solve for one single adjustable scaling factor that multiplies the entire relative viscosity field to provide absolute values of viscosity throughout the lithosphere. This distribution of absolute values of lithosphere viscosities defines the magnitudes of surface motions. In this procedure, the dynamic model first satisfies the internal constraint of no-net-rotation of motions. The model viscosity field is then scaled by the single factor until we achieve a root mean square (RMS) minimum between computed surface motions and the kinematic no-net-rotation (NNR) model of Kreemer et al. (2006). We compute plate stresses and plate motions from recently published global tomography models (over 70 based on Wang et al., 2015). We find that RMS misfits are significantly reduced when details of lower mantle structure from the latest tomography models are added to models that contain only upper and mid-mantle density distributions. One of the key reasons is that active upwelling from the Large Low Shear

  7. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  8. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the growth plate: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.

    2003-01-01

    The approach to musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very different in children than adults because of different disease processes, immature structures and the variable size and age of the patients. Use of routine adult musculoskeletal protocols and techniques may not provide sufficient information in children, and most pediatric examinations should be customized to specifically address the child's age and clinical problem. This pictorial essay will illustrate MRI of the growth plate - often an area of uncertainty or error for radiologists who infrequently perform musculoskeletal MRI on children. The growth plate or physis is a structure unique to the growing skeleton. It is a cartilaginous zone located between the epiphysis and the metaphysis that functions to provide longitudinal bone growth. Disturbance of physeal growth as a result of trauma, infection, tumour, ischemia or radiation can result in leg length discrepancy, angular deformity or altered joint mechanics and cause significant long-term disability. MRI can directly image cartilaginous structures and has thus become the imaging method of choice for evaluation of the growth plate. An understanding of the normal and abnormal appearance of growth cartilage and of MRI protocols optimized for imaging the growth plate, combined with an approach to risk assessment for the development of significant growth deformity, is needed to confidently image the growth plate and help direct the management of these patients. (author)

  10. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Neprochnov, Y.P.

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises...

  11. Large-Scale Deformation and Uplift Associated with Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.; Smith, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    promote thrust-type events in the aseismic slip zone near the upper boundary of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate. Thermal effects of serpentinization in both regions are small.

  12. Static and Monoharmonic Acoustic Impact on a Laminated Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Gazizullin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    A discrete layered damping model of a multilayer plate at small displacements and deformations, with account of the internal damping of layers according to the Thompson-Kelvin-Voight model, is presented. Based on the equations derived, an analytical solution to the static deformation problem for single-layer rectangular plate hinge-supported along its contour and subjected of a uniformly distributed pressure applied to one of its boundary planes is obtained. Its convergence to the three-dimensional solution is analyzed in relation to the dimension of mesh in the thickness direction of the plate. It is found that, for thin plates, the dimension of the problem formulated can be reduced on the basis of simplified hypotheses applied to each layer. An analytical solutions is also constructed for the forced vibrations of two- and three-layer rectangular plates hinged in the opening of an absolutely stiff dividing wall upon transmission of a monoharmonic sound wave through them. It was assumed that the dividing wall is situated between two absolutely stiff barriers; one of them, owing to the harmonic vibration with a given displacement amplitude of the plate, forms an incident sound wave, and the other is stationary and is coated by a energy-absorbing material with high damping properties. Behavior of the acoustic media in spaces between the deformable plate and the barriers is described by the classical wave equations based on the model of an ideal compressible fluid. To describe the process of dynamic deformation of the energy-absorbing coating of the fixed barrier, two-dimensional equations of motion are derived based on the model of a transversely soft layer, a linear approximation of displacement fields in the thickness direction of the coating, and the account of damping properties of its material by using the hysteresis model. The effect of physical and mechanical parameters of the mechanical system considered and of frequency of the incident sound wave on the

  13. Advanced Modelling of Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jacob

    Most of the finite element programs for design of timber trusses with punched metal fasteners are based on models using beam and fictitious elements. Different models have been used for different types of joints. Common problems for all the models are how to calculate the forces in the nail groups...... and the plates and furthermore, how big 'the deformations in the joints are. By developing an advanced model that includes all parts of the joint, i.e. plate, nail groups and contact it is possible to give a better description of the joint. An advanced model with these properties is presented. The advanced model...

  14. Aperture-based antihydrogen gravity experiment: Parallel plate geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, J. R.; Hedlof, R. M.; Ordonez, C. A. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    An analytical model and a Monte Carlo simulation are presented of an experiment that could be used to determine the direction of the acceleration of antihydrogen due to gravity. The experiment would rely on methods developed by existing antihydrogen research collaborations. The configuration consists of two circular, parallel plates that have an axis of symmetry directed away from the center of the earth. The plates are separated by a small vertical distance, and include one or more pairs of circular barriers that protrude from the upper and lower plates, thereby forming an aperture between the plates. Antihydrogen annihilations that occur just beyond each barrier, within a “shadow” region, are asymmetric on the upper plate relative to the lower plate. The probability for such annihilations is determined for a point, line and spheroidal source of antihydrogen. The production of 100,000 antiatoms is predicted to be necessary for the aperture-based experiment to indicate the direction of free fall acceleration of antimatter, provided that antihydrogen is produced within a sufficiently small antiproton plasma at a temperature of 4 K.

  15. Aperture-based antihydrogen gravity experiment: Parallel plate geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J. R.; Hedlof, R. M.; Ordonez, C. A.

    2013-10-01

    An analytical model and a Monte Carlo simulation are presented of an experiment that could be used to determine the direction of the acceleration of antihydrogen due to gravity. The experiment would rely on methods developed by existing antihydrogen research collaborations. The configuration consists of two circular, parallel plates that have an axis of symmetry directed away from the center of the earth. The plates are separated by a small vertical distance, and include one or more pairs of circular barriers that protrude from the upper and lower plates, thereby forming an aperture between the plates. Antihydrogen annihilations that occur just beyond each barrier, within a "shadow" region, are asymmetric on the upper plate relative to the lower plate. The probability for such annihilations is determined for a point, line and spheroidal source of antihydrogen. The production of 100,000 antiatoms is predicted to be necessary for the aperture-based experiment to indicate the direction of free fall acceleration of antimatter, provided that antihydrogen is produced within a sufficiently small antiproton plasma at a temperature of 4 K.

  16. Aperture-based antihydrogen gravity experiment: Parallel plate geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model and a Monte Carlo simulation are presented of an experiment that could be used to determine the direction of the acceleration of antihydrogen due to gravity. The experiment would rely on methods developed by existing antihydrogen research collaborations. The configuration consists of two circular, parallel plates that have an axis of symmetry directed away from the center of the earth. The plates are separated by a small vertical distance, and include one or more pairs of circular barriers that protrude from the upper and lower plates, thereby forming an aperture between the plates. Antihydrogen annihilations that occur just beyond each barrier, within a “shadow” region, are asymmetric on the upper plate relative to the lower plate. The probability for such annihilations is determined for a point, line and spheroidal source of antihydrogen. The production of 100,000 antiatoms is predicted to be necessary for the aperture-based experiment to indicate the direction of free fall acceleration of antimatter, provided that antihydrogen is produced within a sufficiently small antiproton plasma at a temperature of 4 K.

  17. Eddy current heating of irregularly shaped plates by slow ramped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1979-01-01

    Theorems are presented for estimating eddy current heating of irregularly shaped plates by a perpendicular ramped field. The theorems, which are derived from two complementary variational principles, give upper and lower bounds to the eddy current heating. Illustrative results are given for rectangles, isosceles triangles, sectors of circular annuli, rhombuses, and L-shaped plates. A comparison is made with earlier work

  18. Octupole Deformed Nuclei in the Actinide Region

    CERN Multimedia

    Thorsteinsen, T; Rubio barroso, B; Simpson, J; Gulda, K; Sanchez-vega, M; Cocks, J; Nybo, K; Garcia borge, M; Aas, A; Fogelberg, B; Honsi, J; Smith, G; Naumann, R; Grant, I

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the limits of the "island" of octupole deformation in the mass region A=225. It is of particular importance to demonstrate experimentally the sudden disappearance of the stable octupole deformation in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field. \\\\ \\\\In order to establish the upper border line the $\\beta$ -decay chains of $^{227}$Rn $\\rightarrow ^{227}$Fr $\\rightarrow ^{227}$Ra and $^{231}$Fr $\\rightarrow ^{231}$Ra $\\rightarrow ^{231}$Ac were studied at PSB-ISOLDE using advanced fast timing and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy techniques. The lifetimes of the excited states have been measured in the picosecond range using the time-delayed $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) method.

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  5. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  6. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  7. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  8. Refined shear correction factor for very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    For moderately thick plates, the use of First order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) with a constant shear correction factor of 5/6 is sufficient to take into account the plate deflection arising from transverse shear deformation. For very thick plates, the use of Third order Shear Deformation Theory (TSDT) is preferred as it allows the shear strain distribution to be varied through the plate thickness. Therefore no correction factor is required in TSDT, unlike FSDT. Due to the complexity involved in TSDT, this paper obtains a more accurate shear correction factor for use in FSDT of very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular plates based on the TSDT. By matching the maximum deflections for this plate according to FSDT and TSDT, a variable shear correction factor is obtained. Results show that the shear correction factor for the simplified TSDT, i.e. 14/17, is least accurate. The commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 in FSDT is valid only for very thin or highly auxetic plates. This paper provides a variable shear correction for FSDT deflection that matches the plate deflection by TSDT. This variable shear correction factor allows designers to justify the use of a commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 even for very thick plates as long as the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. (paper)

  9. Investigation of the three-dimensional thermoelastic deformation of the core structure of a fast breeder reactor under stationary working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Su, Hoang.

