WorldWideScience

Sample records for upper outwardly extending

  1. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  2. TLD personnel monitoring dose estimation- extending the upper limit of the dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, K.L.; Sathian, Deepa; Divakaran, T.; Massand, O.P.

    2001-01-01

    TLD personnel monitoring was introduced in the year 1975 in India and at present nearly 41,000 radiation workers are being monitored by 13 monitoring laboratories all over India. The BARC- TLD being used for personnel monitoring is based on CaSO 4 :Dy embedded in PTFE and semi-automatic TL reader using hot N 2 Gas for heating the dosimeters. This reader has the range to measure γ dose from ten μSv to 3 μSv and x-ray dose form 1 μ Sv to 0.3 Sv due to the higher sensitivity of CaSO 4 : Dy to lower energy photons (20keV-50 keV) generated by diagnostic x-ray units. The x-ray radiation workers are at present nearly 35% of the total radiation workers monitored and this number is expected to grow as more and more number of x-ray workers are covered under this service. The upper limit of the x-ray dose range of the instrument is 0.3 Sv, whereas in the past one year it has been observed that at least 25% of the total overexposures reported in case of x-ray workers have recorded the dose more than 0.3 Sv. This paper presents the technique developed to extend the upper limit of the range from 0.3 Sv to 1 Sv for x-rays and 10 Sv for γ rays

  3. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  4. China's Outward Direct Investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; de Haan, Jakob; Qian, Xingwang; Yu, Shu

    The empirical determinants of China's outward direct investment (ODI) in Africa are examined using an officially approved ODI dataset and a relatively new OECDIMF format ODI dataset. China's ODI is found responding to the canonical economic determinants that include the market seeking motive, the

  5. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment

  6. Institutional Field for Outward Foreign Direct Investment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Child, John; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    2012-01-01

    The paper AU :3 explores the stages of development of an outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) institutional field during periods of major system change in big emerging economies. The state and its agencies appear to be the principal institutional entrepreneurs in developing the OFDI...

  7. Video-assisted thoracic surgery for left upper lobectomy for complex lesions: how to extend the indication with optimal safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Nathanaël Frank; Barnett, Stephen Arthur; Rinieri, Philippe; Melki, Jean; Peillon, Christophe; Baste, Jean Marc

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of extending the VATS approach to locally advanced NSCLC has been described with good clinical outcome. These complex resections are still technically challenging and patient safety must remain the highest priority. In this article, we describe our routine VATS approach for left upper lobectomy in proximal, locally advanced lesions. Both surgical and anaesthesiology teams are trained during simulation sessions to respond rapidly in case of urgent thoracotomy. Encircling arterial and venous vessels allow control of inadvertent bleeding during difficult dissection. Also, whenever needed the double vessel control technique is a time saver waiting for conversion to thoracotomy.

  8. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  9. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon; Badra, Jihad; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Im, Hong G.

    2016-01-01

    linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide

  10. Business groups' outward FDI: A managerial resources perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, D C; Meyer, Klaus E

    2010-01-01

    Outward FDI strategies are driven by firms' resource endowments, which in turn are conditioned by their home environment. In emerging economies, thus, the pattern of outward FDI is shaped by local firms' idiosyncratic contexts and the resources that these firms developed to fit the contexts. This includes business groups, a dominant organizational form in many emerging economies, competing with context-bound resources. When they wish to transcend their home context, they need internationally ...

  11. Does Inward FDI Promote or Hinder Outward FDI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Ming Hua; Lu, Jiangyong

    In this paper we evaluate the mechanisms underlying dynamic linkages between inward FDI and outward internationalization in the Chinese automobile industry. While several studies have examined the relationship between outward and inward investment using empirical data, this is among the first to ...... may be more driven to expand internationally while firms with IJVs may face constraints from venturing abroad. Our study further delineates strategies for how automakers without IJVs may rely on external growth to springboard back into the domestic car market....

  12. Outward Migration of Giant Planets in Orbital Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, G.; Marzari, F.

    2013-05-01

    A pair of giant planets interacting with a gaseous disk may be subject to convergent orbital migration and become locked into a mean motion resonance. If the orbits are close enough, the tidal gaps produced by the planets in the disk may overlap. This represents a necessary condition to activate the outward migration of the pair. However, a number of other conditions must also be realized in order for this mechanism to operate. We have studied how disk properties, such as turbulence viscosity, temperature, surface density gradient, mass, and age, may affect the outcome of the outward migration process. We have also investigated the implications on this mechanism of the planets' gas accretion. If the pair resembles Jupiter and Saturn, the 3:2 orbital resonance may drive them outward until they reach stalling radii for migration, which are within ~10 AU of the star for disks representative of the early proto-solar nebula. However, planet post-formation conditions in the disk indicate that such planets become typically locked in the 1:2 orbital resonance, which does not lead to outward migration. Planet growth via gas accretion tends to alter the planets' mass-ratio and/or the disk accretion rate toward the star, reducing or inhibiting outward migration. Support from NASA Outer Planets Research Program and NASA Origins of Solar Systems Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Caron, David A.; Jones, Burton

    2016-01-01

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d−1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  14. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.

    2016-06-21

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d−1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  15. Glider and remote sensing observations of the upper ocean response to an extended shallow coastal diversion of wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Bridget N.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Caron, David A.; Jones, Burton H.

    2017-02-01

    The Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) diverted wastewater discharge (5.3 × 108 l d-1) from its primary deep (56 m) outfall 8 km offshore, to a secondary shallower (16 m) outfall 1.6 km offshore for a period of three weeks. It was anticipated that the low salinity and density of the effluent would cause it to rise to the surface with limited dilution, elevating nutrient concentrations in near-surface waters and stimulating phytoplankton blooms in the region. Three Teledyne Webb Slocum gliders and a Liquid Robotics surface wave glider were deployed on transects near the outfalls to acquire high spatial and temporal coverage of physical and chemical parameters before, during, and after the wastewater diversion. Combined autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and MODIS-Aqua satellite ocean color data indicated that phytoplankton biomass increased in the upper water column in response to the diversion, but that the magnitude of the response was spatially patchy and significantly less than expected. Little evidence of the plume or its effects was detectable 72 h following the diversion. The effluent plume exhibited high rates of dilution and mixed throughout the upper 20 m and occasionally throughout the upper 40 m during the diversion. Rapid plume advection and dilution appeared to contribute to the muted impact of the nutrient-rich effluent on the phytoplankton community in this coastal ecosystem.

  16. Molecular aspects of adrenergic modulation of the transient outward current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, Marcel A. G.; Wijnhoven, Tessa J. M.; Opthof, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Transient outward channels have a different impact on action potential configuration in small mammals compared to large mammals. Small mammals depend primarily on Ito1 for repolarization, while in larger animals Ito1 only indirectly determines action potential duration by setting the level of the

  17. Academic Perspectives on the Outcomes of Outward Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Kath

    2015-01-01

    This research project was commissioned by the UK Higher Education International Unit (IU) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA) in June 2014 to explore academic perspectives on the outcomes of outward mobility at undergraduate, postgraduate and research levels for UK domiciled students, and to consider how best to facilitate the take up as well…

  18. Learning by outward FDI: Evidence from Chinese manufacturing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using firm-level data of Chinese manufacturing enterprises between 1998 and 2007, we investigate the existence and channels of “learning by outward FDI”. Difference-in-differences estimation reveals that productivity of Chinese parent firms is significantly improved by their outward foreign direct investment and the learning effects form a “V” shape in the following years. There is no significant difference in learning effects between state-owned enterprises and non-state-owned enterprises; neither do we find any evidence that investing in countries with advanced technology gives more learning effects. In addition, we find that learning effects mainly come from technology transfer, technology spillovers and an enlarged production scale.

  19. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  20. Oscillation thresholds for "striking outwards" reeds coupled to a resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Silva , Fabrice; Kergomard , Jean; Vergez , Christophe

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper considers a "striking outwards" reed coupled to a resonator. This expression, due to Helmholtz, is not discussed here : it corresponds to the most common model of a lip-type valve, when the valve is assumed to be a one degree of freedom oscillator. The presented work is an extension of the works done by Wilson and Beavers (1974), Tarnopolsky (2000). The range of the playing frequencies is investigated. The first results are analytical : when no losses are pr...

  1. Chinese outward foreign direct investment: Is ASEAN a new destination?

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Tuong Anh; Doan, Quang Hung

    2016-01-01

    The paper re-investigates the determinants of China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) employing panel data analysis collecting between 2003 and 2014. The results highlight that the market-seeking variables as GDP, GDP Per Capita, and openness to trade have a positive impact on China’s OFDI. In addition, Chinese investors are likely to be not associated with economic growth of host countries. Importantly, the previous studies confirmed that only the rich natural resources and the weak...

  2. OUTWARD BRAZILIAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: IMPULSES AND RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Oliveira Concer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper models the outward foreign direct investment from Brazil series using time a series econometrics model, namely the Vector Auto Regressive (VAR model. We have drawn impulse response functions for the key relevant factors that may explain the outward foreign direct investment flows. We start with a review of the literature on the Dunning location approach to international business. We worked with a data set of quarterly observations from Q1-1995 to Q1-2010. We carried also out Granger causality tests as for determining whether international business travelling should be included as an explanatory variable in our model. Results stressed that although the strong exchange rate in Brazil is often blamed for forcing companies to invest abroad, the evidence found in the aggregate data suggests that there is not a significant relationship between the level of foreign exchange rate and the outward Brazilian foreign direct investment. Differently from previous studies, this paper uses impulse response functions to present dynamic results, thus avoiding the typical binary results “affect” or “don’t affect”, and in so doing we provide a more detailed insight into this important location factor.

  3. OUTWARD BRAZILIAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: IMPULSES AND RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Oliveira Concer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper models the outward foreign direct investment from Brazil series using time a series econometrics model, namely the Vector Auto Regressive (VAR model. We have drawn impulse response functions for the key relevant factors that may explain the outward foreign direct investment flows. We start with a review of the literature on the Dunning location approach to international business. We worked with a data set of quarterly observations from Q1-1995 to Q1-2010. We carried also out Granger causality tests as for determining whether international business travelling should be included as an explanatory variable in our model. Results stressed that although the strong exchange rate in Brazil is often blamed for forcing companies to invest abroad, the evidence found in the aggregate data suggests that there is not a significant relationship between the level of foreign exchange rate and the outward Brazilian foreign direct investment. Differently from previous studies, this paper uses impulse response functions to present dynamic results, thus avoiding the typical binary results “affect” or “don’t affect”, and in so doing we provide a more detailed insight into this important location factor.

  4. The Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford Phase Spaces with a Lower and Upper Length Scales and Clifford Group Geometric Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    We construct the Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford-Phase spaces with an upper and lower length scales (infrared/ultraviolet cutoff). The invariance symmetry leads naturally to the real Clifford algebra Cl (2, 6, R ) and complexified Clifford Cl_C ( 4 ) algebra related to Twistors. We proceed with an extensive review of Smith's 8D model based on the Clifford algebra Cl ( 1 ,7) that reproduces at low energies the physics of the Standard Model and Gravity; including the derivation of all the coupling constants, particle masses, mixing angles, ....with high precision. Further results by Smith are discussed pertaining the interplay among Clifford, Jordan, Division and Exceptional Lie algebras within the hierarchy of dimensions D = 26, 27, 28 related to bosonic string, M, F theory. Two Geometric actions are presented like the Clifford-Space extension of Maxwell's Electrodynamics, Brandt's action related the 8D spacetime tangent-bundle involving coordinates and velocities (Finsler geometries) followed by a...

  5. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15......The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...

  6. Inward-outward linkages in the internationalization process of firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane

    , on the one hand, that firms with importing experience from a specific market prior to initiating exports to this market have a shorter export spell. This in line with the thesis that prior importing experience facilitates firms’ outward internationalization by reducing the sunk costs associated with export...... market entry and that export survival is negatively correlated with these sunk costs. Only importing experience within the same market affects (shortens) a firm’s export spell, which also is in line with the argument that a priori import experience reduces firms’ export market specific sunk costs...

  7. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  8. Denmark: Outward FDI from Denmark and Its Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Except for a peak in 2011 due to large one-off investments, Danish flows of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) have been dampened since 2007 by the lingering European sovereign debt crisis, which continues to hamper the Danish economy. Over a longer time span however, the Danish corporate...... sector has developed a substantial international presence since the 1980s. Today, about half of the workforce in Danish manufacturing industries is employed abroad. Companies plan to expand their foreign operations further still, with 60% of companies with foreign operations planning to expand...... their production of goods and services abroad toward 2015. The Danish Government supports the internationalization of Danish companies, and recently more emphasis has been put on OFDI into the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China) and other growth markets....

  9. Effect of Electric Field on Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2012-06-01

    The thesis comprises effects of electric fields on a fundamental study of spheri­cal premixed flame propagation.Outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames have been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by applying au uni-directional electric potential.Direct photography and schlieren techniques have been adopted and captured images were analyzed through image processing. Unstretched laminar burning velocities under the influence of electric fields and their associated Markstein length scales have been determined from outwardly prop­agating spherical flame at a constant pressure. Methane and propane fuels have been tested to assess the effect of electric fields on the differential diffusion of the two fuels.The effects of varying equivalence ratios and applied voltages have been in­vestigated, while the frequency of AC was fixed at 1 KHz. Directional propagating characteristics were analyzed to identify the electric filed effect. The flame morphology varied appreciably under the influence of electric fields which in turn affected the burning rate of mixtures.The flame front was found to propagate much faster toward to the electrode at which the electric fields were supplied while the flame speeds in the other direction were minimally influenced. When the voltage was above 7 KV the combustion is markedly enhanced in the downward direction since intense turbulence is generated and as a result the mixing process or rather the heat and mass transfer within the flame front will be enhanced.The com­bustion pressure for the cases with electric fields increased rapidly during the initial stage of combustion and was relatively higher since the flame front was lengthened in the downward direction.

  10. Outward foreign direct investments and home country's economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielska, Dorota; Kołtuniak, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    The study examines the time stability of the causality direction and cross-correlations between the home country's economic growth and pace of growth of its outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) stocks within the complex system of the Polish national economy. The research has been performed in order to verify, using both the time and frequency domains time series analyses, if economic agents' long term decisions on outward foreign direct investments, leading to cross-border value chains and production fragmentation processes, are of adaptive or predictive character. Consequently, the aim was to check if the home country's economic growth leads the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises, which stays in line with Dunning's Investment Development Path (IDP) paradigm, or if these complex processes, thanks to entrepreneurs' ability to formulate relevant rational expectations, precede the home country's economic growth, which would be supported with the introduction of the policy on reinforcing the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises. The presence of the unidirectional economic growth-led internationalization, consistent with the IDP concept's base assumptions, has been ascertained by the results of the short term Granger causality tests. Nevertheless, the results of the wavelet analyses, supported with the results of the econometric block exogeneity long term causality Wald tests, have revealed that in the long term the OFDI stocks' growth permanently precedes the home country's economic growth, which stays in the unequivocal contrast with the IDP paradigm's premises, as well as with the indicated above short term Granger causality tests' outcomes and indicates that economic agents' choices are not strictly of adaptive but also of predictive character, which influences the current state of knowledge on economic complex systems' characteristics. Such a result is of a great importance in the light of the existence of the significant

  11. Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Günter; Reithofer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Using an extended 2D hydrodynamic model for evaluating damage risk caused by extreme rain events: Flash-Flood-Risk-Map (FFRM) Upper Austria Considering the increase in flash flood events causing massive damage during the last years in urban but also rural areas [1-4], the requirement for hydrodynamic calculation of flash flood prone areas and possible countermeasures has arisen to many municipalities and local governments. Besides the German based URBAS project [1], also the EU-funded FP7 research project "SWITCH-ON" [5] addresses the damage risk caused by flash floods in the sub-project "FFRM" (Flash Flood Risk Map Upper Austria) by calculating damage risk for buildings and vulnerable infrastructure like schools and hospitals caused by flash-flood driven inundation. While danger zones in riverine flooding are established as an integral part of spatial planning, flash floods caused by overland runoff from extreme rain events have been for long an underrated safety hazard not only for buildings and infrastructure, but man and animals as well. Based on the widespread 2D-model "hydro_as-2D", an extension was developed, which calculates the runoff formation from a spatially and temporally variable precipitation and determines two dimensionally the land surface area runoff and its concentration. The conception of the model is to preprocess the precipitation data and calculate the effective runoff-volume for a short time step of e.g. five minutes. This volume is applied to the nodes of the 2D-model and the calculation of the hydrodynamic model is started. At the end of each time step, the model run is stopped, the preprocessing step is repeated and the hydraulic model calculation is continued. In view of the later use for the whole of Upper Austria (12.000 km²) a model grid of 25x25 m² was established using digital elevation data. Model parameters could be estimated for the small catchment of river Ach, which was hit by an intense rain event with up to 109 mm per hour

  12. Outward knowledge transfer: the impact of project-based organization on performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Lichtenthaler

    2010-01-01

    Recently, interfirm knowledge transactions have increased although many firms experience major managerial difficulties in outward knowledge transfer, e.g. technology licensing. To reduce the traditional underemphasis on empirical research into corporate outward knowledge transfer, we use data from 152 firms to test four hypotheses relating firms' outward knowledge transfer performance to two types of project-based organization, which complement formal and informal organizational structures: p...

  13. Innovative Adolescent Chemical Dependency Treatment and Its Outcome: A Model Based on Outward Bound Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeake, John D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes adolescent chemical dependency treatment model developed at Beech Hill Hospital (New Hampshire) which integrated Twelve Step-oriented alcohol and drug rehabilitation program with experiential education school, Hurricane Island Outward Bound School. Describes Beech Hill Hurricane Island Outward Bound School Adolescent Chemical Dependency…

  14. Outward Bound Giwaykiwin: Connecting to Land and Culture through Indigenous Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Outward Bound Canada's (OBC) Giwaykiwin Program was founded in 1985 in response to a recognized need for programming specific to students from Indigenous backgrounds. The Giwaykiwin program aims to integrate Outward Bound (OB) and Indigenous philosophies and traditions. Giwaykiwin means "coming home" in Ojibwa and signifies the program's…

  15. The Outward Bound Solo: A Study of Participants' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Kenneth R.; Bobilya, Andrew J.; Daniel, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Research on wilderness experience programs indicates there is much to learn about specific components of the overall experience. The solo, where students are intentionally separated from their expedition group for an extended time for reflection, has long had an anecdotal reputation for enhancing the quality of participants' experiences. The…

  16. Surface Transient Binding-Based Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (STB-FCS), a Simple and Easy-to-Implement Method to Extend the Upper Limit of the Time Window to Seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sijia; Wang, Wenjuan; Chen, Chunlai

    2018-05-10

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a powerful single-molecule tool that is able to capture kinetic processes occurring at the nanosecond time scale. However, the upper limit of its time window is restricted by the dwell time of the molecule of interest in the confocal detection volume, which is usually around submilliseconds for a freely diffusing biomolecule. Here, we present a simple and easy-to-implement method, named surface transient binding-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STB-FCS), which extends the upper limit of the time window to seconds. We further demonstrated that STB-FCS enables capture of both intramolecular and intermolecular kinetic processes whose time scales cross several orders of magnitude.

  17. HOME COUNTRY MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF OUTWARD FDI: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sehleanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 90s marked the remarcable increase of foreign direct investment (FDI flows globally. Thus, global FDI outflows increased from 244 billion dollars in 1990 to 1,35 trillion dollars in 2014, with a peak record of 2,13 trillion dollars in 2007, according to UNCTAD statistics. In Romania, the value of outward FDI stock increased from 66,1 million dollars in 1990 and reached a peak in 2010, when total outward FDI stock cumulated 1510,7 million dollars. As the global economic and financial crisis has led to the unfavorable evolution of the Romanian economy, the business opportunities and the investment resources of Romanian companies have decreased significantly. Since 2011 the value of outward FDI stock entered a downtrend that was maintained until 2014, when outward FDI stock cumulated 695,7 million dollars. As a percentage of GDP, Romania’s outward FDI stock recorded only sub-unit values from 1990 to present. The aim of this empirical research is to analyze the influence of several macroeconomic factors on outward FDI from Romania, during 1991-2014. Using simple regression models, the empirical study reveals that factors such as interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate and gross domestic product (GDP have an important role in explaining outward FDI from Romania, while the influence of trade openness is weak. Between the outward FDI stock and money supply, exchange rate, gross domestic product, respectively trade openness, there is a direct and linear correlation and between the outward foreign direct investment stock and the interest rate, respectively the inflation rate, there is an inverse linear correlation. The results obtained from our empirical study emphasize that the evolution of macroeconomic factors in Romania, as a home country, represents an important stimulus for Romanian companies to invest abroad. The presence of Romanian companies on the international market was very limited and that is why an increase of the

  18. Pharmacological Conversion of a Cardiac Inward Rectifier into an Outward Rectifier Potassium Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G; Sanchez-Chapula, Jose A; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A

    2016-09-01

    Potassium (K(+)) channels are crucial for determining the shape, duration, and frequency of action-potential firing in excitable cells. Broadly speaking, K(+) channels can be classified based on whether their macroscopic current outwardly or inwardly rectifies, whereby rectification refers to a change in conductance with voltage. Outwardly rectifying K(+) channels conduct greater current at depolarized membrane potentials, whereas inward rectifier channels conduct greater current at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. Under most circumstances, outward currents through inwardly rectifying K(+) channels are reduced at more depolarized potentials. However, the acetylcholine-gated K(+) channel (KACh) conducts current that inwardly rectifies when activated by some ligands (such as acetylcholine), and yet conducts current that outwardly rectifies when activated by other ligands (for example, pilocarpine and choline). The perplexing and paradoxical behavior of KACh channels is due to the intrinsic voltage sensitivity of the receptor that activates KACh channels, the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Emerging evidence reveals that the affinity of M2R for distinct ligands varies in a voltage-dependent and ligand-specific manner. These intrinsic receptor properties determine whether current conducted by KACh channels inwardly or outwardly rectifies. This review summarizes the most recent concepts regarding the intrinsic voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors and the consequences of this intriguing behavior on cardiac physiology and pharmacology of KACh channels. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Outward transport of high-temperature materials around the midplane of the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Fred J

    2007-10-26

    The Stardust samples collected from Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicate that large-scale mixing occurred in the solar nebula, carrying materials from the hot inner regions to cooler environments far from the Sun. Similar transport has been inferred from telescopic observations of protoplanetary disks around young stars. Models for protoplanetary disks, however, have difficulty explaining the observed levels of transport. Here I report the results of a new two-dimensional model that shows that outward transport of high-temperature materials in protoplanetary disks is a natural outcome of disk formation and evolution. This outward transport occurs around the midplane of the disk.

  20. Exploring Familial Relationship Growth and Negotiation: A Case Study of Outward Bound Family Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Jillisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of father-child relationship development within the context of an Outward Bound (OB) family course, an environment that may both disrupt the ordinary aspects of an established relationship, and provide activities to purposefully encourage relationship development through a variety of aspects inherent to the…

  1. Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Human Capital Development: A Small Country Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the pattern of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) by Irish MNCs, and more specifically, to investigate their approach to human capital development and how these correspond to foreign MNCs in Ireland. In particular, it seeks to investigate training and development expenditure, adoption of…

  2. Institutional System Development for Outward Foreign Direct Investment in China and Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Child, John; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This paper examines institutional formation and institutional entrepreneurship relating to outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) in China and Russia since the beginning of their market-oriented economic reforms. It focuses on the stages of OFDI institutional development during these periods...

  3. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from Emerging Economies and National Development Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an integral part of national development strategy throughout the developing world. However, while traditionally strategies have focused on the role of inward flows only, today, outward FDI is used on a larger scale and more deliberately to access markets...

  4. Differential effects of the transient outward K(+) current activator NS5806 in the canine left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Soltysinska, Ewa; Jespersen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To examine the electrophysiological and molecular properties of the transient outward current (I(to)) in canine left ventricle using a novel I(to) activator, NS5806, I(to) was measured in isolated epicardial (Epi), midmyocardial (Mid) and endocardial (Endo) cells using whole-cell patch-clamp tech...

  5. LONG RANGE OUTWARD MIGRATION OF GIANT PLANETS, WITH APPLICATION TO FOMALHAUT b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crida, Aurelien; Masset, Frederic; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations of exoplanets by direct imaging reveal that giant planets orbit at a few dozens to more than a hundred AU from their central star. The question of the origin of these planets challenges the standard theories of planet formation. We propose a new way of obtaining such far planets, by outward migration of a pair of planets formed in the 10 AU region. Two giant planets in mean motion resonance in a common gap in the protoplanetary disk migrate outward, if the inner one is significantly more massive than the outer one. Using hydrodynamical simulations, we show that their semimajor axes can increase by almost 1 order of magnitude. In a flared disk, the pair of planets should reach an asymptotic radius. This mechanism could account for the presence of Fomalhaut b; then, a second, more massive planet, should be orbiting Fomalhaut at about 75 AU.

  6. Radial Variations of Outward and Inward Alfvénic Fluctuations Based on Ulysses Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Lee, L. C.; Li, J. P.; Luo, Q. Y.; Kuo, C. L.; Shi, J. K.; Wu, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ulysses magnetic and plasma data are used to study hourly scale Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar polar wind. The calculated energy ratio {R}{vA}2(cal) of inward to outward Alfvén waves is obtained from the observed Walén slope through an analytical expression, and the observed {R}{vA}2(obs) is based on a direct decomposition of original Alfvénic fluctuations into outward- and inward-propagating Alfvén waves. The radial variation of {R}{vA}2(cal) shows a monotonically increasing trend with heliocentric distance r, implying the increasing local generation or contribution of inward Alfvén waves. The contribution is also shown by the radial increase in the occurrence of dominant inward fluctuations. We further pointed out a higher occurrence (˜ 83 % of a day in average) of dominant outward Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind than previously estimated. Since {R}{vA}2(cal) is more accurate than {R}{vA}2(obs) in the measurement of the energy ratio for dominant outward fluctuations, the values of {R}{vA}2(cal) in our results are likely more realistic in the solar wind than those previously estimated as well as {R}{vA}2(obs) in our results. The duration ratio R T of dominant inward to all Alfvénic fluctuations increases monotonically with r, and is about two or more times that from Voyager 2 observations at r≥slant 4 {au}. These results reveal new qualitative and quantitative features of Alfvénic fluctuations therein compared with previous studies and put constraints on modeling the variation of solar wind fluctuations.

  7. Supply-demand balance in outward-directed networks and Kleiber's law

    OpenAIRE

    Painter Page R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent theories have attempted to derive the value of the exponent α in the allometric formula for scaling of basal metabolic rate from the properties of distribution network models for arteries and capillaries. It has recently been stated that a basic theorem relating the sum of nutrient currents to the specific nutrient uptake rate, together with a relationship claimed to be required in order to match nutrient supply to nutrient demand in 3-dimensional outward-directed n...

  8. What determines Chinese outward direct investment in Africa? Case study: CNPC and Huawei

    OpenAIRE

    WU, XUANYONG

    2014-01-01

    Outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from China has increased substantially in recent years. Africa, as one of the most significant destinations of OFDI, has attracted increased global attention. The determinants of China’s OFDI to Africa are primarily linked to poorly governed countries with abundant natural resources. However, the results are inconclusive because of the differences between state-controlled and privately owned firms. In order to explore what drives Chinese OFDI in Africa...

  9. The determinants of the outward foreign direct investment of China and India: whither the home country?

    OpenAIRE

    Tolentino, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the relationships between several home country-specific \\ud macroeconomic factors and the level of the outward FDI of China and India using multiple \\ud time-series data from 1982 to 2006 and from 1980 to 2006, respectively. With the use of a \\ud vector autoregressive model assessing the causal relationships of the endogenous variables, \\ud the empirical research proves that Chinese national characteristics associated with income per \\ud capita, openness of the econ...

  10. A Panel data analysis of locational determinants of outward Foreign Direct Investment from China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Duanmu, J; Guney, Y

    2009-01-01

    The upsurge of Chinese and Indian outward foreign direct investment (FDI) raises an unanswered question about locational determinants of direct investment from the two countries. Using an unbalanced bilateral FDI database, we find that Chinese and Indian FDI are attracted to countries with large market size, low GDP growth, high volumes of imports from China or India, and low corporate tax rates. We also find important differences between China and India. While Chinese FDI is drawn to countri...

  11. Supply-demand balance in outward-directed networks and Kleiber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Page R

    2005-11-10

    Recent theories have attempted to derive the value of the exponent alpha in the allometric formula for scaling of basal metabolic rate from the properties of distribution network models for arteries and capillaries. It has recently been stated that a basic theorem relating the sum of nutrient currents to the specific nutrient uptake rate, together with a relationship claimed to be required in order to match nutrient supply to nutrient demand in 3-dimensional outward-directed networks, leads to Kleiber's law (b = 3/4). The validity of the supply-demand matching principle and the assumptions required to prove the basic theorem are assessed. The supply-demand principle is evaluated by examining the supply term and the demand term in outward-directed lattice models of nutrient and water distribution systems and by applying the principle to fractal-like models of mammalian arterial systems. Application of the supply-demand principle to bifurcating fractal-like networks that are outward-directed does not predict 3/4-power scaling, and evaluation of water distribution system models shows that the matching principle does not match supply to demand in such systems. Furthermore, proof of the basic theorem is shown to require that the covariance of nutrient uptake and current path length is 0, an assumption unlikely to be true in mammalian arterial systems. The supply-demand matching principle does not lead to a satisfactory explanation for the approximately 3/4-power scaling of mammalian basal metabolic rate.

  12. Effect of cylindrical confinement on the determination of laminar flame speeds using outwardly propagating flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael P.; Chen, Zheng; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The effect of nonspherical (i.e. cylindrical) bomb geometry on the evolution of outwardly propagating flames and the determination of laminar flame speeds using the conventional constant-pressure technique is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The cylindrical chamber boundary modifies the propagation rate through the interaction of the wall with the flow induced by thermal expansion across the flame (even with constant pressure), which leads to significant distortion of the flame surface for large flame radii. These departures from the unconfined case, especially the resulting nonzero burned gas velocities, can lead to significant errors in flame speeds calculated using the conventional assumptions, especially for large flame radii. For example, at a flame radius of 0.5 times the wall radius, the flame speed calculated neglecting confinement effects can be low by {proportional_to}15% (even with constant pressure). A methodology to estimate the effect of nonzero burned gas velocities on the measured flame speed in cylindrical chambers is presented. Modeling and experiments indicate that the effect of confinement can be neglected for flame radii less than 0.3 times the wall radius while still achieving acceptable accuracy (within 3%). The methodology is applied to correct the flame speed for nonzero burned gas speeds, in order to extend the range of flame radii useful for flame speed measurements. Under the proposed scaling, the burned gas speed can be well approximated as a function of only flame radius for a given chamber geometry - i.e. the correction function need only be determined once for an apparatus and then it can be used for any mixture. Results indicate that the flow correction can be used to extract flame speeds for flame radii up to 0.5 times the wall radius with somewhat larger, yet still acceptable uncertainties for the cases studied. Flow-corrected burning velocities are measured for hydrogen and syngas mixtures at atmospheric and

  13. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  14. Supply-demand balance in outward-directed networks and Kleiber's law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Page R

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent theories have attempted to derive the value of the exponent α in the allometric formula for scaling of basal metabolic rate from the properties of distribution network models for arteries and capillaries. It has recently been stated that a basic theorem relating the sum of nutrient currents to the specific nutrient uptake rate, together with a relationship claimed to be required in order to match nutrient supply to nutrient demand in 3-dimensional outward-directed networks, leads to Kleiber's law (b = 3/4. Methods The validity of the supply-demand matching principle and the assumptions required to prove the basic theorem are assessed. The supply-demand principle is evaluated by examining the supply term and the demand term in outward-directed lattice models of nutrient and water distribution systems and by applying the principle to fractal-like models of mammalian arterial systems. Results Application of the supply-demand principle to bifurcating fractal-like networks that are outward-directed does not predict 3/4-power scaling, and evaluation of water distribution system models shows that the matching principle does not match supply to demand in such systems. Furthermore, proof of the basic theorem is shown to require that the covariance of nutrient uptake and current path length is 0, an assumption unlikely to be true in mammalian arterial systems. Conclusion The supply-demand matching principle does not lead to a satisfactory explanation for the approximately 3/4-power scaling of mammalian basal metabolic rate.

