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Sample records for upper paleocene lignite

  1. Petrography and geochemistry of selected lignite beds in the Gibbons Creek mine (Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Paleocene) of east-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Pontolillo, James

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of two lignite beds (3500 and 4500 beds, Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Eocene) that are mined at the Gibbons Creek mine in east-central Texas. The purpose of the study was to identify the relations among sample ash yield, coal petrography, and trace-element concentrations in lignite and adjoining rock layers of the Gibbons Creek mine. Particular interest was given to the distribution of 12 environmentally sensitive trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Eleven lignite, floor, and rock parting samples were collected from incremental channel samples of the 3500 and 4500 beds that were exposed in a highwall of pit A3 at the Gibbons Creek mine. Short proximate and ultimate and forms of sulfur analyses were performed on all lignite samples, and lignite and rock samples were analyzed for 60 major, minor and trace elements. Representative splits of all lignite samples were ground and cast into pellets, and polished for petrographic analyses in blue-light fluorescence and reflected white light to determine liptinite, inertinite, and huminite maceral group percentages. The following observations summarize our results and conclusions about the geochemistry, petrography, and sedimentology of the 3500 and 4500 beds of the Gibbons Creek lignite deposit: (1) Weighted average dry (db) ash yield for the two beds is 29.7%, average total sulfur content is 2.6%, and average calorific value is 7832 Btu (18.22 MJ/kg). Ash yields are greatest in the lower bench (59.33% db) of the 3500 bed and in the upper bench of the 4500 bed (74.61% db). (2) For lignite samples (on a whole-coal basis), the distributions of two of the HAPs (Pb and Sb) are positively related to ash yield, probably indicating an inorganic affinity for these elements. By using cluster analysis we

  2. The palynology of the Cerrejon Formation (upper Paleocene) of northern Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, C.A.; Pardo-Trujillo, A.; Rueda, M.; Torres, V.; Harrington, G.J.; Mora, G. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A palynological study of the Cerrejon Formation was conducted in order to date the formation and understand the floristic composition and diversity of a Paleocene tropical site. The Cerrejon Formation outcrops in the Cerrejon Coal Mine, the largest open cast coal mine in the world. Two cores (725 m) were provided by Carbones del Cerrejon LLC for study. Two hundred samples were prepared for palynology, and at least 150 palynomorphs were counted per sample where possible. Several statistical techniques including rarefaction, species accumulation curves, detrended correspondence analysis, and Anosim were used to analyze the floristic composition and diversity of the palynofloras. Palynomorph assemblages indicate that the age of the Cerrejon Formation and the overlying Tabaco Formation is Middle to Late Paleocene (ca. 60-58 Ma). Major structural repetitions were not found in the Cerrejon Formation in the Cerrejon coal mine, and there is little floral variation throughout. The floral composition, diversity, and lithofacies do not change significantly. Lithofacies associations and floral composition indicate deposition fluctuating from an estuarine-influenced coastal plain at the base to a fluvial-influenced coastal plain at the top. There are, however, significant differences in the composition and diversity of coal and siliciclastic samples. Coal palynofloras have fewer morphospecies, and a distinct and more homogeneous floral assemblage compared to assemblages from the intervening sisliciclastic strata, suggesting that tropical swampy environments supported fewer plant species and had a distinct vegetation adapted to permanently wet environments.

  3. On the presence of upper paleocene rocks in the foreland succession at Cabo Nariz, Tierra del Fuego, Chile: Geology and new palynological and U-Pb data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Pavlishina, Polina; Godoy, Estanislao; Herve, Francisco; Fanning, C.Mark

    2010-01-01

    On the west coast of Tierra del Fuego, south of Cabo Nariz, in Chile, Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene sedimentary successions of the Magallanes foreland basin crop out. The presence of dinoflagellate cysts, as well as radiometric U-Pb SHPJMP dating of detrital zircons, indicate that this succession ranges from the Campanian to Thanetian (Late Paleocene) in age. The base of the exposed sedimentary succession comprises siltstones of external platform facies (Cerro Cuchilla Formation), which are thrust over the Cabo Nariz Beds. The latter fonnation is divided into two members: a lower siltstone-dominated turbidite facies member and an upper member of sandstone-dominated turbidites, with sandstone and conglomerate channel facies. The presence of dinocysts in the Cerro Cuchilla Formation suggests a late Campanian to early Danian age. The fossil content in the Cabo Nariz Beds indicate a Selandian (Middle Paleocene) depositional age in accordance with the detrital zircon ages which provide a maximum possible Campanian age (76.5±0.7 Ma), and very close to the Thanetian (Late Paleocene) (57.6±1 Ma) depositional ages for the lower and upper member, respectively. The sedimentary succession of Cabo Nariz Beds, is interpreted as a north-northwest prograding submarine fan of middle to Late Paleocene age. It is considered to represent the deposition of detritus derived from an uplifting orogen located to the south. The detrital zircon age spectra suggest that there was a period of low intensity of magmatic activity in the source area around the K-T boundary

  4. The origin and distribution of HAPs elements in relation to maceral composition of the A1 lignite bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group), Calvert mine area, east-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sharon S.; Warwick, Peter D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Pontolillo, James

    1997-01-01

    The origin and distribution of twelve potentially Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs; As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) identified in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments were examined in relation to the maceral composition of the A1 bed (Paleocene, Calvert Bluff Formation, Wilcox Group) of the Calvert mine in east-central Texas. The 3.2 m-thick A1 bed was divided into nine incremental channel samples (7 lignite samples and 2 shaley coal samples) on the basis of megascopic characteristics. Results indicate that As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb, and U are strongly correlated with ash yield and are enriched in the shaley coal samples. We infer that these elements are associated with inorganic constituents in the coal bed and may be derived from a penecontemporaneous stream channel located several kilometers southeast of the mining block. Of the HAPs elements studied, Mn and Hg are the most poorly correlated to ash yield. We infer an organic association for Mn; Hg may be associated with pyrite. The rest of the trace elements (Be, Co, and Se) are weakly correlated with ash yield. Further analytical work is necessary to determine the mode of occurrence for these elements. Overall, concentrations of the HAPs elements are generally similar to or less than those reported in previous studies of lignites of the Wilcox Group, east-central region, Texas. Petrographic analysis indicates the following ranges in composition for the seven lignite samples: liptinites (5–8%), huminites (88–95%), and inertinites (trace amounts to 7%). Samples from the middle portion of the A1 bed contain abundant crypto-eugelinite compared to the rest of the samples; this relationship suggests that the degradation of plant material was an important process during the development of the peat mire. With the exception of Hg and Mn, relatively low levels of the HAPs elements studied are found in the samples containing abundant crypto-eugelinite. We infer that the peat-forming environment for this

  5. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of upper cretaceous, paleocene, and lower eocene rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.L.; Dunagan, J.F. Jr.

    1978-02-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the uranium favorability of continental sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Lance, Paleocene Polecat Bench, and lower Eocene Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, an intermontane structural basin of Laramide age. Previous work dealing with the Bighorn Basin was reviewed, and field investigations were carried out in the spring and summer of 1976. Subsurface data were collected and results of surface and subsurface investigations were evaluated with respect to uranium favorability. Precambrian plutonic and metamorphic rocks and Tertiary tuffaceous rocks in the Bighorn Basin and bordering uplifts are considered insignificant as source rocks, although the Wiggins Formation (White River equivalent) cannot be evaluated as a possible source because of a lack of data. Potential host rocks locally show only limited favorability. Lithology of strata exposed along the western and southern basin margins is more favorable than that of rocks in the central and eastern parts of the basin, but there is little organic material, pyrite, or other reducing agents in these rocks. Strata of the Lance, Polecat Bench, and Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin are considered generally unfavorable for sandstone uranium deposits

  6. Heavy mineral delineation of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic sections at the Savannah River Site, Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathcart, E.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocene Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study

  7. Geology of the upper part of the Fort Union Group (Paleocene), Williston Basin, with reference to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    Tabular sandstone beds in the Sentinel Butte Formation are thicker (as much as 30 m thick), more laterally extensive (more than 2 km wide in many places), and more abundant than in the Tongue River Formation. This indicates that high-sinuosity streams were more abundant where the Sentinel Butte Formation was deposited, and the streams were deeper and occupied wider meander belts, as would be found on the landward part of the delta plain. Siltstone, claystone, lignite, and a small amount of limestone were deposited on natural levees, crevasse splays, and in flood basins. The vertical arrangement of the two formations indicates a progradation of a large deltaic complex into the sea in which the Cannonball Formation was deposited. Sandstone in the Tongue River Formation classifies mostly as carbonate litharenite, and the fine fraction of the formation consists mostly of mica-group minerals, some kaolinite-group minerals, and a little montmorillonite. Sandstone in the Sentinel Butte Formation classifies mostly as volcanic litharenite, and the fine fraction consists mostly of montmorillonite, some kaolinite-group minerals, and a little of the mica-group minerals. The highest-grade uranium deposits in North Dakota are in the Sentinel Butte Formation in the area of the Little Missouri River escarpment in eastern Billings and northwestern Stark Counties. Little uranium has been found in the Tongue River Formation. Uranium may be more abundant in the Sentinel Butte Formation because of the abundance of glassy volcanic matter, which has now been largely altered to montmorillonite, and the abundance of fragments of volcanic rock. Weathering of the upper part of the Sentinel Butte Formation during formation of the Eocene paleosol in the northern Great Plains may have mobilized uranium that was deposited in the formation below the paleosol before deposition of the overlying Oligocene and younger sediment

  8. Meteoric diagenesis of Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene-Eocene shallow-water carbonates in the Kruja Platform (Albania): geochemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heba, Grigor; Prichonnet, Gilbert; El Albani, Abderrazak

    2009-04-01

    In the central part of the Kruja Platform (Albania) located in the Apulian passive margin, geochemical analyses (calcimetry, Sr, REE and isotopic, δ13C and δ18O) coupled with sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic study were carried out on Upper Cretaceous (CsB4, CsB5, CsB6 Biozones) and Paleocene to Middle Eocene shallow-water carbonates that crop out in the Kruje-Dajt massif (L'Escalier section) and Makareshi massif (La Route section). The lower values in Sr contents, the homogeneous δ18O values in both sections and the covariance between δ13C and δ18O values (La Route section) are attributed to diagenesis influence by a meteoric water-buffer system, supported by petrographic observations. Moreover, a new exposure surface during the Late Cretaceous time (between CsB5 and CsB6 Biozones) may be proposed according to the low or negative excursions of Sr values, the negative excursions of isotopic values in both sections and a positive peak of normalized REE values (La Route section). These variations correlate with the geochemical signal reported by the decreasing strontium isotope values of rudist shells in the Island of Brač carbonate platform (Apulia domain) during the late Middle Campanian (77.3 Ma). Also, this continental exposure is consistent with the global sea-level fall reported from the Boreal Realm, North Atlantic, and the southern Tethyan margin. This geochemical evidence is a complementary tool for the sedimentological analysis and suggests a maximum regression (a sea-level fall) at the transition between the CsB5 and CsB6 Biozones. The high values of Sr content in Middle Eocene carbonates (L'Escalier section) reflect changes in depositional environment from restricted to open marine conditions. REE values increase through transgressive systems tract, characterized by small increase of detrital input. However, anomalies of certain values in both sections suggest disturbances linked either to the changes in clay input and to diagenetic

  9. Petrographic characteristic of the sandstones of the upper paleocene-middle eocene aged in the Yildizli-Aydinkent (Ereğli-Konya area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müjdat Özkan

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In the study area, Upper Paleocene - Middle Eocene aged Halkapınar formation, was formed in a shallow and deep marine environment. The lithologies of this formation are medium - thick bedded conglomerate, thin - thick bedded sandstone, thin - very thick bedded shale, thin - medium bedded marl with chert nodules and bands. In addition olistolithes of ophiolitic melange are found at the top of the sandstones, which includes basalt interbands. Yellowish gray, greenish gray, beige, gray colored sandstones include some sedimentary structures, namely ripple - marks, graded bedding, laminate, convolute lamination, current ripple, tool marks. Constituents of the sandstones are quartz, plagioclase, sanidine, orthoclase, fragments of sedimentary and methamorphic rocks, biotite, muscovite, opaque mineral and glauconite. The sandstones, which are not matured in terms of mineralogy and texture, are mainly cemented by calcite, clay matrix and minor iron oxide and glauconite matrix. The sandstones are named lithic arenite, lithic graywacke, feldspathic litharenite and litharenite.

  10. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  11. Task 50 - deposition of lignites in the Fort Union Group and related strata of the northern Great Plains

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    Hartman, J.H.; Roth, B.; Kihm, A.J.

    1997-08-11

    Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early Eocene geologic and paleontologic studies were undertaken in western North Dakota, eastern and south-central Montana, and northwestern and northeastern Wyoming. These study areas comprise the Williston, Bighorn, and Powder River Basins, all of which contain significant lignite resources. Research was undertaken in these basins because they have the best geologic sections and fossil record for the development of a chronostratigraphic (time-rock) framework for the correlation of lignite beds and other economic resources. A thorough understanding of the precise geologic age of the deposition of sediments permits a powerful means of interpreting the record of geologic events across the northern Great Plains. Such an understanding allows for rigorous interpretation of paleoenviromnents and estimates of resource potential and quality in this area of economically significant deposits. This work is part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of molluscan fossil faunas to provide a paleoenvironmentally sensitive independent means of interpreting time intervals of brief duration during the Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene. This study focuses on the record of mollusks and, to a lesser extent, mammals in the (1) Hell Creek-Tullock Formations, which include the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary, in the western portion of the Williston Basin, Montana; (2) uppermost Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lowermost Eocene strata in western North Dakota, which -includes the last interior seaway in North Dakota; (3) upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene of the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin of south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming; and (4) Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The geologic record provides different physical and paleontological information to aid in interpreting the geologic record through the study interval.

  12. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

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    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  13. Lignite; Braunkohle

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    Kaltenbach, Erwin; Maassen, Uwe [Debriv e.V., Berlin und Koeln (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The domestic lignite is the most important and in the foreseeable future, the only domestic energy resource that is available in large quantities and economically. It makes an essential contribution to secure and competitive energy supply and has a high regional as macroeconomic importance. The required guarantied capacity for the development of renewable energy, the lignite provides under competition conditions. The flexibility of the lignite power plants is in addition to security of supply and competitiveness, a strategic added value for a reliable power supply. [German] Die heimische Braunkohle ist die wichtigste und in ueberschaubarer Zukunft auch die einzige heimische Energieressource, die in grossen Mengen und wirtschaftlich zur Verfuegung steht. Sie leistet einen unverzichtbaren Beitrag zur sicheren und wettbewerbsfaehigen Energieversorgung und hat eine hohe regional- wie gesamtwirtschaftliche Bedeutung. Die fuer den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien notwendige gesicherte Leistung stellt die Braunkohle unter Wettbewerbsbedingungen zur Verfuegung. Die Flexibilitaet des Braunkohlenkraftwerksparks ist neben Versorgungssicherheit und Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit ein strategischer Zusatznutzen fuer eine sichere Stromversorgung.

  14. Spontaneous combustion of the Upper Paleocene Cerrejon Formation coal and generation of clinker in La Guajira Peninsula (Caribbean Region of Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, J.A. [Carbones del Cerrejon Limited., Cl. 100 No. 19-54 piso 12, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Candela, S.A. [ECOPETROL S.A. Edificio Principal Cr. 7 No. 37-65, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Rios, C.A. [Escuela de Geologia, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Cr 27 Cl 9, Ciudad Universitaria, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Montes, C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Roosvelt Ave., Tupper Building - 401, Balboa, Ancon, Panama (Panama); Uribe, C. [Tubos Moore S.A. Cll 99 No. 57-74, Bogota (Colombia)

    2009-12-01

    Clinker referred here as red and brick-looking burnt rocks found interbedded in the Upper Paleocene Cerrejon Formation is the result of spontaneous and natural combustion of coal seams in the recent geologic past. These rocks have been mapped, measured and characterized in the Cerrejon Coal Mine at La Guajira Peninsula (Colombia). These burnt rocks usually outcrop in irregular patterns as almost tabular bodies up to 100 m thick, thinning and pinching out below ground surface to depths up to 448 m. Mapping revealed that clinker is usually found near deformed zones, either faults or tight folds. Timing of spontaneous combustion seems to predate folding and faulting, but seems to postdate the development of the Cerrejon thrust fault and alluvial fan proceeding from the Perija Range. Clinker covers an area of around 2.9 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} with a volume of approximately 1.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}. The calculation of the amount of heat released through coal burning indicates that complete combustion of 6.4 Mt of 26.4 x 10{sup 6} J/kg coal would yield 17 x 10{sup 13} J. (author)

  15. Stratigraphy and environments of deposition of the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (reconnaissance) and the Paleocene Ludlow Formation (detailed), southwestern North Dakota. Report of investigations No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Ludlow Formations of southwestern North Dakota, with the exception of the included lignite beds and minor amounts of concretions and nodules, are almost exclusively clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. Massive clays, clays alternating with silts and sands, sandstones filling channels and other depressions, sheet sandstones, and lignites are the dominant sediment and rock types present. These sediments and sedimentary rocks were mostly deposited in a continental environment and were largely alluvial, lacustrine or paludal in origin; though marginal marine deposition, in part, is indicated by the occurrence of brackish water faunas in portions of the upper Ludlow Formation. With the possible exception of a persistent lignite near the base, persistent lignites are not present in the Hell Creek Formation. The Ludlow can be subdivided into several informal units, typically coal-bounded, which can be traced laterally over large areas. This informal subdivision permits isolation of stratigraphic units for the study of local environments of deposition. Channel and depression fill sandstones of the Ludlow Formation have a relatively low permeability and a high organic content at the surface and, for this reason, are considered poor prospective uranium host rocks. The lighter colored yellow winnowed sheet sandstones of the Ludlow are more permeable and relatively free of organic matter. They are considered as possible host rocks for uranium occurring in association with an oxidation/reduction interface at shallow depths. The uranium potential is enhanced where the latter sandstones occur along paleodivides which have been overlain by the Oligocene White River Formation, or in local areas where the latter formation is still preserved. Light yellow winnowed sheet sandstones are rare in the Hell Creek Formation, and the chances for uranium prospects in this interval seem correspondingly reduced

  16. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  17. Sedimentologic and palynologic significance of finding tertiary lignites in an ancient rift zone lake (Chingla, Ethiopia). Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedamawit, Y.; Bonnefille, R.; Faure, H.; Taieb, M.

    1984-01-01

    Oligocene-Pleistocene deposits at Chingla apparently lie atop Miocene basalts. The upper cross-section shows numerous lignite interlayers. This paper discusses mineral composition of lignites and enclosing rock. Palynologic analysis of the lignite cross-sections determined 23 layers.

  18. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

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    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  19. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  20. Neyveli lignite - a status overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-14

    The lignite mines of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation in Tamil Nadu in India are described: characteristics of the deposit; choice of mining method (surface mining); groundwater control; storm water control; overburden removal; mining equipment (bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyors and spreaders); generation of electric power; production of fertilizer; production of lignite briquettes and tar products. A second mine and thermal power plant are planned.

  1. Geology of the Cannonball Formation (Paleocene) in the Williston basin, with reference to uranium potential. Report of investigation No. 57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvancara, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Paleocene Cannonball Formation is a marine, non-lignitic-bearing clastic sequence in the lower part of the Fort Union Group. It is overlain by the lignite-bearing Tongue River Formation in places and both overlain and underlain by the lignite-bearing Ludlow Formation in places. The Cannonball crops out primarily in southwest-central North Dakota and probably occurs throughout the western one-half of the state. It occurs also in northwestern South Dakota and may extend into parts of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Poorly consolidated, very fine- to fine-grained, light to medium brownish yellow-weathering sandstone and light gray-weathering, sandy mudstone are the principal types of lithology. Mudstone generally predominates in North Dakota whereas sandstone seems to predominate in South Dakota. Although uranium in the Williston basin has been found almost entirely in lignite and nonmarine carbonaceous rocks, its occurrence in the marine Cannonball Formation is possible. If the Cannonball, Ludlow, Tongue River, and Sentinel Butte Formations are at least partly penecontemporaneous, a variety of depositional environments were in areal juxtaposition during the Paleocene. Streams originating or passing through coastal plain bogs could have carried uranium ions (derived from volcanic materials) to the Cannonball sea where they were deposited syngenetically. Epigenetic uranium may occur in Cannonball mudstones or sandstones that directly underlie the Ludlow Formation, which is known to contain volcanic materials

  2. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  3. Evaluation of lignite tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossedin, A

    1946-01-01

    Tar from the low-temperature (450/sup 0/) carbonization of lignite from Bouches-du-Rhone was hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst based on MoS/sub 2/ with a 3:1 H:N mixture. Processing (at 470/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) for maximum production of gasoline yielded 86 wt % of a product of boiling 55 to 186/sup 0/ and motor octane number 75. An alternative is to hydrogenate with a view to producing solvents and lubricants. For this purpose the tar was separated by distillation (at 20 millimeters, cutting at 220/sup 0/) into two fractions of equal volume. On hydrogenation (at 300/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) the light part yields a gasoline H/sub 2/O-soluble cut, a highly aromatic solvent fraction, a heavier cut (280/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/) suitable as a plasticizer, and a phenol fraction. The heavier part of the tar is hydrogenated (at 380/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) to give spindle oil and lubricating oil of medium eta (11.2 centistokes at 98.2/sup 0/), moderate eta index (64), good pour point (-7/sup 0/), and good oxidizing characteristics. The overall yield of products from the two portions is 86.9% (gasoline and solvent 32, light phenols 9.7, spindle oil 14.2, medium lubricating oil 25.7, wax, 5.3%).

  4. Recovery of uranium from lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium in raw lignite is associated with the organic matter and is readily soluble in acid (and carbonate) solutions. However, beneficiation techniques were not successful for concentrating the uranium or removing part of the reagent-consuming materials. Once the lignite was heated, the uranium became much less soluble in both acid and carbonate solutions, and complete removal of carbon was required to convert it back to a soluble form. Proper burning improves acid-leaching efficiency; that is, it reduces the reagent consumption and concentrates the uranium, thereby reducing plant size for comparable uranium throughput, and it eliminates organic fouling of leach liquors. Restrictions are necessary during burning to prevent the uranium from becoming refractory. The most encouraging results were obtained by flash-burning lignite at 1200 to 1300 0 C and utilizing the released SO 2 to supplement the acid requirement. The major acid consumers were aluminum and iron

  5. Overview of Neyveli lignite complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The growth and development of the Neyveli lignite complex in Tamil Nadu, India are discussed. A second lignite mine is being developed together with a second thermal power station and erection of transmission lines between Neyveli-Salem and Neyveli-Red Hills is under way. The contribution of power to Tamil Nadu has grown into an extremely valuable asset; exports have risen by 71% in the four years leading up to 1984 and company turn-over has increased 164% over the same period. Performance during 1983-84 is analysed in terms of production figures, productivity and capacity utilisation.

  6. Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne group) and Jackson group lignite deposits of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The lignite deposits within the upper Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne Group) and the overlying Jackson Group are among the coal resources that were not quantitatively assessed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) program in the Gulf Coastal Plain coal province. In the past, these lignite-bearing stratigraphic units often have been evaluated together because of their geographic and stratigraphic proximity (Fisher, 1963; Kaiser, 1974; Kaiser et al., 1980; Jackson and Garner, 1982; Kaiser, 1996) (Figures 1, 2). The term “Yegua-Jackson trend“ is used informally herein for the lignite-bearing outcrops of these Late Eocene deposits in Texas. Lignite beds in the Yegua-Jackson trend generally are higher both in ash yield and sulfur content than those of the underlying Wilcox Group (Figure 2). Recent studies (Senkayi et al., 1987; Ruppert et al., 1994; Warwick et al., 1996, 1997) have shown that some lignite beds within the Yegua-Jackson trend contain partings of volcanic ash and host elevated levels of trace elements that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Amendments of 1990. Lignite beds within the Yegua Formation are thin (less than or equal to 6 ft) and laterally discontinuous in comparison with most Wilcox Group deposits (Ayers, 1989a); in contrast, the Jackson Group lignite beds range up to 12 ft in total thickness and are relatively continuous laterally, extending nearly 32 mi along strike.

  7. Expansion of Neyveli lignite mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes activities at Neyveli lignite mines in the Tamil Nadu region of India. The equipment used, in mining and materials handling is described. Problems encountered in the conveyor transport system are described, and the solutions finally adopted are presented.

  8. Macedonian lignite - upgrading and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musich, Mark A.; Young, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    Macedonian lignites have a high moisture content, low heating value, and are friable, generating fines and dust. Macedonia has an urgent need to use indigenous solid fuel resources for domestic and industrial heating as well as metallurgical applications. The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential for beneficiating Macedonian lignite and producing high-quality briquettes for metallurgical use as well as domestic/industrial heating. Laboratory studies have shown that treating the Macedonian lignite fines by two physical processes-cleaning and carbonization-followed by pelletizing. can generate acceptable lump fuels for heating applications. Carbonizing the float-sink-cleaned lignite to reduce the volatile matter content and pelletizing the resultant char with starch produced strong pellets, which could be used as a home-heating fuel, the char having a heat content of 13,400 Btu/lb (31.2 MJ/Kg). However, additional work is required at the pilot scale to determine optimum briquetting conditions and production costs. (Author)

  9. First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Quesnel, Florence; De Plöeg, Gaël; De Franceschi, Dario; Métais, Grégoire; De Bast, Eric; Solé, Floréal; Folie, Annelise; Boura, Anaïs; Claude, Julien; Dupuis, Christian; Gagnaison, Cyril; Iakovleva, Alina; Martin, Jeremy; Maubert, François; Prieur, Judicaël; Roche, Emile; Storme, Jean-Yves; Thomas, Romain; Tong, Haiyan; Yans, Johan; Buffetaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a "miacid" carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded

  10. Powerful boost for Indian lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) of India has begun the first phase of an expansion program that will open a second mine and boost lignite production in Tamil Nadu to nearly five times its present level within the next 15 years. Mining conditions at Neyveli are particularly difficult. The harsh abrasive overburden strata present severe and strenuous conditions; sticky and marshy surface clays, the presence of groundwater aquifers, the cyclonic and monsoonal climate and high stripping ratios are other problems. The overburden is drilled and blasted; in areas of sticky topsoil, non-stick liners for the buckets etc. are used. Adequate safeguards and infrastructure are being developed to deal with differing strata conditions. The conveyor transport system features slow, wider belt conveyors, changeover from fixed type roller to freely hanging garland type, interlinking of benches and specially designed drive heads. The groundwater aquifers are continuously depressurized by grid pumping from a series of pumps; boreholes have been sunk to 120 m.

  11. Lignite mining in India - technology highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-01-01

    Figures for lignite production and its role in the Indian energy scene are presented. Lignite mining at Neyveli is described in detail, including: advance preparation of the overburden strata; modifications to bucket wheel excavators; tackling the sticky surface clays; ground water management; storm water control; tackling higher overburden-to-lignite ratios; materials handling; communications within the mine; the development of indigenous mining equipment; and ecology and environmental control.

  12. Treatment of lignite tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-08-07

    A process is described for treating tars such as lignite tar, shale tar, or peat tar, and similar tars, characterized by the fact that the tar is rectified to about 240/sup 0/C and the residue brought to a temperature above 50/sup 0/C after diluting with a product of the type of gasoline or ligroin at about 30/sup 0/C and treated with selective solvents preferably low-boiling phenols and eventually with water.

  13. THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNITE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa

    2000-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  14. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  15. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  16. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  17. Paleocene stratigraphic plays in Uruguay offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E; Soto, M; Ferro, S; Tomasini, J; De Santa Ana, H; Conti, B.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguayan continental margin offshore evolution is represented by three large mega sequences: pre rift, rift and post rift, which are correlated with other South Atlantic basins. The tectonic and stratigraphic knowledge about the Uruguayan offshore evolution enable a hydrocarbon potential approximation . The mapping of the seismic depositional sequences are covered by deep basins. The methodology used identify the migration of Uruguayan side depo centers such as the stratigraphic plays group in particular a prospective Paleocene sequence

  18. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  19. Production of rubbly culm coke from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Kohleverarbeitung; Kurtz, R [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Frechen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Verkokung und Chemie

    1977-08-01

    The article deals with the coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth, and describes the coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from lignite.

  20. Expansion of the Neyveli lignite mine, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S [Neyveli Lignite Corp. Ltd., Tamil Nadu (India); Streck, W [Gold (O.) G.m.b.H. und Co. K.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    After giving a picture of the difficult winning conditions at the Neyveli open-cast lignite mine, the author states the reasons for the expansions of the open-cast mine and describes the necessary measures and machinery.

  1. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  2. The Paleocene and lower Eocene pollen flora of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leidelmeyer, P.

    1966-01-01

    A description is given of a Paleocene and Lower Eocene pollen flora of two bore-holes in Guana. Some new species are described and some remarks are made on their stratigraphical significance. Pollen diagrams are presented, one probably representing the entire Paleocene and a part of the Eocene.

  3. An Upper Paleocene Antigonia-like fish from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Niels Christensøn

    1997-01-01

    ), but highly derived fishes, toothless with strong body armour and some strong fin spines. The phylogenetic analyses of these fishes indicate that much convergent evolution and a number of reversals must have occurred, both in this very advanced group of "higher" teleosteans and within the acanthopts...

  4. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Huurdeman, Emiel P.; Rem, Charlotte C. M.; Donders, Timme H.; Pross, Jörg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy R.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, Peter K.

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the Australo-Antarctic Gulf (AAG). These reconstructions have revealed a large discrepancy between temperature proxy data and climate models in this region, suggesting a crucial error in model, proxy data or both. To resolve the origin of this discrepancy, detailed reconstructions are needed from both sides of the Tasmanian Gateway. Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary archives from the west of the Tasmanian Gateway have unfortunately remained scarce (only IODP Site U1356), and no well-dated successions are available for the northern sector of the AAG. Here we present new stratigraphic data for upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata from the Otway Basin, southeast Australia, on the (north)west side of the Tasmanian Gateway. We analyzed sediments recovered from exploration drilling (Latrobe-1 drill core) and outcrop sampling (Point Margaret) and performed high-resolution carbon isotope geochemistry of bulk organic matter and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and pollen biostratigraphy on sediments from the regional lithostratigraphic units, including the Pebble Point Formation, Pember Mudstone and Dilwyn Formation. Pollen and dinocyst assemblages are assigned to previously established Australian pollen and dinocyst zonations and tied to available zonations for the SW Pacific. Based on our dinocyst stratigraphy and previously published planktic foraminifer biostratigraphy, the Pebble Point Formation at Point Margaret is dated to the latest Paleocene. The globally synchronous negative carbon isotope excursion that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary is identified within the top part of the Pember Mudstone in the Latrobe-1 borehole and at Point Margaret. However, the high abundances of the

  5. Stratigraphic and climatic implications of clay mineral changes around the Paleocene/Eocene boundary of the northeastern US margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.; Bybell, L.M.; Mason, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Kaolinite usually is present in relatively small amounts in most upper Paleocene and lower Eocene neritic deposits of the northern US Atlantic Coastal Plain. However, there is a short period (less than 200,000 k.y.) in the latest Paleocene (upper part of calcareous nannoplankton Zone NP 9) when kaolinite-dominated clay mineral suites replaced the usual illite/smectite-dominated suites. During this time of global biotic and lithologic changes, kaolinite increased from less than 5% of the clay mineral suite to peak proportions of 50-60% of the suite and then returned to less than 5% in uppermost Paleocene/lowermost Eocene strata. This kaolinite pulse is present at numerous localities from southern Virginia to New Jersey. These sites represent both inner and middle neritic depositional environments and reflect input from several river drainage systems. Thus, it is inferred that kaolinite-rich source areas were widespread in the northeastern US during the latest Paleocene. Erosion of these source areas contributed the kaolinite that was transported and widely dispersed into shelf environments of the Salisbury embayment. The kaolinite increase, which occurred during a time of relatively high sea level, probably is the result of intensified weathering due to increased temperature and precipitation. The southern extent of the kaolinite pulse is uncertain in that uppermost Paleocene beds have not been identified in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The late Paleocene kaolinite pulse that consists of an increase to peak kaolinite levels followed by a decrease can be used for detailed correlation between more upbasin and more downbasin sections in the Salisbury embayment. Correlations show that more upbasin Paleocene/Eocene boundary sections are erosionally truncated. They have varying portions of the kaolinite increase and, if present at all, discontinuous portions of the subsequent kaolinite decrease. As these truncated sections are disconformably overlain by lower

  6. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  7. Characterisation of lignite as an industrial adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Qi; Andrew F.A. Hoadley; Alan L. Chaffee; Gil Garnier [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2011-04-15

    An alternative use of the abundant and inexpensive lignite (also known as brown coal) as an industrial adsorbent has been characterised. The adsorptive properties of two Victorian lignite without any pre-treatment were investigated using the cationic methylene blue dye as a model compound in aqueous solutions. Two commercial activated carbon products were also studied for comparison. The adsorption equilibrium of the four adsorbents was better described by the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacities of the two untreated lignite adsorbents, Loy Yang and Yallourn, calculated using Langmuir isotherms were 286 and 370 mg/g, respectively, higher than a coconut shell-based activated carbon (167 mg/g), but lower than a coal-based activated carbon (435 mg/g). Surface area results suggested that larger micropores and mesopores were important for achieving good methylene blue adsorption by the activated carbons. However, FTIR and cation exchange capacity analyses revealed that, for the lignite, chemical interactions between lignite surface functional groups and methylene blue molecules occurred, thereby augmenting its adsorption capacity. 63 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Lignite As Contributory Factor to Regional Development of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Kordas

    2006-01-01

    Lignite (brown coal) is Greece's most important energy mineral raw material. Lignite exploitation has made a highly significant contribution to the development of energy sector of Greece on past 50 years, and will, according to estimations, continue to supply energy for another 40 years. Greece is very rich in Lignite resources. The two main basins - from where Lignite is extracted by opencast mining - are a) in Western Macedonia (northen Greece) where is generated the 70% of the whole electr...

  9. Latest Paleocene lithologic and biotic events in neritic deposits of southwestern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Thomas G.; Bybell, Laurel M.; Owens, James P.

    1993-01-01

    In the southwestern New Jersey Coastal Plain, four drill holes contain continuous neritic sedimentation across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary (calcareous nannofossil Zone NP 9/NP 10 boundary). Significant lithologic and biotic changes occur in these strata near the top of the Paleocene. Global warming, increased precipitation, and other oceanographic and climatic events that have been recognized in high-latitude, deep-oceanic deposits of the latest Paleocene also influenced mid-latitude, shallow-marine, and terrestrial environments of the western North Atlantic. The diverse, well-preserved calcareous nannofossil flora that is present throughout the entire New Jersey boundary section accurately places these events within the uppermost part of the upper Paleocene Zone NP 9. Several rapid but gradational changes occur within a 1.1-m interval near the top of Zone NP 9. The changes include (1) a change in lithology from glauconitic quartz sand to clay, (2) a change in clay mineral suites from illite/smectite-dominated to kaolinite-dominated, (3) a change in benthic foraminiferal assemblages to a lower diversity fauna suggestive of low-oxygen environments, (4) a significant increase in planktonic foraminiferal abundance, and (5) an increased species turnover rate in marine calcareous nannofossils. Pollen was sparse in the New Jersey drill holes, but terrestrial sporomorph species in Virginia exhibit increased turnover rates at a correlative level. Foraminiferal assemblages and lithology indicate that relative sea level rose in New Jersey at the same time as these late Paleocene events occurred in late Biochron NP 9. The higher sea levels influenced sediment type and absolute abundance of planktonic foraminifers in the deposits. Above the initial increase of kaolinite in the upper part of Zone NP 9, the kaolinite percentage continues to increase, and the maximum kaolinite value occurs in the uppermost part of Zone NP 9. There are few changes in either the sediments or the

  10. Technology and use of lignite. Proceedings of the tenth biennial lignite symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kube, W. R.; Gronhovd, G. H. [comps.

    1979-01-01

    The symposium on the technology and use of lignite was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the University of North Dakota, and held at Grand Forks, North Dakota, May 30-31, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings of this tenth biennial lignite symposium have been entered into EDB and ERA and three also into EAPA. The papers discuss lignite deposits in the USA, mining plans, gasification and in-situ gasification, and combustion in fossil-fuel power plants. (LTN)

  11. Low-temperature carbonization plant for lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotsuki, Y

    1949-01-01

    The design and operational data of a low-temperature carbonization plant for Japanese lignite are described. The retort had a vertical cylinder with a capacity of about 10 tons per day. By continuous operation, in which a part of the gas produced was circulated and burned in the lignite zone, about 40 percent semicoke and 3 to 4 percent tar were obtained. From the tar the following products were separated: Low-temperature carbonization cresol, 18.3; motor fuel, 1.00; solvent, 9.97; cresol for medical uses, 11.85; and creosote oil, 32 percent.

  12. Combustion of uraniferous lignites in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, G.; Gasos, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper a description of the continuous fluid bed combustion pilot plant unit, installed in the Junta de Energia Nuclear facilities, is presented. Besides, this paper deals with some of the studies carried out in the pilot plant aimed at the recovery of uranium from lignites, high in sulfur and ashes, coming from Calaf basin (Barcelona). These studies include the recovery of the heating value of these lignites and the reduction of environmental effect of SO 2 . Based on these studies an application exercise is presented. 9 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  13. Tempo and scale of late Paleocene and early Eocene carbon isotope cycles: Implications for the origin of hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, James C.; McCarren, Heather; Murphy, Brandon; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The upper Paleocene and lower Eocene are marked by several prominent (> 1‰) carbon isotope (δ 13C) excursions (CIE) that coincide with transient global warmings, or thermal maxima, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The CIE, which are recorded mainly in marine sedimentary sequences, have also been identified in continental sequences, occurred episodically, and yet appear to be paced or triggered by orbital forcing. To constrain the timing and scale of the CIE relative to long-term baseline variability, we have constructed a 4.52 million year (myr) long, high-resolution (~ 3 kyr) bulk sediment carbon isotope record spanning the lower Eocene to upper Paleocene (C25r-C24n) from a pelagic sediment section recovered at ODP Site 1262 in the southeast Atlantic. This section, which was orbitally-tuned utilizing high-resolution core log physical property and geochemical records, is the most stratigraphically complete upper Paleocene to lower Eocene sequence recovered to date. Time-series analysis of the carbon isotope record along with a high-resolution Fe intensity record obtained by XRF core scanner reveal cyclicity with variance concentrated primarily in the precession (21 kyr) and eccentricity bands (100 and 400-kyr) throughout the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene. In general, minima in δ 13C correspond with peaks in Fe (i.e., carbonate dissolution), both of which appear to be in phase with maxima in eccentricity. This covariance is consistent with excess oceanic uptake of isotopically depleted carbon resulting in lower carbonate saturation during periods of high eccentricity. This relationship includes all late Paleocene and early Eocene CIE confirming pacing by orbital forcing. The lone exception is the PETM, which appears to be out of phase with the 400-kyr cycle, though possibly in phase with the 100-kyr cycle, reinforcing the notion that a mechanism other than orbital forcing and/or an additional source of carbon is required to account for the

  14. Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, A.; Roussos, D.; Menegaki, M.; Damigos, D.

    2014-01-01

    During the last three decades, several studies have been conducted in order to assess the external costs of electricity production from fossil fuels, especially coal and lignite. Nevertheless, these studies usually ignore the impacts generated by the upstream mining works. This paper contributes to existing literature and attempts to fill this gap by exploring the externalities of lignite mining owing to the emission of suspended particulate matter. To this end, a ‘bottom-up’ approach is implemented, using as case study the largest operational lignite surface mine at the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia (Greece). The results indicate that annual air pollution externalities of lignite mining are of the order of 3€/ton of lignite, which corresponds to around 5.0 €/MW h. The estimated costs are significantly lower, i.e. up to 80%, when dust deposition is considered in air dispersion models. In any case, these findings should be seen as a starting point for discussion owing to the lack of specific emission rates for Greek lignite mines. - Highlights: • Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions are 3 €/t of lignite. • Externalities of mining correspond to around 5.0 €/MW h. • Externalities are significantly lower, up to 80%, if dust deposition is considered. • There is lack of specific dust emission rates for lignite mining. • There are high discrepancies in existing dust emission rates for lignite mining

  15. Hydrodynamic characterization of the Paleocene aquifer in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2009-05-15

    May 15, 2009 ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 3 (5), pp. 141-148 ..... hydrogeological study of the coastal sedimentary basin of. Togo intended to ... isotopic study and modeling of the Paleocene aquifer in the.

  16. Rapid restoration after lignite mining in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The 30th anniversary of the commencement of large scale lignite production by opencast mining in Hungary was celebrated in 1987. A process of rapid technical and biological reclamation without the use of humus has now been developed. The costs involved are only 5-10% of those of conventional methods and reclamation cycle is four years compared to ten years for conventional methods.

  17. Carbonate and lignite cycles in the Ptolemais Basin: Orbital control and suborbital variability (Late Neogene, northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Tougiannidis, N.; Ricken, W.; Rolf, C.; Kleineder, M.; Bertram, N.; Antoniadis, P.

    2009-04-01

    We recently commenced a project to investigate deep drillings as well as outcrops in the Ptolemais Basin, northern Greece, for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate change. Specific attention is paid to mining sites Achlada, Vevi, Vegora, Amynteon, North Field, South Field, and Lava. The sediment archive comprises Upper Miocene to Quaternary continental lake deposits (up to 800 m thick) with an extended Lower Pliocene section. The Upper Miocene sections are composed of diatomaceous mud and gray marls. Pliocene lake sediments commence with the Kyrio member (lignite/grey marl), followed by the Theodoxus member (beige marl/lignite), and the Notio member (marl with intercalated sand /lignite). The limnic deposits show striking rhythmic bedding of (mostly) carbonates and lignites, reflecting orbital-induced humidity and temperature changes in this small NW-SE elongated continental basin. First, we retrieved chronometric information by determining magnetic polarity changes on three sites as independent stratigraphic ground-truth in combination with palynological evidence and published data. Then we conducted a number of high-resolution (1 - 6 cm increment), non-destructive measurements to obtain paleoclimate proxies: photospectrometry (colors L, a, b), magnetic susceptibility, and natural gamma. Accordingly, we achieved a multi-proxy insight into paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental evolution at unprecedented temporal resolution (up to a few decades!) over long time series and at a number of key sites. Using the newly-developed ESALab software, we conducted spectral and evolutionary spectral analysis to evaluate the cyclo-stratigraphic development. As for orbital variability, spectral power is concentrated on precession, hemi-precession, and eccentricity, with only minor impact of orbital tilt. We used this information to increase the temporal resolution of our age models by tuning as many precession (insolation) maxima as possible to carbonate minima (lignite maxima

  18. The future path of lignite production in the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussios, E.; Koikouzas, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    The future development of the European Union and Balkan lignite industry is examined in this paper. Lignite in some countries represents for the last decade by far the most important fuel for electricity generation. The economically recoverable lignite reserves of the Balkans (21.36 x 10 9 t) and Greece (4.0 x 10 9 t) are sufficient to meet their energy demand for the next decades (50-100 years). The Balkan countries intended to increase their lignite production, in the near future, as result of the increase of their primary energy demand and their efforts to meet their energy requirements by using domestic resources. Greece also plans to increase lignite production. On the contrary, the remaining of the European Union countries intend to decrease their lignite production. Nevertheless, the countries of Balkan region which are presently in a transition period to the market economy, have to deal with a decrease of people employed in the lignite mining industry. However, Balkan region seems to be the most promising area for the future development of the lignite industry in the enlarged EU, after making the following alterations in the lignite sector: Rehabilitation of the lignite open-pit mines, closure of the most underground mines, privatization of the most prosperous mines, modification of the existing technology, introduction of the 'clean' coal technology, etc. New opportunities for the development and modernization of the lignite industry in Balkan countries arise, after their possible entrance into the European Union, considering also that lignite is one of their most important indigenous energy source. For the necessary modernization of the lignite industry, development of collaborations for the capital and know-how transferring is required. (Author)

  19. Sustainable Mining Land Use for Lignite Based Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Michal; Krysa, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    This research aims to discuss complex lignite based energy projects economic viability and its impact on sustainable land use with respect to project risk and uncertainty, economics, optimisation (e.g. Lerchs and Grossmann) and importance of lignite as fuel that may be expressed in situ as deposit of energy. Sensitivity analysis and simulation consist of estimated variable land acquisition costs, geostatistics, 3D deposit block modelling, electricity price considered as project product price, power station efficiency and power station lignite processing unit cost, CO2 allowance costs, mining unit cost and also lignite availability treated as lignite reserves kriging estimation error. Investigated parameters have nonlinear influence on results so that economically viable amount of lignite in optimal pit varies having also nonlinear impact on land area required for mining operation.

  20. Possibilities of utilizing the Hungarian reserves of lignite in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faur, G

    1978-01-01

    The Upper Pannonian lignite reserves subjected to study are suited to opencast mining with respect to their depth and thickness. All of them are characterized by occurrence in multiple beds, the thickness of which however is different per area. The dirt between the strata consists mostly of sand, to a lesser degree of clay or of materials between the former. Continuously operating dredges can be used for working, the types depending on the thickness of the overburden and the technology to be applied. Deep wells with submerged pumps may be employed for drainage. High-capacity mining districts can be operated at the areas subjected to study, new districts must however be opened up to increase the productive capacity beyond a certain limit. Establishment of a significant power station capacity is made possible by the explored lignite reserves. (In Hungarian)

  1. Production of heavy greases from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-03-18

    A process is described for the extraction of heavy greases and wagon greases and their equivalents, by separation from bitumins, resins, and waxes contained in lignite, peat, bituminous shale, fossil wax, paraffin, etc., characterized by the fact that for the extraction are used solvents of high boiling point, such as mineral oils, grease oils, tar oils, and other equivalents, which are not eliminated and at the same time constitute a part of the product obtained.