    1976-12-01

    In this study a method is described which has been developed in order to calculate three-dimensional deformation of the reactor core, taking into account thermal expansion. Two problem areas are of particular importance: 1) The spatial deflection of subassemblies in specified flexible supports and with specified clearances; 2) The investigation of the equilibrium configurations of the subassemblies in the planes of clamping (problem of clamping plane). - The elementary theory of beam deflection has been used to calculate the deformation of subassemblies. However, particular problems have been encountered as a result of flexibly designed support configurations having some spatial clearances. The problem has essentially been solved in two steps: a) Uniqueness analysis of the beam-support configuration; b) Calculation of the support loads and bending line for the unique beam-support configuration. - Basic difficulties currently prevent the problem of clamping plane being solved in a satisfactory manner. Therefore, a simplified clamping model was used for supports without spatial clearance and a parametric study was performed for supports having spatial clearance. The computation method developed is applied to the MARK I core of SNR 300. Core deformations are calculated under different support conditions for the subassemblies in the grid plate and in the upper clamping plane. (orig./HR) [de

  10. Quechua II contraction in the Ayacucho intermontane basin: Evidence for rapid and episodic Neogene deformation in the Andes of central Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James M.; Noble, Donald C.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.; Spell, Terry L.

    2008-12-01

    In the Ayacucho basin of central Perú the regional Quechua II contractional deformation is bracketed by 40Ar/ 39Ar isotopic age determinations to a maximum duration of about 300,000 years, and probably less than 150,000 years, centered on 8.7 Ma. The strongly deformed Huanta Formation beneath the Quechua II angular unconformity was deposited during a period of extension that began before 9.05 ± 0.05 Ma. Deposition of a thick succession of alluvial fan deposits interbedded with flows of basaltic andesite in the Tingrayoc Member continued up to about 8.76 ± 0.05 Ma with the later part of the sedimentary record reflected by lacustrine deposits of the Mayocc Member. The upper limit on contractional deformation is constrained by an age of 8.64 ± 0.05 Ma on a unit of tuff near the base of the Puchcas volcanics, which in places was deposited upon near-vertical beds of the Huanta Formation. The Ayacucho Formation was deposited, locally unconformably, upon the Puchcas volcanics beginning slightly before 7.65 ± 0.10 Ma. Extended periods of neutral to tensional stress interrupted by rapid well-developed pulses of contractional deformation demonstrate the episodic behavior of Andean orogeny in Perú. The very short duration for the Quechua II event implies that driving forces for episodic deformation may be related to coupling along the orogen boundaries and strain accumulation and release mechanisms in the continental crust instead of much longer-term variations in the configuration of converging plates.

  11. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  12. Main factors controlling the sedimentation of high-quality shale in the Wufeng–Longmaxi Fm, Upper Yangtze region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuman Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the shale of Upper Ordovician Wufeng Fm–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm was taken as an example to reveal the distribution patterns and the main sedimentation controlling factors of high-quality shale in the Upper Yangtze region. This study was made from the aspects of plate movement, fluctuation of sea level, palaeo-productivity, deposition rate and paleogeographic environment, based on the field outcrop sections and drilling data of the southern Sichuan Basin, together with geochemical element testing and biostratigraphical analysis results. The following findings were obtained. First, the collision and joint of Yangtze Plate and its periphery plates and the intra-plate deformation were gentle in the early stage, strong in the late stage, gentle in northwest and strong in southeast, so the sedimentation center in the Upper Yangtze region migrated to the northwest and the closure of sea area in the southern Sichuan Basin changed from weak in early stages to strong in late stages. Second, at the turning period from Ordovician to Silurian, sea levels presented the cycle change of deep–shallow–deep–shallow. Due to the combination of high sea levels and a stable ocean basin in early stages, an extensive anoxic tectonic sedimentary space favorable for organic matters preservation was formed in the sea floor. Third, due to the effect of tectonic movements and sea closure, palaeo-productivity of sea areas in the southern Sichuan Basin presented a trend of being high in the early stage and low in the late stage, and the deposition rate was also low in the early stage and high in the late stage. And fourth, extensive deposition and distribution of shale rich in organic matters and silica was mainly controlled by a stable sea basin with a low subsidence rate, a relatively high sea level, semi-closed waters and low deposition rates. To sum up, the high-quality shale in the Upper Yangtze region is characterized by multiphase

  13. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  14. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  15. 3-D Simulation of Tectonic Evolution in Mariana with a Coupled Model of Plate Subduction and Back-Arc Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Matsu'Ura, M.

    2006-12-01

    We obtained the expressions for internal deformation fields due to a moment tensor in an elastic-viscoelastic layered holf-space. This unified formulation of internal deformation fields for shear faulting and crack opening enabled us to deal with the problem of tectonic deformation at a composite type of plate boundary zones. The tectonic deformation can be ascribed to mechanical interaction at plate boundaries, which make a closed circuit with the mode of relative plate motion changing from divergence to convergence through transcurrent motion. One of the rational ways to represent mechanical interaction at plate boundaries is specifying the increase rates of normal or tangential displacement discontinuity across plate interfaces. On the basis of such a basic idea we developed a 3-D simulation model for the nonlinear, coupled system of plate subduction and back-arc spreading in Mariana. Through numerical simulations we revealed the evolution process of back-arc spreading. At the first stage, steady plate subduction (shear faulting at a plate interface) gradually forms tensile stress fields in the back-arc region of the overriding plate. When the accumulated tensile stress reaches a critical level, back-arc spreading (crack opening) starts at a structurally weak portion of the overriding plate. The horizontal motion of the frontal part of the overriding plate due to back-arc spreading pushes out the plate boundary toward the oceanic plate. In steady-state plate subduction the shear stress acting on a plate interface must balance with the maximum frictional resistance (shear strength) of the plate interface. Therefore, the increase of shear stress at the plate interface leads to the increase of slip rate at the plate interface. The local increase of slip rate at the plate interface produces the additional tensile stress in the back-arc region. The increased tensile stress must be canceled out by the additional crack opening. Such a feedback mechanism between plate

  16. Joining by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Ken-ichiro; Bay, Niels; Fratini, Livan

    2013-01-01

    As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating opportuni......As the scale and complexity of products such as aircraft and cars increase, demand for new functional processes to join mechanical parts grows. The use of plastic deformation for joining parts potentially offers improved accuracy, reliability and environmental safety as well as creating...

  17. Modeling and simulation of thermally actuated bilayer plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Sören; Bonito, Andrea; Muliana, Anastasia H.; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2018-02-01

    We present a mathematical model of polymer bilayers that undergo large bending deformations when actuated by non-mechanical stimuli such as thermal effects. The simple model captures a large class of nonlinear bending effects and can be discretized with standard plate elements. We devise a fully practical iterative scheme and apply it to the simulation of folding of several practically useful compliant structures comprising of thin elastic layers.

  18. Improved image registration by sparse patch-based deformation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-15

    employ thin-plate splines (TPS) to interpolate a dense initial deformation field by considering all key points as the control points. Thus, the conventional image registration problem becomes much easier in the sense that we only need to compute the remaining small deformation for completing the registration of the subject to the template. Experimental results on both simulated and real data show that the registration performance can be significantly improved after integrating our patch-based deformation prediction framework into the existing registration algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical utility of the Taylor spatial frame for limb deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshet D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Doron Keshet, Mark Eidelman Pediatric Orthopedics Unit, Rambam Health Care Center, Haifa, Israel Abstract: The Taylor spatial frame (TSF is a hexapod external fixator that can correct six-axis deformities. The mathematical base of all hexapod systems is projective geometry, which describes complex repositioning of an object in space. The Taylor brothers developed one of the first six-axis correction systems, which is known today as TSF. Over the years, this system has become the most used six-axis deformity correction device. In this review, we describe the history behind TSF development, and describe the principles and clinical utility for application of the TSF in different settings, such as acute trauma, malunions, and various deformities of the lower and upper limb. Keywords: external fixator, deformity correction, hexapod

  20. Analytical and experimental investigation of the elastic and plastic behavior of plates on foundations subjected to dynamic punch loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H.; Cheresh, M.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical solutions and experimental results are presented for the response of foundation-backed plates to static and dynamic punch loading. Tests were performed on polyurethane foam-backed and unbacked plates; plates were centrally loaded over a range-in plastic deformations up to complete failure. This is part of an attempt to understand the puncture resistance of the sidewalls of containers used to ship hazardous wastes

  1. Inverted temperature sequences: role of deformation partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, D.; Ashley, K. T.; Coble, M. A.; Coutand, I.; Kellett, D.; Whynot, N.

    2015-12-01

    The inverted metamorphism associated with the Main Central thrust zone in the Himalaya has been historically attributed to a number of tectonic processes. Here we show that there is actually a composite peak and deformation temperature sequence that formed in succession via different tectonic processes. The deformation partitioning seems to the have played a key role, and the magnitude of each process has varied along strike of the orogen. To explain the formation of the inverted metamorphic sequence across the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in eastern Bhutan, we used Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM) to determine the peak metamorphic temperatures and Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry to determine the deformation temperatures combined with thermochronology including published apatite and zircon U-Th/He and fission-track data and new 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite. The dataset was inverted using 3D-thermal-kinematic modeling to constrain the ranges of geological parameters such as fault geometry and slip rates, location and rates of localized basal accretion, and thermal properties of the crust. RSCM results indicate that there are two peak temperature sequences separated by a major thrust within the LHS. The internal temperature sequence shows an inverted peak temperature gradient of 12 °C/km; in the external (southern) sequence, the peak temperatures are constant across the structural sequence. Thermo-kinematic modeling suggest that the thermochronologic and thermobarometric data are compatible with a two-stage scenario: an Early-Middle Miocene phase of fast overthrusting of a hot hanging wall over a downgoing footwall and inversion of the synkinematic isotherms, followed by the formation of the external duplex developed by dominant underthrusting and basal accretion. To reconcile our observations with the experimental data, we suggest that pervasive ductile deformation within the upper LHS and along the Main Central thrust zone at its top stopped at

  2. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  3. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  4. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  5. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

  6. Measuring Local Strain Rates In Ductile Shear Zones: A New Approach From Deformed Syntectonic Dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Leloup, P.; Rubatto, D.; Galland, O.; Yue, Y.; Ding, L.