  15. Nanosecond electric pulses differentially affect inward and outward currents in patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Yang

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of 5 ns electric pulses on macroscopic ionic currents in whole-cell voltage-clamped adrenal chromaffin cells. Current-voltage (I-V relationships first established that the early peak inward current was primarily composed of a fast voltage-dependent Na+ current (INa, whereas the late outward current was composed of at least three ionic currents: a voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa, a Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca, and a sustained voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. A constant-voltage step protocol was next used to monitor peak inward and late outward currents before and after cell exposure to a 5 ns pulse. A single pulse applied at an electric (E-field amplitude of 5 MV/m resulted in an instantaneous decrease of ~4% in peak INa that then declined exponentially to a level that was ~85% of the initial level after 10 min. Increasing the E-field amplitude to 8 or 10 MV/m caused a twofold greater inhibitory effect on peak INa. The decrease in INa was not due to a change in either the steady-state inactivation or activation of the Na+ channel but instead was associated with a decrease in maximal Na+ conductance. Late outward current was not affected by a pulse applied at 5 MV/m. However, for a pulse applied at the higher E-field amplitudes of 8 and 10 MV/m, late outward current in some cells underwent a progressive ~22% decline over the course of the first 20 s following pulse exposure, with no further decline. The effect was most likely concentrated on ICa and IK(Ca as IKV was not affected. The results of this study indicate that in whole-cell patch clamped adrenal chromaffin cells, a 5 ns pulse differentially inhibits specific voltage-gated ionic currents in a manner that can be manipulated by tuning E-field amplitude.

  16. Pregnancy causes diminished myogenic tone and outward hypotrophic remodeling of the cerebral vein of Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wijk, Anne-Eva; Schreurs, Malou P H; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2013-04-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of several complications associated with the cerebral veins, including thrombosis and hemorrhage. In contrast to the cerebral arteries and arterioles, few studies have focused on the effect of pregnancy on the cerebral venous side. Here, we investigated for the first time the effect of pregnancy on the function and structure of the cerebral vein of Galen in rats. Our major finding was that cerebral veins from late-pregnant (LP, n=11) rats had larger lumen diameters and thinner walls than veins from nonpregnant (NP, n=13) rats, indicating that pregnancy caused outward hypotrophic remodeling of the vein of Galen. Moreover, veins from NP animals had a small amount of myogenic tone at 10 mm Hg (3.9±1.0%) that was diminished in veins during pregnancy (0.8±0.3%; Ppregnancy. Using immunohistochemistry, we show that the vein of Galen receives perivascular innervation, and that serotonergic innervation of cerebral veins is significantly higher in veins from LP animals. Outward hypotrophic remodeling and diminished tone of cerebral veins during pregnancy may contribute to the development of venous pathology through elevated wall tension and wall stress, and possibly by promoting venous blood stasis.

  17. Elastin is a key regulator of outward remodeling in arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C Y; Rothuizen, T C; de Vries, M R; Rabelink, T J; Hamming, J F; van Zonneveld, A J; Quax, P H A; Rotmans, J I

    2015-04-01

    Maturation failure is the major limitation of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) as hemodialysis access conduits. Indeed, 30-50% of AVFs fail to mature due to intimal hyperplasia and insufficient outward remodeling. Elastin has emerged as an important determinant of vascular remodeling. Here the role of elastin in AVF remodeling in elastin haplodeficient (eln(+/-)) mice undergoing AVF surgery has been studied. Unilateral AVFs between the branch of the jugular vein and carotid artery in an end to side manner were created in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (n = 11) and in eln(+/-) mice (n = 9). Animals were killed at day 21 and the AVFs were analyzed histologically and at an mRNA level using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Before AVF surgery, a marked reduction in elastin density in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of eln(+/-) mice was observed. AVF surgery resulted in fragmentation of the venous internal elastic lamina in both groups while the expression of the tropoelastin mRNA was 53% lower in the eln(+/-) mice than in WT mice (p elastin has an important role in vascular remodeling following AVF creation, in which a lower amount of elastin results in enhanced outward remodeling. Interventions targeting elastin degradation might be a viable option in order to improve AVF maturation. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Outward Rectification of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels Evolved at Least Twice in Life History.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janin Riedelsberger

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (K+ channels are present in all living systems. Despite high structural similarities in the transmembrane domains (TMD, this K+ channel type segregates into at least two main functional categories-hyperpolarization-activated, inward-rectifying (Kin and depolarization-activated, outward-rectifying (Kout channels. Voltage-gated K+ channels sense the membrane voltage via a voltage-sensing domain that is connected to the conduction pathway of the channel. It has been shown that the voltage-sensing mechanism is the same in Kin and Kout channels, but its performance results in opposite pore conformations. It is not known how the different coupling of voltage-sensor and pore is implemented. Here, we studied sequence and structural data of voltage-gated K+ channels from animals and plants with emphasis on the property of opposite rectification. We identified structural hotspots that alone allow already the distinction between Kin and Kout channels. Among them is a loop between TMD S5 and the pore that is very short in animal Kout, longer in plant and animal Kin and the longest in plant Kout channels. In combination with further structural and phylogenetic analyses this finding suggests that outward-rectification evolved twice and independently in the animal and plant kingdom.

  19. Moderate hypoxia influences potassium outward currents in adipose-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuri Prasad

    Full Text Available Moderate hypoxic preconditioning of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs enhances properties such as proliferation and secretion of growth factors, representing a valuable strategy to increase the efficiency of cell-based therapies. In a wide variety of cells potassium (K+ channels are key elements involved in the cellular responses to hypoxia, suggesting that ASCs cultured under low oxygen conditions may display altered electrophysiological properties. Here, the effects of moderate hypoxic culture on proliferation, whole-cell currents, and ion channel expression were investigated using human ASCs cultured at 5% and 20% oxygen. Although cell proliferation was greatly enhanced, the dose-dependent growth inhibition by the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA was not significantly affected by hypoxia. Under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, ASCs displayed outward K+ currents composed by Ca2+-activated, delayed rectifier, and transient components. Hypoxic culture reduced the slope of the current-voltage curves and caused a negative shift in the voltage activation threshold of the whole-cell currents. However, the TEA-mediated shift of voltage activation threshold was not affected by hypoxia. Semiquantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that expression of genes encoding for various ion channels subunits related to oxygen sensing and proliferation remained unchanged after hypoxic culture. In conclusion, outward currents are influenced by moderate hypoxia in ASCs through a mechanism that is not likely the result of modulation of TEA-sensitive K+ channels.

  20. Classical confinement and outward convection of impurity ions in the MST RFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Eilerman, S.; Nornberg, M.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Caspary, K. J.; Chapman, B. E.; Parke, E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Magee, R. M. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Craig, D. [Physics Department, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States); Fiksel, G. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Impurity ion dynamics measured with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolution reveal classical ion transport in the reversed-field pinch. The boron, carbon, oxygen, and aluminum impurity ion density profiles are obtained in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] using a fast, active charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy diagnostic. Measurements are made during improved-confinement plasmas obtained using inductive control of tearing instability to mitigate stochastic transport. At the onset of the transition to improved confinement, the impurity ion density profile becomes hollow, with a slow decay in the core region concurrent with an increase in the outer region, implying an outward convection of impurities. Impurity transport from Coulomb collisions in the reversed-field pinch is classical for all collisionality regimes, and analysis shows that the observed hollow profile and outward convection can be explained by the classical temperature screening mechanism. The profile agrees well with classical expectations. Experiments performed with impurity pellet injection provide further evidence for classical impurity ion confinement.

  1. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...

  2. China’s Outward FDI in Africa: Enterprises with Different Ownership Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Tao Tsao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the consequences of China’s outward direct investments in Africa in terms of enterprises with different ownership types. First, this paper contributes to the examination of a large number of Chinese enterprises’ investment projects in Africa. Second, in addition to the investment activities of central state-owned enterprises, investment activities initiated by local state-owned enterprises and private enterprises are also addressed in this paper. Third, this paper demonstrates the diversity ofChinese investment in Africa through the discussion of a large number of cases. We find that the motives of central state-owned enterprises comply with government policies. However, most private enterprises and non-central state-owned enterprises invest in Africa for profit considerations. This paper concludes that China’s investments in Africa are diverse and complex and cannot be explained using a single model of the extant theories.

  3. Physiological roles of the transient outward current Ito in normal and diseased hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, Jonathan M.; Callø, Kirstine; Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+-independent transient outward K+ current (Ito) plays a critical role in underlying phase 1 of repolarization of the cardiac action potential and, as a result, is central to modulating excitation-contraction coupling and propensity for arrhythmia. Additionally, Ito and its molecular...... potential and the mechanisms by which Ito modulates excitation-contraction coupling. We also describe the effects of mutations in the subunits constituting the Ito channel as well as the role of Ito in the failing myocardium. Finally, we review pharmacological modulation of Ito and discuss the evidence...... constituents are consistently reduced in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In this review, we discuss the physiological role of Ito as well as the molecular basis of this current in human and canine hearts, in which Ito has been thoroughly studied. In particular, we discuss the role of Ito in the action...

  4. A critical revision of the empirical literature on Chinese outward investment: A new proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on China’s role in the globalization of economic activity focuses mainly on its involvement in trade and on its competitiveness as a manufacturing location for foreign investors. However, since the mid-1990s China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI has become an important part of its integration into the global economy. This dimension is poorly understood, and few empirical studies about the drivers behind Chinese OFDI have been published thus far. After reviewing critically the empirical literature, which provides ambiguous results about the explanatory power of some of the large list of determinants put forward, we aim to provide a more accurate description of the motives behind Chinese OFDI. Using a panel data approach for the period 1995 to 2009 and for a large host country sample, we identify some key drivers. We find that host market size, natural resources and FDI openness are of paramount relevance. However, the asset seeking hypothesis is not confirmed.

  5. Red Trojan Horses? A New Look at Chinese SOEs' Outward Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How dangerous is Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI because of the state's influence over business, particularly state-owned enterprises (SOEs? To what extent are business and politics interwoven in Chinese investment decisions? Crucial knowledge is lacking on the relationship between the state and companies in China's OFDI. This study does not claim to completely refute the conventional view that Chinese companies, particularly SOEs, are controlled by the state in their OFDI activities. However, it tries to provide some evidence that suggests the need for a revised look at them. It argues that although Chinese SOEs are supported by Chinese diplomacy and loans in their OFDI and have a tacit understanding of certain strategic goals of the state, they enjoy autonomy to make business decisions and have prioritized maximizing their own business interests. Importantly, this is enabled by the state's view that the profit of SOEs is consistent with national interests.

  6. Direct measurement of conformational strain energy in protofilaments curling outward from disassembling microtubule tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jonathan W; Geyer, Elisabeth A; Bailey, Megan E; Rice, Luke M; Asbury, Charles L

    2017-06-19

    Disassembling microtubules can generate movement independently of motor enzymes, especially at kinetochores where they drive chromosome motility. A popular explanation is the 'conformational wave' model, in which protofilaments pull on the kinetochore as they curl outward from a disassembling tip. But whether protofilaments can work efficiently via this spring-like mechanism has been unclear. By modifying a previous assay to use recombinant tubulin and feedback-controlled laser trapping, we directly demonstrate the spring-like elasticity of curling protofilaments. Measuring their mechanical work output suggests they carry ~25% of the energy of GTP hydrolysis as bending strain, enabling them to drive movement with efficiency similar to conventional motors. Surprisingly, a β-tubulin mutant that dramatically slows disassembly has no effect on work output, indicating an uncoupling of disassembly speed from protofilament strain. These results show the wave mechanism can make a major contribution to kinetochore motility and establish a direct approach for measuring tubulin mechano-chemistry.

  7. The transient outward current in mice lacking the potassium channel gene Kv1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Barry; Wang, Dao W; Hill, Joseph A; Bennett, Paul B

    1998-01-01

    The transient outward current (Ito) plays a prominent role in the repolarization phase of the cardiac action potential. Several K+ channel genes, including Kv1.4, are expressed in the heart, produce rapidly inactivating currents when heterologously expressed, and may be the molecular basis of Ito.We engineered mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of the K+ channel gene Kv1.4 and compared Ito in wild-type (Kv1.4+/+), heterozygous (Kv1.4+/-) and homozygous ‘knockout’ (Kv1.4−/−) mice. Kv1.4 RNA was truncated in Kv1.4−/− mice and protein expression was absent.Adult myocytes isolated from Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice had large rapidly inactivating outward currents. The peak current densities at 60 mV (normalized by cellular capacitance, in pA pF−1; means ± s.e.m.) were 53.8 ± 5.3, 45.3 ± 2.2 and 44.4 ± 2.8 in cells from Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice, respectively (P mice.The voltage dependence and time course of inactivation were not changed by targeted disruption of Kv1.4. The mean best-fitting V½ (membrane potential at 50 % inactivation) values for myocytes from Kv1.4 +/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice were -53.5 ± 3.7, -51.1 ± 2.6 and -54.2 ± 2.4 mV, respectively. The slope factors (k) were -10.1 ± 1.4, -8.8 ± 1.4 and -9.5 ± 1.2 mV, respectively. The fast time constants for development of inactivation at -30 mV were 27.8 ± 2.2, 26.2 ± 5.1 and 19.6 ± 2.1 ms in Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− myocytes, respectively. At +30 mV, they were 35.5 ± 2.6, 30.0 ± 2.1 and 28.7 ± 1.6 ms, respectively. The time constants for the rapid phase of recovery from inactivation at -80 mV were 32.5 ± 8.2, 23.3 ± 1.8 and 39.0 ± 3.7 ms, respectively.Nearly the entire inactivating component as well as more than 60 % of the steady-state outward current was eliminated by 1 mm 4-aminopyridine in Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− myocytes.Western blot analysis of heart membrane extracts showed no significant

  8. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  9. City Kids in the Wilderness: A Pilot-Test of Outward Bound for Foster Care Group Home Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert L.; Attah, E. B.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined perceptions of a 7-day Outward Bound program among 23 urban youths, foster parents, and foster care workers from group homes in Atlanta (Georgia). Foster parents reported improved self-esteem and behavior among the teens, but foster care workers reported worse behavior. Negative program impressions lessened among male youths but…

  10. Maintaining an outward image: a Korean immigrant's life with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistulka, Gina M; Winch, Peter J; Park, Hyunjeong; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T

    2012-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) disproportionately affect minority populations in the United States, including Korean American immigrants (KAI). We conducted qualitative interviews with middle-aged KAI in Maryland living with DM and HTN to examine the illness experience to inform future intervention strategies. Study results show that participants utilized strategies to maintain respect and Korean identity, including an image of being healthy and in control of their behavior in the public arena. These strategies included the lack of disclosure of their illness, even to family members, and avoiding outside assistance when engaging in problem solving. Maintaining an outward image of health was a common goal that affected the self-care of KAI in this study, a finding that might prove significant in the management of other chronic illnesses affecting this population. The study findings demonstrate the importance of in-depth understanding of specific populations when treating chronic illness, and caretakers' sensitivity to each population's unique cultural issues regarding identity, image, and disclosure.

  11. Permian-Triassic Tethyan realm reorganization: Implications for the outward Pangea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Nicolas; Jaillard, Etienne; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Braun, Jean

    2018-01-01

    We present a new conceptual model to explain the first order Permian-Triassic evolution of the whole > 30 000 km long Pangea margin facing the Panthalassa ocean. Compilation of available geological, geochemical, geochronogical and paleomagnetic data all along this system allowed us to distinguish three part of the margin: western Laurentia, western Gondwana and eastern Gondwana. These segments record distinct tectonic and magmatic events, which all occur synchronously along the whole margin and correlate well with the main geodynamic events of this period, i.e. subduction of the Paleotethys mid-ocean ridge at 310-280 Ma, opening of the Neotethys at 280-260 Ma, counterclockwise rotation of Pangea at 260-230 Ma and closure of the Paleotethys at 230-220 Ma. Between 260 and 230 Ma, the reorganization of the Tethyan realm triggered the up to 35° rotation of Pangea around an Euler pole located in northernmost South America. This implied both an increase and a decrease of the convergence rate between the margin and the Panthalassa ocean, north and south of the Euler pole, respectively. Thus, the Permian-Triassic Pangean margin was marked: in western Laurentia by marginal sea closure, in western Gondwana by widespread bimodal magmatic and volcanic activity, in eastern Gondwana by transpressive orogenic phase. Therefore, we propose that the Permian-Triassic evolution of the outward margin of Pangea was controlled by the Tethyan realm reorganization.

  12. The Outward Extension of an Ecological Footprint in City Expansion: The Case of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaodi Xie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologically productive area was used in the ecological footprint method to measure the demand and impact of human activities on the natural capital, and further, to judge whether the impact is within the scope of the regional bio-capacity. In this presentation, an indicator “ecological footprint distance (Def” is proposed. The results indicated that the proposed indicator Def could identify the outward extension of a city’s ecological footprint with the city’s rapid expansion. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of imported bio-capacity increased approximately from 48% to 64%, which implied that the ecological impact of Beijing had expanded year by year. The Def of Beijing increased from 567 km in 2008 to 677 km in 2012, with an average annual increase of about 25 km. From the perspective of seasonal change, Beijing’s ecological footprint distance in winter and spring was much higher than in summer and fall. The main features of provincial-spatial distribution of Beijing’s Def were as follows: grain and oil and meat and eggs were mainly supplied by Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei and Inner Mongolia; yet vegetable and fruit were mainly supplied by Hainan, Guangdong, Hebei and Shandong. Measures should be taken to decentralize the sources of imported bio-capacity, so as to ensure a sustainable development in Metropolitan cities.

  13. A proton-activated, outwardly rectifying chloride channel in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhiyong; Zhang Wei; Chen Liang; Wang Rong; Kan Xiaohong; Sun Guizhen; Liu Chunxi; Li Li; Zhang Yun

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular acidic pH-activated chloride channel I Cl,acid , has been characterized in HEK 293 cells and mammalian cardiac myocytes. This study was designed to characterize I Cl,acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs). The activation and deactivation of the current rapidly and repeatedly follows the change of the extracellular solution at pH 4.3, with the threshold pH 5.3. In addition, at very positive potentials, the current displays a time-dependent facilitation. pH-response relationship for I Cl,acid revealed that EC 50 is pH 4.764 with a threshold pH value of pH 5.3 and nH of 14.545. The current can be blocked by the Cl - channel inhibitor DIDS (100 μM). In summary, for the first time we report the presence of proton-activated, outwardly rectifying chloride channel in HUVECs. Because an acidic environment can develop in local myocardium under pathological conditions such as myocardial ischemia, I Cl,acid would play a role in regulation of EC function under these pathological conditions

  14. Effects of allocryptopine on outward potassium current and slow delayed rectifier potassium current in rabbit myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Liu-Yang; Li, Nan; Chen, Xi; Cai, Zhong-Qi; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Allocryptopine (ALL) is an effective alkaloid of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae and has proved to be anti-arrhythmic. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of ALL on transmural repolarizing ionic ingredients of outward potassium current (I to) and slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks). The monophasic action potential (MAP) technique was used to record the MAP duration of the epicardium (Epi), myocardium (M) and endocardium (Endo) of the rabbit heart and the whole cell patch clamp was used to record I to and I Ks in cardiomyocytes of Epi, M and Endo layers that were isolated from rabbit ventricles. The effects of ALL on MAP of Epi, M and Endo layers were disequilibrium. ALL could effectively reduce the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in rabbit transmural ventricular wall. ALL decreased the current densities of I to and I Ks in a voltage and concentration dependent way and narrowed the repolarizing differences among three layers. The analysis of gating kinetics showed ALL accelerated the channel activation of I to in M layers and partly inhibit the channel openings of I to in Epi, M and Endo cells. On the other hand, ALL mainly slowed channel deactivation of I Ks channel in Epi and Endo layers without affecting its activation. Our study gives partially explanation about the mechanisms of transmural inhibition of I to and I Ks channels by ALL in rabbit myocardium. These findings provide novel perspective regarding the anti-arrhythmogenesis application of ALL in clinical settings.

  15. Some problems with extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    The recently proposed extended inflation scenario is examined. Upper bounds on the Brans-Dicke parameter ω are obtained by requiring that the recovery from the supercooled regime be such that the presently observed Universe could have emerged. These bounds are well below the present-day experimental limits, implying that one must use models which have a potential to fix the present value of the Brans-Dicke-like scalar field. The implications for extended inflation in such models are discussed

  16. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  17. Sodium recognition by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the outward-facing conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Fabrizio; Almagor, Lior; Hiller, Reuben; Giladi, Moshe; Khananshvili, Daniel; Faraldo-Gómez, José D

    2014-12-16

    Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCXs) are ubiquitous membrane transporters with a key role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and signaling. NCXs mediate the bidirectional translocation of either Na(+) or Ca(2+), and thus can catalyze uphill Ca(2+) transport driven by a Na(+) gradient, or vice versa. In a major breakthrough, a prokaryotic NCX homolog (NCX_Mj) was recently isolated and its crystal structure determined at atomic resolution. The structure revealed an intriguing architecture consisting of two inverted-topology repeats, each comprising five transmembrane helices. These repeats adopt asymmetric conformations, yielding an outward-facing occluded state. The crystal structure also revealed four putative ion-binding sites, but the occupancy and specificity thereof could not be conclusively established. Here, we use molecular-dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations to identify the ion configuration that best corresponds to the crystallographic data and that is also thermodynamically optimal. In this most probable configuration, three Na(+) ions occupy the so-called Sext, SCa, and Sint sites, whereas the Smid site is occupied by one water molecule and one H(+), which protonates an adjacent aspartate side chain (D240). Experimental measurements of Na(+)/Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/Ca(2+) exchange by wild-type and mutagenized NCX_Mj confirm that transport of both Na(+) and Ca(2+) requires protonation of D240, and that this side chain does not coordinate either ion at Smid. These results imply that the ion exchange stoichiometry of NCX_Mj is 3:1 and that translocation of Na(+) across the membrane is electrogenic, whereas transport of Ca(2+) is not. Altogether, these findings provide the basis for further experimental and computational studies of the conformational mechanism of this exchanger.

  18. The New Worlds Observer: Direct Detection and Study of Exoplanets from the Habitable Zone Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Webster C.; New Worlds Study Team

    2009-01-01

    Direct detection and spectroscopic study of the planets around the nearby stars is generally recognized as a prime goal of astronomy. The New Worlds Observer mission concept is being studied as an Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for this purpose. NWO features two spacecraft: a general purpose 4m telescope that operates from the UV to the Near IR, and a starshade, a flower-shaped occulter about 50m in diameter flying in alignment about 70,000km away. Our study shows this is the most effective way to map nearby planetary systems. Images will show dust and debris down to a fraction of our zodiacal light level. Planets fainter than the Earth can be seen from the Habitable Zone outward, at distances up to 20pc. High throughput and low noise enable immediate follow-up spectroscopy of discovered planets. NWO can discover many more Earth-like planets than all competing approaches including astrometric, interferometric, and internal coronagraphic. Within hours of discovery, a high quality spectrum can determine the true nature of the exoplanet and open the search for biomarkers and life. Over half of the time will be spent with the starshade in transit to the next target. During those times the telescope will be available to for general astrophysics purposes. Operating from the ultraviolet to the near infrared, this will be a true HST follow-on. The study shows all needed technologies already exist. The cost scales primarily with telescope size. The mission is definitely within the financial and technical reach of NASA for the coming decade.

  19. Synaptic excitation in spinal motoneurons alternates with synaptic inhibition and is balanced by outward rectification during rhythmic motor network activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    channels. Intrinsic outward rectification facilitates spiking by focusing synaptic depolarization near threshold for action potentials. By direct recording of synaptic currents, we also show that motoneurons are activated by out-of-phase peaks in excitation and inhibition during network activity, whereas......Regular firing in spinal motoneurons of red-eared turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans, either sex) evoked by steady depolarization at rest is replaced by irregular firing during functional network activity. The transition caused by increased input conductance and synaptic fluctuations in membrane...... potential was suggested to originate from intense concurrent inhibition and excitation. We show that the conductance increase in motoneurons during functional network activity is mainly caused by intrinsic outward rectification near threshold for action potentials by activation of voltage and Ca2+ gated K...

  20. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  1. ‘The Edification of the Church’: Richard Hooker’s Theology of Worship and the Protestant Inward / Outward Disjunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littlejohn W. Bradford

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteenth-century English Protestants struggled with the legacy left them by the Lutheran reformation: a strict disjunction between inward and outward that hindered the development of a robust theology of worship. For Luther, outward forms of worship had more to do with the edification of the neighbour than they did with pleasing God. But what exactly did ‘edification’ mean? On the one hand, English Protestants sought to avoid the Roman Catholic view that certain elements of worship held an intrinsic spiritual value; on the other hand, many did not want to imply that forms of worship were spiritually arbitrary and had a merely civil value. Richard Hooker developed his theology of worship in response to this challenge, seeking to maintain a clear distinction between the inward worship of the heart and the outward forms of public worship, while refusing to disassociate the two. The result was a concept of edification which sought to do justice to both civil and spiritual concerns, without, pace Peter Lake and other scholars, conceding an inch to a Catholic theology of worship

  2. Macroscopic Properties of Hollow Cone Spray Using an Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector in GCI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Penghui

    2016-07-01

    Fuel mixture formation and spray characteristics are crucial for the advancement of Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. For investigations of spray characteristics, a high-pressure high-temperature spray chamber with constant volume has been designed, tested and commissioned at CCRC, KAUST. Back light illumination technique has been applied to investigate the macroscopic spray properties of an outwardly opening piezoelec- tric injector. Three parameters including injection pressure, ambient pressure, and ambient temperature have been involved. A total of 18 combinations of experimental conditions were tested under non-reactive conditions. Through qualitative analysis of spray morphology under different operating conditions, an apparent distinction of spray morphology has been noticed. Spray morphology and propagation have shown strong dependencies on ambient pressure and ambient tempera- ture while injection pressure has a negligible effect on spray shape. Increasingly compact and bushier spray patterns were observed in the cases of high ambient pressure due to in- creasing aerodynamic drag force on spray boundary. It should also be noted that ambient temperature plays a fairly important role in fuel evaporation rate. At 200 °C, oscillating and considerably short spray shape was produced. Also, circumferential ring-like vortices and distinctive string-like structures have been identified for the fuel spray exiting this hollow cone injector. It has been observed that high ambient pressure conditions (Pamb = 4 bar and 10.5 bar) are favorable to the vortices generation, which has also been reported in previous literature. The quantitative description of macroscopic spray properties reveals that ambient pres- sure and ambient temperature are found to be the most influential parameters on liquid penetration length. The rise of ambient pressure results in considerably shorter liquid pen- etration length. Ambient temperature also appears to be a very effective

  3. Extended-Release Guaifenesin/Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride for Symptom Relief in Support of a Wait-and-See Approach for the Treatment of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septimus, Edward J; Albrecht, Helmut H; Solomon, Gail; Shea, Tim; Guenin, Eric P

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-known fact that antibiotics (AB) are not effective against viruses, many patients ask for - and all too often doctors provide - AB for treating URTIs. Over-prescribing of AB is one of the key causes for the development of bacterial resistance, which the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls "one of the world's most pressing public health problems". In addition to the CDC initiated "Get Smart About Antibiotics" campaign, focused on educating doctors the public about the importance of appropriate AB use, other programs tackling this problem include the development of new treatment paradigms. Data published at the Oregon Health & Science University demonstrated that a 'wait-and-see' approach, without an AB prescription for the treatment of acute childhood ear infections, was as quick, safe, and effective in resolving the infections as an AB prescription (Spiro DM, Tay KY, Arnold DH, Dziura JD, Baker MD, Shapiro ED. Wait-and-See Prescription for the Treatment of Acute Otitis Media. JAMA 2006; 296:1235-1241). To try and reduce inappropriate prescribing practices, a wait and see or delayed approach requires patients to return for a prescription if their symptoms persist or worsen. The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with Mucinex D (Reckitt Benckiser LLC, Parsippany, New Jersey) lowers the use of antibiotics in the treatment of URTIs when compared with placebo. Patients aged 18 to 75 years with symptoms of acute URTIs were randomized to 1200 mg guaifenesin/120 mg pseudoephedrine hydrochloride extended-release, bilayer tablets or matching placebo for 7 consecutive days. Eligible patients met physician's criteria for antibiotic therapy but were considered suitable for a wait and see approach (withholding antibiotics for ≥48 hours). Patients recorded symptom ratings via an interactive voice response system. One thousand one hundred eighty-nine patients enrolled; data are presented for the modified intent

  4. Reversed sense of the ''outward'' direction for dynamical effects of rotation close to a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Prasanna, A.R.

    1988-10-01

    Anderson and Lemos (1988) noticed that the direction in which viscous torque transports angular momentum changes, close to a black hole, from outwards to inwards. We find here that close to a black hole the centrifugal force attracts particles towards the hole. We argue that these are particular examples of a general reversal in sense of the inward and outward directions for all dynamical effects of rotation close to the hole. Using results from the recent paper by Abramowicz, Carter and Lasota (1988) we explain that the reversal is not connected with dragging of inertial frames or with the difference between the angular velocities of the hole and of the surrounding matter but rather, it is an effect of curvature. For a Schwarzschild black hole the reversal takes place at the circular photon orbit (r=3M-tilde) because the geodesic curvature, R-tilde=r(1-3M-tilde/r), of the circles r = const. changes its sign there. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  5. Motivations of Russian firms to invest abroad: how do sanctions affect Russia’s outward foreign direct investment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto Kari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, Russia’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI soared and the OFDI stock exceeded $ 500 billion. However, a year later, Russia’s OFDI dropped by nearly 15 per cent. Rapid upward and downward swings make it necessary to analyze the motivation of Russian firms to invest abroad as well as to assess the impact of sanctions on Russian OFDI. The author points out that a significant part of Russia’s outward FDI stock is accounted for by the operations of Russian corporations in their home market. It is concluded that although Western sanctions target a relatively small number of Russian citizens and companies, they nevertheless affect some of Russia’s key people, largest banks, and hydrocarbon producers. Therefore, their direct impact could be substantial. Alongside the direct impact, one should consider their indirect impact, such as the tumbling rouble exchange rate and Russian banks’ increasing interest rates, which decrease Russian firms’ capability to invest abroad. Moreover, a less amicable politic al atmosphere in the West may push some Russian corporations out of the Western markets and diminish the enthusiasm of new ones to enter them. Today, Russia’s counter-sanctions do not directly restrict the country’s OFDI, but Russian state-owned enterprises may reach a decision to hold foreign investments to support Russia’s sanction policy.