  2. Radioactivity of Yatagan lignites and their ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, F.; Mustafaev, I.; Aliyev, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of harmful factor of Environmental impact of coal combustion is radiation pollution of Environment. The natural radioisotopes - uranium, thorium and potassium and products of their radioactive destruction contains of radionuclides. These radionuclides in composition of fly ash are thrown to atmosphere from coal combustion furnaces. The concentration of radioisotopes in composition of coals changes in the wide ranges: from 3 up to 520 Becquerel per kilogram (Bq/kg) for Uranium-238 and from 3 up to 320 Bq/kg for thorium-232. The radioactive pollution degree of environment depends on radioisotopes content of initial fuels. In this connection at the estimation of outlook and exploitation of coal mines it is necessary to determine of radioisotopes concentration in coals. That is why investigation of radioisotopes concentration of Turkish lignites has great importance. In this work the radionuclide content of Yatagan lignites and their ash, taken from Gekova thermal Electro station have been studied. The total radiation background generated by these samples was investigated by using of dosimeters 8P-5, CRP-88H, PYB-OIP. Radionuclides content of samples was determined in the Institute of Geology Azerbaijan national Academy of Sciences by using of highly sensitivity gamma-spectrometer CAPU-2, designed by Special Constructor Buro G eophysika . The plant allows to determine the radioisotopes content of solid and liquid samples with highly reliability. It has been established that in sample of lignite uranium content (on the radium equivalent) is 68 Bq/kg, potassium-149 Bq/kg and thorium is absent. The total radioactivity of lignite sample is 79,7 Bq/kg. In the ash sample uranium content is 266 Bq/kg, potassium-188 Bq/kg, and total activity reach to 300 Bq/kg. The possibility of application of purification erection for radionuclides from smoke gases of coal combustion is discussed

  3. Normal polarity magnetosubchrons in 24r and the age of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbekmo, J.F.; Heaman, L.M.; Baadsgaard, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Evans, M.E.; Sweet, A.R. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    A late Paleocene to early Eocene sequence of flat-lying continental strata occurs in an area known as Obed Mountain, west-central Alberta. The upper 110 m consist of interbedded fluvial channel sandstones and overbank mudrocks containing five back swamp coal seams. Two coreholes, 3.5 km apart, that extend through the entire coal zone were sampled for magnetostratigraphy and {sup 13}C isotope analysis. Bentonites in the No. 1 (lowest) and No. 5 coal seams and a tuff in the No. 3 coal seam were sampled for U-Pb and (or) Rb-Sr dating of zircon and biotite, respectively. Magnetostratigraphic analysis of 520 samples identified the younger part of chron 25r, the whole of chron 25n and the older half of chron 24r. We find six normal polarity subzones in this part of chron 24r, which we correlate to tiny wiggles 6 to 11 in marine magnetic profiles. Carbon isotope analysis of 14 samples from two cores revealed a negative shift of about 2 parts per thousand peaking near the base of 24r.8r. We interpret this as the carbon isotope excursion (CIE), the base of which is now accepted as defining the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. The thickness of the CIE in the Obed Mountain section implies that it lasted between 210 000 and 254 000 years. Radiometric dates of 58.4 {+-} 0.2, 57.7 {+-} 0.3, and 56.9 {+-} 0.8 Ma are obtained for the No. 1, No. 3, and No. 5 coals, respectively. Combining these with magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy yields an age of 57.1 {+-} 0.1 Ma for the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

  4. Stoichiometric calculations of combustion of Lakhra lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lakhra coal field is largest productive coal field of Pakistan. About 1.5 millions tonne of this coal is, annually, mined and transported daily to various parts of the country in 500 trucks each of 10 tonnes of coal. The major consumers of this coal are brick kilns located in Sindh and Punjab. It is available at Rs. 500/- per tonne at mine head. A number of attempts were made for the production of power (electricity) by foreign companies. Feasibility studies were undertaken but no one set up power plant. It may be due to inferior quality of coal as it is lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur contents. This coal is also, very sensitive to spontaneous combustion. Spontaneous combustion is the auto-ignition of coal at ambient conditions. Hence there are storage problems. In spite of these drawbacks, a 3(50) Mega Watt (3 units of each 50 mega watt power generation capacity) power plant, based on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of coal technology (AFBC), was setup in early nineties. The performance of this plant remained poor. The main reasons might be poor quality of coal and limestone. Limestone is used with high sulfur Lakhra lignite, in fluidized bed combustor, to arrest sulfur of the coal, fixing sulfur as calcium sulfate to minimize hazardous emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Spontaneous combustion of Lakhra lignite is responsible for each fire of coal and conveyor belt etc. (author)

  5. Petrographic Composition of Lignite from the Lake Somerville Spillway (East-central Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Sandra; Bielowicz, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    In the presented paper, the macroscopic and microscopic composition of lignite from Lake Somerville Spillway has been examined. The study area is the upper part of the Manning Formation, located north-west of Somerville in the central-eastern part of Texas. There are three exposures: NE, SW and MC (Main Central) with visible parts of late-Eocene lignite seams belonging to the Jackson Group. The Manning section is divided into four marine dominated parasequences (P1 through P4). Lignite samples outlining the P1 parasequence from the MC and NE outcrops and the argillate sample from the lower part of the P2 parasequence, NE outcrop. Macroscopic characterization was carried out based on lithological classifications of humic coal. On this basis, it has been shown that the main lithotype occurring in the deposit is detritic (matrix) coal with a high share of mineral matter. The maceral composition of coal was determined according to the ICCP guidelines. The macerals from liptinite group were determined under fluorescent light. The maceral group content analysis was performed with use of 500-600 equally spaced points on the surface of the polished sections. It has been found that the examined coal is dominated by macerals from the huminite group, with a share ranging from 20.8 to 65.3% volume, including atrinite (9.8-22.8% volume, 17.5% volume on average). In the examined coal, macerals from the inertinite group (10.1 to 44.8%), especially semifusinite (max. 13.9%), fusinite (max. 9.3%) and funginite (max. 6.3 %) are of particularly large share. In the liptinite group, particular attention was paid to the content of alginite (max. 4.5%) and bituminite (max. 1.3 %), which indicate the paralic sedimentation environment of the examined coal. Additionally, the variability of macerals and maceral groups within the exposures and levels of the P1 parasequence was examined. The last step was to compare lignite from Lake Somerville Spillway with other lignites belonging to the

  6. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a$1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community

  8. Nannoplankton malformation during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and its paleoecological and paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Self-Trail, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is characterized by a transient group of nannoplankton, belonging to the genus Discoaster. Our investigation of expanded shelf sections provides unprecedented detail of the morphology and phylogeny of the transient Discoasterduring the PETM and their relationship with environmental change. We observe a much larger range of morphological variation than previously documented suggesting that the taxa belonged to a plexus of highly gradational morphotypes rather than individual species. We propose that the plexus represents malformed ecophenotypes of a single species that migrated to a deep photic zone refuge during the height of PETM warming and eutrophication. Anomalously, high rates of organic matter remineralization characterized these depths during the event and led to lower saturation levels, which caused malformation. The proposed mechanism explains the co-occurrence of malformed Discoaster with pristine species that grew in the upper photic zone; moreover, it illuminates why malformation is a rare phenomenon in the paleontological record.

  9. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  10. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Ljubicic, B.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  11. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Astuti, D.I.; Aditiawati, P.; Sasongko, D.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm . The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C 6 - C 35 (A) and C 10 - C 35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  12. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  13. Paleocene to Middle Miocene planktic foraminifera of the southwestern Salisbury Embayment, Virginia and Maryland: biostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C.W.; Commeau, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Paleocene to Middle Miocene sedimentary fill of the southwestern Salisbury Embayment contains a fragmental depositional record, interrupted by numerous local diastems and regional unconformities. Using planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, 15 unconformity-bounded depositional units have been identified, assigned to six formations and seven alloformations previously recognized in the embayment. The units correlate with second- and third-order sequences of the Exxon sequence stratigraphy model, and include transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Alloformation, formation, and sequence boundaries are marked by abrupt, scoured, burrowed, erosional surfaces, which display lag deposits, biostratigraphic gaps, and intense reworking of microfossils above and below the boundaries.Paleocene deposits represent the upper parts of upper Pleocene Biochronozones P4 and P5, and rest uncomformably  on Cretaceous sedimentary beds of various ages (Maastrichtian to Albian). Lower Eocene deposits represent parts of Biochronozones P6 and P9. Middle Eocene strata represent mainly parts of Biochronozones P11, P12, and P14. Upper Eocene sediments include parts of Biochronozones P15, P16, and P17. Oligocene deposits encompass parts of Biochronozones. N4b to N7 undifferentiated, P21a, and, perhaps, N4a. Lower Miocene deposits encompass parts of Biochronozones N4b to N7 undifferentiated. Middle Miocene strata represent mainly parts of Biochronorones N8, N9, and N10.Nine plates of scanning electron micrographs illustrate the principal planktic foraminifera used to establish the biostratigraphic framework. Two new informal formine of Praeterenuitella praegemma Li, 1987, are introduced.

  14. Lignite mining in India - thirty years of rich experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-01

    Exploration of the huge deposits of lignite at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu commenced in 1961 by the opencast method by deploying continuously operating machinery such as bucket-wheel excavators, spreaders and high-speed belt conveyor systems. Adoption of this mining technology to suit the peculiar site conditions at Neyveli has led to many modifications in the equipment and has enriched the experience of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. This has also made it possible for NLC to formulate schemes for exploration and exploitation of lignite deposits occurring elsewhere in the country.

  15. Lignite mining in India - thirty years of rich experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-01

    Exploitation of the huge deposits of lignite at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu commenced in 1961 by opencast method by deploying continuously operating machinery such as bucket-wheel excavators, headers and high speed belt conveyor systems. Adoption of this mining technology to suit the peculiar site conditions at Neyveli has led to many modifications in the equipment and has enriched the experience of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. This has also made it possible for NLC to formulate schemes for exploration and exploitation of lignite deposits occurring elsewhere in the country.

  16. Paleocene orthophragminids from the Lakadong Limestone, Mawmluh Quarry section, Meghalaya (Shillong, NE India): implications for the regional geology and paleobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Ercan; Pignatti, Johannes; Pereira, Christer; Osman Yücel, Ali; Drobne, Katica; Barattolo, Filippo; Saraswati, Pratul Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The late Paleocene orthophragminids, hitherto poorly known from the Himalayan foreland basins, are studied from the Lakadong Limestone in Meghalaya, northeastern India, in order to establish a systematic, biostratigraphic, and paleobiogeographical framework for them in the eastern Tethys. In the Mawmluh Quarry section (MQS) on the Shillong Plateau, to the southeast of Tibet, orthophragminids are associated with typical Paleocene orbitoidiform taxa endemic to the Indian subcontinent, i.e., Lakadongia Matsumaru & Jauhri ( = Setia Ferràndez-Cañadell) and Orbitosiphon Rao, and various species of alveolinids, miscellaneids, and rotaliids, characterizing the Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ) 3 and 4. The orthophragminids belong to two lineages of the genus Orbitoclypeus Silvestri: O. schopeni (Checchia-Rispoli) and O. multiplicatus (Gümbel), both well known from the peri-Mediterranean region and Europe (western Tethys). The latter species is identified here for the first time from the eastern Tethys. Previous records of the genus Discocyclina Gümbel from the Lakadong Limestone actually correspond to misidentified Orbitoclypeus; this implies that the late Paleocene orthophragminid assemblages from Meghalaya and eastern Tethys were less diverse than in the western Tethys. The lineage of Orbitoclypeus schopeni in the lower part of the Lakadong Limestone (SBZ 3) is identified as O. schopeni cf. ramaraoi based on the morphometry of a few specimens, whereas in the upper part (SBZ 4) it corresponds to a transitional development stage between O. schopeni ramaraoi and O. schopeni neumannae (with average Dmean values ranging between 192 and 199 µm). The embryon diameters of O. multiplicatus, recorded only in SBZ 4, range between 300 and 319 µm on average, corresponding to transitional development stages of O. multiplicatus haymanaensis and O. multiplicatus multiplicatus. Our data, along with a review of previous Paleocene and Eocene records from India and Pakistan, suggest that

  17. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F.; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignites irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000 degrees temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy doses to the normal conditions. Then differential thermal analysis was carried out both in original and the samples irradiated. Argon gas was used to make inert medium in the camera. T=200-8500 degrees temperature was selected. At the experiment done from 1000-1300 degrees temperatures too great endothermic reaction pick was begun to form by being observed thermal changings. At 3000-4200 degrees temperature exothermic reaction picks and at 7000 degrees parallel exothermic reaction picks were observed. Initial endothermic and exothermic reaction picks in five lignite samples were observed like a sharp curve. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated form exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weigh loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It has shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by

  18. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and depositional environment of a lignite-bearing succession at Surkha Mine, Cambay Basin, north-western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Priyanka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports palynology and palynofacies studies of lignite-bearing sediments exposed in an opencast mine succession at Surkha, Bhavnagar District, in the coastal region of Gujarat, India. The study examined the relationships between the palynoflora, sedimentary organic matter and environment at the time of deposition of lignite and associated sediments. Based on dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, the sedimentary succession is dated as early Eocene (Ypresian. Palynofacies studies helped reveal the palaeoenvironmental fluctuations. The dominance of angiosperm pollen grains, freshwater algae, microthyraceous fungi and a large share of land debris in the lower part of the succession suggests a freshwater swamp environment of deposition for the basal lignite facies. Two cenozones - Matanomadiasulcites maximus and Lakiapollis ovatus - were identified in the lower lignite facies, determined from the dominance of these pollen grains in the palynological assemblages. The presence of angiosperm pollen grains and pteridophyte spores in the carbonaceous shale horizon above the lignite facies indicates a change in the depositional regime from freshwater swamp to lagoonal. This was identified as the Arecipites wodehousei cenozone due to its numerical abundance in the assemblage. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and diversity, and microforaminiferal test linings along with well-sorted terrestrial debris in the mudstone in the upper part of the succession suggest a more open marine estuarine type of depositional environment. The Homotryblium complex along with Cordospheridium fibrospinosum, Kenleyia sp., and Thalassiphora pelagica dinoflagellate cysts are the main representatives of this zone, determined as the Homotryblium tenuispinosum cenozone. The changing depositional settings (freshwater swamp-lagoonal-estuarine along the vertical succession indicate a marine transgression in this region. Results from palynological studies of early Palaeogene

  19. Testing causes for the European mid-Paleocene inversions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell; Hansen, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    For a period of approx. 20 Myr during the Late Cretaceous, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rifts and basins on the European continent experienced compressional shortening and inversion. On the order of ~103m of erosion occurred along the inversion axes; the convergence of Africa and Europe has...... conventionally been held responsible. A second stage of inversion of the same structures occurred in the mid-Paleocene; however, this differed in structural style by being domal and non-ruptural with amplitudes on the order of ~102m. Furthermore, within the chronostratigraphic resolution, the onset of the mid......-Paleocene phase occurred synchronously at ~60 Ma. The different styles of inversion call for different explanations and, recently, the second phase of inversion has been explained by a relaxation or rotation (rather than further compression) of the in-plane stress field of the first Late Cretaceous phase...

  20. Impact ejecta at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Morgan F; Fung, Megan K; Wright, James D; Katz, Miriam E; Kent, Dennis V

    2016-10-14

    Extraterrestrial impacts have left a substantial imprint on the climate and evolutionary history of Earth. A rapid carbon cycle perturbation and global warming event about 56 million years ago at the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary (the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) was accompanied by rapid expansions of mammals and terrestrial plants and extinctions of deep-sea benthic organisms. Here, we report the discovery of silicate glass spherules in a discrete stratigraphic layer from three marine P-E boundary sections on the Atlantic margin. Distinct characteristics identify the spherules as microtektites and microkrystites, indicating that an extraterrestrial impact occurred during the carbon isotope excursion at the P-E boundary. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Adsorption of an anionic dispersant on lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    2001-12-01

    Since coal is not a homogeneous substance but a mixture of carbonaceous materials and mineral matter, it has a variety of surface properties. Therefore, it is not easy to control the properties of coal suspensions by simply adjusting variables, such as pH and/or electrolyte. A chemical agent needs to be added to control the properties of the coal suspensions. The adsorption behavior of an anionic dispersant in the presence of a wetting agent using some Turkish lignite samples was investigated. The effects of dispersant concentration, temperature and pH on the dispersant adsorption were studied systematically, and the experimental results are presented. Pellupur B69 as a dispersant, commercial mixture of formaldehyde condensate sodium salt of naphthalene sulphonic acid, and Texapon N{sub 2}5 as a wetting agent, a sodium lauryl ether sulfate, have been used.

  2. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    As of September 28, 2001, all the major project tasks have been completed. A presentation was given to the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) and the North Dakota Division of Community Services (DCS). In general, the feasibility study has resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Municipal wood resources are sufficient to support cofiring at the NDSP. (2) Steps have been taken to address all potential fuel-handling issues with the feed system design, and the design is cost-effective. (3) Fireside issues of cofiring municipal wood with coal are not of significant concern. In general, the addition of wood will improve the baseline performance of lignite coal. (4) The energy production strategy must include cogeneration using steam turbines. (5) Environmental permitting issues are small and do not affect economics. (6) The base-case economic scenario provides for a 15-year payback of a 20-year municipal bond and does not include the broader community benefits that can be realized

  3. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignite's irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1 gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000C temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co-60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy, doses to the normal conditions. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated from exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weight loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It was shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by heat because of the chemical structure in comparison the original one.

  4. Microstructure and properties of lignite tar and pitch. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, H

    1954-01-01

    Photomicrographs reveal the presence of crystalline wax which affects the working properties in lignite tars and pitch. The crystals are large needles after slow cooling and small after rapid cooling. The crystals are paraffinic in character. All samples were nonhomogeneous. Thus the properties of lignite tar and pitch are varied by the source of the lignite and history of the specimen, neither softening point nor dropping point seems to satisfactorily characterize these tars. The samples exhibit thixotropic behavior characteristic of a structural viscosity and show hysteresis loops on varying the working rate. The variations have hindered use of lignite tars and pitches except where solubility in a solvent such as coal tar oil can be used to advantage.

  5. Role of Neyveli lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    For more than two decades, about 35% of the energy demand of Tamil Nadu, a region of southern India, has been provided by Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC). NLC was founded as a company by the Indian government in 1956 and it comprises a lignite mine, a thermal power station, a briquetting and carbonisation plant; a fertilizer plant, a process steam plant, and a clay washing plant. The extent of the Neyveli lignite field, the production capacity of the three mines, and the linkage and utilisation of lignite are all considered. Future perspective plans beyond the seventh five year plan are reviewed. The use of coke and fertilizer by the chemical industries is outlined, and ecology and environmental control are discussed.

  6. Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Middelburg, Jack J.; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Bohaty, Steven M.; Sluijs, Appy

    2018-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system from a 13C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and sedimentation, deoxygenation, biotic overturning, and migrations, but detailed records from tropical regions are lacking. Here, we study the PETM at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 in the equatorial Atlantic using a range of organic and inorganic proxies and couple these with dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage analysis. The PETM at Site 959 was previously found to be marked by a ˜ 3.8 ‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and a ˜ 4 °C surface ocean warming from the uppermost Paleocene to peak PETM, of which ˜ 1 °C occurs before the onset of the CIE. We record upper Paleocene dinocyst assemblages that are similar to PETM assemblages as found in extratropical regions, confirming poleward migrations of ecosystems during the PETM. The early stages of the PETM are marked by a typical acme of the tropical genus Apectodinium, which reaches abundances of up to 95 %. Subsequently, dinocyst abundances diminish greatly, as do carbonate and pyritized silicate microfossils. The combined paleoenvironmental information from Site 959 and a close-by shelf site in Nigeria implies the general absence of eukaryotic surface-dwelling microplankton during peak PETM warmth in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, most likely caused by heat stress. We hypothesize, based on a literature survey, that heat stress might have reduced calcification in more tropical regions, potentially contributing to reduced deep sea carbonate accumulation rates, and, by buffering acidification, also to biological carbonate compensation of the injected carbon during the PETM. Crucially, abundant organic benthic foraminiferal linings imply sustained export production, likely driven by prokaryotes. In

  7. Role of Neyveli Lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), a government undertaking, has played an important role in power generation in the southern region of India by contributing about 35% of the energy consumed in Tamil Nadu for over two decades. Performance at the Neyveli Thermal Power Station demonstrates that it is more advantageous to make additions to thermal generating capacity at Neyvili using lignite. Exploration and development of the mines can support this expansion and make the southern region a nucleus for industrial development. 2 tables.

  8. Lignite chemical conversion in an indirect heat rotary kiln gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzilyberis Kostas S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on the gasification of Greek lignite using two indirect heat (allothermal pilot rotary kiln gasifiers are reported in the present work. The development of this new reactor-gasifier concept intended for solid fuels chemical conversion exploits data and experience gained from the following two pilot plants. The first unit A (about 100 kg/h raw lignite demonstrated the production of a medium heating value gas (12-13 MJ/Nm3 with quite high DAF (dry ash free coal conversions, in an indirect heat rotary gasifier under mild temperature and pressure conditions. The second unit B is a small pilot size unit (about 10 kg/h raw lignite comprises an electrically heated rotary kiln, is an operation flexible and exhibits effective phase mixing and enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Greek lignite pyrolysis and gasification data were produced from experiments performed with pilot plant B and the results are compared with those of a theoretical model. The model assumes a scheme of three consecutive-partly parallel processes (i. e. drying, pyrolysis, and gasification and predicts DAF lignite conversion and gas composition in relatively good agreement with the pertinent experimental data typical of the rotary kiln gasifier performance. Pilot plant B is currently being employed in lime-enhanced gasification studies aiming at the production of hydrogen enriched synthesis gas. Presented herein are two typical gas compositions obtain from lignite gasification runs in the presence or not of lime. .

  9. Natural radioactivity releases from lignite power plants in Southwestern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.; Cam, F.; Candan, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Mugla basin is one of the most productive lignite basins in Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Mining activities started in 1979 and total reserves were estimated during exploration at 767.5 million tonnes. Total mean annual lignite production of the Mugla basin is estimated at about 10 million tonnes per year. Most of the lignite production supplies three thermal power plants (Yatagan 630 MW, Yenikoey 420 MW, Kemerkoey 630 MW) with a total capacity of 1680 MW. It is well known that the lignite contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. The investigation reported here deals with the determination of the 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K concentrations in the lignite feeding 3 thermal power plants in Mugla region and in the product ash. Samples of lignite feeding the power plants and fly and bottom ashes produced in the same power plants were collected over a period of 1 year and therefore systematic sampling allowed for the determination of mean representative values for the natural radioactivity content of above materials and also estimation of the radioactivity releases to the environment. Furthermore, grid soil sampling within 10-15 km around the power plants allowed for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides. Dosimetric calculations from terrestrial gamma radiation for the population living around the power plants were performed based on the guidance of UNSCEAR 2000 report

  10. The Paleocene Eocene carbon isotope excursion in higher plant organic matter: Differential fractionation of angiosperms and conifers in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Stefan; Woltering, Martijn; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2007-06-01

    A study of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene (P-E) sediments deposited on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean reveals relatively high abundances of terrestrial biomarkers. These include dehydroabietane and simonellite derived from conifers (gymnosperms) and a tetra-aromatic triterpenoid derived from angiosperms. The relative percentage of the angiosperm biomarker of the summed angiosperm + conifer biomarkers was increased at the end of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), different when observed with pollen counts which showed a relative decrease in angiosperm pollen. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of these biomarkers shows that the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) during the PETM amounts to 3‰ for both conifer biomarkers, dehydroabietane and simonellite, comparable to the magnitude of the CIE inferred from marine carbonates, but significantly lower than the 4.5‰ of the terrestrial C 29n-alkane [M. Pagani, N. Pedentchouk, M. Huber, A. Sluijs, S. Schouten, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, and the IODP Expedition 302 Expedition Scientists (2006), Arctic's hydrology during global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 442, 671-675.], which is a compound sourced by both conifers and angiosperms. Conspicuously, the angiosperm-sourced aromatic triterpane shows a much larger CIE of 6‰ and suggests that angiosperms increased in their carbon isotopic fractionation during the PETM. Our results thus indicate that the 4.5‰ C 29n-alkane CIE reported previously represents the average CIE of conifers and angiosperms at this site and suggest that the large and variable CIE observed in terrestrial records may be partly explained by the variable contributions of conifers and angiosperms. The differential response in isotopic fractionation of angiosperms and conifers points to different physiological responses of these vegetation types to the rise in temperature, humidity, and greenhouse gases during the PETM.

  11. Foraminiferal and carbon isotope stratigraphy through the Paleocene-Eocene transition at Dee Stream, Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.J.L.; Dickens, G.R.; Strong, C.P.; Hollis, C.J.; Field, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Dee Stream in the Clarence River valley of New Zealand bisects a well-exposed section of marine sedimentary rocks deposited in the Early Paleogene at high southern latitudes. One hundred metres of strata lying within this section and comprising cm-dm well-bedded, siliceous limestone with marly partings was mapped, logged, and sampled to establish a detailed foraminiferal and carbon isotope stratigraphy and to examine environmental changes across the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). Although low abundance and poor preservation of planktic and benthic foraminifera characterises much of the Paleocene, foraminifera and carbon isotopes clearly show that the section spans the Upper Paleocene to Lower Eocene planktic foraminiferal zones from Zone P4 to Subzone P6b, and the Subbotina triloculinoides to Pseudohastigerina wilcoxensis Zones. The δ 13 C record correlates closely to other δ 13 C curves generated from other key Early Paleogene carbonate sequences. The Dee Stream logged section contains a 1 m thick PETM interval at 26.5 m at the base of Zone P5, or the Morozovella velascoensis Subzone. Here, benthic foraminifera undergo significant extinction, Morozovella aequa makes its first appearance, and the δ 13 C of carbonate decreases by 2 permille. The benthic foraminifer Bulimina tuxpamensis dominates benthic assemblages immediately following the onset of the PETM interval, suggesting dysoxic bottom waters during this event. In conjunction with other recently examined sections from the Marlborough region, the thick and apparently continuous Paleogene record at Dee Stream provides an important site for understanding environmental change on high-latitude continental margins during the Paleogene, including the PETM. (author). 54 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Selective coal mining of intercalated lignite deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, R [Kolubara-Projekt, Lazarevac (Yugoslavia)

    1991-01-01

    Describes selective coal mining in the Tamnava-Istocno Polje coal surface coal mine (Yugoslavia), designed for an annual coal production of 11.4 Mt. Until 1991, this mine exploited one thick lignite seam, without spoil intercalations, using a bucket wheel excavator-conveyor-spreader system both for coal mining and removal of overburden. In the future, several spoil intercalations of up to 1.0 m and thicker will appear with a total volume of 22 million m{sup 3}. These intercalations have to be selectively excavated in order to guarantee the calorific value of coal for the Nikola Tesla power plant. Computer calculations were carried out to determine the decrease in excavator coal production due to selective mining of spoil strata. Calculations found that the annual surface mine capacity will be lower by at most 9%, depending on thickness of spoil intercalations. The useful operation time of excavators will be reduced by 98 hours per year. The planned annual coal production will nevertheless be fulfilled. 3 refs.

  13. Paleocene-Eocene warming and biotic response in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017909; Iakovleva, Alina I.; Reichart, Gert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165599081; Aleksandrova, Galina N.; Gnibidenko, Zinaida N.; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Sluijs, Appy|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748

    2014-01-01

    We present a Paleocene-Eocene (ca. 60-52 Ma) sea-surface temperature record from sediments deposited in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea. TEX86 paleothermometry indicates long-term late Paleocene (~17 °C ca. 59 Ma) to early Eocene (26 °C at 52 Ma) sea-surface warming, consistent with trends

  14. Use of INAA for investigation of emission of elements in combustion of Polish lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Loska, L.; Pohorecki, W.; Wagner, M.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied for the determination of trace elements content in samples of Polish lignite and its ash. Pairs of results, for lignite and ash, and respective ash contents were used for calculation of the percentage of element remaining in ash after the lignite combustion. (author)

  15. Extreme warmth and heat-stressed plankton in the tropics during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Gebhardt, Holger; Huber, Matthew; Adekeye, Olabisi A; Akande, Samuel O; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Middelburg, Jack J; Schouten, Stefan; Sluijs, Appy

    2017-03-01

    Global ocean temperatures rapidly warmed by ~5°C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 million years ago). Extratropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) met or exceeded modern subtropical values. With these warm extratropical temperatures, climate models predict tropical SSTs >35°C-near upper physiological temperature limits for many organisms. However, few data are available to test these projected extreme tropical temperatures or their potential lethality. We identify the PETM in a shallow marine sedimentary section deposited in Nigeria. On the basis of planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and oxygen isotope ratios and the molecular proxy [Formula: see text], latest Paleocene equatorial SSTs were ~33°C, and [Formula: see text] indicates that SSTs rose to >36°C during the PETM. This confirms model predictions on the magnitude of polar amplification and refutes the tropical thermostat theory. We attribute a massive drop in dinoflagellate abundance and diversity at peak warmth to thermal stress, showing that the base of tropical food webs is vulnerable to rapid warming.

  16. Evidence of cyclic climatic changes recorded in clay mineral assemblages from a continental Paleocene-Eocene sequence, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Campo, Margarita; Bauluz, Blanca; del Papa, Cecilia; White, Timothy; Yuste, Alfonso; Mayayo, Maria Jose

    2018-06-01

    The continental Paleocene-Eocene sequence investigated in this study belongs to the Salta Group, deposited in an intracontinental rift, the Salta Basin (NW Argentina), that evolved from the lower Cretaceous to the middle Paleogene, and is subdivided into the Pirgua, the Balbuena and the Santa Barbara Subgroups. The Maíz Gordo Formation (200 m thick) is the middle unit of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, deposited during late post-rift sedimentation. We studied the mineralogy of fine-grained horizons of this formation by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to examine the connection between vertical changes in clay mineralogy in alluvial sediments and paleosols, and global paleoclimatic changes registered during the Paleogene. Paleosols vary from calcic vertisols in the lowermost levels, to inseptisols and gleysols in intermediate positions, to gleyed oxisols in the upper section, indicating increased chemical weathering through time. Clay mineral relative abundances vary with a general increase in kaolinite content from bottom to top. However, at one site there are significant variations in kaolinite/muscovite (Kln/Ms) that define five cycles of kaolinite abundance and Kln/Ms. that indicate cyclic patterns of paleoprecipitation and paleotemperature. These are interpreted as several short-lived hyperthermals during the Paleocene-early Eocene in the Southern Hemisphere, which correlate with well-established episodes of warmth documented from the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  18. The thar lignite project in the Sindh province, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, L. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Mining Dept., Koeln (Germany); Dittrich, W. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Mechanical and Electrical Dept., Koeln (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    A prospective area of the known lignite deposit located in the Thar region was investigated with regard to the future development of an opencast mine. For this purpose, a bankable feasibility study was prepared that evaluates all relevant facts and additional exploration activities. The study includes among others: Geological report; Opencast mine planning; Equipment and infrastructure planning; Assessment of staff requirements; Conceptual design of the power station; Anticipation of environmental aspects; Bankable costing for lignite mining and power generation. In conclusion, the development of an opencast mine and the construction of a 1000 MW power station are feasible in technical and economic terms. For the mine, the shovel/truck method was proposed since it offers cost advantages. For the power station, a closed cooling circuit and pre-drying of the lignite was recommended due to water shortage in the Thar desert. The resulting prices for power generation are usual market costs in Pakistan. (orig.)

  19. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  20. Transformation of heavy metals in lignite during supercritical water gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guifang; Yang, Xinfei; Chen, Shouyan; Dong, Yong; Cui, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Xiqiang; Ma, Chunyuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transformations of heavy metals during lignite SCWG were investigated. • The risks of heavy metals in lignite and residues after SCWG were evaluated. • The effects of experimental conditions on corrosion during SCWG were studied. - Abstract: Transformation characteristics of heavy metals during lignite supercritical water gasification (SCWG) were studied. A sequential extraction procedure (modified Tessier method) was used to selectively extract different fractions of Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Heavy metals transformed into more stable fractions after SCWG. For Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn, SCWG reduced the bioavailability and the risks posed by heavy metals in lignite. Under the experimental conditions, the conversion rates for Pb and Cd were 16.0%–25.2% and 16.3%–23.4%, respectively, whereas those for Mn, Cu, and Zn were much lower. Solid products enriched with Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were obtained after SCWG; the contents of these metals varied slightly in the liquid products under different experimental conditions. Excess Cr and Ni that did not originate from lignite were found in the residues, owing to reactor corrosion during lignite SCWG. Higher temperatures alleviated corrosion, whereas higher pressures and equivalence ratios (ER) had the opposite effect. None of the heavy metals were detected in the gas phase under the experimental conditions used in the present study. The correlation between the distributions of heavy metals and the experimental conditions were also studied. The transformation pathways of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn during SCWG were deduced according to the experimental results.

  1. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos J. Christopher; Sakiltzis Christos; Rovas C. Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of

  2. The Evaluation Of Waste Plastic Burned With Lignite And Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    DURANAY, Neslihan; YILGIN, Melek

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the combustion behavior of pellets prepared from binary and triple blends of waste plastic, biomass and lignite was investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system. Market bags as plastic waste and the furniture factory waste powder as a source of biomass and Bingöl Karlıova coal as a lignite were used. The effect of process temperature and the plastic mixing ratio on the combustion behavior of pellets was studied. Combustion data obtained from varied bed temperature...

  3. Degradation/solubilization of Chinese lignite by Penicillium sp. P6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.L.; Yang, J.S.; Wang, F.Q.; Chen, W.X. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Agro-Microbial Resource and Application, Ministry of Agrio, College of Biological Science

    2006-01-15

    Penicillium sp. P6, isolated from coal mine soil at the Qiantong colliery Liaoning Province, Northeast China, can degrade Chinese lignite in 36 h on a plate colony and in 48 h using a 4-day cultured cell-free filtrate. Results of elemental analysis and IR spectrometry indicated that solubilized products exhibited some alterations in comparison to the original lignite. The amount of fulvic acid extracted from the biodegraded lignite was high, and the molecular distribution of the humic acids from biodegraded lignite changed distinctively in comparison to which extracted from the control lignite, possibly due to the depolymerization associated with fungal biodegradation.

  4. Lignite mining and electricity generation in Poland: The current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widera, Marek; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Ptak, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This opinion paper presents the current state and future scenarios of Polish lignite mining. For many years, over 1/3 of domestic electricity, that is about 53–55 TWh, has been generated by lignite-fired power plants. Currently, with 63–66 million tons of extraction, Poland is the fourth lignite producer worldwide and the second in the European Union. There are three possible scenarios for the development of lignite mining in Poland by 2050. Unfortunately, despite the huge lignite resources, amounting to more than 23.5 billion tons, and great potential of the mining industry, the future of Polish lignite mining does not look optimistic from the economic point of view. This is associated with social and environmental problems, including the European Union's climate and energy policy. However, this may change in the event of a global economic crisis and unstable geopolitical conditions. Therefore, a new energy doctrine for Poland at least by 2050 is urgently needed. - Highlights: •Poland is one of the leaders in lignite production in the European Union. •Energy policy in Poland assumes a key role of lignite in energy mix. •Almost one-third of Polish electricity is currently generated from lignite. •For Polish lignite mining exist pessimistic, realistic and optimistic scenarios. •Extraction of lignite in Poland will gradually decrease in the coming decades.

  5. Determination of ash-forming elements in lignite coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischnewski, C.; Werner, G.; Vogt, J.; Just, G.

    1990-01-01

    The most important methods are discussed suitable for the determination of ash-forming elements in coal. In this connection questions of the concentrations of elements in lignites, of the sample preparation, and of the selection of methods for the determination of ash-forming elements are addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different analysis techniques are shown using concrete examples. (author)

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of density-separated Greek lignite fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, lignite samples were collected from the Ptolemais region, northern Greece, homogenized, crushed to less than I nun, and separated in three density fractions using heavy media. The mineralogical investigation of the density fractions showed a predominance of pyrite in the light

  7. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  8. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  9. Trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming of lignite and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly [Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research

    2009-10-15

    A technical investigation of an innovative trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) of lignite and biomass is carried out using the ECLIPSE process simulator. The system includes an internal combustion engine, an AER gasifier, a waste heat recovery and storage unit and an absorption refrigerator. The whole system is operated in the following sequence: The AER gasifier is used to generate hydrogen using lignite and biomass; the hydrogen generated is used to run the engine which drives a generator to produce electricity. Additionally, the heat recovery unit collects waste heat from the engine and is used to supply hot water and space heating. Furthermore, the waste heat is used to operate the absorption refrigerator. The electricity, heat and cooling can be used to meet the energy requirements for the households in a village, a resident building or a commercial building, or a supermarket. Within the study, the effects of lignite mixed with three different types of biomass (straw, willow and switch grass) on the system performance are investigated and the results are compared. The results show that it is feasible to use an AER system to reform the low quality fuels lignite and biomass to generate a cleaner fuel - hydrogen to replace fossil fuels (diesel or natural gas) and to fuel an engine based trigeneration system; the system works with high efficiencies and with a potential of carbon capture from the sorbent-regeneration process that would benefit the environment. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Radon measurements concerning engineering-geological problems in lignite mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinicke, J

    1986-07-01

    Radon measurements have been carried out by the aid of solid-state track detectors at the highwall of a lignite mine in order to forecast the eventual course of a landslide. The measured radon distributions and their changes as a function of time indicated that the slope was geodynamically active, but it was not possible to forecast the rate of sliding.

  11. Paleocene wind-dispersed fruits and seeds from Colombia and their implications for early Neotropical rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Fabiany

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant Neotropical rainforests are well known for their remarkable diversity of fruit and seed types. Biotic agents disperse most of these disseminules, whereas wind dispersal is less common. Although wind-dispersed fruits and seeds are greatly overshadowed in closed rainforests, many important families in the Neotropics (e.g., Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sapindaceae show numerous morphological adaptations for anemochory (i.e. wings, accessory hairs. Most of these living groups have high to moderate levels of plant diversity in the upper levels of the canopy. Little is known about the fossil record of wind-dispersed fruits and seeds in the Neotropics. Six new species of disseminules with varied adaptations for wind dispersal are documented here. These fossils, representing extinct genera of Ulmaceae, Malvaceae, and some uncertain families, indicate that wind-dispersed fruit and seed syndromes were already common in the Neotropics by the Paleocene, coinciding with the early development of multistratal rainforests. Although the major families known to include most of the wind-dispersed disseminules in extant rainforests are still missing from the Paleogene fossil record of South and Central America, the new fossils imply that anemochory was a relatively important product and/or mechanism of plant evolution and diversification in early Neotropical rainforests.

  12. Lignite industry in Greece within a world context: Mining, energy supply and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouridis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Today coal covers 38% of global production and roughly 30% of the EU-25 power output. In 2005 domestic lignite with a share of 60.5% in power generation and accounting about 30% of primary energy consumption is currently the most important indigenous fuel of Greece. Greece, mining 70 Mt annually, is the second lignite producer in the EU and fourth in the world. Approximately 97% of the lignite used to supply the existing lignite-fired power plants of Greece is mined by Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC). Lignite as the base load fuel gives a competitive strength in PPC's and Greece's fuel mix. Due to lignite consumer prices in Greece are significantly below those in other comparable markets in EU-15. Extraction of lignite has a very long tradition. Significant achievements and large experience which has been gained during many years of mining operations place Greek lignite-mining industry in the leading position in Europe. The paper presents current state of Greek lignite industry, including operating mines, volume of production and other important production indicators as well as improvements in labor productivity and good results in industrial safety. The future of coal and specifically of Greek lignite will be crucially determined by environmentally compatible, i.e. low-CO 2 generation of electricity. Investment in modernization and renewal of the power plant fleet are the key to securing electricity supply and progress in preventing climate change

  13. Organic petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical features of the Achlada and Mavropigi lignite deposits, NW Macedonia, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Mesogeion Ave. 357-359, GR-15231 Halandri, Athens (Greece); Kalaitzidis, Stavros P. [Geological Services, BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance, Central Queensland Office, Peak Downs Mine, Moranbah, QLD 4744 (Australia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-09-01

    The Achlada and Mavropigi lignite deposits in northern Greece provide the main coal source for the next generation of Greek power plants. A comparative characterization of these two lignite deposits is presented, covering the coal rank and the features of the maceral components, based on detailed coal petrography, and the mineralogical and geochemical features of the coals and their ashes, based on XRF and XRD analyses. The data are used to interpret the palaeoenvironments of the lignite beds, as well as factors that may affect their burnout behavior. Both deposits have a lignite C rank. The Mavropigi lignite is mainly a matrix lignite lithotype, whereas the Achlada deposit consists both of matrix and xylite-rich lithotypes. The Achlada lignite was formed in a fluviatile environment, mainly in the abandoned channels of a meandering river system during flooding periods; hence it is enriched in inorganic matter, with ash values > 30 wt.%. The Mavropigi lignite formed in a reed-marsh environment under limno-telmatic conditions, and displays ash values < 30 wt.%. The inorganic matter of the two deposits is different in composition due to the contrasting environments, and these differences should be taken into account in optimizing their utilization for power production. A preliminary assessment indicates that the Achlada lignite may have more favorable slagging and fouling properties than the Mavropigi lignite, although experimental studies are required for more solid conclusions to be reached. (author)

  14. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  15. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite II: extra-cellular protein analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiu-xiang; Pan, Lan-ying; Shi, Kai-yi; Chen-hui; Yin, Su-dong; Luo, Zhen-fu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-05-15

    A white rot fungus strain, Trichoderma sp. AH, was isolated from rotten wood in Fushun and used to study the mechanism of lignite bio-solubilization. The results showed that nitric acid pretreated Fushun lignite was solubilized by T. sp. AH and that extracellular proteins from T. sp. AH were correlated with the lignite bio-solubilization results. In the presence of Fushun lignite the extracellular protein concentration from T. sp. AH was 4.5 g/L while the concentration was 3 g/L in the absence of Fushun lignite. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the extracelular proteins detected at least four new protein bands after the T. sp. AH had solubilized the lignite. Enzyme color reactions showed that extracelular proteins from T. sp. AH mainly consisted of phenol-oxidases, but that lignin decomposition enzymes such as laccase, peroxidase and manganese peroxidases were not present. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.; Wald, J.D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.P.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Uraniferous lignite deposits were mined from 1955 to 1967 by surface mining techniques. Overburden was stripped, and the lignite was burned to concentrate the uranium in its ash. Uranium salts in the overburden gave exposure levels of as much as 500 microroentgens/hour; water in mine pits had U concentrations from 12 to 19,000 micrograms/liter. Reclamation involved replacing the spoils into the source pit, the most contaminated spoils being placed above the water table, capping the pit with clay then topsoil containing lesser concentrations of radioactive elements, and finally planting with prairie grass. Resulting concentrations of radionuclides are given. The land is expected to remain as prairie for wildlife use, but it is safe enough for domestic animals as well. 3 figures

  17. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion testing of North Dakota lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, G; Vander Molen, R H; Wilson, K; Hajicek, D

    1980-05-01

    The sulfur retention by the inherent alkali, and added limestone sorbent, perform about the same and are reasonably predictable within a range of about +-10% retention by application of alkali to sulfur ratio. Temperature has a substantial effect on the retention of sulfur by the inherent alkali or limestone. The temperature effect is not yet fully understood but it appears to be different for different coals and operational conditions. The emission of SO/sub 2/ from the fluid bed burning the Beulah lignite sample used for these tests can be controlled to meet or better the current emission standards. The injection of limestone to an alkali-to-sulfur molar ratio of 1.5 to 1, should lower the SO/sub 2/ emissions below the current requirement of 0.6 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu to 0.4 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, a safe 33% below the standard. Agglomeration of bed material, and consequent loss of fluidization quality can be a problem when burning high sodium lignite in a silica bed. There appears, however, to be several ways of controlling the problem including the injection of calcium compounds, and careful control of operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficients measured in the CPC and GFETC tests are comparable to data obtained by other researchers, and agree reasonably well with empirical conditions. The NO/sub x/ emissions measured in all of the tests on Beulah lignite are below the current New Source Performance Standard of 0.5 lb NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu input. Combustion efficiencies for the Beulah lignite are generally quite high when ash recycle is being used. Efficiencies in the range of 98% to 99%+ have been measured in all tests using this fuel.

  18. Australian opencast-lignite mine Yallourn; Der australische Braunkohlentagebau Yallourn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscierski, Marcin; Goerlich, Michael [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I

    2009-01-15

    This article is about the open pit lignite mine Yallourn, located 150 km southeast of Melbourne (Figure 1). It focuses on the history, the geology and the environment. Furthermore, it describes the new mining method using large carry dozers. The open pit and the power plant are owned by TruEnergy (part of the CLP Group) and the mining activities are carried out in an Alliance with Roche Thiess Linfox (RTL). (orig.)

  19. Sorption of heavy metals on lignite impregnated with chitosan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Mizera, Jiří; Machovič, V.; Borecká, Lenka; Přibyl, Oldřich; Krausová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 105-110 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : lignite * chitosan * heavy metals * sorption Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/index_en.php?page=acta_detail_doi&id=19

  20. Radiation doses of inhaled ash from the lignite power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshevski, Tome; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Chaushevski, Anton

    1997-01-01

    The coal-fired thermal power plants in Macedonia use lignite obtained by surface mining. The lignite contains traces of thorium-232, uranium-238 and uranium-235, which are long-lived natural radioactive isotopes. After lignite combustion, the concentration of these isotopes in the ash is increased. Due to the long life of fossil materials, the decay products are basically grouped in three radioactive chains that are in a semi-steady state, resulting in equal activity of all isotopes from the chain. Among the members of each chain there are α and β emitters followed by γ quanta emitters. The energies of the α and β particles are important for determining the effective dose. The γ quanta provide information about the chain activity and isotope types. Gamma-spectroscopy studies of the ash samples from the power plants in the City of Bitola in Macedonia have confirmed the presence of several radioactive decay products from the uranium and thorium radioactive chains. Using measurements of the radioactivity of the ash in the Bitola region, the total dose from ash inhalation for the population in the Bitola region was calculated and presented in this paper. Also, analysis of the procedure for determining the maximum allowable dose from radioactive contamination of the environment, is described in this paper. (Original)

  1. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  2. NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian lignite Kolubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are widely accepted tool for estimation of various pollutants emissions in USA and EU. Validity of emission factors is strongly related to experimental data on which they are based. This paper is a result of an effort to establish reliable NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian coals. The results of NOx and SO2 emissions estimations based on USA and EU emission factors from thermal power plants Nikola Tesla Obrenovac A and B utilizing the Serbian lignite Kolubara are compared with experimental data obtained during almost one decade (2000-2008 of emissions measurements. Experimental data are provided from regular annual emissions measurement along with operational parameters of the boiler and coal (lignite Kolubara ultimate and proximate analysis. Significant deviations of estimated from experimental data were observed for NOx, while the results for SO2 were satisfactory. Afterwards, the estimated and experimental data were plotted and linear regression between them established. Single parameter optimization was performed targeting the ideal slope of the regression line. Results of this optimization provided original NOx and SO2 emission factors for Kolubara lignite.

  3. Biotechnological lignite conversion - a large-scale concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich-Walber, M.; Meyrahn, H.; Felgener, G.W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany). Fuel Technology and Lab. Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Concerning the research on biotechnological lignite upgrading, Rheinbraun`s overall objective is the large-scale production of liquid and gaseous products for the energy and chemical/refinery sectors. The presentation outlines Rheinbraun`s technical concept for electricity production on the basis of biotechnologically solubilized lignite. A first rough cost estimate based on the assumptions described in the paper in detail and compared with the latest power plant generation shows the general cost efficiency of this technology despite the additional costs in respect of coal solubilization. The main reasons are low-cost process techniques for coal conversion on the one hand and cost reductions mainly in power plant technology (more efficient combustion processes and simplified gas clean-up) but also in coal transport (easy fuel handling) on the other hand. Moreover, it is hoped that an extended range of products will make it possible to widen the fields of lignite application. The presentation also points out that there is still a huge gap between this scenario and reality by limited microbiological knowledge. To close this gap Rheinbraun started a research project supported by the North-Rhine Westphalian government in 1995. Several leading biotechnological companies and institutes in Germany and the United States are involved in the project. The latest results of the current project will be presented in the paper. This includes fundamental research activities in the field of microbial coal conversion as well as investigations into bioreactor design and product treatment (dewatering, deashing and desulphurization). (orig.)

  4. Thermal dewatering of lignite: Phase III - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J; Kybett, B D

    1981-01-01

    Phase III of this project extended the investigation of thermal dewatering on several lignite and peat samples at the temperature range up to 400 degrees C and investigated variables such as retention time, increased rates of heating and cooling, extent of trace element removal, effect of particle size and effect of dewatering under heavy and light oils. Lignites from three areas of Canada (Estevan and Coronach, Saskatchewan, and Onakawana, Ontario) and one peat sample (Garrick, Saskatchewan) were thermally dewatered. The equilibrium moisture values obtained for the dewatered products were as low as, or lower than those obtained in Phases I and II of this project (350 degrees C). However, the measured moisture contents of the thermally dewatered Saskatchewan lignites were somewhat higher than those measured in Phases I and II. The equilibrium moisture values and the moisture contents decreased with increasing temperature. An optimum balance between extent of dewatering and resulting steam pressures is obtained for a dewatering temperature between 300 and 350 degrees C. At these temperatures, residence times in the order of 15 minutes are required. (35 refs.)

  5. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.

    2009-01-01

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 deg. C at a heating rate of 40 deg. C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management.

  6. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 C at a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management. (author)

  7. Ameliorative properties of lignite fly ash in reclaiming saline and alkali soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalingam, P K

    1973-08-01

    Statistical analysis of the yield of rice grain and straw reveals that there is a significant increase in the yield of grain and straw due to the application of lignite fly ash over controls and application of lignite fly ash either at 5 tons or 10 tons per acre was on par with gypsum application at 5 tons/acre. Maximum yield was recorded in treatment with 5 tons of daincha plus 5 tons of lignite fly ash per acre. This is due to the combined effect of green manure and lignite fly ash. 4 references, 3 tables.

  8. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  9. Perspectives of the German lignite industry 2014; Perspektiven der deutschen Braunkohlenindustrie 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Matthias; Milojcic, George [DEBRIV, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The decision to phase out nuclear energy and gradually realign the electricity system towards more renewables in the future required some extensive changes to electricity generation transmission. One of the issues to be considered is what role lignite can play in the transformation of the electricity system and what application is offered to Germany and its regions. However, lignite has some stable factors and their development is fairly predictable. Domestic lignite is one such example. Beyond its familiar attributes, 'secure, competitive and economically important for the regions', 'flexibility' is a key word that indicates a new dimension for the German lignite industry.

  10. Power generation from lignite coal in Bulgaria - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Gadjanov, P.; Panchev, T.