    2006-12-01

    At the Earth surface, deformation is mostly localized in fault zones in between tectonic plates. In the upper crust, the deformation is brittle and the faults are narrow and produce earthquakes. In contrast, deformation in the lower ductile crust results in larger shear zones. While it is relatively easy to measure in situ deformation rates at the surface using for example GPS data, it is more difficult to determinate in situ values of strain rate in the ductile crust. Such strain rates can only be estimated in paleo-shear zones. Various methods have been used to assess paleo-strain rates in paleo-shear zones. For instance, cooling and/or decompression rates associated with assumptions on geothermic gradients and shear zone geometry can lead to such estimates. Another way to estimate strain rates is the integration of paleo-stress measurements in a power flow law. But these methods are indirect and imply strong assumptions. Dating of helicitic garnets or syntectonic fibres are more direct estimates. However these last techniques have been only applied in zones of low deformation and not in major shear zones. We propose a new direct method to measure local strain rates in major ductile shear zones from syntectonic dykes by coupling quantification of deformation and geochronology. We test our method in a major shear zone in a well constrained tectonic setting: the Ailao-Shan - Red River Shear Zone (ASRRsz) located in SE Asia. For this 10 km wide shear zone, large-scale fault rates, determined in three independent ways, imply strain rates between 1.17×10^{-13 s-1 and 1.52×10^{-13 s-1 between 35 and 16 Ma. Our study focused on one outcrop where different generations of syntectonic dykes are observed. First, we quantified the minimum shear strain γ for each dyke using several methods: (1) by measuring the stretching of dykes with a surface restoration method (2) by measuring the final angle of the dykes with respect to the shear direction and (3) by combining the two

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Circular Plate using SolidWorks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeo Jin; Jhung, Myung Jo

    2011-01-01

    Circular plates are used extensively in mechanical engineering for nuclear reactor internal components. The examples in the reactor vessel internals are upper guide structure support plate, fuel alignment plate, lower support plate etc. To verify the structural integrity of these plates, the finite element analyses are performed, which require the development of the finite element model. Sometimes it is very costly and time consuming to make the model especially for the beginners who start their engineering job for the structural analysis, necessitating a simple method to develop the finite element model for the pursuing structural analysis. Therefore in this study, the input decks are generated for the finite element analysis of a circular plate as shown in Fig. 1, which can be used for the structural analysis such as modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, stress analysis, etc using the commercial program Solid Works. The example problems are solved and the results are included for analysts to perform easily the finite element analysis of the mechanical plate components due to various loadings. The various results presented in this study would be helpful not only for the benchmark calculations and results comparisons but also as a part of the knowledge management for the future generation of young designers, scientists and computer analysts

  8. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  9. Fuel cell plates with skewed process channels for uniform distribution of stack compression load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, an electrolyte matrix sandwiched between electrodes, and a pair of plates above and below the electrodes. The plate above the electrodes has a lower surface with a first group of process gas flow channels formed thereon and the plate below the electrodes has an upper surface with a second group of process gas flow channels formed thereon. The channels of each group extend generally parallel to one another. The improvement comprises the process gas flow channels on the lower surface of the plate above the anode electrode and the process gas flow channels on the upper surface of the plate below the cathode electrode being skewed in opposite directions such that contact areas of the surfaces of the plates through the electrodes are formed in crisscross arrangements. Also, the plates have at least one groove in areas of the surfaces thereof where the channels are absent for holding process gas and increasing electrochemical activity of the fuel cell. The groove in each plate surface intersects with the process channels therein. Also, the opposite surfaces of a bipolar plate for a fuel cell contain first and second arrangements of process gas flow channels in the respective surfaces which are skewed the same amount in opposite directions relative to the longitudinal centerline of the plate.

  10. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  12. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  13. Buckling and postbuckling behavior of square compression-loaded graphite-epoxy plates with circular cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented for unidirectional (0, 10)(sub s) and (90,10)(sub s) plates, ((0/90)(sub 5)(sub s)) plates, and for aluminum plates. Results are also presented for ((+/- theta)(sub 6)(sub s)) angle-ply plates for values of theta = 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The results indicate that the change in axial stiffness of a plate at buckling is strongly dependent upon cutout size and plate orthotropy. The presence of a cutout gives rise to an internal load distribution that changes, sometimes dramatically, as a function of cutout size coupled with the plate orthotropy. In the buckled state, the role of orthotropy becomes more significant since bending in addition to membrane orthotropy is present. Most of the plates with cutouts exhibited less postbuckling stiffness than the corresponding plate without a cutout, and the postbuckling stiffness decreased with increasing cutout size. However, some of the highly orthotropic plates with cutouts exhibited more postbuckling stiffness than the corresponding plate without a cutout. These results suggest the possibility of tailoring the cutout size and the stacking sequence of a composite plate to optimize postbuckling stiffness. It was found that plates with large radius cutouts do exhibit some postbuckling strength. The results also indicate that a cutout can influence modal interaction in a plate. Specifically, results are presented that show a plate with a relatively small cutout buckling at a higher load than the corresponding plate without a cutout, due to modal interaction. Other results are presented that indicate the presence of nonlinear prebuckling deformations, due to material nonlinearity, in the angle-ply plates with theta = 45 and 60 degrees. The nonlinear prebuckling deformations are more pronounced in the plates with theta = 45 degrees and become even more pronounced as the cutout size increases. Results are also presented that show how load-path eccentricity due to improper machining of the test specimens

  14. Results of ITER toroidal field coil cover plate welding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Matsui, Kunihiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Hideo; Iijima, Ami; Makino, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    In ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coils, cover plates (CP) are welded to the teeth of the radial plate (RP) to fix conductors in the grooves of the RP. Though the total length of the welds is approximately 1.5 km and the height and width of the RP are 14 and 9 m, respectively, welding deformation of smaller than 1 mm for local out-of-plane distortion and smaller than several millimeters for in-plane deformation is required. Therefore, laser welding is used for CP welding to reduce welding deformation as much as possible. However, the gap in welding joints is expected to be a maximum of 0.5 mm. Thus, a laser welding technique to enable welding of joints with a gap of 0.5 mm in width has been developed. Applying this technology, a CP welding trial using an RP mock-up was successfully performed. The achieved local flatness, that is, the flatness of the cross-section of the RP mock-up, is 0.6 mm. The analysis using inherent strains, which are derived from the welding test using flat plates, also indicates that better local flatness can be achieved if the initial distortion is zero. In addition, the welding deformation of a full-scale RP is evaluated via analysis using the inherent strain. The analytical results show that in-plane deformation is approximately 5 mm and large out-of-plane deformation, consisting of approximately 5 mm-long wave distortion and a twist of approximately 1.5 mm in the RP cross-section, is generated. It is expected that the required profile can be achieved by determining the original geometry of an RP by simulating deformation during welding. It is also expected that the required local flatness of a DP can be achieved, since out-of-plane deformation can be reduced by increasing the number of RPs turned over during CP welding. A more detailed study is required. (author)

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.

  16. Vibration of functionally graded plate resting on viscoelastic elastic foundation subjected to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Hien, Ta; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of plates subjected to a moving load must be considered by engineering mechanics and design structures. This paper deals with the dynamic responses of functionally graded (FG) rectangular plates resting on a viscoelastic foundation under moving loads. It is assumed that material properties of the plate vary continuously in the thickness direction according to the power-law. The governing equations are derived by using Hamilton’s principle, which considers the effect of the higher-order shear deformation in the plate. Transient responses of simply supported FG rectangular plates are employed by using state-space methods. Several examples are given for displacement and stresses in the plates with various structural parameters, and the effects of these parameters are discussed.

  17. Geometry of the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary into Afar: Preliminary Results from the Seismic Profile Across the Asal Rift (Djibouti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, J.; Doubre, C.; Mohamed, K.; Tiberi, C.; Leroy, S.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the Afar Depression, the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift in Djibouti is a young segment on land at the propagating tip of the Aden Ridge. This segment represents an ideal laboratory to observe the mechanisms of extension and the structural evolutions involved, from the continental break-up to the first stage of oceanic spreading. However, we lack first order information about the crustal and upper mantle structure in this region, which for example prevent detailed numerical modeling of the deformations observed at the surface from GPS or InSAR. Moreover the current permanent network is not well suited to precisely constrain the ratio of seismic/aseismic deformation and to characterize the active deformation and the rifting dynamics. Since November 2009 we have maintained a temporary network of 25 seismic stations deployed along a 150 km-long profile. Because we expect rapid variations of the lithospheric structure across the 10 km-wide central part of the rift, we gradually decreased the inter-stations spacing to less than 1 km in the middle section of the profile. In order to obtain a continuous image of the plate boundary, from the topographic surface to the upper mantle, several techniques and methods will be applied: P and S wave receiver functions, tomographies based on body waves, surface waves and seismic noise correlation, anisotropy, and finally a gravity-seismic joint inversion. We present some preliminary results deduced from the receiver functions applied to the data acquired during the first months of the experiment. We migrate several sets of receiver functions computed in various frequency bands to resolve both mantle interfaces and fine scale structures within the thin crust in the center of the rift. These first images confirm a rapid variation of the Moho depth on both sides of the rift and a very complex lithospheric structure in the central section with several low velocity zones within the top 50km that might correspond to magma lenses.

  18. Upper-mantle water stratification inferred from observations of the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuti, Sagar; Barbot, Sylvain D; Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Feng, Lujia; Banerjee, Paramesh

    2016-10-20

    Water, the most abundant volatile in Earth's interior, preserves the young surface of our planet by catalysing mantle convection, lubricating plate tectonics and feeding arc volcanism. Since planetary accretion, water has been exchanged between the hydrosphere and the geosphere, but its depth distribution in the mantle remains elusive. Water drastically reduces the strength of olivine and this effect can be exploited to estimate the water content of olivine from the mechanical response of the asthenosphere to stress perturbations such as the ones following large earthquakes. Here, we exploit the sensitivity to water of the strength of olivine, the weakest and most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, and observations of the exceptionally large (moment magnitude 8.6) 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake to constrain the stratification of water content in the upper mantle. Taking into account a wide range of temperature conditions and the transient creep of olivine, we explain the transient deformation in the aftermath of the earthquake that was recorded by continuous geodetic stations along Sumatra as the result of water- and stress-activated creep of olivine. This implies a minimum water content of about 0.01 per cent by weight-or 1,600 H atoms per million Si atoms-in the asthenosphere (the part of the upper mantle below the lithosphere). The earthquake ruptured conjugate faults down to great depths, compatible with dry olivine in the oceanic lithosphere. We attribute the steep rheological contrast to dehydration across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, presumably by buoyant melt migration to form the oceanic crust.