  6. The German model of capitalism and the persistence of outward foreign direct investment: evidence from German manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin T Bohl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of critique on the German model of capitalism in general, and German public policy in particular as to the ability to successfully adjust to rapid change and exogenous shocks in wake of economic globalisation, this paper investigates the degree of shock persistence in foreign direct investment (FDI of ten German manufacturing industries for the period 1976 to 2003. Theory on exports and non-FDI investment suggests that FDI should exhibit a considerable degree of shock persistence because they are subject to high sunk costs because of high entry and exit costs associated with the high level of asset specificity that is normally connected to FDI. Persistence in foreign direct investment time series data is established by applying various unit root tests. The results are robust to the potential presence of structural breaks in the data. The empirical analysis shows that German outward FDI in mature manufacturing industries, with one exception, exhibits a high degree of shock persistence. The results suggest, at least for mature German industries, that the sunk costs view on shock persistency is confirmed for outward FDI. The results furnish evidence for a tentative assessment of the relationship between German public policy and FDI strategies of multinational firms.

  7. Factors Attributing to Outwards Direct Investments from Developing Countries to Developed Countries: Evidence from China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore the growing trend of outward foreign direct investments (OFDIs from developing countries to developed countries. Market-seeking and strategic asset explorations are the main motivations for conducting OFDIs in developed countries. Meanwhile, cross-border greenfield investments and cross-border mergers and acquisitions are the main entry strategies used by developing countries when penetrating the developed markets. Finally, this paper reveals mixed results about the explaining ability of John Dunning’s International Development Path (IDP theory on the patterns of selected developing markets' OFDIs to developed countries. On the one hand, China’s OFDIs follow the paths in the IDP theory. On the other hand, those of India do not confirm so.

  8. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from BRIC countries: Comparing strategies of Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese multinational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An overall comparative study of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI from BRIC countries and strategies conducted by multinational companies (MNCs based in the BRICs is elaborated on with a same methodology for Brazil, Russia, India and China. The comparison pertains to the historical emergence of firms’ internationalisation, their booming expansion in the 2000s then their muddling through the current crisis, the specificities of OFDI from each home country, OFDI geographical distribution and industrial structure, econometric testing of the respective determinants of Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese OFDI, and the role of home countries’ governments vis-à-vis home-based MNCs. Beyond some common characteristics, BRICs’ MNCs exhibit a number of major country-specific features.

  9. 5-HT modulation of hyperpolarization-activated inward current and calcium- dependent outward current in a crustacean motor neuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, O.; Harris-Warrick, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    1. Serotonergic modulation of a hyperpolarization-activated inward current, I(h), and a calcium-dependent outward current, I(o(Ca)), was examined in the dorsal gastric (DG) motor neuron, with the use of intracellular recording techniques in an isolated preparation of the crab stomatogastric....... The time course of activation of I(h) was well fitted by a single exponential function and strongly voltage dependent. 5-HT increased the rate of activation of I(h). 5- HT also slowed the rate of deactivation of the I(h) tail on repolarization to -50 mV. 6. The activation curve for the conductance (G...... reduced or eliminated the 5-HT response in the depolarizing range, suggesting that 5-HT specifically reduces I(o(Ca)). 11. These results demonstrate that 5-HT has dual effects on the DG motor neuron, in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. We suggest that changes in the two conductances are responsible...

  10. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  11. Moving inwards, moving outwards, moving upwards: the role of spirituality during the early stages of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinton, J; Bain, V; Ingram, S; Heys, S D

    2011-09-01

    The paper reflects on a study which explored the role of spirituality in the lives of women during the first year after being diagnosed with breast cancer. The study utilised a qualitative method (hermeneutic phenomenology) designed to provide rich and thick understanding of women's experiences of breast cancer and to explore possible ways in which spirituality may, or may not, be beneficial in enabling coping and enhancing quality of life. The paper draws on the thinking of David Hay and Viktor Frankl to develop a model of spirituality that includes, but is not defined by, religion and that has the possibility to facilitate effective empirical enquiry. It outlines a threefold movement - inwards, outwards and upwards - that emerged from in-depth interviews with women who have breast cancer. This framework captures something of the spiritual movement that women went through on their cancer journeys and offers some pointers and possibilities for better and more person-centred caring approaches that include recognition of the spiritual dimension of women's experiences for the management of those with breast cancer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Challenging Patriarchy: Trade, outward migration and the internationalization of Commercial sex among Bayang and Ejagham women in Southwest Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngambouk Vitalis Pemunta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the specific local and global socio-economic forces that led to the outward migration of Bayang and Ejagham women to work as commercial sex workers on the Cameroon-Nigeria border regions in the 1980s and 1990s. It demonstrates that these women’s personal accumulation strategies are adaptative- drawing on time and space specific modes of capitalist accumulation and kinship systems of power. The intertwined nature of these forms of accumulation demonstrate that patriarchal forms of power and capitalist forms of accumulation in this region were not competitive, but rather complementary systems. This conjuncture also gave women the latitude to claim some form of sexual and economic agency, suggesting that at least in Africa, patriarchy as a power field is dynamic and relational, simultaneously opening up spaces for both resistance and agency.The impact of sex work is disproportionate since most women of our study were involved in subsistence sex, with the risk of exposure to violence and HIV/AIDS. These women nevertheless sought to reconfigure gender relations.

  13. How Far Can Extended Knowledge Be Extended?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, K. Brad

    2018-01-01

    by an artifact, like a notebook or telescope. The chapter illustrates this by applying Pritchard’s account of extended knowledge to collaborating scientists. The beliefs acquired through collaborative research cannot satisfy both of Pritchard’s conditions of creditability. Further, there is evidence......Duncan Pritchard (2010) has developed a theory of extended knowledge based on the notion of extended cognition initially developed by Clark and Chalmers (1998). Pritchard’s account gives a central role to the notion of creditability, which requires the following two conditions to be met: (i...... that scientists are not prepared to take responsibility for the actions of the scientists with whom they collaborate....

  14. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  15. KChIP2 genotype dependence of transient outward current (Ito) properties in cardiomyocytes isolated from male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldschmidt, Lara; Junkereit, Vera; Bähring, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The transient outward current (Ito) in cardiomyocytes is largely mediated by Kv4 channels associated with Kv Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2). A knockout model has documented the critical role of KChIP2 in Ito expression. The present study was conducted to characterize in both sexes the dependence of Ito properties, including current magnitude, inactivation kinetics, recovery from inactivation and voltage dependence of inactivation, on the number of functional KChIP2 alleles. For this purpose we performed whole-cell patch-clamp experiments on isolated left ventricular cardiomyocytes from male and female mice which had different KChIP2 genotypes; i.e., wild-type (KChIP2+/+), heterozygous knockout (KChIP2+/-) or complete knockout of KChIP2 (KChIP2-/-). We found in both sexes a KChIP2 gene dosage effect (i.e., a proportionality between number of alleles and phenotype) on Ito magnitude, however, concerning other Ito properties, KChIP2+/- resembled KChIP2+/+. Only in the total absence of KChIP2 (KChIP2-/-) we observed a slowing of Ito kinetics, a slowing of recovery from inactivation and a negative shift of a portion of the voltage dependence of inactivation. In a minor fraction of KChIP2-/- myocytes Ito was completely lost. The distinct KChIP2 genotype dependences of Ito magnitude and inactivation kinetics, respectively, seen in cardiomyocytes were reproduced with two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on Xenopus oocytes expressing Kv4.2 and different amounts of KChIP2. Our results corroborate the critical role of KChIP2 in controlling Ito properties. They demonstrate that the Kv4.2/KChIP2 interaction in cardiomyocytes is highly dynamic, with a clear KChIP2 gene dosage effect on Kv4 channel surface expression but not on inactivation gating.

  16. Differential responses of rabbit ventricular and atrial transient outward current (Ito) to the Ito modulator NS5806.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongwei; Cannell, Mark B; Hancox, Jules C

    2017-03-01

    Transient outward potassium current (I to ) in the heart underlies phase 1 repolarization of cardiac action potentials and thereby affects excitation-contraction coupling. Small molecule activators of I to may therefore offer novel treatments for cardiac dysfunction, including heart failure and atrial fibrillation. NS5806 has been identified as a prototypic activator of canine I to This study investigated, for the first time, actions of NS5806 on rabbit atrial and ventricular I to Whole cell patch-clamp recordings of I to and action potentials were made at physiological temperature from rabbit ventricular and atrial myocytes. 10  μ mol/L NS5806 increased ventricular I to with a leftward shift in I to activation and accelerated restitution. At higher concentrations, stimulation of I to was followed by inhibition. The EC 50 for stimulation was 1.6  μ mol/L and inhibition had an IC 50 of 40.7  μ mol/L. NS5806 only inhibited atrial I to (IC 50 of 18  μ mol/L) and produced a modest leftward shifts in I to activation and inactivation, without an effect on restitution. 10  μ mol/L NS5806 shortened ventricular action potential duration (APD) at APD 20 -APD 90 but prolonged atrial APD NS5806 also reduced atrial AP upstroke and amplitude, consistent with an additional atrio-selective effect on Na + channels. In contrast to NS5806, flecainide, which discriminates between Kv1.4 and 4.x channels, produced similar levels of inhibition of ventricular and atrial I to NS5806 discriminates between rabbit ventricular and atrial I to, with mixed activator and inhibitor actions on the former and inhibitor actions against the later. NS5806 may be of significant value for pharmacological interrogation of regional differences in native cardiac I to . © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Modulation of the transient outward current (Ito) in rat cardiac myocytes and human Kv4.3 channels by mefloquine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Cortes, E.J.; Islas, A.A.; Arevalo, J.P.; Mancilla, C.; Monjaraz, E.; Salinas-Stefanon, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The antimalarial drug mefloquine, is known to be a potassium channel blocker, although its mechanism of action has not being elucidated and its effects on the transient outward current (I to ) and the molecular correlate, the K v 4.3 channel has not being studied. Here, we describe the mefloquine-induced inhibition of the rat ventricular I to and of CHO cells co-transfected with human K v 4.3 and its accessory subunit hKChIP2C by whole-cell voltage-clamp. Mefloquine inhibited rat I to and hK v 4.3 + KChIP2C currents in a concentration-dependent manner with a limited voltage dependence and similar potencies (IC 50 = 8.9 μM and 10.5 μM for cardiac myocytes and K v 4.3 channels, respectively). In addition, mefloquine did not affect the activation of either current but significantly modified the hK v 4.3 steady-state inactivation and recovery from inactivation. The effects of this drug was compared with that of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a well-known potassium channel blocker and its binding site does not seem to overlap with that of 4-AP. - Highlights: • Mefloquine inhibited ventricular I to and hK v 4.3 channels. IC 50 = 8.9 and 10.5 μM. • Inactivation and recovery from inactivation in the hK v 4.3 channels were modified by mefloquine. • Mefloquine displayed a higher affinity for the inactivated state. • The binding site for mefloquine may be located in the extracellular side of the channel.

  18. Extended Enterprise performance Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, Maria Lammerdina; Hartmann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The allegiance of partnering organisations and their employees to an Extended Enterprise performance is its proverbial sword of Damocles. Literature on Extended Enterprises focuses on collaboration, inter-organizational integration and learning to avoid diminishing or missing allegiance becoming an

  19. Perspectives on extended Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno; Yost, David S.; Bunn, Elaine; Lee, Seok-soo; Levite, Ariel e.; Russell, James A.; Hokayem, Emile; Kibaroglu, Mustafa; Schulte, Paul; Thraenert, Oliver; Kulesa, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)

  20. Potentiation of glycine-gated NR1/NR3A NMDA receptors relieves Ca2+-dependent outward rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Madry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycine has diverse functions within the mammalian central nervous system. It inhibits postsynaptic neurons via strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyRs and enhances neuronal excitation through co-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. Classical Ca2+-permeable NMDA receptors are composed of glycine-binding NR1 and glutamate-binding NR2 subunits, and hence require both glutamate and glycine for efficient activation. In contrast, recombinant receptors composed of NR1 and the glycine binding NR3A and/or NR3B subunits lack glutamate binding sites and can be activated by glycine alone. Therefore these receptors are also named excitatory glycine receptors. Co-application of antagonists of the NR1 glycine-binding site or of the divalent cation Zn2+ markedly enhances the glycine responses of these receptors. To gain further insight into the properties of these glycine-gated NMDA receptors, we investigated their current-voltage (I-V dependence. Whole-cell current-voltage relations of glycine currents recorded from NR1/NR3B and NR1/NR3A/NR3B expressing oocytes were found to be linear under our recording conditions. In contrast, NR1/NR3A receptors displayed a strong outwardly rectifying I-V relation. Interestingly, the voltage-dependent inward current block was abolished in the presence of NR1 antagonists, Zn2+ or a combination of both. Further analysis revealed that Ca2+ (1.8 mM present in our recording solutions was responsible for the voltage-dependent inhibition of ion flux through NR1/NR3A receptors. Since physiological concentrations of the divalent cation Mg2+ did not affect the I-V dependence, our data suggest that relief of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ block of NR1/NR3A receptors by Zn2+ may be important for the regulation of excitatory glycinergic transmission, according to the Mg2+-block of conventional NR1/NR2 NMDA receptors.

  1. Changes in the action potential and transient outward potassium current in cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenqi; Jia, Yixin; Zheng, Shuai; Li, Yan; Han, Jie; Meng, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Acute cardiac rejection contributes to the changes in the electrophysiological properties of grafted hearts. However, the electrophysiological changes of cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection are still unknown. An understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms of cardiomyocytes could improve the diagnosis and treatment of acute cardiac rejection. So it is important to characterize the changes in the action potential ( AP ) and the transient outward potassium current ( I to ) in cardiomyocytes during acute cardiac rejection. Heterotopic heart transplantation was performed in allogeneic [Brown Norway (BN)-to-Lewis] and isogeneic (BN-to-BN) rats. Twenty models were established in each group. Ten recipients were sacrificed at the 2nd day and the other ten recipients were sacrificed at the 4 th day after the operation in each group. Histopathological examinations of the grafted hearts were performed in half of the recipients in each group randomly. The other half of the grafted hearts were excised rapidly and enzymatically dissociated to obtain single cardiomyocytes. The AP and I to current were recorded using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Forty grafted hearts were successfully harvested and used in experiments. Histologic examination showed mild rejection at the 2 nd day and moderate rejection at the 4 th day in the allogeneic group after cardiac transplantation, while no evidence of histologic lesions of rejection were observed in the isogeneic group. Compared with the isogeneic group, the action potential duration ( APD ) of cardiomyocytes in the allogeneic group was significantly prolonged ( APD 90 was 49.28±5.621 mV in the isogeneic group and 88.08±6.445 mV in the allogeneic group at the 2 nd day, P=0.0016; APD 90 was 59.34±5.183 mV in the isogeneic group and 104.0±9.523 mV in the allogeneic group at the 4 th day, P=0.0064). The current density of I to was significantly decreased at the 4 th day after cardiac transplantation. The APD of

  2. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  3. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Extending Database Integration Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buneman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Formal approaches to the semantics of databases and database languages can have immediate and practical consequences in extending database integration technologies to include a vastly greater range...

  5. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  6. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  7. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  8. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  9. An extended technicolor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Terning, J.

    1994-01-01

    An extended technicolor model is constructed. Quark and lepton masses, spontaneous CP violation, and precision electroweak measurements are discussed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is analyzed using the concept of the big MAC (most attractive channel)

  10. Extending mine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining

  11. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  12. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  13. Extending Mondrian Memory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    a kernel semaphore is locked or unlocked. In addition, we extended the system call interface to receive notifications about user-land locking...operations (such as calls to the mutex and semaphore code provided by the C library). By patching the dynamically loadable GLibC5, we are able to test... semaphores , and spinlocks. RTO-MP-IST-091 10- 9 Extending Mondrian Memory Protection to loading extension plugins. This prevents any untrusted code

  14. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 06-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED ... Corrosion Testing of Traditional and Extended Life Coolants 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hansen, Gregory A. T...providing vehicle specific coolants. Several laboratory corrosion tests were performed according to ASTM D1384 and D2570, but with a 2.5x extended time

  15. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  16. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  17. Upper limb treatment technigues for stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Kornet

    2017-03-01

    It was considered that the most important elements of the treatment used in the rehabilitation of the paretic upper limb are: exercise matching the anti-spasm pattern, maintaining appropriate position for exercise that provide an approximation of the shoulder joint and the use of cross-facilitation. The study indicates that the treatment of a post stroke upper limb should be based on the: physiotherapy, kinesiotherapy and specific positioning - all of them corresponding to a given stage of the disease. The work also presents the most frequently used methods, especially highlighting: the Prorioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF, Bobath, Brunnstrom, CIMT and OIT. It was also shown that in order to enhance the effects of a post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation, it should be extended by modern methods such as Mirror Therapy, Virtual Reality or Robot-assisted Therapy.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  20. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  1. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R

    2016-01-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure. (paper)

  2. The Moderating Role of Dysfunctional Parent-Child Relationships on the Association Between Outward Anger Expression and Physical Health in Youth From Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Kassie D; Van Dyk, Tori R; Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of outward anger expression on physical health outcomes (number of illnesses in the past year, 2-year medical service utilization, and health-related quality of life) while also expanding on previous research by assessing the moderating effect of parent-child dysfunction. An ethnically diverse sample of 125 children, ages 8 to 11 years, was recruited from a family medicine practice serving a low-income population. High levels of outward anger expression were related to a greater number of illnesses, greater medical service utilization, and lower health-related quality of life. Additionally, worse parent-child dysfunction exacerbated this relationship for a number of illnesses and medical service utilization. Results suggest that health care providers should consider the influence of environmental and familial factors on the physical health of children with anger. Recommendations for identifying at-risk youth and improving anger expression as well as parent-child relationships are provided. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Observation of inward and outward particle convection in the core of electron cyclotron heated and current driven plasmas in the Tokamak a Configuration Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furno, I.; Weisen, H.

    2003-01-01

    In the Tokamak a Configuration Variable [F. Hofmann, J.B. Lister, M. Anton et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 36, B277 (1994)], inward or outward convection in the core of electron cyclotron heated and current driven plasmas is observed, depending on discharge conditions. In sawtoothing discharges with central electron cyclotron heating, outward convection is observed when a quasicontinuous m=1 kink mode is present, resulting in inverted sawteeth on the central electron density, while in the absence thereof, inward convection between successive sawtooth crashes leads to 'normal' sawteeth. The occurrence of a kink mode depends sensitively on plasma triangularity. When sawteeth are stabilized with central co- or counterelectron cyclotron current drive, stationary hollow electron density profiles are observed in the presence of m=1 modes, while peaked or flat profiles are observed in magnetohydrodynamic quiescent discharges. The observation of peaked density profiles in fully electron cyclotron driven plasmas demonstrates that pinch processes other than the Ware pinch must be responsible for these phenomena

  4. VEGF attenuated increase of outward delayed-rectifier potassium currents in hippocampal neurons induced by focal ischemia via PI3-K pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K W; Yang, P; Li, S S; Liu, C W; Sun, F Y

    2015-07-09

    We recently indicated that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protects neurons against hypoxic death via enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.2, an isoform of the delayed-rectifier potassium channels through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling pathway. The present study investigated whether VEGF could attenuate ischemia-induced increase of the potassium currents in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons of rats after ischemic injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to induce brain ischemia. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the potassium currents of hippocampal neurons in brain slices from the ischemically injured brains of the rats 24h after MCAO. We detected that transient MCAO caused a significant increase of voltage-gated potassium currents (Kv) and outward delayed-rectifier potassium currents (IK), but not outward transient potassium currents (IA), in the ipsilateral hippocampus compared with the sham. Moreover, we found that VEGF could acutely, reversibly and voltage-dependently inhibit the ischemia-induced IK increase. This inhibitory effect of VEGF could be completely abolished by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-K. Our data indicate that VEGF attenuates the ischemia-induced increase of IK via activation of the PI3-K signaling pathway. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Carrier-Mediated Transport of Nicotine Across the Inner Blood-Retinal Barrier: Involvement of a Novel Organic Cation Transporter Driven by an Outward H(+) Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tega, Yuma; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the blood-to-retina transport of nicotine across the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Using the in vivo vascular injection method, the blood-to-retina influx clearance of nicotine across the BRB was determined as 131 μL/(min?g retina), which is much higher than that of a nonpermeable paracellular marker, and blood-to-retina transport of nicotine was inhibited by organic cations such as pyrilamine and verapamil. The nicotine uptake by a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB2 cells), an in vitro model of the inner BRB, exhibited time, temperature, and concentration dependence with a Km of 492 μM. These results suggest the involvement of a carrier-mediated transport process in nicotine transport in the inner BRB. The nicotine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells was stimulated by an outwardly directed H(+) gradient, and the uptake was significantly inhibited by bulky and hydrophobic cationic drugs, whereas inhibitors of organic cation transporters did not show inhibitory effect. These results suggest that the novel organic cation transport system driven by an outwardly directed H(+) gradient is involved in the blood-to-retina transport of nicotine across the inner BRB. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Extended Subadiabatic Layer in Simulations of Overshooting Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käpylä, Petri J.; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rheinhardt, Matthias; Käpylä, Maarit J.; Olspert, Nigul [ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Department of Computer Science, P.O. Box 15400, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Brandenburg, Axel [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Lagg, Andreas; Warnecke, Jörn [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-08-20

    We present numerical simulations of hydrodynamic overshooting convection in local Cartesian domains. We find that a substantial fraction of the lower part of the convection zone (CZ) is stably stratified according to the Schwarzschild criterion while the enthalpy flux is outward directed. This occurs when the heat conduction profile at the bottom of the CZ is smoothly varying, based either on a Kramers-like opacity prescription as a function of temperature and density or a static profile of a similar shape. We show that the subadiabatic layer arises due to nonlocal energy transport by buoyantly driven downflows in the upper parts of the CZ. Analysis of the force balance of the upflows and downflows confirms that convection is driven by cooling at the surface. We find that the commonly used prescription for the convective enthalpy flux being proportional to the negative entropy gradient does not hold in the stably stratified layers where the flux is positive. We demonstrate the existence of a non-gradient contribution to the enthalpy flux, which is estimated to be important throughout the convective layer. A quantitative analysis of downflows indicates a transition from a tree-like structure where smaller downdrafts merge into larger ones in the upper parts to a structure in the deeper parts where a height-independent number of strong downdrafts persist. This change of flow topology occurs when a substantial subadiabatic layer is present in the lower part of the CZ.

  7. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  8. Transversally extended string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi

    1988-01-01

    Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)

  9. Extended artistic appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    I propose that in at least some cases, objects of artistic appreciation are best thought of not simply as causes of artistic appreciation, but as parts of the cognitive machinery that drives aesthetic appreciation. In effect, this is to say that aesthetic appreciation operates via extended cognitive systems.

  10. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  11. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  12. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  13. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  14. Extended quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Bona

    2000-01-01

    The work can be considered as an essay on mathematical and conceptual structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics which is related here to some other (more general, but also to more special and 'approximative') theories. Quantum mechanics is here primarily reformulated in an equivalent form of a Poisson system on the phase space consisting of density matrices, where the 'observables', as well as 'symmetry generators' are represented by a specific type of real valued (densely defined) functions, namely the usual quantum expectations of corresponding selfjoint operators. It is shown in this paper that inclusion of additional ('nonlinear') symmetry generators (i. e. 'Hamiltonians') into this reformulation of (linear) quantum mechanics leads to a considerable extension of the theory: two kinds of quantum 'mixed states' should be distinguished, and operator - valued functions of density matrices should be used in the role of 'nonlinear observables'. A general framework for physical theories is obtained in this way: By different choices of the sets of 'nonlinear observables' we obtain, as special cases, e.g. classical mechanics on homogeneous spaces of kinematical symmetry groups, standard (linear) quantum mechanics, or nonlinear extensions of quantum mechanics; also various 'quasiclassical approximations' to quantum mechanics are all sub theories of the presented extension of quantum mechanics - a version of the extended quantum mechanics. A general interpretation scheme of extended quantum mechanics extending the usual statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics is also proposed. Eventually, extended quantum mechanics is shown to be (included into) a C * -algebraic (hence linear) quantum theory. Mathematical formulation of these theories is presented. The presentation includes an analysis of problems connected with differentiation on infinite-dimensional manifolds, as well as a solution of some problems connected with the work with only densely defined unbounded

  15. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  16. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... of public importance; engaging with non-academic groups using dialectical reasoning; scaling up insights through movement building; and propagating deliberation...

  17. Extended Theories of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2011-01-01

    Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.

  18. The Outwardly Rectifying Current of Layer 5 Neocortical Neurons that was Originally Identified as "Non-Specific Cationic" Is Essentially a Potassium Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Revah

    Full Text Available In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from layer 5 neocortical neurons, blockade of voltage gated sodium and calcium channels leaves a cesium current that is outward rectifying. This current was originally identified as a "non-specific cationic current", and subsequently it was hypothesized that it is mediated by TRP channels. In order to test this hypothesis, we used fluorescence imaging of intracellular sodium and calcium indicators, and found no evidence to suggest that it is associated with influx of either of these ions to the cell body or dendrites. Moreover, the current is still prominent in neurons from TRPC1-/- and TRPC5-/- mice. The effects on the current of various blocking agents, and especially its sensitivity to intracellular tetraethylammonium, suggest that it is not a non-specific cationic current, but rather that it is generated by cesium-permeable delayed rectifier potassium channels.

  19. Evidence for Radial Anisotropy in Earth's Upper Inner Core from Normal Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lythgoe, K.; Deuss, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the uppermost inner core is related to solidification of outer core material at the inner core boundary. Previous seismic studies using body waves indicate an isotropic upper inner core, although radial anisotropy has not been considered since it cannot be uniquely determined by body waves. Normal modes, however, do constrain radial anisotropy in the inner core. Centre frequency measurements indicate 2-5 % radial anisotropy in the upper 100 km of the inner core, with a fast direction radially outwards and a slow direction along the inner core boundary. This seismic structure provides constraints on solidification processes at the inner core boundary and appears consistent with texture predicted due to anisotropic inner core growth.

  20. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  1. Extended Wordsearches in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon

    1998-04-01

    Students can be encouraged to develop their factual knowledge by use of puzzles. One strategy described here is the extended wordsearch, where the wordsearch element generates a number of words or phrases from which the answers to a series of questions are selected. The wordsearch can be generated with the aid of computer programs, though in order to make them suitable for students with dyslexia or other learning difficulties, a simpler form is more appropriate. These problems can be employed in a variety of contexts, for example, as topic tests and classroom end-of-lesson fillers. An example is provided in the area of calcium chemistry. Sources of suitable software are listed.

  2. Classical extended superconformal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.R.

    1990-10-01

    Super-covariant differential operators are defined in two dimensions which map supersymmetry doublets to other doublets. The possibility of constructing a closed algebra among the fields appearing in such operators is explored. Such an algebra exists for Grassmann-odd differential operators. A representation for these operators in terms of free-field doublets is constructed. An explicit closed algebra involving fields of spin 2 and 5/2, in addition to the stress tensor and the supersymmetry generator, is constructed from such a free-field representation as an example of a non-linear extended superconformal algebra. (author). 9 refs

  3. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovern, A; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H

    2012-07-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients' everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients' prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed and ill-treated entity. Based on a systematic literature search, this review summarizes the current tools of diagnosis and treatment strategies for upper limb apraxia. It furthermore provides clinicians with graded recommendations. In particular, a short screening test for apraxia, and a more comprehensive diagnostic apraxia test for clinical use are recommended. Although currently only a few randomized controlled studies investigate the efficacy of different apraxia treatments, the gesture training suggested by Smania and colleagues can be recommended for the therapy of apraxia, the effects of which were shown to extend to activities of daily living and to persist for at least 2 months after completion of the training. This review aims at directing the reader's attention to the ecological relevance of apraxia. Moreover, it provides clinicians with appropriate tools for the reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of apraxia. Nevertheless, this review also highlights the need for further research into how to improve diagnosis of apraxia based on neuropsychological models and to develop new therapeutic strategies.

  5. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  6. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  7. Extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The algebra of the group of conformal transformations in two dimensions consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra. In many mathematical and physical contexts, the representations of ν which are relevant satisfy two conditions: they are unitary and they have the ''positive energy'' property that L o is bounded below. In an irreducible unitary representation the central element c takes a fixed real value. In physical contexts, the value of c is a characteristic of a theory. If c < 1, it turns out that the conformal algebra is sufficient to ''solve'' the theory, in the sense of relating the calculation of the infinite set of physically interesting quantities to a finite subset which can be handled in principle. For c ≥ 1, this is no longer the case for the algebra alone and one needs some sort of extended conformal algebra, such as the superconformal algebra. It is these algebras that this paper aims at addressing. (author)

  8. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  9. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  10. External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel

    This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...... and industrial organization theories, we elaborate a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating and moderating effects of the external environment on TMTs and their impact. Our review distinguishes between industry and institutional level of analyses and three types of environmental...

  11. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  12. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  13. Polarized radial magnetic fields and outward plasma fluxes during shallow-reversal discharges in the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Rusbridge, M.G.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of edge-region electromagnetic disturbances and of pulsed radial fluxes of plasma to the liner as well as the detailed interrelationship among these processes have been studied on the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch in its normal, shallow-reversal operating regime. The dominant magnetic disturbances are spiky (pulsewidth approx.5--10 μs) low-amplitude (Vertical BarB/sub r//B/sub theta/Vertical Bar -2 )= poloidally symmetric radial-field structures intersecting the vacuum wall and precessing toroidally in the anti-I/sub phi/ sense. The effect of even slight toroidal-field reversal (Vertical BarB/sub phi/(a)Vertical Barroughly-equalB/sub theta/(a)/10) is to polarize these radial-field spikes preferentially positive (i.e., B/sub r/>0) and to increase the speed of the minority (B/sub r/ 0) spikes. Synchronous with the polarized B/sub r/ spikes are intense radially outward fluxes of plasma (instantaneously > or approx. =10 22 m -2 s -1 ) leading to recurrent, large amplitude (Vertical BarΔn/n> or approx. =25%) depletion of the density in the outer quarter of minor radius. The resulting time-averaged global loss-rate per particle is significant (approx.10 3 s -1 )

  14. Watershed Fact Sheet: Improving Utah's Water Quality, Upper Bear River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Extension, USU

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Watershed of the Bear River Basin extends from the river's headwaters to Pixley Dam in Wyoming. This is the largest watershed in the Bear River Basin, with an area of about 2,000 square miles.

  15. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  16. Infantile lipofibromatosis of the upper limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, Harvey E.L.; Peh, Wilfred C.G. [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Chan, Mei-Yoke [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Walford, Norman [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Pathology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2005-12-01

    The imaging features of extensive lipofibromatosis presenting in a 1-day-old female infant are reported. This lesion involved her entire right upper limb, extending from the axilla to the palm of the hand. Radiographs showed marked deformity and thinning of all the right upper-limb bones due to pressure effect of soft-tissue enlargement, especially affecting the distal humerus and proximal forearm bones. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge soft-tissue mass infiltrating most of the muscles of the entire upper limb, with bony erosion. The mass was largely T1-isointense, moderately T2-hyperintense and showed marked enhancement. There were intra-lesional signal changes consistent with fatty elements. A lesion debulking procedure was performed and the histology was that of lipofibromatosis. The limb was found to be non-viable after the procedure and a subsequent above-elbow amputation was performed. Although the resection margins were not clear, she had no further recurrence over a subsequent 3-year follow-up period. (orig.)