    1997-01-01

    The bulk of lignite coal produced in Bulgaria is used as fuel for the thermal power plants (TPP) built in Maritsa East coal field. A small part of it goes to production of briquettes and to fuel the auxiliary power plants of industrial enterprises. The total installed capacity of the power plants in the region of Maritsa East is 2490 MW, and the electric power generated by them is about 30% of the total power generated in the country. It should be noted that these power plants were subjected to a number of rehabilitations aiming to improve their technical and economic parameters. Irrespective of that, however, solution has still to be sought to a number of problems related to utilisation of the low-grade lignite coal for power generation. On the whole, they can be divided in the following groups: Those related to lignite coal mining can be referred to the first group. Lignite coal is mined in comparatively complicated mining and geological conditions characterized mainly by earth creep and deformation. The second group of problems is related to coal quality control. It is a fact of major significance that the quality indices of coal keep changing all the time in uneven steps without any definite laws to govern it. That creates hard problems in the process of coal transportation, crushing and combustion. The next group of problems concerns operation and upgrading of the power generation equipment. That applies especially to the existing boilers which bum low-grade fuel in order to improve their operation in terms of higher thermal efficiency, controllability, reliability, improved environmental indices, etc. An increasingly high importance is attached to environmental impact problems incident to lignite coal utilisation. Abatement of sulphur oxide emissions and dust pollution is a problem solution of which cannot wait. The possibilities for partial solution of the environmental problems through increasing the thermal efficiency of facilities at the thermal Power

  11. Paleocene coal deposits of the Wilcox group, central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; SanFilipo, John R.; Schultz, Adam C.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    Coal deposits in the Wilcox Group of central Texas have been regarded as the richest coal resources in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Although minable coal beds appear to be less numerous and generally higher in sulfur content (1 percent average, as-received basis; table 1) than Wilcox coal deposits in the Northeast Texas and Louisiana Sabine assessment areas (0.5 and 0.6 percent sulfur, respectively; table 1), net coal thickness in coal zones in central Texas is up to 32 ft thick and more persistent along strike (up to 15 mi) at or near the surface than coals of any other Gulf Coast assessment area. The rank of the coal beds in central Texas is generally lignite (table 1), but some coal ranks as great as subbituminous C have been reported (Mukhopadhyay, 1989). The outcrop of the Wilcox Group in central Texas strikes northeast, extends for approximately 140 mi between the Trinity and Colorado Rivers, and covers parts of Bastrop, Falls, Freestone, Lee, Leon, Limestone, Milam, Navarro, Robertson, and Williamson Counties (Figure 1). Three formations, in ascending order, the Hooper, Simsboro, and Calvert Bluff, are recognized in central Texas (Figure 2). The Wilcox Group is underlain conformably by the Midway Group, a mudstone-dominated marine sequence, and is overlain and scoured locally by the Carrizo Sand, a fluvial unit at the base of the Claiborne Group.

  12. Sedimentological reservoir characteristics of the Paleocene fluvial/lacustrine Yabus Sandstone, Melut Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, M. I.; Padmanabhan, E.; Abdullatif, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    Melut Basin in Sudan is regionally linked to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Central and Western African Rift System (CWARS). The Paleocene Yabus Formation is the main oil producing reservoir in the basin. It is dominated by channel sandstone and shales deposited in fluvial/lacustrine environment during the third phase of rifting in the basin. Different scales of sedimentological heterogeneities influenced reservoir quality and architecture. The cores and well logs analyses revealed seven lithofacies representing fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine depositional environments. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately-sorted and sub-angular to sub-rounded, arkosic-subarkosic to sublitharenite. On the basin scale, the Yabus Formation showed variation in sandstone bodies, thickness, geometry and architecture. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies vertically and laterally within Yabus Sandstone where it shows progressive fining upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The lower part of the reservoir showed well-connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to the upper parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenetic changes such as compaction, cementation, alteration, dissolution and kaolinite clays pore fill and coat all have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability. The estimated porosity in Yabus Formation ranges from 2 to 20% with an average of 12%; while permeability varies from 200 to 500 mD and up to 1 Darcy. The understanding of different scales of sedimentological reservoir heterogeneities might contribute to better reservoir quality prediction, architecture, consequently enhancing development and productivity.

  13. Integrated stratigraphy of a shallow marine Paleocene-Eocene boundary section, MCBR cores, Maryland (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, J. M.; Robinson, M. M.; Edwards, L. E.; Powars, D. S.; Wandless, G. A.; Willard, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    An exceptional Paleocene-Eocene boundary section occurs in a cluster of six short (color from gray to alternating gray and pink also occurs within the CIE transition. These alternating changes in color coincide with cyclic peaks in the carbon isotope and percent calcium carbonate curves, where gray color corresponds to a positive shift in carbon isotope values and to a corresponding increase in percent benthic and planktic foraminifera. The upper third of the Marlboro Clay is barren of all calcareous microfossil material, although the presence of foraminiferal molds and linings proves that deposition occurred in a marine environment. Co-occurrence of the dinoflagellates Apectodinium augustum and Phthanoperidinium crenulatum at the top of the Marlboro Clay suggests that the Marlboro Clay at Mattawoman Creek is truncated. This is corroborated by the absence in the Marlboro of specimens of the calcareous nannofossil Rhomboaster-Discoaster assemblage, which is restricted to early Eocene Zone NP9b. Based on planktic/benthic foraminifera ratios, deposition of sediments at Mattawoman Creek occurred predominantly in an inner neritic environment, at water depths between 25-50 m. Occasional deepening to approximately 75m (middle neritic environment) occurred in the early Eocene, as represented by the basal Marlboro Clay. The planktic/benthic ratio, however, could also be affected by surface productivity and/or river runoff. The gradual shift up-section in core color from gray to alternating gray and red, to dark red, coupled with dissolution of calcareous microfossil assemblages, is possibly secondary and may represent lysocline shoaling in a nearshore environment. This would suggest that lysocline shoaling continued after the CIE and well into the early Eocene.

  14. Genetic relationship of organic bases of the quinoline and isoquinoline series from lignite semicoking tars with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Domogatskii, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Chilachava, K.B. [Leo Tolstoy State Pedagog University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The genetic relationship of quinoline and isoquinoline compounds present in semicoking tars of Kimovsk lignites (near-Moscow fields) with the initial vegetable material is discussed. Transformation pathways of the native compounds in the course of lignite formation are suggested.

  15. Distribution and correlation of the natural radionuclides in a coal mine of the West Macedonia Lignite Center (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikritzis, L I; Fotakis, M; Tzimkas, N; Kolovos, N; Tsikritzi, R

    2008-02-01

    The distribution and correlation of six natural nuclides in the West Macedonia Lignite Center, Northern Greece were studied. Fifty-five samples of lignite, aged from 1.8 to 5 million years, and corresponding steriles, beds of marls, clays and sands alternating with the lignite, were collected perpendicular to the mine benches and measured spectroscopically. The mean concentrations of (238)U and (226)Ra in lignites were found to be higher than that in steriles since these nuclides are associated with the organic material of lignite, whereas (238)U/(226)Ra equilibrium was not observed in either lignites or steriles. Finally, the ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra in lignites was approximately double of that in steriles, confirming the affinity of the (238)U series with the coal matrix in contrast to the (232)Th series. No correlation was found between radionuclide concentrations and the depth of the sample, nor with the ash content of lignite.

  16. Paleocene decapod Crustacea from northeastern Mexico: Additions to biostratigraphy and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Aguillón-Martínez, Martha Carolina; Luque, Javier; Vega, Francisco J.

    2017-03-01

    New decapod specimens from mid-Paleocene shallow marine deposits of NE Mexico represents an important addition to the diversity, paleobiogeography and evolution of the Crustacea record. In this work, we describe additions to the decapod assemblage from the Paleocene (Selandian) Rancho Nuevo Formation (Difunta Group, Parras Basin, Coahuila). Due to the evident size differences with other decapod assemblages, we compare the new assemblage with those from the Lower Paleocene (Danian) Mexia Clay Member of the Wills Point Formation, Texas, and the Lower Eocene (Ypresian) El Bosque Formation in Chiapas. Species reported from the mid-Paleocene (Selandian) assemblage of the Porters Creek Formation (Alabama), are correlatable to the decapod species from NE Mexico in age, size and systematic composition. The erymid lobster Enoploclytia gardnerae (Rathbun, 1935) is represented by several carapaces and chelae remains. One isolated palm of Callianassidae is included. Numerous carapaces of Linuparus wilcoxensis Rathbun, 1935 are described, representing the most abundant lobster. A new record for the raninid Notopoides sp., and presence of Quasilaeviranina sp. cf. arzignagnensis and Quasilaeviranina ovalis are here reported. New raninids, Claudioranina latacantha sp. nov. and Claudioranina sp. (Cyrtorhininae) are also part of this assemblage. Paraverrucoides alabamensis (Rathbun, 1935), and Tehuacana americana (Rathbun, 1935) are represented by several carapaces exhibiting intraspecific morphological variation. Different sizes among the Early and Middle Paleocene and Early Eocene decapod populations suggests a possible effect of variation in seawater temperatures and/or a Lilliput effect after the K/Pg event.

  17. A dynamic climate and ecosystem state during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: inferences from dinoflagellate cyst assemblages on the New Jersey Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and Early Eocene climates and ecosystems underwent significant change during several transient global warming phases, associated with rapidly increasing atmospheric carbon concentrations, of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.5 Ma is best studied. While biotic response to the PETM as a whole (~170 kyrs has been relatively well documented, variations during the PETM have been neglected. Here we present organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst distribution patterns across two stratigraphically expanded PETM sections from the New Jersey Shelf, Bass River and Wilson Lake. Many previously studied sites show a uniform abundance of the thermophilic and presumably heterotrophic taxon Apectodinium that spans the entire carbon isotope excursion (CIE of the PETM. In contrast, the New Jersey sections show large variations in abundances of many taxa during the PETM, including the new species Florentinia reichartii that we formally propose. We infer paleoecological preferences of taxa that show temporal abundance peaks, both qualitative and absolute quantitative, from empirical as well as statistical information, i.e., principle (PCA and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In the CCAs, we combine the dinocyst data with previously published environmental proxy data from these locations, such as TEX86 paleothermometry, magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary size fraction. The combined information supports previous inferences that sea level rose during the PETM, but also indicates a (regional increase in fresh-water runoff that started ~10 kyr after the onset of the CIE, and perhaps precession-paced cycles in sea surface productivity. The highly variable dinocyst assemblages of the PETM contrast with rather stable Upper Paleocene assemblages, which suggests that carbon input caused a dynamic climate state, at least regionally.

  18. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and its Effects on Continental Biotas: Evidence from Polecat Bench in Northwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Many important environmental events in the geological past were first recognized by their effects on the associated biota, and this is true for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM global greenhouse warming event, which happened 55 million years before present. In the Southern Ocean, PETM carbon and oxygen isotope anomalies were found to coincide with a major terminal-Paleocene disappearance or extinction of benthic foraminiferans. On North America the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) was found to coincide with mammalian dwarfing and a major initial-Eocene appearance or origination event of continental mammals. Linking the two records, marine and continental, resolved a long-standing disagreement over competing definitions of the Paleocene-Eocene epoch boundary, and more importantly indicated that the PETM greenhouse warming event was global. Dwarfing of herbivorous mammals can be interpreted as a response to elevated atmospheric CO2. The origin of modern orders of mammals including Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Primates ('APP' taxa) is more complicated and difficult to explain but the origin of these orders may also be a response, directly or indirectly, to PETM warming. We now know from Polecat Bench and elsewhere in North America that the biotic response to PETM greenhouse warming involved the appearance of at least two new mammalian faunas distinct from previously known Clarkforkian mammals of the upper or late Paleocene and previously known Wasatchian mammals of the lower or early Eocene. Three stages and ages of the former are known (Cf-1 to Cf-3) and seven stages and ages of the latter are known (Wa-1 to Wa-7), each occupying about a hundred meters of strata representing a half-million years or so of time. Between the standard Clarkforkian and Wasatchian faunal zones is an initial 'Wa-M' faunal zone of only five or so meters in thickness and something on the order of 20 thousand years of geological time. The Wa-M fauna includes the first

  19. An owal from the Paleocene of Walbeck, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mayr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An owl of the genus Berruornis is described from a Paleocene fissure filling of Walbeck, Germany. The specimen is a well preserved incomplete right tarsometatarsus and is the earliest Old World record of an owl. A praemaxilla from the same locality which comes from a similarly-sized raptorial bird is described and is clearly distinguished from the praemaxilla of all extant raptorial birds. Although it might also belong to Berruornis, the specimen is classified as Aves incertae sedis in this study. Despite the fact that the Walbeck material was discovered more than 60 years ago, these two specimens are the first bird bones to be described from the numerous avian remains found at this locality. Eine Eule der Gattung Berruornis wird aus einer paläozänen Spaltenfüllung von Walbeck, Deutschland, beschrieben. Das Exemplar ist ein gut erhaltener, unvollständiger rechter Tarsometatarsus und ist der früheste altweltliche Nachweis einer Eule. Von der gleichen Lokalität wird eine Praemaxilla beschrieben, die von einem ähnlich großen Raubvogel stammt und sich deutlich von der Praemaxilla aller heutigen Raubvögel unterscheidet. Obwohl es auch zu Berruornis gehören könnte, wird das Stück als Aves incertae sedis klassifiziert. Ungeachtet der Tatsache, daß das Fossilmaterial von Walbeck bereits vor mehr als 60 Jahren entdeckt wurde, sind diese beiden Exemplare die ersten Knochen, die von den zahlreichen an dieser Lokalität gefundenen Vogelresten bisher beschrieben wurden. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050117

  20. Biodegradation of photo-oxidized lignite and characterization of the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantao; Liu, Xiangrong; Yue, Zilin; Zhang, Yaowen

    2018-01-01

    Biodegradation of photo-oxidized Inner Mongolia lignite by pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied and the degradation percentage reached 56.27%, while the corresponding degradation percentage of the strain degrading raw Inner Mongolia lignite is only 23.16%. The degradation products were characterized. Proximate and ultimate analyses show that the higher oxygen content increased by photo-oxidation pretreatment maybe promoted the degradation process. Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) analysis of the liquid product reveals that it contains unsaturated structures and aromatic rings are the main structure units. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicates that the main components of the ethyl acetate extracts are low molecular weight organic compounds, such as ketones, acids, hydrocarbons, esters and alcohols. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis of raw lignite, photo-oxidized lignite and residual lignite demonstrates that the absorption peaks of functional groups in residual lignite disappeared or weakened obviously. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis manifests that small holes appear in photo-oxidized lignite surface, which may be promote the degradation process and this is only from the physical morphology aspects, so it can be inferred from the tests and analyses results that the more important reason of the high degradation percentage is mostly that the photo-oxidation pretreatment changes the chemical structures of lignite.

  1. Solid substrate fermentation of lignite by the coal-solubilizing mould, Trichoderma atroviride, in a new type of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Trichoderma atroviride CBS 349 is able to solubilize lignite. The mould was cultured under non-sterile conditions in a new type of bioreactor for solid substrate fermentation. German lignite (lithotype A, Bergheim) was used as complex solid substrate. Over 40 days 140 g of 1.5 kg lignite held in a 25 1-bioreactor was solubilized by the fungus.

  2. The paleocene in north Africa - Sea-level changes and paleoproductivity in Tunisa, Libya and Egypt using microfossils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guasti, E.; Lüning, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Paleocene is a time of warm oceans and generally high sea levels. In North Africa, vast epicontinental seas extended far inside the African continent. In this paper we correlate sea level, primary paleoproductivity and facies distribution of the proximal, carbonate-dominated Paleocene deposits

  3. Nannobiostrat1graphy Of The Late Cretaceous Paleocene Succession In Esh El-Mallaha Range, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El Dawoddy, Ahmed Sami [احمد سامي الداودي

    1990-01-01

    This paper emphasis the biostratigraphic significance of thirty nannofossil species recorded from the Maestrichtian - Paleocene succession in Esh El-Mellaha Range, Eastern Desert, Egypt. These species participated in making up three nannobiostratigraphic zones, arranged from top to base as follows: 3. Discoaster multiradiatus Zone (Late Paleocene) 2. Lithraphidites quadratus Zone (Maestrichtian) 1. Arkhangelskiella cymbitormis Zone (Maestrichtian) In comparison with the planktonic foram...

  4. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  5. Comparative study of German and Greek lignite mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The reclamation planning of three European lignite mining districts are compared: amount and extent of planning, integration with mining operations, and results. The districts are: Rheinbraun (Cologne), Leipzig-Borna (''East'' Germany), and Megalopolis (Greece). Lignite mines were visited and mining and reclamation personnel interviewed. The Rheinbraun mines have the most thorough reclamation operations. The integrated mine and reclamation operations are world class in size, scope, and detail of reclamation. A comprehensive landscape and reclamation plan is required in the mine permitting process. The Leipzig-Borna district is the second largest of the districts, studied little pre-mining planning of the post-mining landscape or land uses was evident. Reclamation is not closely integrated with the mining and typically occurs many years after the mining. Reduced lignite production since German reunification has left vast areas of disturbed land with little mining; and no funding for the reclamation of the large areas of mined land reclamation. The Greek Megalopolis mines have mine operations plan, but with no integrated reclamation planning. The initial spoil pile was reclaimed according to the original German mining plan. No pits have been reclaimed, and spoil areas are revegetated sporadically. The Rheinbraun mining operations Cologne which include a post mining landscape/land use plan have integrated and timely reclamation operations. The other two mining operations, which do not have a comprehensive and detailed reclamation and landscape/land use plans, do not integrate reclamation operations with the mining operations. The results are large areas of mined land unreclaimed for many years

  6. Treatment of products from petroleum, shale, coal, lignite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevanoff, V

    1952-06-20

    An improved process is described for treating with sodium plumbite all the products derived from crude petroleum, bituminous shale, coal, lignite, peat, etc., such as gasoline, solvents, lamp oil, gas oil, fuels, etc; the process being essentially characterized by the fact that it consists first in washing the product to be refined with a soda wash; submitting it to a treatment with sodium plumbite, without addition of sulfur, then to eliminate the sulfur plumbite compounds resulting in the treated product, using either redistillation to eliminate products remaining in the residue or filtration over an absorbing material such as active carbon, decolorizing earths.

  7. EFFECT OF MICROWAVE DRYING ON THE GRINDABILITY OF LIGNITE COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Güngören, Can; Özkan, Şafak Gökhan; Hacıfazlıoğlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the representative lignite coal samples supplied from Kastamonu-Tosya region were dried in a conventional drying oven and a microwave oven, and then they were ground by a laboratory rod mill. The particle size analyses of the ground samples at various grinding times (10, 20, 30, and 60 minutes) were carried out, and the results were compared. As a result, the d80 particle sizes of the samples, dried in the conventional drying oven, were determined as 350, 183, 180, and 100 µm a...

  8. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  9. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of germanium in lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1972-01-01

    A burning technique in a d.c. arc at 10 amp has been employed. The standards have been prepared from a natural lignite with a low germanium content. In order to enhance sensitivity, AgCl, K 2 SO 4 , CuF 2 , Sb 2 S 3 and Bi 2 S 3 have been tested as sweeping materials. Using 2% CuF 2 a detection limit of 1 ppm germanium is attainable. Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn have been studied as internal standards: the former leads to the, highest precision (1 6%. Results show good agreement with those obtained by the addition method. (Author) 6 refs

  10. The effect of lignite quality variation on the efficiency of on-line ash analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetakis, Michael J. [Technical University of Crete, Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering, University Campus, 73 100 Hania (Greece); Pavloudakis, Francis F. [Public Power Corporation SA, General Division of Mines, Kifisou and Dyrrahiou 89, 104 43 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable coal industry needs to achieve a number of objectives including improvements in utilization of deposits, energy efficiency, and environmental performance during combustion. The ''Clean Coal Concept'' promises to combine the secure and low cost electricity supply offered by hard coal and lignite with adequate environmental precautions. In this context, modern quality control systems, which are greatly based on the on-line analyzers, play an important role in achieving sustainability targets. This paper examines the possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the mineral matter content of low quality lignite mined from the lignite basin of Megalopolis, Peloponnese, Greece. The effect of the accuracy of the on-line analyzers to process control, when used for the characterization of low rank coals with complex and variable composition, is investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual energy gamma-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the mine pit to the homogenization stockyard. All measurement data were compared to data gathered during the realisation of similar trials in the lignite mines of Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece. Results indicated that the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not satisfactory and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The achieved inferior accuracy of the on-line measurement's accuracy, compared to previous applications at other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the mineral matter content of lignite and lignite composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average mass absorption coefficient of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of

  11. The structure and pyrolysis product distribution of lignite from different sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Dexiang; Wang, Lanlan; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon structure of three lignites was measured by solid "1"3C NMR. • Effect of carbon structure on pyrolysis product distribution was studied. • Tar yield is influenced by aliphatic carbon and oxygen functional group. • C1–C4 content of pyrolysis gas is related to CH_2/CH_3 ratio. - Abstract: Low-temperature pyrolysis is an economically efficient method for lignite to obtain coal tar and improve its combustion calorific value. The research on the distribution of pyrolysis product (especially coal tar yield) plays an important role in energy application and economic development in the now and future. Pyrolysis test was carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K for 15 min. The structure of the lignite was measured by solid "1"3C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal analysis was analyzed by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that the pyrolysis product distribution is related to the breakage of branch structures of aromatic ring in lignites from different sedimentary environment. The gas yield and composition are related to the decomposition of carbonyl group and the breakage of aliphatic carbon. The tar yield derived from lignite pyrolysis follows the order: Xianfeng lignite (XF, 13.67 wt.%) > Xiaolongtan lignite (XLT, 7.97 wt.%) > Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%), which is mainly influenced by the aliphatic carbon contents, the CH_2/CH_3 ratio and the oxygen functional groups in lignite. The pyrolysis water yield depends on the decomposition of oxygen functional groups. IM has the highest content of oxygen-linked carbon so that the pyrolysis water yield derived from IM is the highest (9.20 wt.%), and is far more than that from the other two lignites.

  12. Lignite pre-treatment and its effect on bio-stimulative properties of respective lignite humic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlckova, Z.; Grasset, L.; Antosova, B.; Pekar, M.; Kucerik, J. [Brno University of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    Humic acids originating from South-Moravian lignite were subjected to a comparative study with the aim to assess the alteration of their physico-chemical properties after various lignite pre-treatments. Physical modification was achieved with two organic acids, such as acetic acid and citric acid and chemical modification by nitric acid and hydrogene peroxide in various concentrations. Elemental analysis, solid-state NMR, GC-MS analysis of polyols and size exclusion chromatography were carried out for chemical-physical characterization of obtained humic acids. Their biological effect, in form of potassium and ammonium humates, was tested on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. In these tests, potassium humates achieved far better overall results than ammonium humates. Results were inter-correlated in order to appraise the influence of humic acids physical and chemical properties on biological activity. Surprisingly, fractions with the lowest molecular size (0-35 kDa) showed no correlation with bioactivity results (Pearson coefficient from 0.05 to -0.4). On the contrary, middle-sized fractions (35-175 kDa) showed highly significant positive correlation (Pearson coefficient up to 0.92) and the highest molecular-size-fractions (275-350 kDa) showed negative correlation (Pearson coefficient up to -0.75). These findings were identical for both potassium and ammonium humates. No connection was found between bioactivity of humates and polyols content which was remarkably high; it reached 150 mg per g of humic acids in the most extreme case of 5% hydrogene peroxide pre-treatment. In the final analysis, the preparation mode bore pivotal responsibility for the control of humic acids biological effect and showed the best results for potassium humates obtained from lignite pre-treated by acetic acid and by 2% hydrogen peroxide.

  13. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  14. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  15. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  16. A Possible Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Ocean Acidification Event Recoded in the Adriatic Carbonate Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Oefinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event ( 56.3 Ma) was a period of massive carbon release into the Earth system, resulting in significant shifts in ocean chemistry. It has been proposed that ocean acidification - a decrease in the pH and carbonate saturation state of the water as a result of dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water - occurred in both the shallow and deep marine realms. Ocean acidification would have had a devastating impact on the benthic ecosystem, and has been proposed as the cause of decreased carbonate deposition in marine sections and coral reef collapse during the late Paleocene. To date, however, the only physical evidence of Paleocene-Eocene ocean acidification has been shown for offshore sites (i.e., a shallow carbonate compensation depth), but isotope analysis (i.e. B, I/Ca) suggests that acidification occurred in the shallow shelves as well. Several sites in the Kras region of Slovenia, has been found to contain apparent erosion surfaces coeval with the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary. We have investigated these potentially acidified horizons using petrography, stable carbon isotopes, cathodoluminescence, and elemental mapping. These datasets will inform whether the horizons formed by seafloor dissolution in an acidified ocean, or are due to subaerial exposure, or burial diagenesis (i.e. stylotization). Physical erosion and diagenesis can easily be ruled out based on field relationships and petrography, but the other potential causes must be analyzed more critically.

  17. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.; Huurdeman, Emiel; Rem, Charlotte; Donders, T.H.; Pross, Jorg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy; Gallagher, Stephen; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the

  18. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Opening of the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Duncan, Robert A.; Swisher, III, Carl C.

    2007-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a sudden release of carbon dioxide and/or methane. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that the Danish Ash-17 deposit, which overlies the PETM by about 450,000 years in the Atlantic, and the Skraenterne Formation Tuff, representing ...

  19. Earliest record of the fossil snake Palaeophis from the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Viborg; Cuny, Gilles; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. – The earliest record of Palaeophis ever found in Denmark is here based on vertebrae described from the Paleocene/Eocene Stolleklint Clay of the Isle of Mors (northern Denmark). Although much smaller, they appear quite similar to the Eocene vertebra described from the Fur Formation...

  20. Oldest known euarchontan tarsals and affinities of Paleocene Purgatorius to Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Boyer, Doug M; Clemens, William A

    2015-02-03

    Earliest Paleocene Purgatorius often is regarded as the geologically oldest primate, but it has been known only from fossilized dentitions since it was first described half a century ago. The dentition of Purgatorius is more primitive than those of all known living and fossil primates, leading some researchers to suggest that it lies near the ancestry of all other primates; however, others have questioned its affinities to primates or even to placental mammals. Here we report the first (to our knowledge) nondental remains (tarsal bones) attributed to Purgatorius from the same earliest Paleocene deposits that have yielded numerous fossil dentitions of this poorly known mammal. Three independent phylogenetic analyses that incorporate new data from these fossils support primate affinities of Purgatorius among euarchontan mammals (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Astragali and calcanei attributed to Purgatorius indicate a mobile ankle typical of arboreal euarchontan mammals generally and of Paleocene and Eocene plesiadapiforms specifically and provide the earliest fossil evidence of arboreality in primates and other euarchontan mammals. Postcranial specializations for arboreality in the earliest primates likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of this mammalian radiation in the Paleocene.

  1. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  2. Appraisal of Hydrologic Information Needed in Anticipation of Lignite Mining in Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William Scott

    1981-01-01

    Lignite in western Tennessee occurs as lenses or beds at various stratigraphic horizons in the Coastal Plain sediments of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The occurrence of this lignite has been known for many decades, but not until the energy crisis was it considered an important energy resource. In recent years, several energy companies have conducted extensive exploration programs in western Tennessee, and tremendous reserves of lignite have been found. From available information, Lauderdale County was selected as one of the counties where strip-mining of lignite will most likely occur. Lignite in this county occurs in the Jackson and Cockfield Formations, undivided, of Tertiary age. The hydrology of the county is known only from regional studies and the collection of some site-specific data. Therefore, in anticipation of the future mining of lignite, a plan is needed for obtaining hydrologic and geologic information to adequately define the hydrologic system before mining begins and to monitor the effects of strip-mining once it is begun. For this planning effort, available hydrologic, geologic, land use, and associated data were located and compiled; a summary description of the surface and shallow subsurface hydrologic system was prepared: the need for additional baseline hydrologic information was outlined; and plans to monitor the effects of strip-mining were proposed. This planning approach, although limited to a county area, has transferability to other Coastal Plain areas under consideration for strip-mining of lignite.

  3. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutthiphong Tara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the Aplan’s formula. The approximate work indices were determined by running a batch dry-grinding testusing a laboratory ball mill. Finally, the work indices obtained from both methods were compared. It was found that allsamples could be ranked as lignite B, using the heating value as criteria, if the content of mineral matter is neglected. Similarly,all samples can be classified as lignite with the Hargrove grindability indices ranging from about 40 to 50. However, there isa significant difference in the work indices derived from Hardgrove and simplified Bond grindability tests. This may be due todifference in variability of lignite properties and the test procedures. To obtain more accurate values of the lignite workindex, the time-consuming Bond procedure should be performed with a number of corrections for different milling conditions.With Hardgrove grindability indices and the work indices calculated from Aplan’s formula, capacity of the roller-racepulverizer and grindability of the Mae Moh lignite should be investigated in detail further.

  4. Investigation of pre-drying lignite in an existing Greek power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agraniotis Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lignite pre-drying technologies in next generation of lignite power plants by utilizing low pressure steam as a drying medium instead of hot recirculated flue gas - combined with thermal utilization of the vaporized coal moisture - is expected to bring efficiency increase of 2-4 percentage points in future lignite power plants compared with today’s state of the art. The pre-drying concept is of particular importance in Greek boilers firing lignite with a high water and ash content. The combustion of Greek predried lignite has been investigated experimentally and via numerical simulations in our previous research. This study focuses on the potential integration of a lignite pre-drying system in an existing Greek power plant with dry lignite co-firing thermal share of up to 30%. The radiative and convective heat fluxes to the boiler and the overall boiler heat balance is calculated for reference and dry lignite co-firing conditions by an in-house calculation code. The overall plant’s thermal cycle is then simulated using commercial thermal cycle calculation software. The net plant efficiency is in this way determined for reference and dry coal co-firing conditions. According to the simulation results the integration of a pre-drying system and the implementation of dry lignite co-firing may bring an efficiency increase of about 1.5 percentage points in existing Greek boilers. It is therefore considered as an important measure towards improving plant efficiency and reducing specific CO2 emissions in existing plants.

  5. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  7. Sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrifical agent in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudchadker, M.V.; Weiss, W.J.

    1978-02-07

    A process is described for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs by secondary recovery methods. The process involves injecting via an injection well into the reservoir an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process is conducted by first injecting the lignite salt into the formation through the injection well and following it with either a polymer or a surfactant solution, which also may contain the lignite salt. The polymer or surfactant would then be followed by a drive fluid, such as water, to push the chemicals and oil to the production well. (18 claims)

  8. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  9. Innovative approach to ash radioactivitiy and health impacts of lignite power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosevski, T.; Pop-Jordanova, N. [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje (Macedonia)

    1998-12-31

    In Macedonia nearly 90% of the present electricity production utilizes domestic low-calorie lignite, and this is likely to continue for the next few decades. Local and global environmental impacts of fossil fuel utilization are considered. Some innovative extensions to standard methodologies of environmental risk assessment and management are considered. They involve ash radioactivity and psychosomatic health impacts from lignite power plants. Two extensions are proposed: one comprising complete radioactive chains when determining committed effective dose from lignite ash; the other by including the psychosomatic diseases, such as peptic ulcer and arterial hypertension, due to chronic stress induced by power plants during normal operation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktur, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lowerrank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy.

  11. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktar, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lower-rank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash yield and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy. 38 references.

  12. Foreseen development of mining of lignite; Przewidywany rozwoj gornictwa wegla brunatnego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Z. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Geo-engineering, Mining and Geology

    2004-07-01

    The future of activity in Poland's lignite sector will be determined by the demand for this fuel, which will in turn result from mining possibilities and economic competitiveness of the fuel in relation to other sources of electrical energy. The paper discusses all these factors and presents a framework programme for the development of Poland's lignite sector until 2040 (in detail) and further ahead to 2075, called the 'Agreement of manufacturers of lignite'. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  14. Evolution of sedimentary architecture in retro-foreland basin: Aquitaine basin example from Paleocene to lower Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Carole; Lasseur, Eric; Guillocheau, François; Serrano, Olivier; Malet, David

    2017-04-01

    The Aquitaine basin located in south western Europe, is a Pyrenean retro-foreland basin. Two main phases of compression are recorded in this retro-foreland basin during the Pyrenean orogeny. A first upper Cretaceous phase corresponding to the early stage of the orogeny, and a second one usually related to a Pyrenean paroxysmal phase during the middle Eocene. During Paleocene to lower Eocene deformations are less pronounced, interpreted as a tectonically quiet period. The aim of the study is to better constrain the sedimentary system of the Aquitaine basin during this period of Paleocene-lower Eocene, in order to discuss the evolution of the sedimentary architecture in response of the Pyrenean compression. This work is based on a compilation of a large set of subsurface data (wells logs, seismic lines and cores logs) represented by isopachs and facies map. Three main cycles were identified during this structural quiet period: (1) The Danian cycle, is recorded by the aggradation of carbonate reef-rimmed platform. This platform is characterized by proximal facies (oncoid carbonate and mudstone with thalassinoides) to the north, which leads to distal deposit facies southern (pelagic carbonate with globigerina and slump facies) and present a significant thickness variation linked to the platform-slope-basin morphology. (2) The upper Selandian-Thanetian cycle follows a non-depositional/erosional surface associated with a Selandian hiatus. The base of this cycle marked the transition between the last reef rimmed platform and a carbonate ramp. The transgressive cycle is characterized by proximal lagoon facies to the north that leads southward to distal hemipelagic facies interfingered by turbiditic Lowstand System Tracks (LST). The location of these LST is strongly controlled by inherited Danian topography. The regressive cycle ends with a major regression associated with an erosional surface. This surface is linked with a network of canyons in the north, an important

  15. Sustainable lignite mining and utilization. Developments in the Rhenish lignite-mining area; Nachhaltige Braunkohlegewinnung und -nutzung. Entwicklung im Rheinischen Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Sparte Tagebaue

    2012-09-15

    Lignite is an essential module in the Rhenish mining area's economic power. Mini ng in a densely populated region like the Rhineland calls for keeping an eye equ ally on people, the environment and industry now and in the future. By considering all concerns and ensuring transparency in our approach to people, we have succeeded in obtaining public acceptance also for large-scale projects in an environment that is not always easy in Germany. RWE Power plans to use lignite in powe r generation and in upgrading operations for many decades to come, so that the company is systematically implementing the power-plant renewal programme with is planning for BoAplus as highly efficient next-generation lignite-based power plants. Research on CO{sub 2} utilization, flexibilization, energy storage and alternative uses of lignite are as much features of RWE Power's future-proof alignment in the Rhenish mining area as are further innovations in the opencast mines. Core aspects here include further automation in the deployment of main mine equipment, closely dovetailed with innovations in other operating units. Parallel restructuring of the operating units and the Lignite Approvals area are underpinning these measures. Innovations and their translation into technical progress will ensure the success of a measured energy turnaround both in Germany and throughout Europe. However, this requires dependable political conditions, so that an engineering spirit can go on being transformed into entrepreneurial action. (orig.)

  16. Sustainable lignite mining and utilization. Developments in the Rhenish lignite-mining area; Nachhaltige Braunkohlegewinnung und -nutzung. Entwicklung im Rheinischen Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Opencast Mines Div.

    2012-03-15

    Lignite is an essential module in the Rhenish mining area's economic power. Mining in a densely populated region like the Rhineland calls for keeping an eye equally on people, the environment and industry now and in the future. By considering all concerns and ensuring transparency in our approach to people, we have succeeded in obtaining public acceptance also for large-scale projects in an environment that is not always easy in Germany. RWE Power plans to use lignite in power generation and in upgrading operations for many decades to come, so that the company is systematically implementing the power-plant renewal programme with is planning for BoAplus as highly efficient next-generation lignite-based power plants. Research on CO{sub 2} utilization, flexibilization, energy storage and alternative uses of lignite are as much features of RWE Power's future-proof alignment in the Rhenish mining area as are further innovations in the opencast mines. Core aspects here include further automation in the deployment of main mine equipment, closely dovetailed with innovations in other operating units. Parallel restructuring of the operating units and the Lignite Approvals area are underpinning these measures. Innovations and their translation into technical progress will ensure the success of a measured energy turnaround both in Germany and throughout Europe. However, this requires dependable political conditions, so that an engineering spirit can go on being transformed into entrepreneurial action. (orig.)

  17. Bucket wheel excavator performances at Neyveli lignite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaraswamy, S; Mozumdar, B K

    1987-03-01

    Bucket-wheel excavators have been in use at the Neyveli Lignite Mine in the State of Tamil Nadu, India, since the early nineteen-sixties. The mining environment has been particularly harsh for BWE application. The adverse influencing factors are the hardness of the over-burden formation, high abrasivity of rock and artesian ground water conditions. In this paper, the performances of the BWEs at Neyveli have been statistically analysed to determine the effects of physico-mechanical properties of overburden, blasting and rainfall on machine productivity, availability, wear-and-tear of bucket teeth, power consumption, production efficiency and cost of mining. An empirical relationship between the production efficiency, defined as the ratio of actual production rate to the theoretical one, and the bench height and width, height of slices, specific cutting resistance of the overburden material and its clay content, consumption of explosives, and conveyor length has been established.

  18. PFBC development for lignite-fired CC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Meier, H.J.; Smuda, J.V.; Stuhlmueller, F. [VEAG Vereinigte Energiewerke AG (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    A power station design based on pressurised combustion in a circulating fluid-bed is used to illustrate the principle, layout and potential of a lignite-fired combined power station. The fundamental reasons for concentrating on the circulating pressurised fluid-bed consist in its improved emission values, the possibility of separating heat source and heat sink, and better operating performance (part-load). This design has been developed as part of a feasibility study supported by the Federal Ministry for Research and Tehcnology. The paper describes the design of the power plant components. Combustion trials carried out at the pilot plant in Friedrichsfield are reported and the cost-effectiveness of the innovatory design discussed. 10 figs.

  19. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  20. The lignite industry and regional development. Interactions exemplified by the Rhenish mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, Lars; Voigt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Even in times of globalised markets, the German lignite industry retains its local and regional roots. Viewed against this background, the relationship between lignite industry and regional actors, and the interactions between the two play a major role in the perspectives for this branch of Germany's energy sector. Today, the links between the lignite industry and regional bodies are those of a partnership at eye-level. This type of relationship between the industry and regional actors has led to new forms and methods of cooperation at various levels. This is particularly evident in the efforts to re-shape the regional structure, develop the structure of townships and strengthen the economic structure with lignite playing an important role and new partners which are gaining in importance. (orig.)

  1. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  2. Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.

    1986-03-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples

  3. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  4. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    OpenAIRE

    Wutthiphong Tara; Chairoj Rattanakawin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the A...

  5. The reduction of sulfate ions in Musashino woody lignite and in acetone-furfural resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    By adding a barium chloride solution to sulfur-containing woody lignite kept in water for two years, it has been confirmed that large quantities of sulfate ions are adsorbed by the lignite. Furthermore, spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the reduction of sulfate ions in an acetone-furfural resin prepared with residual sulfuric acid. These experimental results suggest the possibility of reducing sulfate ions in coal in the absence of sulfate bacteria. 2 refs.

  6. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Globanomalina luxorensis, a Tethyan biostratigraphic marker of latest Paleocene global events

    OpenAIRE

    Speijer, Robert; Samir, AM

    1997-01-01

    The lowest common occurrence (LCO) of the planktonic foraminifera Globanomalina luxorensis marks the level of the latest Paleocene global benthic extinction event (BEE) and associated negative delta(13) C excursion in various bathyal and neritic successions in the Mediterranean region. Below the BEE level, G. luxorensis is extremely rare and subordinate in abundance relative to its precursor G, chapmani. From this level onwards, G. luxorensis generally constitutes a large proportion of the pl...

  8. A new record of the Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maximum from the Mississippi Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, B. F.; Gerweck, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene interval is well known as a time of climatic transitions, especially hyperthermals associated with disturbances in the carbon cycle that are used as proxies for impacts of projected anthropogenic global climate change. A recent roadcut in Benton County, Mississippi exposes a disconformity between the Paleocene Naheola Formation and the Eocene Meridian Sand. The disconformity is developed on a thick, kaolinitic paleosol, which we interpret as a mature Oxisol that supported tropical rainforest vegetation (as evidenced by associated well preserved leaf fossils). The nature of the paleosol at the disconformity led us to hypothesize that the strata might contain evidence of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We sampled two Mississippi Mineral Resources Institute (MMRI) cores from the equivalent stratigraphic interval from Benton and Tippah Counties, Mississippi, for bulk organic carbon stable isotopes at 25-cm intervals. Results showed no evidence of the negative excursion characteristic of the PETM. Instead, we found a gradual upsection enrichment that we interpret as the positive trend characteristic of the lower Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maximum (PCIM). This is reasonable based on published biostratigraphy and absolute ages from elsewhere in the Naheola Formation. Further analyses will be performed to determine whether the PCIM trend continues throughout the remainder of the core. The identification of the PCIM in Mississippi Embayment (ME) sediments is important because stable carbon isotope data may be useful for improving chronostratigraphy in the ME. Also, the PCIM is associated with a gradual warming trend as indicated by previously published stable oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera. Studying successive ME paleosols throughout the PCIM may yield information about the impacts of gradual atmospheric warming on soils and associated terrestrial systems.

  9. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, New Jersey. Aside from previously-described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 μm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 μm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical...

  10. A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Gerald; Scofield, R. Paul; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Tennyson, Alan J. D.

    2017-01-01

    One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the ne...

  11. Dating quartz: Ar/Ar analyses of coexisting muscovite and fluid inclusion - rich quartz from paleocene amorphic aureole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.J.; Perez de Arce, C.; Cornejo, P.; Cuitino, L; Klein, J

    2001-01-01

    We present Ar/Ar total fusion and step-heating data for coexisting muscovite and white quartz from the metamorphic aureole of the Lower Paleocene La Copiapina Pluton, 6 km south of Inca de Oro, III Region, Chile. The pluton intrudes the upper clastic sedimentary member of the Punta del Cobre Group (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) and the calcareous sedimentary rocks of the Chanarcillo Group (Neocomian), and comprises fine to coarse grained pyroxene-hornblende-biotite quartz diorites and monzodiorites. Its emplacement was controlled on its north-western side by a subvertical NE-trending fault, along which were developed vertically banded skarns (skarn mylonite), suggesting syntectonic intrusion. Biotite K-Ar ages for the pluton fall in the range 61-63 Ma, relating it to a latest Cretaceous to Lowest Paleocene syn-compressional intrusive belt which is present in the area (Matthews and Cornejo, 2000). A metamorphic / metasomatic aureole is developed within the sandstones of the Punta del Cobre Group, on the extreme northern limit of the pluton. In this area, the sedimentary rocks have been replaced by quartz-sericite and quartz-muscovite assemblages, with minor hematite and tourmaline, and late supergene kaolinite and pyrophyllite. A coarse muscovite-quartz-tourmaline-hematite assemblage is developed in and around older (early Upper Cretaceous) andesitic dykes, in the form of replacement / fracture fill veins and replacement zones. Further from the contact with the pluton, fine-grained quartz-sericite rock with coarser muscovite-rich replacement veins represents the dominant lithology. Quartz in the coarse replacement rock is very rich in fluid inclusions. Primary inclusions are mainly of two coexisting types; bi-phase (liquid and gas bubble) and tri-phase (liquid, gas bubble and halite crystal), indicating that the quartz formed in the presence of a boiling fluid. Some inclusions also contain sylvite and occasional hematite daughter crystals. Secondary inclusions

  12. Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

  13. A study relating to the conceptual design and cost estimates of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation lignite beneficiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granatstein, D L; Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J

    1982-06-01

    The purpose is to provide technology for upgrading lignite to a cleaner fuel that is capable of improving utility plant operation and is more acceptable to the non-utility sector. Beneficiated lignite can provide a middle alternative between low-grade and high-grade fuels. The results for phase IV include a conceptual design for a lignite beneficiation plant and a marketing study for the product. The beneficiated lignite is cheaper to transport, easier to handle, cleaner, allows better plant operation with higher availability, reduced slagging and fouling, reduced sulphur, and lower operating and maintenance costs. 8 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; Scofield, R Paul; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Tennyson, Alan J D

    2017-12-12

    One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the new species outside a clade including all post-Paleocene giant penguins. It is phylogenetically separated from giant Eocene and Oligocene penguin species by various smaller taxa, which indicates multiple origins of giant size in penguin evolution. That a penguin rivaling the largest previously known species existed in the Paleocene suggests that gigantism in penguins arose shortly after these birds became flightless divers. Our study therefore strengthens previous suggestions that the absence of very large penguins today is likely due to the Oligo-Miocene radiation of marine mammals.

  15. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, F.; Shala, F.; Xhixha, G.; Xhixha, M.K.; Hodolli, G.; Kadiri, S.; Bylyku, E.; Cfarku, F.

    2014-01-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg −1 , 9 ± 1 Bq kg −1 and 9 ± 3 Bq kg −1 , respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. - Highlights: • NORMs in lignite combustion residues from CFPPs are studied. • Th/U indicates either low U uptake from host rocks and/or high leaching from peat. • The concentration factor of NORMs in fly and bottom ash samples are 3–5 times. • No 226 Ra enrichment is observed in fly ash while a depletion in bottom ash. • The reuse of fly ash in cement industry poses no significant radiological issue

  16. Testing the ``Wildfire Hypothesis:'' Terrestrial Organic Carbon Burning as the Cause of the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Carbon Isotope Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. A.; Kurtz, A. C.

    2005-12-01

    The 3‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary has generally been attributed to dissociation of seafloor methane hydrates. We are testing the alternative hypothesis that the carbon cycle perturbation resulted from wildfires affecting the extensive peatlands and coal swamps formed in the Paleocene. Accounting for the CIE with terrestrial organic carbon rather than methane requires a significantly larger net release of fossil carbon to the ocean-atmosphere, which may be more consistent with the extreme global warming and ocean acidification characteristic of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). While other researchers have noted evidence of fires at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in individual locations, the research presented here is designed to test the "wildfire hypothesis" for the Paleocene-Eocene boundary by examining marine sediments for evidence of a global increase in wildfire activity. Such fires would produce massive amounts of soot, widely distributed by wind and well preserved in marine sediments as refractory black carbon. We expect that global wildfires occurring at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary would produce a peak in black carbon abundance at the PETM horizon. We are using the method of Gelinas et al. (2001) to produce high-resolution concentration profiles of black carbon across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary using seafloor sediments from ODP cores, beginning with the Bass River core from ODP leg 174AX and site 1209 from ODP leg 198. This method involves the chemical and thermal extraction of non-refractory carbon followed by combustion of the residual black carbon and measurement as CO2. Measurement of the δ 13C of the black carbon will put additional constraints on the source of the organic material combusted, and will allow us to determine if this organic material was formed prior to or during the CIE.

  17. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Sulfurisation of lipids in a marine-influenced lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandison, C.M.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.; Boreham, C.J. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Compelling evidence is presented for the process of lipid sulfurisation in humic coal-forming environments. The production of reduced inorganic sulfides by sulfate-reducing bacteria during a marine transgression, which occurred during early diagenesis, enabled the selective sequestration of functionalised lipids in the polar and asphaltene fractions from the Eocene, marine-influenced Heartbreak Ridge lignite deposit in southeast Western Australia. Nickel boride desulfurisation experiments conducted on these fractions released small but significant quantities of sulfur-bound hydrocarbons. These comprised mostly higher plant triterpanes, C-29 steranes and extended 17beta(H),21beta(H)-hopanes, linked by one sulfur atom at, or close to, functionalised sites in the original natural product precursors. These sulfurised lipids come from the same carbon sources as the free hydrocarbon lipids, except for the sulfurised extended hopanoids, which may be partially derived from a different bacterial source. These results indicate that the selectivity and nature of steroid and hopanoid vulcanisation in coal-forming mires is similar to that observed in other sedimentary environments. However, the diversity of higher plant triterpanes that can be sulfurised in marine transgressed coals is greater than that reported in immature terrestrial coals. This preservation mechanism explains the formation of the structurally related biomarkers in more mature sulfur-rich humic coals.