  19. Subduction and Plate Edge Tectonics in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Niu, F.; Bezada, M. J.; Miller, M. S.; Masy, J.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Pindell, J. L.; Bolivar Working Group

    2013-05-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary consists of a subduction zone at at either end of a complex strike-slip fault system: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west in the Colombia basin, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system that has been cut off at the Bocono fault, the southeastern boundary fault of the Maracaibo block. A variety of seismic probes identify subduction features at either end of the system (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Growdon et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2010; Masy et al, 2011). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone with the Atlantic plate tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. Tearing the Atlantic plate from the rest of South America appears to cause further lithospheric instability continentward. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate very likely also tears, as its southernmost element subducts at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia but then rapidly descends to the transition zone under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab controls the tectonics of the Neogene Merida Andes, Perija, and Santa Marta ranges. The nonsubducting part of the Caribbean plate also underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the edge of the underthrust

  20. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.

    1973-01-01

    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  1. Tectonic Geomorphology of the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G; van Balen, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the northern Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which experienced low tectonic deformation and multiple climate changes during Quaternary times. Recently, human modifications have been high. The paper presents the results of a study into the effects of fault activity on the landscape

  2. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  3. q-Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 3 ... Keywords. Nonlinear dynamics; logistic map; -deformation; Tsallis statistics. ... As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared ...

  4. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  5. Deformation of the Japanese Islands and seismic coupling: an interpretation based on GSI permanent GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, Xavier; Mazzotti, Stéphane; Henry, Pierre; Hashimoto, Manabu

    1998-08-01

    The entire area of the Japanese Islands has been covered by the permanent GPS observation network of the Geographical Survey Institute since 1994. In this paper we use a solution for the vectors of motion during 1995 for a selection of 116 stations to discuss the origin of the observed deformation field. We refer the displacement field to Eurasia using the VLBI-determined motion of Kashima and demonstrate that other choices such as the Okhotsk or North American plates for north Japan are not compatible with the data. 1 yr GPS velocities are much higher than geological constraints would allow because these short-term measurements include transient elastic deformation. However, the good qualitative agreement between the observed geodetic deformation tensors and those inferred from active faults and earthquakes suggests that the Quaternary permanent deformation is essentially the result of the transfer of part of the subduction-induced elastic deformation into permanent plastic deformation. We then compute the elastic deformation of the Japanese Islands caused by interseismic loading of the Pacific and Philippine subduction planes. The geometry of the coupled zone and its downward extension are determined from the distribution of earthquakes for the Pacific slab. For the Philippine slab we use the geometry proposed by Hyndman et al. (1995). These elastic models account for most of the observed velocity field if the subduction movement of the Philippine Sea Plate is 100 per cent locked and if that of the Pacific Plate is 75-85 per cent locked. We note that the boundaries of the areas where significant elastic deformation is predicted (more than 10 mm yr-1 of motion with respect to Eurasia) coincide with the main zones of permanent deformation: the Eastern Japan Sea deformation zone for the Pacific subduction elastic deformation field and the Setouchi/MTL deformation zone for the Nankai field. Each zone probably accommodates 10-15 mm yr-1 of motion in the long term

  6. Use of information technologies when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golova, T. A.; Magerramova, I. A.; Ivanov, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Calculation of multilayered plates and covers does not consider anisotropic properties of a construction. Calculation comes down to uniform isotropic covers and definition of one of intense and deformation conditions of constructions. The existing techniques consider work of multilayered designs by means of various coefficients. The article describes the optimized algorithm of operations when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types on the basis of the conducted researches. It is dealt with a development engineering algorithm of calculation of multi-layer constructions of walls. Software is created which allows one to carry out assessment of intense and deformation conditions of constructions of walls.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation on laser-assisted bending of pre-loaded metal plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Zdzisław; Nowak, Marcin; Widłaszewski, Jacek; Kurp, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The laser forming technique has an important disadvantage, which is the limitation of plastic deformation generated by a single laser beam pass. To increase the plastic deformation it is possible to apply external forces in the laser forming process. In this paper, we investigate the influence of external pre-loads on the laser bending of steel plate. The pre-loads investigated generate bending towards the laser beam. The thermal, elastic-plastic analysis is performed using the commercial nonlinear finite element analysis package ABAQUS. The focus of the paper is to identify how this pattern of the pre-load influence the final bend angle of the plate.

  8. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  9. The limitations on applying classical thin plate theory to thin annular plates clamped on the inner boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Zietlow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimentally measured resonance frequencies of a thin annular plate with a small ratio of inner to outer radii and clamped on the inner boundary are compared to the predictions of classical thin-plate (CTP theory and a finite-element (FE model. The results indicate that, contrary to the conclusions presented in a number of publications, CTP theory does not accurately predict the frequencies of a relatively small number of resonant modes at lower frequencies. It is shown that these inaccuracies are attributable to shear deformations, which are thought to be negligible in thin plates and are neglected in CTP theory. Of particular interest is the failure of CTP theory to accurately predict the resonance frequency of the lowest vibrational mode, which was shifted approximately 30% by shear motion at the inner boundary.

  10. Measurements of upper mantle shear wave anisotropy from a permanent network in southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.A.C.; Valenzuela, R.W.; Ponce, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Upper mantle shear wave anisotropy under stations in southern Mexico was measured using records of SKS phases. Fast polarization directions where the Cocos plate subducts subhorizontally are oriented in the direction of the relative motion between the Cocos and North American plates, and are

  11. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de

    2003-01-01

    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  12. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  13. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  14. Deformed supersymmetric mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Sidorov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by a recent interest in curved rigid supersymmetries, we construct a new type of N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetric systems by employing superfields defined on the cosets of the supergroup SU(2|1). The relevant worldline supersymmetry is a deformation of the standard N = 4, d = 1 supersymmetry by a mass parameter m. As instructive examples we consider at the classical and quantum levels the models associated with the supermultiplets (1,4,3) and (2,4,2) and find out interesting interrelations with some previous works on nonstandard d = 1 supersymmetry. In particular, the d = 1 systems with 'weak supersymmetry' are naturally reproduced within our SU(2|1) superfield approach as a subclass of the (1,4,3) models. A generalization to the N = 8, d = 1 case implies the supergroup SU(2|2) as a candidate deformed worldline supersymmetry

  15. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.

    2017-04-01

    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  16. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  17. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  18. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  20. NONINVASIVE DETERMINATION OF KNEE CARTILAGE DEFORMATION DURING JUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Kosanic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to use a combination of image processing, force measurements and finite element modeling to calculate deformation of the knee cartilage during jumping. Professional athletes performed jumps analyzed using a force plate and high-speed video camera system. Image processing was performed on each frame of video using a color recognition algorithm. A simplified mass-spring-damper model was utilized for determination of global force and moment on the knee. Custom software for fitting the coupling characteristics was created. Simulated results were used as input data for the finite element calculation of cartilage deformation in the athlete's knee. Computer simulation data was compared with the average experimental ground reaction forces. The results show the three-dimensional mechanical deformation distribution inside the cartilage volume. A combination of the image recognition technology, force plate measurements and the finite element cartilage deformation in the knee may be used in the future as an effective noninvasive tool for prediction of injury during jumping

  1. Deformation styles and exhumation patterns in the Northern Iranian Plateau: New results from integrated balanced cross sections and low-temperature thermochronology (AHe and ZHe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Philipp; Ballato, Paolo; Dunkl, István; Zeillinger, Gerold; Heidarzadeh, Ghasem; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2014-05-01

    The Iranian Plateau is situated in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates and forms a NW-SE elongated, 40- to 50-km-thick crustal block, delimited to the north by the Urmieh Dokhtar Volcanic Zone and to south by the High Zagros Mountains. The plateau is characterized by a series of basins and mountain ranges bounded by reverse and transpressive faults. These mountain ranges reflect a history of strong collisional deformation, with intensely faulted and folded Pre-Cambrian (basement) to Miocene (terrestrial sediments of the Upper Red Formation) rocks. Based on the structural evolution, high mean elevation of 2 km, and a crustal thickness of up to 56 km, the realm of the present-day plateau must have absorbed a significant fraction of past plate convergence between Eurasia and Arabia. However, according to seismic and GPS data active deformation is rather limited. In addition, the exact timing and style of deformation, the extent of crustal shortening and thickening on the northern Iranian Plateau during continental collision remain unclear. To address these issues we collected structural data and modeled deformation scenarios cross four mountain ranges that constitute the northern margin of the Iranian Plateau (NW Iran). The Tarom, Mah Neshan and Sultanije mountain ranges are NW-SE oriented, while the northernmost (Bozgosh) is E-W aligned. Due to the lack of subsurface data, several forward and backward models were generated with MOVE (Midland Valley, structural modelling software). The model with the simplest and most robust geological explanation of the field data was chosen. In addition, we combined our structural work with an apatite (U-Th)/He study (AHe) along two transects (Bozgosh, Mah Neshan) and Zircon (U-Th)/He data (ZHe) on higher exhumed locations. In the northern sector of the plateau late Cretaceous (or Paleocene?) rocks had been deposited unconformably onto older, deformed rocks. This suggests that the Arabia-Eurasia collision was