  17. New radiocarbon dates for the transition from middle to upper palaeolithic at El Castillo (Cantabria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladas, H.; Cabrera-Valdes, V.; De Quiros, F.B.

    1996-01-01

    The stratigraphic sequence at the El Castillo cave in Cantabria, Spain, extends from Lower to Upper Palaeolithic. The transition from Middle to Upper Palaeolithic is represented by levels assigned to Quina Mousterian and Early Aurignacian. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Radiocarbon dates put the archaic Aurignacian industries at ca. 40,000 years ago and indicate that in northern Spain the Upper Palaeolithic began several millennia earlier than in other parts of western Europe. (authors). 16 refs., 1 tab

  18. 78 FR 46258 - Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 662.8 to 663.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 662.8 to 663.9 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River, from mile 662.8 to 663.9, extending the entire width of the river. This safety...

  19. SID seeks sludge and foreign bodies in steam generator upper heads while CECIL robotically removes them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, A.T.; Gay, J.

    1993-01-01

    The CECIL [Consolidated Edison Combined Inspection and Lancing] system provides a range of maintenance tools for cleaning the region between the tubesheet and the first support plate in steam generators. SID [Secondary Inspection Device] extends access to and inspection of the upper bundle region. Work is being done to combine CECIL and SID technology to inspect and hydraulically clean the upper bundle. (Author)

  20. PWR upper/lower internals shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homyk, W.A. [Indian Point Station, Buchanan, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    During refueling of a nuclear power plant, the reactor upper internals must be removed from the reactor vessel to permit transfer of the fuel. The upper internals are stored in the flooded reactor cavity. Refueling personnel working in containment at a number of nuclear stations typically receive radiation exposure from a portion of the highly contaminated upper intervals package which extends above the normal water level of the refueling pool. This same issue exists with reactor lower internals withdrawn for inservice inspection activities. One solution to this problem is to provide adequate shielding of the unimmersed portion. The use of lead sheets or blankets for shielding of the protruding components would be time consuming and require more effort for installation since the shielding mass would need to be transported to a support structure over the refueling pool. A preferable approach is to use the existing shielding mass of the refueling pool water. A method of shielding was devised which would use a vacuum pump to draw refueling pool water into an inverted canister suspended over the upper internals to provide shielding from the normally exposed components. During the Spring 1993 refueling of Indian Point 2 (IP2), a prototype shield device was demonstrated. This shield consists of a cylindrical tank open at the bottom that is suspended over the refueling pool with I-beams. The lower lip of the tank is two feet below normal pool level. After installation, the air width of the natural shielding provided by the existing pool water. This paper describes the design, development, testing and demonstration of the prototype device.

  1. Transient Outward K+ Current (Ito) Underlies the Right Ventricular Initiation of Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in a Transgenic Rabbit Model of Long-QT Syndrome Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bum-Rak; Li, Weiyan; Terentyev, Dmitry; Kabakov, Anatoli Y; Zhong, Mingwang; Rees, Colin M; Terentyeva, Radmila; Kim, Tae Yun; Qu, Zhilin; Peng, Xuwen; Karma, Alain; Koren, Gideon

    2018-06-01

    Sudden death in long-QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1), an inherited disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in KCNQ1, is triggered by early afterdepolarizations (EADs) that initiate polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (pVT). We investigated ionic mechanisms that underlie pVT in LQT1 using a transgenic rabbit model of LQT1. Optical mapping, cellular patch clamping, and computer modeling were used to elucidate the mechanisms of EADs in transgenic LQT1 rabbits. The results showed that shorter action potential duration in the right ventricle (RV) was associated with focal activity during pVT initiation. RV cardiomyocytes demonstrated higher incidence of EADs under 50 nmol/L isoproterenol. Voltage-clamp studies revealed that the transient outward potassium current (I to ) magnitude was 28% greater in RV associated with KChiP2 but with no differences in terms of calcium-cycling kinetics and other sarcolemmal currents. Perfusing with the I to blocker 4-aminopyridine changed the initial focal sites of pVT from the RV to the left ventricle, corroborating the role of I to in pVT initiation. Computer modeling showed that EADs occur preferentially in the RV because of the larger conductance of the slow-inactivating component of I to , which repolarizes the membrane potential sufficiently rapidly to allow reactivation of I Ca,L before I Kr has had sufficient time to activate. I to heterogeneity creates both triggers and an arrhythmogenic substrate in LQT1. In the absence of I Ks , I to interactions with I Ca,L and I Kr promote EADs in the RV while prolonging action potential duration in the left ventricle. This heterogeneity of action potential enhances dispersion of refractoriness and facilitates conduction blocks that initiate pVTs. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiao, Jun [Department of Cardiology, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, Chongqing (China); Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiu, Yun [Institute of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); She, Qiang [Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-17

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (I{sub to}) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of I{sub to} was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated I{sub to} reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced I{sub to} of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM.

  3. GDF15 regulates Kv2.1-mediated outward K+ current through the Akt/mTOR signalling pathway in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Ying; Huang, An-Qi; Zhou, Meng-Hua; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2014-05-15

    GDF15 (growth/differentiation factor 15), a novel member of the TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) superfamily, plays critical roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but the signal transduction pathways and receptor subtypes involved are not well understood. In the present paper, we report that GDF15 specifically increases the IK (delayed-rectifier outward K+ current) in rat CGNs (cerebellar granule neurons) in time- and concentration-dependent manners. The GDF15-induced amplification of the IK is mediated by the increased expression and reduced lysosome-dependent degradation of the Kv2.1 protein, the main α-subunit of the IK channel. Exposure of CGNs to GDF15 markedly induced the phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase), Akt and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), but the GDF15-induced IK densities and increased expression of Kv2.1 were attenuated only by Akt and mTOR, and not ERK, inhibitors. Pharmacological inhibition of the Src-mediated phosphorylation of TGFβR2 (TGFβ receptor 2), not TGFβR1, abrogated the effect of GDF15 on IK amplification and Kv2.1 induction. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that GDF15 increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of TGFβRII in the CGN lysate. The results of the present study reveal a novel regulation of Kv2.1 by GDF15 mediated through the TGFβRII-activated Akt/mTOR pathway, which is a previously uncharacterized Smad-independent mechanism of GDF15 signalling.

  4. Effect of trimetazidine treatment on the transient outward potassium current of the left ventricular myocytes of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Yu-luan; He, Li; Xiao, Jun; Xia, Shuang; Deng, Song-bai; Xiu, Yun; She, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, on transient outward potassium current (I to ) remodeling in ventricular myocytes and the plasma contents of free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose in DM. Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 weeks old and weighing 200-250 g, were randomly divided into three groups of 20 animals each. The control group was injected with vehicle (1 mM citrate buffer), the DM group was injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for induction of type 1 DM, and the DM+TMZ group was injected with the same dose of STZ followed by a 4-week treatment with TMZ (60 mg·kg −1 ·day −1 ). All animals were then euthanized and their hearts excised and subjected to electrophysiological measurements or gene expression analyses. TMZ exposure significantly reversed the increased plasma FFA level in diabetic rats, but failed to change the plasma glucose level. The amplitude of I to was significantly decreased in left ventricular myocytes from diabetic rats relative to control animals (6.25 ± 1.45 vs 20.72 ± 2.93 pA/pF at +40 mV). The DM-associated I to reduction was attenuated by TMZ. Moreover, TMZ treatment reversed the increased expression of the channel-forming alpha subunit Kv1.4 and the decreased expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 in diabetic rat hearts. These data demonstrate that TMZ can normalize, or partially normalize, the increased plasma FFA content, the reduced I to of ventricular myocytes, and the altered expression Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 in type 1 DM

  5. Irreducibility conditions for extended superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokatchev, E.

    1981-05-01

    The irreducible supermultiplets contained in an extended superfield are presented as sets of covariant derivatives of the superfield. Differential irreducibility constraints are easily obtained from this decomposition. (author)

  6. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  7. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  8. Survey of upper extremity injuries among martial arts participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesselhorst, Matthew M; Rayan, Ghazi M; Pasque, Charles B; Peyton Holder, R

    2013-01-01

    To survey participants at various experience levels of different martial arts (MA) about upper extremity injuries sustained during training and fighting. A 21-s question survey was designed and utilised. The survey was divided into four groups (Demographics, Injury Description, Injury Mechanism, and Miscellaneous information) to gain knowledge about upper extremity injuries sustained during martial arts participation. Chi-square testing was utilised to assess for significant associations. Males comprised 81% of respondents. Involvement in multiple forms of MA was the most prevalent (38%). The hand/wrist was the most common area injured (53%), followed by the shoulder/upper arm (27%) and the forearm/elbow (19%). Joint sprains/muscle strains were the most frequent injuries reported overall (47%), followed by abrasions/bruises (26%). Dislocations of the upper extremity were reported by 47% of participants while fractures occurred in 39%. Surgeries were required for 30% of participants. Females were less likely to require surgery and more likely to have shoulder and elbow injuries. Males were more likely to have hand injuries. Participants of Karate and Tae Kwon Do were more likely to have injuries to their hands, while participants of multiple forms were more likely to sustain injuries to their shoulders/upper arms and more likely to develop chronic upper extremity symptoms. With advanced level of training the likelihood of developing chronic upper extremity symptoms increases, and multiple surgeries were required. Hand protection was associated with a lower risk of hand injuries. Martial arts can be associated with substantial upper extremity injuries that may require surgery and extended time away from participation. Injuries may result in chronic upper extremity symptoms. Hand protection is important for reducing injuries to the hand and wrist.

  9. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  10. Extended cognition and epistemic luck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    When extended cognition is extended into mainstream epistemology, an awkward tension arises when considering cases of environmental epistemic luck. Surprisingly, it is not at all clear how the mainstream verdict that agents lack knowledge in cases of environmental luck can be reconciled with

  11. Scale-invariant extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a model of extended inflation which makes use of the nonlinear realization of scale invariance involving the dilaton coupled to an inflaton field whose potential admits a metastable ground state. The resulting theory resembles the Jordan-Brans-Dicke version of extended inflation. However, quantum effects, in the form of the conformal anomaly, generate a mass for the dilaton, thus allowing our model to evade the problems of the original version of extended inflation. We show that extended inflation can occur for a wide range of inflaton potentials with no fine-tuning of dimensionless parameters required. Furthermore, we also find that it is quite natural for the extended-inflation period to be followed by an epoch of slow-rollover inflation as the dilaton settles down to the minimum of its induced potential

  12. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  13. Reductions in the Cardiac Transient Outward K+ Current Ito Caused by Chronic β-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation Are Partly Rescued by Inhibition of Nuclear Factor κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panama, Brian K; Korogyi, Adam S; Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh; Oh, Yena; Gray, Charles B B; Gang, Hongying; Brown, Joan Heller; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A; Backx, Peter H

    2016-02-19

    The fast transient outward potassium current (Ito,f) plays a critical role in the electrical and contractile properties of the myocardium. Ito,f channels are formed by the co-assembly of the pore-forming α-subunits, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, together with the accessory β-subunit KChIP2. Reductions of Ito,f are common in the diseased heart, which is also associated with enhanced stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). We used cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes to examine how chronic β-AR stimulation decreases Ito,f. To determine which downstream pathways mediate these Ito,f changes, adenoviral infections were used to inhibit CaMKIIδc, CaMKIIδb, calcineurin, or nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). We observed that chronic β-AR stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO) for 48 h reduced Ito,f along with mRNA expression of all three of its subunits (Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and KChIP2). Inhibiting either CaMKIIδc nor CaMKIIδb did not prevent the ISO-mediated Ito,f reductions, even though CaMKIIδc and CaMKIIδb clearly regulated Ito,f and the mRNA expression of its subunits. Likewise, calcineurin inhibition did not prevent the Ito,f reductions induced by β-AR stimulation despite strongly modulating Ito,f and subunit mRNA expression. In contrast, NF-κB inhibition partly rescued the ISO-mediated Ito,f reductions in association with restoration of KChIP2 mRNA expression. Consistent with these observations, KChIP2 promoter activity was reduced by p65 as well as β-AR stimulation. In conclusion, NF-κB, and not CaMKIIδ or calcineurin, partly mediates the Ito,f reductions induced by chronic β-AR stimulation. Both mRNA and KChIP2 promoter data suggest that the ISO-induced Ito,f reductions are, in part, mediated through reduced KChIP2 transcription caused by NF-κB activation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    stored at 24 °C. Sperm motility parameters, morphology, and viability were analysed ... body size, slow average daily weight gain, decreased fertility, extended .... were determined by counting a total of 200 spermatozoa per each stained slide.

  15. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  16. Extended asymptotic functions - some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several examples of extended asymptotic functions of two variables are given. This type of asymptotic functions has been introduced as an extension of continuous ordinary functions. The presented examples are realizations of some Schwartz distributions delta(x), THETA(x), P(1/xsup(n)) and can be multiplied in the class of the asymptotic functions as opposed to the theory of Schwartz distributions. The examples illustrate the method of construction of extended asymptotic functions similar to the distributions. The set formed by the extended asymptotic functions is also considered. It is shown, that this set is not closed with respect to addition and multiplication

  17. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanini, Nicola [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wright, Matthew, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: matthew.wright.13@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  18. Microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study of the extended transsphenoidal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-tao

    2013-06-01

    only 1/20. In 4/20 of the cases, the pituitary gland projects outward. Conclusion The extended transsphenoidal approach can clearly expose the structures in cavernous sinus, and it is suitable for the treatment of pituitary adenoma invading the cavernous sinus from sella.

  19. Laparoscopic jejunostomy for obstructing upper gastrointestinal malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUJIMOTO, HIRONORI; HIRAKI, SHUICHI; TAKAHATA, RISA; NOMURA, SHINSUKE; ITO, NOZOMI; KANEMATSU, KYOHEI; HORIGUCHI, HIROYUKI; AOSASA, SUEFUMI; YAMAMOTO, JUNJI; HASE, KAZUO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive laparoscopic jejunostomy (Lap-J) technique for obstruction due to upper gastrointestinal malignancies and evaluate the nutritional benefit of Lap-J during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cases with obstructing esophageal cancer. Under general anesthesia, the jejunum 20–30 cm distant from the Treitz ligament was pulled out through an extended umbilical laparoscopic incision and a jejunal tube was inserted to 30 cm. The loop of bowel was gently returned to the abdomen and the feeding tube was drawn through the abdominal wall via the left lower incision. The jejunum was then laparoscopically sutured to the anterior abdominal wall. Lap-J was performed in 26 cases. The median operative time was 82 min. The postoperative course was uneventful. Lap-J prior to NAC was not associated with a decrease in body weight or serum total protein during NAC, compared with patients who received NAC without Lap-J. This minimally invasive jejunostomy technique may be particularly useful in patients in whom endoscopic therapy is not feasible due to obstruction from upper gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:26807238

  20. Symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Marcin L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...

  1. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs

  2. Quasi-extended asymptotic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    The class F of ''quasi-extended asymptotic functions'' is introduced. It contains all extended asymptotic functions as well as some new asymptotic functions very similar to the Schwartz distributions. On the other hand, every two quasiextended asymptotic functions can be multiplied as opposed to the Schwartz distributions; in particular, the square delta 2 of an asymptotic function delta similar to Dirac's delta-function, is constructed as an example

  3. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings

  4. Extended likelihood inference in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Beckman, R.J.; Waller, R.A.

    1978-10-01

    Extended likelihood methods of inference are developed in which subjective information in the form of a prior distribution is combined with sampling results by means of an extended likelihood function. The extended likelihood function is standardized for use in obtaining extended likelihood intervals. Extended likelihood intervals are derived for the mean of a normal distribution with known variance, the failure-rate of an exponential distribution, and the parameter of a binomial distribution. Extended second-order likelihood methods are developed and used to solve several prediction problems associated with the exponential and binomial distributions. In particular, such quantities as the next failure-time, the number of failures in a given time period, and the time required to observe a given number of failures are predicted for the exponential model with a gamma prior distribution on the failure-rate. In addition, six types of life testing experiments are considered. For the binomial model with a beta prior distribution on the probability of nonsurvival, methods are obtained for predicting the number of nonsurvivors in a given sample size and for predicting the required sample size for observing a specified number of nonsurvivors. Examples illustrate each of the methods developed. Finally, comparisons are made with Bayesian intervals in those cases where these are known to exist

  5. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  6. Bacteriospermia in extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Gary C; Lu, Kristina G

    2005-01-15

    Bacteriospermia is a frequent finding in freshly extended porcine semen and can result in detrimental effects on semen quality and longevity if left uncontrolled. The primary source of bacterial contamination is the boar. Other sources that have been identified include environment, personnel, and the water used for extender preparation. A 1-year retrospective study was performed on submissions of extended porcine semen for routine quality control bacteriological screening at the University of Pennsylvania. Out of 250 sample submissions, 78 (31.2%) tested positive for bacterial contamination. The most popular contaminants included Enterococcus spp. (20.5%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15.4%), Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (10.3%), Serratia marcescens (10.3%), Acinetobacter lwoffi (7.7%), Escherichia coli (6.4%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.4%), and others (23.0%). Prudent individual hygiene, good overall sanitation, and regular monitoring can contribute greatly in controlling bacterial load. Strategies that incorporate temperature-dependent bacterial growth and hyperthermic augmentation of antimicrobial activity are valuable for effective control of susceptible bacterial loads. Aminoglycosides remain the most popular antimicrobial class used in porcine semen extenders, with beta-lactam and lincosamide use increasing. With the advent of more novel antimicrobial selection and semen extender compositions in swine, prudent application and understanding of in vitro pharmacodynamics are becoming paramount to industry success in the use of this breeding modality.

  7. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  8. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lin

    Full Text Available Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group. The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6% ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1% to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  9. Extended Year, Extended Contracts: Increasing Teacher Salary Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Reports on an attempt to raise teacher salaries through an extended contract made possible through year-round school schedules. Teacher satisfaction with the 1987 experiment in three California schools (the Orchard Plan) has been high. Elements that have contributed to job satisfaction are discussed. (SLD)

  10. The extending lithosphere (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Extension of the lithosphere gives birth to a wide range of structures, with characteristic widths between 10 and 1000 km, which includes continental rifts, passive margins, oceanic rifts, core complexes, or back-arc basins. Because the rheology of rocks strongly depends on temperature, this variety of extensional structures falls in two broad categories of extending lithospheres according to the initial Moho temperature TM. "Cold extending systems", with TM 750°C and crustal-dominated strength, lead, depending on strain rate, to either wide rifts or metamorphic core complexes. A much less quoted product of extension is the exhumation of high-pressure (HP ) metamorphic rocks occurring in domains of back-arc extension driven by slab rollback (e.g. Aegean; Appennines-Calabrian) or when the subduction upper plate undergoes extension for plate kinematics reasons (e.g. Norwegian Caledonides; Papua New Guinea). In these tectonic environments, well-documented pressure-temperature-time (P - T - t) paths of HP rocks show a two-stage retrogression path whose the first part corresponds to an isothermal large pressure drop ΔP proportional to the maximum pressure Pmax recorded by the rocks. This linear relation between ΔP and Pmax, which likely results from a stress switch between compression and extension at the onset of exhumation, is in fact observed in all HP metamorphism provinces worldwide, suggesting that the exhumation of HP rocks in extension is a general process rather than an uncommon case. In summary, the modes and products of extension are so diverse that, taken all together, they constitute a very versatile natural laboratory to decipher the rheological complexities of the continental lithosphere and their mechanical implications.

  11. Extended cognition in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  13. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  14. School and extended family in the transmission and revitalisation of Gallo in upper-Brittany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, John Shaun

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the transmission patterns of Eastern Brittany's Romance language variety, Gallo, based on quantitative data showing learning patterns of school pupils of the language and their parents in 2003 and 2004. Results confirm the sharp decline in Gallo transmission between generations...... learning patterns of Gallo also demonstrate how they may be representative of a rupture with a greater and more stable use of Gallo in the past. Data also indicate that of those parents who do play a transmission role, there are fewer females than in previous generations. The school system has become...... a vital player in Gallo's revitalisation and it is, to some degree, brought out of its rural familial environment. However, Gallo is but an optional subject and in the context of issues raised by RLS theory, the decreasing trigenerational transmission pattern means that current revitalisation activity...

  15. Upper atmosphere research at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemesha, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Upper atmosphere research at INPE is mainly concerned with the chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere, upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and the middle thermosphere. Experimental work includes lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol, measurements of stratospheric ozone by Dobson spectrophotometers and by balloon and rocket-borne sondes, lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium, and photometric observations of O, O 2 , OH and Na emissions, including interferrometric measurements of the OI6300 emission for the purpose of determing thermospheric winds and temperature. The airglow observations also include measurements of a number of emissions produced by the precipitation of energetic neutral particles generated by charge exchange in the ring current. Some recent results of INPE's upper atmosphere program are presented. (Author) [pt

  16. Upper bounds of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben from GPS data - First results from GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Frederic; Knoepfler, Andreas; Mayer, Michael; Ulrich, Patrice; Heck, Bernhard

    2010-05-01

    In September 2008, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, EOST) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK) of Karlsruhe University (TH) established a transnational cooperation called GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network). Within the GURN initiative these institutions are cooperating in order to establish a highly precise and highly sensitive network of permanently operating GNSS sites for the detection of crustal movements in the Upper Rhine Graben region. At the beginning, the network consisted of the permanently operating GNSS sites of SAPOS®-Baden-Württemberg, different data providers in France (e.g. EOST, Teria, RGP) and some further sites (e.g. IGS). In July 2009, the network was extended to the South when swisstopo (Switzerland) and to the North when SAPOS®-Rheinland-Pfalz joined GURN. Therefore, actually the GNSS network consists of approx. 80 permanently operating reference sites. The presentation will discuss the actual status of GURN, main research goals, and will present first results concerning the data quality as well as time series of a first reprocessing of all available data since 2002 using GAMIT/GLOBK (EOST working group) and the Bernese GPS Software (GIK working group). Based on these time series, the velocity as well as strain fields will be calculated in the future. The GURN initiative is also aiming for the estimation of the upper bounds of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben region.

  17. Extended memory management under RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, M.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extended memory management in ROLM 1666 computers using FORTRAN is presented. A general software system is described for which the technique can be ideally applied. The memory manager interface with the system is described. The protocols by which the manager is invoked are presented, as well as the methods used by the manager.

  18. Geometrical interpretation of extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.K.; Nieuwenhuizen, P.van

    1977-01-01

    SO 2 extended supergravity is shown to be a geometrical theory, whose underlying gauge group is OSp(4,2). The couplings which gauge the SO 2 symmetry as well as the accompanying cosmological and masslike terms are directly obtained, and the usual SO 2 model is obtained after a Wigner-Inoenue group contraction. (Auth.)

  19. Spin-4 extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakas, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    We construct spin-4 extended conformal algebras using the second hamiltonian structure of the KdV hierarchy. In the presence of a U(1) current a family of spin-4 algebras exists but the additional requirement that the spin-1 and spin-4 currents commute fixes the algebra uniquely. (orig.)

  20. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...

  1. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  2. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  3. Engage, Enhance, and Extend Learning!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Kolb, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Educators often say that technology is more than a gimmick or add-on, and that it should engage, enhance, or extend learning in ways that traditional tools do not. Yet they seldom stop to define these terms, and they can be confusing, especially for teachers and preservice teachers. Recently, while collaborating on an English language arts and…

  4. Extended recency effect extended: blocking, presentation mode, and retention interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, L M; Pawelski, C; Mar, H; Zigman, W

    1979-07-01

    The effect of blocking of stimulus items on the free recall of EMR adolescents was examined. In Experiment 1 a multitrial free-recall list of 15 pictures was presented either simultaneously in groups of 3, or sequentially, one at a time. Consistent ordering was used in both conditions, so that on each trial, each item in each set of 3 pictures was presented contiguously with the other 2 items from that set. In addition, recall came immediately or after a filled or unfilled delay of 24.5 seconds. Results showed that simultaneous presentation led to higher recall, subjective organization, and clustering than did sequential presentation, but analysis of serial-position curves showed a much reduced extended recency effect in comparison with previous studies. Experiment 2 was designed to determine whether the cause of the reduced extended recency was the use of pictures rather than words as stimuli. Stimuli were presented either as pictures, as pictures with auditory labels, or as words with auditory labels, with both simultaneous and consistent ordering for all conditions. Results indicated a strong extended recency effect for all groups, eliminating presentation mode as a causal factor in the data of Experiment 1. We concluded that blocking leads to increased organization and recall over a variety of presentation modes, rates, and block sizes.

  5. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  6. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  7. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  8. The extended bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlet, Guido

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the Toda lattice hierarchy by considering N + M dependent variables. We construct roots and logarithms of the Lax operator which are uniquely defined operators with coefficients that are ε-series of differential polynomials in the dependent variables, and we use them to provide a Lax pair definition of the extended bigraded Toda hierarchy, generalizing [4]. Using R-matrix theory we give the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of this hierarchy and we prove the existence of a tau function for its solutions. Finally we study the dispersionless limit and its connection with a class of Frobenius manifolds on the orbit space of the extended affine Weyl groups W-tilde (N) (A N+M-1 ) of the A series, defined by Dubrovin and Zhang (1998 Compos. Math. 111 167)

  9. An extended Harry Dym hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu

    2010-01-01

    An extended Harry Dym hierarchy is constructed by using eigenfunctions and adjoint eigenfunctions of the spectral problems of the Harry Dym hierarchy associated with the pseudo-differential operator L = u∂ + u 0 + u 1 ∂ -1 + .... The corresponding Lax presentation possesses a self-consistent source involving squared eigenfunctions. The resulting extended Harry Dym hierarchy is reduced to the Harry Dym hierarchy with self-consistent sources under the n-reduction, L n = (L n ) ≥2 , and the k-constrained Harry Dym hierarchy under the k-constraint, L k = (L k ) ≥2 + Σ N i=1 q i ∂ -1 r i ∂ 2 . A few particular examples are computed, together with their Lax pairs.

  10. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  11. Technique to extend ozonesonde temperature data to the mesopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichel, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    An analysis of global Multichannel Filter Radiometer radiances and ozone retrieval results revealed that the simulated radiances were not always representative of the measurements for the CO 2 channels sensing the temperatures in the middle and upper stratosphere. This problem was particularly pronounced, but not limited to, higher latitude winter conditions. Because of the special importance of the middle stratosphere and high latitudes for ozone analyses, a research effort was undertaken to develop an improved method (described below) of extending the temperatures from the ozonesondes used in the simulation procedure. An overview of the radiative transfer theory is provided to show the importance of the temperature profile in the calculation of simulated radiances

  12. Black holes from extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)

  13. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  14. Extended producer responsibility in oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Ino

    2007-01-01

    I investigate the optimal environmental tax under a policy based on extended producer responsibility (EPR) in oligopoly markets. I introduce the recycling market and explicitly consider how these policies affect the incentive for recycling. I derive the optimal tax rule, which depends on the weighted sum of the markup in the product market and the markdown in the recycling market. In contrast to the existing works that emphasize that the optimal tax rate is lower than the marginal external da...

  15. Prospects for an upper Givetian substage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Aboussalam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New ammonoid and conodont data from Germany, the Montagne Noire (France and southeastern Morocco document a complex sequence of sedimentary events and faunal changes within an extended Givetian (late Middle Devonian Taghanic Event Interval or Taghanic Biocrisis. Direct association of supposed typical middle Givetian ammonoids, trilobites and corals with upper Givetian marker taxa such as pharciceratids have been found, for example, in Moroccan and French time equivalents of the New York Upper Tully Limestone. The initial and eustatic Taghanic Onlap level is not known to be characterized by the first appearance of any widespread index conodont, goniatite or other taxon. A future upper Givetian substage, therefore, might be based either on the entry of Ozarkodina semialternans or on the first appearance of Schmidtognathus hermanni. The semialternans Zone correlates with a third sedimentary cycle within the Tully Limestone and with the spread of the first Pharciceratidae. Eobeloceratidae (Mzerrebites juvenocostatus and Archoceratidae n. fam. (Atlantoceras. The (Lower hermanni Zone is marked by a post-event transgression which led to a significant conodont radiation and to a further diversification of Pharciceratidae and Eobeloceratidae (Mz. erraticus. Neue Ammonoideen- und Conodonten-Daten aus Deutschland, Frankreich (Montagne Noire und aus Südost-Marokko belegen eine komplexe Abfolge sedimentärer Ereignisse und von Faunenwechseln in einem längerfristigen Taghanic-Event-Intervall bzw. einer Taghanic-Biokrise des Givetiums (oberes Mittel-Devon. Direkte Vergesellschaftungen von Ammonoideen, Trilobiten und Korallen, die früher als typische Mittel-Givetium-Formen angesehen wurden, mit Leitformen des Ober-Givetiums (z. B. Pharciceraten konnten in Marokko und Frankreich in Zeitequivalenten des Oberen Tully-Kalkes von New York nachgewiesen werden. Der initiale und eustatisch bedingte Taghanic Onlap ist bisher nicht durch das Einsetzen eines weit

  16. Higher-order curvature terms and extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun

    1990-01-01

    We consider higher-order curvature terms in context of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity, and investigate the effects of these terms on extended inflationary theories. We find that the higher-order curvature terms tend to speed up inflation, although the original extended-inflation solutions are stable when these terms are small. Analytical solutions are found for two extreme cases: when the higher-order curvature terms are small, and when they dominate. A conformal transformation is employed in solving the latter case, and some of the subtleties in this technique are discussed. We note that percolation is less likely to occur when the higher-order curvature terms are present. An upper bound on α is expected if we are to avoid excessive and inadequate percolation of true-vacuum bubbles

  17. EAES: Extended Advanced Encryption Standard with Extended Security

    OpenAIRE

    Abul Kalam Azad; Md. Yamin Mollah

    2018-01-01

    Though AES is the highest secure symmetric cipher at present, many attacks are now effective against AES too which is seen from the review of recent attacks of AES. This paper describes an extended AES algorithm with key sizes of 256, 384 and 512 bits with round numbers of 10, 12 and 14 respectively. Data block length is 128 bits, same as AES. But unlike AES each round of encryption and decryption of this proposed algorithm consists of five stages except the last one which consists of four st...

  18. EAES: Extended Advanced Encryption Standard with Extended Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Kalam Azad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Though AES is the highest secure symmetric cipher at present, many attacks are now effective against AES too which is seen from the review of recent attacks of AES. This paper describes an extended AES algorithm with key sizes of 256, 384 and 512 bits with round numbers of 10, 12 and 14 respectively. Data block length is 128 bits, same as AES. But unlike AES each round of encryption and decryption of this proposed algorithm consists of five stages except the last one which consists of four stages. Unlike AES, this algorithm uses two different key expansion algorithms with two different round constants that ensure higher security than AES. Basically, this algorithm takes one cipher key and divides the selected key of two separate sub-keys: FirstKey and SecondKey. Then expand them through two different key expansion schedules. Performance analysis shows that the proposed extended AES algorithm takes almost same amount of time to encrypt and decrypt the same amount of data as AES but with higher security than AES.