  19. Computer simulations of discharges from a lignite power plant complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukouliou, V.; Horyna, J.; Perez-Sanchez, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes work carried out within the IAEA EMRAS program NORM working group to test the predictions of three computer models against measured radionuclide concentrations resulting from discharges from a lignite power plant complex. This complex consists of two power plants with a total of five discharge stacks, situated approximately 2-5 kilometres from a city of approximately 10,000 inhabitants. Monthly measurements of mean wind speed and direction, dust loading, and 238 U activities in fallout samples, as well as mean annual values of 232 Th activity in the nearest city sampling sites were available for the study. The models used in the study were Pc-CREAM (a detailed impact assessment model), and COMPLY and CROM (screening models). In applying the models to this scenario it was noted that the meteorological data provided was not ideal for testing, and that a number of assumptions had to be made, particularly for the simpler models. However, taking the gaps and uncertainties in the data into account, the model predictions from PC-CREAM were generally in good agreement with the measured data, and the results from different models were also generally consistent with each other. However, the COMPLY predictions were generally lower than those from PC-CREAM. This is of concern, as the aim of a screening model (COMPLY) is to provide conservative estimates of contaminant concentrations. Further investigation of this problem is required. The general implications of the results for further model development are discussed. (author)

  20. Product analysis of catalytic multi-stage hydropyrolysis of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Li; Na Wang; Baoqing Li [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2003-03-01

    A lignite added with 0.2% MoS{sub 2} as catalyst was pyrolyzed under H{sub 2} using multi-stage heating method (MHyPy) which means holding a suitable time near the peak temperature. The product distribution and detailed analysis of products were performed. The results show that the tar yield increased to 63.9% during MHyPy compared with that of 51.8% in traditional hydropyrolysis (HyPy), while the gas yield decreased to a half. This suggests the effective utilization of hydrogen during MHyPy. The light aromatics in the tar from MHyPy increased remarkably 42, 37.8 and 115.4% for BTX, PCX and naphthalenes, respectively. Biphenyls were also observed in the tar from MHyPy, which indicated the effective hydrogenation occurs during catalytic MHyPy. The rich pore structure of the char from MHyPy hints its high reactivity in the subsequent conversion process such as gasification and combustion. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Growth response of microorganisms to different molecular fractions of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Dugan, P.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Our research is primarily concerned with isolating and characterizing microbes which are able to dissimilate coal and convert it to other useful chemicals. This quarter, general growth responses of microorganisms cultivated in the presence of different molecular weight fractions of lignite coal were examined. Aerobic and anaerobic environmental samples from a variety of ecological niches were used as inocula. Growth of the microorganisms in these samples on the following types of media was tested: COAL medium, containing alkali-solubilized whole coal; THFI medium, containing the alkali-solubilized, tetrahydrofuran-insoluble, macromolecular portion of whole coal; THFS medium, containing the THF-soluble, low molecular weight portion of whole coal; and CON medium, void of any coal constituent. Overall results indicated that the presence of the THF-soluble, low molecular weight coal fraction enhanced the growth yield and the variety of aerobic microorganisms compared to the other coal fractions or the control medium. Conversely, anaerobic microbes grew best on media which contained the macromolecular fraction. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Oxidative desulfurization of Cayirhan lignites by permanganate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guru, M.; Tuzun, F.N.; Murathan, A.S.; Asan, A.; Kiyak, T. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Unless important developments record new and renewable energy sources, the role of fossil fuels as an energy resource goes on. It is possible to detect sulfur, heavy metals, and tracer elements such as arsenic and selenium by decreasing calorific value of coals. Sulfur oxides, which are the main pollutants in atmosphere, are irritative to humans and plants, and erosion occurs on buildings. Although there are high lignite reservoirs, high sulfur content limits the efficient use of them. In this research, it is aimed to convert combustible sulfur in coal to non-combustible sulfur form in the ash by oxidizing it with permanganate solution. During this research, the effect of two different parameters of potassium permanganate concentration, processing time, and mean particle size were investigated at constant room temperature and shaking rate. The conversion of combustible sulfur to non-combustible sulfur form was achieved optimally with 0.14 M potassium permanganate solution, 0.1 mm mean particle size at 16 h of treatment time, and the combustible sulfur amount was decreased by 46.37% compared to undoped conditions.

  3. The development of the Ptolemais lignite deposit, present situation and future perspective of the electrical energy market (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavourides, Kostas

    1997-01-01

    PPC is by far the major producer of solid fuels in Greece. Currently the known exploitable reserves of solid fuels, are 4,0 billions tones of lignite and 4 billion cubic meters of peat. Mining of Lignite in Greece started in 1951 at the Aliveri underground mine and was continued at the open cast mines at Ptolemais (1955) and Megalopolis (1919). For more than 45 years. PPC has successfully exploited the Greece Lignite deposit for the production of electricity in order to satisfy the demand in Greece. Today PPC produces 60 million tons of lignite and handles approximately 275 million cubic meters of masses (overburden, lignite and interculated) per year. Lignite is the main energy resource in Greece and its combustion provides 75-80% of the electrical energy consumed in Greece.The Lignite Center of Ptolemais - Amyndeon (LCP-A) operated by the Greece PPC is located in northern Greece, about 110 km west of the city of Thessaloniki. The lignite deposits under exploitation cover an area. of 120 km 2 including 4000 Mt of proven geological reserves and 2700 Mt of exploitable lignite under current economic and technological criteria. Today LCP-A manages six active mines which in 1997 have a rate of handling 245 mil cubic meter of material and producing approx. 48 mil for of lignite. The continuous mining method which employs BWES, conveyors and strackers is the principal mining method used in all the lignite mines at the Ptolemais-Amyndeon Lignite Center. The implementation of selective mining procedures as well as discontinuous and /or combined mining methods differentiates the mining technology at the LCP-A from the respective technology applied in Germany lignite mines. The quality properties suggest that the lignite deposits in Greece are among the world's worst quality deposits exploited for energy production, where approximately 2 kg of lignite are consumed per I kWh of generated power. The main advantages of PPC'S coal orientated development program are the following

  4. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jianlei, E-mail: su@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Bai, Mei [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Shen, Jianlin [Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Griffith, David W.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Denmead, Owen T. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Hill, Julian [Ternes Agricultural Consulting Pty Ltd, Upwey, VIC 3158 (Australia); Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Chen, Deli, E-mail: delichen@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH{sub 3} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6 kg m{sup −2}, were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH{sub 3} analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240 g N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}) was lost via NH{sub 3} volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1} (< 0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N{sub 2}O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N{sub 2}O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N{sub 2}O emission due to decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH{sub 3} for indirect N{sub 2}O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N{sub 2}O emissions. - Graphical abstract: Lignite application substantially decreased NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle feedlots and increased

  5. Changes of chemical properties of humic acids from crude and fungal transformed lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LianHua Dong; Quan Yuan; HongLi Yuan [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). College of Biological Science

    2006-12-15

    The development of biological processes for fossil energy utilization has received increasing attention in recent years. There are abundance of lignite resources in China and the lignite, a low-grade coal, can be transformed by a Penicillium sp. After fungal transformation, the contents of humic acid and water-soluble humic material increased from 38.6% to 55.1%, and from less than 4.0% to 28.2%, respectively. The differences in chemical properties of crude lignite humic acid (aHA), fungal transformed lignite humic acid (bHA) and water-soluble humic material from fungal transformed lignite (WS) were studied. Elemental analysis and size exclusion chromatography showed that the N content of bHA increased by 47.36% compared with aHA, and the molecular mass of bHA was smaller than aHA. And the WS with the smallest molecular mass contained most content of N. The {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR spectra of aHA and bHA showed that aHA contained more aromatic structure than bHA. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A lignite-geothermal hybrid power and hydrogen production plant for green cities and sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, B. [Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Turkey is rich in both geothermal energy and lignite reserves, which in many cases, are co-located. This condition makes it feasible to utilize both lignite and geothermal energy in a hybrid form for combined power heat, and cold generation, which may lead to optimally energy and exergy efficient, environmentally benign, and economically sound applications. This paper presents a novel concept of hybrid lignite-geothermal plant for a district energy system and hydrogen production facility in Aydin with special emphasis on high performance, green buildings and green districts. In this concept, lignite is first introduced to a partially fluidized-bed gasifier and then to a fluidized-bed gas cleaning unit, which produces synthetic gas and finally hydrogen. The by-products, namely char and ash are used in a fluidized-bed combustor to produce power. Waste heat from all these steps are utilized in a district heating system along with heat received from geothermal production wells after power is generated there. H{sub 2}S gas obtained from the separator system is coupled with hydrogen production process at the lignite plant. Absorption cooling systems and thermal storage tanks complement the hybrid system for the tri-generation district energy system. On the demand side, the new, green OSTIM OSB administration building in Ankara is exemplified for greener, low-exergy buildings that will compound the environmental benefits.

  7. Ichnofabrics and Facies in the Paleocene of Chicxulub: A Record of the Recovery of Life Post-Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, M. T.; O'Malley, K.; Lowery, C. M.; Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 recovered 829 m of core at Site M0077 including 110 m of post-impact, (hemi)pelagic Paleogene sedimentary rocks overlying the Chicxulub impact crater peak ring formed from suevite, melt rock, and granitic basement. The transition between suevite and Paleocene limestone (Unit 1F) is a remarkable fining upward package of gravel to sand-sized suevite (Unit 2A) overlain by the laminated carbonate-rich Unit 1G that records deposition of fine-grained material post-impact and contains a mix of Late Cretaceous and earliest Danian taxa. This study concentrates on the overlying Unit 1F. The ichnofabric index (ii, 1-6 indicating no bioturbation to complete homogenization), provides a semiquantitative estimate of burrow density to help assess the return of life to the crater. Unit 1F is 10 m thick with a sharp contact at the base of a green claystone (ii 2) that overlies Unit 1G. It consists of cm-dm interbedded blue-gray marlstone (ii 2) grading upward into gray to blue-gray wacke/packstone (ii 3-5). Contacts between facies are mostly gradational due to burrowing. The upper 3 m of the unit is a yellow-brown burrowed packstone (ii 4) intercalated with gray marlstone (ii 2). The uppermost 7.5 cm is calcite cemented with 1 cm wide burrows (ii 3-4) and fine to coarse sand size clasts including foraminifera. The upper surface of the unit is a hardground with an 2 Myr unconformity overlain by Eocene rocks. The first well-defined burrows occur in the upper 30 cm of Unit 1G. Unequivocal burrows (ii 2) that disturb sedimentary facies occur in overlying Unit 1F with values of 3-5 recorded in the overlying 10 cm indicating significant disruption of primary sedimentary structures. The iis in Unit 1F vary between 2 and 5 with rare laminated intervals without bioturbation (ii 1). Values of ii correlate well with facies changes, i.e. marlstones display lower iis than more carbonate-rich facies, implying a depth and/or redox control on burrower distribution. The ii

  8. Clear as Mud: Changes in Paleoshelf Environments and Deposition Rates at Medford, New Jersey during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrecca, L.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Browning, J. V.; Emge, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene boundary marks a time of swift global climatic change. Constraining the timeframe of this event is a first order question necessary for ascertaining the origin of the event and the potential for its use as an analog for modern climate change. The New Jersey shelf sediments of the Marlboro Formation records this time period with exceptionally thick (5-15m) records of the period of global low carbon isotopic values ("the core") which requires minimum sedimentation rates of 10's cm/kyr. Rhythmic layers have been previously reported from Wilson Lake & Millville, NJ (IODP Leg 174AX). These structures coined "laminae couplets" consist of semi-periodic 1-2mm thick raised laminations separated by matrix of varying width (averaging 1.8cm). These have been dismissed as artifacts of drilling "biscuits". We report here on a series of shallow auger cores drilled on a transect at Medford, NJ, without using drilling fluid. These cores also show a similar set of structures on the 2cm scale verifying that they are primary depositional features. The mm width laminae in the auger core show remarkable swelling within minutes of splitting. XRD, XRF, bulk carbonate geochemistry, and grain size analysis have been determined at regular depth intervals throughout the core. We have analyzed differences in these parameters between the laminae and interbedded matrix material, as well as across the transect as a whole. In general, the Marlboro formation at this updip location consists of micaceous, lignitic, very clayey silt (mean size 6 micrometers) with occasional organic debris indicating proximal deposition from a fluvial system. Paleodepth of 40m and normal marine salinities are estimated using a paleoslope model and the presence of common though not abundant planktonic foraminifera. We discuss a model of deposition for the Marlboro Formation as fluid mud (nearbed suspension flows) associated with the "Appalachian Amazon" alluding toward the finer grained inter

  9. Wettability modification of Wender lignite by adsorption of dodecyl poly ethoxylated surfactants with different degree of ethoxylation: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Bao; Xia, Yangchao; Liu, Shengyu

    2017-09-01

    Lignite is an important and useful fossil fuel in the world and the strong hydrophilicity of it limits its applications. Surfactant adsorption on lignite is an effective way to make it hydrophobic. In this work, aiming to examine the effect of the degree of ethoxylation on the adsorption behavior of dodecyl poly ethoxylated surfactants on lignite and the wettability modification of modified lignite by surfactant adsorption, different combined systems formed by surfactants, water and a model surface of Wender lignite have been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The adsorption configurations vary with the degree of ethoxylation. At the same adsorption amounts, increasing the degree of ethoxylation can make the adsorption layer more compactness and bring stronger adsorption strength. The results of binding energy and its components show that the adsorption of alkyl polyoxyethylene ethers surfactant on lignite is physically adsorbed rather than electrostatically or chemisorbed. Meanwhile, van der Waals interaction plays a dominant role in the adsorption. The addition of surfactant could reduce the possibility of the interaction between water and lignite. Compared to the original lignite, the interaction between them is weakened after surfactant adsorption in water/surfactant/lignite system, thus strengthening the hydrophobicity of lignite. Similar to the adsorption strength, hydrophobicity of modified lignite increases with the increase of the degree of ethoxylation. The lignite surface properties are changed due to surfactant adsorption by analyzing the compositions of interaction energy and the change of hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation of the open

  11. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  12. Acid leaching of coal: to produce clean fuels from Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seferinoglu, Meryem [Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (Turkey)], email: meryem_seferinoglu66@yahoo.com; Duzenli, Derya [Ankara Central Laboratory (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing concerns about the environment, energy producers and governments are looking at developing clean energy sources. However, Turkey has limited clean energy resources and is using low grade coal which has high sulphur content as an alternative energy source. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of generating clean fuel from Edirne Lignite and to get a better understanding of chemical mechanisms involved in coal leaching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions. Leaching was conducted on Edirne Lignite with HF solution at ambient temperature and the effects of parameters such as reaction time and concentration of acid solutions on the process were evaluated. The optimum conditions were found and it was shown that ash levels can be reduced from 28.9% to 10.5% and the calorific value increased by 500kcal/kg with the HF leaching method. This study demonstrated that the production of clean fuel from high sulphur lignite is possible.

  13. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines - Strategy and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines is defined as a strategic target. The tactics concerning the achievement of this target, includes estimation of optimal time lag between each lignite site (which is a segment of the whole lignite field) complete exploitation and its reclamation. Subsidizing of reclamation has been determined as a function of this time lag and relevant implementation is presented for parameter values valid for the Greek economy. We proved that the methodology we have developed gives reasonable quantitative results within the norms imposed by legislation. Moreover, the interconnection between strategy and tactics becomes evident, since the former causes the latter by deduction and the latter revises the former by induction in the time course of land reclamation.

  15. Influence of geological variations on lignite drying kinetics in superheated steam atmosphere for Belchatow deposit located in the central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciazko Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignite-fired coal power plants suffer from a significant heat loss due to the high moisture content in this energy carrier. Water removal from fuel is an indispensable treatment for improving the combustion process, which will foster the efficient utilization of lignite. Superheated steam fluidized bed drying is expected for this purpose in a power generation sector. Understanding drying kinetics of lignite will greatly reinforce design process of a dryer. Physical features as well as the drying behaviour may be divergent among the lignite originated from different depths and positions in a certain mine. To reveal and clarify the influence of the geological features, the drying characteristics of several grades of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland were investigated. The attempts to clarify the influence of the divergent properties of the investigated samples on the drying kinetics in superheated steam were presented in this paper.

  16. REMOVAL OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID FROM THE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING NATURAL AND ACTIVATED LIGNITE COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜLENSOY

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available In these studies, a typical lignite coal found near Istanbul (Yeniköy and its activated products were used to adsorb TCA from aqueous solutions. Particle sizes of coal samples and the concentrations of TCA solutions were chosen as parameters against the fixed amount of adsorbent. The maximum efficiency has been obtained for the coal having (-120 + 150 mesh size fraction activated by heating. As a result, it was shown that these kinds of lignite coals could be used as a good adsorbent. In addition, it was also proved that both the removal and recovery of TCA from some waste waters would easily be possible.

  17. Production of metallurgical cokes from some Turkish lignites using sulphite liquor binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, J.; Saglam, M.; Yuksel, M. (Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-04-01

    Soma and Tuncbilek lignites were briquetted at 80{degree}C under 0-100 MPa, using varying amounts of sulphite liquor binders. The briquettes were then carbonized at 950{degree}C, and the resulting formed cokes were examined. The effects of the type and concentration of binders, and of the briquetting pressure, on the strength and porosity of the formcokes were investigated. As a result of these experiments, optimal briquetting conditions were established. It was also stated that formcokes made from both Turkish lignite samples under optimal briquetting conditions could be used for metallurgical purposes, particularly in non-ferrous metallurgy. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Fractal morphology in lignite coal: a small angle x-ray scattering investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitra, R.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Chandrasekaran, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Small angle x-ray scattering technique has been used to study the pore morphology in lignite coal from Neyveli lignite mine (Tamilnadu, India). The sample were collected from three different locations of the same mine. SAXS profiles from all the three samples show almost identical functionality, irrespective of the locations from where the samples were collected. SAXS experiment using two different wavelengths also exhibit same functionality indicating the absence of multiple scattering. The analysis indicates the surface fractal nature of the pore morphology. The surface fractal dimension is calculated to be 2.58. (author)

  19. Paleocene calcareous nannofossils biostratigraphy from the Sergipe Sub-basin, northeastern Brazil: Implications for this depositional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Oliveira, Geize Carolinne Correia; de Oliveira, Rick Souza; Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; de Lima Filho, Mario Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    This study reports on the biostratigraphy of Paleocene calcareous nannofossils and paleoenvironmental inferences based on five wells drilled on the offshore portion of the Sergipe Sub-basin. Five biostratigraphic zones were defined for the Paleocene in zones of Brazilian continental margin basins N-305, N-307, N-330, N-340 and N-350, and four hiatuses were identified based on the absence of marker species. These hiatuses were interpreted as excavations originated by turbulent to hyperpycnal flows, revealing an important application of biostratigraphy to better understand depositional environments that are often limited by little variation in lithology or low variation in the well log patterns. In Paleoecological terms, the Sergipe Sub-basin, in the Paleocene, experienced geological and environmental events similar to those of other sedimentary basins on the eastern passive continental margin of Brazil, but has a more complete biostratigraphic record of calcareous nannofossils.

  20. COPROLITES FROM THE DANIAN LIMESTONE (LOWER PALEOCENE) OF FAXE QUARRY, DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    are attributed to sharks, and large, cylindrical coprolites with longitudinal striations on the surface are identified as crocodile coprolites. Fish and sharks are known from abundant finds of otoliths and teeth in Faxe Quarry, and crocodiles are known from finds of single bones and teeth.......A collection of coprolites found in the Danian (Lower Paleocene) limestone of Faxe Quarry, Denmark, is described and attributed to the respective producers. Small, drop-like specimens with weak signs of spiral coiling are attributed to fish. Larger, heteropolar, spirally-coiled specimens...

  1. Lithostratigraphy of the Cretaceous–Paleocene Nuussuaq Group, Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam, Gregers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nuussuaq Basin is the only exposed Cretaceous–Paleocene sedimentary basin in West Greenland and is one of a complex of linked rift basins stretching from the Labrador Sea to northern Baffin Bay. These basins developed along West Greenland as a result of the opening of the Labrador Sea in Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic times. The Nuussuaq Basin is exposed in West Greenland between 69°N and 72°N on Disko, Nuussuaq, Upernivik Ø, Qeqertarsuaq, Itsaku and Svartenhuk Halvø and has also been recorded in a number of shallow and deep wells in the region. The sediments are assigned to the more than 6 km thick Nuussuaq Group (new which underlies the Palaeogene plateau basalts of the West Greenland Basalt Group. The sediment thickness is best estimated from seismic data; in the western part of the area, seismic and magnetic data suggest that the succession is at least 6 km and possibly as much as 10 km thick. The exposed Albian–Paleocene part of the succession testifies to two main episodes of regional rifting and basin development: an EarlyCretaceous and a Late Cretaceous – Early Paleocene episode prior to the start of sea-floor spreading in mid-Paleocene time. This exposed section includes fan delta, fluviodeltaic, shelfal and deepmarine deposits. The Nuussuaq Group is divided into ten formations, most of which have previously been only briefly described, with the exception of their macrofossil content. In ascending stratigraphic order, the formations are: the Kome Formation, the Slibestensfjeldet Formation (new, the Upernivik Næs Formation, the Atane Formation (including four new members – the Skansen, Ravn Kløft, Kingittoq and Qilakitsoq Members – and one new bed, the Itivnera Bed, the Itilli Formation (new, including four new members: the Anariartorfik, Umiivik, Kussinerujuk and Aaffarsuaq Members, the Kangilia Formation (including the revised Annertuneq Conglomerate Member andthe new Oyster–Ammonite Conglomerate Bed, the

  2. Germany's lignite industry in 2011; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Koeln (Germany); Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    From 2010 to 2011, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up 4.2% from 169.4 mill. t to 176.5 mill. t. This output is equivalent to a net calorific value of 54.4 mill. tce; of the total output, 157.4 mill. t, or some 90% was used in utility power plants for public supply. That was 3.6% more than in the previous year; 15.5 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 2.6 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 24.9% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2011. In 2011, lignite had an 11.7% share in primary-energy consumption, giving it slot four in Germany's energy-consumption balance after mineral oil (34.0%), natural gas (20.4%) and hard coal (12.6%). Renewable resources cover 10.9, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.8% and other energy sources for 1.6%. With output of 54.4 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38,5% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 141.3 mill. tce. The contributions made by the other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2011 were as follows: 12.3 mill. tce hard coal, 13.1 mill. tce gas, 3.9 mill tce mineral oil, 49.5 mill. tce renewables, and 8.1 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity that Germany produced in 2011, 24,9% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2011, followed by renewables with 19.9% hard coal with 18.6%, nuclear energy with 17.6% and gas with 13.7%. Other energy sources made a 5.3% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply was shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 3.7% from 168.7 mill. t in 2010 to 175 mill. t in 2011. In the entire period from 1990 to 2011, a

  3. Germany's lignite industry in 2012; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany). CEA-W Allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik/Wissenschaft

    2013-05-15

    From 2011 to 2012, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up to 5.1% from 176.5 mill. t to 185.4 mill. t. This figure is equivalent to a net calorific value of 57.2 mill. tce. Of the total output, 166.3 mill. t, or some 90%, was used in utility power plants for the public supply, i.e. 5.7% more than in the previous year. In addition, 15.1 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 3.0 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 25.7% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2012. In 2012, lignite had a 12.1% share in primary-energy consumption balance after mineral oil (33.1%), natural gas (21.6%) and hard coal (12.2%). Renewable resources cover 11.6%, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.0% and other energy sources for 1.4%. With output of 57.2 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38.4% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 149 mill. tce in 2012. The contributions made by other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2012 were as follows: 11.1 mill. tce hard coal, 13.3 mill. tce gas, 3.8 mill. tce mineral oil, 54.0 mill. tce renewables, and 9.5 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity amount that Germany produced in 2012, 25.7% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2012, followed by renewables with 22.1%, hard coal with 19.1%, nuclear energy with 16.1% and gas with 11.3%. Other energy sources made a 5.7% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply are shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 5.1% from 173.9 mill. t in 2011 to 182.8 mill. t in 2012. In the total period from 1990 to 2012, a decline of 159.4 mill. t, or

  4. Lignite utilisation for binding of radionuclides and uranium determination by adsorptive stripping chronopotentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavodska, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work in its first part deals with non-energetic use of young brown coal - lignite. The goal of the work was to perform a complex physical and chemical characterisation of the Slovak lignite (deposit Cary) which could contribute to rts use in binding of radionuclides in the environment. The characteristics of Slovak lignite were compared to leonardite (Gascoyne, USA) and Czech lignite (the area of Mikulcice). In the samples the residual humidity was determined. as well. as the content of ashes. representation of selected inorganic (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) as well as organo-elements (C, H, N, 0, S) and crystalline forms of inorganic phase in lignite. The specific surface (BET isotherm) of lignite was determined, representation of total and free humic acids and their cation exchange capacity. The samples underwent al.so gamma-spectrometric analysis ( 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ac, 137 Cs and 60 Co). Using the radio-indicator method ( 85 Sr and 137 Cs) the kinetics of sorption of Cs + and Sr + ions in Slovak lignite was studied. The efficiency of sorption for both cations on lignite was evaluated on the basis of constructed sorption isotherms. The sorption of Cs + ions on Slovak lignite is more suitable for the Freundlich type of isotherm, in case of Sr + ions the sorption is better described by Langmuir isotherm. The results of sorption experiments on lignite in comparison with clinoptilolite and montmorillonite K-10 showed a more efficient sorption for Sr Ions. despite the more coarse-grained fraction of this matrix. This finding supports the possibility of lignite application for binding of a quite mobile radiostrontium, which may be applied for construction of radioactive waste repositories or for remediation of contaminated soils. The second part of the work deals with the development and validation of new fast and reliable electrochemical method of uranium determination in natural waters. It is based on physical adsorption of created complex of uranium

  5. Paleocene Pacific Plate reorganization mirrored in formation of the Suvarov Trough, Manihiki Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Ricarda; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    The Suvarov Trough is a graben structure that deviates from the Danger Islands Troughs within the Manihiki Plateau, a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. New high-resolution seismic reflection data provide evidence that the graben formed in two phases during the Paleocene (65-45 Ma). In a first phase extension occurred in southwestward direction, pulling apart the northern part of the Suvarov Trough and a parallel trending unnamed trough. In a second phase a change of extensional force direction occurred from southwest to west-northwest, forming the southern part of the Suvarov Trough that extends onto the High Plateau. The formation of the Suvarov Trough is accompanied by a series of normal fault systems that apparently formed simultaneously. Comparing the seismic results to existing Pacific paleo strain reconstructions, the timing of increased strain and local deformation direction fits well to our findings. We thus suggest that the multiple strike directions of the Suvarov Trough represent an extensional structure that was caused by the major, stepwise Pacific Plate reorganization during the Paleocene.

  6. Dry re-forming of methane to synthesis gas over lignite semicokes catalyst at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbo Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dry re-forming of methane has been carried out in a high temperature–pressure reactor at different pressures, using Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst. The results show that CH4 and CO2 conversions are decreased as the reaction pressure increased, but both of them kept basically stable when the reaction pressure is between 0.3 and 1 MPa. The comparison shows that the effects of the temperature and the flow of reactant gas on dry re-forming of methane are consistent with between high pressure and atmospheric pressure. The ratio of CO/H2 decreased as the ratio of CH4/CO2 increased, yet the value of CO/H2 is always more than 1 at different pressures. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst is characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET, and the analysis results reveled that the physical specific adsorption peak of CO2 at 2350 cm−1 is strengthened significantly at different pressures, the micropore area and volume of Hongce lignite semicokes reduced form 40.2 m2  g−1 and 0.019 cm3  g−1 to 34.9 m2  g−1 and 0.017 cm3  g−1, respectively. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst exhibited better activity and stability within 0.3–1 MPa range.

  7. Elemental characterization of lignite from Afsin-Elbistan in Turkey by k(0)-NAA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubešová, Marie; Orucoglu, E.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Erenturk, S.; Krausová, Ivana; Kučera, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 308, č. 3 (2016), s. 1055-1062 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Lignite * Afsin * Elbistan * neutron activation analysis * k(0) standardization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  8. Process for treating bituminous coal, lignite, peat, and shale, and products obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabelitz, E J

    1951-06-27

    A process is described comprising leaching bituminous coal, lignite, peat, or shale by immersing said material in ethylene dichloride for a period of time sufficient to remove the ethylene dichloride-soluble constituents, separating the treated material from the ethylene dichloride solution and recovering from the solution the soluble constituents of the material dissolved in the solution. Soluble constituents include oils and waxes.

  9. Co-gasification of a lignite/waste-tyre in a moving bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Bučko, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2009), s. 1202-1206 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : co-gasification * waste-tyre * lignite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  10. A modern thermal power station operating on high-moisture lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.R. Kotler; D.V. Sosin [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The boilers developed by the power machinery construction company Alstom for two power-generating units, the Maritsa East-II and Maritsa East-II, operating on high-moisture lignite from the Maritsa East field in Bulgaria are described.

  11. Sustainable development of lignite production on open cast mines in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko Danicic; Slobodan Mitrovic; Vladimir Pavlovic; Sava Kovacev [Kolubara Metal, Vreoci (Serbia)

    2009-09-15

    Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m{sup 3} of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competitive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revitalization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  13. Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taseska-Gjorgievskaa Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference development pathway of the Macedonian energy sector highlights the important role that lignite and hydro power play in the power sector, each accounting for 40% of total capacity in 2021. In 2030, this dominance continues, although hydro has a higher share due to the retirement of some of the existing lignite plants. Three sensitivity runs of the MARKAL-Macedonia energy system model have been undertaken to explore the importance of these technologies to the system, considering that their resource may be reduced with time: (1 Reducing the availability of lignite from domestic mines by 50% in 2030 (with limited capacity of imports, (2 Removing three large hydro options, which account for 310 MW in the business-as-usual case, and (3 Both of the above restrictions. The reduction in lignite availability is estimated to lead to additional overall system costs of 0.7%, compared to hydro restrictions at only 0.1%. With both restrictions applied, the additional costs rise to over 1%, amounting to 348 M€ over the 25 year planning horizon. In particular, costs are driven up by an increasing reliance on electricity imports. In all cases, the total electricity generation decreases, but import increases, which leads to a drop in capacity requirements. In both, the lignite and the hydro restricted cases, it is primarily gas-fired generation and imports that “fill the gap”. This highlights the importance of an increasingly diversified and efficient supply, which should be promoted through initiatives on renewables, energy efficiency, and lower carbon emissions.

  14. Distribution of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, V.; Ragupathy, S.; Parthipan, B.; Rani, D.B.R.; Mahadevan, A.

    1991-12-31

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorhizzal (VAM) status was assessed for coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils. The three study sites were: The Kothagudem coal field in the south central region where waste materials are piled 1 to 2 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from plants growing on the waste. Neyveli, on the southeastern coast, is a lignite coal mine where the spoil is piled 70 to 100 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from recently revegetated mine spoil and from 25 year old revegetated sites. The calcite mine at Thazhaiyuthu in the south where the spoil is piled up 2 to 3 m on the soil surface. Samples were collected from 4 to 7 year old reclaimed sites. The wastes generally supported different plant species. The level of VAM infection of plants was markedly different in each mine spoil, with the maximum infection in the coal and calcite spoils, and the least in the lignite spoil. There was more infection in the 25 year old lignite spoil than in the newly revegetated spoil. There were different VAM species in each spoil, and no one species was present in all of the samples. The authors conclude that one of the factors leading to the differences between spoils is the amount of topsoil contained in the spoil (least in the lignite spoils which are very deep). The other is age of the spoils. Unfortunately the authors concluded that the best approach is to enrich the spoils with VAM rather than salvaging and replacing topsoil

  15. Tectonic Reorganization and the Cause of Paleocene and Eocene pCO2 Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Carter, Laura B.; Middleton, Jennifer; Stellmann, Jessica; Pyle, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotope records reveal that deep-sea temperatures were relatively stable in the early and mid Paleocene before they rose by approx. 4°C to peak in the early Eocene. This Early Eocene Climate Optimum was followed by a 17 Myr cooling trend that led to the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the end of the Eocene. Several studies have examined the potential influence of perturbations to the sinks and sources of atmospheric carbon as mechanisms for the temperature drawdown over the Eocene. Examination of the changing magnitude of carbon sinks has focused on the importance of increased weathering associated with the uplift of the Tibetan plateau (Raymo and Ruddiman, 1992), the continental drift of basaltic provinces through the equatorial humid belt (Kent and Muttoni, 2013), or the emplacement of ophiolites during arc-continent collision in the face of a closing Tethys ocean (Jagoutz et al., 2016). With respect to carbon sources, the shutdown of Tethys subduction and related arc volcanism has been argued to significantly decrease carbon emissions and consequently global temperatures (Hoareau et al., 2015). In this study, we re-assess and quantify proposed atmospheric carbon sinks and sources to obtain an integrated picture of carbon flux changes over the Paleocene and Eocene and to estimate the relative importance of different mechanisms. To constrain carbon sources, we attempt to calculate the outgassing associated with large igneous provinces, mid-ocean ridges and volcanic arcs. We use plate reconstructions to track changes in length and divergence / convergence rates at plate boundaries as well as account for the onset and extinction of volcanic arcs. To constrain carbon sinks, we account for the sequestering of carbon due to silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. We again make use of plate reconstructions to trace highly weatherable arc systems and basaltic extrusions through the tropical humid belt and to assess the interplay between warmer Eocene

  16. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D; Kopp, Robert E; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V; Sears, S Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-11-18

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ. Aside from previously described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 microm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 microm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition, lattice perfection, and oxygen isotopes consistent with an aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite their large crystal size. We suggest that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability--a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming--drove diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes.

  17. Evolution of the earliest horses driven by climate change in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secord, Ross; Bloch, Jonathan I; Chester, Stephen G B; Boyer, Doug M; Wood, Aaron R; Wing, Scott L; Kraus, Mary J; McInerney, Francesca A; Krigbaum, John

    2012-02-24

    Body size plays a critical role in mammalian ecology and physiology. Previous research has shown that many mammals became smaller during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but the timing and magnitude of that change relative to climate change have been unclear. A high-resolution record of continental climate and equid body size change shows a directional size decrease of ~30% over the first ~130,000 years of the PETM, followed by a ~76% increase in the recovery phase of the PETM. These size changes are negatively correlated with temperature inferred from oxygen isotopes in mammal teeth and were probably driven by shifts in temperature and possibly high atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. These findings could be important for understanding mammalian evolutionary responses to future global warming.

  18. State and performance of on-stream ash content determination in lignite and black coal using 2-energy transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuemmel, H.W.; Koerner, G.; Leonhardt, J.

    1986-01-01

    The total r.m.s. ash error of the 2-energy transmission on-stream ash gauges KRAS-2 (CIIRR, GDR) and SIROASH (Australia) are 4 weight percentage for raw lignite and 0.5 weight percentage for black coal, respectively. A detailed error analysis shows that this difference is due to the high water content and to strong variations in the ash composition of raw lignite. Both gauges show essentially the same radiometric performance. (author)

  19. Transient dwarfism of soil fauna during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jon J; Hasiotis, Stephen T; Kraus, Mary J; Woody, Daniel T

    2009-10-20

    Soil organisms, as recorded by trace fossils in paleosols of the Willwood Formation, Wyoming, show significant body-size reductions and increased abundances during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Paleobotanical, paleopedologic, and oxygen isotope studies indicate high temperatures during the PETM and sharp declines in precipitation compared with late Paleocene estimates. Insect and oligochaete burrows increase in abundance during the PETM, suggesting longer periods of soil development and improved drainage conditions. Crayfish burrows and molluscan body fossils, abundant below and above the PETM interval, are significantly less abundant during the PETM, likely because of drier floodplain conditions and lower water tables. Burrow diameters of the most abundant ichnofossils are 30-46% smaller within the PETM interval. As burrow size is a proxy for body size, significant reductions in burrow diameter suggest that their tracemakers were smaller bodied. Smaller body sizes may have resulted from higher subsurface temperatures, lower soil moisture conditions, or nutritionally deficient vegetation in the high-CO(2) atmosphere inferred for the PETM. Smaller soil fauna co-occur with dwarf mammal taxa during the PETM; thus, a common forcing mechanism may have selected for small size in both above- and below-ground terrestrial communities. We predict that soil fauna have already shown reductions in size over the last 150 years of increased atmospheric CO(2) and surface temperatures or that they will exhibit this pattern over the next century. We retrodict also that soil fauna across the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundary events show significant size decreases because of similar forcing mechanisms driven by rapid global warming.

  20. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief (~150 kyr period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE. Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 – 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

  1. Transient dwarfism of soil fauna during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Kraus, M.J.; Woody, D.T.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organisms, as recorded by trace fossils in paleosols of the Willwood Formation, Wyoming, show significant body-size reductions and increased abundances during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Paleobotanical, paleopedologic, and oxygen isotope studies indicate high temperatures during the PETM and sharp declines in precipitation compared with late Paleocene estimates. Insect and oligochaete burrows increase in abundance during the PETM, suggesting longer periods of soil development and improved drainage conditions. Crayfish burrows and molluscan body fossils, abundant below and above the PETM interval, are significantly less abundant during the PETM, likely because of drier floodplain conditions and lower water tables. Burrow diameters of the most abundant ichnofossils are 30-46% smaller within the PETM interval. As burrow size is a proxy for body size, significant reductions in burrow diameter suggest that their tracemakers were smaller bodied. Smaller body sizes may have resulted from higher subsurface temperatures, lower soil moisture conditions, or nutritionally deficient vegetation in the high-CO2 atmosphere inferred for the PETM. Smaller soil fauna co-occur with dwarf mammal taxa during the PETM; thus, a common forcing mechanism may have selected for small size in both above- and below-ground terrestrial communities. We predict that soil fauna have already shown reductions in size over the last 150 years of increased atmospheric CO2 and surface temperatures or that they will exhibit this pattern over the next century. We retrodict also that soil fauna across the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundary events show significant size decreases because of similar forcing mechanisms driven by rapid global warming.

  2. Paleoserranus lakamhae gen. et sp. nov., a Paleocene seabass (Perciformes: Serranidae) from Palenque, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalice, Kleyton M.; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesús; Alaniz-Galvan, Abril

    2018-04-01

    Paleoserranus lakamhae gen. et sp. nov. is here described based on well-preserved fossils from the Paleocene marine sediments of the Tenejapa-Lacandón geological unit, belonging to both Division del Norte and Belisario Domínguez quarries, near Palenque, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico. This species exhibits distinctive characters of the order Perciformes, such as the presence of spines in the dorsal, pelvic, and anal fins, as well as the pelvic and pectoral girdles in contact between them. This fish also has neither procurrent spur nor posterior uroneural, characters that support its place within the family Serranidae. It also has a distinctive combination of characters, including a serrated lacrimal and a toothed ectopterygoid, never recorded before among serranids. Additionally, this fossil fish shares some characters with different species nested within the subfamilies Serraninae, Anthiinae, and Ephinephelinae; these include a predorsal formula of 0/0/0 + 2/1 + 1/1; a preopercle with its ventral edge sinuous and showing a strong antrorse spine; its dorsal fin consists of nine spines and eight to ten soft rays; 13 rays in its pectoral fin; and its rounded caudal fin structured with formula I+8-7+I. Paleoserranus lakamhae gen. et sp. nov. is a Serranidae incertae sedis because it does not fit into any subgroup; however, this Paleocene fish is the earliest fossil record of the family Serranidae. The place of occurrence of this new fossil record suggests that the origin and of the seabasses took place in the Caribbean region of North America.

  3. Potentials and limitations of spatial and demographic development in Kosovo-Metohija lignite basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial research carried out for the purpose of elaborating the Spatial Plan for Kosovo-Metohija Lignite Basin indicated the need to address numerous conflicts and opposing interests in the area concerned. This required the Plan to focus on harmonizing the economic, social and spatial aspects of developing a mining-energy-industrial system (hereinafter MEIS and its surroundings, devising the new ways for the protection of local population interests and use of novel approaches in dealing with the environmental consequences of lignite exploitation and processing. The area wherein Kosovo-Metohija lignite deposits are found is replete with diverse conflicting interests, including insufficient and uneven development, extremely large overall and especially agrarian population density (among the highest in Europe, unemployment and a sizable portion of the grey economy, low level and quality of services of public interest, ethnic conflicts and polarization, etc. The environmental effects of MEIS activities in a situation of this kind were revealed by the early stages of research in all segments of economic, social and spatial development, along with a high degree of environmental degradation. The main conflict in the Plan area is the one between mining and agriculture, i.e. open pit lignite mining and high-fertility soil covering lignite deposits. The conflict is additionally aggravated by the remarkable density of agricultural population on this territory and high selling prices of the land. Therefore, a substantial part of the Plan’s propositions was related to the conditions of settlement and infrastructure relocation, population resettlement and measures to relieve the tensions and prevent the outbreak of potential conflicts in implementing the Plan. The Spatial Plan is conceived as a complex and comprehensive document defining the framework, basic principles, starting points and measures tackling the numerous development conflicts, spatial

  4. Fates and roles of alkali and alkaline earth metal species during the pyrolysis and gasification of a Victorian lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mody, D.; Wu, H.; Li, C. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The transformation of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) species in a Victorian lignite during the pyrolysis and subsequent gasification in CO{sub 2} was studied in a novel quartz fluidised-bed reactor. Lignite samples prepared by physically adding NaCl and ion-exchanging Na{sup +} and Ca{sup ++} into the lignite were used to investigate the effects of chemical forms and valency of the AAEM species in the substrate lignite on their transformation during pyrolysis and gasification. Carboxyl-bound Na was found to be less volatile than Na present as NaCl, but more volatile than carboxyl-bound Ca during pyrolysis at temperatures between 400 and 900{sup o}C. However, the carboxyl-bound Na was volatilised to a much greater extent than the carboxyl-bound Ca in the same lignite during pyrolysis. It was seen that the loading of NaCl into the lignite did not significantly affect the char reactivity in the fluidised-bed reactor at 900{sup o}C.

  5. A comparative study of nitrogen conversion during pyrolysis of coconut fiber, its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the conversion of fuel-N to HCN and NH3 was investigated during rapid pyrolysis of raw biomass (coconut fiber), its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite within a temperature range of 600-900°C. The results showed that the raw biomass and the biochar showed totally different nitrogen partitioning between NH3 and HCN. HCN was the dominant nitrogen pollutant from pyrolysis of raw biomass, while for the biochar pyrolysis the yield of NH3 was slightly higher than that of HCN. Synergistic interactions occurred within both raw biomass/lignite and biochar/lignite blends, especially for the biochar/lignite blend, and resulted in reduced yields of HCN and NH3, decreased the total nitrogen percentage retained in the char and promoted harmless N2 formation. These findings suggest that biochar/lignite co-firing for energy production may have the enhanced benefit of reduced emissions of nitrogen pollutants than raw biomass/lignite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solubilization of low-rank coal by Trichoderma atroviride: Evidence for the involvement of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes by using C-14-labelled lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Schmiers, H.; Grosse, S.; Winkelhofer, M.; Polsakiewicz, M.; Ludwig, S.; Dohse, J.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Inst. of Botany

    2002-04-01

    The deuteromycete Trichoderma atroviride is able to solubilize lignite in dependence on a given carbon source for growth. When cultivated on media containing glutamate, this mold excreted a set of different enzymes with hydrolytic activity. Addition of lignite to the growth media induced the synthesis of extracellular lignite-specific esterase activity but no evidence has been provided for its direct involvement in the process of lignite solubilization. Hence, the basic capability of T. atroviride enzymes to degrade a variety of ester and ether bonds at the surface or within the bulky lignite structure was tested using coal following its direct labelling with C-14-alkyl iodide. The participation of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes in lignite degradation was assessed by measuring the release of C-14 radioactivity from selectively alkylated carboxylic and phenolic OH groups. T. atroviride cleaved both carboxylic esters using esterases and the phenolic ether bonds by using oxidative enzymes, most likely laccases.

  7. Production of fuels out of lignite and lignocelluloses; Herstellung von Brennstoffen aus Braunkohle und Lignozellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.; Schroeder, H.W.; Trommer, D. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The acceptance towards solid fuels will increase again if its ease of use is improved, the production costs remain low for extended periods of time, and high thermal efficiencies as well as low pollutant emissions are achieved. These demands can only be met by optimal fuel processing and the use of modern fuel engineering which applies, if possible, continuous and controlled fuel and air feed technology. Two fuels are introduced which are produced out of lignite and lignocelluloses by compaction or by balling granulation. Considering the improvement of combustion properties, remarkable synergy effects occur due to this raw material combination. Lignocelluloses act as an ignition auxillary. Lignite functions as a binding agent, increases the fuels' fire resistance, and guarantees a long, sustained combustion with an excellent combustion rate. (orig.)

  8. Volatiles and char combustion rates of demineralised lignite and wood blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, Melek; Pehlivan, Dursun

    2009-01-01

    Today, much interest is given to the utilisation of materials of plant origin as substitutions of fossil fuels in meeting energy needs to reduce the level of atmospheric pollutant emissions and global warming threat, and emphasis has been placed on the co-combustion of coal and biomass. In this study, volatiles and char combustion behaviour of the fuel pellets composed from demineralised lignite and poplar wood sawdust, were investigated in a cylindrical wire mesh basket placed in a preheated tube furnace. The results have shown that ignition times of the pellets decreased with the burning temperature and shortened further due to demineralisation of lignite. Volatiles combustion rates of the samples did not correlate well with combustion times. However, they can be correlated with their respective proximate volatile matter contents. Char burnout times decreased with increasing combustion rates and correlated well with the respective proximate fixed carbon contents of the samples. Deviations were more considerable in the case of rate data. (author)

  9. Briquetting of Tuncbilek lignite fines by using ammonium nitrohumate as a binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, M.; Ozbayoglu, G. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    Results of experiments on the briquetting of Tuncbilek lignite fines using ammonium nitrohumate (anh), a low calorific value, young lignite-derived humic acid salt solution, are reported. The particulate material was blended with ammonium nitrohumate serving as the binder. In the briquetting tests, the effects of moisture content, pressure, binder content, nitrogen content and heat treatment were investigated. Durable briquettes, in terms of mechanical strength and water resistance, were produced with a 7% binder content at 10.5% moisture, following pressing at 1280 kg/cm{sup 2} and drying at 165{sup o}C for 1 h. The briqueues produced with ammonium nitrohumate had better combustion properties than run-of-mine samples; the contribution of the binder to smoke and sulphur emissions was very low and fine dust particles were negligible.

  10. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagińska Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  11. Paleoenvironmental implications from biomarker and stable isotope investigations on the Pliocene Velenje lignite seam (Slovenia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Markic, M.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [Montan University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    A Pliocene lignite seam up to 160 m thick occurs in the Velenje basin (Slovenia). The seam originated in a topogenous mire and evolved within a non-marine, transgressive setting. Differences in soluble organic matter yield and hydrocarbon content of borehole samples from the lignite are related to differences in the composition of free lipids of microbial origin and/or hydrocarbons derived from the biogeochemical degradation of plant tissue. Variations of the redox conditions within the mire are reflected by pristane/phytane ratios. The abundance of terpenoid biomarkers indicates the predominance of gymnosperms over angiosperms, which is consistent with palynomorphic spectra dominated by pollen of the Sequoia-Taxodium-Metasequoia plant community rather than by angiosperms. Evidence is also provided that the content of land plant derived biomarkers and the preservation of plant tissue is controlled by the input of resin-rich, decay-resistant conifers.

  12. Physico-chemistry of adsorption of copper, nickel and cobalt on lignite from ammoniacal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper deals with a process developed for lignite adsorption that can be used to prevent the hard scale formation during distillation of NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/, recover Cu, Ni and Cr from dilute solutions, Cu and NH/sub 3/ from waste effluent containing SO/sub 4/ radicals, separate Cu (NH/sub 3/)/sub 4//sup +2/ and AsO/sub 4//sup -3/ from ammonial solutions and recover Cu, Ni and Co from ore pulps. In additions to the study of the adsorptions of M, NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ on lignite with caustic soda) was also investigated. Changes of the functional groups of humic acid its salt, before and after the adsorption, were examined by infrared adsorption analysis. (author)

  13. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  14. Effect of mineral oxides on slag formation tendency of Mae Moh lignites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuwat Luxsanayotin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Slagging is one of major ash deposition problems experienced in the boilers of coal–fired power plants especially theplants that use lignite, like Mae Moh lignites. The occurrence of slag is a complex phenomenon depending on several factorssuch as ash properties, furnace operating conditions, and coal properties. The main objective of this work is to study theeffect of mineral components in Mae Moh lignite on ash fusion temperatures (AFTs, which is commonly used as a keyindicator for slag formation tendency under pulverized combustion conditions. Two Mae Moh lignites from the coal seamsplanned to be used in the future were selected for the study to represent low CaO and high CaO lignite. The two lignites,namely K1 and K3, have 3.6 and 40.4 wt% CaO in ash, respectively. The AFT characterization shows that their initial deformationtemperatures (ITs were almost identical and considered as low for the typical flue gas temperature in the radiationsection of Mae Moh boilers, i.e. 1050-1100°C. These observed similar ITs were rather unexpected, especially for K1 consideringits sufficiently low base to acid (B/A ratios. The X-ray diffraction analyses evidently show the presence of illite, pyriteand anhydrite in K1, which explains the observed lower IT of the sample. Anhydrite, which is known to lower the ITs, is alsothe most abundant mineral in K3. Washing the lignite samples with HCl can significantly reduce CaO, MgO, and SO3 contentin the ash but not Fe2O3 as it is present in the form of pyrite. The addition of Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3 can help increase AFTs ofthe studied samples. The Al2O3 addition gives the strongest effect on increasing AFTs, especially for the sample with lowAl2O3 content. When the CaO is added to the low CaO samples, the fluxing effect will initially occur. However, when the CaOcontent is higher than a critical value (i.e. CaO > 38%, the effect of its high melting point will dominate hence the AFTsincreased. Ternary phase diagrams

  15. Combustion of producer gas from gasification of south Sumatera lignite coal using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidian Fajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of gasses from lignite coal gasification is one of alternative fuel for the boiler or gas turbine. The prediction of temperature distribution inside the burner is important for the application and optimization of the producer gas. This research aims to provide the information about the influence of excess air on the temperature distribution and combustion product in the non-premixed burner. The process was carried out using producer gas from lignite coal gasification of BA 59 was produced by the updraft gasifier which is located on Energy Conversion Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Sriwijaya. The excess air used in the combustion process were respectively 10%, 30% and 50%. CFD Simulations was performed in this work using two-dimensional model of the burner. The result of the simulation showed an increase of excess air, a reduction in the gas burner temperature and the composition of gas (carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and water vapor.

  16. Securing the future of the Lusatian lignite mining; Zukunftssicherung im Lausitzer Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocek, Gert [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Bergbauplanung; Ketzmer, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Grunddaten und Bergtechnik

    2014-11-01

    In the course of securing the future of the Lusatian lignite mining, the company has initiated several measures and activities. Thus with large-scale projects such as relocating the operating and surface facilities of the Welzow-Sued opencast mine uninterrupted long-term mining advance is ensured. The company's lignite-fired power plants with their project ''FlexGen'', to further increased flexibility, enhances their position to master of the challenges of ''Energiewende''. The political and societal framework for this complex development is in line with the climate and energy programmes or strategies of the Free State of Saxony and the federal state of Brandenburg.

  17. Lusatian lignite. Decisions for the future; Lausitzer Braunkohle. Entscheidungen fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehnert, Detlev [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany); Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Cottbus (Germany); Ketzmer, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    During the past months a number of important decisions regarding the future of the Lusatian lignite mining areas have been made or launched. In the focus is the concept of the long-term opencast mine and power plant development. Essential part of the concept is the strategy for meeting future challenges of climate change policy. CCS is the key for it. It is expected, that the CCS technology will be commercially available after 2020. Another important aspect is among others the use of the priority areas of the Welzow-Sued and Nochten opencast mined. The corresponding long-term lignite mining planning procedures were opened in autumn 2007. The plans of the company contain clear and reliable statements regarding the long-term opencast mine development until 2050. However, all decisions the company makes are focussing on putting people and their needs first. Solutions for mining related questions and requirements are jointly developed with the people of the region. Communities in direct neighbourhood to opencast mines are safely protected against immissions by structural and organisational measures. The principles of socially responsible resettlements set the framework of constructive and trustful co-acting of the people concerned and the company very early. The future post-mining landscape offers alternative utilization forms providing employment for many people. Economic development of the region is an important aspect of the company's activities. Under the headline ''Energy region Lusatia'', representatives of Vattenfall, different educational institutions, authorities and the politics have joined forces to formulate a strategic target for the future development of Lusatia. Sustainable development of lignite-based power generation to meet future climate change policy, development of energy industrial know-how and the use of other fuels are important issues. The results are visible. Lignite takes a solid place in the German Energy mix - it

  18. Effect of various experimental parameters on the swelling and supercritical extraction properties of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacimehmetoglu, S.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Canel, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science

    2007-07-01

    The original lignite sample, the samples swollen in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, ethylenediamine (EDA), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), the samples impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} as catalyst and the samples both swollen in the solvents and impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} were subjected to the supercritical toluene extraction and the effects of temperature, pressure, pre-swelling procedure, hydrogen donor solvent (tetralin), and catalyst on the extract yields were investigated.

  19. Catalytic effect of lignite ash on steam gasification of oil sand coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.

    1986-06-16

    Steam gasification of Suncor and Syncrude cokes was carried out in the presence of ash obtained after burning Onakawana lignite. Catalytic effects of the ash were evident at 930 C whereas at 830 C little effect was observed. These observations were attributed to the combined actions of Ca- and Fe-containing species in the ash, in which the former neutralized the sulfur in the cokes to prevent poisoning of Fe oxides. 5 tabs., 5 figs., 15 refs.

  20. Catalytic effect of mineral matter of high ash Onakawana lignite on steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1986-04-01

    Reactivities of untreated and acid washed Onakawana lignite during steam gasification were compared in a thermobalance reactor. The acid treatment resulted in removal of Ca, Mg, Ba and Sr from mineral matter. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the rates of H/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ formation. The decrease of gasification rate was attributed to the decrease in concentration of gasification sites during the acid treatment.

  1. Experiments and stochastic simulations of lignite coal during pyrolysis and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor. ► The objective is to understand mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis. ► Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis were conducted using Gillespie algorithm. ► First order, single step mechanism failed to fit cumulative yield of hydrogen. ► Evolution of hydrogen via pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbon following bridges scission. -- Abstract: Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor at reactor temperatures of 800–950 °C in 50 °C intervals. CO 2 has been used as the gasifying agent for gasification experiments. The objective of this investigation is to understand the mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis and to unravel the effect of CO 2 on pyrolysis mechanism. Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis have been conducted using Gillespie algorithm. Two reaction mechanisms have been used in the simulations; first order, single step mechanism and the FLASHCHAIN mechanism. The first order single step mechanism was successful in fitting cumulative yield of CO 2 , CO, CH 4 and other hydrocarbons (C n H m ). The first order, single step failed to fit the cumulative yield of hydrogen, which suggests a more complex mechanism for hydrogen evolution. Evolution of CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , C n H m and H 2 flow rates has been monitored. The only effect of CO 2 on pyrolysis mechanism is promotion of reverse water gas shift reaction for the experiments described here. Methane evolution extended for slightly longer time than other hydrocarbons and hydrogen evolution extended for a slightly longer time than methane. This indicated the evolution of hydrogen via further pyrolysis of aliphatic hydrocarbon. It is also suggested that this step occurs in series after aliphatic hydrocarbons evolution by bridges scission.

  2. Late Neogene leaf assemblage from Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobiec Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf macroremains collected in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland were investigated. The fossil assemblage consists of leaves of Acer, Betula, Carpinus, Dicotylophyllum, Fagus, ?Magnolia, “Parrotia”, Pinus, Quercus, and Zelkova. Mesophytic (zonal elements dominate, with admixture of riparian (azonal leaf taxa. The floristic composition points to late Neogene (late Miocene to late Pliocene age and suggests favourable temperate climate with mild winters.

  3. Spring Barley Yield Parameters after Lignite, Sodium Humate and Nitrogen Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a small number of publications dealing with the impact of solid sodium humate and lignite on the quantity and quality of grown crops was the reason for establishing the field experiment. The objective of this experiment was to detect the impact of solid lignite and solid sodium humate on the quantity and quality of spring barley yield. These substances were applied into the soil either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser. The next objective was to determine the impact of foliar application of sodium humate water solution applied either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser on the quality and quantity of spring barley yield. The achieved results showed that the autumn application of solid lignite and the presowing application of solid sodium humate into the soil tended to decrease the yield of both grain and straw of spring barley, crude protein content in grain, proportion of the first-class grains and volume weight of grain, whereas the impact of humate was more negative. Lignite and sodium humate in the solid form should be used along with nitrogen fertiliser. The application of sodium humate in liquid form during the growth season of barley tended to increase the yield of both grain and straw. The joint application of nitrogen and liquid sodium humate during the growth season of barley increased the grain yield of barley significantly. A lower dose of nitrogen, applied during the growth season of barley (growth season BBCH 23, increased the grain yield of barley considerably more than a higher N dose, applied into the soil before barley sowing.

  4. An overview of underground coal gasification and its applicability for Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekpak, E.; Yoncaci, S.; Kilic, M.G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Coal is expected to maintain its significance as an energy source for a longer time period than oil and natural gas. Environmental concerns have led to the development of clean coal technologies, such as coal gasification. Coal gasification can be used at either at surface or in underground coal gasification (UCG). UCG has several advantages over surface gasification and conventional mining such as rank low calorific value coals. Coal gasification also has the potential to contribute to the energy supply of a country. Most Turkish coals are lignite and UCG may enable diversification of energy sources of Turkey and may help decrease external dependency on energy. This paper presented a study that matched a UCG technique to the most appropriate (Afsin Elbistan) lignite reserve in Turkey. Two UCG techniques were presented, including the linked vertical well method, and the directional drilling-controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) method. The properties of coal seams and coal properties were also outlined. It was concluded that Cobanbey is the most preferable sector in the Elbistan Lignite Reserve for a pilot study, and that the linked vertical well method could be considered as a candidate method. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Synergetic use of lignite fly ash and metallurgical converter slag in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Mucsi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application and utilization of the industrial wastes and by-products in the construction industry is a key issue from an environmental and economic point of view. The increased use of lignite has substantially increased the available quantities of lignite fired power plant fly ash, which can be mainly classified as class C fly ash. The utilization of such raw material however has some difficulties. In the present paper lignite fired power station fly ash and metallurgical converter slag were used for the production of geopolymer concrete. The fly ash was used as a geopolymer based binder material, and a converter slag as aggregate, thus created a geopolymer concrete which contains mainly industrial wastes. As preliminary test experimental series were carried out using andesite as aggregate. The optimal aggregate/binder ratio was determined. The effect of the amount of alkaline activator solution in the binder, the aggregate type on the geopolymer concretes’ compressive strength and density was investigated. Furthermore, the physical properties - freeze-thaw resistance and particle size distribution - of the applied aggregates were measured as well. As a result of the experiments it was found that physical properties of the andesite and converter slag aggregate was close. Therefore andesite can be replaced by converter slag in the concrete mixture. Additionally, geopolymer concrete with nearly 20 MPa compressive strength was produced from class C fly ash and converter slag.

  6. Synthetic fuel production using Texas lignite and a very high temperature reactor for process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.A.; Klein, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Two approaches for synthetic fuel production from coal are studied using Texas lignite as the feedstock. First, the gasification and liquefaction of coal are accomplished using Lurgi gasifiers and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A 50 000 barrel/day facility, consuming 13.7 million tonne/yr (15.1 million ton/yr) of lignite, is considered. Second, a nuclear-assisted coal conversion approach is studied using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor with a modified Lurgi gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The nuclear-assisted approach resulted in a 35% reduction in coal consumption. In addition, process steam consumption was reduced by one-half and the oxygen plants were eliminated in the nuclear assisted process. Both approaches resulted in a synthetic oil price higher than the March 1980 imported price of $29.65 per barrel: $36.15 for the lignite-only process and $35.16 for the nuclear-assisted process. No tax advantage was assumed for either process and the utility financing method was used for both economic calculations

  7. NEW DATA ON THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE (GELASIAN LIGNITE BEDS OF CASTEL SAN PIETRO (RIETI, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PANDOLFI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiproxy study of the lignite-bearing lacustrine sequence cropping out at Castel San Pietro (CSP (Rieti, central Italy provides new insights on the paleoenvironmental evolution of an extensional basin, located on the Tyrrhenian side of the Apennine range. The CSP fossiliferous levels reflect deposition in a stable lacustrine environment. Mammal remains collected from this locality during the past centuries include Stephanorhinus etruscus, Anancus arvernensis and the beaver Castor fiber. The co-existence of the Etruscan rhinoceros and the mastodont suggests a middle Villafranchian age (Montopoli or Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit for the lignite beds of CSP. New paleoflora findings are in agreement with an attribution to the Piacenzian or Gelasian age for these deposits whilst the presence of the ostracod Qinghaicypris cf. Q. riojensis suggests a time interval from Zanclean to Gelasian (between ~4.5 and ~1.8 Ma. Accordingly, the lignite beds of CSP most likely were deposited during the Gelasian (from ca. 2.5 to 1.8 Ma; from Montopoli to Coste San Giacomo FUs or possibly to Olivola FU in forested area and warm and humid conditions.

  8. Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetakis, Michael; Roumpos, Christos; Alevizos, George; Vamvuka, Despina

    2011-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece. - Highlights: ► Quality and reserves uncertainty affects considerably the production scheduling. ► Stochastic optimization is greatly accelerated by incorporating Taylor's rule. ► Decisions can be made considering different risk level attitudes.

  9. Using cement, lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste for solidification of chromium electroplating treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantawin, C.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to use baghouse filter waste as a binder mixed with cement and lignite fly ash to solidify sludge from chromium electroplating wastewater treatment. To save cost of solidification, reducing cement in binder and increasing sludge in the cube were focused on. Minimum percent cement in binder of 20 for solidification of chromium sludge was found when controlling lignite fly ash to baghouse filter waste at the ratio of 30:70, sludge to binder ratio of 0.5, water to mixer ratio of 0.3 and curing time of 7 days. Increase of sludge to binder ratio from 0.5 to 0.75 and 1 resulted in increase in the minimum percent cement in binder up to 30 percent in both ratios. With the minimum percent cement in binder, the calculated cement to sludge ratios for samples with sludge to binder ratios of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 were 0.4, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. Leaching chromium and compressive strength of the samples with these ratios could achieve the solidified waste standard by the Ministry of Industry. For solidification of chromium sludge at sludge to binder ratio of 1, the lowest cost binder ratio of cement to lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste in this study was 30:21:49. The cost of binder in this ratio was 718 baht per ton dry sludge.

  10. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  11. Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptas, Asli; Yildirim, Yeliz; Duman, Gozde; Yanik, Jale

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass (lignocellulosic and animal wastes) and their blends with lignite was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric method under air atmosphere. For comparison, combustion characteristics of raw biomasses were also determined. Torrefaction process improved the reactivity of char combustion step of biomasses. Characteristic combustion parameters for blends showed non-additivity behavior. It was found that the mixture of torrefied biomasses and lignite at a ratio of 1:1 had a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Although no interactions were observed between the lignite and torrefied biomass at initial step of combustion, a certain degree of interaction between the components occurred at char combustion step. Kinetic parameters of combustion were calculated by using the Coats Redfern model. Overall, this study showed that poultry litters can be used as a substitute fuel in coal/biomass co-firing systems by blending with lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reprint of: Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetakis, Michael; Roumpos, Christos; Alevizos, George; Vamvuka, Despina

    2012-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece. - Highlights: ► Quality and reserves uncertainty affects considerably the production scheduling. ► Stochastic optimization is greatly accelerated by incorporating Taylor's rule. ► Decisions can be made considering different risk level attitudes.

  13. Turtles From an Arkadelphia Formation—Midway Group Lag Deposit (Maastrichtian—Paleocene, Hot Spring County, Arkansas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Becker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arkadelphia Formation—Midway Group (Maastrichtian—Paleocene contact near Malvern, Arkansas preserves a K-Pg boundary assemblage of turtle species consisting of skull, shell, and non-shell postcranial skeletal elements. The Malvern turtles are preserved within a coquina lag deposit that comprises the basalmost Midway Group and also contains an abundance of other reptiles, as well as chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and invertebrates. This coquina lag deposit records a complex taphonomic history of exhumation and reburial of vertebrate skeletal elements along a dynamic ancestral shoreline in southwestern Arkansas during the late Cretaceous-early Paleocene. Based on stratigraphic occurrence, the Malvern turtle assemblage indicates that these marine reptiles were living at or near the time of the K-Pg mass extinction and represent some of the latest Cretaceous turtles yet recovered from the Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States.

  14. A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world's oldest penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Paul Scofield, R

    2017-04-01

    We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world's oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.

  15. A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world's oldest penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Paul Scofield, R.

    2017-04-01

    We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world's oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.

  16. Direct U-Pb dating of Cretaceous and Paleocene dinosaur bones, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: COMMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alan E.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Heckert, Andrew B.; Sullivan, Robert M.; Jasinski, Steven E.; Fowler, Denver W.

    2012-01-01

    Based on U-Pb dating of two dinosaur bones from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico (United States), Fassett et al. (2011) claim to provide the first successful direct dating of fossil bones and to establish the presence of Paleocene dinosaurs. Fassett et al. ignore previously published work that directly questions their stratigraphic interpretations (Lucas et al., 2009), and fail to provide sufficient descriptions of instrumental, geochronological, and statistical treatments of the data to allow evaluation of the potentially complex diagenetic and recrystallization history of bone. These shortcomings lead us to question the validity of the U-Pb dates published by Fassett et al. and their conclusions regarding the existence of Paleocene dinosaurs.

  17. The latest Paleocene benthic extinction event: Punctuated turnover in outer neritic benthic foraminiferal faunas from Gebel Aweina, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Speijer, Robert; Schmitz, B; Aubry, MP; Charisi, SD

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the benthic foraminiferal record of the neritic sequence at Gebel Aweina (Nile Valley, Egypt) in relation to the latest Paleocene deep-sea benthic extinction event (BEE). At Gebel Aweina an expanded sequence, spanning calcareous nannofossil Zones NP8-NPlO, is continuously exposed and yields calcareous microfauna throughout. The BEE level is situated about halfway through Zone NP9 at 17m above the base of the Esna Formation. Detailed biostratigraphic and isotopic studies have i...

  18. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  19. Perspectives of the non-energetic use of lignite in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.; Sailer, B. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    RWE Power AG as integral part of RWE Generation SE has been active in the development and commercialization of coal gasification routes for many years. RWE Generation SE is one of Europe's leading electricity producers and combines the expertise of the power plant specialists Essent (NL), RWE npower (UK) and RWE Power (D). A globally increasing freight traffic and accompanying fuel demand is anticipated in the future. This higher demand will probably result in an increase in crude oil price in the course of the next years. There will also be a disproportionately high increase in fuel prices additionally to the increase in the crude oil price due to an increasing treatment effort within refineries. Therefore the substitution of crude oil becomes more and more attractive in view of economical perspectives and security of supply. Crude oil is not only to be substituted as feedstock for fuels but also for the chemical industry. Coal has been and will be the most important feedstock for this. Especially its gasification enables various routes. In Germany there is also an interesting perspective for Coal-to-Liquids and Coal-to-Gas or CtL/CtG as the non-energetic use of coal is abbreviated. Lignite is available regardless of any market impacts and currently faces a change in its use for power generation due to the increasing use of renewable energies. Hence lignite is an attractive feedstock for CtL/CtG in Germany. The construction of a commercial size CtL/CtG plant means a billion Euro investment. So a reliable economic evaluation is inevitable. Today all CtL/CtG routes miss commercial competitiveness to the conventional production by some ten percents. In case the current upward price trend of crude oil continues CtL/CtG might become viable in the near future. The production of synthetic fuels appears most attractive in view of a substantial market potential. The further commercialization of gasification routes in Germany requires R and D activities especially

  20. Characteristics of microfossils assemblages of core SB-01 from Sanshui basin and discussion of paleocene-eocene boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Xie Yecai; Wang Zhengqing; Ma Chuang

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of microfossils assemblages of core SB-01 from Sanshui Basin have been analysised in this paper. Based on micropaleontological study and data from carbon and oxygen isotopes of bulk carbonates, which depth of Paleocene-Eocene boundary from the core was discussed. Ostracode assemblages include the Sinocypris nitela-Cyprois buxinensis-Limnocythere honggangensis assemblage(89.0-73.38 m) with few species and low abundance and the Sinocypris nitela-Cyprois buxinensis-Limnocythere honggangensis assemblage (73.38-0 m) with few species and low abundance during early and middle the core deposition and relatively many species and abundance increasing quickly of the late time of the core deposition; Charophyte assemblages contain the Peckichara subspherica-Rhabdochara jiangduensis assemblage (89.0-73.38 m) with rich species, high abundance and large sizes of fossils and the Gyrogona qianjiangica-Obtusochara brevicylindrica assemblage (73.38-53.75 m) with few species,low abundance and small sizes of fossils. At 73.38 m core depth, the great changes of microfossils assemblages and carbon isotopes values (decrease by more than 3.0 per thousand) and oxygen isotopes values of bulk carbonates take place, which consist with the geological records of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Hence, Paleocene-Eocene boundary of SanShui Basin should be roughly placed at 73.38 m core depth. (authors)

  1. Revised magnetic polarity time scale for the Paleocene and early Eocene and implications for Pacific plate motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.F.; Coney, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetostratiographic studies of a continental sedimentary sequence in the Clark's Fork Basin, Wyoming and a marine sedimentary sequence at Gubbio, Italy indicate that the Paleocene--Eocene boundary occurs just stratigraphically above normal polarity zones correlative with magnetic anomaly 25 chron. These data indicate that the older boundary of anomaly 24 chron is 52.5 Ma. This age is younger than the late Paleocene age assigned by LaBrecque et al. [1977] and also younger than the basal Eocene age assigned by Ness et al. [1980]. A revised magnetic polarity time scale for the Paleocene and early Eocene is presented in this paper. Several changes in the relative motion system between the Pacific plate and neighboring plates occurred in the interval between anomaly 24 and anomaly 21. A major change in absolute motion of the Pacific plate is indicated by the bend in the Hawaiian--Emperor Seamount chain at approx.43 Ma. The revised magnetic polarity time scale indicates that the absolute motion change lags the relative motion changes by only approx.3--5 m.y. rather than by >10 m.y. as indicated by previous polarity time scales

  2. Two Mechanisms for Methane Release at the Paleocene/Eocene Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M. E.; Cramer, B. S.; Mountain, G. S.; Mountain, G. S.; Katz, S.; Miller, K. G.; Miller, K. G.

    2001-12-01

    The rapid global warming of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a massive methane release from marine gas hydrate reservoirs. Two mechanisms have been proposed for this methane release. The first relies on a deepwater circulation change and water temperature increase that was sufficiently large and rapid to trigger massive thermal dissociation of gas hydrate frozen beneath the seafloor (Dickens et al., 1995). The second relies on slope failure (via erosion or seismic activity) of the oversteepened continental margins of the western North Atlantic to allow methane to escape from gas reservoirs trapped between the hydrate-bearing sediments and the underlying reef front (Katz et al., in press). We evaluate thermal dissociation by modeling heat flow through the sediments to show the effect of the temperature change on the gas hydrate stability zone through time. We use Paleocene bottom water temperatures (constrained by isotope records) and assume an instantaneous water temperature increase (i.e., no time allotted for ocean circulation change and water mass mixing). This yields an end-member minimum estimate of >2350 years necessary to melt all gas hydrate at locations shallower than 1570m; gas hydrates at greater depths remain frozen. We also use this model to predict the amount of C12-enriched methane that could have contributed to the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Using reasonable methane distributions within sediments, we conclude that thermal dissociation alone cannot account for the full magnitude of the CIE. We propose that thermal dissociation did not initiate the CIE; rather, a different mechanism injected a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere, causing global greenhouse warming that could have led to subsequent thermal dissociation. Methane remains a plausible source for this initial carbon injection; however, initial release would have resulted from mechanical disruption of sediments rather than thermal dissociation

  3. Palaeontology of the upper Turonian paralic deposits of the Sainte-Mondane Formation, Aquitaine Basin, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neraudenau, D.; Saint Martin, S.; Battern, D.J.; Colin, J.P.; Daviero-Gomez, V.; Girard, V.; Gomez, B.; Nohra, Y.A.; Polette, F.; Platel, J.P.; Saint Martin, J.P.; Vullo, R.

    2016-07-01

    The upper Turonian lignite deposits of Sainte-Mondane, Dordogne (Aquitaine Basin, SW France), consist of clays bearing translucent, orange to red, amber micrograins. The amber exhibits different types of microbial inclusions. The clays contain several conifers including the genera Brachyphyllum, Frenelopsis and Glenrosa, and a few leaf fragments of eudicot angiosperms. Among the plant meso-fossils the occurrence of Costatheca, Spermatites and abundant, diverse, megaspores, including species of Ariadnaesporites, Bacutriletes, Echitriletes, Erlansonisporites, Maexisporites, Minerisporites and Verrutriletes, is noteworthy. Pollen grains of the Normapolles group are important components of the palynomorph assemblage. The clays were deposited in a calm, estuarine or lagoonal, muddy environment. The overlying lignitic sands contain large fossil wood pieces of the conifer Agathoxylon, small solitary corals, fragmentary oysters and pectinids, echinoid spines, a few teeth of marine selachians and bony fishes, but no amber is present. These sands were deposited in a high-energy coastal marine environment. (Author)

  4. Reactivity of chars prepared from the pyrolysis of a Victorian lignite under a wide range of conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Mody, D.; Li, C.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A Loy Yang lignite sample was pyrolysed under a wide range of experimental conditions using a wire-mesh reactor, a fluidised-bed reactor, a drop-tube reformer and a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivity of these char samples in CO{sub 2} and air was measured in the TGA as well as in the fluidised-bed reactor. A sample prepared by the physical impregnation of NaCl into the lignite was also used in order to investigate the effect of NaCl in the lignite on the reactivity of the resulting char. Our experimental results indicate that, due to the volatilisation of a substantial fraction of Na in the lignite substrate during pyrolysis, the true catalytic activity of the Na in the lignite substrate should be evaluated by measuring the sodium content in the char after pyrolysis. The char reactivity measured in situ in the fluidised-bed reactor was compared with that of the same char measured separately in the TGA after re-heating the char sample to the same temperature as that in the fluidised-bed. It was found that the re-heating of the char in the TGA reduced the char reactivity.

  5. Productivity feedback did not terminate the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Torfstein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM occurred approximately 55 million years ago, and is one of the most dramatic abrupt global warming events in the geological record. This warming was triggered by the sudden release of thousands of gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere and is widely perceived to be the best analogue for current anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the mechanism of recovery from this event remains controversial. A massive increase in the intensity of the marine biological pump ("productivity feedback" has been suggested to cause a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent carbon sequestration in the ocean. A re-evaluation of the "productivity feedback hypothesis", based on biogenic barium mass accumulation rates (Ba-MARs for a site in the Southern Ocean, finds that any increase in export production lagged the initial carbon release by at least ~70 000 years. This implies that export production did not facilitate rapid removal of excess carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, the most likely mechanism for carbon removal appears to be silicate weathering, which occurred at much slower rates than previously assumed.

  6. Taxonomic revision of the fossil pulmonate mollusks of Itaboraí Basin (Paleocene, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Brincalepe Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limestones of Itaboraí Basin (Middle Paleocene, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, harbor a rich fossil molluscan fauna consisting exclusively of pulmonate snails, both terrestrial and freshwater. An extensive taxonomic revision of this paleofauna is conducted here. A new genus, Cortana, is described as well as two new species, Eoborus fusiforme and Gastrocopta itaboraiensis. The revised classification is as follows: Austrodiscus lopesi (Charopidae; Biomphalaria itaboraiensis (Planorbidae; "Brachypodella" britoi (Urocoptidae; Brasilennea arethusae, Brasilennea guttula, Brasilennea minor (Cerionidae; Bulimulus fazendicus, Bulimulus trindadeae, Cortana carvalhoi, Cyclodontina coelhoi, Itaborahia lamegoi, Leiostracus ferreirai, Plagiodontes aff. dentatus (Orthalicidae; Cecilioides sommeri (Ferussaciidae; Eoborus rotundus, Eoborus sanctijosephi, Eoborus fusiforme (Strophocheilidae; Gastrocopta mezzalirai, Gastrocopta itaboraiensis (Gastrocoptidae; Temesa magalhaesi (Clausiliidae. The species Strobilopsis mauryae was considered a synonym of Brasilennea arethusae; Bulimulus sommeri a synonym of Itaborahia lamegoi; and Vorticifex fluminensis a synonym of Eoborus sanctijosephi. Itaboraí Basin has the most ancient records of the families Orthalicidae, Gastrocoptidae, Ferussaciidae and Strophocheilidae. Moreover, the basin's records of Charopidae, Clausiliidae, Cerionidae, and Urocoptidae are among the most ancient in the world and, among these, those of Cerionidae, Clausiliidae and Urocoptidae deserve special attention since they are greatly removed from these families' current distribution. Additionally, Itaboraí has the most ancient records for the genera Austrodiscus, Brachypodella, Bulimulus, Cecilioides, Cyclodontina, Eoborus, Gastrocopta, Leiostracus, Plagiodontes and Temesa. There are three endemic genera in the basin: Brasilennea, Cortana and Itaborahia. Further discussion on paleobiogeography and evolution of this paleofauna is also provided.

  7. Paleocene-Eocene Sediments Interbedded With Volcanics Within the Lycian Nappes: Faralya Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şenel

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The presumably allochthonous structural units in the Southwestern Turkey between the Menderes massif and Beydağları autochthon are known as the Lycian nappes. Some of these units particularly beneath the ophiolite nappe end up with the Faralya formation of Paleocene-Lutetian age. The striking feature of this formation which includes micrite, clayey micrite, claystone, sandstone and conglomerate, is the presence of basic volcanite interbeds of Eocene age, This volcanite bearing formation exhibits a strong similarity to those of the other formations in Southwestern Turkey most of which include similar basic volcanites. Eocene basic volcanites are also known in the Akseki autochthon to the south of Seydişehir (Geyikdağ unit in broad sense. Similar extensive lateral movements (Eocene mountain building processes developed over the Faralya formation are seen over the volcanite bearing formations to the south of Menderes massif as well as to the north of Isparta angle and the Akseki autochthon. These features indicate that the area between the Menderes massif and Akseki autochthon (Geyikdağ unit reflects common basinal characters in terms of depositional conditions, volcanism and the traces of Eocene mountain building process.

  8. Impact of dissolution on the sedimentary record of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Kelly, D. Clay; Gibbs, Samantha; Farley, Kenneth; Eccles, Laurie; Lindemann, T. Logan; Smith, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    The input of massive amounts of carbon to the atmosphere and ocean at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ˜55.53 Ma) resulted in pervasive carbonate dissolution at the seafloor. At many sites this dissolution also penetrated into the underlying sediment column. The magnitude of dissolution at and below the seafloor, a process known as chemical erosion, and its effect on the stratigraphy of the PETM, are notoriously difficult to constrain. Here, we illuminate the impact of dissolution by analyzing the complete spectrum of sedimentological grain sizes across the PETM at three deep-sea sites characterized by a range of bottom water dissolution intensity. We show that the grain size spectrum provides a measure of the sediment fraction lost during dissolution. We compare these data with dissolution and other proxy records, electron micrograph observations of samples and lithology. The complete data set indicates that the two sites with slower carbonate accumulation, and less active bioturbation, are characterized by significant chemical erosion. At the third site, higher carbonate accumulation rates, more active bioturbation, and possibly winnowing have limited the impacts of dissolution. However, grain size data suggest that bioturbation and winnowing were not sufficiently intense to diminish the fidelity of isotopic and microfossil assemblage records.

  9. Geochronological constraints on Cretaceous-Paleocene volcanism in South Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.J.; Cooper, A.F.; Palin, J.M.; Nathan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cretaceous and Paleocene sedimentation in South Westland, New Zealand, is recorded in the Otumotu Formation, Tauperikaka Coal Measures, Whakapohai Sandstone, Arnott Basalt, Buttress Conglomerate, and Tokakoriri Formation, originally named and mapped by Nathan in 1977. Within this stratigraphic sequence, the name Buttress Conglomerate was used to describe volcanic conglomerates at Porphyry and Buttress Points that contained rounded clasts of plagioclasephyric intermediate volcanic rocks. Stratigraphically, the volcanic conglomerate at Porphyry Point forms sharp contacts with the underlying Arnott Basalt (Haumurian) and overlying Tokakoriri Formation (Teurian). The volcanic conglomerate at Buttress Point, however, is entirely fault-bounded. Clasts from each unit were collected and U-Pb zircon dated using the TIMS and ELA-ICP-MS methods. A trachyandesite clast collected at Buttress Point gives an age of 96.9 ± 1.6 Ma, whereas a rhyolite clast collected at Porphyry Point gives an age of 61.4 ± 0.8 Ma. Petrological, geochemical, and stratigraphic data suggest that erosion of the clasts closely followed volcanism, and that these ages accurately reflect the depositional ages of the conglomerates. Conglomerates at Porphyry and Buttress Points have been formally renamed the Porphyry Point Member of the Tokakoriri Formation and the Buttress Point Conglomerate, respectively. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Petroleum systems of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, L.F.; Rangel, A. [Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo, Bucaramanga (Colombia). ECOPETROL

    2004-03-01

    In the Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, four petroleum systems were identified. Two petroleum systems are located in the Girardot sub-basin and the other two in the Neiva sub- basin. Limestones laterally changing to shales of the lower part of the Villeta Gp, deposited during Albian and Turonian marine flooding events, constitutes the main source rocks of the oil families. These rocks contain 1-4% TOC and type II kerogen. The littoral quartz arenites of the Caballos (Albian) and Monserrate (Maastrichtian) Fms. are the main reservoir rocks. Seal rocks are Cretaceous and Paleocene shales. Overburden includes the Cretaceous rocks and the Tertiary molasse deposited simultaneously with development of two opposite verging thrust systems during Cenozoic time. These deformation events were responsible for trap creation. Except for the Villarrica area, where the source rock reached maturity during the Paleocene, generation occurred during Miocene. Two oil families are identified, each in both sub-basins: One derived from a clay-rich source and the second from a carbonate-rich source rock lithofacies of the lower part of Villeta Gp. Geochemical source-rock to oil correlations are demonstrated for the three of the petroleum systems. Up-dip lateral migration distances are relatively short and faults served as vertical migration pathways. A huge amount of oil was probably degraded at surface, as a result of Miocene deformation and erosion. (author)

  11. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  12. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  13. Numerical analysis of single and multiple particles of Belchatow lignite dried in superheated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Marcin; Sciazko, Anna; Komatsu, Yosuke; Akiyama, Taro; Hashimoto, Akira; Kaneko, Shozo; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2018-03-01

    Low production costs have contributed to the important role of lignite in the energy mixes of numerous countries worldwide. High moisture content, though, diminishes the applicability of lignite in power generation. Superheated steam drying is a prospective method of raising the calorific value of this fuel. This study describes the numerical model of superheated steam drying of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland in two aspects: single and multi-particle. The experimental investigation preceded the numerical analysis and provided the necessary data for the preparation and verification of the model. Spheres of 2.5 to 30 mm in diameter were exposed to the drying medium at the temperature range of 110 to 170 °C. The drying kinetics were described in the form of moisture content, drying rate and temperature profile curves against time. Basic coal properties, such as density or specific heat, as well as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in the particular stages of the process laid the foundations for the model construction. The model illustrated the drying behavior of a single particle in the entire range of steam temperature as well as the sample diameter. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of coal batches containing particles of various sizes were conducted to reflect the operating conditions of the dryer. They were followed by deliberation on the calorific value improvement achieved by drying, in terms of coal ingredients, power plant efficiency and dryer input composition. The initial period of drying was found crucial for upgrading the quality of coal. The accuracy of the model is capable of further improvement regarding the process parameters.

  14. Device for determining element contents of lignite mass flows by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Maul, E.; Rose, W.; Wagner, D.

    1987-01-01

    A simple device is presented, apt for continuous operation, to determine the element contents of bulk goods of flowable materials with a suitable granularity, in particular of lignite mass flows to assess the coal quality. Several kilograms of samples can be reproducibly dosed and homogeneously activated by a device consisting of a shielding container with activation chamber and radiation source, a measuring unit with detectors, and a source container, and characterized by a blade wheel in the activation chamber which causes the dosing and homogeneous activation of the sample

  15. Modernisation of a lignite-fired steam generator. Reduction of NO{sub x} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegeskotte, Ralf; Thierbach, Hans-Ulrich; Zimmermann, Bernhard [Steinmueller Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Di Ferdinando, Quinto [ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 AD, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-11-01

    ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 is a lignite-fired power plant with an electrical total output of 4 x 227 MW. The four steam generators of Russian design have a steam capacity up to 730 t/h each and were commissioned between 1978 and 1981. According to EU requirements, the NO{sub x} emissions have to be reduced reliably by 2015. The consortium Steinmueller Engineering GmbH Gummersbach and Siemens EOOD, Sofia, successfully redesigned the furnace of boiler 4. (orig.)

  16. Adsorption study of mercury on lignite in the presence of different anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Robles

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of different anions such as chloride, nitrate, and sulphate on the mercury adsorption onto lignite, which was a model material for the humus-containing organics in soil, and can be considered as a natural sorbent in the remediation of contaminated sites. Since the complex formation can significantly influence the mercury sorption, besides chloride, the effects of other complex-forming agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and thiocyanate were also tested. Various batch type and dynamic experiments were performed and four sorption models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to evaluate the sorption data.

  17. REMOVAL OF Cr(VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ACTIVATED COAL FROM LIGNITE COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated coal produced from Ağaçlı Lignite coal was used to remove Cr(VI from aqueous solutions. The adsorption of Cr(VI was studied as a function of initial concentration, time, pH, adsorbent concentration and temperature. The adsorption data were found to fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Lagergren equation was used to calculate the adsorption rate. The amount of Cr(VI adsorbed was increased with decreasing pH and decreased with increasing temperature.

  18. Organic petrology, mineralogy and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, Maritza-West basin, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zdravkov, Alexander [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide additional information about the properties and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, which was deposited during the regressive stage of development of the Maritza-West basin. Petrographical and mineralogical data, along with ash yields and sulphur contents of 24 samples from a seam profile, have been used to study the vertical variation of the depositional settings during peat accumulation and subsequent coalification. The Kipra lignite is characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. It formed in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with alkaline pH value. Vegetation with low preservation potential dominated within the palaeomire. During peat formation, frequent changes of the water level controlled the depositional environment. During the deposition of units 1 and 2, high water energy caused the transportation of high amounts of inorganic material into the mire, resulting in the formation of weakly gelified mineral-rich lignite. The organic matter from units 3 and 4 is characterized by enhanced gelification, which probably reflects the decreasing energy of the system. Good positive correlation between sulphur contents and the GI values was established in units 4, indicating that the gelification of the tissues was probably mainly controlled by the bacterial activity. In contrast, the gelification of the samples from unit 3 of the Kipra seam was probably governed by the redox conditions. The organic matter deposited under relatively wet conditions, in which the thermal and oxidative destruction of the tissues, was limited. A variety of major, minor and accessory minerals are present in Maritza-West lignite. The mineral composition is dominated mainly by pyrite, gypsum and calcite, and to a lesser extent limonite, quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, chlorite and plagioclase. Jarosite, hematite, halloysite, mica, K-feldspar, aragonite, siderite, and dolomite were also determined in very low

  19. Process of transforming into light oils heavy oils from carbonization of lignites, coals, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1926-12-20

    A process is described for transforming into light oils the heavy oils coming from the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, and shales, and heavy oils from original minerals and vegetables, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid or liquid substances conveniently chosen, with a veiw to effect distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature, the solids or liquid substances favoring the formation of light products under the influence of heat, being preferably added to the oil before admitting it to the retort and heating, so that the light oils are obtained from the heavy oils in a single operation.

  20. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Comparison of physico-chemical properties of various lignites treated by mechanical thermal expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janine Hulston; Alan L. Chaffee; Christian Bergins; Karl Strauss [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). School of Chemistry and CRC for Clean Power from Lignite

    2005-12-01

    This study investigates how the Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE) process affects the physico-chemical properties of low rank lignites sourced from Australia, Greece, and Germany. The MTE process was effective in reducing the moisture content of all three coals and resulted in significant Na reductions in both the Australian and German coals. However, the organic composition of the coals investigated remained relatively unaffected. Upon oven drying, all wet MTE products underwent significant shrinkage, the degree of which was dependent upon the temperature and pressure used during the MTE process. Upon rehydration, the oven-dried MTE products underwent significant swelling, which is most likely related to the chemical composition of the coals.

  2. Investigations on high temperature coking of lignite with the help of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, H.G.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The time characteristics and the varying flow characteristics of fine-grained briquettes during the high temperature coking of lignite according to Rammler and Bilkenroth were studied with the help of radionuclide technique. The process parameters (tsub(V), zsub(R), etc.) refer to the different zones of the coke furnace (bunker/dryer, coker/cooler). The different time charakteristics of the coke-grain fractions formed during the BHT-process enables a correlation of the retention time and the quality factors of the coke. The results obtained would enable a better operation of the individual furnaces in the plant and offer the basis for further process developments. (orig.) [de

  3. Natural radioisotopes in lignite of the Ptolemais region (Greece) and in their ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simopoulos, S.E.; Angelopoulos, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of lignite, fly ash and bottom ash of a power plant, located in the Ptolemais region, were examined by gamma spectroscopy and their concentrations in Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 have been determined. These samples were prepared from samples taken daily for a period of one month. The brown coal samples are taken from the front of the brown coal field supplying one of the units. They show a flutuation of the concentrations of the same radionuclides in the brown coal seams and in the intermediate layers. Further samples taken from 3 small private mines of the Ptolemais region were also examined. (author)

  4. Hydrological and associated biogeochemical consequences of rapid global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Inglis, Gordon N.; Badger, Marcus P. S.; Naafs, B. David A.; Behrooz, Leila; Remmelzwaal, Serginio; Monteiro, Fanny M.; Rohrssen, Megan; Farnsworth, Alexander; Buss, Heather L.; Dickson, Alexander J.; Valdes, Paul J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-10-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) hyperthermal, 56 million years ago (Ma), is the most dramatic example of abrupt Cenozoic global warming. During the PETM surface temperatures increased between 5 and 9 °C and the onset likely took hydrological and associated biogeochemical feedbacks, and proxy data from the PETM can provide constraints on changes in warm climate hydrology simulated by general circulation models (GCMs). In this paper, we provide a critical review of biological and geochemical signatures interpreted as direct or indirect indicators of hydrological change at the PETM, explore the importance of adopting multi-proxy approaches, and present a preliminary model-data comparison. Hydrological records complement those of temperature and indicate that the climatic response at the PETM was complex, with significant regional and temporal variability. This is further illustrated by the biogeochemical consequences of inferred changes in hydrology and, in fact, changes in precipitation and the biogeochemical consequences are often conflated in geochemical signatures. There is also strong evidence in many regions for changes in the episodic and/or intra-annual distribution of precipitation that has not widely been considered when comparing proxy data to GCM output. Crucially, GCM simulations indicate that the response of the hydrological cycle to the PETM was heterogeneous - some regions are associated with increased precipitation - evaporation (P - E), whilst others are characterised by a decrease. Interestingly, the majority of proxy data come from the regions where GCMs predict an increase in PETM precipitation. We propose that comparison of hydrological proxies to GCM output can be an important test of model skill, but this will be enhanced by further data from regions of model-simulated aridity and simulation of extreme precipitation events.

  5. Warm Paleocene/Eocene climate as simulated in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heinemann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the late Paleocene/early Eocene (PE climate using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. The surface in our PE control simulation is on average 297 K warm and ice-free, despite a moderate atmospheric CO2 concentration of 560 ppm. Compared to a pre-industrial reference simulation (PR, low latitudes are 5 to 8 K warmer, while high latitudes are up to 40 K warmer. This high-latitude amplification is in line with proxy data, yet a comparison to sea surface temperature proxy data suggests that the Arctic surface temperatures are still too low in our PE simulation.

    To identify the mechanisms that cause the PE-PR surface temperature differences, we fit two simple energy balance models to the ECHAM5/MPI-OM results. We find that about 2/3 of the PE-PR global mean surface temperature difference are caused by a smaller clear sky emissivity due to higher atmospheric CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR; 1/3 is due to a smaller planetary albedo. The reduction of the pole-to-equator temperature gradient in PE compared to PR is due to (1 the large high-latitude effect of the higher CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR, (2 the lower Antarctic orography, (3 the smaller surface albedo at high latitudes, and (4 longwave cloud radiative effects. Our results support the hypothesis that local radiative effects rather than increased meridional heat transports were responsible for the "equable" PE climate.

  6. Evaluating the gas content of coals and isolated maceral concentrates from the Paleocene Guasare Coalfield, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbesi, L.A.; Marquez, G.; Martinez, M.; Requena, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results from evaluating the gases sorbed by coal samples extracted from the Paleocene Guasare Coalfield (Marcelina Formation, northwestern Venezuela), as well as by their distinct maceral concentrates. The aim of this work has been to obtain an initial experimental main value of the gas content per unit weight of high volatile bituminous A coal samples from the open-pit Paso Diablo mine. An additional goal was to study differences in the CH 4 storage ability of the distinct maceral groups forming part of the coal matrix. Both the coal samples and the maceral concentrates were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in order to determine the temperature to be used in subsequent experiments. On-line analyses of hydrocarbons (C 1 , C 2 , C 3 ) and CO 2 yielded gas concentrations, plus δ 13 C values. Thermogenic gas is prevalent in the Guasare coals with vitrinite reflectance (%R o ) values from 0.65% to 0.88%. The amount of gas retained in the coals and maceral concentrates was measured with a special device that allows determination of the volume of gas sorbed by a solid sample subjected to controlled thermal treatment. The average coalbed gas concentration obtained was 0.51 cm 3 /g. The following list of maceral concentrates shows the relative capacity for the volume of sorbed gas per unit weight: inertinite > low-density vitrinite > liptinite ∼ high-density vitrinite. It is concluded that the gas volumes retained in the distinct maceral concentrates are not controlled by porosity but rather by their microscopic morphology.

  7. Chemistry of the Marlboro Clay in Virginia and Implications for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M.; Cai, Y.; Corley, A.; Liang, J. A.; Powars, D.; Goldstein, S. L.; Kent, D. V.; Broecker, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a global hyperthermal ( 5ºC warming) event marked by a rapid carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of >1‰ in the marine carbonate record (e.g. Zeebe et al. Nature Geoscience 2009). Possible explanations for the CIE include intrusion of a sill complex into organic carbonate (Aarnes et al. J. Geol. Soc. 2015), dissolution of methane hydrates (Thomas et al. Geology 2002), and a comet impact event (Schaller et al. Science 2016). Here we present new data across the PETM from the VirginiaDEQ-USGS Surprise Hill (SH) core, Northumberland Co., VA. We analyzed the Marlboro Clay, a thick, kaolinite-rich clay unit that marks the initiation of the PETM in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America, as well as units above and below it. Bulk sediment records a δ13C excursion of approximately -5‰ across the CIE, while benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp.) record a synchronous excursion of approximately -4.5‰. These results are consistent with other records from the New Jersey Coastal Plain (Makarova et al. Paleoceanography 2017). The excursion coincides with an increase in magnetic susceptibility, a decrease in bulk CaCO3 content, and an 2.5‰ decrease of δ18O in both the bulk sediment and benthic foraminifera of the SH core. Pb isotope analyses of the fraction sediments indicate a unique provenance make-up for the Marlboro Clay. The results of the study thus indicate that PETM Marlboro Clay was not generated simply by intensified weathering of the same source area as the underlying Aquia Formation and overlying Nanjemoy Formation. Any hypothesis that aims to explain the mechanism that triggered the PETM must also account for the observed distinct provenance make-up of the Marlboro Clay.

  8. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.

    2010-01-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  9. Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

    Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  11. Lignite and hard coal: Energy suppliers for world needs until the year 2100 - An outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielemann, Thomas; Schmidt, Sandro; Peter Gerling, J.

    2007-01-01

    For three years, international hard coal prices have been at rather expensive levels. Some argue that these higher prices might indicate the threat of a physical scarcity of fossil fuels - similar to the situation with oil and gas. This is not true. The supply situations with lignite and hard coal appear to be largely not critical. Adjusted to the rise in global coal consumption, which is expected until 2100, nature by and large can meet the world's coal demand. This is shown for lignite in this article and it is illustrated for hard coal here, differentiated in space and time for a world divided into eight regions and viewed for the years 2005, 2020, 2030, 2050, and 2100. The only area of potential concern is Asia (especially China). But today's and coming eager efforts in China to convert coal resources into reserves will most likely deliver the coal needed for the Chinese market. Up to the year 2100, and from a geoscientific point of view, there will be no bottleneck in coal supplies on this planet. (author)

  12. Valorization of lignite combustion residues and ferroalumina in the production of aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, I M; Stivanakis, V E; Angelopoulos, G N; Papamantellos, D C

    2010-02-15

    The present research study investigates the synergy of industrial solid by-products from lignite combustion (fly ash and bottom ash) and aluminum production (ferroalumina) in the production of lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering. Bottom ash (BA) is used as the principal raw material in mixtures while ferroalumina (FAL) is added in lower percentages (5-30 wt%). BA carbon content is used as the fuel of sintering process in high temperatures, around 1250 degrees C, and gas generation is responsible for porous structure formation. Physical properties such as porosity, water absorption and bulk density, of sintering products are measured. Increase of FAL percentage in sintering mixtures results in decrease of porosity from 61% to 35% and of water absorption from 61% to 21% and in increase of bulk density from 1.02 g/cm(3) to 1.80 g/cm(3) of the produced aggregates. Aggregates produced by FAL addition up to 20 wt% are characterized as LWA. Aggregates formed are used in the production of concrete specimens. Compressive strength of concrete increases by increasing FAL addition in aggregates from 5 wt% to 15 wt% (highest strength value), while decrease by increasing FAL addition from 20 wt% to 30 wt%. FAL addition in lignite ashes sintering mixtures (up to 15 wt%) is considered as an important parameter for enhancing aggregates strength.

  13. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  14. Structural degradation of Thar lignite using MW1 fungal isolate: optimization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; SanFilipo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological degradation of low-rank coals, particularly degradation mediated by fungi, can play an important role in helping us to utilize neglected lignite resources for both fuel and non-fuel applications. Fungal degradation of low-rank coals has already been investigated for the extraction of soil-conditioning agents and the substrates, which could be subjected to subsequent processing for the generation of alternative fuel options, like methane. However, to achieve an efficient degradation process, the fungal isolates must originate from an appropriate coal environment and the degradation process must be optimized. With this in mind, a representative sample from the Thar coalfield (the largest lignite resource of Pakistan) was treated with a fungal strain, MW1, which was previously isolated from a drilled core coal sample. The treatment caused the liberation of organic fractions from the structural matrix of coal. Fungal degradation was optimized, and it showed significant release of organics, with 0.1% glucose concentration and 1% coal loading ratio after an incubation time of 7 days. Analytical investigations revealed the release of complex organic moieties, pertaining to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and it also helped in predicting structural units present within structure of coal. Such isolates, with enhanced degradation capabilities, can definitely help in exploiting the chemical-feedstock-status of coal.