  2. Development of optimum manufacturing technologies of radial plates for the ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H.; Hamada, K.; Okuno, K.; Abe, K.; Shimizu, T.; Kakui, H.; Yamaoka, H.; Maruyama, N.; Takayanagi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is studying rational manufacturing method and developing the optimum manufacturing technologies of the radial plates used in the toroidal field coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in collaboration with the Japanese industries. Three sector form pieces were cut by plasma cutting machine from a hot rolled plate without any difficulties and one of them was machined to a 1.32-m long curved segment of the radial plate having the same size as the actual one. However, unacceptable large deformation about 5 mm flatness, which was not observed in 1-m long straight radial plate, was found after intermediate machining. Since it would be caused by groove direction against the hot rolled direction and/or curved shape of grooves, two trial manufactures of 0.4-m long straight radial plates have been performed to clarify the cause of the large deformation. Detailed investigation showed that the large deformation could be avoided if the groove direction would have been parallel to a rolling direction of the plate. Welding trials by using fiber laser technique was also performed and penetration of 15 mm could be obtained in a welding speed of 0.1 m/min at 5 kW laser power. An optimum manufacturing method has been proposed based on the development of manufacturing technologies

  3. The role of farfield tectonic stress in oceanic intraplate deformation, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Robert S.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Christesen, Gail L.; Horton, Brian K.; VanAvendonk, Harm J.; Barth, Ginger

    2013-01-01

    An integration of geophysical data from the Pacific Plate reveals plate bending anomalies, massive intraplate shearing and deformation, and a lack of oceanic crust magnetic lineaments in different regions across the Gulf of Alaska. We argue that farfield stress from the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America is the major driver for these unusual features. Similar plate motion vectors indicate that the Pacific plate and Yakutat Terrane are largely coupled along their boundary, the Transition Fault, with minimal translation. Our study shows that the Pacific Plate subduction angle shallows toward the Yakutat Terrane and supports the theory that the Pacific Plate and Yakutat Terranemaintain coupling along the subducted region of the Transition Fault. We argue that the outboard transfer of collisional stress to the Pacific Plate could have resulted in significant strain in the NE corner of the Pacific Plate, which created pathways for igneous sill formation just above the Pacific Plate crust in the Surveyor Fan. A shift in Pacific Plate motion during the late Miocene altered the Yakutat collision with North America, changing the stress transfer regime and potentially terminating associated strain in the NE corner of the Pacific Plate. The collision further intensified as the thickest portion of the Yakutat Terrane began to subduct during the Pleistocene, possibly providing the impetus for the creation of the Gulf of Alaska Shear Zone, a>200 km zone of intraplate strike-slip faults that extend from the Transition Fault out into the Pacific Plate. This study highlights the importance of farfield stress from complex tectonic regimes in consideration of large-scale oceanic intraplate deformation.

  4. Evolution of the Adria-Europe plate boundary in the northern Dinarides: From continent-continent collision to back-arc extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Kounov, Alexandre; Schmid, Stefan M.; Schaltegger, Urs; Krenn, Erwin; Frank, Wolfgang; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2010-12-01

    The Sava Zone of the northern Dinarides is part of the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary. Here Late Cretaceous subduction of remnants of Meliata-Vardar oceanic lithosphere led to the formation of a suture, across which upper plate European-derived units of Tisza-Dacia were juxtaposed with Adria-derived units of the Dinarides. Late Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments, deposited on the Adriatic plate, were incorporated into an accretionary wedge that evolved during the initial stages of continent-continent collision. Structurally deeper parts of the exposed accretionary wedge underwent amphibolite-grade metamorphism. Grt-Pl-Ms-Bt thermobarometry and multiphase equilibria indicate temperatures between 550°C and 630°C and pressures between 5 and 7 kbar for this event. Peak metamorphic conditions were reached at around 65 Ma. Relatively slow cooling from peak metamorphic conditions throughout most of the Paleogene was possibly induced by hanging wall erosion in conjunction with southwest directed propagation of thrusting in the Dinarides. Accelerated cooling took place in Miocene times, when the Sava Zone underwent substantial extension that led to the exhumation of the metamorphosed units along a low-angle detachment. Footwall exhumation started under greenschist facies conditions and was associated with top-to-the-north tectonic transport, indicating exhumation from below European plate units. Extension postdates the emplacement of a 27 Ma old granitoid that underwent solid-state deformation under greenschist facies conditions. The 40Ar/39Ar sericite and zircon and apatite fission track ages from the footwall allow bracketing this extensional unroofing between 25 and 14 Ma. This extension is hence linked to Miocene rift-related subsidence in the Pannonian basin, which represents a back-arc basin formed due to subduction rollback in the Carpathians.

  5. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene lacustrine deposits of Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkov, A. S.; Lobova, E. U.; Deev, E. V.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Mazeika, J. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    This paper discusses the composition and distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures induced by liquefaction in Late Pleistocene lacustrine terrace deposits on the southern shore of Issyk-Kul Lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan. The section contains seven deformed beds grouped in two intervals. Five deformed beds in the upper interval contain load structures (load casts and flame structures), convolute lamination, ball-and-pillow structures, folds and slumps. Deformation patterns indicate that a seismic trigger generated a multiple slump on a gentle slope. The dating of overlying subaerial deposits suggests correlation between the deformation features and strong earthquakes in the Late Pleistocene.

  6. Experimental investigation of the unsteady one-phase flow through perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadei, F.

    1982-07-01

    The flow of the coolant through the perforated dip-plate during a hypothetical core-disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor was simulated in a one-dimensional model. Several experiments with water as fluid and with various perforation ratios of the dip-plate and different initial heights of the fluid head over the dip plate were run. The pressure drop through the dip-plate and the forces acting on the dip-plate and on the upper plug of the reactor vessel in a wide range of the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers were measured. The flow pattern downstreams the perforated plate was filmed with high-speed cameras. The resistance coefficients for the unsteady flow of the coolant through the perforated plate were obtained as a function of the acceleration. The forces acting on the upper plug and their time integral were compared with those acting on the dip-plate. Finally, using the high-speed film pictures the formation of fluid jets downstream the dip-plate was investigated. (orig.) [de

  7. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  8. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  9. A study on laser welding deformation of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Akikazu; Maehara, Kenji; Takeda, Shinnosuke; Matsunawa, Akira

    2002-01-01

    In heavy industries, 304 austenitic stainless steel is the most popular material which is used for nuclear equipment, chemical vessels, vacuum vessels and so on. On the fabrication, not only a joint quality but also severe dimensional accuracy is required. To keep dimensional accuracy, considerable cost and efforts are requested, because the welding deformation of austenitic stainless steel is deeply depended on the physical properties of material itself. To decrease welding deformation, big jigs or water cooling method are commonly used which lead to the high cost. In general, the fusion welding by high energy density heat source results in less distortion. Today, laser welding technology has grown up to the stage that enables to weld thick plate with small deformation. The researches of welding deformation have been conducted intensively, but they are mainly concerned for arc welding, and studies for laser welding are very few. In this report, the authors will show the test results of deformation behavior in laser welding of 304 stainless steel. Also, they will discuss the deformation behavior comparing to that in arc welding. The main results of this study are as follows. 1. The angular distortion of laser welding can be unified by heat input parameter (Hp) which is used for arc welding deformation. 2. The angular distortion are same under the condition of Hp 3 in spite of different welding method, however under the condition of Hp>6-9 J/mm 3 the angular distortion is quite different depending on the power density of welding method. 3. Pure angular distortion seemed to complete just after welding, but following longitudinal distortion took place for long period. 4. The critical value of longitudinal distortion can be estimated from heat input parameter. The transverse deformation can be also estimated by heat input parameter. (author)

  10. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  11. Lateral column lengthening using allograft interposition and cervical plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Terrence M; Pokabla, Christopher; Berlet, Gregory C

    2008-10-01

    Lateral column lengthening has been used successfully in the treatment of stage II adult-acquired pes planovalgus deformity. The purpose of this study is to review the union rate when allograft material is used and the osteotomy stabilized with a cervical plate. A retrospective review was performed on 28 feet in 26 patients who underwent correction of stage II pes planovalgus deformity using a lateral column lengthening with allograft tricortical iliac crest stabilized with a cervical plate. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using a modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale and the Short Form-12 health survey, as well as radiographically by assessing the talonavicular coverage angle. At a mean follow-up of 9 months, the mean total modified AOFAS score and pain subscore were significantly higher (45.6 and 25.0, respectively) versus preoperatively (27.3 and 11.2, respectively). Graft incorporation occurred in all but one case, and the average length of time to union was 10.06 weeks. Complications included 4 hardware removals, 1 nonunion, 1 graft penetration of the calcaneocuboid joint, and 2 cases of calcaneocuboid joint arthritis. Lateral column lengthening using allograft tricortical iliac crest bone graft with cervical plate fixation is a viable option for the correction of acquired pes planovalgus deformity. Allograft bone avoids donor site morbidity of autogenous iliac crest grafts and was not shown to increase rates of nonunion. Cervical plate fixation avoids the necessity of penetrating the graft with a screw and is associated with high patient satisfaction and radiographic union.