  19. The Upper Danube Nature Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosedla, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    When in 1980 the Upper Danube Nature Park was founded as one of 65 nature sanctuaries in Germany there was great diversity of opinions concerning its intended character. The protected region consisting of a geologically outstanding landscape within central Europe is covering the first 80 km the upper Danube where the young river shortly after it's source in the Black Forest is breaking through the narrow canyons of the Jurassic rock plateau of the so-called Suebian Alps and also locates the subterranean passage where the stream is submerging from the surface for nearly ten miles. Since the purpose of nature preservation according to German las is closely combined with the rather contradicting aim of offering an attractive recreation area thus facing the immense impacts of modern mass tourism there are numerous problems which in the course of years have resulted in an intricate patterns of subtle management methods coping with the growing awareness of the ecological balance. (author)

  20. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  1. Extended Hair-bearing Lateral Orbital Flap for Simultaneous Reconstruction of Eyebrow and Eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Matsuo, MD

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: The procedure for raising an extended hair-bearing lateral orbital flap is relatively easy, although attention must be paid to the temporal facial nerve. This flap is useful for simultaneously reconstructing defects of the upper eyelid and lateral eyebrow.

  2. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Renormalization of Extended QCD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Hidenori; Yamamura, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Extended QCD (XQCD), proposed by Kaplan [D. B. Kaplan, arXiv:1306.5818], is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low-energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of 2D (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of a large number of colors N c , to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low-energy region

  4. Axelrod Model with Extended Conservativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej

    2012-11-01

    Similarity of opinions and memory about recent interactions are two main factors determining likelihood of social contacts. Here, we explore the Axelrod model with an extended conservativeness which incorporates not only similarity between individuals but also a preference to the last source of accepted information. The additional preference given to the last source of information increases the initial decay of the number of ideas in the system, changes the character of the phase transition between homogeneous and heterogeneous final states and could increase the number of stable regions (clusters) in the final state.

  5. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po 218 particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po 218 particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po 218 particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig

  7. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  8. Implications of Extended Solar Minima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Davis, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of periodicity in the solar cycle, the historical record of sunspot number has been carefully examined, attempting to make predictions about the next cycle. Much emphasis has been on predicting the maximum amplitude and length of the next cycle. Because current space-based and suborbital instruments are designed to study active phenomena, there is considerable interest in estimating the length and depth of the current minimum. We have developed criteria for the definition of a minimum and applied it to the historical sunspot record starting in 1749. In doing so, we find that 1) the current minimum is not yet unusually long and 2) there is no obvious way of predicting when, using our definition, the current minimum may end. However, by grouping the data into 22- year cycles there is an interesting pattern of extended minima that recurs every fourth or fifth 22-year cycle. A preliminary comparison of this pattern with other records, suggests the possibility of a correlation between extended minima and lower levels of solar irradiance.

  9. Extended inflation with induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accetta, F.S.; Trester, J.J.; Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520)

    1989-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed extended model of inflation which improves upon the original old inflation scenario by achieving a graceful exit from the false-vacuum phase. In this paper extended inflation is generalized to include a potential V(phi) for the Brans-Dicke-type field phi. We find that whereas a graceful exit can still be had, the inclusion of a potential places constraints on the percolation time scale for exiting the inflationary phase. Additional constraints on V(phi) and the false-vacuum energy density rho /sub F/ from density and gravitational-wave perturbations are discussed. For initially small values of phi the false vacuum undergoes power-law inflation, while for initially large values of phi the expansion is exponential. Within true-vacuum regions slow-rolling inflation can occur. As a result, this model generically leads to multiple episodes of inflation. We discuss the significance these multiple episodes of inflation may have on the formation of large-scale structure and the production of voids

  10. Extended suicide with a pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases.

  11. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  12. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  13. Extended H I regions around spiral galaxies: a probe for galactic structure and the intergalactic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, J.

    1977-01-01

    The H I disks observed at large radii around nearby spiral galaxies provide sensitive probes for the mass distributions in these galaxies and of their environments. We show, for a few well-observed systems, that there is an unseen component which dominates the mass at large radii. This additional matter cannot be gas, either neutral or ionized. The data do not distinguish strongly between flat and spherical spatial distributions for this mass, though they suggest that the distribution is spherical. An observational test is proposed to differentiate the two. We investigate the thermal interaction between a hot intergalactic medium near the closure density and these extended H I regions in the assumption of magnetic field lines extended outward into the intergalactic medium (IGM). We show that, with plausible initial conditions, the intergalactic temperature at present cannot exceed 1 x 10 7 K if the H I is to have survived until now. Consideration of conditions in the past places even more stringent limits on the temperature and density of the IGM. Survival of the H I disk also implies that these galaxies cannot have persistent hot, dense halos. The X-ray observations of M31, in particular, cannot be interpreted in terms of a thermal bremsstrahlung halo model, unless this halo is younger than about 10 7 yr

  14. Harmonic superspaces of extended supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Kalitzin, S.; Nguyen Ai Viet; Ogievetsky, V.

    1984-01-01

    The main technical apparatus of the harmonic superspace approach to extended SUSY, the calculus of harmonic variables on homogeneous spaces of the SUSY automorphism groups, is presented in detail for N=2, 3, 4. The basic harmonics for the coset manifolds G/H with G=SU(2), H=U(1); G=SU(3), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1); G=SU(4), H=SU(3)xU(1), H=SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1), H=SU(2)xU(1)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1)xU(1); G=USp(2), H=SU(2)xSU(2), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1) are tabulated a number of useful relations among them

  15. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  16. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, R.; Guven, J.; Rojas, E.

    2004-12-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler Lagrange equations.

  17. Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jesus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-14

    This researcher participated in the DOE-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling (CEMM), a multi-institutional collaboration led by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Dr. Stephen Jardin as the overall Principal Investigator. This project developed advanced simulation tools to study the non-linear macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas. The collaborative effort focused on the development of two large numerical simulation codes, M3D-C1 and NIMROD, and their application to a wide variety of problems. Dr. Ramos was responsible for theoretical aspects of the project, deriving consistent sets of model equations applicable to weakly collisional plasmas and devising test problems for verification of the numerical codes. This activity was funded for twelve years.

  18. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R; Guven, J; Rojas, E

    2004-01-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  19. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  20. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  1. Extended Power Up-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Ball

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is a reliable and cost-competitive global source of power. With rising oil and gas prices, nuclear continues to provide economic and environmental benefits. Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) provides a means for existing nuclear assets to generate increased power and substantially reduce electrical generation costs. GE Energy's Nuclear Business is the global leader in boiling water reactor (BWR) technology. The experience-base of plants that have successfully achieved EPU includes Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany and the United States. The GE experience-base includes fourteen BWRs with over fifty-eight reactor-years of operating experience at EPU conditions. Other than the expected plant modifications needed to accommodate higher steam flows, flow-induced vibration (FIV) has been identified as the major area of concern when up-rating. Two plants have experienced damage to their steam dryers that has lead to an extensive program to improve the understanding of the effects of up-rates. This program includes extensive in-plant data collection, the development of a scale model test facility to study components susceptible to FIV and improvements in analytical techniques for evaluating loading on reactor internals. As global energy demands increase, oil and gas prices escalate, and environmental concerns over greenhouse effects challenge us to find environmentally friendly sources of energy, Nuclear is the most viable and economical source of power in the world. With a focused effort on plant reliability, existing plants can undergo Extended Power Up-rate, and continue to meet the ever-increasing energy demands in the world. (author)

  2. Upper bound on the capacity of constrained three-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2000-01-01

    An upper bound on the capacity of constrained three-dimensional codes is presented. The bound for two-dimensional codes of Calkin and Wilf (see SIAM Journal of Discrete Mathematics, vol.11, no.1, p.54-60, 1998) was extended to three dimensions by Nagy and Zeger. Both bounds apply to first order s...

  3. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  4. Six upper incisors: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneburg, Mirjam; Meller, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes our therapeutic approach taken in a girl with eruption disturbance of the upper anterior teeth. Two supernumerary teeth were involved, which required a combination of orthodontic and surgical treatment. The initial situation in the upper anterior segment was characterized by two supernumerary mesial incisors, ectopic eruption of the distally located lateral incisors, and crowded tooth buds in the canine areas. Key decisions had to be made as to whether any teeth needed to be extracted and, if so, regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Removing teeth too early would have preempted a complete assessment of tooth quality, whereas late extraction would have carried a risk of eruption disturbance. Once the distal lateral incisors had erupted, the supernumerary mesial incisors were extracted and the central incisors (initially located in between) mesialized with a bracket appliance. Following space closure and mesialization of the lateral incisors, a functional appliance was used. Tooth 13 was erupting, while tooth 23 was displaced and subsequently aligned as part of the final bracket treatment. To successfully treat eruption disturbances, a careful diagnostic workup is essential, including informative radiographs, personalized treatment planning, and correct decision-making as to whether teeth need to be extracted and regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Finally, the eruption of the canines should be monitored.

  5. Density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, A.H.; Jain, B.

    1992-01-01

    We estimate the density perturbation spectrum δρ/ρ in the extended inflationary model, in which the scalar curvature is coupled to a Brans-Dicke field. Through a conformal transformation and a redefinition of the Brans-Dicke field, the action of the theory is cast into a form with no coupling to the scalar curvature and a canonical kinetic term for the redefined field. Following Kolb, Salopek, and Turner, we calculate δρ/ρ using the transformed action and the standard recipe developed for conventional inflation. This recipe is expected to give a valid order-of-magnitude estimate, but a precise calculation would require a more careful treatment of several aspects of the problem. The spectrum behaves as a positive power of the wavelength, a feature that might be useful in building models to account for the observed large-scale structure of the universe. Our result for the overall amplitude of density perturbations differs slightly from that of the previous authors, and the reasons for these differences are discussed. We also point out that the conformal transformation method can be applied to a wider class of generalized gravity theories

  6. N=2 extended supersymmetric GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayet, P.

    1984-01-01

    We construct N = 2 extended SUSY GUTs which provide a general association between massive spin-1 gauge bosons, spin-1/2 inos and spin-0 Higgs bosons. The corresponding gauge hypermultiplets are of four different types, while leptons and quarks are associated with mirror and spin-0 partners. The anticommutators of the two supersymmetry generators provide two spin-0 symmetry generators Zsub(s) and Zsub(p), which do not commute. Their field-independent parts and do commute, however, and appear as central charges in the symmetry algebra of the spontaneously broken gauge theory. These central charges and are linear combinations of global symmetry generators with grand unification generators such as the weak hypercharge (but not the electrical charge). They survive the electroweak symmetry breaking. They do not vanish for massive gauge hypermultiplets of types II and III, which verify M 2 = 2 + 2 > 0 and M 2 > 2 + 2 > 0, respectively. The formula M 2 approx.= 2 + 2 determines the mass spectrum on the grand unification scale, up to electroweak corrections. Finally, we indicate how our mass relations can be interpreted in a 5- or 6-dimensional formalism, the central charges appearing as the extra components of the covariant momentum along the compact fifth or sixth dimensions; and how to evaluate the grand unification mass msub(x) in terms of the lengths of the latter (msub(x)approx.=(h/2π)/Lsub(5(6))c). (orig./HSI)

  7. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  8. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  9. Geometric construction of extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelecky, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    This work describes the explict construction of the locally SO(4)-invariant, on-shell de Sitter supergravity. First, aspects of classical differential geometry used in the construction of local gauge theories are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on fiber bundles and their uses in Yang-Mills and Einstein theories. Next, the extension of the formalism to differential supergeometry is outlined. Applications to extended supergravities are discussed. Finally, the O(4) deSitter supergravity is obtained by considering a bundle of frames constructed using the orthosymplectic superalgebra osp(4/4). The structure group of this bundle is Sl(2C) x SO(4) and the tangent space to the base supermanifold is homeomorphic to the coset osp(4/4)/sl(2C) x so(4). Constraints taken into the Bianchi identifies yield a realization of the superalgebra in the function space of connections, vielbeins, curvatures and torsions of the bundle. Auxiliary fields, transformation laws and equations of motion are determined. Consistency of the realization is verified, proving closure of the algebra. The associated Poincare supergravity is obtained by a contraction

  10. Extended analysis of Mo VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlen, B.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.; Chaghtai, M.S.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the RbI-like spectrum Mo VI has been extended to include a total of some 110 classified lines and 44 energy levels belonging to the one-electron configurations 4s 2 4p 6 ( 1 S)nl with n ranging up to 9 and l up to 7. The analysis is based on recordings of vacuum spark spectra made at Lund in the region 230-2350 A, complemented by a list of lines from 2193 to 6336 A observed and identified by Romanov and Striganov in a Penning type arc discharge. The one-electron level system is partly mixed with core-excited configurations, not treated in the present paper. Especially the nf series is strongly perturbed by 4s 2 4p 5 4d 2 , and an anomalous behaviour of the ng series is explained by interaction with the 2 G term of 4s4p 6 4d 2 . The ionization limit, derived from 6h, 7i and 8k by means of the polarization formula, is found to be 555 132+-2 cm -1 . (orig.)

  11. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.

  12. EXTENDED REVERSE SURAL FLAP FOR LOWER LIMB COVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Mishra

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The reverse sural artery flap has been a workhorse for the reconstruction of distal third of leg, ankle, sole and foot. Major limitation of reverse sural flap has been venous congestion particularly when harvested from proximal third of the leg. Objective- To evaluate the efficacy, safety of the extended reverse sural flap from proximal third of the leg. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted at the department of plastic surgery on twenty patients who needed soft tissue reconstruction in the distal third of the leg, ankle, heel, forefoot and midfoot due to various cause. In all cases flap was extended proximally to the upper third of the calf and neurovenoadipo fascial pedicled sural fasciocutaneous flap was harvested. RESULTS There were only two cases of marginal necrosis. None of the patients had complete necrosis. Two patients developed hypertrophy of the flap margin. CONCLUSION Distally based neuroveno adipofascial pedicled sural fasciocutaneous flap can be safely extended to proximal third of the leg and is a reliable option for reconstruction of the defects in the foot, ankle and sole.

  13. 3D GIS spatial operation based on extended Euler operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongbo; Lu, Guonian; Sheng, Yehua; Zhou, Liangchen; Guo, Fei; Shang, Zuoyan; Wang, Jing

    2008-10-01

    The implementation of 3 dimensions spatial operations, based on certain data structure, has a lack of universality and is not able to treat with non-manifold cases, at present. ISO/DIS 19107 standard just presents the definition of Boolean operators and set operators for topological relationship query, and OGC GeoXACML gives formal definitions for several set functions without implementation detail. Aiming at these problems, based mathematical foundation on cell complex theory, supported by non-manifold data structure and using relevant research in the field of non-manifold geometry modeling for reference, firstly, this paper according to non-manifold Euler-Poincaré formula constructs 6 extended Euler operators and inverse operators to carry out creating, updating and deleting 3D spatial elements, as well as several pairs of supplementary Euler operators to convenient for implementing advanced functions. Secondly, we change topological element operation sequence of Boolean operation and set operation as well as set functions defined in GeoXACML into combination of extended Euler operators, which separates the upper functions and lower data structure. Lastly, we develop underground 3D GIS prototype system, in which practicability and credibility of extended Euler operators faced to 3D GIS presented by this paper are validated.

  14. Technological Packages Extended To Farmers by Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... extended to farmers by Non Governmental Organizations in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. ... Modern snailery was the only identified agro forestry technology extended, ... technologies were the significant soil management practices extended.

  15. Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article.

  16. Generation, combination and extension of random set approximations to coherent lower and upper probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Jim W.; Lawry, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Random set theory provides a convenient mechanism for representing uncertain knowledge including probabilistic and set-based information, and extending it through a function. This paper focuses upon the situation when the available information is in terms of coherent lower and upper probabilities, which are encountered, for example, when a probability distribution is specified by interval parameters. We propose an Iterative Rescaling Method (IRM) for constructing a random set with corresponding belief and plausibility measures that are a close outer approximation to the lower and upper probabilities. The approach is compared with the discrete approximation method of Williamson and Downs (sometimes referred to as the p-box), which generates a closer approximation to lower and upper cumulative probability distributions but in most cases a less accurate approximation to the lower and upper probabilities on the remainder of the power set. Four combination methods are compared by application to example random sets generated using the IRM

  17. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacobi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the frame of the European COST 296 project (Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems, MIERS

    investigations of the climate of the upper atmosphere have been carried out during the last four years to obtain

    new information on the upper atmosphere. Mainly its ionospheric part has been analysed as the ionosphere

    most essential for the propagation of radio waves. Due to collaboration between different European partners

    many new results have been derived in the fields of long-term trends of different ionospheric and related atmospheric

    parameters, the investigations of different types of atmospheric waves and their impact on the ionosphere,

    the variability of the ionosphere, and the investigation of some space weather effects on the ionosphere.


  18. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Dovern, A.; Fink, G. R.; Weiss, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients’ everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients’ prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed...

  1. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Science and Computer Engineering, Teacher Training University, 599 Taleghani Avenue, Tehran 15618 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: soleimani_d@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out.

  2. Upper plenum mixing in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Parameswaran, V.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the emergency core cooling injection into the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor has been formulated and implemented into the TRACB02 computer program. The model consists of a spray model and a submerged jet model. The submerged jet model is used when the spray nozzles are covered by a two-phase mixture, and the spray model is used when the nozzles are uncovered. The upper plenum model has been assessed by comparison to an upper plenum mixing test in the Steam Sector Test Facility. It is found that the model accurately predicts the phenomena in the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor

  3. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Smartphone supported upper limb prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepp D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available State of the art upper limb prostheses offer up to six active DoFs (degrees of freedom and are controlled using different grip patterns. This low number of DoFs combined with a machine-human-interface which does not provide control over all DoFs separately result in a lack of usability for the patient. The aim of this novel upper limb prosthesis is both offering simplified control possibilities for changing grip patterns depending on the patients’ priorities and the improvement of grasp capability. Design development followed the design process requirements given by the European Medical Device Directive 93/42 ECC and was structured into the topics mechanics, software and drive technology. First user needs were identified by literature research and by patient feedback. Consequently, concepts were evaluated against technical and usability requirements. A first evaluation prototype with one active DoF per finger was manufactured. In a second step a test setup with two active DoF per finger was designed. The prototype is connected to an Android based smartphone application. Two main grip patterns can be preselected in the software application and afterwards changed and used by the EMG signal. Three different control algorithms can be selected: “all-day”, “fine” and “tired muscle”. Further parameters can be adjusted to customize the prosthesis to the patients’ needs. First patient feedback certified the prosthesis an improved level of handling compared to the existing devices. Using the two DoF test setup, the possibilities of finger control with a neural network are evaluated at the moment. In a first user feedback test, the smartphone based software application increased the device usability, e.g. the change within preselected grip patterns and the “tired muscle” algorithm. Although the overall software application was positively rated, the handling of the prosthesis itself needs to be proven within a patient study to be

  5. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  6. Report from upper atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carignan, G.R.; Roble, R.G.; Mende, S.B.; Nagy, A.F.; Hudson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the understanding of the thermosphere resulted from the analysis of data accrued through the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, and observations from rockets, balloons, and ground based instruments. However, new questions were posed by the data that have not yet been answered. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been less thoroughly studied because of the difficulty of accessibility on a global scale, and many rather fundamental characteristics of these regions are not well understood. A wide variety of measurement platforms can be used to implement various parts of a measurement strategy, but the major thrusts of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program would require Explorer-class missions. A remote sensing mission to explore the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and one and two Explorer-type spacecraft to enable a mission into the thermosphere itself would provide the essential components of a productive program of exploration of this important region of the upper atomsphere. Theoretical mission options are explored

  7. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. A novel extended Kalman filter for a class of nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhe; YOU Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of the state variables of nonlinear systems is one of the fundamental and significant problems in control and signal processing. A new extended Kalman filtering approach for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems in engineering is presented in this paper. In contrast to the celebrated extended Kalman filter (EKF), there is no linearization operation in the design procedure of the filter, and the parameters of the filter are obtained through minimizing a proper upper bound of the mean-square estimation error. Simulation results show that this filter can provide higher estimation precision than that provided by the EKF.

  9. Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points), Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts) and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion) and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA) parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement) and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space). These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved interjoint coordination of

  10. Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisoli Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points, Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space. These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved

  11. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 consecutive in and out patients who had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at ...

  12. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  13. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Hussain, Shahid; Lozin, Vadim; Monnot, Jé rô me; Ries, Bernard; Zamaraev, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph

  14. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  15. Black America: Looking Inward or Outward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Vernon E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents some observations on what the recent attacks on affirmative action, the O. J. Simpson trial, and the Million Man March say about racism in America. In particular, the author assesses the Million Man March in terms of black leadership and its influence in helping black men to become more involved in constructive community service. (GR)

  16. Institutions and Outward Foreign Direct Investment2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Artur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the influence of the quality of a host country’s institutional environment on outflows from that country of foreign direct investment. The main finding of this paper is that such quality does play an important role, particularly with respect to governance quality and political stability. This implies that better institutional conditions may reduce undesirable outflows of capital, and the quality of those institutions may impact FDI effectiveness in host countries.

  17. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.

    2016-04-11

    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  18. Big Gods: Extended prosociality or group binding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Luke W

    2016-01-01

    Big Gods are described as having a "prosocial" effect. However, this conflates parochialism (group cohesion) with cooperation extended to strangers or out-group members. An examination of the cited experimental studies indicates that religion is actually associated with increased within-group parochialism, rather than extended or universal prosociality, and that the same general mechanisms underlie both religious and secular effects.

  19. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  20. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  1. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  2. An upper echelons perspective on information technology business value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando López-Muñoz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that information technology (IT outcomes are more valuable to companies when their top management team (TMT moves from flirting with IT to marriage. Previous research has demonstrated an association between top management support (TMS and IT value. We extend the concept of TMS with the imbrication metaphor to define the construct of TMT-IT imbrication, which allows us to account for a tighter and continuous entwining of the TMT and IT to create IT value. Our definition of the TMT-IT imbrication construct embraces four dimensions: involvement, participation, attention, and use. In addition, with the support of upper echelons (UE theory, we explore certain managerial traits, competences, and team processes that may be antecedents of this imbrication. As a result, our work provides a variance model and various propositions rooted in the logic of UE that contribute to research on IT business value.

  3. Separation and Extension of Cover Inequalities for Conic Quadratic Knapsack Constraints with Generalized Upper Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atamtürk, Alper; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by addressing probabilistic 0-1 programs we study the conic quadratic knapsack polytope with generalized upper bound (GUB) constraints. In particular, we investigate separating and extending GUB cover inequalities. We show that, unlike in the linear case, determining whether a cover can...... be extended with a single variable is NP-hard. We describe and compare a number of exact and heuristic separation and extension algorithms which make use of the structure of the constraints. Computational experiments are performed for comparing the proposed separation and extension algorithms...

  4. The symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, Marcin L

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)

  5. Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybulec Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.

  6. [Severe upper abdominal pain during a long distance flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestehorn, D; Schmidt, C; Lock, G

    2014-10-01

    A 43-year-old woman of Ghanaian origin presented with severe upper abdominal pain starting on a long distance flight. Physical examination revealed tenderness on palpation in the left upper abdomen and flank. There was no report of pre-existing conditions or permanent medication in the medical history. Laboratory tests showed signs of haemolytic anemia and elevated inflammatory parameters. The "thick blood smear" was normal. Ultrasonography revealed an enlarged spleen (14×5 cm) with inhomogeneous parenchyma and vast, diffusely spread hypoechoic lesions in perihilar location, interpreted as extended splenic infarction. Symptom onset on a long distance flight, haemolytic anemia and extended splenic infarction led to the assumption of a vasoocclusive crisis with haemolysis. Moleculargenetic tests proved the presence of HbSC-sickle cell disease and heterozygous alpha-thalassemia. After infusion of crystalloid solution the patient was asymptomatic further on. Due to splenic infarction she received prophylactic treatment with Cefuroxim. A vaccination against pneumococci, meningococci and Haemophilus influenza B was recommended. Mild hypoxia and dehydration on a long distance flight can trigger a sickle cell crisis and may contribute to late clinical manifestation and diagnosis of sickle cell disease in some cases. Patients suffering from HbSC-sickle cell disease are at risk for the same life-threatening complications as patients with HbSS-sickle cell disease. HbSC-sickle cell disease should not be considered as a mild form of HbSS-sickle cell disease but as a separate disease with specific clinical manifestations. In contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, splenic infarction due to sickle cell crisis may markedly differ from "typical" arterial thromboembolic infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Socially Extended Cognition and Shared Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Lyre

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the intersection of extended cognition and social cognition. The central claim is that the mechanisms of shared intentionality can equally be considered as coupling mechanisms of cognitive extension into the social domain. This claim will be demonstrated by investigating a detailed example of cooperative action, and it will be argued that such cases imply that socially extended cognition is not only about cognitive vehicles, but that content must additionally be taken into account. It is finally outlined how social content externalism can in principle be grounded in socially extended cognition.

  8. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Eppie R.

    2015-11-16

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  9. Glacial geology of the upper Wairau Valley, Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCalpin, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Late Pleistocene glaciers in the upper Wairau Valley deposited four groups of moraines inferred to represent one Waimean ice advance, two Otiran ice advances, and an advance of early Aranuian age. The Waimean and early Otiran glaciers advanced into Tarndale Valley, deposited terminal moraines, and shed outwash down both the Alma River and Travellers Valley. The middle Otiran glacier terminated in northern Tarndale Valley and shed outwash from the southern part of its terminus down the Alma River. The north side of the terminus abutted a large ice-dammed lake in the Wairau Gorge, and fan-deltas graded to an old shore level at an elevation of 1040 m. Well-preserved moraines at the mouths of four glaciated tributaries may be middle Otiran recessional, or late Otiran terminal moraines. The latest ice advance extended 11 km down the upper Wairau Valley and deposited a subdued moraine at Island Gully. The composite chronology of the latest glacial advance based on 10 radiocarbon ages suggests it occurred between about 9.5 and 10.2 ka. This age span is similar to that of early Aranuian glacial advances dated by other workers in the Southern Alps, and may reflect Younger Dryas cooling. (author). 22 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Finding upper bounds for software failure probabilities - experiments and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Monica; Winther, Rune

    2005-09-01

    This report looks into some aspects of using Bayesian hypothesis testing to find upper bounds for software failure probabilities. In the first part, the report evaluates the Bayesian hypothesis testing approach for finding upper bounds for failure probabilities of single software components. The report shows how different choices of prior probability distributions for a software component's failure probability influence the number of tests required to obtain adequate confidence in a software component. In the evaluation, both the effect of the shape of the prior distribution as well as one's prior confidence in the software component were investigated. In addition, different choices of prior probability distributions are discussed based on their relevance in a software context. In the second part, ideas on how the Bayesian hypothesis testing approach can be extended to assess systems consisting of multiple software components are given. One of the main challenges when assessing systems consisting of multiple software components is to include dependency aspects in the software reliability models. However, different types of failure dependencies between software components must be modelled differently. Identifying different types of failure dependencies are therefore an important condition for choosing a prior probability distribution, which correctly reflects one's prior belief in the probability for software components failing dependently. In this report, software components include both general in-house software components, as well as pre-developed software components (e.g. COTS, SOUP, etc). (Author)

  11. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Eppie R.; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Connell, Sarah; Siska, Veronika; Eriksson, Anders; Martiniano, Rui; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Gallego Llorente, Marcos; Cassidy, Lara M.; Gamba, Cristina; Meshveliani, Tengiz; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Mü ller, Werner; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Matskevich, Zinovi; Jakeli, Nino; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Currat, Mathias; Lordkipanidze, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Manica, Andrea; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  12. Regulation of the instantaneous inward rectifier and the delayed outward rectifier potassium channels by Captopril and Angiotensin II via the Phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway in volume-overload-induced hypertrophied cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Zikiar V; Laurence, Graham G; Coleman, Bernell R; Zhao, Aiqiu; Hajj-Moussa, Majd; Haddad, Georges E

    2011-07-01

    Early development of cardiac hypertrophy may be beneficial but sustained hypertrophic activation leads to myocardial dysfunction. Regulation of the repolarizing currents can be modulated by the activation of humoral factors, such as angiotensin II (ANG II) through protein kinases. The aim of this work is to assess the regulation of IK and IK1 by ANG II through the PI3-K pathway in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes. Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced through volume-overload in adult male rats by aorto-caval shunt (3 weeks). After one week half of the rats were given captopril (2 weeks; 0.5 g/l/day) and the other half served as control. The voltage-clamp and western blot techniques were used to measure the delayed outward rectifier potassium current (IK) and the instantaneous inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) and Akt activity, respectively. Hypertrophied cardiomyocytes showed reduction in IK and IK1. Treatment with captopril alleviated this difference seen between sham and shunt cardiomyocytes. Acute administration of ANG II (10-6M) to cardiocytes treated with captopril reduced IK and IK1 in shunts, but not in sham. Captopril treatment reversed ANG II effects on IK and IK1 in a PI3-K-independent manner. However in the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, ANG II increased both IK and IK1 in a PI3-K-dependent manner in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Thus, captopril treatment reveals a negative effect of ANG II on IK and IK1, which is PI3-K independent, whereas in the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition IK and IK1 regulation is dependent upon PI3-K.

  13. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  14. Climate influences on upper Limpopo River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Limpopo Valley, hydro-meteorology, surface water deficit. * To whom all ... millenia and there is a history of drought impacts on vegetation. (Ekblom et ... water budget of the upper Limpopo River valley using direct.

  15. γ -phlebography of the upper limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacolot, G.; Legendre, P.; Millour, L.; Barra, J.A.; Perramant, M.; Morin, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    γ-phlebography is an easy and repetitive exploration of deep venous thrombosis. This investigation becomes very useful for the upper limbs on account of the present frequency of iatrogenic thrombosis [fr

  16. Lathlike upper bainite in a silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Zhao Zhenbo; Bhole, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of upper bainite formed isothermally at 400 deg. C for different holding times in a 1.83 wt.% silicon steel have been investigated by optical metallograph, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the early stage of upper bainitic transformation, lathlike bainite whose individual lath ferrite is separated by the thin film type of retained austenite is obtained. As the isothermal holding times are increased, the blocky region consisting of retained austenite and martensite is also found. The stability of retained austenite in lathlike upper bainite is studied in relation to the isothermal treatment times, and the heat treatment conditions. The results show that an optimum combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the formation of bainitic ferrite (BF) and a large amount of thin film carbon-enriched retained austenite in the upper bainite

  17. upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients referred

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... Objective: To determine the pattern of referral and endoscopy ... build a model of a flexible fibre imaging device (2) ..... a retrospective and prospective audit of all upper ... endoscopy should be reserved for the high risk.

  18. Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2

    1977-03-21

    Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.

  19. An approach to the painful upper limb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain in the upper limb is a common presenting complaint in the primary health care setting and the ... disruptions or pathological fracture, as opposed to ... and a neurological assessment of the lower limbs. This is in addition to a thorough.

  20. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  1. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...

  2. Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jagdeesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

  3. Additional Gigantoproductus species from the upper Visean-Namurian limestone of Kotaki, central Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ibaraki, Yousuke; Tazawa, Jun-ichi; Nakamura, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    A large productid brachiopod species, Gigantoproductus aurita (Bolkhovitinova, 1938), is described from the Tsuchikurazawa Limestone (upper Visean-Namurian), a large limestone block within a Permian accretionary complex of Kotaki, Itoigawa City, Niigata Prefecture, central Japan. This is the fourth described Gigantoproductus species from the Tsuchikurazawa Limestone. The range of G. aurita may extend to late Visean on the basis of the previous fossil records of the limestone.