  15. The effect of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners: a diachronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichletidis, L; Tsiotsios, I; Chloros, D; Daskalopoulou, E; Ziomas, I; Michailidis, K; Kottakis, I; Konstantinidis, T H; Palladas, P

    2004-01-01

    It is not known whether working in surface lignite mines can cause x-ray lesions or disorders of respiratory function. The aim of the study was to investigate the diachronic impact of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners at mines in Eordea, Greece. Cases of 199 workers (Group A) residing permanently in the Eordea valley and 151 (Group B) living outside the Eordea valley were studied during Phase I and then re-examined after three years (Phase II). These cases were compared to those of 71 office workers living in Eordea valley (Group C) and to 96 living in Grevena, a region without pollution (Group D). The study included the completion of the MRC questionnaire for the detection of respiratory diseases, pulmonary function tests, measurement of diffusion capacity, otorhinolaryngologic examination, rhinomanonetry as well as chest and paranasal cavity X-rays. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 26.8%, 24.8%, 17.9% and 10.6% respectively of the subjects of groups A, B, C and D according to the answers of the questionnaire (pmines under conditions of excessive pollution by airborne contaminants have a high prevalence of atrophic rhinitis and, in addition to other standard examinations, should undergo rhinomanometry testing and X-ray imaging of the paranasal cavities.

  16. Land movement monitoring at the Mavropigi lignite mine using spaceborne D-InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Eirini; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Mertikas, Stelios; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Schilizzi, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the capability of remote sensing radar interferometry to monitor land movements, as it varies with time, in areas close to open pit lignite mines. The study area is the "Mavropigi" lignite mine in Ptolemais, Northern Greece; whose continuous operation is of vital importance to the electric power supply of Greece. The mine is presently 100-120m deep while horizontal and vertical movements have been measured in the vicinity of the pit. Within the mine, ground geodetic monitoring has revealed an average rate of movement amounting to 10-20mm/day at the southeast slopes. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using 19 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of ALOS satellite, has been applied to monitor progression of land movement caused my mining within the greater area of "Mavropigi" region. The results of this work show that DInSAR can be used effectively to capture ground movement information, well before signs of movements can be observed visually in the form of imminent fissures and tension cracks. The advantage of remote sensing interferometry is that it can be applied even in inaccessible areas where monitoring with ground equipment is either impossible or of high-cost (large areas).

  17. Co-liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 2 - Effect of Biomass Type, Waste to Lignite Ratio and Solid to Liquid Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hüseyin; Koyunoglu, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    Most coal hydrogenation processes require a large quantity of hydrogen. In general, a coal derived liquid such as anthracene oil was used as a hydrogen donor solvent. Tetralin, partially hydrogenated pyrene, phenantrene and coal-derived solvents, which contain hydroaromatic compounds, are efficient solvents to donate hydrogen. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. This must be hydrogenated during or before the process and recycled. To reduce the cost of hydrogen donor vehicles instead of liquids recycled from the liquefaction process or several biomass types, industrial by products, liquid fractions derived from oil sands bitumen were successfully used to solubilize a coal from the past. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. However, when hydrogen is supplied from the hydroaromatic structures present in the solvent, the activity of coal minerals is too low to rehydrogenate the solvent in-situ. Nevertheless, a decrease of using oxygen, in addition to enhanced usage of the hydrogen supply by using various waste materials might lead to a decrease of the cost of the liquefaction procedure. So instead of using tetralin another feeding material such as biomass is becoming another solution improving hydrogen donor substances. Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions, early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Alternatively, to understand the hydrogen transfer from biomass to coal, in this study, Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure, tea

  18. Use of lignite in the production of sponge iron and processing of waste oxides in rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichberger, H; Schnabel, W; Serbent, H

    1978-11-01

    Based on a study of the situation of fossil energy reserves, processes are described in which non-coking coals, in particular lignite, are used for reduction in the rotary kiln, i.e. for sponge iron production and for zinc volatilization from waste oxides).

  19. Low temperature coal depolymerization-liquefaction: conversion of a North Dakota lignite to a light hydrocarbon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Yuan Zhang (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Fuels Engineering)

    1989-10-01

    A new low temperature method of coal liquefaction is described which includes intercalation of the coal with FeCl{sub 3}, depolymerization under supercritical conditions, and hydroprocessing of the depolymerized product. Results indicate a high yield conversion of lignites to light hydrocarbon oils. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Co-processing of lignite-plastic mixtures into liquid distillate fractions in the presence of iron catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Doroginskaya, A.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials Sibirian Branch

    1997-12-31

    Some features of co-processing of Kansk-Achinsk lignite with plastics into hydrocarbon mixtures in the presence of activated iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, pyrrhotite) were investigated under various operating parameters. The following catalytic processes were studied: pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, hydropyrolysis and water-steam cracking. (orig.)

  1. Research of lignite oxidation kinetic parameters modified by CuSO4 and NaNO3 initiation additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larionov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study and subsequent analytical assessment of activation energy change in lignite oxidation process with addition of NaNO3 and CuSO4 mineral salts were conducted. The results showed that injection of catalytic additives leads to reduction of coal activation energy and reaction initial temperature.

  2. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  3. Combustion characteristics and air pollutant formation during oxy-fuel co-combustion of microalgae and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Dou, Jinxiao; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels is seen as one of the key technologies for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The combustion characteristics of lignite coal, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae, and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 conditions were studied using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). During co-combustion of blends, three distinct peaks were observed and were attributed to C. vulgaris volatiles combustion, combustion of lignite, and combustion of microalgae char. Activation energy during combustion was calculated using iso-conventional method. Increasing the microalgae content in the blend resulted in an increase in activation energy for the blends combustion. The emissions of S- and N-species during blend fuel combustion were also investigated. The addition of microalgae to lignite during air combustion resulted in lower CO2, CO, and NO2 yields but enhanced NO, COS, and SO2 formation. During oxy-fuel co-combustion, the addition of microalgae to lignite enhanced the formation of gaseous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen-rich gas as a product of two-stage co-gasification of lignite/waste mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Bičáková, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 21 (2014), s. 10987-10995 ISSN 0360-3199 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : co-gasification * waste plastics * lignite * hydrogen-rich gas Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2014 http://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0360319914014025

  5. New geochronologic and stratigraphic evidence confirms the paleocene age of the dinosaur-bearing ojo alamo sandstone and animas formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Dinosaur fossils are present in the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and Animas Formation in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and Colorado. Evidence for the Paleo-cene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone includes palynologic and paleomagnetic data. Palynologic data indicate that the entire Ojo Alamo Sandstone, including the lower dinosaur-bearing part, is Paleocene in age. All of the palynomorph-productive rock samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at multiple localities lacked Creta-ceous index palynomorphs (except for rare, reworked specimens) and produced Paleocene index palynomorphs. Paleocene palynomorphs have been identified strati-graphically below dinosaur fossils at two separate localities in the Ojo Alamo Sand-stone in the central and southern parts of the basin. The Animas Formation in the Colorado part of the basin also contains dinosaur fossils, and its Paleocene age has been established based on fossil leaves and palynology. Magnetostratigraphy provides independent evidence for the Paleocene age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone and its dinosaur-bearing beds. Normal-polarity magnetochron C29n (early Paleocene) has been identified in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone at six localities in the southern part of the San Juan Basin. An assemblage of 34 skeletal elements from a single hadrosaur, found in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone in the southern San Juan Basin, provided conclusive evidence that this assemblage could not have been reworked from underlying Cretaceous strata. In addition, geochemical studies of 15 vertebrate bones from the Paleocene Ojo Alamo Sandstone and 15 bone samples from the underlying Kirtland Formation of Late Creta-ceous (Campanian) age show that each sample suite contained distinctly different abundances of uranium and rare-earth elements, indicating that the bones were miner-alized in place soon after burial, and that none of the Paleocene dinosaur bones ana-lyzed had been reworked. ?? U.S. Geological Survey, Public Domain April 2009.

  6. Petrology, palynology and organic geochemistry of Eocene lignite of Matanomadh, Kutch Basin, western India: Implications to depositional environment and hydrocarbon source potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mathews, Runcie P.; Saraswati, Pratul K.; Banerjee, Santanu [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Singh, Bhagwan D.; Tripathi, Suryakant M.; Singh, Alpana [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere

    2011-01-01

    Petrological, palynological and organic-geochemical investigations were undertaken to determine the source vegetation, depositional conditions and hydrocarbon source potential of Eocene Matanomadh lignites from Kutch Basin, western India. The maceral study reveals that studied lignites are rich in huminite (av. 63%) with sub-ordinate amount of liptinite (av. 19%) and low inertinite (av. 3%), along with low to moderately high associated mineral matters (av. 15%). The overall petrographic composition points to a lagoonal condition for the formation of these lignites. The mean huminite reflectance values (R{sub r}: 0.28-0.34%, av. 0.31%) as well as low Rock-Eval T{sub max} (av. 417 C) values for the seams, suggest brown coal or lignitic stage/rank for the studied lignites. The palynological assemblages, dominated by tropical angiospermic pollen, suggest prevalence of warm humid tropical climate during the deposition of these lignites. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of lignites ranges between 26 and 58 wt.%, whereas the TOC content of the associated carbonaceous shales is around 4 wt.%. The Hydrogen Index (HI) ranging from 23 to 452 mg HC/g TOC indicates that the lignite sequence has the potential to produce mixed oil and gaseous hydrocarbons on maturation. The major pyrolysis products of lignites, derived from Curie point pyrolysis-GC-MS, are straight chain aliphatics, phenols and cadalene-based C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids. The exclusive occurrence of C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids suggests that these compounds are derived from dammar resin of angiosperm plants, belonging to family Dipterocarpaceae. (author)

  7. LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

    2004-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young

  8. Perspectives on the German lignite industry in 2012. Stability through diversity; Perspektiven der deutschen Braunkohlenindustrie 2012. Stabilitaet durch Vielfalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertz, Johannes F. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); Milojcic, George [Bundesverband Braunkohle (DEBRIV), Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The formula - stability through diversity - stands for a promising approach to energy policy. Germany will be phasing out nuclear energy by 2022 and giving a big push to renewables as a substitute. That changes the electricity mix. In this setting, lignite becomes more valuable as base load energy. Any look at the history of technology shows that, in the competition to find good solutions, experience proves that diversity is generated, and that means stability. In the energy sector, no one solution will determine the future, but many different technologies will co-exist in a pattern that is increasingly networked and integrated. The background here is a combination of nature circumstances, the wishes of consumers and, of course, the technical potential and availability of raw materials. There is no sign that coal, which is so abundantly available and competitive worldwide, will be excluded from the energy mix any time soon. The figures prove the contrary. The dynamism of world coal consumption speaks an unequivocal language. Germany, with its lignite, has a valuable natural resource which will be available for a long time to come. Germany's energy-policy aim should be to make use of the strengths of domestic lignite, strengths like security of supply and affordability, while working on minimising CO{sub 2} emissions, in particular through increases in efficiency and, in the long run, through CCS. Indispensable for this are the underlying production conditions. At the start, I had a word of thanks for our many partners for their good cooperation. We go on relying on your support. Specifically, we hope that the lignite industry, like other sectors will go on being appreciated for the benefits that it brings, and that no additional burdens are envisaged that might impair its competitiveness. It is our task in the lignite industry to further develop the potential of lignite with our wealth of ideas and fact-driven work. The good of today thus make a better

  9. The Mineral Character and Geomechanical Properties of the Transitional Rocks from the Mesozoic-Neogene Contact Zone in the Bełchatów Lignite Deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Pękala

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Beginning more than 30 years ago, opencast lignite mining in the "Bełchatów" area is an important source of accompanying minerals. Lignite mining in the "Bełchatów" mine yields, on average, more than 35 million tonnes per annum and requires removing more than 110 million cubic meters of overburden. Therefore the mine outside of the main mineral exploitation of lignite, leads to a large-scale economy of accompanying minerals. Part of the minerals are present in the overburden and are ...

  10. Early Paleocene landbird supports rapid phylogenetic and morphological diversification of crown birds after the K-Pg mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T.; Stidham, Thomas A.; Williamson, Thomas E.

    2017-07-01

    Evidence is accumulating for a rapid diversification of birds following the K-Pg extinction. Recent molecular divergence dating studies suggest that birds radiated explosively during the first few million years of the Paleocene; however, fossils from this interval remain poorly represented, hindering our understanding of morphological and ecological specialization in early neoavian birds. Here we report a small fossil bird from the Nacimiento Formation of New Mexico, constrained to 62.221-62.517 Ma. This partial skeleton represents the oldest arboreal crown group bird known. Phylogenetic analyses recovered Tsidiiyazhi abini gen. et sp. nov. as a member of the Sandcoleidae, an extinct basal clade of stem mousebirds (Coliiformes). The discovery of Tsidiiyazhi pushes the minimum divergence ages of as many as nine additional major neoavian lineages into the earliest Paleocene, compressing the duration of the proposed explosive post-K-Pg radiation of modern birds into a very narrow temporal window parallel to that suggested for placental mammals. Simultaneously, Tsidiiyazhi provides evidence for the rapid morphological (and likely ecological) diversification of crown birds. Features of the foot indicate semizygodactyly (the ability to facultatively reverse the fourth pedal digit), and the arcuate arrangement of the pedal trochleae bears a striking resemblance to the conformation in owls (Strigiformes). Inclusion of fossil taxa and branch length estimates impacts ancestral state reconstructions, revealing support for the independent evolution of semizygodactyly in Coliiformes, Leptosomiformes, and Strigiformes, none of which is closely related to extant clades exhibiting full zygodactyly.

  11. Pronounced peramorphosis in lissamphibians--Aviturus exsecratus (Urodela, Cryptobranchidae from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum of Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davit Vasilyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oldest and largest member of giant salamanders (Cryptobranchidae Aviturus exsecratus appears in the latest Paleocene (near the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum of Mongolia. Based on femoral and vertebral morphology and metrics, a terrestrial adaptation has been supposed for this species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A detailed morphological reinvestigation of published as well as unpublished material reveals that this salamander shows a vomerine dentition that is posteriorly shifted and arranged in a zigzag pattern, a strongly developed olfactory region within the cranial cavity, and the highest bone ossification and relatively longest femur among all fossil and recent cryptobranchids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of these characteristics indicates a peramorphic developmental pattern for Aviturus exsecratus. Our results from Av. exsecratus indicate for the first time pronounced peramorphosis within a crown-group lissamphibian. Av. exsecratus represents a new developmental trajectory within both fossil and recent lissamphibian clades characterized by extended ontogeny and large body size, resembling the pattern known from late Paleozoic eryopines. Moreover, Av. exsecratus is not only a cryptobranchid with distinctive peramorphic characters, but also the first giant salamander with partially terrestrial (amphibious lifestyle. The morphology of the vomers and dentaries suggests the ability of both underwater and terrestrial feeding.

  12. Quantified abundance of magnetofossils at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary from synchrotron-based transmission X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huapei; Wang, Jun; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Kent, Dennis V

    2015-10-13

    The Paleocene-Eocene boundary (∼55.8 million years ago) is marked by an abrupt negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that coincides with an oxygen isotope decrease interpreted as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) in the form of giant (micron-sized) spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetofossils, as well as nano-sized magnetotactic bacteria magnetosome chains, have been reported in clay-rich sediments in the New Jersey Atlantic Coastal Plain and were thought to account for the distinctive single-domain magnetic properties of these sediments. Uncalibrated strong field magnet extraction techniques have been typically used to provide material for scanning and transmission electron microscopic imaging of these magnetic particles, whose concentration in the natural sediment is thus difficult to quantify. In this study, we use a recently developed ultrahigh-resolution, synchrotron-based, full-field transmission X-ray microscope to study the iron-rich minerals within the clay sediment in their bulk state. We are able to estimate the total magnetization concentration of the giant biogenic magnetofossils to be only ∼10% of whole sediment. Along with previous rock magnetic studies on the CIE clay, we suggest that most of the magnetite in the clay occurs as isolated, near-equidimensional nanoparticles, a suggestion that points to a nonbiogenic origin, such as comet impact plume condensates in what may be very rapidly deposited CIE clays.

  13. Paleocene Picrites of Davis Strait: Products of a Plume or Plates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, E. K.; Clarke, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    the Paleocene picrites of Davis Strait.

  14. Preparation and combustion of Yugoslavian lignite-water fuel, Task 7.35. Topical report, July 1991--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.M.; DeWall, R.A.; Ljubicic, B.R.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    Yugoslavia`s interest in lignite-water fuel (LWF) stems from its involvement in an unusual power project at Kovin in northern Serbia. In the early 1980s, Electric Power of Serbia (EPS) proposed constructing a 600-MW power plant that would be fueled by lignite found in deposits along and under the Danube River. Trial underwater mining at Kovin proved that the dredging operation is feasible. The dredging method produces a coal slurry containing 85% to 90% water. Plans included draining the water from the coal, drying it, and then burning it in the pulverized coal plant. In looking for alternative ways to utilize the ``wet coal`` in a more efficient and economical way, a consortium of Yugoslavian companies agreed to assess the conversion of dredged lignite into a LWF using hot-water-drying (HWD) technology. HWD is a high-temperature, nonevaporative drying technique carried out under high pressure in water that permanently alters the structure of low-rank coals. Changes effected by the drying process include irreversible removal of moisture, micropore sealing by tar, and enhancement of heating value by removal of oxygen, thus, enhancement of the slurry ability of the coal with water. Physical cleaning results indicated a 51 wt % reduction in ash content with a 76 wt % yield for the lignite. In addition, physical cleaning produced a cleaned slurry that had a higher attainable solids loading than a raw uncleaned coal slurry. Combustion studies were then performed on the raw and physically cleaned samples with the resulting indicating that both samples were very reactive, making them excellent candidates for HWD. Bench-scale results showed that HWD increased energy densities of the two raw lignite samples by approximately 63% and 81%. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was conducted to evaluate the HWD and pipeline transport of Kovin LWF to domestic and export European markets. Results are described.

  15. Local community opinions regarding the socio-environmental aspects of lignite surface mining: Experiences from central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badera, Jarosław; Kocoń, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Surface lignite mining covers large areas and usually generates social conflicts which pose one of several energy security threats to certain states. Therefore, defining the social conditions determines the success of a mining project. Two communes were chosen for a public opinion study: Kleszczów, where the Bełchatów mine is located, and Złoczew, where a lignite deposit will soon be developed. The analysis shows, as opposed to other areas in Poland that have been projected for development, that both local communities are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. In both cases, awareness about the profits was stronger than anxiety about the investment's negative effects. However, most inhabitants could not assess the mining company's diligence concerning its responsibility for mining damages as well as the diligence of external experts assessing the environmental impacts of excavation. Most respondents also could not assess if the legal regulations of public participation in the decision process were sufficient, but the negative opinions outweighed the positive ones. From the perspective of the energy policy, dialogue-type social communication is needed for every case of a new energy-mining project. Research on local public opinion should be the first step to opening up a social debate. - Highlights: • Lignite mining can generate social conflicts, which may threaten energy security. • Examined communes are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. • Inhabitants cannot assess if the legal regulations of mining activity are sufficient. • From the perspective of the energy policy, broader social communication is needed. • Research on the public opinion should be the first step to open up a social debate

  16. An ecosystem approach to evaluate restoration measures in the lignite mining district of Lusatia/Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Lignite mining in Lusatia has a history of over 100 years. Open-cast mining directly affected an area of 1000 km2. Since 20 years we established an ecosystem oriented approach to evaluate the development and site characteristics of post-mining areas mainly restored for agricultural and silvicultural land use. Water and element budgets of afforested sites were studied under different geochemical settings in a chronosequence approach (Schaaf 2001), as well as the effect of soil amendments like sewage sludge or compost in restoration (Schaaf & Hüttl 2006). Since 10 years we also study the development of natural site regeneration in the constructed catchment Chicken Creek at the watershed scale (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2013). One of the striking characteristics of post-mining sites is a very large small-scale soil heterogeneity that has to be taken into account with respect to soil forming processes and element cycling. Results from these studies in combination with smaller-scale process studies enable to evaluate the long-term effect of restoration measures and adapted land use options. In addition, it is crucial to compare these results with data from undisturbed, i.e. non-mined sites. Schaaf, W., 2001: What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering 17, 241-252. Schaaf, W. and Hüttl, R. F., 2006: Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air and Soil Pollution - Focus 6, 253-264. Schaaf, W., Bens, O., Fischer, A., Gerke, H.H., Gerwin, W., Grünewald, U., Holländer, H.M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Mutz, M., Schloter, M., Schulin, R., Veste, M., Winter, S. & Hüttl, R.F., 2011: Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174, 229-239. Schaaf, W., Elmer, M., Fischer, A., Gerwin, W., Nenov, R., Pretsch, H. and Zaplate, M.K., 2013: Feedbacks between vegetation, surface structures and hydrology

  17. Analysis of gas-phase mercury sorption with coke and lignite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of mercury emission became a widely discussed topic. Its high impact is caused by its toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms, properties that justified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA to classify mercury as hazardous pollutant. The problem of mercury emission is crucial for countries like Poland, where the most of the emission is caused by coaldepended energy sector. Current technology of mercury removal utilizes adsorption of mercury on the surface of activated carbon. Due to high price of activated carbon, this technological approach seems to be uneconomical and calls for cheaper alternative. One possible solution can be usage of other sorptive materials obtained from thermal processes like coke production. Example of such material is coke dust obtained from dry quenching of coke. The aim of this work was to analyse the sorption potential of lignite and coke dust and determine parameters influencing mercury behaviour during combustion.

  18. Cleaning of flue gases from lignite-fired power plants by electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, T.

    1998-01-01

    An essential part of the electricity production in Bulgaria depends on the combustion of lignite with high humidity and high sulphur content. As a result of burning, toxic gases as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrous oxides (NO x ) are emitted in the atmosphere. Both S0 2 and NO x in flue gases could be removed simultaneously by the Electron Beam (EB) process. Beforehand cleaned from fly ash, the flue gas is cooled by injection of water and ammonia is added. By irradiation with high energy electrons, S0 2 and NO x are converted into aerosols of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. The byproduct is collected by an electrostatic precipitator and is used for the production of fertilisers

  19. Use of abandoned coal/lignite open pits for waste disposal in selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libicki, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The use of abandoned coal/lignite pits as disposal sites for solid waste appears to be a reasonable approach to a difficult problem, especially if they are located close to the waste source. However, a potential for groundwater and soil pollution exists. This issue was discussed by a Group of Experts on Opencast Mining of the UN Economic Commission for Europe because most of the sites are operated by mining companies. This paper contains the major topics of discussion including the significance of the problem, legal aspects, characteristics of the open pits, waste intended for disposal, investigations required to obtain a disposal permit, disposal techniques, protection measures, monitoring environmental impacts, and research trends. A few countries are used as examples

  20. Environmental policy instruments towards lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A proposition is made that Turkey considers a pilot emission trading system for SO 2 , Nox and/or PM emissions from its coal and lignite fired power plant in the efforts to comply with the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC), the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and the National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directives. Model calculations indicate that this could yield substantial cost savings compared to a traditional command and control approach. However, requirements in the IPPC Directive would be a major obstacle against emissions trading. The Turkish emission permitting system needs a major overhaul, including improving monitoring and enforcement practices to comply with the directives and to be able to implement and operate an emission trading system

  1. A comparison of improved power plant technologies on lignite with (PFBC) and (IGCC) cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Ilija

    1997-01-01

    Technologies and process diagrams descriptions for PFBC (Pressurised Fluidized Bed Combustion) and IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) are presented as for improved cycles with modern clean coal technologies, the most popular currently. A special attention is paid to the possibilities for Macedonian lignites use on the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles. The comparison of the above mention technologies has been done particularly on the desulfurization, NO x reduction, ash elimination and its use in the building and construction industries. A comparison between the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles is made by the following criteria: cycle efficiency, desulfurization and nitrogen oxides reduction, power plant complexity and their cost, as well as plant reliability. (Author)

  2. The clean coal technologies for lignitic coal power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Raza, Z.; Aziz-ur-Rehman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan contains huge reserves of lignitic coals. These are high sulphur, high ash coals. In spite of this unfortunate situation, the heavy demand for energy production, requires the development utilization of these indigenous coal reserves to enhance energy production. The central of the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of these coals has been a major hindrance in their utilization. Recently a substantial reduction in coal combustion emissions have been achieved through the development of clean coal technologies. Pakistan through the transfer and adaptation of the advanced clean coal technologies can utilize incurring the high sulphur coals for energy production without incurring the environmental effects that the developed countries have experienced in the past. The author discusses the recently developed clean coal utilization technologies, their applications economies and feasibility of utilization with specific reference to Pakistan''s coal. (author)

  3. Hydropyrolysis of a Turkish lignite (Tuncbilek) and effect of temperature and pressure on product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canel, M.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science

    2005-08-01

    The hydropyrolysis of a Turkish lignite (Tuncbilek) in a swept fixed bed reactor connected with a thermo-balance was performed at a heating rate of 3 C/min up to 950 C under 0.5MPa, 1MPa and 10MPa hydrogen pressures. The formation rates of gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon oxides, water and tar were determined. The difference between the weight loss due to tar formation of the non-condensable total and the weight loss of the sample recorded continuously with the thermo-balance showed the corresponding curve of tar formation rate as a function of temperature. It was shown that the total conversion and the formation rate of the products during hydropyrolysis could be influenced by varying the pressure. On the other hand, the volatile matter evolved during pyrolysis was substantially increased in the presence of hydrogen and especially when elevated hydrogen pressure was used.

  4. Environmental policy instruments towards lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A proposition is made that Turkey considers a pilot emission trading system for SO{sub 2}, Nox and/or PM emissions from its coal and lignite fired power plant in the efforts to comply with the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC), the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and the National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directives. Model calculations indicate that this could yield substantial cost savings compared to a traditional command and control approach. However, requirements in the IPPC Directive would be a major obstacle against emissions trading. The Turkish emission permitting system needs a major overhaul, including improving monitoring and enforcement practices to comply with the directives and to be able to implement and operate an emission trading system.

  5. Advanced control - technologies for suppressing harmful emission in lignitic coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Hai, S.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The production of sufficient amount of indigenous energy is a prerequisite for the prosperity of a nation. Pakistan's energy demand far exceeds its indigenous supplies. A cursory look at the energy situation in Pakistan reveals that there is an urgent need for the development of its energy resources. In this regard, coal can play a key role if its problems of high-sulfur and high ash can be rectified through the adoption adaptation of advanced technologies, like (I) clean coal technologies, and (II) control technologies. A review on clean coal technologies for utilization of lignitic coals has already been published and the present article describes the effect of harmful emissions from the combustion of high sulfur coals, like the ones found in Pakistan and their control through advanced control technologies, to make a significant contribution in the total energy economics of Pakistan. (author)

  6. An unusual taphocoenosis of a sea urchin and a rectally inserted turriform gastropod from the lowermost Paleocene of Stevs klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Jesper; Rasmussen, Bo Wilhelm; Vallon, Lothar H.

    2015-01-01

    A specimen of the common irregular echinoid Echinocorys sulcata (Goldfuss, 1826), recovered from the lowermost Paleocene Stevns Klint Formation, at Stevns Klint, Denmark, is of note in revealing a perfect external mold of the turriform gastropod Cerithiella fenestrata (Ravn, 1902) in the anal ope...

  7. Isotopic and anatomical evidence of an herbivorous diet in the Early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis. Implications for the structure of Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, D.; Lécuyer, C.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Fourel, F.; Martineau, F.; Legendre, S.; Abourachid, A.; Herrel, A.

    2014-04-01

    The mode of life of the early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis has long been a matter of controversy. Although it has often been reconstructed as an apex predator feeding on small mammals, according to other interpretations, it was in fact a large herbivore. To determine the diet of this bird, we analyze here the carbon isotope composition of the bone apatite from Gastornis and contemporaneous herbivorous mammals. Based on 13C-enrichment measured between carbonate and diet of carnivorous and herbivorous modern birds, the carbonate δ13C values of Gastornis bone remains, recovered from four Paleocene and Eocene French localities, indicate that this bird fed on plants. This is confirmed by a morphofunctional study showing that the reconstructed jaw musculature of Gastornis was similar to that of living herbivorous birds and unlike that of carnivorous forms. The herbivorous Gastornis was the largest terrestrial tetrapod in the Paleocene biota of Europe, unlike the situation in North America and Asia, where Gastornis is first recorded in the early Eocene, and the largest Paleocene animals were herbivorous mammals. The structure of the Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems of Europe may have been similar to that of some large islands, notably Madagascar, prior to the arrival of humans.

  8. The effects of leaching and floatation on the ash fusion temperatures of three selected lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng-hai Li; Jie-jie Huang; Yi-tian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2011-07-15

    Experiments have been conducted with Huolinhe (HLH), Xiaolongtan (XLT), and Ethiopian (ET) lignites to investigate the effects of washing with water, acid-leaching, and floatation on their ash fusion temperatures (AFTs). The results show that the AFTs of XLT and ET are elevated by washing with water and floatation, but the AFT of HLH is decreased. The AFTs of all three lignites are increased markedly by acid leaching. A decrease in the total basic composition in ash increases its AFT, and vice versa. Changes in the mineral contents of the coals after treatment contribute to the variations in their AFTs. After washing with water, the lower AFT of HLH is brought about by the increases in the amounts of cordierite and anhydrite, whereas the higher AFT of XLT is caused by the decreases in the amounts of anhydrite and calcite. For the floatation treatment, the decrease of AFT for HLH is due to the reduction in the amount of kaolinite, but the elevation of AFT for XLT or ET is caused by the decrease in the amount of pyrite and the reductions in the amounts of gypsum and xanthoxenite, respectively. For the acid-leaching treatment, a decrease in the amount of pyrite and an increase in the amount of kaolinite result in increases in AFTs for HLH and XLT. Increases in the amounts of kaolinite and cristobalite in FET (ET after floatation), WET (ET after washing with water), and AET (ET after acid-leaching) lead to corresponding increases in the AFTs. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Depositional environment of the San Miguel lignite deposit in Atascosa and McMullen Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowan, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit was carried out in order to understand newly discovered characteristics of the deposit. The environment of deposition of the overburden and underburden was evaluated through an interpretation of three continuous cores. Four coal cores and a highwall section were carefully described to determine the depositional environmental of the coal seams and partings. These studies were supplemented by the construction of seam and parting isopachs, and the analysis of the distribution of sulfur isotopes, sulfur, forms, and total sulfur within the coal. The sedimentary package is composed of a basal prograding barrier that beach, dune, and back-barrier sands. This unit correlates with a downdip sand that was also interpreted as a prograding barrier by other authors. The barrier is overlain by a series of slit and clay deposits of lagoonal, tidal flat, and tidal channel origin. These deposits are capped by restricted lagoon sediments composed of green, calcareous clays that occasionally contain shell layers. The restricted lagoon deposits formed when the barrier closed the lagoon off from the sea. Peat forming freshwater swamps eventually became established behind the barrier and on top of the restricted lagoon sediments. The parting isopachs reveal a reticulate morphology similar to the mangrove swamps located lateral to the modern Niger River Delta. The partings represent vegetated tidal flat deposits that formed during periodic invasions by the sea that killed the swamp and inundated the peat with sulfate rich water. The lignite interval is capped by open lagoon and tidal flat sediments.

  10. Utilization of lignite power generation residues for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Iason M; Stivanakis, Victor E

    2009-04-15

    A novel process is proposed for the utilization of lignite combustion solid residues in the production of inflammable lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering, and carbon contained in BA was used as the process fuel. The main residues bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) from Megalopolis power plant were characterized, mixed in different proportions and treated through pelletization and sintering process. Sintering benefits from combustion of BA carbon content and the product is a hardened porous cake. The energy required for achievement of high temperatures, in the range of 1250 degrees C, was offered by carbon combustion and CO(2) evolution is responsible for porous structure formation. Selected physical properties of sintered material relevant to use as lightweight aggregates were determined, including bulk density, porosity and water absorption. Bulk density varies from 0.83 to 0.91 g/cm(3), porosity varies from 60% to 64% and water absorption varies from 66% to 80%. LWA formed is used for the production of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Thermal conductivity coefficient varies from 0.25 to 0.37 W/mK (lower than maximum limit 0.43 W/mK) and compressive strength varies from 19 to 23 MPa (higher than minimum limit 17 MPa). The results indicate that sintering of lignite combustion residues is an efficient method of utilization of carbon containing BA and production of LWA for structural and insulating purposes. Carbon content of BA is a key factor in LWA production. Finally, this research work comprises the first proposed application for utilization of BA in Greece.

  11. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  12. The Mineral Character and Geomechanical Properties of the Transitional Rocks from the Mesozoic-Neogene Contact Zone in the Bełchatów Lignite Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pękala

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: Against the background of a number of published papers on the rocks accompanying lignite seams there is a lack of the "Bełchatów" mineralogical-petrographic studies of the transitional sediments in the Mesozoic-Neogene contact zone in the "Bełchatów" lignite deposit taking into account the aspect of raw materials. This paper has been produced to fill the void in this area.

  13. Taxonomic revision of the fossil pulmonate mollusks of Itaboraí Basin (Paleocene, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Brincalepe Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limestones of Itaboraí Basin (Middle Paleocene, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, harbor a rich fossil molluscan fauna consisting exclusively of pulmonate snails, both terrestrial and freshwater. An extensive taxonomic revision of this paleofauna is conducted here. A new genus, Cortana, is described as well as two new species, Eoborus fusiforme and Gastrocopta itaboraiensis. The revised classification is as follows: Austrodiscus lopesi (Charopidae; Biomphalaria itaboraiensis (Planorbidae; "Brachypodella" britoi (Urocoptidae; Brasilennea arethusae, Brasilennea guttula, Brasilennea minor (Cerionidae; Bulimulus fazendicus, Bulimulus trindadeae, Cortana carvalhoi, Cyclodontina coelhoi, Itaborahia lamegoi, Leiostracus ferreirai, Plagiodontes aff. dentatus (Orthalicidae; Cecilioides sommeri (Ferussaciidae; Eoborus rotundus, Eoborus sanctijosephi, Eoborus fusiforme (Strophocheilidae; Gastrocopta mezzalirai, Gastrocopta itaboraiensis (Gastrocoptidae; Temesa magalhaesi (Clausiliidae. The species Strobilopsis mauryae was considered a synonym of Brasilennea arethusae; Bulimulus sommeri a synonym of Itaborahia lamegoi; and Vorticifex fluminensis a synonym of Eoborus sanctijosephi. Itaboraí Basin has the most ancient records of the families Orthalicidae, Gastrocoptidae, Ferussaciidae and Strophocheilidae. Moreover, the basin's records of Charopidae, Clausiliidae, Cerionidae, and Urocoptidae are among the most ancient in the world and, among these, those of Cerionidae, Clausiliidae and Urocoptidae deserve special attention since they are greatly removed from these families' current distribution. Additionally, Itaboraí has the most ancient records for the genera Austrodiscus, Brachypodella, Bulimulus, Cecilioides, Cyclodontina, Eoborus, Gastrocopta, Leiostracus, Plagiodontes and Temesa. There are three endemic genera in the basin: Brasilennea, Cortana and Itaborahia. Further discussion on paleobiogeography and evolution of this paleofauna is also provided.Os calc

  14. Intrusive hyaloclastite and peperitic breccias associated to sill and cryptodome emplacement on an Early Paleocene polymagmatic compound cone-dome volcanic complex from El Guanaco mine, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, G. N.; Permuy Vidal, C.; Galina, M.; López, L.; Jovic, S. M.; Guido, D. M.

    2018-04-01

    This work explores the textural characteristics, morphology and facies architecture of well-preserved Paleocene hyaloclastic and peperitic breccias associated with subvolcanic intrusions at El Guanaco gold mine (Northern Chile). The El Guanaco mine volcanic sequence is part of a polymagmatic compound cone-dome volcanic complex grouping several dacitic domes and maar-diatremes, and subordinated subvolcanic intrusions of basaltic, andesitic and dacitic compositions. The Soledad-Peñafiel Fault System is a first order regional structure controlling the location and style of the volcanism in the region. Three different intrusive bodies (Basaltic sills, Dacitic cryptodomes and Andesitic cryptodomes) were found to intrude into a wet and poorly consolidated pyroclastic sequence representing the upper portions of a maar-diatreme. Consequently, extensive quench fragmentation and fluidization along their contacts occurred, leading to the formation of widespread breccia bodies enclosing a coherent nucleus. Differences in matrix composition allows to define two main breccias types: 1) poorly-sorted monomictic breccias (intrusive hyaloclastites) and 2) poorly-sorted tuff-matrix breccias (peperites). The observed facies architecture is interpreted as the result of the interplay of several factors, including: 1) magma viscosity, 2) the geometry of the intrusives, and 3) variations on the consolidation degree of the host rocks. Additionally, the overall geometry of each intrusive is interpreted to be controlled by the effective viscosity of the magmas along with the available magma volume at the time of the intrusions. The presence of three compositionally different subvolcanic bodies with intrusive hyaloclastite and peperite envelopes indicate, not only that all these intrusions occurred in a short period of time (probably less than 2-3 Ma), but also that the volcaniciclastic pile suffer little or none compaction nor consolidation during that time. The presence of three

  15. Mechanistic insights into a hydrate contribution to the Paleocene-Eocene carbon cycle perturbation from coupled thermohydraulic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, T. A.; Marín-Moreno, H.; Armstrong McKay, D. I.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-08-01

    During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the carbon isotopic signature (δ13C) of surface carbon-bearing phases decreased abruptly by at least 2.5 to 3.0‰. This carbon isotope excursion (CIE) has been attributed to widespread methane hydrate dissociation in response to rapid ocean warming. We ran a thermohydraulic modeling code to simulate hydrate dissociation due to ocean warming for various PETM scenarios. Our results show that hydrate dissociation in response to such warming can be rapid but suggest that methane release to the ocean is modest and delayed by hundreds to thousands of years after the onset of dissociation, limiting the potential for positive feedback from emission-induced warming. In all of our simulations at least half of the dissociated hydrate methane remains beneath the seabed, suggesting that the pre-PETM hydrate inventory needed to account for all of the CIE is at least double that required for isotopic mass balance.

  16. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen; D’haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P.; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  17. Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: new constraints on the location of Paleocene/Eocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, L.; Gee, J.; Gallet, Y.; Pick, T.; Bown, T.

    1994-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting the step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetization data of 266 samples from 90 sites throughout the composite section. Correlation to the geomagnetic reversal time scale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from this section, from a section in the Clark's Fork Basin in northern Wyoming, and from DSDP Site 550, with the isotopic data determined on a tuff near the top of our section. Our correlation suggests that the Bighorn Basin composite section in the Worland area spans from within Chron C24r to near the top of Chron C24n, or from approximately 55 to 52 Ma. This correlation places the Paleocene/Eocene boundary within the vicinity of the base of the section. Cryptochron C24r.6 of Cande and Kent is tentatively identified some 100 m above the base of the section. The temporal framework provided here enables correlation of the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin to other continental sequences as well as to marine records. It also provides independent chronological information for the calculation of sediment accumulation rates to constrain soil maturation rates. We exclude an age as young as 53 Ma for the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and support older ages, as recommended in recent time scales. The location of a tuff dated at 52.8 ?? 0.3 Ma at the older boundary C24n.1 is consistent with the age of 52.5 Ma estimated by Cande and Kent and inconsistent with that of 53.7 Ma, from Harland et al. ?? 1994.

  18. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela J Arreguín-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma, linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian. Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi. Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the

  19. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J; Thomas, Ellen; D'haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  20. Paleocene-middle Miocene flexural-margin migration of the non marine llanos Foreland basin of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayona, German; Jaramillo, Carlos; Rueda, Milton; Reyes Harker, Andres; Torres, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A foreland basin is a dynamic system whose depositional systems migrate in response to changes in tectonic uplift patterns, sedimentary filling processes and isostatic rebound of the lithosphere. The Paleocene-middle Miocene foreland system of the llanos foothills and llanos basin of Colombia includes regional unconformities, abrupt changes in lithology/stacking patterns and flooding surfaces bounding reservoir and seal units. Here we integrate a systematic biostratigraphic study, strata architecture and tectonic subsidence analyses, regional seismic profiles, and provenance data to define the diachronism of such surfaces and to document the direction of migration of foreland depozones. Line a flexural-deformed basin, sandstone composition, rates of accommodation and sediment supply vary across and along the basin. we show how a coeval depositional profile in the llanos foothills-llanos foreland basin consists of lithoranites inter b edded with mudstones (seal rock, supplied from the orogenic front to the west) that correlate craton ward with organic-rich mudstones and coal (source rock), and to amalgamated fluvial-estuarine quartzarenites (reservoir rock, supplied from the craton to the east) adjacent to a sub-aerial fore-bulge (unconformity). This system migrated northward and eastward during the Paleocene, westward during the early-middle Eocene, and eastward during the Oligocene. In the lower-middle Miocene succession of the llanos basin, identification of flooding events indicates a westward encroaching of a shallow-water lacustrine system that covered an eastward-directed fluvial-deltaic system. A similar process has been documented in other basins in Venezuela and Bolivia, indicating the regional extent of such flooding event may be related to the onset of Andean-scale mountain-building processes

  1. Evaluation of radioactive emissions of lignite-fired power plants in Turkey using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueke, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive emissions of 13 lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these power plants, according to their radioactive emissions by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control criteria are in particular 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 238 U emissions from the power plants. These control criteria are weighted according to the objective assessment. The calculations are repeated for three different objective assessments of control criteria namely the mortality risk coefficients for inhalation, ingestion, external exposure of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 238 U. It has been calculated that the Can lignite-fired power plant is ranking first while the Soma-B plant is ranking last according to the radioactive emissions of the power plants when the average of three different objective control criteria are used in the calculations. (orig.)

  2. Some examples of the cavity filling along transportation routes above abandoned room and pillar lignite Mines in Tokai Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K.; Kawamoto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe the applications of the integrated cavity filling technique to abandoned lignite mines in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's and the routes of Tokai By-Pass Expressway and the linear motor car railway line for Aichi Exposition pass over these abandoned mines. Since the size of abandoned mines were much larger than the route of the expressway and the elevated monorail, limited areas relevant to their stability had to be only filled. This article describe the details of cavity filling operations in these two projects, which may be some valuable examples for assessing the methods how to deal problems associated with mine closures in long term. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of radioactive emissions of lignite-fired power plants in Turkey using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueke, Tayfun [Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ., Mugla (Turkey). Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering

    2013-11-15

    Radioactive emissions of 13 lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these power plants, according to their radioactive emissions by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control criteria are in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U emissions from the power plants. These control criteria are weighted according to the objective assessment. The calculations are repeated for three different objective assessments of control criteria namely the mortality risk coefficients for inhalation, ingestion, external exposure of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U. It has been calculated that the Can lignite-fired power plant is ranking first while the Soma-B plant is ranking last according to the radioactive emissions of the power plants when the average of three different objective control criteria are used in the calculations. (orig.)

  4. Re-evaluation of the age of the Brandon Lignite (Vermont, USA) based on plant megafossils. [USA - Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffney, B.H. (University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    The Brandon Lignite of west-central Vermont contains the northernmost megafossil flora of Cenozoic angiosperms, and one of the most diverse Cenozoic pollen floras in northeastern North America. While the floristic composition clearly indicates deposition of the Brandon sediments in the warmer parts of the Cenozoic, previous attempts at a more precise stratigraphic placement have been inconclusive, ranging from Cretaceous to Miocene. Re-evaluation of existing and new fruit, seed and wood data from the Brandon flora in the context of other floras in the Northern Hemisphere leads to the conservative conclusion that the deposit could range from earliest Oligocene to Early Miocene. Several lines of potentially weak evidence favor an Early Miocene age, in agreement with recent biostratigraphic data from the associated pollen flora. It is concluded that the Brandon Lignite is Early Miocene.

  5. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on survival and growth of perennial grasses in lignite overburden in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Call, C.A.; Davies, F.T.

    1988-12-01

    Seedlings of sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) were inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus fasciculatum and Gigaspora margarita) in a containerized system and transplanted into lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas, U.S.A. After three growing seasons without cultural inputs, plants inoculated with VAM fungi had greater survival percentages, basal diameters, and above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Inoculated plants had higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Root colonization percentages of inoculated plants remained fairly stable while noninoculated plants showed low levels of colonization over the 3-year study period. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the survival and growth of the 3 grass species by making effective use of limited resources in the lignite overburden. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Aspects of combustion behaviour of coals from some New Zealand lignite-coal regions determined by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1997-08-25

    The papers describes how thermogravimetric analysis of five Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic New Zealand lignites demonstrate that their combustion behaviour is distinct from that of subbituminous coals and may be characterised by peak temperature of 377-416{degree}C, maximum rate of combustion of 25-31 wt% min{sup -1}, and temperature of char burnout 421-497{degree}C. These parameters reflect variation in thermal behaviour associated with both the organic and inorganic constituents of the coal. The information obtained is additional to that provided by proximate analysis; the latter is insufficient to predict the combustion behaviour of the coals relative to one another. A post-combustion thermal event is seen among the lignites as in other low-rank coals combusting below 600{degree}C, which appears to be related to the organic sulphur content of the coal.

  7. Lignite and tin ores exploration in southern part of Thailand by using nuclear track-etch detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittrakarn, T.; Boonnummar, R.; Pongsuwan, T.; Nuannin, P.; Kaew-On, C.

    1993-01-01

    Both lignite and tin mines in Southern of Thailand are associated with uranium ore. In lignite exploration, Bangpudum Lignite Mine at Krabi Province was chosen for this studied because we know the exact location and deposition of coal seam by using other geophysical technique and also confirm by borehole. The size 1x2 cm 2 of cellulose nitrate CN-85 films were used, each film was stuck at the inner bottom of a softdrink cup. Each cup was put up side down at the bottom of a borehole about 75 cm depth from the earth surface and laid about 10 m apart. All the cups were put in the hole along the line in order to cover about 280 metre in the cross sectional direction long of the known coal seam. After one month, all the film detectors were collected and etched with 6.25N NaOH at 60 o C about 25 minutes long in order to enlarge the latent alpha registration tracks. These alpha particles were emitted from radon gas (Rn-222) which was generated from uranium associated with lignite ore. The registration track density per area of each CN-85 film was studied by optical microscope at 400x magnifications. We found that the track densities of the films have high correlation with the depth of the known coal seam while high and low track densities will correspond to the shallow and deep coal seam respectively. Also, track density was significantly higher than background. A similar manner of experiment was designed for tin ore exploration at Ronpibul district, Nakorn Si Thammarat province. The result is in progress and will present at the conference. (Author)

  8. A realistic EU vision of a lignite-based energy system in transition: Case study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batas-Bjelić Ilija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Contracting Parties to the Treaty establishing the Energy Community of the South East Europe, currently in energy transition, have electricity production dominantly based on lignite which contrasts their new reality. Planning approach to designing a new feasible energy policy is presented in this paper. This novel approach in using EnergyPLAN tool stems from analysis of market operation of lignite thermal power plants on hourly basis, and quantification of the feasibility of the energy policy and its alignment with EU vision, and is presented in few scenarios. It was found out that the Serbian energy system is highly sensitive to the electricity market and CO2 tax increase, because the marginal costs for lignite generation will increase to more than 50€/MWh. Shifting in the merit order will be observed even at lower CO2 tax levels, because of the intensity of the emission of the electricity sector (calculated to be higher than 700gCO2/kWhel, according to current energy policy. Based on the increased use of renewable energy sources and more efficient energy conversion technologies, socio-economic and energy policy feasibility would be increased, while long-term marginal costs would be improved by 2€/MWh and emission intensity by 258 gCO2/kWhel, compared to the current energy policy. These contributions, shown in the Serbian case, are of general importance for other lignite dominated Contracting Parties to Treaty establishing the Energy Community. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42009

  9. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: a Turkish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykiri-Acma, H; Yaman, S

    2008-11-01

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA up to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (Rmax), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (T(R-max)), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, Rmax, and T(R-max), were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  12. Employment benefits of electricity generation. A comparative assessment of lignite and natural gas power plants in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourkolias, C.; Damigos, D.; Diakoulaki, D.; Mirasgedis, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at developing an integrated approach for estimating the employment benefits associated with power-generation technologies. The proposed approach exploits the input-output methodology for estimating the direct, indirect and induced employment effects associated with the energy project in question, as well as two different valuation techniques, namely the 'opportunity cost of labour' approach and the 'public expenditures' approach, for expressing these effects in monetary terms. This framework has been implemented to estimate the employment benefits resulting from the development of a lignite-fired and a natural gas-fired power plant in Greece, taking into account all the stages of the corresponding fuel cycles that are undertaken domestically. The results of the analysis clearly show that lignite-fired electricity generation results in significant employment benefits amounting to 2.9-3.5 EUR/MWh in the basic scenario. On the other hand, the employment benefits associated with the examined natural gas unit were estimated at 0.4-0.6 EUR/MWh in the basic scenario. It is also worth mentioning that the significant environmental externalities of the lignite-fired electricity in Greece that have been presented in a number of studies can only be partially compensated by the estimated employment benefits. (author)

  13. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  14. Speciation of selected trace and major elements in lignite Used in "Nikola Tesla A" power plant (Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDAR POPOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four samples of milled lignite used in the “Nikola Tesla A” power plant, located in Obrenovac near Belgrade, were subjected to a five-step sequential extraction, comprising of the following phases: distilled water, 1 M ammonium acetate, 0.2 M ammonium oxalate / 0.2 M oxalic acid, acidic solution of H2O2 and a 6 M solution of HCl. The concentrations of the different elements obtained in the extractions were statistically analysed. The majority of the examined elements were found to be most probably associated with inorganic fractions of lignite, only aluminum, silicon, chromium and arsenic have a larger extractable organic/sulfide fraction than an extractable inorganic fraction. Alumosilicates of magnesium (carriers of arsenic, zinc, lead, copper and chromium, silicates of potassium (scavengers of lead and nickel, mixed aluminates of iron and magnesium (carriers of arsenic, zinc, copper and chromium and compounds of iron that do not contain aluminum and magnesium (scavengers of manganese were dissolved in the fifth phase of the sequential extraction. Copper is a substrate of alumosilicates of potassium and magnesium, while zinc and chromium are substrates of compounds of iron leached in the third phase of the sequential extraction. Interphase correlation revealed that the adsorbed and ion-exchangeable fractions of most of the examined elements do not exhibit preferential binding to the components of the inorganic matrix of lignite ash.