  12. Development of hold down plate of INGLE fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Koo; Kim, Kyu Tae

    1996-07-01

    Hold down plate for the INGLE fuel which has been designed for high performance in the standpoints of thermal margin and structural integrity compared to current fuel for YGN 3/4 and UCN 3/4 has been developed and its structural integrity has been verified based on the eh stress analysis. The design feature of the developed hold down plate has not only perfect compatibility with the reactor internals of Korea standard reactor, but also brand-new locking mechanism between upper tie plate and guide tubes. This locking mechanism introduced to the INGLE fuel provides very simple and reliable reconstitutability. In this report, finite element stress analysis with the aid of the ANSYS code as a solver and the MSC/PATRAN code as a pre and post processor were performed to verify structural integrity of the hold down plate considering various load cases which seem to be applied to the hold down plate during its lifetime. Based on the analysis results, the developed hold down plate for INGLE fuel sustains structural integrity under considered load conditions. 3 tabs., 16 figs., 9 refs. (Author)

  13. 2008 Gordon Research Conference on Rock Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, James G.; Gray, Nancy Ryan

    2009-09-21

    The GRC on Rock Deformation highlights the latest research in brittle and ductile rock mechanics from experimental, field and theoretical perspectives. The conference promotes a multi-disciplinary forum for assessing our understanding of rock strength and related physical properties in the Earth. The theme for the 2008 conference is 'Real-time Rheology'. Using ever-improving geophysical techniques, our ability to constrain the rheological behavior during earthquakes and post-seismic creep has improved significantly. Such data are used to investigate the frictional behavior of faults, processes responsible for strain localization, the viscosity of the lower crust, and viscous coupling between the crust and mantle. Seismological data also provide information on the rheology of the lower crust and mantle through analysis of seismic attenuation and anisotropy. Geologists are improving our understanding of rheology by combining novel analyses of microstructures in naturally deformed rocks with petrologic data. This conference will bring together experts and students in these research areas with experimentalists and theoreticians studying the same processes. We will discuss and assess where agreement exists on rheological constraints derived at different length/time scales using different techniques - and where new insight is required. To encompass the elements of these topics, speakers and discussion leaders with backgrounds in geodesy, experimental rock deformation, structural geology, earthquake seismology, geodynamics, glaciology, materials science, and mineral physics will be invited to the conference. Thematic sessions will be organized on the dynamics of earthquake rupture, the rheology of the lower crust and coupling with the upper mantle, the measurement and interpretation of seismic attenuation and anisotropy, the dynamics of ice sheets and the coupling of reactive porous flow and brittle deformation for understanding geothermal and chemical

  14. [Humerus varus: correction by proximal valgus osteotomy with precontourned plate fixation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallón-López, J; Domínguez-Amador, J J; Andrés-García, J A

    2014-01-01

    Varus deformity of the proximal humerus in children is a little known pathology due to its low incidence of presentation. Progress has been made in recent years in understanding the possible etiology and pathophysiological causes. Radiological criteria for diagnosis and functional impairment that occurs have also been defined. However, there are few reports in the literature about the surgical treatment of this deformity in children. In this paper we present a case of surgical treatment of this deformity by corrective osteotomy fixed with precontoured external maleolar plate osteosynthesis. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of the Modified Vlasov Model to the Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modified Vlasov Model is applied to the free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundations. The effects of the subsoil depth, plate dimensions and their ratio, the value of the vertical deformation parameter within the subsoil on the frequency parameters of plates on elastic foundations are investigated. A four-noded, twelve degrees of freedom quadrilateral finite element (PBQ4 is used for plate bending analysis based on Mindlin plate theory which is effectively applied to the analysis of thin and thick plates when selective reduced integration technique is used. The first ten natural frequency parameters are presented in tabular and graphical forms to show the effects of the parameters considered in the study. It is concluded that the effect of the subsoil depth on the frequency parameters of the plates on elastic foundation is generally larger than that of the other parameters considered in the study.

  16. Physiologically Relevant Prosthetic Limb Movement Feedback for Upper and Lower Extremity Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    upper arm (elbow movement), Upper leg (knee movement) and lower leg ( ankle movement) to provide a physiologically relevant sense of limb movement...Additionally a BOA cable tensioning system is passed through these plates and anchored to the external surface of the socket. When tension is applied the

  17. SID seeks sludge and foreign bodies in steam generator upper heads while CECIL robotically removes them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, A.T.; Gay, J.

    1993-01-01

    The CECIL [Consolidated Edison Combined Inspection and Lancing] system provides a range of maintenance tools for cleaning the region between the tubesheet and the first support plate in steam generators. SID [Secondary Inspection Device] extends access to and inspection of the upper bundle region. Work is being done to combine CECIL and SID technology to inspect and hydraulically clean the upper bundle. (Author)

  18. Harttia absaberi, a new species of loricariid catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Loricariinae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Takeshi Oyakawa

    Full Text Available A new species of Harttia, tribe Harttiini, is described from tributaries of upper portions of rio Paraná drainage. The new species, the smallest known species of the genus, attaining up to 74.0 mm of standard length, can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: abdomen completely covered by plates, a single preanal plate, plates of the gular area in broad contact with the canal plate. Harttia absaberi is the second species of the genus known from the upper portion of rio Paraná drainage.

  19. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  1. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  2. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Study beryllium microplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papirov, I.I.; Ivantsov, V.I.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Shokurov, V.S.; Tuzov, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastic flow characteristics systematically studied for different varieties beryllium. In isostatically pressed beryllium it decreased with increasing particle size of the powder, increasing temperature and increasing the pressing metal purity. High initial values of the limit microelasticity and microflow in some cases are due a high level of internal stresses of thermal origin and over time it can relax slowly. During long-term storage of beryllium materials with high initial resistance values microplastic deformation microflow limit and microflow stress markedly reduced, due mainly to the relaxation of thermal microstrain

  4. Deformation of "stable" continental interiors by mantle convection: Implications for intraplate stress in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2011-12-01

    The enigmatic origin of large-magnitude earthquakes far from active plate boundaries, especially those occurring in so-called "stable" continental interiors, is a source of continuing controversy that has eluded a satisfactory explanation using past geophysical models of intraplate deformation and faulting. One outstanding case of such major intraplate earthquakes is the 1811-1812 series of events in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). We contend that the origin of some of these enigmatic intraplate events is due to regional variations in the pattern of tectonic stress generated by mantle convective flow acting on the overlying lithosphere and crust. Mantle convection affects the entire surface of the planet, irrespective of the current configuration of surface plate boundaries. In addition, it must be appreciated that plate tectonics is not a 2-D process, because the convective flow that drives the observed horizontal motions of the tectonic plates also drives vertical displacements of the crust across distances as great as 2 to 3 km. This dynamic topography is directly correlated with convection-driven stress field variations in the crust and lithosphere and these stresses can be locally focussed if the mantle rheology below the lithosphere is characterised by sufficiently low viscosities. We have developed global models of convection-driven mantle flow [Forte et al. 2009,2010] that are based on recent high-resolution 3-D tomography models derived from joint inversions of seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data [Simmons et al. 2007,2008,2010]. These tomography-based mantle convection models also include a full suite of surface geodynamic (postglacial rebound and convection) constraints on the depth-dependent average viscosity of the mantle [Mitrovica & Forte 2004]. Our latest tomography-based and geodynamically-constrained convection calculations reveal that mantle flow under the central US are driven by density anomalies within the lower mantle associated

  5. Deformation behaviour of type 316 steel at 400 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.; Williamson, K.

    A variety of type 316 steel deformation tests at 400 deg. C involving a study of strain rate, stress increment, stress cycling and strain cycling effects are reported. It is concluded that very small ratchet strains may occur, but these are unlikely to be of engineering significance. It is also shown that in the absence of reversed plasticity the upper stress bound is represented by the monotonic stress-strain curve. Under reversed plasticity, significant cyclic hardening can occur and in this case the upper bound may be represented by the cyclic stress-strain curve

  6. Closure of the Africa-Eurasia-North America plate motion circuit and tectonics of the Gloria fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.; Demets, Charles; Stein, Seth

    1989-01-01

    The current motions of the African, Eurasian, and North American plates are examined. The problems addressed include whether there is resolvable motion of a Spitsbergen microplate, the direction of motion between the African and North American plates, whether the Gloria fault is an active transform fault, and the implications of plate circuit closures for rates of intraplate deformation. Marine geophysical data and magnetic profiles are used to construct a model which predicts about 4 mm/yr slip across the Azores-Gibraltar Ridge, and west-northwest convergence near Gibraltar. The analyzed data are consistent with a rigid plate model with the Gloria fault being a transform fault.

  7. First Indications of Intraplate Deformations in Central Germany from Reprocessed GNSS Time Series and Geological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthias; Leinen, Stefan; Läufer, Gwendolyn; Lehné, Rouwen

    2013-04-01

    Six years of GPS data have been reprocessed in ITRF2008 for a regional SAPOS CORS network in the federal state of Hesse with 25 stations and some anchor sites of IGS and EPN to derive accurate and consistent coordinate time series. Based on daily network solutions coordinate time series parameters like velocities, offsets in case of antenna changes and annual periodic variation have been estimated. The estimation process includes the fitting of a sophisticated stochastic model for the time series which accounts for inherent time correlation. The results are blended with geological data to verify information from geology on potential recent deformations by the geodetic analyses. Besides of some information on the reprocessing of the GNSS the results the stochastics of the derived velocity field will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis will be on the intra-plate deformation: for the horizontal component the residual velocity field after removal of a plate rotation model is presented, while for the vertical velocities the datum-induced systematic effect is removed in order to analyze the remaining vertical motion. The residual velocity field is then matched with the geology for Hesse. Correlation of both vertical and horizontal movements with major geological structures reveals good accordance. SAPOS stations with documented significant subsidence are mainly located in tertiary Graben structures such as the Lower Hessian Basin (station Kassel), the Wetterau (station Kloppenheim) or the Upper Rhine Graben (Station Darmstadt). From the geological point of view these structures are supposed to be subsiding ones. Other major geological features, i.e. the Rhenish Shield as well as the East Hessian Bunter massif are supposed to be affected by recent uplift. SAPOS stations located in these regions match the assumed movement (e.g. Weilburg, Wiesbaden, Bingen, Fulda). Furthermore SAPOS-derived horizontal movements seem to trace tectonic movements in the region, i

  8. Influence of rheology on realignment of mantle convective structure with plate motion after a plate reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hunen, J.; Zhong, S.

    2006-08-01

    Small-scale convection (SSC) rolls below the oceanic lithosphere have the tendency to align with the large-scale shearing direction and thus with the plate motion direction relative to the deep mantle. Understanding the timescales of and processes responsible for realignment would contribute significantly to our understanding of the unresolved phenomena in the Pacific such as gravity lineations, small-scale seismic velocity variations, and intraplate volcanism that cannot be explained by hot spots. In this study we examine the evolution of those convection rolls when this relative plate motion direction is suddenly changed, as suggested by the kink in the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain. Using three-dimensional numerical flow models, we investigate the realignment of SSC rolls after a change in plate motion direction. From the nature of the SSC, it is expected that rheological parameters dominate the characteristics of this realignment. Our results show that this is indeed the case. We find that (1) using constraints from onset timing of SSC, realignment of rolls can occur as fast as within 20 Ma, but might also take much longer, dependent on the rheology; (2) the realignment period is strongly correlated to the sum of large-scale shear stress induced by plate motion and small-scale shear stress from the SSC itself; (3) in a mantle deforming by dislocation creep, realignment occurs faster than by diffusion creep, because dislocation creep SSC is more vigorous; and (4) activation energy has little influence on the realignment time. Possible evidence for the realignment period might come from precise age determination of intraplate volcanism or azimuthal seismic anisotropy.