  4. PREVALENCE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Confirmed variants of enterobacteriaceae isolated from 143 patients that attended Murtala. Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, were screened for extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint. Suspected ESBLs producers were ...

  5. Extended Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on findings from a recent clinical trial which showed that extending adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor can have important benefits for some women with early-stage cancer.

  6. Conformal invariance of extended spinning particle mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.

    1988-01-01

    Recently a mechanics action has been considered with extended, local, one-dimensional supersymmetry. The authors show this action is conformally invariant in arbitrary spacetime dimensions, and derive the corresponding quantum mechanical restriction on the Lorentz representations it describes

  7. Encoded Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26.1 % Klebsiella spp were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamases ... issue, and TEM, OXA and SHV type ESBL were the most common genotypes. ... mechanism of action. ..... and Multiplex PCR Screening of AmpC Genes from.

  8. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  9. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  10. Evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccopieri, F.A.; Bacchetta, A.

    2007-03-01

    We consider dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a parton in two unpolarized hadrons, and in particular extended dihadron fragmentation functions, explicitly dependent on the invariant mass, M h , of the hadron pair. We first rederive the known results on M h -integrated functions using Jet Calculus techniques, and then we present the evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions. Our results are relevant for the analysis of experimental measurements of two-particle-inclusive processes at different energies. (orig.)

  11. Possibility of extending space-time coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongcheng.

    1993-11-01

    It has been shown that one coordinate system can describe a whole space-time region except some supersurfaces on which there are coordinate singularities. The conditions of extending a coordinate from real field to complex field are studied. It has been shown that many-valued coordinate transformations may help us to extend space-time regions and many-valued metric functions may make one coordinate region to describe more than one space-time regions. (author). 11 refs

  12. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  13. Musical Manipulations and the Emotionally Extended Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Krueger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available I respond to Kersten's criticism in his article "Music and Cognitive Extension" of my approach to the musically extended emotional mind in Krueger (2014. I specify how we manipulate—and in so doing, integrate with—music when, as active listeners, we become part of a musically extended cognitive system. I also indicate how Kersten's account might be enriched by paying closer attention to the way that music functions as an environmental artifact for emotion regulation.

  14. Extended Access List untuk Mengendalikan Trafik Jaringan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Antoni Musril

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Keamana jaringan komputer saat ini menjadi hal penting untuk diterapkan. Banyak organisasi yang telah menjadikan teknologi informasi sebagai bahagian penting dalam menunjang aktivitasnya. Akses pengguna yang tidak dibatasi menjadi ancaman bagi sebuah organisasi, karena banyak data dan informasi penting yang tersebar dalam perangkat jaringan komputer di organisasi tersebut dapat disusupi oleh pihak yang tidak berwenang. Salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menerapkan extended access list yang merupakan salah satu bagian dari metode access control list. Extended access list dapat menyaring lalu lintas data suatu jaringan dengan mengontrol apakah paket-paket tersebut dilewatkan atau dihentikan. Extended access list juga dapat menjamin keamanan untuk setiap komputer sehingga jalur komunikasi serta hak akses setiap komputer dapat berjalan dengan baik. Extended access list memungkinkan penyaringan berdasarkan sumber atau alamat tujuan, protokol yang dipilih, port yang digunakan, dan apakah koneksi sudah ditetapkan. Tulisan ini membahas penerapan extended access list dalam jaringan supaya dapat melakukan filter terhadap paket data yang melewati jaringan. Penerapannya menggunakan software Packet Tracer 6.1.1 untuk membuat prototipe jaringan dan mensimulasikannya. Sehingga nanti dapat diterapkan pada jaringan yang sebenarnya. List yang dibangun pada penelitian ini diterapkan untuk protokol antara lain : TCP (WWW, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, POP3, UDP (DNS, dan ICMP (Ping. Hasilnya didapatkan extended access list yang dikonfigurasi pada router dalam topologi penelitian ini mampu melakukan filter terhadap paket yang melewati jaringan. Hasil konfigurasinya sangat spesifik, sehingga penerapan hak akses permit dan deny dapat dilakukan sesuai dengan aturan dan skenario yang dirancang.

  15. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  16. Heat up and potential failure of BWR upper internals during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In boiling water reactors, the steam dome, steam separators, and dryers above the core are comprised of approximately 100 tons of stainless steel. During a severe accident in which the coolant boils away and exothermic oxidation of zirconium occurs, gases (steam and hydrogen) are superheated in the core region and pass through the upper internals. Historically, the upper internals have been modeled using severe accident codes with relatively simple approximations. The upper internals are typically modeled in MELCOR as two lumped volumes with simplified heat transfer characteristics, with no structural integrity considerations, and with limited ability to oxidize, melt, and relocate. The potential for and the subsequent impact of the upper internals to heat up, oxidize, fail, and relocate during a severe accident was investigated. A higher fidelity representation of the shroud dome, steam separators, and steam driers was developed in MELCOR v1.8.6 by extending the core region upwards. This modeling effort entailed adding 45 additional core cells and control volumes, 98 flow paths, and numerous control functions. The model accounts for the mechanical loading and structural integrity, oxidation, melting, flow area blockage, and relocation of the various components. The results indicate that the upper internals can reach high temperatures during a severe accident; they are predicted to reach a high enough temperature such that they lose their structural integrity and relocate. The additional 100 tons of stainless steel debris influences the subsequent in-vessel and ex-vessel accident progression.

  17. Extending Double Optical Gating to the Midinfrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Timothy; Camper, Antoine; Agostini, Pierre; Dimauro, Louis

    2015-05-01

    In the past decade there has been great interest in creating broadband isolated attosecond pulses (IAPs). Primarily these IAPs have been generated using Ti:Sapphire 800nm short pulses, namely through spatiotemporal gating with the attosecond lighthouse technique, amplitude gating, polarization gating, and double optical gating (DOG). Here we present theoretical calculations and experimental investigations into extending DOG to using a 2 μm driving wavelength, the benefits of which include extended harmonic cutoff and longer input driving pulse durations. It is proposed that broadband IAPs with cutoffs extending up to 250 eV can be generated in Argon by using >30 fs pulses from the passively-CEP stabilized 2 μm idler out of an optical parametric amplifier combined with a collinear DOG experimental setup.

  18. Structural Analysis of Extended Plasma Focus Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator Development Centre (ADC) of Nuclear Malaysia intends to upgrade the plasma focus device. It involves the extension part placed on top of the existing plasma focus vacuum chamber. This extended vacuum chamber purposely to give an extra space in conducting experiments on the existing plasma focus chamber. The aim of upgrading the plasma focus device is to solve the limitation in research and analysis of sample due to its done in an open system that cause analysis of samples is limited and less optimal. This extended chamber was design in considering the ease of fabrication as well as durability of its structural. Thus, this paper discusses the structural analysis in term of pressure loading effect in extended chamber. (author)

  19. The validity of the extended energy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, M.S.; Johnson, J.L.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1994-04-01

    A recent analysis of plasma stability based on modifications of the extended energy principle for magnetohydrodynamic stability led to conclusions that are too optimistic. The original interpretation of this principle is indeed applicable. The present analysis demonstrates explicitly the fallacy of using the wrong functional for δW in the extended energy principle. It then shows that the original energy principle functional δW B is also obtained for a model in which a surface mass is incorporated to provide pressure balance. This work therefore indicates, but does not prove, that the eigenfunctions that are obtained from a minimization of the extended energy principle with the proper kinetic energy norm provide a good representation of what would be achieved with an exact treatment

  20. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  1. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based...... on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by siblings from the same immediate family, factors shared by first cousins from the same extended family account for a nontrivial part of the total variance in children’s educational success. Results also show that while socioeconomic...... characteristics of grandparents and aunts and uncles have few direct effects on educational success, resources in the extended family compensate lacking resources in low-SES families, which in turn promote children’s educational success. The main conclusion is that the total effect of family background...

  2. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Yun.

    1990-04-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  3. Extended inflation from higher-dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the possibility that higher-dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. We analyze two separate models. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher-dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of nontrivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a nontrivial potential for the radius of the internal space. We find that extended inflation does not occur in these models. We also find that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  4. Extending the upper temperature range of gas chromatography with all-silicon microchip columns using a heater/clamp assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Johnson, Jacob E; Nuss, Johnathan G; Stark, Brittany A; Hawkins, Aaron R; Tolley, Luke T; Iverson, Brian D; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2017-09-29

    Miniaturization of gas chromatography (GC) instrumentation is of interest because it addresses current and future issues relating to compactness, portability and field application. While incremental advancements continue to be reported in GC with columns fabricated in microchips (referred to in this paper as "microchip columns"), the current performance is far from acceptable. This lower performance compared to conventional GC is due to factors such as pooling of the stationary phase in corners of non-cylindrical channels, adsorption of sensitive compounds on incompletely deactivated surfaces, shorter column lengths and less than optimum interfacing to injector and detector. In this work, a GC system utilizing microchip columns was developed that solves the latter challenge, i.e., microchip interfacing to injector and detector. A microchip compression clamp was constructed to heat the microchip (i.e., primary heater), and seal the injector and detector fused silica interface tubing to the inlet and outlet ports of the microchip channels with minimum extra-column dead volume. This clamp allowed occasional operation up to 375°C and routine operation up to 300°C. The compression clamp was constructed of a low expansion alloy, Kovar™, to minimize leaking due to thermal expansion mismatch at the interface during repeated thermal cycling, and it was tested over several months for more than one hundred injections without forming leaks. A 5.9m long microcolumn with rectangular cross section of 158μm×80μm, which approximately matches a 100μm i.d. cylindrical fused silica column, was fabricated in a silicon wafer using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and high temperature fusion bonding; finally, the channel was coated statically with a 1% vinyl, 5% phenyl, 94% methylpolysiloxane stationary phase. High temperature separations of C10-C40 n-alkanes and a commercial diesel sample were demonstrated using the system under both temperature programmed GC (TPGC) and thermal gradient GC (TGGC) conditions. TGGC analysis of a complex essential oil sample was also demonstrated. Addition of a secondary heater and polyimide insulation proved to be helpful in achieving the desired elution temperature without having to raise the primary heater temperature above 300°C for high boiling point compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interventional studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide a means whereby physiologic and pathophysiologic features can be observed from a unique and noninvasive perspective. While nuclear medicine studies by their very nature lack the high spatial resolution of the radiographic approach, the data derived are readily quantitated and presented in numerical fashion to provide functional and dynamic information in which the influences of interventions may be observed. This chapter outlines the scope of such interventions in studies of the upper GI tract with emphasis on examinations for gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying. The interactions of nutrients, physical maneuvers of pharmacologic agents on nuclear medicine studies of the upper GI tract may be intentional to render a test more sensitive or to evaluate the effect of therapy, or may represent an unintentional side effect that must be taken into account if misinterpretation is to be avoided

  6. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics

  7. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  8. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  9. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2016-08-08

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph classes, such as P4-free graphs or 2K2-free graphs.For classes defined by finitely many forbidden induced subgraphs, the boundary separating difficult instances of the problem from polynomially solvable ones consists of the so called boundary classes.However, none of such classes has been identified so far for the upper dominating set problem.In the present paper, we discover the first boundary class for this problem.

  10. Transfusion strategy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, James; Lang, Eddy

    2015-09-01

    Clinical question Does a hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 70 g/L yield better patient outcomes than a threshold of 90 g/L in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Article chosen Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013;368(1):11-21. Study objectives The authors of this study measured mortality, from any cause, within the first 45 days, in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, who were managed with a hemoglobin threshold for red cell transfusion of either 70 g/L or 90 g/L. The secondary outcome measures included rate of further bleeding and rate of adverse events.

  11. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  12. Loop amplitudes in an extended gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.

    2018-05-01

    We extend the S-matrix of gravity by the addition of the minimal three-point amplitude or equivalently adding R3 terms to the Lagrangian. We demonstrate how Unitarity can be used to simply examine the renormalisability of this theory and determine the R4 counter-terms that arise at one-loop. We find that the combination of R4 terms that arise in the extended theory is complementary to the R4 counter-term associated with supersymmetric Lagrangians.

  13. Sum rules in extended RPA theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, S.; Lipparini, E.

    1988-01-01

    Different moments m k of the excitation strength function are studied in the framework of the second RPA and of the extended RPA in which 2p2h correlations are explicitly introduced into the ground state by using first-order perturbation theory. Formal properties of the equations of motion concerning sum rules are derived and compared with those exhibited by the usual 1p1h RPA. The problem of the separation of the spurious solutions in extended RPA calculations is also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Extended Cognition: Feedback Loops and Coupled Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Markic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores two waves of active externalism. I first introduce the distinction between passive and active externalism and analyse a proposal of active externalism based on the principle of parity proposed by Clark and Chalmers. There are two main obstacles, causal-constitution fallacy and cognitive bloat, that threaten the extended cognition hypothesis. The second wave of discussions based on the complementarity principle deals with cognitive systems with feedback loops between internal and external elements and is a more radical departure from functionalism and traditional thinking about cognition. I conclude with some remarks on potential ethical considerations of extended cognition.

  15. An extended topological Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Shinichi

    1992-01-01

    Introducing infinite number of fields, we construct an extended version of the topological Yang-Mills theory. The properties of the extended topological Yang-Mills theory (ETYMT) are discussed from standpoint of the covariant canonical quantization. It is shown that the ETYMT becomes a cohomological topological field theory or a theory equivalent to a quantum Yang-Mills theory with anti-self-dual constraint according to subsidiary conditions imposed on state-vector space. On the basis of the ETYMT, we may understand a transition from an unbroken phase to a physical phase (broken phase). (author)

  16. Extended Interneuronal Network of the Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely G. Szabo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network.

  17. Modeling of extended defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.E.; Jones, K.S.; Earles, S.K.; Lilak, A.D.; Xu, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Transient Enhanced Diffusion (TED) is one of the biggest modeling challenges present in predicting scaled technologies. Damage from implantation of dopant ions changes the diffusivities of the dopants and precipitates to form complex extended defects. Developing a quantitative model for the extended defect behavior during short time, low temperature anneals is a key to explaining TED. This paper reviews some of the modeling developments over the last several years, and discusses some of the challenges that remain to be addressed. Two examples of models compared to experimental work are presented and discussed

  18. Extending Symfony 2 web application framework

    CERN Document Server

    Armand, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Symfony is a high performance PHP framework for developing MVC web applications. Symfony1 allowed for ease of use but its shortcoming was the difficulty of extending it. However, this difficulty has now been eradicated by the more powerful and extensible Symfony2. Information on more advanced techniques for extending Symfony can be difficult to find, so you need one resource that contains the advanced features in a way you can understand. This tutorial offers solutions to all your Symfony extension problems. You will get to grips with all the extension points that Symfony, Twig, and Doctrine o

  19. Membraneous stenosis of the upper oesophagus ('webs')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.L.; Kurtz, B.

    1981-01-01

    Webs of the upper oesophagus are sail-like mucosal folds of unknown aetiology. Small, transverse webs on the anterior wall of the oesophagus are not uncommon incidental findings which are easily overlooked on routine examination. Extensive, circular membranes in the upper oesophagus, on the other hand, are rare; these may lead to severe difficulty with swallowing and may be associated with regurgitation. One example of a transverse, and three cases of circular webs are described, which caused stenosis and dysphagia and which, in some cases, were multiple. The aetiology is discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Schreiber, Trine; Tønnesen, Pia Hvid

    The discussion paper is a publication from the project Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School. The project is a collaboration between the National Library of Education at the Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, and the Royal School of Library and Information Science....... The project is funded by Denmark's Electronic Research Library (DEFF). The discussion paper is published in connection with the conference Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School on 22 April 2010. See video streaming from the conference etc. at www.dpu.dk/info....

  1. Collaborative Tools in Upper Secondary School - Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Degn, Hans-Peter; Bech, Christian Winther

    2013-01-01

    The paper will discuss potentials of digital media to support student engagement and student production in Danish upper secondary education with a specific focus on group work and collaboration. With the latest school reform, upper secondary education in Denmark has experienced an increased focus...... on the system theoretical approach will be described. Third, the findings from the qualitative, and quantitative studies will be presented. The paper concludes that the study demonstrates changes in the way group work is organised by the students using digital media, and a tendency to develop student engagement...

  2. The inflation sector of extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1990-11-01

    In extended inflation the inflationary era is brought to a close by the process of percolation of true vacuum bubbles produced in a first-order phase transition. In this paper I discuss several effects that might obtain if the Universe undergoes an inflationary first-order phase transition. 17 refs

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) producers in Kano, Nigeria. Method: A total of 604 consecutive clinical samples obtained from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano between January and July 2010 were ...

  4. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ABSTRACT. Various Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) schemes have been used to combat errors that befall in- formation transmitted in digital communication systems. Such schemes include simple ARQ, mixed mode ARQ and Hybrid ARQ (HARQ). In this study we introduce extended ARQ schemes and derive.

  5. Reasoning about cardinal directions between extended objects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaotong; Li, Sanjiang; Ying, Mingsheng

    2010-01-01

    Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Recently, Goyal and Egenhofer proposed a formal model, known as Cardinal Direction Calculus (CDC), for representing direction relations between connected plane regions. CDC is perhaps the most expressive qualitative calculus for directional information, and has attracted increasing interest from areas such as artificial intelligence, geographical information science, and image retrieval. Given a network ...

  6. 17. IAEA fusion energy conference. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Book of extended synopses of the papers, accepted by a international programme committee for presentation at the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, Japan. The subjects covered are magnetic confinement experiments, plasma heating and current drive, ITER EDA, inertial fusion energy, innovative concepts, fusion technology and theory

  7. Dewey on extended cognition and epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaesen, K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a surge of attempts to draw out the epistemological consequences of views according to which cognition is deeply embedded, embodied and/or extended (e-cog). The principal machinery used for doing so is that of analytic epistemology. Here I argue that Dewey's pragmatic epistemology may be

  8. Hamiltonian structure of linearly extended Virasoro algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelyan, T.A.; Savvidi, G.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of linearly extended Virasoro algebra which admits free bosonic field representation is described. An example of a non-trivial extension is found. The hierarchy of integrable non-linear equations corresponding to this Hamiltonian structure is constructed. This hierarchy admits the Lax representation by matrix Lax operator of second order

  9. Extended School Year. Information Capsule. Volume 0910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…

  10. Extended data acquisition support at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, D.C.; Busch, F.; Hultzsch, H.; Lowsky, J.; Richter, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Experiment Data Acquisition and Analysis System (EDAS) of GSI, designed to support the data processing associated with nuclear physics experiments, provides three modes of operation: real-time, interactive replay and batch replay. The real-time mode is used for data acquisition and data analysis during an experiment performed at the heavy ion accelerator at GSI. An experiment may be performed either in Stand Alone Mode, using only the Experiment Computers, or in Extended Mode using all computing resources available. The Extended Mode combines the advantages of the real-time response of a dedicated minicomputer with the availability of computing resources in a large computing environment. This paper first gives an overview of EDAS and presents the GSI High Speed Data Acquisition Network. Data Acquisition Modes and the Extended Mode are then introduced. The structure of the system components, their implementation and the functions pertinent to the Extended Mode are presented. The control functions of the Experiment Computer sub-system are discussed in detail. Two aspects of the design of the sub-system running on the mainframe are stressed, namely the use of a multi-user installation for real-time processing and the use of a high level programming language, PL/I, as an implementation language for a system which uses parallel processing. The experience accumulated is summarized in a number of conclusions

  11. [Combined hormonal contraception in cycles artificially extended].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Alamilla, Edgardo; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Hernández-Ruiz, M A; Briones-Landa, Carlos Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To compare the bleeding patterns, satisfaction and tolerability of 3 different contraceptive in an extended regimens in the service of Family Planning of the North Central Hospital of PEMEX. Healthy, adult women with desire of contraception for one year (N 120) were randomly assigned to receive oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinyl E2 (group1), the norelgestromin/ethinyl E2 transdermal patch (group 2) and vaginal ring etonogestrel/ ethinyl E2 (group 3) in an extended regimen (42 consecutive days, 1 hormone-free week). Study assessments were conducted at scheduled visits at the time of initial screening, at baseline after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjects recorded menstrual associated symptoms bleeding data and completed satisfaction questionnaires. Subjects and investigators provided overall assessments of the regimens. Extended use of 3 different contraceptive resulted in fewer bleeding days in every group (66.6%, 55% and 58.3% P 0.0024), and less mastalgia and menstrual pain. Subjects were highly satisfied with three regimens (93.3%, 96.6% and 91.6% P 0.00421). Although not mayor adverse events were reported with this regimen, there was an increase in spotting days; it decreased with each successive cycle of therapy. Efficacy and safety were similar to those reported for traditional cycle. Extended-contraceptive regimen delays menses and reduces bleeding, a profile that may be preferred by women who seek flexibility with their contraceptive method.

  12. Extendable linearised adjustment model for deformation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddo Velsink

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: "This paper gives a linearised adjustment model for the affine, similarity and congruence transformations in 3D that is easily extendable with other parameters to describe deformations. The model considers all coordinates stochastic. Full positive semi-definite covariance matrices

  13. Extendable linearised adjustment model for deformation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsink, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a linearised adjustment model for the affine, similarity and congruence transformations in 3D that is easily extendable with other parameters to describe deformations. The model considers all coordinates stochastic. Full positive semi-definite covariance matrices and correlation

  14. Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.

  15. Onsager's reciprocity theorem in extended irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Colin, L.S.; Velasco, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we shall discuss the Onsager relations for the transport coefficients in a dilute monatomic gas described by the extended irreversible thermodynamics. Our discussion is based on a 26 variables description of the system and its corresponding comparison with the kinetic reciprocity between coefficients is shown (Author)

  16. 17. IAEA fusion energy conference. Extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    Book of extended synopses of the papers, accepted by a international programme committee for presentation at the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, Japan. The subjects covered are magnetic confinement experiments, plasma heating and current drive, ITER EDA, inertial fusion energy, innovative concepts, fusion technology and theory Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Experimental limits on antigravity in extended supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bellucci, S.; Faraoni, V.

    1995-01-01

    The available tests of the equivalence principle constrain the mass of the Higgs-like boson appearing in extended supergravity theories. We determine the constraints imposed by the present and future high precision experiments on the antigravity fields arising from $N=2,8$ supergravity.

  18. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  19. Simulation and analysis of shared extended mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.

    Some types of animals exploit patterns created in the environment as external mental states, thus obtaining an extension of their mind. In the case of social animals the creation and exploitation of such patterns can be shared, which supports a form of shared extended mind or collective

  20. Extending the Body for Interaction with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Müller, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how users can control remote devices with a virtual long arm, while preserving the perception that the artificial arm is actually part of their own body. Instead of using pointing, speech, or a remote control, the users’ arm is extended in augmented reality, allowing...

  1. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  2. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  3. Features of the extended-release metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T O Yalochkina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Ali S, Fonseca V. Overview of metformin: special focus on metformin extended release. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Aug;13(12:1797-805.

  4. Timepiece: Extending and Enhancing Learning Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This publication offers suggestions for making more productive use of time, a scarce and valued educational resource. The chapter authors, authorities on the use of educational time, write about how to extend and enhance learning time within and outside schools. In "Productive Use of Time," Herbert Walberg describes how learning time can be…

  5. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  6. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy

  7. Extended KN algebras and extended conformal field theories over higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceresole, A.; Huang Chaoshang

    1990-01-01

    A global operator formalism for extended conformal field theories over higher genus Riemann surfaces is introduced and extended KN algebra are obtained by means of the KN bases. The BBSS construction of the spin-3 operator is carried out for Kac-Moody algebra A 2 over a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus. (orig.)

  8. Emergency readmission following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömdahl, Martin; Helgeson, Johan; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence, clinical predictors, and associated mortality of all-cause emergency readmissions after acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with AUGIB from an area of 600 000 inhabitants in Sweden admitted in a single institution...

  9. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  10. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  11. Team Teaching at Upper Arlington School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Annette R.

    1968-01-01

    Team teaching has been used for 4 years in the 10th-grade English classes at Upper Arlington High School near Columbus, Ohio. Units are prepared, presented, and evaluated by teachers working together voluntarily. A 6-day American literature unit introducing Romanticism has been particularly successful. The contrasts between Neoclassicism and…

  12. Upper Atmosphere Research Report Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-12-30

    as a whol,. The history of the program was given in some detail in the first report*. The part of the Naval Research Laboratory in upper atmosphere...5B and 6. The third gage was installed as a service to the spectroscopy program. The gago elements were simply 6 watt, 110 volt Mazda pilot *1 lamps

  13. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  14. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various upper gastrointestinal problems was 84.7%. The use of medication that can reduce the H. pylori density was common among the infected patients, as history of antibiotics use, acid suppressant use and medications for eradication treatment were ...

  15. Local anaesthesia in the upper jaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, J.A.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The sensory innervation of the upper jaw arises from the second trunk of the trigeminal nerve, the maxillary nerve. This main branch of the trigeminal nerve leaves the neurocranium via the foramen rotundum, reaches the pterygopalatine fossa and runs straight through the infraorbital nerve, branching

  16. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands

  18. Upper blepharoplasty : Defying dogmas and clarifying uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Shariselle Mirna Wietske

    2016-01-01

    Upper blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures by (oculo)plastic surgeons and it is generally recognized as a relatively easy technical procedure. However, seemingly minor aspects before, during and after surgery can be identified that significantly contribute to surgical

  19. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utin, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.utin@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Fabritsiev, Sergey [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Koenig, Werner [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Prebeck, Markus [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Privalova, Elena [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ranzinger, Franz [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Savrukhin, Petr [Russian Federation ITER Domestic Agency, Kurchatov sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Schiller, Thomas [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  20. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utin, Yuri; Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James; Fabritsiev, Sergey; Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio; Koenig, Werner; Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny; Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc; Prebeck, Markus; Privalova, Elena; Ranzinger, Franz; Savrukhin, Petr; Schiller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  1. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  2. Do statins protect against upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Aalykke, Claus

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recently, an apparent protective effect of statins against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) was postulated in a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on acute nonvariceal UGB alone or in combinations with low-dose aspirin and other...

  3. Teaching Astrophysics to Upper Level Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn Bradt, Hale

    2010-03-01

    A Socratic peer-instruction method for teaching upper level undergraduates is presented. Basically, the instructor sits with the students and guides their presentations of the material. My two textbooks* (on display) as well as many others are amenable to this type of teaching. *Astronomy Methods - A Physical Approach to Astronomical Observations (CUP 2004) *Astrophysics Processes-The Physics of Astronomical Phenomena (CUP 2008)

  4. Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; Bremer, J.; Emmert, J. T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 5803 (2006), s. 1253-1254 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Global change * Upper Atmosphere * Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006

  5. Control of early-formed vesicle cylinders on upper crustal prismatic jointing in compound pāhoehoe lavas of Elephanta Island, western Deccan Traps, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Hetu; Patel, Vanit; Samant, Hrishikesh

    2017-08-01

    Upper crustal prismatic joints and vesicle cylinders, common in pāhoehoe lava flows, form early and late, respectively, and are therefore independent features. However, small-scale compound pāhoehoe lava lobes on Elephanta Island (western Deccan Traps, India), which resemble S-type (spongy) pāhoehoe in some aspects, contain vesicle cylinders which apparently controlled the locations of upper crustal prismatic joints. The lobes are decimeters thick, did not experience inflation after emplacement, and solidified rapidly. They have meter-scale areas that are exceptionally rich in vesicle cylinders (up to 68 cylinders in 1 m2, with a mean spacing of 12.1 cm), separated by cylinder-free areas, and pervasive upper crustal prismatic jointing with T, curved T, and quadruple joint intersections. A majority (≥76.5%) of the cylinders are located exactly on joints or at joint intersections, and were not simply captured by downward growing joints, as the cylinders show no deflection in vertical section. We suggest that large numbers of cylinders originated in a layer of bubble-rich residual liquid at the top of a basal diktytaxitic crystal mush zone which was formed very early (probably within the first few minutes of the emplacement history). The locations where the rising cylinders breached the crust provided weak points or mechanical flaws towards which any existing joints (formed by thermal contraction) propagated. New joints may also have propagated outwards from the cylinders and linked up laterally. Some cylinders breached the crust between the joints, and thus formed a little later than most others. The Elephanta Island example reveals that, whereas thermal contraction is undoubtedly valid as a standard mechanism for forming upper crustal prismatic joints, abundant mechanical flaws (such as large concentrations of early-formed, crust-breaching vesicle cylinders) can also control the joint formation process.

  6. The Opportunities and Challenges of China's Petroleum Extraction Industry Outward Direct Investment%中国石油开采业对外直接投资的机遇与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司博文; 陈瑛

    2015-01-01

    China's energy consumption has a large growth and has become the world largest energy consumer along with the fast-growing economy. The domes-tic oil production and imported oil can no longer satisfy China's oil demand. Under this circumstances, investing in overseas oil industry is a solution need to be considered. This paper analyses the investment characteristics of energy industry, especially focuses on the industry background and investment pattern of China's energy enterprise world-wide direct investment. By analyz-ing statistics from China's Outward Foreign Direct Investment Bulletin, China Global Investment Tracker and BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013, the result can be concluded as two points: the opportunities and the challenges. China`s energy enterprises would benefit from: 1) Government going-out policy, a national-level guide for outgoing direct investment. 2) The massive foreign exchange, which ensure the capital to invest abroad. 3) The appreciation of the RMB that enable Chinese enterprises purchasing more asset by the same sum of capital. 4) Some transnational energy companies are attenuated by the fi-nancial crisis and willing to sell their quality assets. However, the unstable of oil exporting countries, the bias of the Western and the limit of transport are the main challenges that China`s energy enterprises have to overcome. Sev-eral suggestions are provides in this paper: 1) Assist less developed oil ex-porting countries by construct infrastructure and offer employment to inte-grate local environment. 2) Cooperate with western transnational energy compa-nies to reduce the pressure from the west and learn from their advanced man-agement. 3) Diversify the oil importing channel by construct oil and gas pipeline from northeast, northwest and southwest of China.%伴随着经济的高速发展,中国能源的消耗亦大幅度增长,已成为世界第一位的能源消费大国。目前国内生产或以贸易进口石油已无法满

  7. The dynamics in the upper atmospheres of Mars and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jared M.

    2008-06-01

    This thesis explores the dynamics of two terrestrial bodies: Mars and Titan. At Mars, the coupled Mars General Circulation Model - Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MGCM-MTGCM) is employed to investigate the phenomenon known as Mars winter polar warming. At Titan, a new theoretical model, the Titan Global Ionosphere - Thermosphere Model (T-GITM), is developed, based upon previous work by Ridley et al. [2006]. Using this new model, three separate numerical studies quantify the impacts of solar cycle, seasons, and lower boundary zonal winds on the Titan thermosphere structure and dynamics. At Mars, this thesis investigates thermospheric winter polar warming through three major studies: (1) a systematic analysis of vertical dust mixing in the lower atmosphere and its impact upon the dynamics of the lower thermosphere (100-130 km), (2) an interannual investigation utilizing three years of lower atmosphere infrared (IR) dust optical depth data acquired by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), and finally (3) a brief study of the MTGCM's response to variations in upward propagating waves and tides from the lower atmosphere. Ultimately, this investigation suggests that an interhemispheric summer-to-winter Hadley circulation, originating in the lower atmosphere and extending into the upper atmosphere, is responsible for thermospheric winter polar warming [ Bell etal. , 2007]. A major branch of this thesis builds upon the previous work of Müller-Wodarg et al. [2000], Müller-Wodarg et al. [2003], M7uuml;ller-Wodarg et al. [2006], and Yelle et al. [2006] as it attempts to explain the structures in Titan's upper atmosphere, between 500-1500 km. Building also upon the recent development of GITM by Ridley et al. [2006], this thesis presents a new theoretical framework, T-GITM. This model is then employed to conduct a series of numerical experiments to quantify the impacts of the solar cycle, the season, and the

  8. Upper Ocean Evolution Across the Beaufort Sea Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Rainville, L.; Gobat, J. I.; Perry, M. J.; Freitag, L. E.; Webster, S.