  15. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: A Turkish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykirl-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA tip to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (R{sub max}), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (TR{sub max}), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, R{sub max} and TR{sub max}, were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd 3 ) [121,100 cubic meters (m 3 )] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat

  17. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any

  18. Time-dependent phosphate dynamics in reclaimed lignite-mine soils under Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Dirk; Slazak, Anna

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of the opencast lignite mining activities in Lusatia/Germany, the cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice plantations (SRC) has been considered as a viable option for reclamation purposes. In this region an area of about 1000 km2 has been degraded. Owing to the unfavourable biotic and abiotic properties of the overburden mining substrate, the biogeochemical processes associated with the soil ecosystem development are in the initial phase. The substrate contains very low amount of nutrients, mainly very low total Phosphate (P) content nearly equal to zero. The lack of P is one of the main issues in reclamation of this marginal site. Therefore, the cultivation of perennial SRC with Robinia pseudoacacia L. is considered as a supporting measurement for effective soil reclamation. In this context, it is important to understand the dynamics of P in this "initial substrate" to describe the P availability and P sorption/desorption.. Iron/aluminium oxides and organic matter are the soil constituents most strongly affecting the reactions and rate of P sorption and desorption, also in post-mining soils. Therefore the interaction of these oxides and organic matter with P is essential with regard to developing effective nutrient management strategies for marginal sites. The study focused on P sorption and desorption with regard to different development stages of R. pseudoacacia L. established in a short rotation coppices on the post mining soils. to describe the P availability (Pav) in relation to total P mobility. The hypothesis is that SRC would cause significant changes in soil P dynamics over time in post lignite mining soils. The trees has been planted in between 1995 and 2007, which means that R. pseudoacacia L. was in a range of 2 to 20 years old at different sampling times. Soil was sampled in 2008 and 2015 at three depths of: 0-3cm, 3-10 cm and 10-30 cm. To characterize the P dynamics different P forms and P sorption/desorption kinetics were analysed

  19. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, D.; Klarik, L.; Bojar, A.-V.

    2002-01-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition

  20. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, D; Klarik, L [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics (Romania); Bojar, A -V [Department of Geology and Paleontology, Graz (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition.

  1. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-01-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon

  2. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  3. Extraction of organic materials from red water by metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Fangfang [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lv, Fengzhu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon was investigated as adsorbent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorbent for the extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of different metals on the extraction were investigated and discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many loading factors of Cu{sup 2+} were found having great influences on the extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extraction performances and mechanism of TNT red water on Cu/LAC were investigated. - Abstract: Extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by lignite activated carbon (LAC) impregnated with Cu{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} was investigated. The affinity to organic materials in red water was found to follow the order: Cu/LAC > Sn/LAC > Ag/LAC > Ba/LAC > Fe/LAC > Ca/LAC, which was explained by the hard and soft acid base (HSAB) theory. Cu{sup 2+} showed the best performance and several parameters were further studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified effective loading of Cu{sup 2+} on the LAC surface. The water quality before and after treated by Cu/LAC was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy and other analyses. The extraction performances and mechanism of organic materials on Cu/LAC were investigated through static methods. The experimental results showed that Cu/LAC possessed stronger extraction ability for the sulfonated nitrotoluenes than the non-sulfonated nitrotoluenes, the kinetic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. In addition, the leaching out of Cu{sup 2+} from Cu/LAC was found much lower in the 100 times diluted red water (0.074%) than in the raw water (10.201%). Column adsorptions with more concentrated red water were also studied. Finally, Cu/LAC was observed to possess excellent

  4. Aquatic balance in Vegoritis Lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Grigorakou, E.; Koumantakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Vegoritis Lake, which is located at Vegoritis closed Basin in West Macedonia, Greece, is the biggest lake in Greece. In 1994 the area of the lake was 35 Km2 with maximum depth 42 m at the northwestern part of the lake. It is the final receiving body of the surface runoff of the hydrological basin. Moreover, it is the surficial appearance of an enormous and not well-known karstic aquifer. Being a closed hydrological basin any interference in surface or groundwater conditions in every part of its area affects the level of the lake. The level of the lake in 1900 was 525 masl, in 1942 was 542 masl reaching the higher level of 543 masl in 1956. The increase of the level of the lake was due to the drainage of Ptolemais (Sarigiol) swamp through Soulou drain ditches that transfer the water in the lake. Since then, a continuous drawdown took place with small periods of rising of water level. Today, the level of the lake is declined in a smaller rate having reached the level of 510 masl. Water coming from the lake has been used in the past, and in some cases still does, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use, for hydropower generation and for the cooling system of power plants. Moreover, P.P.C. (Public Power Corporation of Greece) develops an intense activity in the area with the exploitation of the lignite deposits of the basin and power generation in several Power Plants. Few years ago significant quantities from Vegoritis Lake were used for hydro power of Agras Power Plant. With the elaboration of the existent data (water level measurements, recharge, discharge) the connection between the lowering of the surface of the lake and the subtracted quantities through the Arnissa Tunel the first years of its use, is obvious. The last twenty years the condition has change. Outflow through the Arnissa Tunnel for hydropower has stopped. The continued lowering of the level of the lake is caused, mainly, by overexploitation due to the intense increase of the irrigating land

  5. Water extraction from high moisture lignite by means of efficient integration of waste heat and water recovery technologies with flue gas pre-drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiaoqu; Yan, Junjie; Karellas, Sotirios; Liu, Ming; Kakaras, Emmanuel; Xiao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy-saving potential of FPLPS in different cold-ends and lignite types is evaluated. • Water-saving of FPLPS is realized through recovery of water extracted from lignite. • Integrations of low pressure economizer and spray tower with FPLPS are proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic performances of different schemes are investigated. - Abstract: The flue gas pre-dried lignite-fired power system (FPLPS) integrates the fan mill flue gas dryer with an open pulverizing system and yields an increase of the boiler efficiency. Particularly, the dryer exhaust gas contains a large amount of vapor removed from high moisture lignite, which exhibits great potential for waste heat and water recovery. Two available options are considered to realize the extraction of water from lignite: the low pressure economizer (LPE) for water-cooled units and the spray tower (SPT) integrated with heat pump for air-cooled units. This paper aims at evaluating the energy saving and water recovery potentials of the FPLPS integrated with both schemes. Results showed that the plant efficiency improvement of the FPLPS at base case varied from 1.14% to 1.47% depending on the moisture content of raw lignite. The water recovery ratio and plant efficiency improvement in the optimal LPE scheme were 39.4% and 0.20%, respectively. In contrast, 83.3% of water recover ratio and 110.6 MW_t_h heat supply were achieved in the SPT system. Both schemes were economically feasible with discounted payback periods of around 3 years. Moreover, parametric analysis was conducted to examine the economic viability of both schemes with different lignite types and market factors.

  6. Green synthesis of carbon quantum dots from lignite coal and the application in Fe3+ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuexia; Hao, Juanyuan; Liu, Jianhui; Tao, Hongcai

    2018-02-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) had attracted much attention due to their unique structures and excellent properties. Their green preparation was one of the research frontiers. However, most of the CQDs were prepared by strong acid oxidation, the way of which was not friendly to the environment. In this study, CQDs were prepared by green ozone oxidation of lignite coal, which is abundant and inexpensive. The CQDs were well dispersed, the size distribution of the obtained CQDs centralized from 2 to 4 nm with the average diameter of about 2.8 nm. In addition, the as-prepared CQDs containing rich oxygen functional groups exhibited good water-solubility and optical properties with yield reached 35%. The CQDs showed a highly sensitive and selective quenching effect to Fe3+ with desirable anti-interference performance. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of CQDs had a good linear response to the Fe3+ concentration ranging from 10 to 150 µmol/L with the detection limit of 0.26 µmol/L. This green and facile synthesis method had the prospect of large-scale preparation of CQDs.

  7. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  8. Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, S.; Wernecke, K.D.; Makeschin, F. [Technical University of Dresden, Tharandt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of fly ash and SO{sub 2} from lignite-fired power plants strongly affect large forest areas in Germany. The impact of different deposition loads on the microbial biomass and enzyme activities was studied at three forest sites (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) along an emission gradient of 3, 6, and 15 km downwind of a coal-fired power plant, representing high, moderate and low emission rates. An additional site at a distance of 3 km from the power plant was chosen to study the influence of forest type on microbial parameters in coniferous forest soils under fly ash and SO{sub 2} emissions. Soil microbial biomass C and N, CO{sub 2} evolved and activities of L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase, beta-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase (expressed on dry soil and organic C basis) were determined in the forest floor (L, Of and Oh horizon) and mineral top soil (0-10 cm). It is concluded that chronic fly ash depositions decrease litter decomposition by influencing specific microbial and enzymatic processes in forest soils.

  9. Process of desulfurizing dephenolating, and cracking raw pitch obtained by dry distilling lignite, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-12-21

    A process is described of desulfurizing, dephenelating, and cracking the dry pitch obtained by dry distillation of lignite, bituminous shale, asphaltic rocks, and peat and fossil coals, that is characterized by the raw material being distilled in a retort together with calcium oxide, the vapors escaping from the still being compelled to pass through a catalyst tube containing calcium oxide mixed with other metallic oxide, the catalyst being helped by suitable heating to a temperature higher than that of the retort mentioned. For the purpose of lessening the quantity of phenolic groups contained in the raw tar to eliminate a great part of the sulfur belonging to the thiophenols and hydrogen sulfide without removing the organic radical to which they are attached, to accomplish a pyrogenic dissociation at the temperature of distillation of the pitch by means of using bone acid (phosphoric) to obtain a greater yield of light hydrocarbon from heavy hydrocarbons. Another purpose is the elimination of sulfur and thiophene and whatever neutral sulfur is contained in the primary pitch, by means of iron sulfate and copper in the anhydrous state or by means of other sulfates whose metals have the ability to form sulfides with sulfur.

  10. Comparison of health and environmental effects of nuclear power plants and lignite-burning power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.; Chytil, I.; Razga, J.

    1988-01-01

    The individual factors are discussed which characterize the impact of nuclear power plants and lignite-burning power plants on human health and on the environment. The study proceeds from the IAEA categorization of these impacts. In this light, attention is centred on the impact of the normal operation of power plants and on accidents. The former category is further divided into regional impacts such as the emission of chemical substances, the emission of radioactive substances, heat emissions and the sum of regional factors, and on global impacts such as emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of long-lived radionuclides and the sum of global impacts. It is stated that research should pay more attention to the dangers of the effects of such a state of affairs when the infrastructure contaminated after a large-scale accident would be put out of operation, and the dangers of such a situation especially in small countries with great population densities. Such accidents represent the biggest danger of the use of nuclear power. The greatest danger of coal-burning power plants is their global impact on the atmosphere caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels. (Z.M.). 4 figs., 13 refs

  11. Use of lignite fly ash as an additive in alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation of wastewater sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocaer, F.O.; Alkan, U.; Baskaya, H.S. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering & Architecture

    2003-10-01

    The possibility of using lignite fly ash in low doses for reducing the pathogen levels in wastewater sludge was investigated. The results showed that using fly ash alone in doses of 40%,80% and 120% (on a dry weight basis), did not produce an alkaline environment for an efficient removal of pathogens. However, using fly ash in conjunction with the minimum amount of quicklime may act as an effective way of fecal coliform removal in both alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation processes. It was shown that using fly ash in doses of 80% and 120% in alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation processes prevented the pH decays and regrowth of pathogens during 60 days of storage period. The results of the study confirmed that alkaline pasteurisation process produces a product which is more resistant to pH decays and regrowth of fecal coliforms compared to that of alkaline stabilisation. Consequently, the overall results of this study indicated that the minimum lime and fly ash dosages required to generate a Class B biosolid were 10-15% and 80%, respectively. On the other hand, heating sludge to 50{degree}C prior to the addition of 10-15% quicklime and 80% fly ash followed by further heating to 70{degree}C and then sustaining at this temperature for 30 minutes were sufficient to generate a Class A biosolid.

  12. Methodology for quantifying uncertainty in coal assessments with an application to a Texas lignite deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A common practice for characterizing uncertainty in coal resource assessments has been the itemization of tonnage at the mining unit level and the classification of such units according to distance to drilling holes. Distance criteria, such as those used in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 891, are still widely used for public disclosure. A major deficiency of distance methods is that they do not provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Additionally, relying on distance between data points alone does not take into consideration other factors known to have an influence on uncertainty, such as spatial correlation, type of probability distribution followed by the data, geological discontinuities, and boundary of the deposit. Several geostatistical methods have been combined to formulate a quantitative characterization for appraising uncertainty. Drill hole datasets ranging from widespread exploration drilling to detailed development drilling from a lignite deposit in Texas were used to illustrate the modeling. The results show that distance to the nearest drill hole is almost completely unrelated to uncertainty, which confirms the inadequacy of characterizing uncertainty based solely on a simple classification of resources by distance classes. The more complex statistical methods used in this study quantify uncertainty and show good agreement between confidence intervals in the uncertainty predictions and data from additional drilling. (author)

  13. Methodology for quantifying uncertainty in coal assessments with an application to a Texas lignite deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Luppens, J.A.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    A common practice for characterizing uncertainty in coal resource assessments has been the itemization of tonnage at the mining unit level and the classification of such units according to distance to drilling holes. Distance criteria, such as those used in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 891, are still widely used for public disclosure. A major deficiency of distance methods is that they do not provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Additionally, relying on distance between data points alone does not take into consideration other factors known to have an influence on uncertainty, such as spatial correlation, type of probability distribution followed by the data, geological discontinuities, and boundary of the deposit. Several geostatistical methods have been combined to formulate a quantitative characterization for appraising uncertainty. Drill hole datasets ranging from widespread exploration drilling to detailed development drilling from a lignite deposit in Texas were used to illustrate the modeling. The results show that distance to the nearest drill hole is almost completely unrelated to uncertainty, which confirms the inadequacy of characterizing uncertainty based solely on a simple classification of resources by distance classes. The more complex statistical methods used in this study quantify uncertainty and show good agreement between confidence intervals in the uncertainty predictions and data from additional drilling. ?? 2010.

  14. Restoration of open pit lignite mining in the former GDR: lessons to be learnt from Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.; Schreck, P.; Schreiter, P.; Lerche, I.; Glaesser, W. [Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle (UFZ), Halle (Germany) Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2003-07-01

    The interactions have been investigated between the near-surface sediments of the sediment dumping at the Zwenkau open pit near Leipzig, used for extraction of lignite, and the produced mining water. These environmental impacts are the legacy of the energy policy of the former GDR. The pyrite oxidation that takes place in the overburden sediments causes the formation of an oxidation front and the pH-value of sediments falls to about 2 to 3 very soon after deposition. The primary mineral contents are destroyed and a considerable number of elements are mobilized that remain locally in the sediment pores. Because of the very weak seepage, rainfall remains in the alluvial areas as so called dump lakes. The dump lakes are very acidic because the rainwater transport the mobilized elements from the surface. Autochthonous and allochthonous formations of secondary minerals have been observed and analysed. A continuously ongoing interaction of exogenous and endogenous effects hinders the hydrological and geochemical equilibrium stabilization. What to do with such a 'moonscape' is considered in the conclusions. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Bucket wheel rehabilitation of ERC 1400-30/7 high-capacity excavators from lignite quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The existence of bucket wheel equipment type ERC 1400-30/7 in lignite quarries with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to rehabilitation in order to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance but also the replacement (or modernization) of subassemblies that can increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption, reducing mechanical stresses. This paper proposes an analysis of constructive solution of using a part of the classical bucket wheel, on which are located 9 cutting cups and 9 chargers cups and adding a new part so that the new redesigned bucket-wheel will contain 18 cutting-chargers cups, compared to the classical model. On the CAD model of bucket wheel was performed a static and a dynamic FEA, the results being compared with the yield strength of the material of the entire structure, were checked mechanical stresses in the overall distribution map, and were verified the first 4 vibrating modes the structure compared to real loads. Thus was verified that the redesigned bucket-wheel can accomplish the proposed goals respectively increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption and reducing mechanical stresses.

  16. A diverse snake fauna from the early Eocene of Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, J.C.; Folie, A.; Rana, R.S.; Singh, H.; Rose, K.D.; Smith, T. [Museum National Historical Nature, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The early Eocene (Ypresian) Cambay Formation of Vastan Lignite Mine in Gujarat, western India, has produced a diverse assemblage of snakes including at least ten species that belong to the Madtsoiidae, Palaeophiidae (Palaeophis and Pterosphenus), Boidae, and several Caenophidia. Within the latter taxon, the Colubroidea are represented by Russellophis crassus sp. nov. (Russellophiidae) and by Procerophis sahnii gen. et sp. nov. Thaumastophis missiaeni gen. et sp. nov. is a caenophidian of uncertain family assignment. At least two other forms probably represent new genera and species, but they are not named; both appear to be related to the Caenophidia. The number of taxa that represent the Colubroidea or at least the Caenophidia, i.e., advanced snakes, is astonishing for the Eocene. This is consistent with the view that Asia played an important part in the early history of these taxa. The fossils come from marine and continental levels; however, no significant difference is evident between faunas from these levels. The fauna from Vastan Mine includes highly aquatic, amphibious, and terrestrial snakes. All are found in the continental levels, including the aquatic palaeophiids, whereas the marine beds yielded only two taxa. Vastan Mine is only the second locality in which the palaeophiids Palaeophis and Pterosphenus co-occur. The composition of the fauna from Vastan is on the whole similar to that of the early Eocene of Europe; however, comparisons with early Eocene faunas of other continents are not possible because they are poorly known or unknown.

  17. Factors of Reclamation Success at the Lignite Strip-Mined Land in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Panagopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The adverse ecological conditions at the lignite mines of Ptolemaida make the landscape reclamation difficult. The naturally established vegetation and soil properties were studied prior to reclamation. Various forest species were planted to assess the afforestation potential. The natural vegetation was heterogeneous but can be used for the analysis of the site. The soil of the spoil heaps was heterogeneous with unfavourable physicochemical properties. Surface soil temperature was still 24º C higher in bare soil than in soil covered with vegetation. The most successful species of the afforestation trial were Robinia pseudoacacia and Cedrus atlantica. Covering of fly ash spoils with topsoil presented poor results, while sewage sludge gave a favorable amelioration response in areas with high fly ash content. Topsoil from older stands was the suggested method to establish Robinia pseudoacacia. Reclamation success was dependent on appropriate planning; thus, the new landscape had to be designed in harmony with the surrounding landscape before the start of the mining activity.

  18. Light absorption by primary particle emissions from a lignite burning plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, T.C.; Bussemer, M.; Wehner, B.; Keller, S.; Charlson, R.J.; Heintzenberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols from the burning of fossil fuels contribute to climate forcing by both scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and estimates of climate forcing by light-absorbing primary particles have recently been published. While the mass and optical properties of emissions are needed for these studies, the available measurements do not characterize the low-technology burning that is thought to contribute a large fraction of light-absorbing material to the global budget. The authors have measured characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from a small, low-technology lignite-burning plant. The PM emission factor is comparable to those used to calculate emission inventories of light-absorbing particles. However, the fine fraction, the absorbing fraction, and the absorption efficiency of the emissions are substantially below assumptions that have been made in inventories of black carbon emissions and calculations of climate forcing. The measurements suggest that nonblack, light-absorbing particles are emitted from low-technology coal burning. As the burning rate increases, the emitted absorption cross-section decreases, and the wavelength dependence of absorption becomes closer to that of black particles

  19. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  20. Colonization of spoil benches of an opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain by amphibians and reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, P. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Faculty of Biology

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the colonization by reptiles and amphibians of the spoil benches of the Meirama opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain over 10 years, following the start of the revegetation process. At Meirama, spoil benches are initially fertilized and hydroseeded with a pasture mix, but are subject to little subsequent management and are gradually colonized by scrub vegetation characteristic of the region. Herpetofauna censuses were carried out yearly on a single 2 ha plot over 6 years following hydroseeding, and in a single year on ten 2 ha plots which had been hydroseeded between 0 and 10 years previously. In addition, censuses were carried out on three undisturbed `control` plots close to the mine. Fifteen species (nine amphibians and six reptiles) were detected in one or more of the spoil-bench plots. Recolonization was particularly rapid after the first 2-3 years post-hydroseeding, and was closely related to habitat development due to revegetation and natural succession. Species composition was most similar to that in control plots in the oldest (ten-year-old) spoil plots.

  1. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  2. Activated-Lignite-Based Super Large Granular Slow-Release Fertilizers Improve Apple Tree Growth: Synthesis, Characterizations, and Laboratory and Field Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yafu; Wang, Xinying; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Cheng, Dongdong

    2017-07-26

    In this work, lignite, a low-grade coal, was modified using the solid-phase activation method with the aid of a Pd/CeO 2 nanoparticle catalyst to improve its pore structure and nutrient absorption. Results indicate that the adsorption ability of the activated lignite to NO 3 - , NH 4 + , H 2 PO 4 - , and K + was significantly higher than that of raw lignite. The activated lignite was successfully combined with the polymeric slow-release fertilizer, which exhibits typical slow-release behavior, to prepare the super large granular activated lignite slow-release fertilizer (SAF). In addition to the slow-release ability, the SAF showed excellent water-retention capabilities. Soil column leaching experiments further confirmed the slow-release characteristics of the SAF with fertilizer nutrient loss greatly reduced in comparison to traditional and slow-release fertilizers. Furthermore, field tests of the SAF in an orchard showed that the novel SAF was better than other tested fertilizers in improve the growth of young apple trees. Findings from this study suggest that the newly developed SAF has great potential to be used in apple cultivation and production systems in the future.

  3. H-binding of size- and polarity-fractionated soil and lignite humic acids after removal of metal and ash components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    A fractionation technique, combining dialysis removal of metal and ash components with hydrofluoric acid and pH 10 citrate buffer followed by chromatography of dialysis permeate on XAD-8 resin at decreasing pH values, has been applied to lignite humic acid (lignite-HA) and soil humic acid (soil-HA). H-binding data and non ideal competitive adsorption-Donnan model parameters were obtained for the HA fractions by theoretical analysis of H-binding data which reveal a significant increase of the carboxyl and the phenolic charge for the lignite-HA fractions vs. the parental lignite humic acid (LParentalHA). The fractionated lignite-HA material consisted mainly of permeate fractions, some of which were fulvic acid-like. The fractionated soil-HA material consisted mainly of large macromolecular structures that did not permeate the dialysis membrane during deashing. Chargeable groups had comparable concentrations in soil-HA fractions and parental soil humic acid (SParentalHA), indicating minimal interference of ash components with carboxyl and phenolic (and/or enolic) groups. Fractionation of HA, combined with theoretical analysis of H-binding, can distinguish the supramolecular vs. macromolecular nature of fractions within the same parental HA.

  4. Mangrove associated lignite beds of Malvan, Konkan: Evidence for higher sea-level during the Late Tertiary (Neogene) along the west coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran, K.P.N.; Shindikar, M.; Limaye, R.B. [Agharkar Research Inst., Pune (India)

    2004-01-25

    Fossil pneumatophores (breathing roots) of Avicennia are recovered and reported from the lignite beds exposed in Kolamb well-section near Malvan, Konkan area of western Maharashtra. The accrued palynoflora is dominated by mangroves (Avicennia, Aegialitis, Excoecaria, Rhizophora and Sonneratia). The spores of mangrove fern (Acrostichum aureum) an estuarine fungus Cirrenalia indicate that these lignites are autochthonous and deposited in a near-shore environment. Presence of foraminiferal linings (= microforaminifera), dinoflagellate cysts, a few calcareous nannofossils and scolecodonts is an irrefutable proof of marine and brackish water influence during the deposition of lignites under intertidal/tidal swampy condition (mangrove influenced) with fair input from freshwater swamps and hinterland. Freshwater-related forms, viz. Ceratopteris thalictroides, Nymphaeaceae, Ctenolophonaceae and hinterland taxa (Cullenia/Durio) of Bombacaceae along with abundance of microthyriaceous fungi in the palynoflora imply a warm humid tropical climate with high precipitation during the depositional period. The presence of Ctenolophon englerianus (= Ctenolophonidites costatus) in Kolamb lignites suggests the Late Neogene (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) age. The occurrence of pneumatophores and associated lignite deposits about 37 m above the present mean sea-level, and much inland, clearly indicates the higher sea-level strand during Late Neogene along the west coast of India.

  5. Paleocene-Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene sea-level changes as "species pumps" in Southeast Asia: Evidence from Althepus spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2018-05-17

    Sea-level change has been viewed as a primary driver in the formation of biodiversity. Early studies confirmed that Plio-Pleistocene sea-level changes led to the isolation and subsequent genetic differentiation of Southeast (SE) Asian organisms over short geological timescales. However, long-time consequences of sea-level fluctuations remain unclear. Herein, we analyze the evolutionary history of Althepus (spiders) whose distribution encompasses Indo-Burma and the Sunda shelf islands to understand how sea-level changes over shallow and deep timescales effected their history. Our integrative analyses, including phylogeny, divergence times, ancestral area reconstruction and diversification dynamics, reveal an intricate pattern of diversification, probably triggered by sea-level fluctuations during the Paleocene-Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene. The timing of one early divergence between the Indo-Burmese and Sundaic species coincides with late Paleocene and early Eocene high global sea levels, which induced the formation of inland seaways in the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Subsequent lowered sea levels could have provided a land bridge for its dispersal colonization across the Isthmus of Kra. Analyses suggest that Plio-Pleistocene sea-level rises contributed to recent divergence of many species. Thus, our findings cannot reject the hypothesis that sea-level changes during the Paleocene-Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene played a major role in generating biodiversity in SE Asia; sea-level changes can act as "species pumps". Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Variability in climate and productivity during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high-resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ˜ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM, several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ˜9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinated recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors, including deepwater CaCO3 corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3 %, hematite %, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, and calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high-productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an overall

  7. Benthic foraminifera at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section): variability in climate and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.

    2015-09-01

    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ~ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ~ 9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinant recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors including deep water CaCO3-corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood-events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3%, hematite%, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, as well as calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an

  8. Outpacing the Anthropocene: New Constraints for the Rate of Carbon Release at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Schaller, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) is linked to benthic foraminiferal extinction and excursion taxa in planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils. Previous studies have used integrated bio-magneto-stratigraphies, cycle counting, and extraterrestrial 3He accumulation rates to produce a range of estimates for the duration of the initial onset of the PETM CIE between 750 years to 30 kyr. Durations for the total release time (onset to initiation of recovery) range from 45 to 95 kyr. Uncertainty in the timing of the onset of the PETM CIE prevents the identification of a causal mechanism, and hence understanding the biological responses. Recent work on the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay has unveiled the presence of regular couplets (~2 cm) expressed in multiple cores and exposures throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Specifically, the Millville and newly recovered Wilson Lake B cores contain 750 and 660 layers through the CIE, respectively. These couplets have corresponding oxygen stable isotope cycles, arguing for a climatic origin. Orbital and millennial periodicities are far too long to explain the ~750 layers identified in the Millville core. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for the observed δ18O amplitudes (~1‰, with some cycles up to 2‰) and layer counts. Seasonal freshwater input can also augment the cyclic oscillations in δ18O, but the majority of the variability is most plausibly ascribed to temperature. Wilson Lake B and Millville have total δ13C excursions of -5 and -4.5‰ respectively, as well as highly expanded sections of the PETM CIE. In the Millville core, high-resolution, bulk stable isotope records show a 3.5‰ δ13C decrease over 12 layers across the PETM CIE onset. Concomitant with this δ13C decrease is a sharp drop in CaCO3. Decreases in both proxies require a large, sudden release of isotopically light carbon. The couplet chronology indicates

  9. Paradox of the peak-PCIM (Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maxima; ~57.8Ma) and Abrupt Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D. T.; Hoenisch, B.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maxima (PCIM; ~57.8Ma) represents a major transition in global δ13C during the late Paleocene, when the long-term positive trend in δ13C reversed from positive to negative. The peak-PCIM (~57.7Ma) has been tightly resolved in new high-resolution, astronomically-tuned benthic isotope records from IODP Sites 1209 (Pacific) and 1262 (Atlantic), which show the final phase of δ13C enrichment as abrupt (~1‰ in paradox as any rapid carbon release to the atmosphere should, in theory, create a negative excursion because all of the major carbon sources are isotopically light, whether volcanic outgassing, weathering/oxidation of organic carbon, or methane release [Dunkley-Jones et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2010]. If global, there are several testable mechanisms that may explain the shift including increase in burial flux of light carbon, a reduction in heavy carbon burial flux, or a large-scale circulation change perhaps associated with the transition of a major oceanic gateway. Using trace metal (B/Ca and Mg/Ca) and stable isotope (δ11B, δ18O, and δ13C) geochemistry, here we establish the nature of the peak-PCIM at sites from 3 different ocean basins (IODP Sites 690, 1209, and 1262) and begin to test several of the possible mechanisms for change. Mg/Ca in mixed-layer planktonic foraminifera show 2-3°C of sea surface warming coinciding with, and abrupt as, the benthic carbon isotope enrichment at all sites. Bottom water Δ[CO32-], as indicated by B/Ca in benthic foraminifera, abruptly increases by 30-40µmol/kgsw. While this may indicate a change in bottom water circulation, surface B-based proxies also respond with a positive shift during the peak-PCIM indicating a slight increase in surface pH and highlighting the global nature of the event.

  10. Biostratigraphy, palaeoecology and palaeogeography of the mainly marine Ager Formation (Upper Paleocene — Lower Eocene) in the Tremp Basin, Central-South Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, Pieter A.M.

    1978-01-01

    During the greater part of the Palaeogene the Tremp Basin was an area which underwent rapid subsidence as compared with the axial zone of the Pyrenees to the north, and the Ebro Massif to the south. As a result the sea occupied this area for a long time and deposition of the Ager Formation took

  11. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study; Die deutsche Braunkohlenwirtschaft. Historische Entwicklungen, Ressourcen, Technik, wirtschaftliche Strukturen und Umweltauswirkungen. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation

  12. Response to critique by lucas et al. (2009) of paper by Fassett (2009) documenting Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue of Palaeontologia Electronica Lucas, et al. (2009) question the validity f the Fassett (2009) paper that presented evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. Their challenges focus primarily on the lithostratigraphy, palynology, and paleomagnetism of the dinosaur-bearing Ojo Alamo Sandstone, shown by Fassett to be of Paleocene age. The lithostratigraphy of the Ojo Alamo is addressed by Lucas et al. (2009) based on detailed studies of outcrops of this formation in two relatively small areas in the southern San Juan Basin where Ojo Alamo dinosaur fossils have been found. When viewed over its 13,000 km2 extent, the Ojo Alamo is seen to be a much more complex formation than these authors recognize, thus their perception and description of the lithostratigraphy of this rock unit is limited and provincial. Fassett (2009) presented a detailed discussion of the palynology of the rocks adjacent to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) interface in the San Juan Basin, including a 67-page appendix and 25 tables listing the 244 palynomorph species identified from these strata. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone produced 103 palynomorphs from five principal localities including one especially prolific sample set from drill core through K-T strata. Without exception, all samples collected from the Ojo Alamo Sandstone for palynologic analysis were found to contain Paleocene palynomorph assemblages. Lucas et al. challenge only one Ojo Alamo palynomorph assemblage from one of the five areas studied, stating that they were unable to find palynomorph-productive samples at that locality. They submit no new palynologic data that refutes the Paleocene palynologic age of the Ojo Alamo Sandstone. In addressing the paleomagnetism of the Ojo Alamo, these authors dismiss the presence of a critical normal-polarity magnetochron discovered in the lower part of the Ojo Alamo - magnetochron C29n.2n of Fassett (2009) with no evidence to justify this dismissal

  13. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, Jean; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30–100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  14. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, Jean M.; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-07-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30-100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  15. In situ fossil seedlings of a Metasequoia-like taxodiaceous conifer from Paleocene river floodplain deposits of central Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falder, A B; Stockey, R A; Rothwell, G W

    1999-06-01

    Fossil seeds and seedlings of a Metasequoia-like taxodiaceous conifer occur in Paleocene deposits at the Munce's Hill and Gao Mine localities of central Alberta, Canada. Compression/impression specimens are preserved in upright growth positions among seedlings of the cercidiphyllaceous dicot Joffrea speirsii Crane & Stockey. There are a large number of seeds, a few of which were buried while germinating and show a radicle or short primary root. More than 500 Metasequoia-like seedlings have been identified that have two linear cotyledons with parallel margins and rounded tips. Three specimens have been found that display three cotyledons. Slightly older seedlings show decussate pairs of leaves attached to the stem distal to the cotyledons. Still older seedlings have axillary branches that show varying sizes and numbers of opposite leaves arranged in a single plane distal to the opposite pairs. These specimens reveal that both Joffrea and this extinct taxodiaceous conifer were early colonizers of North American floodplain communities at the beginning of the Tertiary.

  16. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  17. Chemical characterization and receptor modeling of PM10 in the surroundings of the opencast lignite mines of Western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini; Argyropoulos, George; Grigoratos, Theodoros; Kouras, Αthanasios; Manoli, Εvangelia; Andreadou, Symela; Pavloudakis, Fragkiskos; Sahanidis, Chariton

    2018-05-01

    The Western Macedonian Lignite Center (WMLC) in northwestern Greece is the major lignite center in the Balkans feeding four major power plants of total power exceeding 4 GW. Concentrations of PM 10 (i.e., particulate matters with diameters ≤10 μm) are the main concern in the region, and the high levels observed are often attributed to the activities related to power generation. In this study, the contribution of fugitive dust emissions from the opencast lignite mines to the ambient levels of PM 10 in the surroundings was estimated by performing chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling. For this purpose, PM 10 samples were concurrently collected at four receptor sites located in the periphery of the mine area during the cold and the warm periods of the year (November-December 2011 and August-September 2012), and analyzed for a total of 26 macro- and trace elements and ionic species (sulfate, nitrate, chloride). The robotic chemical mass balance (RCMB) model was employed for source identification/apportionment of PM 10 at each receptor site using as inputs the ambient concentrations and the chemical profiles of various sources including the major mine operations, the fly ash escaping the electrostatic filters of the power plants, and other primary and secondary sources. Mean measured PM 10 concentrations at the different sites ranged from 38 to 72 μg m -3 . The estimated total contribution of mines ranged between 9 and 22% in the cold period increasing to 36-42% in the dry warm period. Other significant sources were vehicular traffic, biomass burning, and secondary sulfate and nitrate aerosol. These results imply that more efficient measures to prevent and suppress fugitive dust emissions from the mines are needed.

  18. Adsorption of lignite-derived humic acids on coal-based mesoporous activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Gryglewicz, Grazyna

    2005-04-15

    The adsorption by a coal-based mesoporous activated carbon of humic acids (HAs) isolated from two Polish lignites was studied. For comparison, a commercial Aldrich humic acid was also included into this study. The differences in chemical structure and functional groups of HAs were determined by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy DRIFT. Two activated carbons used differed in terms of mesopore volume, mesopore size distribution, and chemical properties of the surface. The kinetics of adsorption of HAs have been discussed using three kinetic models, i.e., the first-order Lagergren model, the pseudo-second-order model, and the intraparticle diffusion model. It was found that the adsorption of HAs from alkaline solution on mesoporous activated carbon proceeds according to the pseudo-second-order model. The correlation coefficients were close to 1. The intraparticle diffusion of HA molecules within the carbon particle was identified to be the rate-limiting step. Comparing the two activated carbons, the carbon with a higher volume of pores with widths of 10-50 nm showed a greater removal efficiency of HA. An increase in the Freundlich adsorption capacity with decreasing carbon content of HA was observed. Among the HAs studied, S-HA shows characteristics indicating the highest contribution of small-size fraction. The S-HA was removed by both activated carbons to the highest extent. The effect of pH solution on the adsorption of HA was examined over the range pH 5.4-12.2. It was found that the extent of adsorption decreased with decreasing pH of the solution.

  19. Experimental investigation into the surface oxidation of lignite high temperature coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H G; Dallmann, W [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrgebiet Kokerei und Brikettierung

    1979-11-01

    It was intended to produce lignite high temperature coke (BHFK) in the laboratory comparable to that produced with the Salem-Lurgi-open hearth process and quench them according to the prescribed condition. By this means, the surface oxide formation could be continually recorded gravimetrically. The self-sustaining reaction of the physical and chemical adsorption on the loose material were observed under consideration that the adsorption or surface oxide can exist in a gaseous as well as in a liquid aggregate. The established steam isotherms and electron-microscope photos identified the product BFHK as a material which shows in the range of high-humidity capillary condensation. The continuous gravimetric adsorption leads to 1,9 per cent by weight on dry surface oxides. On the other hand, oxidized coke in the presence of water builds up on the surface to 2,3 per cent by weight. It became apparent that the finest capillary water is not involved in the formation of the oxide. For the dry accumulation, which is a reaction of the first degree, the equation for the accumulation of the oxygen is given. From the BET surface, made up from the graphite-like ring structure of the carbon surface, as well as the dposited quantity of oxide, the surface density of the oxygen atoms is indicated in relation to the quantity of carbon atoms, or alternatively the six-ring. The dry deposition leads to a proportion of 1,5 oxygen atoms to 10 carbon atoms. In a wet reaction, the ratio is 1,8 to 10. With increasing quantities of oxide, the content of volatile matter, the sparking point and reactivity increase, while the porosity diminishes as a consequence.

  20. Prevention of ground-water quality degradation during reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.; Burgess, J.L.; Wald, J.D.; Patrick, D.P.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    About 590,000 pounds of uranium oxide were recovered from 85,000 tons of lignite in at least 16 North Dakota pits between 1955 and 1967. Because uranium salts in the overburden generally were not recovered, spoil piles at abandoned mine sites contain elevated uranium contents. Reclamation of these mines is required to eliminate public hazards due to elevated radiation and toxic-element levels. A pilot reclamation project was implemented at one abandoned mine pit in northwestern Stark County. Basically, the reclamation involved the replacement of spoil material into the pits from which it was removed. Based on analyses of drill-hole cutting samples obtained from 2-foot depth increments on a 50-foot grid over the 7.25-acre spoil pile, spoil material with radium-226 concentrations exceeding 5 picocuries per gram above background or with uranium concentrations exceeding 5 times background was identified and mapped in three dimensions. This ''most-contaminated'' spoil material was selectively replaced in the mine pits above the water table to prevent dissolution of uranium salts and under a minimum of 5 feed of cover to minimize postreclamation surface-radiation levels. Similarly, areas of spoils with specific conductance greater than 5,000 microsiemens per centimeter were replaced at least 6 feet below the postreclamation ground surface to promote revegetation and above the water table to prevent enrichment of dissolved-solids concentrations in the aquifer. Finally, replaced zones of high radioactivity and soluble salts were capped with clay from the base of an adjacent pit; and the surface topography was mounded to minimize infiltration that might introduce radioactive and other soluble salts into the aquifer

  1. Adsorption kinetics of malachite green onto activated carbon prepared from Tuncbilek lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Y.; Akmil-Basar, C.; Eren, Didem; Sarici-Ozdemir, Cigdem; Depci, Tolga

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbent (T 3 K618) has been prepared from Tuncbilek lignite by chemical activation with KOH. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by t-plot based on N 2 adsorption isotherm. The N 2 adsorption isotherm of malachite green on T 3 K618 is type I. The BET surface area of the adsorbent which was primarily contributed by micropores was determined 1000 m 2 /g. T 3 K618 was used to adsorb malachite green (MG) from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. The effects of initial dye concentration, agitation time, initial pH and adsorption temperature have been studied. It was also found that the adsorption isotherm followed both Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. However, the Freundlich gave a better fit to all adsorption isotherms than the Dubinin-Radushkevich. The kinetics of adsorption of MG has been tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Results show that the adsorption of MG from aqueous solution onto micropores T 3 K618 proceeds according to the pseudo-second-order model. The intraparticle diffusion of MG molecules within the carbon particles was identified to be the rate-limiting step. The adsorption of the MG was endothermic (ΔH o = 6.55-62.37 kJ/mol) and was accompanied by an increase in entropy (ΔS o = 74-223 J/mol K) and a decrease in mean value of Gibbs energy (ΔG o = -6.48 to -10.32 kJ/mol) in the temperature range of 20-50 deg. C

  2. Management of Lignite Fly Ash for Improving Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Lal C.; Srivastava, Nishant K.; Jha, Sangeet K.; Sinha, Awadhesh K.; Masto, Reginald E.; Selvi, Vetrivel A.

    2007-09-01

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. The highest yield LFA dose was 200 t/ha for one-time and repeat applications, the maximum yield being with crop III (combination treatment). One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy-metal contents and in the level of γ-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

  3. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  4. Installation services in the lignite industry. Implementing health and safety; Montageeinsaetze in der Braunkohlenindustrie. Handlungsfeld fuer den Arbeitsschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskopf, Norbert [Roskopf Vulkanisation GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The increasing number of assignments of contractors in the lignite industry challenges both the client and the contractor with respect to health and safety. Additional endeavours have to be made concerning information, communication, coordination and assurance. Quantitative differences of occupational safety can be made up by operator support. The contractor himself is required to highly focus on health and safety issues. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU OSHA) and its campaign 'Healthy Workplaces - Safe Maintenance' currently raises the awareness of all parties being involved. More information can be found under http://hw.osha.europa.eu. (orig.)

  5. Organic geochemistry of the Lower Miocene Oberdorf lignite (Styrian Basin, Austria): its relation to petrography, palynology and the palaeoenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Kolcon, I.; Gratzer, R. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Prospektion und Angewandte Sedimentologie, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str. 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Otto, A.; Puettmann, W. [Institut fuer Mineralogie-Umweltanalytik, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, D-60054 a.M. Frankfurt (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    In the Oberdorf trough at the northwestern margin of the Styrian Basin (Austria), an up to 36-m thick Lower Miocene (Ottnangian) lignite seam occurs within the fluvial Koeflach-Voitsberg Formation. Previous results indicate that the lignite originated in a topogenous mire within a wet-forest swamp palaeoenvironment. Differences in soluble organic matter (SOM) yield of borehole samples from the lignite seam are related to free lipids present in plant waxes or resins and the presence of thermally labile polymers indicated by the contents of liptinite macerals (i.e., resinite, suberinite, and liptodetrinite). The n-alkane distribution patterns are dominated by high-molecular weight lipids with marked odd over even predominance, originating from plant waxes. A contribution of algae to the even numbered short-chain lipids, observed in considerable amounts in the footwall sediments is proposed. Terpenoid biomarkers characteristic for conifers and angiosperms were detected, consistent with palynomorphic spectra which are dominated by forest swamp pollen (Taxodiaceae-Cupressaceae) and pollen from plants living in a mixed mesophytic forest. Excellent relationships between higher plant biomarker composition and palynologic data indicate that the organic geochemical results reflect the varying inputs of coniferales vs. angiosperms. The data further imply that cuparene may be used for taxonomical differentiation of coniferales families. Organic geochemical data provide evidence that the content of land plant-derived biomarkers is controlled by the input of resin-rich conifers. Concentrations of hopanoids, dominated by hop-17(21)-ene, generally increase towards the top of the lignite, a section characterised by high extents of aromatisation of triterpenoid biomarkers. The results suggest that the aromatisation of angiosperm-derived biomarkers may be governed by the activity of anaerobic rather than by aerobic bacteria. However, changes in the depositional environment and

  6. Structural insights from boron tribromide ether cleavage into lignites and low maturity coals from the New Zealand Coal Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2011-01-01

    structure, boron tribromide (BBr3) ether cleavage was applied to a series of lignite and coal samples of different maturity (R0 0.27–0.80%) obtained from coal mines and natural outcrops from the North and South Island of New Zealand. Terminal ether-bound alcohols rapidly decrease during diagenesis and occur...... over geological time scales. Polyether compounds were detected with chain length up to five carbon atoms. After a small decrease during the diagenetic phase these compounds occur in relatively high concentrations, even in the main catagenetic stage. This suggests that these linkage structures represent...

  7. The influence of water quality on the reuse of lignite-derived waters in the Latrobe Valley, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Butler; A.M. Green; L. Chaffee [Monash University, Churchill, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE), a novel non-evaporative brown coal (lignite) dewatering process, is being developed to increase the efficiency of power stations in the Latrobe Valley (Victoria, Australia). A by-product of this process is a large volume (potentially 20 giga liters per annum) of product water stream. This paper examines water quality requirements for reuse and disposal within the Latrobe Valley and their compatibility with MTE process water. It has been established that remediation of this water will be required and that the maintenance of environmental flows in surface waters would be the most suitable use for the remediated water.

  8. Analytical investigation of lignite and its ash samples taken from the Afsin-Elbistan coal basin in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukonder, Adnan; Paksoy, Emine; Biber, Seyma [Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Durdu, Burhanettin Goeker [Kilis 7 Aralik Univ., Kilis (Turkey). Opticianry Program; Baskaya, H.; Dogru, Mahmut [Bitlis Eren Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2014-04-15

    Lignite, taken from basin in Afsin-Elbistan region, and ash samples were analyzed according to the qualitative, quantitative and radioactivity properties. An elemental analysis was made by using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. 59.5 keV photons emitted from a {sup 241}Am source and 5.9 keV photons emitted from a {sup 55}Fe radioactive source were used for excitation. The characteristic K X-rays of the elements were counted with a Si(Li) detector. For the same samples gross alpha, gross beta and radionuclide activities were also measured. (orig.)

  9. The application of Airborne Laser Scaning for identifying old lignite workings - case study: the mine "Borussia" near Ośno Lubuskie (Western Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontaszewska-Piekarz, Agnieszka; Mrówczyńska, Maria

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents the possibilities of using data obtained by airborne laser scanning for identifying areas where lignite used to be mined. The technology of airborne laser scanning presented in the paper as and its results have a vast potential in terms of identifying local terrain deformations. The paper also presents the history of lignite mining in the region of Ośno Lubuskie (the north-west of Ziemia Lubuska - western Poland). It describes underground mining in complicated geological conditions (glaciotectonic deformations). The paper is supplemented with historical maps showing the locations of the mines

  10. Study relating to the conceptual design and cost estimates of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation lignite beneficiation process, Phase IV: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granatstein, D L; Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J

    1982-01-01

    The lignite beneficiation process produces a clean, environmentally acceptable and economical source of energy which offers many benefits to Saskatchewan, the public utilities and private industry. This document provides: A detailed assessment of the overall feasibility of the proposed process and its suitablity for successful commercialization; an economic evaluation including a sensitivity analysis of the major process uncertainties and alternate case analyses; an analysis of the market for beneficiated lignite; an analysis of the credits applicable to such a beneficiated product; and an outline of recommendation for process improvements and future process research and development.

  11. El Paleoceno-Mioceno de Península Mitre: antefosa y depocentro de techo de cuña de la cuenca Austral, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina The Paleocene-Miocene of Peninsula Mitre: foredeep and wedge-top of the Austral Basin, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J Torres Carbonell

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de cuenca de antepaís Austral-Malvinas adyacente al orógeno Fueguino comprende sedimen-titas marinas expuestas en el norte de Península Mitre, incluyendo 550 m de la antefosa del Paleoceno tardío-Eoceno temprano, y más de 2.900 m de la subcuenca María Luisa, depocentro de techo de cuña ('wedge-top' del Eoceno medio tardío-?Mioceno. La columna se subdivide en las formaciones La Barca (100 m, Paleoceno superior, Punta Noguera (450 m, Eoceno inferior, Leticia (30 m, Eoceno medio superior, Cerro Colorado (935 m, Eoceno medio superior-Eoceno superior, Puesto José (nom. nov., 1.600 m, Oligoceno y Malengüena (nom. nov., 216 m, ?Mioceno. La microfauna de la Formación Malengüena se distingue por el dominio de Globocassidulina cf brocha, y por su peculiar preservación, ambas características no reconocidas previamente en la porción argentina de la cuenca Austral. Se verifican discordancias sintectónicas entre el límite Paleoceno-Eoceno y el Eoceno medio, asociadas a una etapa de orogénesis regional: en el Eoceno más alto-Oligoceno basal, relacionada localmente con el anticlinal Campo del Medio; en el Oligoceno 'medio', asociada al retrocorrimiento Malengüena; y en el Mioceno ?inferior, relacionada con estructuras profundas de la faja corrida y plegada.The orogenic margin of the Austral-Malvinas foreland basin system is formed by a marine succession exposed at northern Península Mitre, composed of 550 m of the late Paleocene-early Eocene foredeep, and more than 2,900 m of the late middle Eocene-?Miocene María Luisa wedge-top sub-basin. The succession is subdivided in the following formations: La Barca (100 m, upper Paleocene, Punta Noguera (450 m, lower Eocene, Leticia (30 m, upper middle Eocene, Cerro Colorado (935 m, upper middle Eocene-upper Eocene, Puesto José (nom. nov, 1,600 m, Oligocene and Malengüena (nom. nov, 216 m, ?Miocene. The foraminiferal content of the Malengüena Formation is distinguished by the dominance

  12. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  13. Palynostratigraphy and paleoenvironment of the South Rifian Ridges (Morocco) Upper Domerian-Lower Toarcian sequence: A transitional domain between the Proto-Atlantic and the Tethys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahidi, S.; Hssaida, T.; Benzaggagh, M.; Oumalch, F.; Jaydawi, S.

    2016-10-01

    This paper relates to two marly outcrop sections of the South Rifian Ridges central unit (Moulay Idriss Zerhoun area), dated by Upper Domerian-Lower Toarcian ammonites. The Upper Domerian marls from the SKM outcrop section (Souk of Moulay Idriss Zerhoun) have yielded palynofacies very rich in lignitic particles (needle-like phytoclasts), Tasmanites (unicellular green algae), spores and pollen grains. The marine microfossils, especially dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs, are not present. These latter marine organisms are predominant in the Lower Toarcian palynofacies samples collected from the FA (Feddane Amar) outcrop section, in association with a significant amount of lignitic particles. This striking difference in the palynological content between the palynofacies of the Upper Domerian and the Lower Toarcian indicates an important change in the marine paleoenvironment in the South Rifian Ridge domain. Therefore, the anoxic period during the Upper Domerian is marked by the abundance of spores and pollen grains and the absence of marine microfossils, except for the Tasmanites; it is followed by a normal salinity-marine period, characterized by abundant marine-related palynomorphs, in the Early Toarcian. This paleoenvironmental change may be related with the Middle Liassic carbonate platform dislocation of the South Rifian Ridge domain and probably to the global marine transgression, occurring at the base of Toarcian, known all over the world. (Author)

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  16. Isolation and identification of a Candida digboiensis strain from an extreme acid mine drainage of the Lignite Mine, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh J; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2009-12-01

    An extremely acidic mine drainage (AMD) water sample was collected in 1998 and 2008 from Panandhro lignite mine, Gujarat, India. The yeast isolated from this sample was identified using mini API identification system, as a member of genus Candida. The major cellular fatty acids detected by FAME from the isolate are C(16:0) and C(18:2) (cis 9,12)/C(18:0alpha) as 25.23 and 19.5%, respectively. The isolate was identified as Candida digboiensis by 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis and designated as Candida digboiensis SRDyeast1. Phylogenetic analysis using D1/D2 variable domains showed that the closest relative of this strain is Candida blankii with 3% divergence. This organism has been reported for the first time from the lignite mine AMD sample, and for cellular fatty acid analysis. This yeast is able to survive in the AMD sample preserved at 10-42 degrees C temperature since last 10 years along with iron oxidizing microorganisms. It can grow in the presence of 40% glucose, 10% NaCl and in the pH range of 1 to 10. The isolate is capable of producing enzymes like protease and lipase. This isolate differs from the type strain Candida digboiensis in as many as six physiological and metabolic characteristics.

  17. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-burning area of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini

    Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air burning of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel burning in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal burning, vegetative burning (wood combustion and agricultural burns) and refuse open-air burning. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.

  18. Model Research of Gas Emissions From Lignite and Biomass Co-Combustion in a Large Scale CFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywański Jarosław

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the idea of a combustion modelling of a large-scale circulating fluidised bed boiler (CFB during coal and biomass co-combustion. Numerical computation results for three solid biomass fuels co-combustion with lignite are presented in the paper. The results of the calculation showed that in previously established kinetics equations for coal combustion, some reactions had to be modified as the combustion conditions changed with the fuel blend composition. Obtained CO2, CO, SO2 and NOx emissions are located in borders of ± 20% in the relationship to the experimental data. Experimental data was obtained for forest biomass, sunflower husk, willow and lignite cocombustion tests carried out on the atmospheric 261 MWe COMPACT CFB boiler operated in PGE Turow Power Station in Poland. The energy fraction of biomass in fuel blend was: 7%wt, 10%wt and 15%wt. The measured emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx (i.e. NO + NO2 were also shown in the paper. For all types of biomass added to the fuel blends the emission of the gaseous pollutants was lower than that for coal combustion.

  19. Effects of ocean acidification on the marine calcium isotope record at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Elizabeth M.; Fantle, Matthew S.; Eisenhauer, Anton; Paytan, Adina; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2015-06-01

    Carbonates are used extensively to reconstruct paleoclimate and paleoceanographic conditions over geologic time scales. However, these archives are susceptible to diagenetic alteration via dissolution, recrystallization and secondary precipitation, particularly during ocean acidification events when intense dissolution can occur. Despite the possible effects of diagenesis on proxy fidelity, the impacts of diagenesis on the calcium isotopic composition (δ44Ca) of carbonates are unclear. To shed light on this issue, bulk carbonate δ44Ca was measured at high resolution in two Pacific deep sea sediment cores (ODP Sites 1212 and 1221) with considerably different dissolution histories over the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼ 55 Ma). The δ44Ca of marine barite was also measured at the deeper Site 1221, which experienced severe carbonate dissolution during the PETM. Large variations (∼ 0.8 ‰) in bulk carbonate δ44Ca occur in the deeper of the two sites at depths corresponding to the peak carbon isotope excursion, which correlate with a large drop in carbonate weight percent. Such an effect is not observed in either the 1221 barite record or the bulk carbonate record at the shallower Site 1212, which is also less affected by dissolution. We contend that ocean chemical changes associated with abrupt and massive carbon release into the ocean-atmosphere system and subsequent ocean acidification at the PETM affected the bulk carbonate δ44Ca record via diagenesis in the sedimentary column. Such effects are considerable, and need to be taken into account when interpreting Ca isotope data and, potentially, other geochemical proxies over extreme climatic events that drive sediment dissolution.

  20. Release of Volatiles During North Atlantic Flood Basalt Volcanism and Correlation to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, J. M.; Tegner, C.; Kent, A. J.; Ulrich, T.

    2017-12-01

    The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean between Greenland and Norway during the lower Tertiary led to intense flood basalt volcanism and the emplacement of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). The volcanism is temporally overlapping with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but ash stratigraphy and geochronology suggests that the main flood basalt sequence in East Greenland postdates the PETM. Significant environmental changes during the PETM have been attributed to the release of CO2 or methane gas due to either extensive melting of hydrates at the ocean floor or as a consequence of the interaction of mantle derived magmas with carbon rich sediments.Estimates suggest that a minimum of 1.8x106 km3 of basaltic lava erupted during North Atlantic flood basalt volcanism. Based on measurements of melt inclusions from the flood basalts our preliminary calculations suggest that approximately 2300 Gt of SO2 and 600 Gt of HCl were released into the atmosphere. Calculated yearly fluxes approach 23 Mt/y SO2 and 6 Mt/y HCl. These estimates are regarded as conservative.The S released into to the atmosphere during flood basalt volcanism can form acid aerosols that absorb and reflect solar radiation, causing an effective cooling effect. The climatic effects of the release of Cl into the atmosphere are not well constrained, but may be an important factor for extinction scenarios due to destruction of the ozone layer.The climatic changes due to the release of S and Cl in these amounts, and for periods extending for hundred thousand of years, although not yet fully constrained are likely to be significant. One consequence of the North Atlantic flood basalt volcanism may have been the initiation of global cooling to end the PETM.

  1. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  2. Remote sensing for investigations of woodlands impacted by lignite open surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, M. [ILV-Fernerkundung GmbH, Teltow (Germany); Lohstraeter, O. [Abteilung Markscheidewesen, MIBRAG mbH, Theissen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The development of a long term monitoring concept for post-mining landscapes and mine surroundings as ordered by the company MIBRAG requires different preliminary studies. Objectives of these methodologically oriented analyses presented were the recording of ecologically relevant parameters, their changes and of possible effects caused by the mining activities in the flood plains of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder' situated between the open surface lignite mines 'Vereinigtes Schleenhain' and 'Profen' south of Leipzig. Besides other information, repeatedly generated satellite data of the SPOT system was prepared for research of various vegetation types, selected by certain criteria for a long term monitoring. The satellite data analysis methodology and research findings are presented. The generation of radiometrical and comparable data records using the atmosphere correction software 'ATCOR' as part of the image processing system 'ERDAS IMAGINE' and the evaluation of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index NDVI are important parts of the analysis. Based on deciduous woodland maps near the rivers of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder', which were categorised as ecologically valuable, statistical analyses were made using the vegetation status evaluated by remote sensing. As a result, tendencies of vegetation change are demonstrated. To obtain more details about special relations between vegetation development and remote sensing data, further research is necessary involving spectral features of deciduous plant canopy and their causalities. Future gathering of high-precision geometric and radiometric (digital airborne) data is one way of reaching more detailed information of the objects in question. The high geometric accuracy of digital camera data (by DMC) and the color bands are benefits for the mining company which can now replace regular air-borne surveying made with analogous technology

  3. Drone-Borne Hyperspectral Monitoring of Acid Mine Drainage: An Example from the Sokolov Lignite District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jackisch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the potential of unmanned aerial systems (UAS to monitor areas affected by acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD is an environmental phenomenon that usually develops in the vicinity of mining operations or in post-mining landscapes. The investigated area covers a re-cultivated tailing in the Sokolov lignite district of the Czech Republic. A high abundance of AMD minerals occurs in a confined space of the selected test site and illustrates potential environmental issues. The mine waste material contains pyrite and its consecutive weathering products, mainly iron hydroxides and oxides. These affect the natural pH values of the Earth’s surface. Prior research done in this area relies on satellite and airborne data, and our approach focuses on lightweight drone systems that enables rapid deployment for field campaigns and consequently-repeated surveys. High spatial image resolutions and precise target determination are additional advantages. Four field and flight campaigns were conducted from April to September 2016. For validation, the waste heap was probed in situ for pH, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and reflectance spectrometry. Ground truth was achieved by collecting samples that were characterized for pH, X-ray diffraction, and XRF in laboratory conditions. Hyperspectral data were processed and corrected for atmospheric, topographic, and illumination effects using accurate digital elevation models (DEMs. High-resolution point clouds and DEMs were built from drone-borne RGB data using structure-from-motion multi-view-stereo photogrammetry. The supervised classification of hyperspectral image (HSI data suggests the presence of jarosite and goethite minerals associated with the acidic environmental conditions (pH range 2.3–2.8 in situ. We identified specific iron absorption bands in the UAS-HSI data. These features were confirmed by ground-truth spectroscopy. The distribution of in situ pH data validates the UAS-based mineral

  4. Technical and Sociological Investigation of Impacts in Using Lignite Mine Drainage for Irrigation - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugappan, A.; Manoharan, A.; Senthilkumar, G.; Krishnamurthy, J.

    2017-07-01

    Irrigated farming depends on an ample supply of water compatible quality. Presently, a lot of irrigation projects have to depend on inferior quality and not so enviable sources of water supply. In order to prevent troubles during usage of such water supplies of poor quality, there must be meticulous preparation to ensure that the water available with such quality characteristics is put to best use. The effect of water quality upon soil and crops must be better understood in choosing fitting options to manage with impending water quality associated troubles that might decrease soil and crop productivity under existing circumstances of water use. Two tanks (small sized reservoirs) namely, Walajah Tank and Perumal Tank in Cuddalore District, used for irrigation, receive mine drainage water pumped out continuously from the open cast lignite mines of the NLC India Limited, Neyveli, Tamilnadu State. This water has been used by the farmers in the irrigated commands of both Walajah Tank and Perumal Tank for more than three decades. Recently, the beneficiaries had raised fears on the quality of mine drainage waters they had been using for raising crops in the commands of both the tanks. They opined that the coal dust laden mine water used for irrigation had affected the crop yields. This incited us to take up a study to (i) assess the status of quality of surface waters released from the two tanks for irrigation in the respective command areas and (ii) assess the likely impacts of quality of water on soil and on growth and productivity of crops cultivated in the command areas. Further to the technical evaluation of the impacts, a structured questionnaire survey was also conducted among the farmers and the common public in the study area. The findings of the survey confirmed with the outcome of the technical assessment in that the mine drainage had a poor impact in the cultivable command area of Walajah tank system while such impacts were less significant in most parts of

  5. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noli, Fotini, E-mail: noli@chem.auth.gr; Tsamos, Panagiotis, E-mail: pktsamos@chem.auth.gr

    2016-09-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  6. Biochar and lignite affect H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activities in root tonoplast and nutrient contents of mung bean under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabian, Shahram; Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Rathjen, Judith

    2018-05-31

    This research was conducted to evaluate effects of biochar (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) and lignite (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) treatments on H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activity of root tonoplast, nutrient content, and performance of mung bean under salt stress. High saline conditions increased H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities in root tonoplast, sodium (Na) content, reactive oxygen species (H 2 O 2 and O 2 - ) generation, relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity in root and leaf, but decreased relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content index, leaf area, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content of plant tissues, root and shoot dry weight of mung bean. Lignite and biochar treatments decreased the H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities of root tonoplast under salt stress. Moreover, these treatments increased the cation exchange capacity of soil and nutrient values in plant tissues. Biochar and lignite diminished the generation of reactive oxygen species and DPPH activity in root and leaf cells, and these superior effects improved chlorophyll content index, leaf area and growth of mung bean under both conditions. In general, the results of this study demonstrated that biochar and lignite decreased the entry of Na ion into the cells, enriched plant cells with nutrients, and consequently improved mung bean performance under salt toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Scientific investigations accompanying recultivation of abandoned lignite mines in East Germany. Research projects 1994 through 2000; Wissenschaftliche Begleitung der ostdeutschen Braunkohlesanierung. Forschungsprojekte 1994 bis 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gockel, G.; Hildmann, E.; Schlenstedt, J.; Schreiber, M. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    From 1990 the reduction of lignite mining on the territory of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) led to the closure of plants for the production and processing of lignite. This entailed a dramatic demand of redevelopment and transformation of former mining and industrial areas of lignite industry and the creation of the industrial branch of remediation of post-lignite-mining areas, for which suitable structures of management and financing had to be found. The target of these endeavours is the creation of multifunctional to follow former surface mining areas. Ecological and security criteria play an eminent part in this process. Stabilising slopes, recultivation, rehabilitation of a balanced water regime and the elimination of dangers emanating from groundwater and soil contamination by earlier industrial use have particular priority. Recultivation requires scientific preparation and surveillance. Deficits are discussed that have led to the invitation of tenders for a promotion initiative and resulted in the implementation of a number of research projects. This publication deals with the presentation of the tasks and research approaches as well as the description and evaluation of results with the view of their applicability. (orig.)

  8. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project alternative energy sources: solar, eolic, shale, ocean, hydrogen, organic wastes, peat and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Several aspects of solar, eolic and ocean energy and shale, peat lignite, hydrogen and organic waste in Brazil are described, including reserves, potential, technology economy and environment. Based in data and information presented in this report, the necessity of a more detailed survey with the potential of alternative energy sources in Brazil, emphasizing the more promiser regions is also mentioned. (C.G.C.)

  9. Reclamation of a lignite combustion waste disposal site with alders (Alnus sp.): assessment of tree growth and nutrient status within 10 years of the experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Pająk, Marek; Wanic, Tomasz; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Chodak, Marcin

    2018-06-01

    Combustion wastes are characterised by extremely low N contents. Therefore, introduction of nitrogen-fixing species at the first stage of their biological reclamation is required. This paper presents an assessment of the growth parameters of alders (Alnus sp.) 10 years after their introduction to a disposal site of lignite combustion waste in Central Poland. Black (Alnus glutinosa) and grey alders (Alnus incana) were planted directly in the combustion waste. The soil amendment included three variants: control with pure combustion waste, admixture of lignite culm and addition of acid sand. Both alder species displayed good growth parameters comparable to those of alders in natural habitats. However, black alder had better growth parameters, such as stand density index (SDI), diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H) than grey alder. The lignite amendment exerted a positive effect on tree growth, reflected in a higher SDI and H, whereas the acid sand amendment did not affect any of the growth parameters of the studied alder species. Despite the good growth parameters, the measured N:P and N:K ratios in the alder leaves largely differed from the optimal values indicating insufficient P and K supply at the combustion waste disposal site. This may pose a threat to further development of the introduced tree plantings. The introduction of alders along with the lignite addition into the planting holes seems to be a successful method of combustion waste revegetation.

  10. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  11. Latest paleocene benthic extinction event on the southern tethyan shelf (Egypt): Foraminiferal stable isotopic (delta C-13,delta O-18) records

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, B; Speijer, Robert; Aubry, MP

    1996-01-01

    The dramatic global extinction of 35%-50% of benthic foraminifera species in the deep sea in the latest Paleocene and associated negative excursions in delta(13)C and delta(18)O may be related to spreading of warm, saline bottom water from subtropical Tethyan shallow regions over the sea floor worldwide, Our study of neritic sections in Egypt shows that in the southern shallow Tethys, a prominent long-term change in bottom-water chemistry, sedimentation, and benthic foraminifera fauna was ini...

  12. New paleomagnetic results from the Paleocene redbeds in the Tethyan Himalaya: Insights into the precollisional extension of Greater India and the time of the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Jin, J.; Ma, Y.; Bian, W.; Zhang, S.; Gao, F.; Wu, H.; Li, H.; Yang, Z.; Cao, L.

    2017-12-01

    The collision and ongoing convergence between the India and Asia continents have produced the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen. The precollisional extension of Greater India and the time of the India-Asia collision are very important to understand the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, but disputes still remain concerning these two problems. A paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study has been carried out on the Sangdanlin and Zheya Formation redbeds, which were dated at 60-58.5 Ma, in the Saga area of the Tethyan Himalaya. Thirty-six Paleocene redbed sites provide a tilt-corrected site-mean direction of D=178.3°, I=9.8° with ɑ95=5.5°, corresponding to a paleopole at 55.6°N, 268.5°E with A95 = 4.9°. This Paleocene paleomagnetic dataset passes positive fold tests and shows that the Saga area (29.3°N, 85.3°E) was located at 5.1°S during 60-58.5 Ma. Comparing the Paleocene (60-58.5 Ma) paleomagnetic results observed from the Tethyan Himalaya with those expected from the Indian APWP indicates a paleolatitude difference of 2.1°, which, combined with that the Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic results obtained from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Indian craton also showed a similar paleolatitude difference, suggests that neither a great north-south crustal shortening occurred between the Indian craton and the Tethyan Himalaya after the India-Asia collision, nor that a wide ocean extended between them after the Early Cretaceous. Therefore, high-quality paleomagnetic results show no a big Greater India. Based on our new Paleocene results obtained from the Tethyan Himalaya and the reliable Cretaceous-Early Eocene paleomagnetic results observed from the Lhasa terrane, as well as on extrapolating a constant Indian northward velocity of 18.8 cm/yr, the India-Asia collision occurred at 49.2 Ma for the reference point at 29.3°N, 85.3°E. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41572205) and the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central

  13. The need for verification of the Polish lignite deposits owing to development and nature conservation protection on land at the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naworyta Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a country rich in lignite. The area where the lignite occurs occupies approx. 22% of the total surface area of the country. Geological resources of Polish lignite deposits are estimated at 23.5 billion Mg, but in the majority (69% the accuracy of their identification is poor. Nevertheless the amount of coal in Polish deposits allows - at least in theory - for mining and energy production at the current level for hundreds of years to come. It is an important raw material for the energy security of the country both currently and in the future. Because the vast majority of Polish and foreign mines use an open pit method for lignite extraction the actual amount of mineral available for the extraction depends not only on the properties of the deposit but to a large extent on the method of development of the surface land above the deposit, as well as on the sensitivity of the environment in the vicinity of any future mines. After careful analysis it can be stated that only a few of the lignite deposits may be subject to cost-effective mining operations. These deposits should be subjected to special protection as a future resource base which will ensure the energy security of the country. Some examples of domestic deposits have been presented where due to the conflict resulting from the development of the area should be deleted from the Balance Sheet of Mineral Deposits because their exploitation is irrational and uneconomic. Keeping such deposits in the Balance Sheet, and the use of large numbers in the context of their resource base leads to an unwarranted sense of wealth which consequently does not encourage the protection of these deposits which may actually be subject to rational exploitation in the near future. In summary there is a need to find a compromise in order to adequately protect all natural resources including mineral deposits.

  14. Optimization of a lignite-fired open pulverizing system boiler process based on variations in the drying agent composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Youfu; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Yichao; Wang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates three lignite-fired OPSB (open pulverizing system boiler) processes, named OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C, corresponding to three options of drying agents used for the pulverizing systems. OPSB-B is similar to our previous work [18] on drying agent composition. Performances of the three OPSBs were calculated and compared with a 600 MW lignite-fired boiler as the reference. The results showed that the coal savings of OPSB-A and OPSB-C were 5.41% and 4.06% in comparison with the reference boiler, whereas for OPSB-B, the savings was 2.57%. Accordingly, emissions of each OPSB could be reduced in proportion to the coal savings. Among the three OPSBs, OPSB-C showed the best performance of water recovery from mill-exhausts because it had the highest mill-exhaust water dew point of 73.2 °C, whereas the exhaust dew points of OPSB-A and OPSB-B were 63.9 °C and 70.9 °C, respectively. Both OPSB-C and OPSB-B are beneficial for achieving a high mill-exhaust humidity ratio, which facilitates water recovery from the mill-exhaust, and a low oxygen content in mill-exhaust, which improves the operating safety of the pulverizing systems, whereas OPSB-A is relatively inferior in these respects. The OPSB-C process is recommended for engineering applications because of its favorable overall performances. - Highlights: • Three lignite-fired OPSB processes are analyzed based on a conventional 600 MW boiler. • OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C show coal savings of 5.41%, 2.57 and 4.06%, respectively. • All OPSBs have a great advantage of water recovery from the flue gas, especially OPSB-C. • OPSB-C process is recommended in view of its favorable overall performances

  15. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  16. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-01-01

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill(trademark). The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  17. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  18. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 3. Coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Lee, D.

    1995-01-01

    methodological issues was reached on both sides of the Atlantic. Since 1993 the study has continued in Europe as the ExternE-Project, and now involves an international team of more than 30 organisations. The current study has three main objectives: 1. to design a unified methodology for quantifying the various social costs associated with the production and consumption of energy; 2. to use the methodology to evaluate the external costs of incremental use of different fuel cycles in different locations in the European Union; 3. to identify critical methodological issues and research requirements. At the same time as the publication of the present report, further reports are being published on the other major fuel cycles for electricity generation, including uranium, oil, gas, wind and hydro. A further volume, providing greater detail on the methodology used for assessment of the impacts of the fossil fuel cycles and their valuation is also being published. Additional reports on other fuel cycles, and implementation of the methodology in different countries will follow shortly. This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the coal and lignite fuel cycles. Estimates of impacts have been made following critical review of existing data and models rather than from original basic research. This review has been performed by a multi-disciplinary team including specialists in the fields of health, forestry, ecology, materials science, atmospheric chemistry and physics, energy technology, computer science and economics. Wherever possible we have used exactly the same methodology to quantify the same form of damage for each fuel cycle and for each location. However, some differences will be observed in the assessment of the fuel cycles considered in this report. These arise largely through the status of development of the methodology when certain parts of the work were completed. Wherever possible these differences have been

  19. Late Paleocene-middle Eocene benthic foraminifera on a Pacific seamount (Allison Guyot, ODP Site 865): Greenhouse climate and superimposed hyperthermal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J.; Alegret, Laia; Thomas, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the response of late Paleocene-middle Eocene (~60-37.5 Ma) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to long-term climate change and hyperthermal events including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 on Allison Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Seamounts are isolated deep-sea environments where enhanced current systems interrupt bentho-pelagic coupling, and fossil assemblages from such settings have been little evaluated. Assemblages at Site 865 are diverse and dominated by cylindrical calcareous taxa with complex apertures, an extinct group which probably lived infaunally. Dominance of an infaunal morphogroup is unexpected in a highly oligotrophic setting, but these forms may have been shallow infaunal suspension feeders, which were ecologically successful on the current-swept seamount. The magnitude of the PETM extinction at Site 865 was similar to other sites globally, but lower diversity postextinction faunas at this location were affected by ocean acidification as well as changes in current regime, which might have led to increased nutrient supply through trophic focusing. A minor hyperthermal saw less severe effects of changes in current regime, with no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Although the relative abundance of infaunal benthic foraminifera has been used as a proxy for surface productivity through bentho-pelagic coupling, we argue that this proxy can be used only in the absence of changes in carbonate saturation and current-driven biophysical linking.

  20. Calcium Isotope (δ44/40Ca) Composition of Morozovella Velascoensis During the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum Ocean Acidification Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitch, G. D.; Jacobson, A. D.; Hurtgen, M.; Sageman, B. B.; Harper, D. T.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) events are transient disruptions to the carbonate chemistry of seawater that involve decreases in pH, [CO32-] and carbonate mineral saturation states (Ω). Numerical modeling studies predict that the Ca isotope (δ44/40Ca) composition of primary marine carbonate should be sensitive to OA1, and recent evidence from the rock record may support this hypothesis2. Boron isotope (δ11B) data for the planktonic foraminifera Morozovella velascoensis indicate that the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55 Mya) was an interval of pronounced OA3, although the Ca isotope composition of the bulk carbonate record appears to show post-burial diagenetic effects4. To further evaluate the Ca isotope proxy, we used a high-precision (2σSD=±0.04‰), double-spike (43Ca-42Ca) TIMS method5 to measure δ44/40Ca values of well-preserved M. velascoensis tests spanning the PETM. M. velascoensis tests (250-355 µm) were picked from samples recovered during ODP Leg 198, Site 1209 on Shatsky Rise in the equatorial Pacific. Five M. velascoensis tests were combined per sample, dissolved, spiked, and analyzed using a Triton TIMS. Repeat dissolutions of ten samples gave δ44/40Ca values within ±0.04‰ of the original measurements. Method and procedural blanks were negligible. δ44/40Ca values are elevated, even before the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that marks the PETM. When δ11/10B values decrease during the CIE, δ44/40Ca values remain elevated, but then decrease by 0.10‰ as δ11B values return to pre-CIE levels. The apparent inverse correlation between δ44/40Ca and δ11B values suggests that Ca isotope fractionation by M. velascoensis was sensitive to OA. A decrease in pH indicated by lower δ11B values is consistent with higher δ44/40Ca values (decreased fractionation) due to elevated [Ca2+]/[CO32-] ratios and reduced W. The Ca isotope composition of pristine foraminiferal calcite may have potential for reconstructing [CO32-]. The current

  1. Paleo-Productivity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Walvis Ridge Transect (ODP Sites 1262, 1263, and 1266)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C. O.; Delaney, M. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Walvis Ridge transect (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 208) provides the first high-resolution depth-transect of deep-sea sediments recovered from the south Atlantic across the P/E boundary. A geographically restricted depth transect (~ 2.2 km, water depths between 2500 and 4770 m) allows us to constrain the surface waters by assuming marine productivity conditions in the overlying water column are similar across all sites. The sediment record will reveal variations for processes that are water-depth dependent. We use the geochemical tracers; biogenic barium, phosphorus, calcium carbonate, and the redox sensitive trace elements manganese and uranium, to reconstruct nutrient burial, paleoproductivity, and bottom water redox chemistry across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We calculate our concentrations on a calcium carbonate-free basis to account for dilution by non-carbonate sediments. Trace metal enrichment factors (EFs) are calculated relative to bulk crustal averages. We chose three sites from the depth transect: the shallowest (Site 1263, 2717 m water depth), an intermediate site (Site 1266, 3798 m water depth), and the deepest site (Site 1262, 4755 m water depth). We sampled each site at a sample resolution of ~ 1-2 kyr for 5 m.y. centered at 55 Ma. Uranium EFs at the shallow site exhibits values ~ 5 pre-event and drop to values near crustal averages during and after the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). No dramatic changes in U EFs across the P/E boundary are recorded at the deep and intermediate sites. Mn EFs range between 2.9 -8.6 prior to the event across all three sites, suggesting an oxygenated depositional environment. At the boundary, Mn EFs drop to crustal averages at all sites, then gradually return to pre-event values, indicating more reducing environments during the CIE, a possible explanation for the benthic extinction event (BEE) observed across this transect. Ba excess and reactive phosphorus exhibit decreased concentrations during

  2. Cenozoic mantle composition evolution of southern Tibet indicated by Paleocene ( 64 Ma) pseudoleucite phonolitic rocks in central Lhasa terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Gou, Guo-Ning; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Li, Qiu-Li; Zhang, Le

    2018-03-01

    The question of whether continental subduction processes in collisional orogenic belts can trigger wide-spread mantle metesomatism and crustal material recycling remains unresolved. Miocene (25-8 Ma) ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet are the only mantle-derived magmatic rocks emplaced after the collision between India and Asia and they have been linked to the onset of east-west extensional stresses as the surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau reached near-maximum elevation. However, their petrogenesis remains highly controversial, particularly the issue of whether their extremely enriched Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics were related to metasomatism derived from subducted Indian continental materials during the Cenozoic. Here we report on a Paleocene silicate-unsaturated, pseudoleucite phonolitic dike, in the Rongniduo area of central Lhasa terrane. In-situ SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) apatite U-Pb age indicates the dike was generated at 64.1 ± 4.2 Ma, which slightly predates the age of initial India and Asia collision (about 55-50 Ma). This is the oldest age yet reported for ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet. Samples from this dike have distinctly more depleted Sr-Nd (whole rock: (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7064 to 0.7062, εNd(t) = - 1.5 to 0.4; in situ apitite: (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7059 to 0.7060, εNd(t) = - 2.0 to 0.4) isotopic compositions, than those of Miocene (25-8 Ma) ultrapotassic rocks in the central Lhasa terrane ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7106 to 0.7399, εNd(t) = - 10.6 to - 18.5). Our new data provides important constraints on pre-collisional mantle characteristics beneath the Lhasa terrane. We suggest that these 64 Ma pseudoleucite phonolitic rocks were derived from the enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted Tethyan oceanic materials in response to Neo-Tethyan slab roll-back. As a consequence, the younger Miocene ultrapotassic rocks, which display different geochemical compositions from the pre-collisional ultrapotassic rocks, were most

  3. Remedial Action Plan for stabilization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This remedial action plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and near Bowman (at the former Griffin town site), North Dakota. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the sites. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of North Dakota and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of North Dakota and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement

  4. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of germanium in lignite; Determinacion Espectrografica Cuantitativa de trazas de Germanio en Lignitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M; Roca, M

    1972-07-01

    A burning technique in a d.c. arc at 10 amp has been employed. The standards have been prepared from a natural lignite with a low germanium content. In order to enhance sensitivity, AgCl, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, CuF{sub 2}, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} have been tested as sweeping materials. Using 2% CuF{sub 2} a detection limit of 1 ppm germanium is attainable. Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn have been studied as internal standards: the former leads to the, highest precision (1 6%). Results show good agreement with those obtained by the addition method. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Weathering processes under various moisture conditions in a lignite mine spoil from As Pontes (N.W. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Processes contributing to acid release/consumption during weathering of a lignite mine spoil (2.3% w/w S as sulfides) from As Pontes (N.W. Spain) were studied under three moisture conditions (at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying or forced percolation), which were simulated in laboratory experiments. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfates was favoured under all three moisture conditions, releasing most acid in spoil kept at field capacity. Hydroxysulfates formed in spoil kept at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying conditions, thereby contributing to acid release. Acid consumption by dissolution of clay minerals, especially micas, was favoured under all three moisture conditions, but was particularly intense in spoil at field capacity. Dissolution of aluminium oxides was also favoured under all the moisture conditions studied. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  6. The genesis of the Nissi peatland (northwestern Greece) as an example of peat and lignite deposit formation in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianis, K. (University of Patras, Patras (Greece). Dept of Geology)

    1994-07-01

    The Nissi Fen is located in a 12 km[sup 2] intramontane basin in northwestern Greece. Since the last glacial, limnotelmatic and pure telmatic conditions, controlled mainly by karstic springs and partly by surface waters, favoured peat formation in the basin, resulting in the accumulation of a peat deposit up to 15 m thick. The present fen occupies a large area of almost 9 km[sup 2]. Flora cover comprises mainly Cyperaceae ([ital Cladium mariscus] and [ital Carex] species), while [ital Phragmites australis] extend along the banks of a river flowing through the basin, as well as around a lake in the southern part of the fen. These species also contributed to the peat formation. The Nissi peatland shows many genetic similarities to the Philippi peat deposit, Eastern Macedonia, and may be considered as a recent analogue to the lignite deposits in the basins of Ptolemais, Western Macedonia and Megalopolis, the Peloponnese. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Auxiliary mechanisms for work to dry stripping sections of the north Cheshskiy lignite basin of the CSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandek, J

    1979-01-01

    A brief examination is made of the employed methods for drying fields of lignite open pits: removal of water on water pumping channels, pumping out of water by mobile pump units, pumping out of water through wells (diameter 300 mm). Certain parameters of hydraulic excavators used for drying operations which are divided into three groups according to drive power are presented: 1) drive power over 100 kW (DN 101, aDN 103); 2 group drive power 50-100 kW (K 606, TMR 71, TEZM, Satur 051k, UDS 110a, UDS 113 and UDS 119 p, as well as the trench digger ER 7 am); third group drive power less than 50 kW (CASTOR 602, Poclain TY 45 and trench digger ETU 354). The expediency is indicated of unifying the hydraulic excavators based on the UDS 110 p excavator.

  8. Co-Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 3 - Effect of Reaction Time and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions. To minimize retrogressive reactions, the liquefaction of coal was carried out in a flowing solvent reactor in which a fixed bed of coal is continuously permeated by hot solvent. Solvent flowing through the coal bed carries the liquefaction products out of the reactor. Unlike experiments carried out under similar conditions in a batch reactor no increase in solid residue is observed during long time high temperature runs in the flowing solvent reactor. There is a greater appreciation of the importance of retrograde, or polymerization, reactions. If the free radicals formed when coal breaks down are not quickly capped with hydrogen, they react with each other to form large molecules that are much harder to break down than the original coal. Reaction time impacts both the co-liquefaction cost and the product yield. So as to study this idea, the experiments of Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure co-liquefaction carried out by changing the reaction time from 30 to 120 minutes. As a result, the greatest oil products yields obtained at 60 minutes. Therefore, by thinking about the oil products yield values acquired, the optimal reaction time was obtained to be 60 minutes for Elbistan lignite (EL) with manure liquefied with the temperature of 350°C and 400°C. Above 425°C did not examine because solvent (tetraline) loses its function after 425 °C. The obtained optimum temperature found 400°C due to higher total conversion of liquefaction products and also oil+gas yields.

  9. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  10. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  11. Macrocrystal phlogopite Rb-Sr dates for the Ekati property kimberlites, Slave Province, Canada: evidence for multiple intrusive episodes in the Paleocene and Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaser, Robert A.; Grütter, Herman; Carlson, Jon; Crawford, Barbara

    2004-09-01

    New Rb-Sr age determinations using macrocrystal phlogopite are presented for 27 kimberlites from the Ekati property of the Lac de Gras region, Slave Province, Canada. These new data show that kimberlite magmatism at Ekati ranges in age from at least Late Paleocene (∼61 Ma) to Middle Eocene time (∼45 Ma). Older, perovskite-bearing kimberlites from Ekati extend this age range to Late Cretaceous time (∼74 Ma). Within this age range, emplacement episodes at ∼48, 51-53, 55-56 and 59-61 Ma can be recognized. Middle Eocene kimberlite magmatism of the previously dated Mark kimberlite (∼47.5 Ma) is shown to include four other pipes from the east-central Ekati property. A single kimberlite (Aaron) may be younger than the 47.5 Ma Mark kimberlite. The economically important Panda kimberlite is precisely dated in this study to be 53.3±0.6 Ma using the phlogopite isochron method, and up to six additional kimberlites from the central Ekati property have Early Eocene ages indistinguishable from that of Panda, including the Koala and Koala North occurrences. Late Paleocene 55-56 Ma kimberlite magmatism, represented by the Diavik kimberlite pipes adjacent to the southeastern Ekati property, is shown to extend onto the southeastern Ekati property and includes three, and possibly four, kimberlites. A precise eight-point phlogopite isochron for the Cobra South kimberlite yields an emplacement age of 59.7±0.4 Ma; eight other kimberlites from across the Ekati property have similar Late Paleocene Rb-Sr model ages. The addition of 27 new emplacement ages for kimberlites from the Ekati property confirms that kimberlite magmatism from the central Slave Province is geologically young, despite ages ranging back to Cambrian time from elsewhere in the Slave Province. With the available geochronologic database, Lac de Gras kimberlites with the highest diamond potential are currently restricted to the 51-53 and 55-56 Ma periods of kimberlite magmatism.

  12. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

  13. The effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Aydan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that some sinkholes or subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The author has been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in the long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu and 2011 Great East Japan earthquakes caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The author presents the effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions and discusses the implications on the areas above abandoned lignite mines in this paper.

  14. Spatial and vertical distribution and risk assessment of natural radionuclides in soils surrounding the lignite-fired power plants in Megalopolis basin, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthymiou, H V; Manousakas, M; Fouskas, A; Siavalas, G

    2013-01-01

    Twenty soil profile samples and fourteen surface soil samples collected from the vicinity of the lignite-fired power plants in the Megalopolis basin (Greece) were analysed for their natural radionuclide concentration and (137)Cs, since fossil fuels are associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials and hence with radiological impact. No significant enhancement of surface soil radioactivity levels in the vicinity of lignite-fired plants was observed. A downcore decreasing trend of (137)Cs was observed in a number of cores reflecting its atmospheric origin, whereas the uniform distribution observed in a number of other cores gave information on the mechanical alteration of the soil. The average dose rate value was found to be 63 ± 22 nGy h(-1), while the annual average effective dose from the terrestrial gamma radiation was found to be 0.08 ± 0.03 mSv.

  15. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  16. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  17. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential sedimentation and selective flocculation in the desulfurization of Teruel lignite. Sedimentacion diferencial y floculacion selectiva en la desulfuracion de los lignitos de Teruel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, R.; Clemente, C.; Gomez-Limon, D. (Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    At the time of researching the possibility to remove the sulfur of the lignites located in the Teruel area via selective flocculation, it has been proved that in the case of the sulfur on its sulfur form, there's a pronounced interference with the differential sedimentation between coal and sulfur, increased by the fact of a selective liberation. This differential sedimentation shows better results on the sulfur removal process than that obtained by selective flocculation. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

  19. Laboratory experiments and analytical investigations on the transfer of organic substances from lignite into ground water and residue lakes during flooding of opencast lignite mines. Final report; Laborexperimente und analytische Untersuchungen ueber den Eintrag braunkohlebuertiger organischer Stoffe in Grundwaesser und Restseegewaesser bei der Flutung von Braunkohletagebauen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzschuh, R.; Frauendorf, H.; Herrmann, D.; Pietzsch, K.

    2000-05-01

    Lignite samples of diffrent lithotypes and composition from opencast mines of Lusatia and the region near Leipzig were submitted to weathering processes in laboratory scale experiments and the transfer of organic matter from lignite into the hydrosphere has been observed. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry used in combination with data from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry numerous lignite-derived aromatic and heteroaromatic (poly-)carboxylic acids as well as aliphatic dicarboxylic acids could be characterized in the aqueous extracts. Investigations on water samples from lignite mining residue lakes cofirm these results. Furthermore, formation of chlororganic compounds like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxine and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), benzenes (PCBz) and phenols (PCPh) has been investigated on different lignite samples under natural weathering conditions and thermal treatment. (orig.) [German] Braunkohlen verschiedener Lithotypen und Zusammensetzung aus Tagebauen der Lausitz und der Region um Leipzig wurden in Laborexperimenten Verwitterungsprozessen unterzogen und der Uebergang organischer Materie aus der Braunkohle in die Hydrosphaere beobachtet. Mit Hilfe der HPLC-Elektrospray-MS-Untersuchungen in Kombination mit Daten aus GC-MS-Messungen konnten zahlreiche aus der Braunkohle stammende aromatische und heteroaromatische (Poly-)Carbonsaeuren sowie aliphatische Dicarbonsaeuren in den waessrigen Extrakten charakterisiert werden. Untersuchungen an Wasserproben aus bereits gefluteten Tagebaurestseen bestaetigen diese Ergebnisse. Weiterhin wurde die Bildung chlororganischer Verbindungen, wie polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und -furane (PCDD/F) sowie polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCB), Benzole (PCBz) und Phenole (PCPh) an unterschiedlichen Braunkohleproben unter natuerlichen Bedingungen und nach thermsicher Behandlung untersucht. (orig.)

  20. Speciation of selected trace and major elements in lignite used in 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant (Obrenovac, Serbia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandar Popovic; Dragana Djordjevic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Four samples of milled lignite used in the 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant, located in Obrenovac near Belgrade, were subjected to a five-step sequential extraction, comprising of the following phases: distilled water, 1 M ammonium acetate, 0.2 M ammonium oxalate/0.2 M oxalic acid, acidic solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and a 6 M solution of HCl. The concentrations of the different elements obtained in the extractions were statistically analysed. The majority of the examined elements were found to be most probably associated with inorganic fractions of lignite, only aluminum, silicon, chromium and arsenic have a larger extractable organic/sulfide fraction than an extractable inorganic fraction. Alumosilicates of magnesium (carriers of arsenic, zinc, lead, copper and chromium), silicates of potassium (scavengers of lead and nickel), mixed aluminates of iron and magnesium (carriers of arsenic, zinc, copper and chromium) and compounds of iron that do not contain aluminum and magnesium (scavengers of manganese) were dissolved in the fifth phase of the sequential extraction. Copper is a substrate of alumosilicates of potassium and magnesium, while zinc and chromium are substrates of compounds of iron leached in the third phase of the sequential extraction. Interphase correlation revealed that the adsorbed and ion-exchangeable fractions of most of the examined elements do not exhibit preferential binding to the components of the inorganic matrix of lignite ash.

  1. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  2. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  3. Calibration of the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene geomagnetic polarity and astrochronological time scales: new results from high-precision U-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Jahandar; Clyde, William; Wang, Tiantian; Johnson, Kirk; Bowring, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Reversals in the Earth's magnetic polarity are geologically abrupt events of global magnitude that makes them ideal timelines for stratigraphic correlation across a variety of depositional environments, especially where diagnostic marine fossils are absent. Accurate and precise calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (GPTS) is thus essential to the reconstruction of Earth history and to resolving the mode and tempo of biotic and environmental change in deep time. The Late Cretaceous - Paleocene GPTS is of particular interest as it encompasses a critical period of Earth history marked by the Cretaceous greenhouse climate, the peak of dinosaur diversity, the end-Cretaceous mass extinction and its paleoecological aftermaths. Absolute calibration of the GPTS has been traditionally based on sea-floor spreading magnetic anomaly profiles combined with local magnetostratigraphic sequences for which a numerical age model could be established by interpolation between an often limited number of 40Ar/39Ar dates from intercalated volcanic ash deposits. Although the Neogene part of the GPTS has been adequately calibrated using cyclostratigraphy-based, astrochronological schemes, the application of these approaches to pre-Neogene parts of the timescale has been complicated given the uncertainties of the orbital models and the chaotic behavior of the solar system this far back in time. Here we present refined chronostratigraphic frameworks based on high-precision U-Pb geochronology of ash beds from the Western Interior Basin of North America and the Songliao Basin of Northeast China that places tight temporal constraints on the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene GPTS, either directly or by testing their astrochronological underpinnings. Further application of high-precision radioisotope geochronology and calibrated astrochronology promises a complete and robust Cretaceous-Paleogene GPTS, entirely independent of sea-floor magnetic anomaly profiles.

  4. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  5. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  6. Spanish radioactive lignites, nature and solubility of the uranium; Lignitos radiactivos espanoles, naturaleza y solubilizacion del uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josa, J M; Merino, J L; Villoria, A [Direccion de Plantas Piloto e Industriales, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-06-15

    The authors describe the features of some 70 samples of radioactive lignites from various places in Spain (Huesca, Lerida, Teruel, Galicia and Murcia) with uranium contents varying between 20 and 1200 ppm. They carried out experiments on extraction of the uranium from these ores both by direct treatment and after roasting to eliminate organic matter and bring about concentration. The acid method was considered for leaching of the uranium from the substances in question using agitation and static bed techniques. Investigations were also carried out on the effect of the variables represented by grain size, amount of acid, temperature time and oxidants, in addition to those involved in the roasting process. (author) [Spanish] Los autores presentan las caracteristicas de unas 70 muestras de lignitos radiactivos procedentes de distintos puntos de Espana (Huesca, Lerida, Teruel, Galicia y Murcia) con leyes de uranio comprendidas entre 20 y 1200 ppm. El beneficio del uranio de estos minerales se ha abordado por tratamiento directo y despues de someterlos a tostacion, lo que elimino la materia organica y produjo enriquecimiento. La lixiviacion del uranio de los productos indicados se considero por via acida, utilizando tecnicas de agitacion y de lecho estatico. Se investigo la influencia de las variables tamano de grano, dosis de acido, temperatura, tiempo y oxidante, ademas de las implicadas en los procesos de tostacion. (author)

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition

  8. Resistance of polyvinyl alcohol blends stabilized by sodium and ammonium salts of lignite humic acids against γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbora Bakajova; Jiri Kucerik; Michal Ilcin; Oga Hola

    2011-01-01

    The dried blends containing sodium and ammonium salts of lignite humic acids (humates, 0.5-10% w/w) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were exposed to high dosage of γ-irradiation in the range of doses 127-806 kGy. Resulted products were then tested for their stability using thermogravimetrical analysis. As a reference the non-treated blends were used since the pure PVA exposed to γ-irradiation very quickly lost its stability and resulting consistence did not allow the stability tests. Stabilities showed a strong concentration and counterion dependency. While sodium counterion caused mostly destabilization with increasing dose, the ammonium counterion acted in an opposite way. The tests carried out in a moisturizing container revealed the changes in water absorbing capacity of irradiated samples and allowed partial explanation of humate stabilizing effect. Generally, at lower concentration of a humate the increase was observed with an increase in the γ-irradiation dose and vice versa. The results confirmed the antioxidant and stabilizing effect of humic acids added to some synthetic polymers and their applicability in materials exposed to γ-irradiation. (author)

  9. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  11. Silicified conifer forests and potential mining problems in seam M2 of the Gore Lignite Measures (Miocene), Southland, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindqvist, J K; Isaac, M J [New Zealand Geological Survey, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research

    1991-04-01

    Silicified conifer ({ital Podocarpus cf. hallii}) stumps up to 0.8 m in diameter are present at two levels in seam M2 of the Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, Mataura Coalfield, eastern Southland. The in situ stumps are believed to be the remains of forests which grew during pauses in peat accumulation, when groundwater levels were depressed as a result of climatic change or local basinal processes. Growth-ring measurements show the trees increased in radius between 0.16 and 1 mm per year. In two of six specimens, the growth-rates halved during their final 30-40 years of life; rising water levels may hav