  9. Autogenous cultured growth plate chondrocyte transplantation in the treatment of physeal injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, R; Bohosiewicz, J; Gap, A; Bursig, H; Wysocka, A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study on New Zealand's white rabbits was to investigate the transplantation of autogenous growth plate cells in order to treat the injured growth plate. They were assessed in terms of measurements of radiological tibial varus and histological characteristics. An experimental model of plate growth medial partial resection of the tibia in 14 New Zealand white rabbits was created. During this surgical procedure the plate growth cells were collected and cultured. While the second surgery was being performed, the autologous cultured growth plate cells were grafted at the right tibia, whereas the left tibia was used as a control group. Histological examinations showed that the grafted right tibia presented the regular shape of the plate growth with hypertrophic maturation, chondrocyte columniation and endochondral calcification. Radiological study shows that the mean tibial deformity at the left angle was 20.29° (6.25 to 33) and 7.21° (5 to 10) in the right angle. This study has demonstrated that grafting of autogenous cultured growth plate cells into a defect of the medial aspect of the proximal tibial physis can prevent bone bridge formation, growth arrest and the development of varus deformity. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:310-16. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Berry phases for Landau Hamiltonians on deformed tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévay, Péter

    1995-06-01

    Parametrized families of Landau Hamiltonians are introduced, where the parameter space is the Teichmüller space (topologically the complex upper half plane) corresponding to deformations of tori. The underlying SO(2,1) symmetry of the families enables an explicit calculation of the Berry phases picked up by the eigenstates when the torus is slowly deformed. It is also shown that apart from these phases that are local in origin, there are global non-Abelian ones too, related to the hidden discrete symmetry group Γϑ (the theta group, which is a subgroup of the modular group) of the families. The induced Riemannian structure on the parameter space is the usual Poincare metric on the upper half plane of constant negative curvature. Due to the discrete symmetry Γϑ the geodesic motion restricted to the fundamental domain of this group is chaotic.

  11. Treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-08-01

    Segmental tibial fractures usually follow a high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' results in the treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous locking plates used as external fixators. Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 20 patients underwent external plating (supercutaneous plating) of the segmental tibial fractures using a less-invasive stabilization system locking plate (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania). Six fractures were closed and 14 were open (6 grade IIIa, 2 grade IIIb, 4 grade II, and 2 grade I, according to the Gustilo classification). When imaging studies confirmed bone union, the plates and screws were removed in the outpatient clinic. Average time of follow-up was 23 months (range, 12-47 months). All fractures achieved union. Median time to union was 19 weeks (range, 12-40 weeks) for the proximal fractures and 22 weeks (range, 12-42 weeks) for the distal fractures. Functional results were excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. Delayed union of the fracture occurred in 2 patients. All patients' radiographs showed normal alignment. No rotational deformities and leg shortening were seen. No incidences of deep infection or implant failures occurred. Minor screw tract infection occurred in 2 patients. A new 1-stage protocol using supercutaneous plating as a definitive fixator for segmental tibial fractures is less invasive, has a lower cost, and has a shorter hospitalization time. Surgeons can achieve good reduction, soft tissue reconstruction, stable fixation, and high union rates using supercutaneous plating. The current patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion and good functional outcomes and had a comfortable clinical course. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Dynamics of a flexible splitter plate in the wake of a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Govardhan, R. N.; Arakeri, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Rigid splitter plates in the wake of bluff bodies are known to suppress the primary vortex shedding. In the present work, we experimentally study the problem of a flexible splitter plate in the wake of a circular cylinder. In this case, the splitter plate is free to continuously deform along its length due to the fluid forces acting on it; the flexural rigidity (EI) of the plate being an important parameter. Direct visualizations of the splitter plate motions, for very low values of flexural rigidity (EI), indicate periodic traveling wave type deformations of the splitter plate with maximum tip amplitudes of the order of 1 cylinder diameter. As the Reynolds number based on cylinder diameter is varied, two regimes of periodic splitter plate motions are found that are referred to as mode I and mode II, with a regime of aperiodic motions between them. The frequency of plate motions in both periodic modes is found to be close to the plane cylinder Strouhal number of about 0.2, while the average frequencies in the non-periodic regime are substantially lower. The measured normalized phase speed of the traveling wave for both periodic modes is also close to the convection speed of vortices in the plane cylinder wake. As the flexural rigidity of the plate (EI) is increased, the response of the plate was found to shift to the right when plotted with flow speed or Re. To better capture the effect of varying EI, we define and use a non-dimensional bending stiffness, K*, similar to the ones used in the flag flutter problem, K=EI/(0.5ρUL), where U is the free-stream velocity and L is the splitter plate length. Amplitude data for different EI cases when plotted against this parameter appear to collapse on to a single curve for a given splitter plate length. Measurements of the splitter plate motions for varying splitter plate lengths indicate that plates that are substantially larger than the formation length of the plane cylinder wake have similar responses, while shorter

  13. The Lamb wave bandgap variation of a locally resonant phononic crystal subjected to thermal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Li, Zhen; Li, Yue-ming

    2018-05-01

    A study on dynamical characteristics of a ternary locally resonant phononic crystal (PC) plate (i.e., hard scatterer with soft coating periodically disperse in stiff host matrix) is carried out in this paper. The effect of thermal deformation on the structure stiffness, which plays an important role in the PC's dynamical characteristics, is considered. Results show that both the start and the stop frequency of bandgap shift to higher range with the thermal deformation. In particular, the characteristics of band structure change suddenly at critical buckling temperature. The effect of thermal deformation could be utilized for tuning of phononic band structures, which can promote their design and further applications.

  14. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  15. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  16. Thermal Stress Cracking of Slide-Gate Plates in Steel Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung-Jun; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    The slide-gate plates in a cassette assembly control the steel flow through the tundish nozzle, and may experience through-thickness cracks, caused by thermal expansion and/or mechanical constraint, leading to air aspiration and safety concerns. Different mechanisms for common and rare crack formation are investigated with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element model of thermal mechanical behavior of the slide-gate plate assembly during bolt pretensioning, preheating, tundish filling, casting, and cooling stages. The model was validated with previous plant temperature measurements of a ladle plate during preheating and casting, and then applied to a typical tundish-nozzle slide-gate assembly. The formation mechanisms of different types of cracks in the slide-gate plates are investigated using the model and evaluated with actual slide-gate plates at POSCO. Common through-thickness radial cracks, found in every plate, are caused during casting by high tensile stress on the outside surfaces of the plates, due to internal thermal expansion. In the upper plate, these cracks may also arise during preheating or tundish filling. Excessive bolt tightening, combined with thermal expansion during casting may cause rare radial cracks in the upper and lower plates. Rare radial and transverse cracks in middle plate appear to be caused during tundish filling by impingement of molten steel on the middle of the middle plate that generates tensile stress in the surrounding refractory. The mechanical properties of the refractory, the bolt tightening conditions, and the cassette/plate design are all important to service life.

  17. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.

    2014-10-28

    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  18. Simplified description of out-of-plane waves in thin annular elastic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion relations are derived for the out-of-plane wave propagation in planar elastic plates with constant curvature using the classical Kirchhoff thin plate theory. The dispersion diagrams and the mode shapes are compared with their counterparts for a straight plate strip and the role...... of curvature is assessed for plates with unconstrained edges. Elementary Bernoulli–Euler theory for a beam of rectangular cross-section with the circular shape of its axis is also employed to analyze the wave guide properties of this structure in its out-of-plane deformation. The applicability range...... of the elementary beam theory is validated. The wave finite element method in the formulation of the three-dimensional elasticity theory is used to ensure that the comparison of dispersion diagrams is performed in the frequency range, where the classical thin plate theory is valid. Thus, the paper summarizes...

  19. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  20. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  1. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  2. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  3. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  4. Thermomechanical treatment of β-treated Zircaloy-4 within the upper α-range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvy, C.

    2004-09-01

    Zircaloy-4 is a Zr base alloy mainly used for nuclear applications. This study deals with its behaviour during forming, with a special interest for physical mechanisms acting in the upper α-range. The β-treated Zircaloy-4 is first described in terms of microstructure and texture. The α plates are organised in colonies with alternating crystallographic orientations. The Burgers relationships have also been checked. The mechanical behaviour shows two distinct domains (with or without hardening). This could be linked to interactions between the solutes (Sn, O) and mobile dislocations. The evolution of crystallographic texture is characterised by X-ray diffraction. At 550 C, twinning is shown to be the main deformation mechanism under specific experimental conditions. Globularization of the initial lamellar structure is identified as a continuous dynamic recrystallization process, more efficient at higher temperature. High strains are necessary to achieve this phenomenon but meta-dynamic recrystallization can also be used to obtain an equiaxed microstructure after limited strains. (author)

  5. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  6. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul

    1994-01-01

    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  7. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Size-dependent bending, buckling and vibration of higher-order shear deformable magneto-electro-thermo-elastic rectangular nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza; Gholami, Yousef

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose a unified size-dependent higher-order shear deformable plate model for magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) rectangular nanoplates by adopting the nonlocal elasticity theory to capture the size effect, and by utilizing a generalized shape function to consider the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia. By considering various shape functions, the proposed plate model can be reduced to the nonlocal plate model based upon the Kirchhoff, Mindlin and Reddy plate theories, as well as the parabolic, trigonometric, hyperbolic and exponential shear deformation plate theories. The governing equations of motion and corresponding boundary conditions of METE nanoplates subjected to external in-plane, transverse loads as well as magnetic, electric and thermal loadings, are obtained using Hamilton’s principle. Then, as in some case studies, the static bending, buckling, and free vibration characteristics of simply-supported METE rectangular nanoplates are investigated based upon the Navier solution approach. Numerical results are provided in order to investigate the influences of various parameters including the nondimensional nonlocal parameter, type of transverse loading, temperature change, applied voltage, and external magnetic potential on the mechanical behaviors of METE nanoplates. Furthermore, comparisons are made between the results predicted by different nonlocal plate models by utilizing the developed unified nonlocal plate model and selecting the associated shape functions. It is illustrated that by using the presented unified nonlocal plate model, the development of a nonlocal plate model based upon any existing higher-order shear deformable plate theory is a simple task.