    2016-12-01

    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) have profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g., the relatively warm Pacific Summer and Atlantic waters), and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice. Spatial and temporal variability in ice properties and open water fraction impact these processes. To investigate how upper ocean structure varies with changing ice cover, how the balance of processes shift as a function of ice fraction and distance from open water, and how these processes impact sea ice evolution, a network of autonomous platforms sampled the atmosphere-ice-ocean system in the Beaufort, beginning in spring, well before the start of melt, and ending with the autumn freeze-up. Four long-endurance autonomous Seagliders occupied sections that extended from open water, through the marginal ice zone, deep into the pack during summer 2014 in the Beaufort Sea. Gliders penetrated up to 200 km into the ice pack, under complete ice cover for up to 10 consecutive days. Sections reveal strong fronts where cold, ice-covered waters meet waters that have been exposed to solar warming, and O(10 km) scale eddies near the ice edge. In the pack, Pacific Summer Water and a deep chlorophyll maximum form distinct layers at roughly 60 m and 80 m, respectively, which become increasingly diffuse late in the season as they progress through the MIZ and into open water. Stratification just above the Pacific Summer Water rapidly weakens near the ice edge and temperature variance increases, likely due to mixing or energetic vertical exchange associated with strong

  9. A Community-acquired Lung Abscess Attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae which Extended Directly into the Chest Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuki; Tobino, Kazunori; Yasuda, Yuichiro; Sueyasu, Takuto; Nishizawa, Saori; Yoshimine, Kouhei; Munechika, Miyuki; Asaji, Mina; Yamaji, Yoshikazu; Tsuruno, Kosuke; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Mukasa, Yosuke; Ebi, Noriyuki

    We herein report the case of 75-year-old Japanese female with a community-acquired lung abscess attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. penumoniae) which extended into the chest wall. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a painful mass on the left anterior chest wall. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan showed a lung abscess in the left upper lobe which extended into the chest wall. Surgical debridement of the chest wall abscess and percutaneous transthoracic tube drainage of the lung abscess were performed. A culture of the drainage specimen yielded S. pneumoniae. The patient showed a remarkable improvement after the initiation of intravenous antibiotic therapy.

  10. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS. Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  11. Extending applicability of bimetric theory: chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-01

    This article extends bimetric formulations of massive gravity to make the mass of the graviton to depend on its environment. This minimal extension offers a novel way to reconcile massive gravity with local tests of general relativity without invoking the Vainshtein mechanism. On cosmological scales, it is argued that the model is stable and that it circumvents the Higuchi bound, hence relaxing the constraints on the parameter space. Moreover, with this extension the strong coupling scale is also environmentally dependent in such a way that it is kept sufficiently higher than the expansion rate all the way up to the very early universe, while the present graviton mass is low enough to be phenomenologically interesting. In this sense the extended bigravity theory serves as a partial UV completion of the standard bigravity theory. This extension is very generic and robust and a simple specific example is described.

  12. Extended phase graphs with anisotropic diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M.; Schwenk, S.; Kiselev, V. G.; Scheffler, K.; Hennig, J.

    2010-08-01

    The extended phase graph (EPG) calculus gives an elegant pictorial description of magnetization response in multi-pulse MR sequences. The use of the EPG calculus enables a high computational efficiency for the quantitation of echo intensities even for complex sequences with multiple refocusing pulses with arbitrary flip angles. In this work, the EPG concept dealing with RF pulses with arbitrary flip angles and phases is extended to account for anisotropic diffusion in the presence of arbitrary varying gradients. The diffusion effect can be expressed by specific diffusion weightings of individual magnetization pathways. This can be represented as an action of a linear operator on the magnetization state. The algorithm allows easy integration of diffusion anisotropy effects. The formalism is validated on known examples from literature and used to calculate the effective diffusion weighting in multi-echo sequences with arbitrary refocusing flip angles.

  13. APPROACHES FOR SOLVING BIMATRIX INFORMATIONAL EXTENDED GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris HÂNCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different ways of solving bimatrix games in complete and perfect information (or over the set of informational extended strategies are studied in the present paper. The Nash and Bayes-Nash solutions for informational extended games are discussed.MODALITĂŢI DE SOLUŢIONARE A JOCURILOR BIMATRICEALE INFORMAŢIONAL EXTINSEÎn acest articol sunt analizate diferite moduri de soluţionare a jocurilor bimatriceale în informaţie completă a şi perfectă. Informaţia perfectă permite jucătorilor să utilizeze strategii informaţional extinse. Se analizează asoluţii de tip Nash şi Bayes-Nash pentru jocuri în strategii informaţional extinse.

  14. Does string theory lead to extended inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A.

    1991-05-01

    We consider the relationship between string theory and currently proposed models of extended inflation. In doing so, we discuss the conformal actions in string theory and in Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravity. We show explicitly the equivalence of pictures in which either gauge or gravitational couplings are changing with time. We demonstrate that the existence of the dilation in string theory does not naturally lead to extended inflation as currently discussed. We also discuss the resolution of the graceful exit problem of old inflation in Einstein gravity using either power-law inflation, or exponential inflation with a changing bubble formation rate. On leave of absence from School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

  15. Extended RPA study of nuclear collective phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.

    1987-01-01

    A fully microscopic study of nuclear collective phenomena is presented within the framework of an extended RPA which includes 1p-1h and 2p-2h excitations in a consistent way. This theory allows us to obtain a very realistic description of various excitation spectra. As a result, a strong evidence of correlation effects beyond mean-field theory emerges. The effective interaction used is a G-matrix derived from the meson-exchange potential. The extended theory introduces also additional correlations which screen the long-large part of the effective interaction. This effect significantly enhances the stability of the ground state against density fluctuations. In this connection a possible importance of relativistic effects is also discussed. 99 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  16. Parapharyngeal meningioma extending from the intracranial space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchibori, M.; Odake, G.; Ueda, S.; Yasuda, N.; Hisa, I.

    1990-01-01

    A 50-year old woman with a giant parapharyngeal meningioma extending from the intracranial cavity was admitted to our hospital. The parapharyngeal tumor was biopsied using the transoral approach, and a histological section diagnosis suggested meningioma. Thereafter, further examination by magnetic resonance images (MRI) and contrast enhanced CT scans revealed a diffuse meningioma en plaque in the posterior fossa. Invasion extended from the clival dura to the right sigmoid sinus. The extracranial extension of a meningioma is very rare but a few cases have been reported. In almost all of the reported cases, a large intracranial meningioma was simultaneously or previously verified by CT scans. Our case was special in that the intracranial mass was not voluminous but showed en plaque extension, and also because the pathway of the extracranial extension through the jugular foramen was clearly visualized by CT and MRI. Obliteration and invasion of the right sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein by tumor were also demonstrated. (orig.)

  17. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, M.; Ethier, S.; Pomphrey, N.

    2008-01-01

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch

  18. Note on the extended noncommutativity of coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulahoual, Amina; Sedra, My. Brahim

    2001-04-01

    We present in this short note an idea about a possible extension of the standard noncommutative algebra to the formal differential operators framework. In this sense, we develop an analysis and derive an extended noncommutative algebra given by [x a , x b ] * =i(θ+χ) ab where θ ab , is the standard noncommutative parameter and χ ab (x)≡χ ab μ (x)δ μ =1/2(x a θ μ b -x b θ a )δ μ is an antisymmetric non-constant vector-field shown to play the role of the extended deformation parameter. This idea was motivated by the importance of noncommutative geometry framework in the current subject of D-brane and matrix theory physics. (author)

  19. Optical absorption in compact and extended dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2005-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched molecules, which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems, in nano-technological or in medical applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers, where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. We investigate the linear optical absorption spectra of these dendrimer types using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. We discuss compact dendrimers with equal excitation energies at all molecules, dendrimers with a functionalized core as well as with a whole branch functionalized. Furthermore the line shape of a compact dendrimer is discussed when neighboring molecules at the periphery interact and when all molecules have randomly distributed excitation energies due to disorder. Finally, we discuss two models for extended dendrimers

  20. Extended Josephson Relation and Abrikosov lattice deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlock, Peter

    2012-01-01

    From the point of view of time-dependent Ginzburg Landau (TDGL) theory, a Josephson-like relation is derived for an Abrikosov vortex lattice accelerated and deformed by applied fields. Beginning with a review of the Josephson Relation derived from the two ingredients of a lattice-kinematics assumption in TDGL theory and gauge invariance, we extend the construction to accommodate a time-dependent applied magnetic field, a Floating-Kernel formulation of normal current, and finally lattice deformation due to the electric field and inertial effects of vortex-lattice motion. The resulting Josephson-like relation, which we call an Extended Josephson Relation, applies to a much wider set of experimental conditions than the original Josephson Relation, and is explicitly compatible with the considerations of TDGL theory.

  1. Modeling with finite element of the upper head spring; Modelizacion con elementos finitos del resorte del cabezal superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cardador, J.; Cerrain Arranz, A.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is the development of a model of finite element of the upper head spring so that it can be used as a tool in the design of the same. For this purpose, simulates the behavior to compression spring of the integrated head 17 x 17 using a numerical model and are validated with experimental results obtained in tests conducted by ENUSA. The validated model is a new tool to the spring design of the upper head whose use can extend both for the evaluation of current designs as for the evaluation of new modifications.

  2. EMG-Torque correction on Human Upper extremity using Evolutionary Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    JL, Veronica; Parasuraman, S.; Khan, M. K. A. Ahamed; Jeba DSingh, Kingsly

    2016-09-01

    There have been many studies indicating that control system of rehabilitative robot plays an important role in determining the outcome of the therapy process. Existing works have done the prediction of feedback signal in the controller based on the kinematics parameters and EMG readings of upper limb's skeletal system. Kinematics and kinetics based control signal system is developed by reading the output of the sensors such as position sensor, orientation sensor and F/T (Force/Torque) sensor and there readings are to be compared with the preceding measurement to decide on the amount of assistive force. There are also other works that incorporated the kinematics parameters to calculate the kinetics parameters via formulation and pre-defined assumptions. Nevertheless, these types of control signals analyze the movement of the upper limb only based on the movement of the upper joints. They do not anticipate the possibility of muscle plasticity. The focus of the paper is to make use of the kinematics parameters and EMG readings of skeletal system to predict the individual torque of upper extremity's joints. The surface EMG signals are fed into different mathematical models so that these data can be trained through Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find the best correlation between EMG signals and torques acting on the upper limb's joints. The estimated torque attained from the mathematical models is called simulated output. The simulated output will then be compared with the actual individual joint which is calculated based on the real time kinematics parameters of the upper movement of the skeleton when the muscle cells are activated. The findings from this contribution are extended into the development of the active control signal based controller for rehabilitation robot.

  3. Three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    The three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is derived by combining teleseismic P wave travel time residuals with Pn source time terms. The NTS time terms and relative teleseismic residuals are calculated by treating the explosions as a network of 'receivers' which record 'shots' located at the surrounding stations. Utilization of the Pn time terms allows for better crustal resolution than is possible from teleseismic information alone. Average relative teleseismic P wave residuals show a consistent progression of positive (late arrivals) to negative residuals from east to west across the NTS. However, Pn time terms beneath Rainier Mesa are at least 0.3 and 0.5 s less than those beneath Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat, respectively, indicating the presence of high-velocity crustal material or crustal thinning beneath Rainier Mesa. The time terms at Pahute Mesa are surprisingly uniform, and the largest time terms and residuals are observed in the northwest and southern parts of Yucca Flat. The Pn time terms show a slight correlation with the working-point velocity at the shot point for Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat, indicating that part of the observed lateral variations are caused by shallow effects of the upper crust. Three-dimensional inversion of the travel time residuals suggests that Yucca Flat is characterized by low-velocity anomalies confined to the upper crust, Rainer Mesa by very high velocities in the upper and middle crust, and Pahute Mesa by a high-velocity anomaly extending through the crust and into the upper mantle. Relatively low velocities are observed in the lower crust beneath the Timber Mountain caldera south of Pahute Mesa with no expression in the upper mantle. These observed differences in velocity beneath the Tertiary Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain calderas may be related to their magma volume and mode of enrichment from a mantle-derived magma source

  4. Extending The Shelf Life Of Blood Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Douglas M.

    1988-01-01

    New method of storing human blood platelets extends vitality for transfusions. Packaged as suspension in sterile liquid in plastic blood bags. Each bag placed between pair of plastic grids, and rubberbands placed around sandwich thus formed to hold together. Stored upright in open air or in container through which air pumped at rate of at least 45 L/min. Ensures that platelets receive ample oxygen and expiratory carbon dioxide form platelets removed before pH drops to harmful levels.

  5. An extended characterisation theorem for quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, C.S.; Mukherjee, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    Two theorems are proved. In the first properties of an important mapping from an orthocomplemented lattice to itself are studied. In the second the characterisation theorem of Zierler (Pacific J. Math.; 11:1151 (1961)) is extended to obtain a very useful theorem characterising orthomodular lattices. Since quantum logics are merely sigma-complete orthomodular lattices, the principal result is, for application in quantum physics, a characterisation theorem for quantum logics. (author)

  6. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    OpenAIRE

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel exper...

  7. An extended chemical analysis of gallstone

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, P.; Kuchhal, N. K.; Garg, P.; Pundir, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble prot...

  8. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  9. Extending Profiles with Stereotypes for Composite Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Quartel, Dick; Dijkman, R.M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Briand, L.; Williams, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the UML 2.0 profiling mechanism. This extension facilitates a language designer to introduce composite concepts as separate conceptual and notational elements in a modelling language. Composite concepts are compositions of existing concepts. To facilitate the introduction of composite concepts, the notion of stereotype is extended. This extension defines how a composite concept can be specified and added to a language’s metamodel, ithout modifying the exist...

  10. Behaviour of the extended Toda lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattis, Jonathan A. D.; Gordoa, Pilar R.; Pickering, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    We consider the first member of an extended Toda lattice hierarchy. This system of equations is differential with respect to one independent variable and differential-delay with respect to a second independent variable. We use asymptotic analysis to consider the long wavelength limits of the system. By considering various magnitudes for the parameters involved, we derive reduced equations related to the Korteweg-de Vries and potential Boussinesq equations.

  11. Extending Science lessons with Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina; Tilling, Steve; Needham, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Open University, Field Studies Council and Association for Science Education are conducting research into the use of Google Expeditions and other virtual reality tools to a) augment and extend field work experiences; and b) as an additional tool in the classrooms along with resources such as videos, photographs. \\ud \\ud The following aspects were discussed in this workshop:\\ud \\ud Does the virtual reality technology improve student engagement, and what are the implications for teachers?\\u...

  12. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  13. An extended Henon-Heiles system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A.N.W.; Novikov, V.; Verhoeven, C.

    2008-01-01

    We consider an integrable system of partial differential equations possessing a Lax pair with an energy-dependent Lax operator of second order, of the type described by Antonowicz and Fordy. By taking the travelling wave reduction of this system we show that the integrable case (ii) Henon-Heiles system can be extended by adding an arbitrary number of non-polynomial (rational) terms to the potential

  14. Extended BRS algebra and color confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Meiun.

    1983-09-01

    We examine the color-confinement criteria proposed by Kugo and Ojima. With the use of the extended BRS symmetry and the Nakanishi's theorem, we look for the representations of the BRS algebra compatible with the first condition of their criteria (the K-O condition) and then ask whether or not they are physically acceptable. As a result, the quartet mechanism does not work, and the K-O condition is not regarded as a confinement condition. (author)

  15. Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzdykov Mirzakhmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.

  16. The renewable tradition (extended play remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Amerika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a network of appropriation artists, process philosophers, performance poets, pla(ygiarists, and other remix provocateurs, this experimental artist essay investigates the act of remixologically inhabiting the body language of others and, in the process, devises an aesthetic theory that situates the contemporary artist as a "postproduction medium" whose methodologies further extend avant-garde practice into the 21st century.

  17. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  18. Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Chijioke S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems.\\ud For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...

  19. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Voskanyan, Vardan K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  20. Range extender module. Enabler for electric mobility; Range-Extender-Modul. Wegbereiter fuer elektrische Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Robert; Fraidl, Guenter Karl; Hubmann, Christian; Kapus, Paul Ernst; Kunzemann, Ralf; Sifferlinger, Bernhard; Beste, Frank [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2009-10-15

    The Range Extender as an auxiliary power supply for extended driving ranges is of significant importance in achieving a high level of customer acceptance for electric vehicles. The AVL concept is optimized for electric power generation in single-point operation and allows a compactly integrated, cost-efficient and weight-efficient module design. The internal combustion engine requirements of the Pure Range Extender from AVL permit not only the use of simplified four-stroke concepts but also the application of emission-optimized and fuel consumption-optimized two-stroke and rotary piston engines. (orig.)

  1. Bio-inspired nanostructures for implementing vertical pn-junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2011-08-04

    An apparatus, system, and method having a 3D pn-junction structure are presented. One embodiment of an apparatus includes a substrate, a first doped structure, and a second doped structure. In one embodiment, the first doped structure has a first doping type. The first doped structure may be formed above the substrate and extend outwardly from an upper surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, the second doped structure has a second doping type. The second doped structure may be formed above the substrate and in contact with the first doped structure. Additionally, the second doped structure may extend outwardly from the upper surface of the substrate.

  2. Bio-inspired nanostructures for implementing vertical pn-junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2011-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method having a 3D pn-junction structure are presented. One embodiment of an apparatus includes a substrate, a first doped structure, and a second doped structure. In one embodiment, the first doped structure has a first doping type. The first doped structure may be formed above the substrate and extend outwardly from an upper surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, the second doped structure has a second doping type. The second doped structure may be formed above the substrate and in contact with the first doped structure. Additionally, the second doped structure may extend outwardly from the upper surface of the substrate.

  3. [Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Salopek, D.S.; Turner, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    We calculate both the curvature and isocurvature density fluctuations that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The curvature fluctuations that arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field in general have a non-scale-invariant spectrum and an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The curvature perturbations that arise due to the Higgs field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential, and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies directly

  5. Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Salopek, D.S.; Turner, M.S.

    1990-05-01

    The density fluctuations (both curvature and isocurvature) that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory are calculated. Curvature fluctuations arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field, in general have a nonscale-invariant spectrum, and can have an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The density perturbations that arise due to the inflation field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies

  6. The extended Betz-Lanchester limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.; Sanz-Andres, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). IDR/UPM, E.T.S.I.

    2005-04-01

    A proposal for an extended formulation of the power coefficient of a wind turbine is presented. This new formulation is a generalization of the Betz-Lanchester expression for the power coefficient as function of the axial deceleration of the wind speed provoked by the wind turbine in operation. The extended power coefficient takes into account the benefits of the power produced and the cost associated to the production of this energy. By the simple model proposed is evidenced that the purely energetic optimum operation condition giving rise to the Betz-Lanchester limit (maximum energy produced) does not coincide with the global optimum operational condition (maximum benefit generated) if cost of energy and degradation of the wind turbine during operation is considered. The new extended power coefficient is a general parameter useful to define global optimum operation conditions for wind turbines, considering not only the energy production but also the maintenance cost and the economic cost associated to the life reduction of the machine. (author)

  7. The deep space 1 extended mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Varghese, Philip

    2001-03-01

    The primary mission of Deep Space 1 (DS1), the first flight of the New Millennium program, completed successfully in September 1999, having exceeded its objectives of testing new, high-risk technologies important for future space and Earth science missions. DS1 is now in its extended mission, with plans to take advantage of the advanced technologies, including solar electric propulsion, to conduct an encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly in September 2001. During the extended mission, the spacecraft's commercial star tracker failed; this critical loss prevented the spacecraft from achieving three-axis attitude control or knowledge. A two-phase approach to recovering the mission was undertaken. The first involved devising a new method of pointing the high-gain antenna to Earth using the radio signal received at the Deep Space Network as an indicator of spacecraft attitude. The second was the development of new flight software that allowed the spacecraft to return to three-axis operation without substantial ground assistance. The principal new feature of this software is the use of the science camera as an attitude sensor. The differences between the science camera and the star tracker have important implications not only for the design of the new software but also for the methods of operating the spacecraft and conducting the mission. The ambitious rescue was fully successful, and the extended mission is back on track.

  8. Thermodynamic volume and the extended Smarr relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang-A; Yi, Sang-Heon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University,Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-10

    We continue to explore the scaling transformation in the reduced action formalism of gravity models. As an extension of our construction, we consider the extended forms of the Smarr relation for various black holes, adopting the cosmological constant as the bulk pressure as in some literatures on black holes. Firstly, by using the quasi-local formalism for charges, we show that, in a general theory of gravity, the volume in the black hole thermodynamics could be defined as the thermodynamic conjugate variable to the bulk pressure in such a way that the first law can be extended consistently. This, so called, thermodynamic volume can be expressed explicitly in terms of the metric and field variables. Then, by using the scaling transformation allowed in the reduced action formulation, we obtain the extended Smarr relation involving the bulk pressure and the thermodynamic volume. In our approach, we do not resort to Euler’s homogeneous scaling of charges while incorporating the would-be hairy contribution without any difficulty.

  9. Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.

  10. CT arteriography of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, K; Matsuura, K; Baba, H; Numaguchi, Y; Komaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-04-01

    The technique of CT arteriography was introduced, and CT images of the upper abdomen were explained. Very clear enhancement of parenchyma and vessels (especially portal vein) of the object organs could be obtained by CT arteriography of the upper abdomen, anatomical structures of organs were identified more easily by CT arteriography than by conventional CT, and the amount of information obtained was increased by using CT arteriography. However, the indication of CT arteriography must be limited, because of its complexity that CT arteriography is performed after angiography and involves the invasion of patients' bodies. As described in many reports, CT arteriography is useful for malignant tumors of the liver, and it is worthwhile, especially when surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma is considered. CT arteriography for organs except the liver has not been discussed sufficiently. Therefore, an application of this method for other organs must be decided after consideration of the balance of the amount of information obtained by CT arteriography with invasion to patients.

  11. Temperature Profile of the Upper Mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.L.

    1980-01-01

    Following the procedure outlined by Magnitsky [1971], thermal profiles of the upper mantle are computed by deriving the thermal gradient from the seismic data given as dv/sub s//drho used along with the values of (dv/sub s//dT9/sub p/ and (dv/sub s//dP)/sub T/ of selected minerals, measured at high temperature. The resulting values of dT/dZ are integrated from 380 km upward toward the surface, where the integrating constant is taken from Akagi and Akimoto's work, T=1400 0 C at 380 km. The resulting geotherms for minerals are used to derive geotherms for an eclogite mantle and a lherzolite mantle, with and without partial melting in the low-velocity zone. The geotherms are all subadiabatic, and some are virtually isothermal in the upper mantle. Some are characterized by a large thermal hump at the lithosphere boundary

  12. Emulating Upper Limb Disorder for Therapy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ayuni binti Che Zakaria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotics not only contributes to the invention of rehabilitation devices, it can also enhance the quality of medical education. In recent years, the use of patient simulators and part-task trainers in the medical education field has brought meaningful improvements in the training of medical practitioners. Nevertheless, in the context of therapy training for upper limb disorders, trainee therapists still have to engage directly with the patients to gain experience of the rehabilitation of physical diseases. In this work, a high-fidelity part-task trainer that is able to reproduce the stiffness of spasticity and rigidity symptoms of the upper limb, such as those observed in post-stroke patients and Parkinson's disease patients, has been developed. Based on the evaluation carried out by two experienced therapists, the developed part-task trainer is able to simulate different patient cases and help trainee therapists gain pre-clinical experience in a safe and intuitive learning environment.

  13. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banisalamah, A.A.; Mraiat, Z.M.

    2007-01-01

    To define the various causes of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to outline management modalities and to determine the final outcome of patients. A retrospective analysis of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from January 2003 to December 2006 (4 years) was conducted. Patients with endoscopically proven variceal bleeding were excluded. Out of the 120 patients, most of the patients belonged to an age group of more than 50 years (mean 48.5 years). Haematemesis was the most common presentation and Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesion (AGML) was the most frequently encountered lesion. The cause of bleeding was not identified in 10 patients (undetermined group). Twenty-two (18.3%) underwent surgery and we had an overall mortality of 15.8%. AGML being the leading cause can be managed conservatively most of the time. There is a male preponderance and the incidence and mortality increases with advancing age. The undetermined group remains a diagnostic problem. (author)

  14. Stereotactic radiosurgery with an upper partial denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayama, Shusaku; Kunieda, Etsuo; Takeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Oku, Yohei

    2009-01-01

    A 54-year-old male with partial denture underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with an infrared camera-guided system for a metastatic brain tumor arising from lung cancer. Although this method utilizes a biteplate mounted on the upper jaw to detect head movement, the patient only had four teeth in his upper jaw. In order to stabilize the biteplate, the maxillary denture was fixed to the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. In addition, the rest-occlusal position of the lower jaw was impressed on the inferior surface of the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. To assess reproducibility and stability, the distance between the left and right incus and left and right markers was measured during pre-planning, as well as before and after stereotactic irradiation. Wearing the biteplate ensures the accuracy of radiotherapy planning for the implementation of radiosurgery in patients who have many maxillary teeth missing. However, a large degree of error was observed when the biteplate was removed. (author)

  15. Upper functional gastrointestinal disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.

  16. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Stake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses.

  17. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Seth; du Breuil, Anne L; Close, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses.

  18. Understanding Nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei in the upper-$sd$ shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A$\\simeq$ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array...

  19. Upper limb position control in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardal Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems are reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM. However, the mechanisms leading to alterations in motor performance are not well understood. In this study, upper limb position control during sustained isometric contractions was investigated in patients with FM and in healthy controls (HCs. Methods Fifteen female FM patients and 13 HCs were asked to keep a constant upper limb position during sustained elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, respectively. Subjects received real-time visual feedback on limb position and both tasks were performed unloaded and while supporting loads (1, 2, and 3 kg. Accelerations of the dominant upper limb were recorded, with variance (SD of mean position and power spectrum analysis used to characterize limb position control. Normalized power of the acceleration signal was extracted for three frequency bands: 1–3 Hz, 4–7 Hz, and 8–12 Hz. Results Variance increased with load in both tasks (P 0.001 but did not differ significantly between patients and HCs (P > 0.17. Power spectrum analysis showed that the FM patients had a higher proportion of normalized power in the 1–3 Hz band, and a lower proportion of normalized power in the 8–12 Hz band compared to HCs (P 0.05. The results were consistent for all load conditions and for both elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. Conclusion FM patients exhibit an altered neuromuscular strategy for upper limb position control compared to HCs. The predominance of low-frequency limb oscillations among FM patients may indicate a sensory deficit.

  20. Bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of tumors of the upper urothelium is high in our country, apart from their relation to specific regions (BEN and PBEN and their frequent bilateralism. Bilateral forms are present in significant percentage and are followed, in most cases, by renal failure, which speaks in favor of conservative surgery, if possible. Objective: The aim of the study was to present epidemiological, pathoanatomical and clinical characteristics of bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium and evaluate the Results of their treatment. Method: Our retrospective study analyzed 12 patients with bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium who were treated in the period from 1992 to 1996, according to their epidemiological, clinical, pathoanatomical and pathohistological characteristics, type of surgical treatment and relevant success. Results: In the observed period, bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium were found in 8.2% of our patients. In the group of 12 patients, 5 females and 7 males, 11 cases were from the region of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN. Renal failure was recorded in high percentage (66%. Radical surgical treatment - total nephroureterectomy was performed in 9 kidney units, and conservative operation in 15 units. Relapse significantly depended on tumor stage and grade, not on type of surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Five-year survival was 58.33%; major cause of death was associated with further evolution of tumor, recurrence and tumor dissemination, respectively, while renal failure complications were the cause of death in one case. Conclusion: The success of treatment mainly depends on tumor stage and grade and not on type of surgical Method in conservative treatment, but renal failure and its complications are an important risk factor in these patients.

  1. Rare upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage of cetuximab

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Shi-Jie; Gao, Zi-Ming; Wang, Peng-Liang; Gong, Bao-Cheng; Huang, Han-Wei; Luo, Lei; Wang, Xin; Xing, Ya-Nan; Xu, Hui-Mian; Liu, Fu-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, is a targeted therapeutic regimen of colorectal cancers. Several common adverse effects have been found, such as cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. However, according to the articles had been published, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is considered to be rare and its mechanism remains unclear. Patient concerns: In this report, we presented a 42-year-old male patient with advanced recto-sigmoid cancer. Af...