  9. Plate boundary reorganization in the active Banda Arc-continent collision: Insights from new GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Hendro; Harris, Ron; Lestariya, Amin W.; Maruf, Bilal

    2009-12-01

    New GPS measurements reveal that large sections of the SE Asian Plate are progressively accreting to the edge of the Australian continent by distribution of strain away from the deformation front to forearc and backarc plate boundary segments. The study was designed to investigate relative motions across suspected plate boundary segments in the transition from subduction to collision. The oblique nature of the collision provides a way to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of strain from the deformation front to the back arc. The 12 sites we measured from Bali to Timor included some from an earlier study and 7 additional stations, which extended the epoch of observation to ten years at many sites. The resulting GPS velocity field delineates at least three Sunda Arc-forearc regions around 500 km in strike-length that shows different amounts of coupling to the Australian Plate. Movement of these regions relative to SE Asia increases from 21% to 41% to 63% eastward toward the most advanced stages of collision. The regions are bounded by the deformation front to the south, the Flores-Wetar backarc thrust system to the north, and poorly defined structures on the sides. The suture zone between the NW Australian continental margin and the Sunda-Banda Arcs is still evolving with more than 20 mm/yr of movement measured across the Timor Trough deformation front between Timor and Australia.

  10. Cohesive traction–separation laws for tearing of ductile metal plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Hutchinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The failure process ahead of a mode I crack advancing in a ductile thin metal plate or sheet produces plastic dissipation through a sequence of deformation steps that include necking well ahead of the crack tip and shear localization followed by a slant fracture in the necked region somewhat clos...

  11. FEATURES APPLICATION CIRCUIT MOMENT FINITE ELEMENT (MSSE) NONLINEAR CALCULATIONS OF PLATES AND SHELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhenov V.A.; Sacharov A.S.; Guliar A. I.; Pyskunov S.O.; Maksymiuk Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Based MSSE created shell CE general type, which allows you to analyze the stress-strain state of axisymmetrical shells and plates in problems of physical and geometric nonlinearity. The principal nonlinear elasticity theory, algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations for determining the temperature and plastic deformation.

  12. FEATURES APPLICATION CIRCUIT MOMENT FINITE ELEMENT (MSSE NONLINEAR CALCULATIONS OF PLATES AND SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based MSSE created shell CE general type, which allows you to analyze the stress-strain state of axisymmetrical shells and plates in problems of physical and geometric nonlinearity. The principal nonlinear elasticity theory, algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations for determining the temperature and plastic deformation.

  13. A nonlinear theory for elastic plates with application to characterizing paper properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik

    1984-03-01

    A theory of thin plates which is physically as well as kinematically nonlinear is, developed and used to characterize elastic material behavior for arbitrary stretching and bending deformations. It is developed from a few clearly defined assumptions and uses a unique treatment of strain energy. An effective strain concept is introduced to simplify the theory to a...

  14. Intraplate Crustal Deformation Within the Northern Sinai Microplate: Evidence from Paleomagnetic Directions and Mechanical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, N.; Granot, R.; Hamiel, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The intraplate crustal deformation found in the northern part of the Sinai Microplate, located near the northern Dead Sea Fault plate boundary, is examined. Previous studies have suggested that distributed deformation in Lebanon is accommodated by regional uniform counterclockwise rigid block rotations. However, remanent magnetization directions observed near the Lebanese restraining bend are not entirely homogeneous suggesting that an unexplained and complex internal deformation pattern exists. In order to explain the variations in the amount of vertical-axis rotations we construct a mechanical model of the major active faults in the region that simulates the rotational deformation induced by motion along these faults. The rotational pattern calculated by the mechanical modeling predicts heterogeneous distribution of rotations around the faults. The combined rotation field that considers both the fault induced rotations and the already suggested regional block rotations stands in general agreement with the observed magnetization directions. Overall, the modeling results provide a more detailed and complete picture of the deformation pattern in this region and show that rotations induced by motion along the Dead Sea Fault act in parallel to rigid block rotations. Finally, the new modeling results unravel important insights as to the fashion in which crustal deformation is distributed within the northern part of the Sinai Microplate and propose an improved deformational mechanism that might be appropriate for other plate margins as well.

  15. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I

    1993-01-01

    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  16. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  17. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  18. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  19. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  20. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  1. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  2. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  3. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  4. Deformed chiral nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1991-04-18

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear {sigma}-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and g{sub A}. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations. (orig.).

  5. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  6. IBA in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for 168 Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong β → γ transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the β → γ transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ΔK=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics

  7. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  8. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  9. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions

  10. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Machine Convergence Technology, Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions.

  11. The influence of hydrogen on the deformation behavior of zircaloy 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, M. E.; Koss, D. A.; Motta, A. T.

    2008-01-01

    The deformation behavior of Zr based cladding forms a basis for fuel behavior codes and affects failure criteria; as such, it is critical to reactor safety. The present study examines the influence of hydrogen on the uniaxial deformation behavior of hydrided cold worked and stress relieved Zircaloy 4 plate material. Specimens of various orientations (i.e., stress axis aligned with the rolling direction, the transverse direction, or normal to the plate surface direction) were tested in compression at a range of temperatures (25 .deg. , 300 .deg. , and 400 .deg. C), and strain rates (from 10-4/s to 10-1/s). Contrasting the deformation behavior of the material containing ∼45 wt ppm H with that of the material containing ∼420 wt. ppm H shows that increasing H content (a) causes a small decrease in the 0.2% yield stress that is eliminated at 1.0% flow stress, (b) increases the strain hardening in the rolling direction but not in the other orientations, (c) has no effect on the temperature dependence of the strain hardening, and (d) does not affect the strain rate hardening behavior. Increasing H content also has no observable effect on the high degree of plastic anisotropy of this plate material which is manifested in difficult through thickness deformation, resulting in high flow stresses for specimens oriented in the normal to plate surface direction

  12. Practical solution of plastic deformation problems in elastic-plastic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, A; Manson, S

    1957-01-01

    A practical method for solving plastic deformation problems in the elastic-plastic range is presented. The method is one of successive approximations and is illustrated by four examples which include a flat plate with temperature distribution across the width, a thin shell with axial temperature distribution, a solid cylinder with radial temperature distribution, and a rotating disk with radial temperature distribution.

  13. A novel polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting-Kui, Mu; Chun-Min, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A static polarization interferometer for measuring upper atmospheric winds is presented, based on two Savart plates with their optical axes perpendicular to each other. The principle and characteristics of the interferometer are described. The interferometer with a wide field of view can offer a stable benchmark optical path difference over a specified spectral region of 0.55–0.63 μm because there are no quarter wave plates. Since the instrument employs a straight line common-path configuration but without moving parts and slits, it is very compact, simple, inherently robust and has high throughput. The paper is limited to a theoretical analysis. (general)

  14. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  15. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  16. Comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature (∼260 C) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature (∼970 C) -- a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behavior characterized by a 41J. Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program; this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the BR3 vessel

  17. Parametric study of fission-induced U-Mo fuel creep and structural analysis of fuel plates in view of implications for microstructure evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.; Hofman, G.L.; Choo, Y.S.; Robinson, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    U-Mo fuel deformation during irradiation in U-Mo/Al dispersion plates is investigated by using the irradiation data from the RERTR-3 through -9 tests. The observation of fuel particle sintering during irradiation is also presented and its influence for fuel performance is discussed. Structural analysis was also performed to examine the relationship between the stress distribution in the plate and the location of matrix-pore formation in the plate. (author)

  18. Reverse Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS) Plating for Proximal Femur Fractures in Poliomyelitis Survivors: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chen; Jin, Dongxu; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-11-15

    BACKGROUND Poliomyelitis is a neuromuscular disease which causes muscle atrophy, skeletal deformities, and disabilities. Treatment of hip fractures on polio-affect limbs is unique and difficult, since routine fixation methods like nailing may not be suitable due to abnormal skeletal structures. CASE REPORT We report one femoral neck fracture and one subtrochanteric fracture in polio survivors successfully treated with reverse less invasive stabilization system (LISS) plating technique. Both fractures were on polio-affected limbs with significant skeletal deformities and low bone density. A contralateral femoral LISS plate was applied upside down to the proximal femur as an internal fixator after indirect or direct reduction. Both patients had uneventful bone union and good functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS Reverse LISS plating is a safe and effective technique to treat hip fractures with skeletal deformities caused by poliomyelitis.

  19. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  20. Modified french osteotomy for cubitus varus deformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Idrees, M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of Modified French Osteotomy for correction of cubitus varus deformity. All children, aged 3-12 years, with cubitus varus deformity were included in the study. Pre-operative clinical as well as radiological assessment of upper extremities were done in all cases. Modified French osteotomy was done to correct the deformity. All patients were followed for seven months. Physical examination for the range of motion, scar and post-operative complications were assessed. Antero-posterior and lateral radiographs of the elbow were obtained, and the carrying angles and lateral condylar prominence index were measured and recorded. Out of the total 30 patients, 26 were male and four female. Left side was involved in 24 cases and the right side in six. The average age at the time of osteotomy was seven years (range 3.5-12 years). The average pre-operative carrying angle was 25.2 degree (range 18-30 degree) and the post-operative angle 8.7 degree (range 5-13 degree valgus). The average pre- operative range of motion was 122.6 degree (range 105-135 degree) and the post-operative range 123.86 degree (range 90-135 degree). The average pre-operative lateral condylar prominence index (LCPI) was 175.56 (range 128-232) and the post-operative lateral condylar prominence 156 (range 100-240). Based on Bellmore criteria, 25 patients showed excellent, three good and two a poor result. Modified French technique of supracondylar osteotomy has excellent results in the management of cubitus varus in terms of cosmesis, radiological findings and fewer complications. (author)