  2. New discoveries in Upper and Middle Magdalena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    In six association contracts and one risk participation contract may give Colombia the possibility of finding new oil reserves. These prospects, located in the Upper and Middle Magdalena Valleys and the Eastern Plains. the completion process, evaluation, confirmation and commercialization should be in the next two years, these new discoveries also reveal interesting geological aspects; some in fractured limestone, similar to the found at Maracaibo lake in Venezuela, where vast oil fields were discovered

  3. [Antithrombotic therapy and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanová, Veronika; Gřiva, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is about 85-108/100,000 inhabitants per year, nonvariceal bleeding accounts for 80-90%. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment are the significant risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the general community of patients in a county hospital. And to compare the role played by antiplatelet and anticoagulation drugs and other risk medication. Retrospective analysis of patients over 18 years of age who underwent endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia (haemoglobinupper gastrointestinal tract during a hospital stay in 2013 (from January to June). We included 111 patients of average age 69±15 years, men 60%. Nonvariceal bleeding accounted for 90% of the cases. None of the patients with variceal bleeding (10% of patients) took antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. There were 100 patients with nonvariceal bleeding of average age 70±15, 61% men. With the symptoms of acute bleeding (hematemesis, melena) presented in 73% of patients. The most frequent cause of bleeding was gastric and duodenal ulcer (54%). 32% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding had antiplatelets, 19% anticoagulants and 10% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or corticosteroids. 30-days mortality of patients with nonvariceal bleeding was 11%, annual mortality was 23%. There was no significant difference in mortality, blood transfusion requirements or surgical intervention between the patients with antithrombotic agents and without them. 25% of patients (8 patients) using acetylsalicylic acid did not fulfil the indication for this treatment. Among the patients examined by endoscopy for symptomatic nonvariceal bleeding and/or anaemia (haemoglobingastrointestinal bleeding. With regard to that, it is alarming, that there still exists a nonnegligible percentage of patients taking acetylsalicylic acid even

  4. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    During the report period significant progress on the quantitative understanding of regional upper airway deposition of airborne particle has been realized. Replicate models of the human upper airways obtained from post-mortem casting of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and upper tracheal regions and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same regions of adults and children have been employed to determine the overall and local deposition characteristics of aerosols in the ultrafine (1--100 μm diameter) and fine (0.8--12 μm diameter) region. Studies have been carried out for both nasal and oral breathing during inspiratory and expiratory flow at constant flow rates representative of rest and states of exercise. The results of these investigations indicate that particles in the size range of ''unattached'' radon progeny (1--3 nm) are deposited in both the nasal and oral passages with high efficiency (60--80%) for both inspiration and expiration, with the nasal deposition being somewhat greater (5--10%) than oral deposition. The effect of flow rate on upper airway deposition for both pathways is not great; data analysis indicates that the deposition for all flow rates from 4--50 liters/minute can be grouped by plotting deposition vs Q- 1/8 , where Q is flow rate, a far weaker dependency than observed for inertial deposition. Diffusional transport is the primary mechanism of deposition, and size dependence can be accounted for by plotting, deposition percent vs D n where D is particle diffusion coefficient and n ranges from 0.5--0.66. 2 refs

  5. Upper shielding body in LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Koichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: Preference is given to the strength and thermal insulation of a roof slab thereby ensuring axial size and improving the operationability upon inserting the control rod in the upper shielding body of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: In an upper shielding body in which a large rotational plug is rotatably mounted to a circular hole formed at an eccentric position of a roof slab, while a small rotational plug is rotatably mounted to a circular hole disposed at an eccentric position of the large rotational plug and the reactor core upper mechanisms are supported on the small rotational plug, heat insulation layers are attached to the inside of the inner circumferential wall of the roof slab and the outer circumferential wall of the large rotational plug. By attaching the heat insulation layers, the heat conduction between the roof slab and the large rotational plug can be suppressed remarkably, by which occurrence of specific heat pass or local generation of large thermal stresses can be avoided even if difference is resulted to the temperature distribution between them. In this way, functions taking advantage of respective features of the roof slab and the small rotational plug can be obtained to achieve the purpose. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Volume rejuvenation of the facial upper third.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Edward D; Glasgold, Robert; Kontis, Theda; Smith, Stephen P; Dolev, Yalon; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Lam, Samuel M; Williams, Edwin F; Pollei, Taylor R

    2015-02-01

    The next three articles in this issue take a unique approach to discussing volumetric restoration. Robert Glasgold has provided an assessment for each facial region and five different renowned authors (TK, SPS, RF, SML, and EFW) have been asked to speak on a particular volumetric product, of which they are considered an expert, as it applies to the different regions of the face. The articles are broken into the following: (1) upper third which corresponds to the upper eyelid, brow, temple, and forehead; (2) middle third which will cover lower eyelid, cheek, and perioral area; and (3) lower third which discusses the marionette, prejowl, and jawline. Our hope is that by placing differing opinions of experienced authors, organized by facial region together, the reader will have the opportunity to more readily compare the options. The contributing authors and their product area are as follows: Theda Kontis, MD-hyaluronic acid; Steve Smith, MD-calcium hydroxyl appetite; Rebecca Fitzgerald, MD-poly-L lactic acid; Sam Lam, MD-polymethyl methacrylate; and Edwin Williams, MD-Autologous Fat Transfer. If the author included general comments on the product, they are included in the article on the upper face only and are not repeated. Please note that other individuals may also have significantly assisted in the production of these articles, but those listed above are the senior authors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. The first step is to evaluated land capability this area. The objectives of the research were evaluate land capability of Upper Sekampung Watersheds. The results showed that the Upper Sekampung Watersheds were dominated with class and subclass land capability of III-l2 about 17.630,51 ha (41,58%. All of the constrain for each land capability in this area is erosion hazard, especially land slope. From this research, cultivated land to coffee base crops were allowed in land capability II-l1.e1, III-l2, IV-l3, and VI-l4, with in adequate soil and water conservation practices. In contrary, the land capability of VII-l5 unsuitable for agriculture, they should be a nature or for conservation forest.

  8. A New Methodology to Establish Upper Bounds on Open-Cell Foams Homogenized Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dimitrovová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology for determining the upper bounds on the homogenized linear elastic properties of cellular solids, described for the two-dimensional case in Dimitrovová and Faria (1999, is extended to three-dimensional open-cell foams. Besides the upper bounds, the methodology provides necessary and sufficient conditions on optimal media. These conditions are written in terms of generalized internal forces and geometrical parameters. In some cases dependence on internal forces can be replaced by geometrical expressions. In such cases, the optimality of some medium under consideration can be verified directly from the microstructure, without any additional calculation. Some of the bounds derived in this paper are published for the first time, along with a proof of their optimality. 

  9. Upper Proterozoic (1800-570 Ma) stratigraphy: a survey of lithostratigraphic, paleontological, radiochronological and magnetic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompette, R.

    1982-01-01

    Classical stratigraphy which was conceived in relation to the Phanerozoic, can be extended into the Precambrian, particularly the upper part. Stromatolite biostratigraphy provides natural subdivisions of the Upper Proterozoic, as indicated by studies on the Riphean of the U.S.S.R. The correlation techniques are identical to those used in the Phanerozoic. Imperfections in the biostratigraphic record, however, have encouraged the development of lithostratigraphic, radiochronological and paleomagnetic techniques. The possibility of dating argillaceous sedimentary rocks largely depends on the care taken in the selection of samples. The samples should have the necessary mineralogy and should not contain inherited 40 Ar or 87 Sr. Good results have been obtained on glauconites rich in K 2 O and particularly on illite and smectite, using the Rb-Sr method. Geochronology is the most precise of the four methods of correlation considered. It also provides a framework on which to hang the results of lithostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. (Auth.)

  10. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  12. Comparison of different extenders and storage temperature on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen was pooled and randomly allocated to four groups and diluted at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), Kobidil+, egg yolk citrate (EYC) and non-extended semen (Control). Each extender had two similar semen samples, making a total of eight samples. Extended and non-extended semen were ...

  13. Extended radio sources in the cluster environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Extended radio galaxies that lie in rich and poor clusters were studied. A sample of 3CR and 4C radio sources that spatially coincide with poor Zwicky clusters of galaxies was observed to obtain accurate positions and flux densities. Then interferometer observations at a resolution of approx. = 10 arcsec were performed on the sample. The resulting maps were used to determine the nature of the extended source structure, to make secure optical identifications, and to eliminate possible background sources. The results suggest that the environments around both classical double and head-tail radio sources are similar in rich and poor clusters. The majority of the poor cluster sources exhibit some signs of morphological distortion (i.e., head-tails) indicative of dynamic interaction with a relatively dense intracluster medium. A large fraction (60 to 100%) of all radio sources appear to be members of clusters of galaxies if one includes both poor and rich cluster sources. Detailed total intensity and polarization observations for a more restricted sample of two classical double sources and nine head-tail galaxies were also performed. The purpose was to examine the spatial distributions of spectral index and polarization. Thin streams of radio emission appear to connect the nuclear radio-point components to the more extended structures in the head-tail galaxies. It is suggested that a non-relativistic plasma beam can explain both the appearance of the thin streams and larger-scale structure as well as the energy needed to generate the observed radio emission. The rich and poor radio cluster samples are combined to investigate the relationship between source morphology and the scale sizes of clustering. There is some indication that a large fraction of radio sources, including those in these samples, are in superclusters of galaxies

  14. Phase diagram of an extended Agassi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, J. E.; Dukelsky, J.; Pérez-Fernández, P.; Arias, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    Background: The Agassi model [D. Agassi, Nucl. Phys. A 116, 49 (1968), 10.1016/0375-9474(68)90482-X] is an extension of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model [H. J. Lipkin, N. Meshkov, and A. J. Glick, Nucl. Phys. 62, 188 (1965), 10.1016/0029-5582(65)90862-X] that incorporates the pairing interaction. It is a schematic model that describes the interplay between particle-hole and pair correlations. It was proposed in the 1960s by D. Agassi as a model to simulate the properties of the quadrupole plus pairing model. Purpose: The aim of this work is to extend a previous study by Davis and Heiss [J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 12, 805 (1986), 10.1088/0305-4616/12/9/006] generalizing the Agassi model and analyze in detail the phase diagram of the model as well as the different regions with coexistence of several phases. Method: We solve the model Hamiltonian through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approximation, introducing two variational parameters that play the role of order parameters. We also compare the HFB calculations with the exact ones. Results: We obtain the phase diagram of the model and classify the order of the different quantum phase transitions appearing in the diagram. The phase diagram presents broad regions where several phases, up to three, coexist. Moreover, there is also a line and a point where four and five phases are degenerated, respectively. Conclusions: The phase diagram of the extended Agassi model presents a rich variety of phases. Phase coexistence is present in extended areas of the parameter space. The model could be an important tool for benchmarking novel many-body approximations.

  15. Extending Landauer's bound from bit erasure to arbitrary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David

    The minimal thermodynamic work required to erase a bit, known as Landauer's bound, has been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally. However, when viewed as a computation that maps inputs to outputs, bit erasure has a very special property: the output does not depend on the input. Existing analyses of thermodynamics of bit erasure implicitly exploit this property, and thus cannot be directly extended to analyze the computation of arbitrary input-output maps. Here we show how to extend these earlier analyses of bit erasure to analyze the thermodynamics of arbitrary computations. Doing this establishes a formal connection between the thermodynamics of computers and much of theoretical computer science. We use this extension to analyze the thermodynamics of the canonical ``general purpose computer'' considered in computer science theory: a universal Turing machine (UTM). We consider a UTM which maps input programs to output strings, where inputs are drawn from an ensemble of random binary sequences, and prove: i) The minimal work needed by a UTM to run some particular input program X and produce output Y is the Kolmogorov complexity of Y minus the log of the ``algorithmic probability'' of Y. This minimal amount of thermodynamic work has a finite upper bound, which is independent of the output Y, depending only on the details of the UTM. ii) The expected work needed by a UTM to compute some given output Y is infinite. As a corollary, the overall expected work to run a UTM is infinite. iii) The expected work needed by an arbitrary Turing machine T (not necessarily universal) to compute some given output Y can either be infinite or finite, depending on Y and the details of T. To derive these results we must combine ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics with fundamental results from computer science, such as Levin's coding theorem and other theorems about universal computation. I would like to ackowledge the Santa Fe Institute, Grant No

  16. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K.

    1998-01-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L'Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  17. Extended Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The partition function of an N=2 gauge theory in the Omega-background satisfies, for generic value of the parameter beta=-eps_1/eps_2, the, in general extended, but otherwise beta-independent, holomorphic anomaly equation of special geometry. Modularity together with the (beta-dependent) gap structure at the various singular loci in the moduli space completely fixes the holomorphic ambiguity, also when the extension is non-trivial. In some cases, the theory at the orbifold radius, corresponding to beta=2, can be identified with an "orientifold" of the theory at beta=1. The various connections give hints for embedding the structure into the topological string.

  18. Extended Carbon Cognition as a Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2011-01-01

    . Grounded in ethnographic fieldwork at a leading multinational in the financial services sector over a period of more than 12 months, I focus on everyday work practices as taking place in a capitalist context. It is through practical work that the presences of carbon emissions are imagined and brought....... As a result of this analysis carbon accounting emerges as enabled through an extended system of cognition. The paper concludes by tentatively suggesting a view on this machinery as co-constituting a wider -- to borrow Guattari's term -- Universe: A Universe of references to carbon. Following these relations...

  19. Extended micro objects as dark matter particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotsky, K.; Rubin, S.; Svadkovsky, I.

    2017-05-01

    Models of various forms of composite dark matter (DM) predicted by particle theory and the DM constituents formed by gravity that are not reduced to new elementary particle candidates are discussed. Main attention is paid to a gravitational origin of the DM. The influence of extended mass spectrum of primordial black holes on observational limits is considered. It is shown that non-uniformly deformed extra space can be considered as point-like masses which possess only gravitational interaction with each other and with the ordinary particles. The recently discussed six-dimensional stable wormholes could contribute to the DM. The contribution of dark atoms is also considered.

  20. libgapmis: extending short-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Berger, Simon; Flouri, Tomáš; Pissis, Solon P; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We

  1. Extended tree-level gauge mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, M.; Nardecchia, M.; Romanino, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tree-level gauge mediation (TGM) is a scenario of SUSY breaking in which the tree-level exchange of heavy (possibly GUT) vector fields generates flavor-universal sfermion masses. In this work we extend this framework to the case of E(6) that is the natural extension of the minimal case studied so...... if the gauge group does not contain SU(5). If SUSY breaking is mediated purely by the U(1) generator that commutes with SO(10) we obtain universal sfermion masses and thus can derive the CMSSM boundary conditions in a novel scenario....

  2. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-01-01

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics

  3. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from an inflationary to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation, bubble collisions supply a potent---and potentially detectable---source of gravitational waves. The energy density in relic gravitons from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10 -5 of closure density. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T RH: λ∼(10 4 cm)[(10 14 GeV)/T RH ]. If black holes are produced by bubble collisions, they will evaporate producing shorter-wavelength gravitons

  4. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...... generation of GSD technologies, we are exploring the role of social structures to support collaboration. This paper reports some details of our research design and initial findings about the mechanisms to support social structures and their impact on collaboration in an ETM....

  5. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L`Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  6. Asymptotic freedom in extended conformal supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    We present the calculation of the one-loop β-function in extended conformal supergravities. N = 1, 2, 3 theories (free or coupled to the Einstein supergravities) are found to the asymptotically free (like the N = 0 Weyl theory) while the N = 4 theory becomes finite under some plausible hypothesis. The results support the possibility to solve the problem of ghosts in these theories. The obtained sequence of SU(N) β-functions appears to be in remarkable correspondence with that for gauged O(N) supergravity theories. (orig.)

  7. Quark mobility in extended nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivers, D.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of an energetic quark through extended nuclear matter is analyzed in terms of a simple model in which localization of color is imposed through chromoelectric flux tubes. A mobile quark in the nuclear medium creates a disturbance which affects neighboring nucleons. The model suggests that the spatial properties of the disturbance involve a competition among different dynamical mechanisms. Experimental measurements involving the target fragmentation region in deep-inelastic leptoproduction on large nuclei may help specify some of the important features of nuclear dynamics. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  8. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Extended Gauge Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Appelquist, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We construct asymptotically free gauge theories exhibiting dynamical breaking of the left-right, strong-electroweak gauge group $G_{LR} = {\\rm SU}(3)_c \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R \\times {\\rm U}(1)_{B-L}$, and its extension to the Pati-Salam gauge group $G_{422}={\\rm SU}(4)_{PS} \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R$. The models incorporate technicolor for electroweak breaking, and extended technicolor for the breaking of $G_{LR}$ and $G_{422}$ and the generation of fermion ...

  9. Equilibrium double layers in extended Pierce diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu-Jassy, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    The extended Pierce diode is similar to the standard (or classical) Pierce diode, but has passive circuit elements in place of the short circuit between the electrodes. This device is important as an approximation to real bounded plasma systems. It consists of two parallel plane electrodes (an emitter located at x=0 and a collector located at x=l) and a collisionless cold electron beam travelling between them. The electrons are neutralized by a background of comoving massive ions. This situation is analysed in this paper and new equilibrium double layer (DL) plasma structures are obtained. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  10. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  11. The extended arm of health professionals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    responsibility for both the patient's well-being and for the patient's compliance with the daily regimen. Relatives were caught in a conflicting double role. They were the extended arm of the health professionals but also the caring, supporting partner. A tension arose between relatives' desire to help....... Due to the early discharge and the increasing demands on patients for self-care, patients' relatives seem to play a pivotal role in fast-track programmes. However, research is limited into how patients' close relatives are affected by and involved in the postoperative recovery process. Design...

  12. Extended inflation with nonminimally coupled inflation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchapakesan, N.; Sethi, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, an extended inflation model, in which the inflation field is nonminimally coupled to the gravity, is discussed. It is shown that the nucleation rate of bubbles, during a phase transition in the inflaton field, can increase as the transition proceeds for a wide range of parameters of the inflaton potential. The bounce action for three possible cases - the strong gravity regime, the thick-walled Coleman-DeLuccia bubbles and the thin-walled bubbles - is evaluated. The resulting bubble distribution for all the cases is shown to be in conformity with cosmological constraints for ω < 500

  13. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand. ... method of preparation, route of administration and properties of plants. ... Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  14. Arterial variations of upper limb: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollala V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of upper limb arteries are common and there are many reports about this subject. We report multiple variations in arterial pattern of upper extremity, which were encountered in a single cadaver.

  15. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  16. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition

  17. Extended parental care in communal social groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Forbes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.

  18. Laguna Verde after the extended power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera C, M. N.; Castaneda G, M. A.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Garcia de la C, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    The project of extended power increase that was implemented in both units of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde beginning with the stage feasibility evaluation in nuclear side of the facilities, that is to say the affectation of the power increase in the equipment s, systems and components of the nuclear power plant; besides the feasibility evaluation a study cost-benefit for the rehabilitated and modernization of the equipment s, systems and components of Plant Balance was realized. Once considered technical and economically feasible the project began the engineering evaluations required to carry out the licensing of the new operation conditions, as well as beginning to the elaboration of the technical specifications purchase of the equipment s, systems and components of the Plant Balance. While on one hand was carried out the administration of the licensing of the extended power increase for other was carried out the necessary engineering to make the physical changes in the conventional side of the nuclear power plant. Once concluded the constructive stage beginning the final stage of the project, the starting-up tests, operation and performance of the Units under the new operation conditions. This work describes this last stage that contains the technical base, the realized tests and the obtained results. (Author)

  19. Hamiltonian Anomalies from Extended Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    We develop a proposal by Freed to see anomalous field theories as relative field theories, namely field theories taking value in a field theory in one dimension higher, the anomaly field theory. We show that when the anomaly field theory is extended down to codimension 2, familiar facts about Hamiltonian anomalies can be naturally recovered, such as the fact that the anomalous symmetry group admits only a projective representation on the Hilbert space, or that the latter is really an abelian bundle gerbe over the moduli space. We include in the discussion the case of non-invertible anomaly field theories, which is relevant to six-dimensional (2, 0) superconformal theories. In this case, we show that the Hamiltonian anomaly is characterized by a degree 2 non-abelian group cohomology class, associated to the non-abelian gerbe playing the role of the state space of the anomalous theory. We construct Dai-Freed theories, governing the anomalies of chiral fermionic theories, and Wess-Zumino theories, governing the anomalies of Wess-Zumino terms and self-dual field theories, as extended field theories down to codimension 2.

  20. Manipulating affective state using extended picture presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S K; Davidson, R J; Donzella, B; Irwin, W; Dottl, D A

    1997-03-01

    Separate, extended series of positive, negative, and neutral pictures were presented to 24 (12 men, 12 women) undergraduates. Each series was presented on a different day, with full counterbalancing of presentation orders. Affective state was measured using (a) orbicularis oculi activity in response to acoustic startle probes during picture presentation, (b) corrugator supercilii activity between and during picture presentation, and (c) changes in self-reports of positive and negative affect. Participants exhibited larger eyeblink reflex magnitudes when viewing negative than when viewing positive pictures. Corrugator activity was also greater during the negative than during the positive picture set, during both picture presentation and the period between pictures. Self-reports of negative affect increased in response to the negative picture set, and self-reports of positive affect were greatest following the positive picture set. These findings suggest that extended picture presentation is an effective method of manipulating affective state and further highlight the utility of startle probe and facial electromyographic measures in providing on-line readouts of affective state.

  1. Application of extended gamma sources to radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A.E.; Ivanov, V.S.; Majorov, A.N.; Firstov, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility to use extended sources for gamma radiographic control of small diameter pipe-sockets welded joints has been studied. Special gamma radiation sources basing on Tm 170 have been developed. To prevent influence of the nonuniform radioactivity distribution in the sources on control results, the steel welded pipe-sockets of different diameter and thickness have been X-rayed under stable rotation velocity of sources. Data are presented on dependence of the radiographic control sensitivity on pipe-socket diameter, wall thickness, as well as on focus distances. The Tm 170 sources have been shown to be better used for thin-wall articles control with focus distances up to 5 mm, when the sensitivity is maximum. It has been found that the maximum geometric unsharpness of 1-6 mm appears in articles with 3-10 mm thickness and relative defect size of 1-5%. Extended sources make it possible to carry out the control in unaccessable places and with small focus distances with high capacity

  2. Extended release formulations for local anaesthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, C F; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Ickowicz, D

    2012-08-01

    Systemic toxicity through overdose of local anaesthetic agents is a real concern. By encapsulating local anaesthetics in biodegradable carriers to produce a system for prolonged release, their duration of action can be extended. This encapsulation should also improve the safety profile of the local anaesthetic as it is released at a slower rate. Work with naturally occurring local anaestheticss has also shown promise in the area of reducing systemic and neurotoxicity. Extended duration local anaesthetic formulations in current development or clinical use include liposomes, hydrophobic based polymer particles such as Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, pasty injectable and solid polymers like Poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid) P(SA:RA) and their combination with synthetic and natural local anaesthetic. Their duration of action, rationale and limitations are reviewed. Direct comparison of the different agents is limited by their chemical properties, the drug doses encapsulated and the details of in vivo models described. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Extended Lagrangian Excited State Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorgaard, J A; Sheppard, D; Tretiak, S; Niklasson, A M N

    2018-02-13

    An extended Lagrangian framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended Lagrangian formulations for ground state Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both for the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. The XL-ESMD approach is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  4. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New insights on an old medical emergency: non-portal hypertension related upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Cúrdia-Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is a potentially life-threatening condition and the most common medical emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Despite being one of the most antique medical problems, recent studies have been slowly changing the management of these patients, which should nowadays include not only initial resuscitation, but also risk stratification, pre-endoscopic therapy, endoscopy treatment, and post-procedure care. The aim of this paper is to review the extended approach to the patient with non-portal hypertension related UGIB.

  6. Upper-mantle P- and S- wave velocities across the Northern Tornquist Zone from traveltime tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents P- and S-wave velocity variations for the upper mantle in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany based on teleseismic traveltime tomography. Tectonically, this region includes the entire northern part of the prominent Tornquist Zone which follows along the transition from old...... delineated between shield areas (with high seismic mantle velocity) and basins (with lower velocity). It continues northwards into southern Norway near the Oslo Graben area and further north across the Southern Scandes Mountains. This main boundary, extending to a depth of at least 300 km, is even more...

  7. A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-Table Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.

  8. Orthodontic intervention of an impacted upper left central incisor due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fixed orthodontic appliance was used to facilitate traction and correction of malalignement of the impacted upper left central incisor.Treatment outcome: Successful removal of the odontoma, full exposure of the crown of upper left central incisor and good alignment on the arch were achieved. Crowding on the upper and ...

  9. Occupational upper airway disease: how work affects the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Steelant, B.; Fokkens, W.; Nemery, B.; Hellings, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the upper airways is common and can arbitrarily be divided into rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Infection and allergy represent two well-characterized and most frequently diagnosed etiologies of upper airway inflammation. Persistent upper airway inflammation caused by agents

  10. The African upper mantle and its relationship to tectonics and surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan; Debayle, Eric; Pilidou, Sylvana

    2008-12-01

    This paper focuses on the upper-mantle velocity structure of the African continent and its relationship to the surface geology. The distribution of seismographs and earthquakes providing seismograms for this study results in good fundamental and higher mode path coverage by a large number of relatively short propagation paths, allowing us to image the SV-wave speed structure, with a horizontal resolution of several hundred kilometres and a vertical resolution of ~50 km, to a depth of about 400 km. The difference in mantle structure between the Archean and Pan-African terranes is apparent in our African upper-mantle shear wave model. High-velocity (4-7 per cent) roots exist beneath the cratons. Below the West African, Congo and Tanzanian Cratons, these extend to 225-250 km depth, but beneath the Kalahari Craton, the high wave speed root extends to only ~170 km. With the exception of the Damara Belt that separates the Congo and Kalahari Cratons, any high-speed upper-mantle lid below the Pan-African terranes is too thin to be resolved by our long-period surface wave technique. The Damara Belt is underlain by higher wave speeds, similar to those observed beneath the Kalahari Craton. Extremely low SV-wave speeds occur to the bottom of our model beneath the Afar region. The temperature of the African upper mantle is determined from the SV-wave speed model. Large temperature variations occur at 125 km depth with low temperatures beneath west Africa and all of southern Africa and warm mantle beneath the Pan-African terrane of northern Africa. At 175 km depth, cool upper mantle occurs below the West African, Congo, Tanzanian and Kalahari Cratons and anomalously warm mantle occurs below a zone in northcentral Africa and beneath the region surrounding the Red Sea. All of the African volcanic centres are located above regions of warm upper mantle. The temperature profiles were fit to a geotherm to determine the thickness of the African lithosphere. Thick lithosphere exists

  11. The solar-terrestrial environment. An introduction to geospace - the science of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, J. K.

    This textbook is a successor to "The upper atmosphere and solar-terrestrial relations" first published in 1979. It describes physical conditions in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. This geospace environment begins 70 kilometres above the surface of the Earth and extends in near space to many times the Earth's radius. It is the region of near-Earth environment where the Space Shuttle flies, the aurora is generated, and the outer atmosphere meets particles streaming out of the sun. The account is introductory. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason the mathematical treatment is not complex. There are three introductory chapters that give basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications.

  12. Stratospheric warming influence on the mesosphere/lower thermosphere as seen by the extended CMAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Shepherd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region to major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW is examined employing temperature, winds, NOX and CO constituents from the extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM with continuous incremental nudging below 10 hPa (~ 30 km. The model results considered cover high latitudes (60–85° N from 10 to 150 km height for the December–March period of 2003/2004, 2005/2006 and 2008/2009, when some of the strongest SSWs in recent years were observed. NOX and CO are used as proxies for examining transport. Comparisons with ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment–Fourier Transform Spectrometer satellite observations show that the model represents well the dynamics of the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region, the coupling of the stratosphere–mesosphere, and the NOX and CO transport. New information is obtained on the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere up to 150 km showing that the NOX volume mixing ratio in the 2003/2004 winter was very perturbed indicating transport from the lower atmosphere and intense mixing with large NOX influx from the thermosphere compared to 2006 and 2009. These results, together with those from other models and observations, clearly show the impact of stratospheric warmings on the thermosphere.

  13. UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT USING HAPTIC INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bardorfer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks – to assess the accuracy of movement – tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces – to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test – to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks–to assess the accuracy of movement-tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces-to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test-to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A comprehensive study, using the developed measurement setup within the

  14. Upper respiratory tract infections in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clifton L; Diehl, Jason J

    2007-07-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) represent the most common acute illnesses in the general population and account for the leading acute diagnoses in the outpatient setting. Given the athlete's expectation to return to activity as soon as possible, the sports medicine physician should be able to accurately diagnose and aggressively treat these illnesses. This article discusses the common pathogens, diagnosis, treatment options, and return-to-play decisions for URTIs, with a focus on the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and infectious mononucleosis in the athlete.

  15. Upper extremity weightlifting injuries: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshani, Kayvon; Cinque, Mark E; O'Halloran, Peter; Softness, Kenneth; Keeling, Laura; Macdonell, J Ryan

    2018-03-01

    Common upper extremity injuries in resistance training athletes include muscle strains, ligament sprains, pectoralis major tendon ruptures, distal biceps tendon ruptures, and chronic shoulder pain and capsulolabral injuries. While each injury is unique in its specific anatomic location and mechanism, each is preventable with proper exercise technique, safety and maintenance of muscle balance. Conservative treatment is the therapeutic modality of choice and these injuries generally resolve with workout modification, appropriate recovery, anti-inflammatory medication, and physical therapy. If conservative treatment fails, surgical intervention is often successful and can return the weightlifter to a level of performance near their pre-injury level.

  16. Material management performance indicators for upper management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Loughlin, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a case for the use of performance indicators by upper management to monitor the effectiveness of material management operations at nuclear power plants. The paper establishes that the use of performance indicators is not a pro forma matter. There are specific standards and conditions to which the material management operation must conform for the performance measures to be meaningful. The paper concludes with discussion of the application and use of specific performance indicators. Proper use of selected performance indicators can remove the mystery and uncertainty for management about an aspect of nuclear plant operations that has significant budget implications

  17. Exploring Responsible Tourism in Upper Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Loda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “responsible tourism”, which has spread rapidly in recent years, evokes conscious tourist behavior so as to minimize negative impacts on destinations, from an environmental, economic and cultural point of view. While intuitively comprehensible, the concept is not easy to operationalize in empirical studies. Facing this difficulty, our contribution illustrates an attempt to operatively define the concept within the framework of the development of a sustainable destination plan for the Ancient Cities of Upper Myanmar (ACUM. The paper describes the index adopted to survey and measure responsible attitudes among tourists and the main results of the research.

  18. [Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudong Mbethe, G L; Mounguengui, D; Ondounda, M; Magne, C; Bignoumbra, R; Ntsoumou, S; Moussavou Kombila, J-B; Nzenze, J R

    2014-01-01

    The department of internal medicine of the military hospital of Gabon managed 92 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from April 2009 to November 2011. The frequency of these hemorrhages in the department was 8.2%; they occurred most often in adults aged 30-40 years and 50-60 years, and mainly men (74%). Erosive-ulcerative lesions (65.2%) were the leading causes of hemorrhage, followed by esophageal varices (15.2%). These results underline the importance of preventive measures for the control of this bleeding.

  19. Extended MRI findings of intersection syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Roger P.; Hatem, Stephen F.; Recht, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    The symptoms and physical findings of intersection syndrome have been well described in the clinical medical literature. However, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with intersection syndrome of the forearm have only recently been described in a small number of patients. We review our experience with imaging of intersection syndrome, describe previously unreported MRI findings, and emphasize modifications to MRI protocols for its evaluation. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective review of patients with MRI findings consistent with intersection syndrome of the forearm during the period from January 2004 to September 2006. Six patients were identified, three males and three females, with an average age of 39.3 years. The MRI examinations were reviewed to assess signal abnormalities within and adjacent to the first and second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC): tendinosis, peritendinous edema or fluid, muscle edema, subcutaneous edema, and juxtacortical edema. The overall longitudinal extent of signal alterations was measured as well as the distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC. Review of the MRIs showed increased intrasubstance tendon signal suggesting tendinosis in two of the six patients, peritendinous edema or fluid in all six patients, muscle edema in five of the six patients, and subcutaneous edema in three of the six patients. Juxtacortical edema was seen in one patient. Peritendinous edema or fluid extended distally beyond the radiocarpal joint in three of the six patients. The average distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC was 3.95 cm, in keeping with recently published data. Intersection syndrome is an uncommon MRI diagnosis. In addition to the previously described MRI findings of edema adjacent to the first or second DETC, possibly with proximal extension and subcutaneous edema, we have identified additional

  20. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Upper Waste Areas Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Lee, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of seven groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Upper Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2. Upper WAG 2 is composed of portions of White Oak Creek (WOC), Melton Branch, two of Melton Branch's tributaries, and the floodplains surrounding these water bodies. The WOC section of the subject site begins at the confluence of WOC and Melton Branch and extends 0.62 mile upstream to the 7,500 bridge. The Melton Branch portion of the site also begins at the confluence of WOC and Melton Branch and extends eastward 0.88 mile upstream. The wells at Upper WAG 2 were drilled and developed between December 1989 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at Upper WAG-2. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents