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Sample records for upper jaw protrusion

  1. Independently evolved upper jaw protrusion mechanisms show convergent hydrodynamic function in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Katie Lynn; Holzman, Roi; Hernandez, L Patricia; Wainwright, Peter C

    2012-05-01

    A protrusible upper jaw has independently evolved multiple times within teleosts and has been implicated in the success of two groups in particular: Acanthomorpha and Cypriniformes. We use digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to compare suction feeding flow dynamics in a representative of each of these clades: goldfish and bluegill. Using DPIV, we contrast the spatial pattern of flow, the temporal relationship between flow and head kinematics, and the contribution of jaw protrusion to the forces exerted on prey. As expected, the spatial patterns of flow were similar in the two species. However, goldfish were slower to reach maximal kinematic excursions, and were more flexible in the relative timing of jaw protrusion, other jaw movements and suction flows. Goldfish were also able to sustain flow speeds for a prolonged period of time as compared with bluegill, in part because goldfish generate lower peak flow speeds. In both species, jaw protrusion increased the force exerted on the prey. However, slower jaw protrusion in goldfish resulted in less augmentation of suction forces. This difference in force exerted on prey corresponds with differences in trophic niches and feeding behavior of the two species. The bluegill uses powerful suction to capture insect larvae whereas the goldfish uses winnowing to sort through detritus and sediment. The kinethmoid of goldfish may permit jaw protrusion that is independent of lower jaw movement, which could explain the ability of goldfish to decouple suction flows (due to buccal expansion) from upper jaw protrusion. Nevertheless, our results show that jaw protrusion allows both species to augment the force exerted on prey, suggesting that this is a fundamental benefit of jaw protrusion to suction feeders.

  2. The evolution of jaw protrusion mechanics is tightly coupled to bentho-pelagic divergence in damselfishes (Pomacentridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W James; Carter, Casey B; Conith, Andrew J; Rice, Aaron N; Westneat, Mark W

    2017-02-15

    Most species-rich lineages of aquatic organisms have undergone divergence between forms that feed from the substrate (benthic feeding) and forms that feed from the water column (pelagic feeding). Changes in trophic niche are frequently accompanied by changes in skull mechanics, and multiple fish lineages have evolved highly specialized biomechanical configurations that allow them to protrude their upper jaws toward the prey during feeding. Damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) are an example of a species-rich lineage with multiple trophic morphologies and feeding ecologies. We sought to determine whether bentho-pelagic divergence in the damselfishes is tightly coupled to changes in jaw protrusion ability. Using high-speed video recordings and kinematic analysis, we examined feeding performance in 10 species that include three examples of convergence on herbivory, three examples of convergence on omnivory and two examples of convergence on planktivory. We also utilized morphometrics to characterize the feeding morphology of an additional 40 species that represent all 29 damselfish genera. Comparative phylogenetic analyses were then used to examine the evolution of trophic morphology and biomechanical performance. We find that pelagic-feeding damselfishes (planktivores) are strongly differentiated from extensively benthic-feeding species (omnivores and herbivores) by their jaw protrusion ability, upper jaw morphology and the functional integration of upper jaw protrusion with lower jaw abduction. Most aspects of cranial form and function that separate these two ecological groups have evolved in correlation with each other and the evolution of the functional morphology of feeding in damselfishes has involved repeated convergence in form, function and ecology. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Local anaesthesia in the upper jaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, J.A.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The sensory innervation of the upper jaw arises from the second trunk of the trigeminal nerve, the maxillary nerve. This main branch of the trigeminal nerve leaves the neurocranium via the foramen rotundum, reaches the pterygopalatine fossa and runs straight through the infraorbital nerve, branching

  4. Jaw Dislocation as an Unusual Complication of Upper Endoscopy

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    Evan S. Dellon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents an unusual complication of upper endoscopy, resulting in jaw dislocation. Temporomandibular joint dislocation is commonly reported in association with anesthesia and intubation, but it is not widely recognized as a complication of gastrointestinal endoscopy. This report also reviews the current literature regarding this complication and discusses the potential causes of dislocation, differential diagnoses for jaw pain following endoscopy, and recommendations for prevention.

  5. REHABILITATION OF SEVERELY ATROPHIED UPPER JAW WITH INTRAOSSAL DENTAL IMPLANTS - clinical case

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Chenchev; Radka Cholakova; Cvetan Cvetanov; Ir. Mitarcheva

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to show the difficulty in prosthetization of a clinical case with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw and the various types and nature of restrictions imposed by the requirements of the patient. Methods: The clinical analysis, surgical protocol and prosthetic solution are presented in the treatment of 72 year-old woman with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw. OPG, standard CT of the upper jaw was used in the planning and a special surgical t...

  6. Morphology and evolution of the jaw suspension in lamniform sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, C D

    2005-07-01

    The morphology of the jaw suspension and jaw protrusion mechanism in lamniform sharks is described and mapped onto a cladogram to investigate how changes in jaw suspension and protrusion have evolved. This has revealed that several evolutionary modifications in the musculoskeletal apparatus of the jaws have taken place among lamniform sharks. Galeomorph sharks (Carcharhiniformes, Lamniformes, Orectolobiformes, and Heterodontiformes) have paired ethmopalatine ligaments connecting the ethmoid process of the upper jaw to the ethmoid region of the cranium. Basal lamniform sharks also acquired a novel single palatonasal ligament connecting the symphysis of the upper jaw to the cranium mid-ventral to the nasal capsule. Sharks in the family Lamnidae subsequently lost the original paired ethmopalatine ligament while retaining the novel palatonasal ligament. Thus, basal lamniform taxa (Mitsukurina owstoni, Carcharius taurus, Alopias vulpinnis) have increased ligamentous support of the lateral region of the upper jaw while derived species (Lamnidae) have lost this lateral support but gained anterior support. In previous studies the morphology of the jaw suspension has been shown to play a major role in the mechanism of upper jaw protrusion in elasmobranchs. The preorbitalis is the primary muscle effecting upper jaw protrusion in squalean (sister group to galeomorphs) and carcharhiniform (sister group to lamniforms) sharks. The preorbitalis originates from the quadratomandibularis muscle and inserts onto the nasal capsule in squalean and carcharhiniform sharks. Carcharhiniform sharks have evolved a subdivided preorbitalis muscle with the new division inserting near the ethmoid process of the palatoquadrate (upper jaw). Alopid sharks have also independently evolved a partially subdivided preorbitalis with the new division inserting at the base of the ethmoid process and surrounding connective tissue. Lamnid sharks have retained the two preorbitalis divisions but have modified

  7. REHABILITATION OF SEVERELY ATROPHIED UPPER JAW WITH INTRAOSSAL DENTAL IMPLANTS - clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Chenchev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to show the difficulty in prosthetization of a clinical case with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw and the various types and nature of restrictions imposed by the requirements of the patient. Methods: The clinical analysis, surgical protocol and prosthetic solution are presented in the treatment of 72 year-old woman with a pronounced atrophy of the upper jaw. OPG, standard CT of the upper jaw was used in the planning and a special surgical template was fabricated, helping us to find intraoperatively the exact locations of implants. The preliminary analysis of the number, height and diameter of intraossal implants helped us to find the exact prosthetic solution in this clinical case. The preparation of the implant bed was done by conical osteotomy in order to expand and condense the existing bone, which allowed us to use endoossal implants with a possible maximum size in a very limited maxillary volume and the reluctance of the patient to use other methods and surgical techniques. Conical threaded and self-tapping intraossal implants were used, placed according to a classic two-stage methodology with a flap and a long-term functional loading after a period of four months.Results and Conclusion: The applied surgical and prosthetic solution allowed us to achieve a good functional and aesthetic rehabilitation in this case of severe atrophy of the upper jaw, following a number of restrictions imposed on us by the reluctance of the patient to use other surgical solutions. This shows that in the case of severe atrophy of the upper jaw, a good clinical result can be achieved. For this reason, the use of CT,a well-planned surgical template, sufficient preparation ,the maximum use of available bone volume and the choice of a good prosthetic solution is very important.

  8. Complex Sensory Corpuscles in the Upper Jaw of Horsfield’s Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii

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    Marcela Buchtová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensory corpuscles of Testudo horsfieldii in the skin of the upper lip and face were studied with light and electron microscopy. The sensory corpuscles were situated under epidermis; in the corium and also between the upper jaw bone tissues in the rostral part of oral cavity. The skin sensory corpuscles with a ramified inner core were grouped in clusters. Within the corpuscle there were several simple inner cores embedded within a common superficial capsule. The complex corpuscles have a novel structure in comparison to what has been described for sensory nerve endings in turtle. The complex sensory corpuscles probably function as mechanoreceptors important for monitoring the movement of the keratinized ridges and the most rostral part of the upper jaw, the rhamphotheci.

  9. Accuracy of Intraoral Digital Impressions for Whole Upper Jaws, Including Full Dentitions and Palatal Soft Tissues.

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    Ning Gan

    Full Text Available Intraoral digital impressions have been stated to meet the clinical requirements for some teeth-supported restorations, though fewer evidences were proposed for larger scanning range. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision of intraoral digital impressions for whole upper jaws, including the full dentitions and palatal soft tissues, as well as to determine the effect of different palatal vault height or arch width on accuracy of intraoral digital impressions. Thirty-two volunteers were divided into three groups according to the palatal vault height or arch width. Each volunteer received three scans with TRIOS intraoral scanner and one conventional impression of whole upper jaw. Three-dimensional (3D images digitized from conventional gypsum casts by a laboratory scanner were chose as the reference models. All datasets were imported to a specific software program for 3D analysis by "best fit alignment" and "3D compare" process. Color-coded deviation maps showed qualitative visualization of the deviations. For the digital impressions for palatal soft tissues, trueness was (130.54±33.95μm and precision was (55.26±11.21μm. For the digital impressions for upper full dentitions, trueness was (80.01±17.78μm and precision was (59.52±11.29μm. Larger deviations were found between intraoral digital impressions and conventional impressions in the areas of palatal soft tissues than that in the areas of full dentitions (p0.05, but arch width was found to have a significant effect on precision of intraoral digital impressions for full dentitions (p = 0.016. A linear correlation was found between arch width and precision of digital impressions for whole upper jaws (r = 0.326, p = 0.034 for palatal soft tissues and r = 0.485, p = 0.002 for full dentitions. It was feasible to use the intraoral scanner to obtain digital impressions for whole upper jaws. Wider dental arch contributed to lower precision of an intraoral

  10. Accuracy of Intraoral Digital Impressions for Whole Upper Jaws, Including Full Dentitions and Palatal Soft Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ning; Xiong, Yaoyang; Jiao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Intraoral digital impressions have been stated to meet the clinical requirements for some teeth-supported restorations, though fewer evidences were proposed for larger scanning range. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of intraoral digital impressions for whole upper jaws, including the full dentitions and palatal soft tissues, as well as to determine the effect of different palatal vault height or arch width on accuracy of intraoral digital impressions. Thirty-two volunteers were divided into three groups according to the palatal vault height or arch width. Each volunteer received three scans with TRIOS intraoral scanner and one conventional impression of whole upper jaw. Three-dimensional (3D) images digitized from conventional gypsum casts by a laboratory scanner were chose as the reference models. All datasets were imported to a specific software program for 3D analysis by "best fit alignment" and "3D compare" process. Color-coded deviation maps showed qualitative visualization of the deviations. For the digital impressions for palatal soft tissues, trueness was (130.54±33.95)μm and precision was (55.26±11.21)μm. For the digital impressions for upper full dentitions, trueness was (80.01±17.78)μm and precision was (59.52±11.29)μm. Larger deviations were found between intraoral digital impressions and conventional impressions in the areas of palatal soft tissues than that in the areas of full dentitions (pimpressions for palatal soft tissues was slightly better than that for full dentitions (p = 0.049). There was no significant effect of palatal vault height on accuracy of digital impressions for palatal soft tissues (p>0.05), but arch width was found to have a significant effect on precision of intraoral digital impressions for full dentitions (p = 0.016). A linear correlation was found between arch width and precision of digital impressions for whole upper jaws (r = 0.326, p = 0.034 for palatal soft tissues and r

  11. Accuracy of Intraoral Digital Impressions for Whole Upper Jaws, Including Full Dentitions and Palatal Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ning; Xiong, Yaoyang; Jiao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Intraoral digital impressions have been stated to meet the clinical requirements for some teeth-supported restorations, though fewer evidences were proposed for larger scanning range. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of intraoral digital impressions for whole upper jaws, including the full dentitions and palatal soft tissues, as well as to determine the effect of different palatal vault height or arch width on accuracy of intraoral digital impressions. Thirty-two volunteers were divided into three groups according to the palatal vault height or arch width. Each volunteer received three scans with TRIOS intraoral scanner and one conventional impression of whole upper jaw. Three-dimensional (3D) images digitized from conventional gypsum casts by a laboratory scanner were chose as the reference models. All datasets were imported to a specific software program for 3D analysis by "best fit alignment" and "3D compare" process. Color-coded deviation maps showed qualitative visualization of the deviations. For the digital impressions for palatal soft tissues, trueness was (130.54±33.95)μm and precision was (55.26±11.21)μm. For the digital impressions for upper full dentitions, trueness was (80.01±17.78)μm and precision was (59.52±11.29)μm. Larger deviations were found between intraoral digital impressions and conventional impressions in the areas of palatal soft tissues than that in the areas of full dentitions (pimpressions for palatal soft tissues was slightly better than that for full dentitions (p = 0.049). There was no significant effect of palatal vault height on accuracy of digital impressions for palatal soft tissues (p>0.05), but arch width was found to have a significant effect on precision of intraoral digital impressions for full dentitions (p = 0.016). A linear correlation was found between arch width and precision of digital impressions for whole upper jaws (r = 0.326, p = 0.034 for palatal soft tissues and r

  12. Extensive jaw mobility in suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae): a morphological and kinematic analysis of substrate scraping mode of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Dominique; Geerinckx, Tom; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Loricariidae, or suckermouth armored catfishes, possess upper and lower jaws that are ventrally oriented and that bear teeth that touch the substrate from which algae and other food items are scraped. The ventral orientation and the highly specialized morphology of the jaws, characterized by protrusible upper jaws and left-right decoupled lower jaws, are observed in Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the species investigated here. Kinematic data of the scraping feeding movements, obtained by external high-speed and x-ray recordings, are used to quantify jaw movement, especially to test for upper jaw mobility and versatility during substrate scraping. Our results show that the mobility of the jaws is indeed high compared with what is standard for catfishes. The upper jaw's ability to perform a substantial degree of rostrocaudal movement is quite unique for catfishes. The ventromedially oriented lower jaws, with the teeth and the coronoid process at opposite sides, display an extensive mobility: they rotate around the suspensorial articulation and around their longitudinal axis, resulting in an extended scraping movement and thereby covering a large surface area. The lower jaws also show a left-right asymmetry in their movements during scraping. Thus, our results suggest that the extreme morphological specializations of the jaws in loricariid catfishes are linked to an increased mobility and functional versatility, allowing these animals to efficiently scrape algae from substrates with irregular surfaces.

  13. Endodontic therapy as a method in sanation of disturbed occlusion polytraumatized upper and lower jaw of a cat

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    Prokić Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant injuries of bone and soft tissues of the upper and lower jaws are classified as multiple trauma symptoms associated with early complications, such as shock, disordered breathing, bleeding, pain, deformity and facial asymmetry, abnormal jaw movement, crepitation, palsy-paralysis of traumatized soft tissue regions and languages. The goal of this work is to present polytraumatised rehabilitation of upper and lower jaws by the system of endodontic treatment of upper canines in cats. Primary approach to stabilization polytraumatised cats is highlighted, also as procedures to be undertaken in animal in shock, injury of the maxilla and mandible, and the order of diagnostic procedures. Mandibular prognation and incorrect occlusion with consequent demage of mandibular gingiva with maxilla kaninus are complications wich were resolved in our case with endodontic treatment of upper canines of the cat. This paper presents a detailed approach to the reduction of dental caninus maxilla and establishing proper bite in the molar region of the maxila and mandible. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45006

  14. Jaw Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower jaw. They press down on the back teeth and push the chin up until the jaw joints return to their normal location. Once the jaw is back in place, doctors sometimes apply a Barton bandage ( ...

  15. First report of a cystic malformation on the upper jaw of hatchery-reared allis shad Alosa alosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünnemann, H; Bergmann, S M; Eskens, U; Scharbert, A; Hundt, M; Lierz, M

    2017-01-01

    The anadromous allis shad Alosa alosa has suffered dramatic population declines throughout Europe and is currently considered as endangered throughout its entire distribution range. In order to reestablish allis shad in the River Rhine, which formerly housed one of the largest and most important populations, an EU-LIFE Project 'The re-introduction of allis shad in the Rhine system' was started in 2007. In course of the LIFE+ Projects, allis shad larvae bred from genitor fish of the Gironde-Garonne-Dordogne population in France were reared in a pilot ex situ stock plant pilot facility in Aßlar, Germany. At an age of 1-2 months, about 100% of these fish developed approximately 0.5- to 0.8-cm large, fluid-filled, transparent cysts in conjunction with the upper jaw. The performed microbiological, virological, parasitological and histological examinations did not detect any infectious agents. Possible causative agents are discussed with regard to environmental factors and the nutrition of larvae. In conclusion, the observed malformations are considered a sign for a severe health problem and therefore a risk for the successful breeding of allis shad in aquaculture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. SU-E-T-125: Application of Jaw-Tracking Function in VMAT for Upper Thoracic Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W; Chen, J; Zhai, T; Yan, L; Chen, C [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the effect of the Jaw-tracking with RapidArc(JT-RapidArc) plans for upper thoracic esophageal cancer. Methods: Treatment planning was designed by using RapidArc and JT-RapidArc techniques for 11 consecutive patients. The dose-volume histogram parameters of PTV and the organs at risk(OAR), conformity index(CI), heterogeneity index(HI), low dose volume of normal tissue(B-P) and monitor units(MUs) were compared between the different techniques. Results: JT-RapidArc plans provided the better coverage of PTV1(64) D98 and HI(P<0.05), lower MLD, D2 of PTV1(64) and PTV2(54), but no statistically difference in CI(P>0.05), which comparison with RapidArc plans. Plans with JT- RapidArc had lower Lung of V5, V10, V13, V20, V30, MLD(P<0.05); heart of V20, MLD(P<0.05); and B-P of V5, V10, V15, V20, V30(P<0.05); but no significantly different in Spinal cord and SC-PRV as compared with RapidArc plans. JT-RapidArc plans increaseed the MUs by 1%(P>0.05) as compared with RapidArc plans. Conclusion: All of the plans had met the requirements of clinical dosimetry. JT-RapidArc plans as compared with RapidArc plans, showing better part of target coverage, part of OARS(lung and heart) and heart and B-P sparing, which MUs was slightly increased. This work was sponsored by Shantou University Medical College Clinical Research Enhancement Initiative(NO.201424)

  17. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ...

  18. Time and order of eruption of first functional teeth in the upper jaw of post-larval life of Sicyopterus japonicus (Gobiidiae: Sicydiinae) during cranial metamorphosis at the time of river recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Keita; Iida, Midori; Watanabe, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the time and order of eruption of first functional teeth in the upper jaw of post-larval life of Sicyopterus japonicus (S. japonicus) during cranial metamorphosis at the time of river recruitment. Fishes were caught at the post-larval stage at a river mouth and maintained for 7 days in a water tank. Each of 10 specimens was evaluated every day for 7 days by using microcomputed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy with peculiar attention to the development of the upper jaw teeth. Fishes caught at the river mouth were mostly transparent, with a rostral terminal mouth, and no teeth could be found in either the upper or lower jaw. At 2 days after collection, the mouth position changed from terminal to subterminal, resulting from a change in head shape. The initial eruption of first functional teeth was detected at the anterior two-thirds region of each upper jaw. These teeth erupted in adjacent positions, most had a tricuspid crown, and they represented miniature versions of adult teeth. At 5 days, the position of the mouth became further relocated from terminal rostral to ventral. The number of erupted teeth increased, followed by spreading of them anteriorly and posteriorly. At 7 days, they formed a single row of close-set tricuspid teeth along the entire length of each upper jaw. The present study demonstrated that even under laboratory conditions a rapid and drastic cranial metamorphosis took place within a week after the time of collection of post-larval S. japonicus from a river. The eruption of first functional teeth in the upper jaw of S. japonicus, which teeth are adapted to scraping algae off the substrate, was initially detected at 2 days after collection, and first functional dentition of the upper jaw was set up within 7 days after it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  20. Transanal protrusion of intussusceptions in children

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    Ezomike Uchechukwu Obiora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the following study is to report our management experience and outcome of transanal protrusion of intussusceptions. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all cases of intussusceptions protruding through the anal opening from January 2008 to June 2013. Results: Of 62 cases of intussusceptions, transanal protrusion occurred in 10 patients (16% anal protrusion rate with a male:female ratio of 2:3. They were aged 4-96 months (mean 22.6 ± 30.7, median 7.5 months. Six were infants while four were above 1 year. Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 14 days (mean 5.9 days ± 3.4 with only two patients presenting within 48 h. Clinical features included vomiting (100%, abdominal pains (100%, bloody mucoid stool (100%, abdominal distension (90%, and palpable left iliac fossa mass (70%. Three patients had preceding diarrhoea (30% and two had preceding upper respiratory tract infection (20%. Duration of hospital stay ranged from 5 to 23 days (mean 12 days ± 5.6. Findings at surgery included seven ileocolic and two colocolic intussusceptions (one patient died before surgery. Operative procedures were right hemicolectomy (5, operative manual reduction (3, left hemicolectomy (1 giving a 67% bowel resection rate. One patient died giving a 10% mortality rate. Conclusion: Transanal protrusion occurred more in females and is associated with late presentation, older age, high bowel resection rate, and high mortality.

  1. Keratocysts in the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipovec, A.; Ihan Hren, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Jaw cysts are a common pathology; among them, the odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) represent a special group because of their aggressive growth and recurrence. Patients and methods. We established retrospectively the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of OKC among all the pathohistologically confirmed jaw cysts that had been surgically cured in the past ten years (from 1994 to 2003) at the Clinical Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, University Medical Centre in Ljubljana. Results. Among 992 surgically removed jaw cysts, 106 were OKC (10.6% of all). Pathohistological diagnosis of OKC was confirmed in 90 patients, in 51 men (56.7%) and 39 women (43.4%). Mean age of patients with OKC at the time of treatment was 36 years. The youngest one was 7 years old, the oldest one 83 years. Seventy-four (69.8%) of OKC were removed from the lower jaws, 32 (30.2%) from the upper jaws. As to the location, OKC (49 cases - 46.2%) predominated in the angles and vertical branches of the lower jaw. Recurrence rate after the first removal of OKC was 22.2% (in 20 patients). First recurrence occurs most frequently (in 70%) within the first 5 years after primary treatment; the mean time till the first recurrence was 4 years and 7 months. Multiple recurrences of OKC were observed in 9 patients (10% of all patients with OKC). Five of the patients with OKC had the syndrome of basal cell carcinoma (Gorlin-Goltz Sy.). We found out that one third of OKC were clinically unexpected in regard to their untypical locations in the jaws. Conclusions. It is critical for the jaw cysts to be pathohistologically examined. The number of cases of OKC among all jaw cysts in our study is significantly larger (3.5-time) than in the previous epidemiological study in Slovenia; but this may be the consequence of previous underdiagnosis of that pathology entity. Our study is comparative with other similar foreign studies in literature in respect to the patient's sample and epidemiological

  2. Differences in three-dimensional soft tissue changes after upper, lower, or both jaw orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenik, M; Ihan Hren, N

    2014-11-01

    The decision is not always straightforward as to which orthognathic procedure is best for a good aesthetic result; three-dimensional imaging has brought new insight into this topic. The aim of this prospective study was to verify objectively whether postoperative changes occur within those regions not directly affected by surgical movements of the underlying jaw bones. The study included 83 young adults with skeletal class III deformities. They were classified into three groups according to the type of surgery: bilateral sagittal split osteotomy set-back of the mandible (BSSO), Le Fort I advancement of the maxilla, or a combination of both. Pre- and postoperative optical scans were registered as regional best-fits on the areas of the foreheads and both orbits. The shell to shell differences were measured and the average distances between the observed regions were calculated. As expected, changes were greatest in the regions where the underlying bones had been moved, but regardless of the operation performed, changes were found over the whole face. Changes in the nose, cheek, and upper lip regions in the BSSO group and in the lower lip and chin region in the Le Fort I group confirmed the concept of the facial soft tissue mask acting as one unit. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus and the oral part of the upper jaw. Comparison of treatment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hoshina, Masao; Shagdarsuren, M.; Hoshi, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Soji; Amagasa, Teruo

    1994-01-01

    The treatment results were compared in 77 patients with maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma (MC) and 53 patients with squamous cell carcinoma arising from the oral part of the upper law (OC). Both sets of patients received radiotherapy alone, or radiotherapy combined with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Computerized tomography was useful for the definition of the treatment volume. Intraarterial chemotherapy was given in 89 of 130 patients and in these patients the total radiation dose was reduced by about 10 Gy. No difference was found in the 5-year survival rate between the MC (65%) and the OC (66%) groups. The cumulative incidence of local failure was higher in MC (36%) than in OC (26%), whereas the ultimate incidence of neck node metastasis was higher in OC (43%) than in MC patients (18%). Half of the inoperable patients (9/18) were older than 80 years and had contraindications to anaesthesia and major surgery. The local recurrence rate was high in the inoperable MC patients (6/8). Contralateral simus cancers occurred in 4 patients in the MC group. (orig.)

  4. Influence of bimaxillary protrusion on the perception of smile esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Terki K; Albarakati, Sahar F; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of bimaxillary protrusion on smile esthetics as perceived by dental professionals and laypersons. One hundred and fifty evaluators, equally distributed into their respective panels (orthodontists, general dentists, and laypersons), participated in this cross-sectional study conducted in April to December 2012 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The patient sample consisted of 14 female patients divided equally into 2 groups: bimaxillary protrusion patients, and patients who have had 4-premolar extraction treatment. Two standardized photographs (frontal and three-quarter close-up smile views), and a lateral cephalogram were taken for each patient. The evaluators were asked to rate the attractiveness of each photo according to a 100-mm visual analog scale. These esthetic ratings were correlated with the patients' cephalometric measurements. The bimaxillary protrusion group was rated significantly as less attractive than the treatment group by each evaluator panel. Panel comparison showed that laypeople were less receptive of bimaxillary protrusion than dental professionals. Frontal and three-quarter views of the same smiles were not similarly rated for esthetic perceptions. Correlational analysis revealed that the dentoalveolar measurement with the highest significant negative correlation to the smile esthetics was the upper incisors to palatal plane (U1-PP) angle. Patients with bimaxillary protrusion were found to be less attractive than patients who were treated for the condition. This was especially evident among the laypersons. An increase in the upper incisor inclination, as well as a decrease in the interincisal angle compounds the bimaxillary effect. 

  5. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... misalignment of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may ... indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or ...

  6. Lower bounds for protrusion replacement by counting equivalence classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.M.P.; Wulms, J.J.H.M.; Guo, J.; Hermelin, D.

    2017-01-01

    Garnero et al. [SIAM J. Discrete Math. 2015, 29(4):1864-1894] recently introduced a framework based on dynamic programming to make applications of the protrusion replacement technique constructive and to obtain explicit upper bounds on the involved constants. They show that for several graph

  7. Lower bounds for protrusion replacement by counting equivalence classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.M.P.; Wulms, J.J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Garnero et al. [SIAM J. Discrete Math. 2015, 29(4):1864--1894] recently introduced a framework based on dynamic programming to make applications of the protrusion replacement technique constructive and to obtain explicit upper bounds on the involved constants. They show that for several graph

  8. [Jaw osteosarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve, M; Ernenwein, D; Chaine, A; Bertolus, C; Goudot, P; Ruhin-Poncet, B

    2011-11-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent bone malignant tumor. It is usually found on long bones, 5 to 10% are located on jaws, accounting for 0.5 to 1% of all facial tumors. There is little published data which concerns only few patients. Our aim was to study retrospectively cases of facial bone OS in adults, and to compare our results with published data to suggest an optimal management scheme. Thirty-three patients were managed for an OS, from January 1997 to January 2007. Fourteen patients with a maxillary and mandibular OS, treated in first-intention in our unit, were included. The following data were analyzed: age; personal history; circumstance of discovery; clinical, functional, and physical signs; loco-regional extension and metastasis radiological investigation. The histological slides were systematically reviewed. The protocol, therapeutic outcome, and follow-up were studied. The mean age at diagnosis was 43. Swelling was the most frequent functional sign. The mean delay before management was 3.4 months. The most frequent radiological presentation was a lytic and hyperdense image. The diagnosis was suggested after CT scan in 57.1% of cases. The biopsy was correlated to the anatomopathological analysis in 78.6% of cases. The most common treatment was surgical exeresis completed by chemotherapy. The 5-year survival rate was 50%. Jaw OS are specific because of their localization and specific bone ultrastructure. Their management remains controversial: should they be managed like limb OS or treated more specifically? Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, even if it delays exeresis for 3 months, seems to stop the growth or reduce the tumor. An early anatomopathological analysis of the surgical piece determines adjuvant therapy. The negative prognostic factors are: maxillary localization because of limited exeresis margins, tumoral size, and osteoblastic sub-type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and lower jaws and the orbits surrounding the eyes, and facial lacerations. Click here to find out ... and lower jaws and the orbits surrounding the eyes, and facial lacerations. Click here to find out ...

  10. Broken or dislocated jaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... broken or dislocated jaw requires prompt medical attention. Emergency symptoms include difficulty breathing or heavy bleeding. ... safety equipment, such as a helmet when playing football, or using ... can prevent or minimize some injuries to the face or jaw.

  11. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or jaw joint (TMJ) pain and headache ... Inability to make the lips meet without straining Chronic mouth breathing Sleep apnea (breathing problems when sleeping, ...

  12. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jaw Surgery Download Download the ebook for further information Corrective jaw, or orthognathic surgery is performed by ... your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  13. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  14. Oral cavity and jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solntsev, A.M.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatome of oral cavity and jaw is described. Diseases of the teeth, jaw, large salivary glands, temporo-mandibular articulation are considered. Roentgenograms of oral cacity and jaw of healthy people are presented and analyzed as well as roentgenograms in the above-mentioned diseases

  15. Bottom Feeding and Beyond: How the Premaxillary Protrusion of Cypriniforms Allowed for a Novel Kind of Suction Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L Patricia; Staab, Katie Lynn

    2015-07-01

    While much of the functional work on suction feeding has involved members of Acanthopterygii, an earlier cypriniform radiation led to over 3200 species filling nearly every freshwater trophic niche. Within the great majority of acanthomorph clades that have been investigated suction feeding and the underlying morphology responsible for the generation of rapid suction have been largely conserved. This conserved feeding-apparatus is often associated with increasing the force experienced by the prey item, thus making a strike on elusive prey more effective. Cypriniforms' trophic anatomy is comprised of a number of novelties used for benthic feeding, which characterized early members of this clade. The modified cypriniform structure of the oral jaws represents a situation in which a particular type of suction feeding allowed for probing the benthos with a more functionally maneuverable anatomy. Requisite evolutionary modifications included origin and elongation of a median kinethmoid, duplications of certain divisions of the muscles of the adductor mandibulae, and origin of a dorsal, intra-buccal muscular palatal organ used in winnowing detritus. The elongated kinethmoid (coupled with modified adductor muscles) allowed for a type of premaxillary protrusion that decoupled the upper and lower jaws, enabled premaxillary protrusions with a closed mouth, and facilitated benthic feeding by increasing functional flexibility. The resultant flow of fluid generated by cypriniforms is also quite flexible, with multiple instances of peak flow in a single feeding event. This greatly modified morphology allowed for a degree of kinematic maneuverability not seen within most acanthomorphs. Later cypriniform radiations into piscivorous, insectivorous, or planktivorous feeding guilds were associated with shortening of the kinethmoid and with simplified morphology of the adductor, likely involving an emphasis on ram feeding. Although this suite of morphological novelties seemingly

  16. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on many aspects of life. Following are some of the conditions that may ... front, or side Facial injury Birth defects Receding lower jaw and ...

  17. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available AAOMS - Oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who ... surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and ...

  18. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We ... surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral ...

  19. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We Are News Videos Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively ...

  20. Corrective Jaw Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  1. Crocodile jaw sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This teaching image highlights the CT abdominal imaging finding of 'crocodile jaw sign' which should raise concern about the presence of an incomplete annular pancreas which causes partial encasement of the duodenum.

  2. 16 CFR 1511.4 - Protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS... orientation of the hinge axis shall be horizontal. A plane surface shall be applied to any protrusion from the... direction along the axis of the nipple. The normal of the plane surface shall be maintained parallel to the...

  3. Precision of jaw-closing movements for different jaw gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Daniel; Becker, Georg; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos N; Eberhard, Lydia; Fingerhut, Christopher; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schindler, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    Jaw-closing movements are basic components of physiological motor actions precisely achieving intercuspation without significant interference. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that, despite an imperfect intercuspal position, the precision of jaw-closing movements fluctuates within the range of physiological closing movements indispensable for meeting intercuspation without significant interference. For 35 healthy subjects, condylar and incisal point positions for fast and slow jaw-closing, interrupted at different jaw gaps by the use of frontal occlusal plateaus, were compared with uninterrupted physiological jaw closing, with identical jaw gaps, using a telemetric system for measuring jaw position. Examiner-guided centric relation served as a clinically relevant reference position. For jaw gaps ≤4 mm, no significant horizontal or vertical displacement differences were observed for the incisal or condylar points among physiological, fast, and slow jaw-closing. However, the jaw positions under these three closing conditions differed significantly from guided centric relation for nearly all experimental jaw gaps. The findings provide evidence of stringent neuromuscular control of jaw-closing movements in the vicinity of intercuspation. These results might be of clinical relevance to occlusal intervention with different objectives. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. [Jaws of amphibians and reptiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masahiro

    2005-04-01

    Big jaws of amphibians and reptiles are mainly treated in this article. In amphibians enlarged skulls are for the big jaw in contrast with human's skulls for the brain. For example, famous fossils of Homo diluvii testis are ones of salamanders in fact. In reptiles, mosasaur jaws and teeth and their ecology are introduced for instance.

  5. Radiologic study of osteomyelitis of the jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1980-01-01

    The author studied age and sex distribution, etiology, affected site and several radiographic features of osteomyelitis of the jaw. And radiologic classification of osteomyelitis was also done. The material consisted of 118 males and 96 females examined and/or treated under the diagnosis of osteomyelitis during past 11 years (1970-1980.6) in SNUDH. The obtained results were as followings. 1. The incidence is the highest in teen ages (22.9%) and the lowest in seventies. (2.8%). 2. 199 cases were found in lower jaw, and 15 cases in upper jaw. 30.8% of all cases were located at the posterior portion of mandibular body comprising alveolar region. 3. Radiographic examination of osteolytic lesion revealed that 21.5% of all patients had periapical and alveolar bone rarefaction combined with osteoporotic changes were present at the same time. 4. Sclerotic lesions were seen in 62.2% of all patients and 21.5% of sclerotic lesion were diffuse or homogenous type. 5. Based on the radiologic study, classification of the osteomyelitis of the jaw was made. Localized osteolytic type was the highest in incidence (38.8%) and localized sclerotic type was the lowest (7.0%).

  6. [Size of lower jaw as an early indicator of skeletal class III development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikodijević, Angelina; Udovicić, Bozidar; Milić, Jasmina; Nikolić, Predrag

    2008-08-01

    Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex abnormality, with a characteristic sagital position of the lower jaw in front of the upper one. A higher level of prognatism of the lower jaw in relation to the upper one can be the consequence of its excessive length. The aim of this study was to find the differences in the length of the lower jaw in the children with skeletal class III and the children with normal sagital interjaw relation (skeletal class I) in the period of mixed dentition. After clinical and x-ray diagnostics, profile tele-x-rays of the head were analyzed in 60 examinees with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1--the children with skeletal class III and group 2--the children with skeletal class I. The length of the lower jaw, upper jaw and cranial base were measured. The proportional relations between the lengths measured within each group were established and the level of difference in the lengths measured and their proportions between the groups were estimated. No significant difference between the groups was found in the body length, ramus and the total length of the lower jaw. Proportional relation between the body length and the length of the lower jaw ramus and proportional relation between the forward cranial base and the lower jaw body were not significantly different. A significant difference was found in proportional relations of the total length of the lower jaw with the total lengths of cranial base and the upper jaw and proportional relation of the length of the lower and upper jaw body. Of all the analyzed parameters, the following were selected as the early indicators of the development of skeletal class III on the lower jaw: greater total length of the lower jaw, proportional to the total lengths of cranial base and theupper jaw, as well as greater length of the lower jaw body, proportional to the length of the upper jaw body.

  7. Treatment of Angle Class I Malocclusion with Severe Bimaxillary Protrusion using Miniscrew Implants and Periodontal Ligament Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion is common in Asian population. In this patient with procumbent upper and lower lips, excessive lip strain, proclined and protruded maxillary and mandibular incisors with vertical growth pattern, an acceptable treatment result, was achieved with 4-first-premolar extractions. This case report is presented with the aim, to describe the treatment approach for bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion using miniscrew implants for anchorage in upper arch and periodontal ligament distraction for canine retraction in lower arch and then retraction of incisors into the newly formed bone distal to lateral incisor. Treatment was completed in 18 months. The patient profile was improved, with reduction in lip procumbency, decrease in lip eversion and protrusion, and decrease mentalis strain. Dentally, the interincisal angulation improved significantly because both the maxillary and mandibular incisors were uprighted after space closer.

  8. Dislocation of jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzberg, R.W.; Hayakawa, K.; Anderson, Q.N.; Manzione, J.V.; Helms, C.A.; Tallents, R.

    1984-01-01

    Pluri-directional tomographic and arthrotomographic findings are described in six patients with dislocation of the jaw severe enough to require medical assistance. A grooved defect along the posterior aspect of the condylar head was noted in two of the six patients. The arthrotomographic findings that were obtained in one patient that was dislocated at the time of the arthrogram did not suggest a meniscocondyle incoordination as a mechanism. However, arthrotomographic findings in the six reported cases suggest that significant intra-articular soft tissue damage may result. (orig.)

  9. Specification of jaw identity by the Hand2 transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, Noriko; Kokubo, Hiroki; Nakamura, Masataka; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of the lower jaw (mandible) was evolutionarily important for jawed vertebrates. In humans, syndromic craniofacial malformations often accompany jaw anomalies. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2, which is conserved among jawed vertebrates, is expressed in the neural crest in the mandibular process but not in the maxillary process of the first branchial arch. Here, we provide evidence that Hand2 is sufficient for upper jaw (maxilla)-to-mandible transformation by regulating the expression of homeobox transcription factors in mice. Altered Hand2 expression in the neural crest transformed the maxillae into mandibles with duplicated Meckel’s cartilage, which resulted in an absence of the secondary palate. In Hand2-overexpressing mutants, non-Hox homeobox transcription factors were dysregulated. These results suggest that Hand2 regulates mandibular development through downstream genes of Hand2 and is therefore a major determinant of jaw identity. Hand2 may have influenced the evolutionary acquisition of the mandible and secondary palate. PMID:27329940

  10. Infantile Perineal Protrusion in Two Monochorionic Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cavicchioli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Case Report - Two female monochorionic-monoamniotic twins showed the same kind of infantile perineal protrusion (IPP at birth. Lesions in both twins progressively healed until resolution in 6 weeks' time; none of the twins have manifested, till date, alvus disturbances. Discussion and Literature Review - A literature review numbers approximately 100 reports of IPP. This condition has been classically classified into three categories: congenital/familiar (i.e., female sex, positive parental history of IPP, acquired (mainly due to constipation, and associated with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Conclusions and Final Remarks - This case report describes, for the first time, the presence of IPP in monochorionic-monoamniotic twins, supporting the existence of hereditary/genetic factors in the developing of this condition.

  11. Modified protrusion arch for anterior crossbite correction - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhishek Singha; Singh, Gulshan Kr; Tandon, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Ramsukh

    2013-01-01

    Borderline and mild skeletal Class III relationships in adult patients are usually treated by orthodontic camouflage. Reasonably rood results have been achieved with nonsurgical teatment of anterior crossbite. Class III malocclusion may be associated with mandibular prognathism, maxillary retrognathism, or both. Class III maxillary retrognathism generally involves anterior crossbite, which must be opened if upper labial brackets are to be bonded. If multiple teeth are in crossbite, after opening the bite usual step is to ligate forward or advancement arch made of 0.018" or 0.020" stainless steel or NiTi wire main arch that must be kept separated 2 mm from the slot ofupper incisor braces. Two stops or omegas are made 1 mm mesial to the tubes of the molar bands that will impede main arch from slipping,and in this manner the arch will push the anterior teeth forward Here we have fabricated a modified multiple loop protrusion arch to correct an anterior crossbite with severe crowding that was not amenable to correct by advancement arches.

  12. Eosinophilic Granuloma in Jaw Bone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    CONCLUSION: EG should be considered as a differential diagnosis whenever there is a bony destructive lesion involving alveolar bone of the Jaws. Early diagnosis and surgical ... radiographic examination, these lesions should be biopsied.

  13. Stable tooth contacts in intercuspal occlusion makes for utilities of the jaw elevators during maximal voluntary clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-R; Zhang, Y; Xing, N; Xu, Y-F; Wang, M-Q

    2013-05-01

    Data are inconsistent concerning whether the level of the surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity of jaw-closing muscles increases when biting forces elevated during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). In this study, T-Scan III system and BioEMG III system were used to record bite force, occlusal contacts and SEMG activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and of the masseter muscles (MM) simultaneously. Recordings were obtained from 16 healthy young adult males during different conditions: (i) a fast MVC from resting position to intercuspal position (ICP); (ii) mandibular movements from ICP to protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions with teeth in contact with biting; (iii) a fast MVC in protrusive and lateral edge-to-edge positions. A higher level of SEMG activity was associated with a higher bite force during occluding movements (P < 0.05). However, during fast MVC from rest to ICP, the largest number of occlusal contacts was achieved and distributed more symmetrically, the highest level of biting force was obtained, but the SEMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles was reduced compared with its maximum level (P < 0.05). This phenomenon was not observed during the fast MVC in protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions. The present results that a lower SEMG activity was associated with the largest number of occlusal contacts and the highest level of bite force during centric MVC demonstrated a complex integration of jaw-closing muscles when a stable occlusion is present. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Osteonecrosis of the jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Ian R.; Cundy, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) was first reported in the dental literature in 2003. The term was coined to describe a spectrum of dental problems seen in cancer patients treated with high doses of intravenous bisphosphonates for the prevention of skeletal-related events. By consensus, the syndrome is now defined by the presence of exposed bone in the mouth which fails to heal after appropriate intervention over a period of 6 or 8 weeks. It is most common in patients with breast or prostate cancers, or multiple myeloma treated with bisphosphonates, of whom about 5% develop the condition. In patients receiving the much lower drug doses used in osteoporosis, the incidence appears to be ∝1/100,000 patient-years, probably comparable to that in the general population. It is likely that ONJ results from direct drug toxicity to cells of bone and soft tissue. The bone in ONJ lesions does not appear to be 'frozen' but rather there is very active bone resorption taking place, which is likely to be responsible for the local release at high concentrations of bisphosphonates. Infection probably plays a pivotal role in driving this resorption, so its active management is critical. Obvious abnormalities are apparent with a variety of radiologic modalities, and it is not clear that radiographs are inferior to other approaches. Most authors favor a conservative approach to surgical debridement of the lesions. (orig.)

  15. [Treatment of adult bimaxillary arch protrusion with micro-implant anchorage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, micro-implants were used in 15 adult patients with mild and moderate bimaxillary arch protrusion or crowding. Cephalometric analysis was used to analyze hard and soft-tissues change before and after treatment, with the aim to investigate the effects of treatment on adult bimaxillary arch protrusion with micro-implant anchorage. Fifteen adult patients with mild and moderate bimaxillary arch protrusion were selected in this study. Micro-implants were inserted into the zygomaticoalveolar ridge of maxilla and the external oblique line of mandible. A NiTi coil spring was attached to the micro-implant to drag the whole upper and lower dentition for distal movement. Cephalometrics were taken before and after treatment, and the changes of soft and hard-tissue profile were studied. SPSS13.0 software package was used to analyze the data. (1)Sixty micro-implants remained stable.(2)SNA, SNB had no significant changes (P>0.05), and the relationship between the maxilla and the mandible did not change significantly. U1/NA, U1-NA, L1/NB, L1-NB and U1/L1 changes in hard tissue had significant difference in cephalometric measurement (PMicro-implant can provide not only excellent skeletal anchorage but also a novel way to distalize the whole dentition efficiently.

  16. Membrane Protrusion Coarsening and Nanotubulation within Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    KAUST Repository

    Węgrzyn, Ilona; Jeffries, Gavin D. M.; Nagel, Birgit; Katterle, Martin; Gerrard, Simon R.; Brown, Tom; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    implementation of an IR laser via an optical fiber, enabling localized directed heating. Polymer-membrane interactions were monitored using confocal imaging techniques as subsequent membrane protrusions occurred and lipid nanotubes formed in response

  17. Development of 4D jaw movement visualization system for dental diagnosis support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Terajima, Masahiko; Nakasima, Akihiko

    2004-10-01

    A person with an asymmetric morphology of maxillofacial skeleton reportedly possesses an asymmetric jaw function and the risk to express temporomandibular disorder is high. A comprehensive analysis from the point of view of both the morphology and the function such as maxillofacial or temporomandibular joint morphology, dental occlusion, and features of mandibular movement pathways is essential. In this study, the 4D jaw movement visualization system was developed to visually understand the characteristic jaw movement, 3D maxillofacial skeleton structure, and the alignment of the upper and lower teeth of a patient. For this purpose, the 3D reconstructed images of the cranial and mandibular bones, obtained by computed tomography, were measured using a non-contact 3D measuring device, and the obtained morphological images of teeth model were integrated and activated on the 6 DOF jaw movement data. This system was experimentally applied and visualized in a jaw deformity patient and its usability as a clinical diagnostic support system was verified.

  18. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable.

  19. A morphological study of the masseter muscle using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with jaw deformities. Cases demonstrating mandibular deviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Katsuhiko; Goto, Tazuko K.; Kanda, Shigenobu; Shiratsuchi, Yuji; Nakashima, Akihiko; Horinouchi, Yasufumi

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies on the cross-sectional area of masticatory muscles, which are correlated to the facial shape, have been reported for normal subjects in previous articles. However to date, there have been no such studies on masseter muscles at jaw-closing and jaw-opening in patients with jaw deformities involving mandibular deviation. The MRI data sets of the masseter muscles at jaw-closing and jaw-opening in 14 female patients with mandibular deviation, who demonstrated a more than 3-mm deviation in the median line in the lower first incisors in comparison to the upper ones, were utilized. The cross-sectional areas from the origin to the insertion at jaw-closing and jaw-opening which were reconstructed perpendicular to the three-dimensional long axis of each masseter muscle, each maximum cross-sectional area (MCSA) and the ratio of the change in MCSA after jaw-opening were analyzed. As a result, a significant difference was observed between the MCSA at jaw-closing and jaw-opening on the same side. However, no difference in MCSA was seen between the deviated and non-deviated side of the mandible. The line chart patterns of the masseter muscles from the origin to the insertion could be classified into four types. Our results suggest that it is important to analyze cross-sectional areas of the masseter muscles in each subject while considering the three-dimensional axis of each muscle. (author)

  20. Functional Morphology of Eunicidan (Polychaeta) Jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemo, W. C.; Dorgan, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Polychaetes exhibit diverse feeding strategies and diets, with some species possessing hardened teeth or jaws of varying complexity. Species in the order Eunicida have complex, rigidly articulated jaws consisting of multiple pairs of maxillae and a pair of mandibles. While all Eunicida possess this general jaw structure, a number of characteristics of the jaw parts vary considerably among families. These differences, described for fossilized and extant species' jaws, were used to infer evolutionary relationships, but current phylogeny shows that jaw structures that are similar among several families are convergent. Little has been done, however, to relate jaw functional morphology and feeding behavior to diet. To explore these relationships, we compared the jaw kinematics of two taxa with similar but evolutionarily convergent jaw structures: Diopatra (Onuphidae) and Lumbrineris (Lumbrineridae). Diopatra species are tube-dwelling and predominantly herbivorous, whereas Lumbrineris species are burrowing carnivores. Jaw kinematics were observed and analyzed by filming individuals biting or feeding and tracking tooth movements in videos. Differences in jaw structure and kinematics between Diopatra and Lumbrineris can be interpreted to be consistent with their differences in diet. Relating jaw morphology to diet would provide insight into early annelid communities by linking fossil teeth (scolecodonts) to the ecological roles of extant species with similar morphologies.

  1. In the Jaws of Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    The horror film Jaws (Spielberg, 1975) terrified millions of movie-goers and continues to resonate with audiences, despite its implausible premise and zoologically dubious depiction of a vengeful great white shark. An evolutionary approach explains why the film captured audiences’ imaginations an...

  2. CFD simulations to study the effects of wall protrusions on microfluidic mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sourav; Singh, K. K.; Shankar, V.; Shenoy, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    In this study the effects of different types of wall protrusions on microfluidic mixing are studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Two new protrusions, single first bracket protrusions and double opposite first bracket protrusions (DOFBPs), are conceptualized, evaluated through CFD simulations and compared to protrusions having standard geometrical shapes, e.g. rectangular protrusions, triangular protrusions and semicircular protrusions. In the range of Reynolds numbers covered in this study, the microchannel having an opposed T-junction and DOFBPs is found to provide good mixing. A hybrid approach relying on the modification of microfluidic junctions as well as wall protrusions for enhancing microfluidic mixing is also evaluated. The microchannel based on the hybrid approach of an OA 10°-20°-165° WY-junction and DOFBPs is also found to provide very good mixing for a wide range of Reynolds numbers.

  3. The earliest herbivorous marine reptile and its remarkable jaw apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Li; Rieppel, Olivier; Long, Cheng; Fraser, Nicholas C

    2016-05-01

    Newly discovered fossils of the Middle Triassic reptile Atopodentatus unicus call for a radical reassessment of its feeding behavior. The skull displays a pronounced hammerhead shape that was hitherto unknown. The long, straight anterior edges of both upper and lower jaws were lined with batteries of chisel-shaped teeth, whereas the remaining parts of the jaw rami supported densely packed needle-shaped teeth forming a mesh. The evidence indicates a novel feeding mechanism wherein the chisel-shaped teeth were used to scrape algae off the substrate, and the plant matter that was loosened was filtered from the water column through the more posteriorly positioned tooth mesh. This is the oldest record of herbivory within marine reptiles.

  4. The influence of jaw's curvature on the results of the Brazilian disc test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.F. Markides

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The general contact problem of a disc squeezed between jaws of arbitrary curvature is considered employing Muskhelishvili's complex potentials. Taking advantage of the general solution introduced, the closed-form expressions for the stresses along strategic loci (loaded rim, loaded diameter, disc's center are obtained, in terms of the ratio ρ of the disc's to the jaw's curvature. Then, the effect of ρ (as well as that of the relative stiffness of the disc's and jaw's materials dictating the contact arc on the stress distribution along these loci is explored. It is concluded that, for both smooth contact (zero friction and contact with friction, the role of the jaw's curvature is significant not only along the disc-jaw contact arc (as it could be expected, but also all along the loaded diameter. On the other hand, it is indicated that the stress field at the disc's center is more or less insensitive to the jaw's curvature assuming that ρ lies within the range (0, 0.67 or in other words within the limits defined by the two standardized suggestions, i.e. that of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM (plane loading platens with ρ = 0 and that of International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM (curved jaws with ρ = 0.67. The upper limit of this range is a kind of compromise between the need to make the stress field at the disc's center independent of the boundary conditions while keeping at the same time the contact angle large enough to reduce the stress concentration and the risk for premature fracture initiation far from the disc's center. For jaws with radius of curvature exceeded by that suggested by ISRM, the stress field at the disc's center is significantly influenced. Especially for jaws with radius approaching that of the disc, the stress field at the disc's center is dramatically distorted rendering Hondros' formula inapplicable and the test results erroneous.

  5. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children using amplatzer duct occluder II: relationship between PDA type and risk of device protrusion into the descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Samer; El Rassi, Issam; Arabi, Mariam; Tabbakh, Anas; Bitar, Fadi

    2015-08-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADOII) among the various patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) types, and to assess the association between development of aortic obstruction and the PDA type in terms of measurable parameters as the device angulation and distance of upper end protrusion into the aortic lumen. Retrospective cohort study involving 50 consecutive subjects who underwent ADO II device closure of PDA. The median age and weight at intervention were 13 months (5.5 months to 18 years) and 11 (6-67) kg respectively. The median smallest ductal diameter by angiography was 3.2 (1.9-5.4) mm. Thirty two patients had type A PDA, 5 had type C, 5 had type D, and 8 had type E. Residual shunt was seen in only 1 patient who had a tubular PDA and resolved within 2 months of the procedure. No device embolization or pulmonary side protrusion were noted. There was a 16% aortic protrusion rate. The median distance of protrusion of the upper end of the device into the aortic lumen was 3.1 (0-9) mm and the median angle formed between the aortic end of the device and the PDA take-off was 10.4 (0-80.6) degrees. These latter parameters of aortic obstruction were significantly higher in the non-conical PDA group as compared to the conical PDA. Nevertheless, there was no significant coarctation due to aortic retention disc protrusion. Device closure of PDA using the ADO II is a safe procedure for chosen types of PDA. We demonstrated a novel technique for objective assessment of device protrusion into the descending aorta based on measurable parameters. ADOII device closure of non-conical PDAs warrants closer follow ups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fractures of the Jaw and Midface

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Injuries and Poisoning Facial Injuries Fractures of the Jaw and Midface Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Treatment of mandible fractures Treatment of maxillary fractures ...

  7. Signaling by Cellular Protrusions: Keeping the Conversation Private.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszczak, Michael; Inaba, Mayu; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2016-07-01

    Information exchange between different cells makes multicellular life possible. Signaling between cells can occur over long distances, as in the case of hormone signaling, or it can take place over short distances between immediately juxtaposed neighbors, as in the case of stem cell-niche signaling. The ability of signal-sending and -receiving cells to communicate with one another in a specific manner is of paramount importance in the proper development and function of tissues. Growing evidence indicates that different cellular protrusions help to achieve specificity in signaling that occurs between distinct cell types. Here, we focus on new roles for cellular protrusions in cell-to-cell communication, drawing special attention to how stem cells use specialized extensions to promote reception of self-renewing signals emanating from the niche. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coordination of membrane and actin cytoskeleton dynamics during filopodia protrusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsong Yang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Leading edge protrusion of migrating cells involves tightly coordinated changes in the plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. It remains unclear whether polymerizing actin filaments push and deform the membrane, or membrane deformation occurs independently and is subsequently stabilized by actin filaments. To address this question, we employed an ability of the membrane-binding I-BAR domain of IRSp53 to uncouple the membrane and actin dynamics and to induce filopodia in expressing cells. Using time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy of IRSp53-I-BAR-expressing B16F1 melanoma cells, we demonstrate that cells are not able to protrude or maintain durable long extensions without actin filaments in their interior, but I-BAR-dependent membrane deformation can create a small and transient space at filopodial tips that is subsequently filled with actin filaments. Moreover, the expressed I-BAR domain forms a submembranous coat that may structurally support these transient actin-free protrusions until they are further stabilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Actin filaments in the I-BAR-induced filopodia, in contrast to normal filopodia, do not have a uniform length, are less abundant, poorly bundled, and display erratic dynamics. Such unconventional structural organization and dynamics of actin in I-BAR-induced filopodia suggests that a typical bundle of parallel actin filaments is not necessary for generation and mechanical support of the highly asymmetric filopodial geometry. Together, our data suggest that actin filaments may not directly drive the protrusion, but only stabilize the space generated by the membrane deformation; yet, such stabilization is necessary for efficient protrusion.

  9. Primary extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma mimicking a disc protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, A; Boccardo, M

    1987-07-01

    One of the rarest cases of primary epidural neoplasm is a soft tissue sarcoma histologically similar to Ewing's sarcoma of the bone. In the literature only eleven cases of such an extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma have been described. The authors report an additional case presenting as a disc protrusion in a young male. The authors include some diagnostic, prognostic and nosologic remarks about this condition.

  10. Carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Yasuo; Tachibana, Osamu; Doai, Mariko; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tonami, Hisao; Iizuka, Hideaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-10-01

    Acromegaly is a systemic disease which causes multiple bony alterations. Some authors reported that acromegalic patients have risk factors for an intraoperative vascular injury due to the specific anatomical features of their sphenoid sinus. The objective of our study was to analyze the anatomic characteristics of sphenoid sinus in acromegalic patients compared with controls, by evaluation of computed tomography (CT) findings. We examined 45 acromegalic (acromegaly group) and 45 non-acromegalic patients (control group) with pituitary adenomas who were matched for sex, age, height, tumor size, and cavernous sinus invasion (Knosp grade). Preoperative CT of the pituitary region including the sphenoid sinus was used to evaluate the following anatomic characteristics: type of sphenoid sinus (sellar or pre-sellar/conchal); intrasphenoid septa (non/single or multiple); carotid artery protrusion; carotid artery dehiscence; intercarotid distance. Sixteen acromegalic patients (35.5 %) and 6 controls (13.3 %) had carotid artery protrusion. Additionally, 10 acromegalic patients (22.2 %) and 3 controls (6.6 %) had carotid artery dehiscence. Carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence were more frequent in the acromegaly group than in control group (p = 0.013 and 0.035, respectively). Other anatomic characteristics (type of sphenoid sinus, intrasphenoid septa, and intracarotid distance) showed no significant differences between acromegaly and control groups. Our study suggests that carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence occur more frequently among acromegalic patients, compared with non-acromegalic patients. It is important for surgeons to be aware of these anatomic variations to avoid vital complications, such as carotid injuries, during surgery.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome is a condition characterized by ...

  12. Mechanisms of leading edge protrusion in interstitial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerry; Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels with 5 μm × 5 μm cross-sections, HL60 neutrophil-like cells assemble an actin-rich slab filling the whole channel cross-section at their front. This leading edge comprises two distinct F-actin networks: an adherent network that polymerizes perpendicular to cell-wall interfaces and a ‘free’ network that grows from the free membrane at the cell front. Each network is polymerized by a distinct nucleator and, due to their geometrical arrangement, the networks interact mechanically. On the basis of our experimental data, we propose that, during interstitial migration, medial growth of the adherent network compresses the free network preventing its retrograde movement and enabling new polymerization to be converted into forward protrusion. PMID:24305616

  13. The importance of dental CT for implantation in mouth, jaw, and face surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widlitzek, H.; Koenig, S.; Golin, U.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of dental CT in comparison to conventional OPT in implantation diagnostics is demonstrated in specific indication groups (atrophy of upper and lower jaw, patient after tumor and reconstructive surgery). The application of radiological techniques is illustrated in relation to diagnostic information quality, radiation exposure and cost effectiveness regarding clinical routine use. (orig.) [de

  14. Swiveling Lathe Jaw Concept for Holding Irregular Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clamp holds irregularly shaped pieces in lathe chuck without damage and eliminates excessive time in selecting optimum mounting. Interchangeable jaws ride in standard jaw slots but swivel so that the jaw face bears evenly against the workpiece regardless of contour. The jaws can be used on both engine and turret lathes.

  15. The genetic architecture of novel trophic specialists: larger effect sizes are associated with exceptional oral jaw diversification in a pupfish adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher H; Erickson, Priscilla A; Miller, Craig T

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of adaptation is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and constraints governing diversification. However, most case studies focus on loss of complex traits or parallel speciation in similar environments. It is still unclear how the genetic architecture of these local adaptive processes compares to the architecture of evolutionary transitions contributing to morphological and ecological novelty. Here, we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) between two trophic specialists in an excellent case study for examining the origins of ecological novelty: a sympatric radiation of pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas, containing a large-jawed scale-eater and a short-jawed molluscivore with a skeletal nasal protrusion. These specialized niches and trophic traits are unique among over 2000 related species. Measurements of the fitness landscape on San Salvador demonstrate multiple fitness peaks and a larger fitness valley isolating the scale-eater from the putative ancestral intermediate phenotype of the generalist, suggesting that more large-effect QTL should contribute to its unique phenotype. We evaluated this prediction using an F2 intercross between these specialists. We present the first linkage map for pupfishes and detect significant QTL for sex and eight skeletal traits. Large-effect QTL contributed more to enlarged scale-eater jaws than the molluscivore nasal protrusion, consistent with predictions from the adaptive landscape. The microevolutionary genetic architecture of large-effect QTL for oral jaws parallels the exceptional diversification rates of oral jaws within the San Salvador radiation observed over macroevolutionary timescales and may have facilitated exceptional trophic novelty in this system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Membrane Protrusion Coarsening and Nanotubulation within Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    KAUST Repository

    Węgrzyn, Ilona

    2011-11-16

    Hydrophobic side groups on a stimuli-responsive polymer, encapsulated within a single giant unilamellar vesicle, enable membrane attachment during compartment formation at elevated temperatures. We thermally modulated the vesicle through implementation of an IR laser via an optical fiber, enabling localized directed heating. Polymer-membrane interactions were monitored using confocal imaging techniques as subsequent membrane protrusions occurred and lipid nanotubes formed in response to the polymer hydrogel contraction. These nanotubes, bridging the vesicle membrane to the contracting hydrogel, were retained on the surface of the polymer compartment, where they were transformed into smaller vesicles in a process reminiscent of cellular endocytosis. This development of a synthetic vesicle system containing a stimuli-responsive polymer could lead to a new platform for studying inter/intramembrane transport through lipid nanotubes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Cellular blebs: pressure-driven, axisymmetric, membrane protrusions

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2013-07-16

    Blebs are cellular protrusions that are used by cells for multiple purposes including locomotion. A mechanical model for the problem of pressure-driven blebs based on force and moment balances of an axisymmetric shell model is proposed. The formation of a bleb is initiated by weakening the shell over a small region, and the deformation of the cellular membrane from the cortex is obtained during inflation. However, simply weakening the shell leads to an area increase of more than 4 %, which is physically unrealistic. Thus, the model is extended to include a reconfiguration process that allows large blebs to form with small increases in area. It is observed that both geometric and biomechanical constraints are important in this process. In particular, it is shown that although blebs are driven by a pressure difference across the cellular membrane, it is not the limiting factor in determining bleb size. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii), with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Ingmar

    2015-01-01

    The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1) and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes.

  19. Morphology of the jaw, suspensorial, and opercle musculature of Beloniformes and related species (Teleostei: Acanthopterygii, with a special reference to the m. adductor mandibulae complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Werneburg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The taxon Beloniformes represents a heterogeneous group of teleost fishes that show an extraordinary diversity of jaw morphology. I present new anatomical descriptions of the jaw musculature in six selected beloniforms and four closely related species. A reduction of the external jaw adductor (A1 and a changed morphology of the intramandibular musculature were found in many Beloniformes. This might be correlated with the progressively reduced mobility of the upper and lower jaw bones. The needlefishes and sauries, which are characterised by extremely elongated and stiffened jaws, show several derived characters, which in combination enable the capture of fish at high velocity. The ricefishes are characterised by several derived and many plesiomorphic characters that make broad scale comparisons difficult. Soft tissue characters are highly diverse among hemiramphids and flying fishes reflecting the uncertainty about their phylogenetic position and interrelationship. The morphological findings presented herein may help to interpret future phylogenetic analyses using cranial musculature in Beloniformes.

  20. Measurements of the Curvature of Protrusions/Retrusions on Migrating Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    Two methods to quantify protrusions/retrusions and to estimate local boundary curvature from sample plane sections are proposed. The methods are used to evaluate the driving force due to curvature of the protrusions/retrusions for partially recrystallized pure nickel cold rolled to 96% reduction...

  1. Carbon protrusions on PTFE surface prepared by ion irradiation and chemical defluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Iwaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    A surface of PTFE was covered with small protrusions by ion-beam irradiation. In this study, we converted PTFE protrusions into carbon protrusions by a defluorination (carbonization) process using sodium vapor. The morphology, composition and structure were analyzed by SEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and TEM. The irradiated PTFE sheets were packed in evacuated glass tubes with a sodium block and kept at 473 K for 2-48 h. The samples were then rinsed in HCl and distilled water to remove NaF precipitates. The EDX measurement showed that the NaF precipitates were completely removed by washing, and the percentage of carbon atoms was controlled from 60% to 99% by the treatment. Raman spectra showed that graphite structures grow during the defluorination process. TEM micrographs showed that the protrusions have a bubble structure and are covered with a thin wall. The carbonized protrusions were conductive and grew perpendicular to the substrate.

  2. Jaw dysfunction is associated with neck disability and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A; Gadotti, I C; Armijo-Olivo, S; Biasotto-Gonzalez, D A; Magee, D

    2015-01-01

    Tender points in the neck are common in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with TMD still needs further investigation. This study investigated the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic TMD. Participants. Forty females between 19 and 49 years old were included in this study. There were 20 healthy controls and 20 subjects who had chronic TMD and neck disability. Subjects completed the neck disability index and the limitations of daily functions in TMD questionnaires. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles was measured using an algometer. The correlation between jaw disability and neck disability was significantly high (r = 0.915, P cervical muscles with jaw dysfunction and neck disability showed fair to moderate correlations (r = 0.32-0.65). High levels of muscle tenderness in upper trapezius and temporalis muscles correlated with high levels of jaw and neck dysfunction. Moreover, high levels of neck disability correlated with high levels of jaw disability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the neck and its structures when evaluating and treating patients with TMD.

  3. 21 CFR 872.2060 - Jaw tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders and associated orofacial pain is a nonpowered or... § 872.9. (b) Jaw tracking device for interpretation of mandibular jaw positions for the diagnosis—(1...

  4. AFM tip-sample convolution effects for cylinder protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Fei-Hu; Gan, Yang

    2017-11-01

    A thorough understanding about the AFM tip geometry dependent artifacts and tip-sample convolution effect is essential for reliable AFM topographic characterization and dimensional metrology. Using rigid sapphire cylinder protrusions (diameter: 2.25 μm, height: 575 nm) as the model system, a systematic and quantitative study about the imaging artifacts of four types of tips-two different pyramidal tips, one tetrahedral tip and one super sharp whisker tip-is carried out through comparing tip geometry dependent variations in AFM topography of cylinders and constructing the rigid tip-cylinder convolution models. We found that the imaging artifacts and the tip-sample convolution effect are critically related to the actual inclination of the working cantilever, the tip geometry, and the obstructive contacts between the working tip's planes/edges and the cylinder. Artifact-free images can only be obtained provided that all planes and edges of the working tip are steeper than the cylinder sidewalls. The findings reported here will contribute to reliable AFM characterization of surface features of micron or hundreds of nanometers in height that are frequently met in semiconductor, biology and materials fields.

  5. Morphological change of self-organized protrusions of fluoropolymer surface by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akane; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) are typical fluoropolymers displaying several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation and high chemical resistance. When their surfaces are irradiated with ion beams, dense micro-protrusions formed after the emergence and spread of micropores across the entire irradiated area, allowing culture cells to spread on the top of the protrusions. In this study, we investigate the morphological changes introduced in the fluoropolymer surfaces by ion beams as the energy of the beams is increased. When an FEP sample was irradiated with a nitrogen ion beam with an energy of less than 350 keV at 1.0 μA/cm 2 , protrusions were formed with a density between 2 × 10 7 /cm 2 and 2 × 10 8 /cm 2 . However, at energies higher than 350 keV, the protrusions became sparse, and the density dropped to 5 × 10 2 /cm 2 . Protrusions appeared sporadically during irradiation at high energies, and the top of the protrusions appeared as spots inside the sample, which were difficult to etch and became elongated as the erosion of the surface progressed. Erosion was caused by sputtering of FEP molecules and evaporation at notably elevated temperatures on the surface. Analysis based on attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of C=C bonds as well as –COOH, –C=O, and –OH bonds on all irradiated samples. Their concentration on the surface densely covered with micro-protrusions was higher than that on the surface with sparse protrusions after irradiation at energies exceeding 350 keV. Thus, we determined a suitable range for the ion energy for creating FEP surfaces densely covered with protrusions

  6. Self-aligning fixture used in lathe chuck jaw refacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, C. C.

    1965-01-01

    Self-aligning tool positions and rigidly holds lathe chuck jaws for refacing and truing of the clamping surface. The jaws clamp the fixture in the manner of clamping a workpiece. The fixture can be modified to accommodate four-jawed checks.

  7. Multidetector computed tomography of jaw lesions in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadodia, A.; Seith, A.; Sharma, R.; Choudhury, A.R.; Bhutia, O.; Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Jaw lesions in paediatric and adolescent population are uncommon and can arise in odontogenic or non-odontogenic tissues. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), algorithm for imaging jaw lesions has changed dramatically. This pictorial essay describes the imaging appearance of commonly encountered jaw lesions in children and adolescents with emphasis on MDCT findings

  8. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini) are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni) in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing). The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight) defined as the grazing ability index (GAI). There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni). Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate) was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests the

  9. Jaw muscles in older overdenture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, James P; McManus, Frank C; Menhenick, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    To determine, using computer tomography (CT), whether the retention of a small number of teeth in the older adult used to support overdentures could affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) and X-ray density of two jaw closing muscles. Cross-sectional study of a group of older patients subdivided into dentate, edentulous and those wearing overdentures supported by two to five teeth. The sample consisted of 24 subjects aged 55-68 years. CSA and X-ray density of two jaw closing muscles, masseter and medial pterygoid were measured and evaluated using CT. There were no significant differences between left and right jaw muscles, but the CSA of the masseter muscles were significantly larger than the medial pterygoid muscles. The CSA of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles was significantly smaller in edentulous subjects compared with dentate subjects but no significant difference was observed between subjects wearing overdentures and those with a natural dentition. No significant differences were observed with the X-ray density between different muscles or dental states. The retention of a small number of teeth in the older adult used to support overdentures appears to sustain the CSA of two jaw closing muscles and therefore could enhance these patients' masticatory ability compared with those who were edentulous.

  10. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Protrusion Associated with Tilted Optic Discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jaclyn; Yapp, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Hennessy, Michael P; Kalloniatis, Michael; Zangerl, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    This study resulted in the identification of an optic nerve head (ONH) feature associated with tilted optic discs, which might potentially contribute to ONH pathologies. Knowledge of such findings will enhance clinical insights and drive future opportunities to understand disease processes related to tilted optic discs. The aim of this study was to identify novel retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) anomalies by evaluating tilted optic discs using optical coherence tomography. An observed retinal nerve fiber protrusion was further investigated for association with other morphological or functional parameters. A retrospective review of 400 randomly selected adult patients with ONH examinations was conducted in a referral-only, diagnostic imaging center. After excluding other ONH pathologies, 215 patients were enrolled and evaluated for optic disc tilt and/or torsion. Gross anatomical ONH features, including size and rim or parapapillary region elevation, were assessed with stereoscopic fundus photography. Optical coherence tomography provided detailed morphological information of individual retinal layers. Statistical analysis was applied to identify significant changes between individual patient cohorts. A dome-shaped hyperreflective RNFL bulge, protruding into the neurosensory retina at the optic disc margins, was identified in 17 eyes with tilted optic discs. Available follow-up data were inconclusive regarding natural changes with this ONH feature. This RNFL herniation was significantly correlated with smaller than average optic disc size (P = .005), congenital disc tilt (P optic discs, which has not previously been assessed as an independent ONH structure. The feature is predominantly related to congenital crowded, small optic discs and variable between patients. This study is an important first step to elucidate diagnostic capabilities of tilted disc morphological changes and understanding associated functional deficits.

  11. Stereotactic radiosurgery with an upper partial denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayama, Shusaku; Kunieda, Etsuo; Takeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Oku, Yohei

    2009-01-01

    A 54-year-old male with partial denture underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with an infrared camera-guided system for a metastatic brain tumor arising from lung cancer. Although this method utilizes a biteplate mounted on the upper jaw to detect head movement, the patient only had four teeth in his upper jaw. In order to stabilize the biteplate, the maxillary denture was fixed to the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. In addition, the rest-occlusal position of the lower jaw was impressed on the inferior surface of the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. To assess reproducibility and stability, the distance between the left and right incus and left and right markers was measured during pre-planning, as well as before and after stereotactic irradiation. Wearing the biteplate ensures the accuracy of radiotherapy planning for the implementation of radiosurgery in patients who have many maxillary teeth missing. However, a large degree of error was observed when the biteplate was removed. (author)

  12. Heat transfer enhancement of free surface MHD-flow by a protrusion wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulin Huang; Bo Li

    2010-01-01

    Due to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect on the flow, which degrades heat transfer coefficients by pulsation suppression of external magnetic field on the flow, a hemispherical protrusion wall is applied to free surface MHD-flow system as a heat transfer enhancement, because the hemispherical protrusion wall has some excellent characteristics including high heat transfer coefficients, low friction factors and high overall thermal performances. So, the characteristics of the fluid flow and heat transfer of the free surface MHD-flow with hemispherical protrusion wall are simulated numerically and the influence of some parameters, such as protrusion height δ/D, and Hartmann number, are also discussed in this paper. It is found that, in the range of Hartmann number 30 ≤ Ha ≤ 70, the protrusion wall assemblies can achieve heat transfer enhancements (Nu/Nu 0 ) of about 1.3-2.3 relative to the smooth channel, while the friction loss (f/f 0 ) increases by about 1.34-1.45. Thus, the high Nusselt number can be obtained when the protrusion wall with a radically lower friction loss increase, which may help get much higher overall thermal performances.

  13. Longitudinal evaluation of jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics in young patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Teuscher activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Maria-José; Cacho, Alberto; Alarcón, Jose-Antonio; Martín, Conchita

    2013-05-01

    A longitudinal study was performed to evaluate the jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics after Teuscher activator treatment and at 2 years after orthodontic treatment completion. Twenty-seven children with Class II division 1 malocclusion were evaluated before treatment (T0; mean: 11.6 years), after functional treatment (T1; mean: 12.8 years), and 2 years after orthodontic treatment (T2; mean: 18 years). Bilateral surface electromyographic activities of the anterior temporalis, posterior temporalis, masseter, and suprahyoid muscle areas were analyzed at rest and during clenching, swallowing, and mastication. Kinematic recordings of the mandibular maximum opening, lateral shift, right and left lateral excursions, and protrusion were evaluated. Compared to T0, the left masseter activity during clenching was decreased at T1 but increased at T2, similar to the other evaluated muscles. The suprahyoid activity during swallowing was increased at T1 but decreased at T2. The masseter activity during mastication was increased at T1 and further increased at T2. The left and right lateral excursions and protrusion did not show significant changes throughout the experiment. Teuscher activator and subsequent fixed orthodontic treatment improved jaw muscle function; however, a long period was needed to attain complete neuromuscular adaptation.

  14. [Osteonecrosis of the jaws and bisphosphonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A F; Carrel, J-P; Richter, M; Vogt-Ferrier, N

    2005-11-02

    Widely prescribed, bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption. They are not metabolised and have long half-lives. Two cases of osteonecrosis of the jaws have recently been attributed to bisphosphonates at the University Hospital of Geneva. The recent literature reveals more than a hundred similar cases throughout the world. Bone exposure appears spontaneously or after dental care. Treatment of the osteonecrosis is controversial and cure very difficult. This pathology is usually seen in patients on chemotherapy, steroids and i.v. bisphosphonates, but is sometimes seen with low-dose p.o. bisphosphonates. In view of the strong association between bisphosphonate therapy and osteonecrosis of the jaw, specialists have recommended dental and oral evaluation during bisphosphonate therapy as well as for several years after drug discontinuation.

  15. Toolmarks made by lathe chuck jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Nir; Aronson, Ayal; Tsach, Tsadok

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a forensic method to evidentially tie a workpiece with a specific lathe. Examining using this method can prove or exclude a connection between the two. The importance of this method is mostly due to the growing trend among lawbreakers of manufacturing improvised firearm parts using machining processes. This method is based on comparing jaw impressions made by the chuck on a workpiece. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Florid osseous dysplasia of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Su Beom; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1995-01-01

    Few cases of florid osseous dysplasia has been described as a condition that characteristically affects the jaws. It usually manifests as multiple radiopaque masses distributed throughout the jaws. Confusion exists about the relationship of florid osseous dysplasia, gigantiform cementoma, chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis, sclerosing osteitis or multiple enostosis. Authors experienced a case of florid osseous dysplasia of the jaws in 52-year-old female on the basis of clinical, radiographic and histopathologic findings. The characteristic features are as follows: 1. In clinical examination, there was no clinical sign and symptoms except extrated area. And there was no facial asymmetry. 2. Radiograms show round or lobular dense radiopaque masses surrounded by radiolucent bands in lower molar teeth area bilaterally. And slight increased radiopacities in maxillary molar teeth area bilaterllay. There was no expansion or thinning of buccal and lingual cortical bones. There is no displacement or resorption of involved teeth. In right side of mandible, mandibular canal is displaced inferiorly due to mass. 3. Photomicrograms show densely mineralized sclerotic acellular masses with empty lacunae. Pattern is suggestive of cementum, although it could be considered sclerotic bone. In the periphery, lesion consisting of moderately cellular fibrous tissue in calcified products are deposited.

  17. Cytogenetics of jaw cysts - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Esther; Brennan, Peter A; Bodner, Lipa

    2012-07-01

    The pathogenesis of cysts that arise in the jaws is still not certain, and the underlying mechanisms of epithelial proliferation are not fully understood. Cysts of the jaw may involve a reactive, inflammatory, or neoplastic process. Cytogenetics, the study of the number and structure of chromosomes, has provided valuable information about the diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted treatment in many cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytogenetics can also provide information about the possible aetiology or neoplastic potential of a lesion, though to our knowledge no studies of this technique have been used for cysts in the jaws. In this pilot study we used cytogenetics in a series of 10 cysts (3 radicular, 4 dentigerous, 2 of the nasopalatine duct, and 1 dermoid). In all cases we found normal karyotypes. Further work and larger numbers are needed for a definitive study, but we can hypothesise from this pilot study that these cysts do not have cytogenetic aberrations and so have no neoplastic potential. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chrysler Upset Protrusion Joining Techniques for Joining Dissimilar Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Stephen [FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The project goal was to develop and demonstrate a robust, cost effective, and versatile joining technique, known as Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ), for joining challenging dissimilar metal com-binations, especially those where one of the metals is a die cast magnesium (Mg) component. Since two of the key obstacles preventing more widespread use of light metals (especially in high volume automotive applications) are 1) a lack of robust joining techniques and 2) susceptibility to galvanic corrosion, and since the majority of the joint combinations evaluated in this project include die cast Mg (the lightest structural metal) as one of the two materials being joined, and since die casting is the most common and cost effective process for producing Mg components, then successful project completion provides a key enabler to high volume application of lightweight materials, thus potentially leading to reduced costs, and encouraging implementation of lightweight multi-material vehicles for significant reductions in energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Eco-nomic benefits to end-use consumers are achieved primarily via the reduction in fuel consumption. Unlike currently available commercial processes, the UPJ process relies on a very robust mechanical joint rather than intermetallic bonding, so the more cathodic material can be coated prior to joining, thus creating a robust isolation against galvanic attack on the more anodic material. Additionally, since the UPJ protrusion is going through a hole that can be pre-drilled or pre-punched prior to coating, the UPJ process is less likely to damage the coating when the joint is being made. Further-more, since there is no additional cathodic material (such as a steel fastener) used to create the joint, there is no joining induced galvanic activity beyond that of the two parent materials. In accordance with its originally proposed plan, this project has successfully developed process variants of UPJ to enable

  19. The Metalloprotease Mpl Supports Listeria monocytogenes Dissemination through Resolution of Membrane Protrusions into Vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Diego E; Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that disseminates within the intestinal epithelium through acquisition of actin-based motility and formation of plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. The resolution of membrane protrusions into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes results in bacterial spread from cell to cell. This dissemination process relies on the mlp-actA-plcB operon, which encodes ActA, a bacterial nucleation-promoting factor that mediates actin-based motility, and PlcB, a phospholipase that mediates vacuole escape. Here we investigated the role of the metalloprotease Mpl in the dissemination process. In agreement with previous findings showing that Mpl is required for PlcB activation, infection of epithelial cells with the ΔplcB or Δmpl strains resulted in the formation of small infection foci. As expected, the ΔplcB strain displayed a strong defect in vacuole escape. However, the Δmpl strain showed an unexpected defect in the resolution of protrusions into vacuoles, in addition to the expected but mild defect in vacuole escape. The Δmpl strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. We mapped an Mpl-dependent processing site in ActA between amino acid residues 207 to 238. Similar to the Δmpl strain, the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. Although the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed wild-type actin-based motility, it formed small infection foci and failed to resolve protrusions into vacuoles. We propose that, in addition to its role in PlcB processing and vacuole escape, the metalloprotease Mpl is required for ActA processing and protrusion resolution. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The virtual craniofacial patient: 3D jaw modeling and animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Reyes; Memon, Ahmed; Fidaleo, Douglas A; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present new developments in the area of 3D human jaw modeling and animation. CT (Computed Tomography) scans have traditionally been used to evaluate patients with dental implants, assess tumors, cysts, fractures and surgical procedures. More recently this data has been utilized to generate models. Researchers have reported semi-automatic techniques to segment and model the human jaw from CT images and manually segment the jaw from MRI images. Recently opto-electronic and ultrasonic-based systems (JMA from Zebris) have been developed to record mandibular position and movement. In this research project we introduce: (1) automatic patient-specific three-dimensional jaw modeling from CT data and (2) three-dimensional jaw motion simulation using jaw tracking data from the JMA system (Zebris).

  1. Numerical investigation of thermal-hydraulic performance of channel with protrusions by turbulent cross flow jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, M. K.; Pandey, K. M.; Chatterjee, S.

    2018-05-01

    In this two dimensional numerical investigation, small rectangular channel with right angled triangular protrusions in the bottom wall of test section is considered. A slot nozzle is placed at the middle of top wall of channel which impinges air normal to the protruded surface. A duct flow and nozzle flow combined to form cross flow which is investigated for heat transfer enhancement of protruded channel. The governing equations for continuity, momentum, energy along with SST k-ω turbulence model are solved with finite volume based Computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The range of duct Reynolds number considered for this analysis is 8357 to 51760. The ratios of pitch of protrusion to height of duct considered are 0.5, 0.64 and 0.82. The ratios of height of protrusion to height of duct considered are 0.14, 0.23 and 0.29. The effect of duct Reynolds number, pitch and height of protrusion on thermal-hydraulic performance is studied under cross flow condition. It is found that heat transfer rate is more at relatively larger pitch and small pressure drop is found in case of low height of protrusion.

  2. Microstructure Evolution and Protrusion of Electroplated Cu-Filled Through-Silicon Vias Subjected to Thermal Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; An, Tong; Qin, Fei; Chen, Pei

    2017-10-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSVs) have become an important technology for three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) packaging. Protrusion of electroplated Cu-filled vias is a critical reliability issue for TSV technology. In this work, thermal cycling tests were carried out to identify how the microstructure affects protrusion during thermal cycling. Cu protrusion occurs when the loading temperature is higher than 149°C. During the first five thermal cycles, the grain size of Cu plays a dominant role in the protrusion behavior. Larger Cu grain size before thermal cycling results in greater Cu protrusion. With increasing thermal cycle number, the effect of the Cu grain size reduces and the microstrain begins to dominate the Cu protrusion behavior. Higher magnitude of microstrain within Cu results in greater protrusion increment during subsequent thermal cycles. When the thermal cycle number reaches 25, the protrusion rate of Cu slows down due to strain hardening. After 30 thermal cycles, the Cu protrusion stabilizes within the range of 1.92 μm to 2.09 μm.

  3. Bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jodi; Shannon, John; Modelevsky, Steven; Grippo, Anne A

    2011-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are used worldwide as a successful treatment for people with osteoporosis, which is the major underlying cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and older adults. These agents are successful at increasing bone mass and bone trabecular thickness, decreasing the risk of fracture, and decreasing bone pain, enabling individuals to have better quality of life. Bisphosphonates are also used to treat multiple myeloma, bone metastasis, and Paget's disease; however, bisphosphonate treatment may result in negative side effects, including osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). ONJ involves necrotic, exposed bone in the jaw, pain, possible secondary infection, swelling, painful lesions, and various dysesthesias, although less-severe cases may be asymptomatic. First-generation bisphosphonates, which do not contain nitrogen, are metabolized into a nonfunctional, cytotoxic analogue of adenosine triphosphate and cause osteoclast death by starvation. Second-generation bisphosphonates are nitrogen-containing agents; these inhibit osteoclast vesicular trafficking, membrane ruffling, morphology, and cytoskeletal arrangement by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase in the mevalonate pathway. Physicians treating older adults with osteoporosis and cancer should work together with dental practitioners, pharmacists, and other clinicians to inform individuals receiving bisphosphonates of their possible side effects and to suggest precautionary steps that may minimize the risk of osteonecrosis, particularly of the jaw. These include practicing good oral hygiene; scheduling regular dental examinations and cleanings; and cautioning people who are scheduling treatment for periodontal disease, oral and maxillofacial therapy, endodontics, implant placement, restorative dentistry, and prosthodontics. Recommendations for management of people with ONJ include an oral rinse, such as chlorhexidine, and antibiotics. © 2011, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American

  4. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Casey M

    2009-09-01

    Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in

  5. Unicystic Jaw Lesions: A Radiographic Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giju George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The unilocular radiolucencies remain the topic of much interest for the clinicians and histhopathologists for decades. Adequate use of diagnostic aids and careful observation will clinically help the dentist to arrive at a proper diagnosis and renders quality treatment to patients. Despite of the development of various cross-sectional imaging modalities, the radiograph still remains as the first and most important investigation. Jaw bone lesions, especially unilocular ones, are difficult to diagnose radiologically because of their similar radiographic appearance. It is, thus, very important for the clinician to have a sound knowledge of various radiographic features of the tooth and its supporting structures.

  6. [Permanent constrictions of the jaws (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, A; Michaud, J

    1981-01-01

    Permanent constrictions of the jaws are of various types depending on the site of the lesion: temporomaxillary ankylosis, extra-articular constrictions of bone, skin, muscle, or mucosal origin, and those arising from tumors. The commonest cause is injury, those due to infection being currently less frequently observed, which cannot be said for those of tumoral origin. The consequences are difficulty in taking foud and poor buccodental hygiene, while temporomaxillary ankylosis in children provokes mandibular growth disturbances. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the constriction. Total resection of the ankylosed block is essential to avoid recurrences, while reeducation of buccal opening must be started early and continued for long periods in all cases.

  7. Unique Asymmetric Protrusion of Nerve Cord in the Amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Masumi; Terakado, Kiyoshi; Kubokawa, Kaoru

    The amphioxus is the only surviving prevertebrate segmented chordate. In this animal Hatschek's pit has long been regarded as a putative homologue of the adenohypophysis because of the presence of secretory granules and immunoreactive cells to vertebrate gonadotrophic hormone in this organ. We found that the nerve cord extends a protrusion to the pit along the right side of the notochord. Furthermore, secretory granules were found not only in the pit but also in the protrusion of the nerve cord. These results suggest that Hatschek's pit and the nerve protrusion are homologous to the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis, respectively. We believe that this is an evidence for the presence of the neuroendocrine link between the central nervous system and Hatschek's pit in the amphioxus.

  8. Tooth axis and skeletal structures in mandibular molar vertical sections in jaw deformity with facial asymmetry using MPR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kunihiko; Yokose, Taishi; Ishii, Takenobu; Kobayashi, Makoto; Nishii, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate frontal morphological asymmetry in the mandibular molar region in terms of tooth axis and skeletal structures using vertical MPR sections in jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry. Subjects consisted of 15 patients with jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry aged 17.4 years to 37.8 years. There were four men and eleven women. Based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewer software was used to prepare multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) sections. The mandible was then positioned on a reference plane based on the menton and left and right gonions, and a vertical MPR section passing through the mesial root of the first mandibular molar was prepared. The following measurements were made on both the shifted and non-shifted sides: maximum buccolingual width of the mandibular body; height of the mandibular body; inclination angle of the mandibular body; degree of buccal protrusion of the mandibular body; and inclination angle of the buccolingual tooth axis of the first molar. Furthermore, degree of median deviation in the menton was measured using frontal cephalograms. Differences in morphological parameters between the shifted and non-shifted sides were assessed. Furthermore, the relationship between median deviation and asymmetry were statistically analyzed. There was no significant asymmetry in the maximum buccolingual width of the mandibular body, the height of the mandibular body or the degree of buccal protrusion of the mandibular body. However, when compared to the shifted side, the inclination angle of the buccolingual tooth axis of the first molar for the non-shifted side was significantly greater. There was a relatively strong correlation between median deviation and inclination angle of the mandibular body. The above findings clarified that, in orthognathic surgery for jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry, actively improving

  9. Short Lives with Long-Lasting Effects: Filopodia Protrusions in Neuronal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leondaritis

    Full Text Available The branching behaviors of both dendrites and axons are part of a neuronal maturation process initiated by the generation of small and transient membrane protrusions. These are highly dynamic, actin-enriched structures, collectively called filopodia, which can mature in neurons to form stable branches. Consequently, the generation of filopodia protrusions is crucial during the formation of neuronal circuits and involves the precise control of an interplay between the plasma membrane and actin dynamics. In this issue of PLOS Biology, Hou and colleagues identify a Ca2+/CaM-dependent molecular machinery in dendrites that ensures proper targeting of branch formation by activation of the actin nucleator Cobl.

  10. Agenesis of mandibular second premolar in patient with dental bimaxillary protrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Estevanell Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study reports the treatment carried out in a patient with mandibular second premolar agenesis associated with early loss of a deciduous second molar, deep overbite, severe overjet and dentoalveolar bimaxillary protrusion, which led to lip incompetence and a convex facial profile. The main objectives of this treatment were: to eliminate the spaces in mandibular arch, correct overbite, as well as eliminate bimaxillary protrusion and lip incompetence, thus leading to a balanced profile. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements to obtain the title of BBO diplomate.

  11. Protrusive intrusion, dehydration and polymorphism in minerals as possible reason of seismic activity, relation between ophiolite belts and seismic zonation of the territory of Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, A. V.; Petrosyan, H. M.

    2010-05-01

    In the basis of multiple geological and geophysical data, also on the results of investigations seismic and density properties of rocks at high termobaric conditions, we proposed the petrophisical section and model of evolution of Earth crust of the territory of Armenia. On the proposed model the following interrelated problems are debated: forming of ophiolite belts and volcanic centers, genesis of hydrocarbons by organic and inorganic ways, and also reasons of originating of seismic centers. The reasons of originating of seismic centers in different depths of Earth crust, are miscellaneous. According to the model of Earth crust evolution the ophiolite belts are formed due to permanent protrusive intrusion of serpentinized masses from the foot of the crust (35-50km) into upper horizons. It is natural to assume, that the permanent intrusion of serpentinizd masses through deep faults has drastically occurred accompanying with seismic shakings. This process encourages the development of deep faults. The protrusive intrusion of serpentinized masse accompanied with partial dehydration of serpentinites and serpentinized ultrabasites and new mineral formation. The processes was accompanied also with drastic change of seismic waves and volumes up to 30%. Experiments at high termobaric conditions show, that some minerals undergone polymorphous transformations, accompanied with phase change and drastic change of rocks volume. Particularly plastic calcite, included in the composition of metamorphic rocks to run into the cracks expends and diversifies them. The process described cause some general effects similar to those of the process of dilatancy. Therefore, the protrusive intrusion of serpentinized masses into upper horizons, it dehydrations and polymorphous transformations in different minerals, may be cause of geo-dynamic processes at different depths of Earth crust. It may be assumed, that those processes permanently occur nowadays as well. Comparing the maps of

  12. Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates constitute a group of drugs capable of modulating bone turnover and reduce its remodeling when an excessive resorption occurs. This is why they are indicated in a large group of bone diseases like postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteolysis associated with breast cancer or multiple myeloma. Over the last few years and due to their extensive use, many cases of complications associated with their use have been published. Among the most important possible adverse effects are the oral ones, with the appearance of ulcerations and, especially, osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with this therapy. In this paper, we have analyzed the general characteristics of these drugs and their mechanisms of action as well as the described adverse effects, especially oral and maxillofacial, have been made special reference, regarding the prevention of osteonecrosis of the jaws, heightened by cases described in the medical and odontological literature. The preventive protocol backs up the fundamental role of the odontologist in the effective prevention of this process before, during and after the treatment.

  13. Digital assessment of preliminary impression accuracy for edentulous jaws: Comparisons of 3-dimensional surfaces between study and working casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takashi; Goto, Takaharu; Kurahashi, Kosuke; Kashiwabara, Toshiya; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Nagao, Kan; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 3-dimensional surfaces of study and working casts for edentulous jaws and to evaluate the accuracy of preliminary impressions with a view to the future application of digital dentistry for edentulous jaws. Forty edentulous volunteers were serially recruited. Nine dentists took preliminary and final impressions in a routine clinical work-up. The study and working casts were digitized using a dental 3-dimensional scanner. The two surface images were superimposed through a least-square algorithm using imaging software and compared qualitatively. Furthermore, the surface of each jaw was divided into 6 sections, and the difference between the 2 images was quantitatively evaluated. Overall inspection showed that the difference around residual ridges was small and that around borders were large. The mean differences in the upper and lower jaws were 0.26mm and 0.45mm, respectively. The maximum values of the differences showed that the upward change mainly occurred in the anterior residual ridge, and the downward change mainly in the posterior border seal, and the labial and buccal vestibules, whereas every border of final impression was shortened in the lower jaw. The accuracy in all areas except the border, which forms the foundation, was estimated to be less than 0.25mm. Using digital technology, we here showed the overall and sectional accuracy of the preliminary impression for edentulous jaws. In our clinic, preliminary impressions have been made using an alginate material while ensuring that the requisite impression area was covered. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Convergent evolution of jaws between spinosaurid dinosaurs and pike conger eels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Vullo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinosaurs represent a group of peculiar theropod dinosaurs that have often been described as “crocodile-mimic”, predominantly fish-eating predators, and recently claimed to have been semi-aquatic animals. Here we report a suite of craniodental characters unexpectedly shared by spinosaurs and pike conger eels. Pike conger eels are predatory, mainly piscivorous bottom-dwelling anguilliform fishes that inhabit marine and brackish environments. These two groups of dinosaurs and fishes show a mediolaterally compressed, elongated rostrum, a terminal “rosette” bearing enlarged teeth in both upper and lower jaws, and a notch posterior to the premaxillary “rosette” characterized by the presence of reduced teeth. The morphological convergence observed in the jaws of these two distantly related groups of vertebrates may result from similar feeding behaviours. This typical jaw morphology likely represents an effective biomechanical adaptation for biting and grabbing elusive prey items in low-light aquatic environments. Associated with this specialized snout morphology, numerous integumentary mechanoreceptors involved in prey detection are present in both spinosaurs and pike congers. Our new observations provide an additional convincing argument regarding the decades-long and widely debated lifestyle of spinosaurs.

  15. Developmental finite element analysis of cichlid pharyngeal jaws: Quantifying the generation of a key innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerd B.

    2018-01-01

    Advances in imaging and modeling facilitate the calculation of biomechanical forces in biological specimens. These factors play a significant role during ontogenetic development of cichlid pharyngeal jaws, a key innovation responsible for one of the most prolific species diversifications in recent times. MicroCT imaging of radiopaque-stained vertebrate embryos were used to accurately capture the spatial relationships of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus in two cichlid species (Haplochromis elegans and Amatitlania nigrofasciata) for the purpose of creating a time series of developmental stages using finite element models, which can be used to assess the effects of biomechanical forces present in a system at multiple points of its ontogeny. Changes in muscle vector orientations, bite forces, force on the neurocranium where cartilage originates, and stress on upper pharyngeal jaws are analyzed in a comparative context. In addition, microCT scanning revealed the presence of previously unreported cement glands in A. nigrofasciata. The data obtained provide an underrepresented dimension of information on physical forces present in developmental processes and assist in interpreting the role of developmental dynamics in evolution. PMID:29320528

  16. Developmental finite element analysis of cichlid pharyngeal jaws: Quantifying the generation of a key innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Peterson

    Full Text Available Advances in imaging and modeling facilitate the calculation of biomechanical forces in biological specimens. These factors play a significant role during ontogenetic development of cichlid pharyngeal jaws, a key innovation responsible for one of the most prolific species diversifications in recent times. MicroCT imaging of radiopaque-stained vertebrate embryos were used to accurately capture the spatial relationships of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus in two cichlid species (Haplochromis elegans and Amatitlania nigrofasciata for the purpose of creating a time series of developmental stages using finite element models, which can be used to assess the effects of biomechanical forces present in a system at multiple points of its ontogeny. Changes in muscle vector orientations, bite forces, force on the neurocranium where cartilage originates, and stress on upper pharyngeal jaws are analyzed in a comparative context. In addition, microCT scanning revealed the presence of previously unreported cement glands in A. nigrofasciata. The data obtained provide an underrepresented dimension of information on physical forces present in developmental processes and assist in interpreting the role of developmental dynamics in evolution.

  17. Radiologic appearance of primary jaw lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Malini; Kaste, Sue C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Hopkins, Kenneth P. [Department of Surgery, Division of Dentistry, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Background: The jaw (an unusual site of primary tumors in children and adolescents) has lesions often found incidentally by dentists on routine panoramic radiographs or during examination of a child who has swelling or tooth pain. Objective: This pictorial seeks to familiarize pediatric radiologists with the radiographic appearance of a variety of primary jaw lesions. Materials and methods: We retrospectively searched institutional records for cases of primary jaw lesions in children and adolescents. Jaw lesions were characterized as: I, well-circumscribed radiolucent lesions; II, lesions with mixed or variable appearance; III, poorly circumscribed radiolucent lesions; and IV, radiopaque lesions. Results: Although most oral and maxillofacial lesions in children are benign, a broad spectrum of tumors was identified; lesions may occur in patients with unrelated prior malignancy. Conclusion: Because radiologic studies may identify jaw lesions and direct further care, familiarity with the appearance of these entities is prudent. (orig.)

  18. Optimization of Collimator Jaw Locations for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltchev, D I; Servranckx, R V; Jeanneret, J B

    1996-01-01

    A highly effective collimation scheme is required in the LHC to limit heating of the vacuum chamber and superconducting magnets by protons either uncaptured at injection or scattered from the collision points. The proposed system would consist of one set of primary collimators followed by three sets of secondary collimators downstream to clean up protons scattered from the primaries. Each set of collimators would consist of four pairs of jaws - horizontal, vertical, and 45 o and 135 o skew. A study is reported of the optimization of the longitudinal positions of these jaws with the aim of minimizing the maximum betatron amplitudes of protons surviving the collimation system. This is performed using an analytical representation of the action of the jaws and is confirmed by tracking. Significant improvement can be obtained by omitting inactive jaws and adding skew jaws.

  19. [Studies on the standardization of parameters for jaw movement analysis--6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hisahiro; Bando, Eiichi; Abe, Susumu

    2008-07-01

    To establish standardized evaluating methods for jaw movements analysis. In this paper, we investigated evaluating parameters for 6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements data. Recorded data of jaw border movements from 20 male adults were employed as basic samples. The main parameters were as follows: 1. The displacement of an intercondylar midpoint: the length of a straight line between 2 positions of this point, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 2. The angle of intercondylar axes: the angle between 2 position of the intercondylar axis, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 3. The angle of incisal-condylar planes: the angle between 2 position of the plane, the intercuspal position and other jaw position (this plane was defined with the incisal point and condylar points of both sides 4. The mandibular motion range index: quantitative values calculated with 2 of 3 parameters described above. The mandibular motion range index showed a close correlation with respective projected areas of the incisal paths, with the projected area of sagittal border movements on the sagittal plane r = 0.82 (p movements on the frontal plane: left lateral border movements r = 0.92 (p movements r = 0.84 (p movements data and relative relationship between the intercuspal position and other jaw position. They were independent of reference coordinate systems and could measure jaw movement quantitatively.

  20. Report of a Class I bimaxillary dental protrusion case with extraction of first premolars treated with Clarity™ SL MBT appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Trevisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimaxillary protrusion cases are common in orthodontic practice. For the best facial outcome, the biomechanics can often be challenging. A class I bimaxillary protrusion case is presented below illustrating the careful application of extractions and bracket prescription. The case highlights how self-ligating brackets and high precision bracket positioning can reduce the need for additional anchorage.

  1. Observation of a Ag protrusion on a Ag2S island using a scanning tunneling microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A silver sulfide (Ag2S island as an ionic conductor in resistive switching memories was formed and a protrusion of silver from the Ag2S formed by an electrochemical reaction was observed using a scanning tunneling microscope.

  2. Preferential control of basal dendritic protrusions by EphB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Kayser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The flow of information between neurons in many neural circuits is controlled by a highly specialized site of cell-cell contact known as a synapse. A number of molecules have been identified that are involved in central nervous system synapse development, but knowledge is limited regarding whether these cues direct organization of specific synapse types or on particular regions of individual neurons. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and the majority of glutamatergic synapses occur on mushroom-shaped protrusions called dendritic spines. Changes in the morphology of these structures are associated with long-lasting modulation of synaptic strength thought to underlie learning and memory, and can be abnormal in neuropsychiatric disease. Here, we use rat cortical slice cultures to examine how a previously-described synaptogenic molecule, the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates dendritic protrusion morphology in specific regions of the dendritic arbor in cortical pyramidal neurons. We find that alterations in EphB2 signaling can bidirectionally control protrusion length, and knockdown of EphB2 expression levels reduces the number of dendritic spines and filopodia. Expression of wild-type or dominant negative EphB2 reveals that EphB2 preferentially regulates dendritic protrusion structure in basal dendrites. Our findings suggest that EphB2 may act to specify synapse formation in a particular subcellular region of cortical pyramidal neurons.

  3. PROTRUSION OF THE DEVICE - A COMPLICATION OF CATHETER CLOSURE OF PATENT DUCTUS-ARTERIOSUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OTTENKAMP, J; HESS, J; TALSMA, MD; BUISLIEM, TN

    Objective-To assess the medium term results of percutaneous transvenous closure of patent ductus arteriosus, in particular with regard to protrusion of the device with or without turbulence of the bloodflow. Design-Clinical examination and echocardiographic study (cross sectional Doppler, and colour

  4. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Raman Deep, E-mail: Takhter.Ramandeep@mayo.edu; Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L., E-mail: Marks.david@mayo.edu; Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily

  5. Effect of Coriolis forces in a rotating channel with dimples and protrusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elyyan, Mohammad A.; Tafti, Danesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Large-eddy simulations are used to investigate the effect of Coriolis forces and dimple depth on heat transfer and friction in a channel with dimples and protrusions on either side. Two geometries with two different dimple-protrusion depths, δ = 0.2 and 0.3 of channel height are investigated over a wide range of rotation numbers, Ro b = -0.77 to 1.10 based on mean velocity and channel height. It is found that the dimple side of the channel is much more sensitive to destabilizing rotational Coriolis forces than the protrusion side of the channel, although both dimples and protrusions react to the stabilizing effects of Coriolis forces on the leading side. The dimpled surface on the trailing side experiences a large increase in heat transfer coefficient from an augmentation ratio of 1.9 for stationary flow to 3.5 at Ro b = 0.77 for δ = 0.2, and from 2.3 to a maximum of 3.8 for δ = 0.3. Placing protrusion on the trailing side, however, only increases the augmentation ratio to between 3.25 and 3.7 from the stationary values of 3.0 and 3.4 for δ = 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. The dimpled leading side experiences a large drop in heat transfer to between augmentation ratios of 1.1 and 1.4 for the two dimple depths. The protrusion surface on the leading side also experiences a large drop in augmentation from 3.0 for a stationary channel to 1.3 at Ro b = 0.77 for δ = 0.2 and from 3.4 to 1.8 at Ro b = 1.1 for δ = 0.3. The results lead to the conclusion that for low rotation numbers |Ro b | b | > 0.2, dimples on the trailing side of the duct give better overall performance. Between the two depths, the deeper dimple/protrusion (δ = 0.3) gives higher heat transfer augmentation at the price of more frictional losses ranging from 6 to 10 versus 3 to 5 for depth δ = 0.2.

  6. Condylar guidance: correlation between protrusive interocclusal record and panoramic radiographic image: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannamala, Pavan Kumar; Pulagam, Mahesh; Pottem, Srinivas R; Swapna, B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sagittal condylar angles set in the Hanau articulator by use of a method of obtaining an intraoral protrusive record to those angles found using a panoramic radiographic image. Ten patients, free of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder and with intact dentition were selected. The dental stone casts of the subjects were mounted on a Hanau articulator with a springbow and poly(vinyl siloxane) interocclusal records. For all patients, the protrusive records were obtained when the mandible moved forward by approximately 6 mm. All procedures for recording, mounting, and setting were done in the same session. The condylar guidance angles obtained were tabulated. A panoramic radiographic image of each patient was made with the Frankfurt horizontal plane parallel to the floor of the mouth. Tracings of the radiographic images were made. The horizontal reference line was marked by joining the orbitale and porion. The most superior and most inferior points of the curvatures were identified. These two lines were connected by a straight line representing the mean curvature line. Angles made by the intersection of the mean curvature line and the horizontal reference line were measured. The results were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of p record method. The mean condylar guidance angle between the right and left side by both the methods was not statistically significant. The comparison of mean condylar guidance angles between the right side of the protrusive record method and the right side of the panoramic radiographic method and the left side of the protrusive record method and the left side of the panoramic radiographic method (p= 0.071 and p= 0.057, respectively) were not statistically significant. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar guidance angles obtained by panoramic radiograph may be used in programming semi-adjustable articulators. © 2012

  7. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2015-09-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 - 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  8. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes

  9. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal, E-mail: diana.atiqah@gmail.com; Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd., E-mail: magfish05@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  10. Jaw tremor as a physiological biomarker of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, C M; Yavuz, Ş U; D'Amico, J M; Gorassini, M A; Türker, K S; Farina, D

    2015-09-01

    To determine if sleep bruxism is associated with abnormal physiological tremor of the jaw during a visually-guided bite force control task. Healthy participants and patients with sleep bruxism were given visual feedback of their bite force and asked to trace triangular target trajectories (duration=20s, peak force bruxism have abnormal jaw tremor when engaged in a visually-guided bite force task. Measurement of jaw tremor may aid in the detection/evaluation of bruxism. In light of previous literature, our results also suggest that bruxism is marked by abnormal or mishandled peripheral feedback from the teeth. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. An Accounting Mechanism of the Protrusion Effect in the Annular Channel When Calculating the Leontiev Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kiselev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a technique to calculate the Leontiev tube and shows that there are several ways to increase operating efficiency of this device of gas-dynamic energy separation. Application of regular relief (dimples and protrusions on the wall between supersonic and subsonic channels is one of them.Analyses the results available in publications of experimentally numerically investigated influence of semi-spherical protrusions in the slot channels on the enhancement of heat transfer and drag coefficients at various Reynolds numbers.Shows that at the laminar flow owing to semi-spherical protrusions in the slot channel a heat transfer coefficient can be 1.1‑2.6 times increased with simultaneous 1.7‑4.8 times growth of drag coefficient (as compared to the smooth channel.At transition and turbulent flows the heat transfer enhancement, because of shallow dimples (depth-to-print diameter ratio is from 0.1 to 0.25, can reach 1.1‑2.4 times, with simultaneous 1.2‑7.9 times growth of the drag coefficient (as compared to smooth channel.Using the higher protrusions can provide up to 3.0‑3.5 times heat transfer intensification, but in this case there is an outrunning growth of the drag coefficient.It is shown that the staggered array of the shallow spherical protrusions is advisable to use for heat transfer enhancement in the subsonic channel of the Leontiev tube. The shallow spherical dimples correspond to them and operate as heat transfer intensifiers in the supersonic channel.The paper proposes a mechanism that enables taking into consideration an impact of the protrusions in the slot channel on the intensification of the heat transfer and momentum processes when calculating the gas-dynamic energy separation device (Leontiev tube using the known (earlier published technique.The study has been implemented under supporting Grant no. 15-08-08428 of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  12. Parrotfish grazing ability: interspecific differences in relation to jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae on an Okinawan coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nanami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Parrotfishes (family Labridae: Scarini are regarded to have important roles for maintaining the ecosystem balance in coral reefs due to their removal of organic matter and calcic substrates by grazing. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the interspecific differences in grazing ability of five parrotfish species (Chlorurus sordidus, C. bowersi, Scarus rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni in relation to interspecific differences in jaw-lever mechanics and the relative weight of the adductor mandibulae (muscles operating jaw closing. The grazing ability was calculated by using stomach contents (CaCO3 weight/organic matter weight defined as the grazing ability index (GAI. There were significant interspecific differences in GAI (C. sordidus = C. bowersi > S. rivulatus > S. niger = S. forsteni. Teeth of C. sordidus and C. bowersi were protrusive-shape whereas teeth of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were flat-shape. C. sordidus and C. bowersihave jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force and have a larger weight of adductor mandibulae. S. rivulatus has jaw-lever mechanics producing a greater biting force but a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae that produce an intermediate biting force. In contrast, S. niger and S. forsteni have jaw-lever mechanics producing a lesser biting force and have a smaller weight of adductor mandibulae. Feeding rates and foray size of S. rivulatus, S. niger and S. forsteni were greater than C. sordidus and C. bowersi. The degree in bioerosion (GAI × feeding rate was the largest for S. rivulatusand the smallest for S. forsteni. The degree in bioerosion for C. sordidus was larger than S. niger whereas relatively equal between C. bowersi and S. niger. These results suggest that interspecific difference in GAI was explained by interspecific differences in teeth shape, jaw-lever mechanics and relative weight of adductor mandibulae. The interspecific difference in the degree of bioerosion suggests

  13. Field emission study from an array of hierarchical micro protrusions on stainless steel surface generated by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.K., E-mail: anilks@barc.gov.in [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, M.A. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, 40085 (India); Sinha, Sucharita [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Array of self assembled micro-protrusions have been generated on stainless steel surfaces by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation. • Density of the formed micro-protrusions is ∼5.6 × 105 protrusions/cm{sup 2}. • Laser treated surface is mainly composed of iron oxide and cementite phases. • Micro-structured sample has shown good field emission properties – low turn on field, high field enhancement factor and stable emission current. - Abstract: This paper reports our results on femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser induced surface micro/nano structuring of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) samples and their characterization in terms of surface morphology, formed material phases on laser irradiation and field emission studies. Our investigations reveal that nearly uniform and dense array of hierarchical micro-protrusions (density: ∼5.6 × 10{sup 5} protrusions/cm{sup 2}) is formed upon laser treatment. Typical tip diameters of the generated protrusions are in the range of 2–5 μm and these protrusions are covered with submicron sized features. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis of the laser irradiated sample surface has shown formation mainly of iron oxides and cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) phases in the treated region. These laser micro-structured samples have shown good field emission properties such as low turn on field (∼4.1 V/μm), high macroscopic field enhancement factor (1830) and stable field emission current under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  14. Effect of microscale protrusions on local fluid flow and mass transport in the presence of forced convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Gehard W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional creeping flow around single, axisymmetric protrusions is studied numerically using the boundary-integral technique. Emphasis is placed upon cylindrical protrusions on plane walls for various height-to-radius (h-to-a) aspect ratios, but cones and sections of spheres protruding from plane walls are also briefly examined. The presented items include shear-stress distributions, shear-stress contours, extents of the fluid-flow disturbance, total forces and torques on the cylinders, streamlines, and skin-friction lines. Also included is a discussion of flow topology around axisymmetric geometries. No flow reversal is observed for cylindrical protrusions with aspect ratios greater than 2.4 to 2.6. At higher aspect ratios, the fluid tends to be swept around cylindrical protrusions with little vertical motion. At lower aspect ratios, the strength of the recirculation increases, and the recirculation region becomes wider in the transverse direction and narrower in the flow direction. Also, the recirculation pattern begins to resemble the closed streamline patterns in two-dimensional flow over square ridges. However, unlike two-dimensional flow, closed streamline patterns are not observed. For arbitrary axisymmetric geometries, the extent of the fluid-flow disturbance can be estimated with the total force that is exerted on the protrusion. When the same force is exerted on protrusions with different aspect ratios, the protrusion with the higher aspect ratio tends to have a greater disturbance in the flow direction and a smaller disturbance in the transverse direction. The total force exerted on cylindrical protrusions with rounded corners is only slightly lower than the total force exerted on cylindrical protrusions with sharp corners.

  15. Multiple myeloma of the jaw: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhasini A Raghavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a systemic B-cell lymphoproliferative disease that causes osteolytic lesions in the vertebra, ribs, pelvic bone, skull and jaw. Rarely jaw lesions are seen as the first sign in multiple myeloma. This is a case report with follow up of a 57-year-old female patient, previously treated for osteoporosis, who presented with a swelling of the jaw. On radiographic examination, she was found to have osteolytic lesions in the mandible and skull bones. These conventional aids led to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma thereby proving that the osteoporotic lesions were a part of the spectrum of multiple myeloma. The patient underwent chemotherapy and is currently on follow-up. This case report emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis of multiple myeloma in the jaw using readily available technologies and illustrates the contribution that oral assessment can provide.

  16. Monte Carlo-based simulation of dynamic jaws tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Q.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Vynckier, S. [Department of Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 54 Avenue Hippocrate, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); 21 Century Oncology., 1240 D' onofrio, Madison, Wisconsin 53719 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 and Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, St-Luc University Hospital, 10 Avenue Hippocrate, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Original TomoTherapy systems may involve a trade-off between conformity and treatment speed, the user being limited to three slice widths (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). This could be overcome by allowing the jaws to define arbitrary fields, including very small slice widths (<1 cm), which are challenging for a beam model. The aim of this work was to incorporate the dynamic jaws feature into a Monte Carlo (MC) model called TomoPen, based on the MC code PENELOPE, previously validated for the original TomoTherapy system. Methods: To keep the general structure of TomoPen and its efficiency, the simulation strategy introduces several techniques: (1) weight modifiers to account for any jaw settings using only the 5 cm phase-space file; (2) a simplified MC based model called FastStatic to compute the modifiers faster than pure MC; (3) actual simulation of dynamic jaws. Weight modifiers computed with both FastStatic and pure MC were compared. Dynamic jaws simulations were compared with the convolution/superposition (C/S) of TomoTherapy in the ''cheese'' phantom for a plan with two targets longitudinally separated by a gap of 3 cm. Optimization was performed in two modes: asymmetric jaws-constant couch speed (''running start stop,'' RSS) and symmetric jaws-variable couch speed (''symmetric running start stop,'' SRSS). Measurements with EDR2 films were also performed for RSS for the formal validation of TomoPen with dynamic jaws. Results: Weight modifiers computed with FastStatic were equivalent to pure MC within statistical uncertainties (0.5% for three standard deviations). Excellent agreement was achieved between TomoPen and C/S for both asymmetric jaw opening/constant couch speed and symmetric jaw opening/variable couch speed, with deviations well within 2%/2 mm. For RSS procedure, agreement between C/S and measurements was within 2%/2 mm for 95% of the points and 3%/3 mm for 98% of the points, where dose is

  17. Monte Carlo-based simulation of dynamic jaws tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Q.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Vynckier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Original TomoTherapy systems may involve a trade-off between conformity and treatment speed, the user being limited to three slice widths (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). This could be overcome by allowing the jaws to define arbitrary fields, including very small slice widths (<1 cm), which are challenging for a beam model. The aim of this work was to incorporate the dynamic jaws feature into a Monte Carlo (MC) model called TomoPen, based on the MC code PENELOPE, previously validated for the original TomoTherapy system. Methods: To keep the general structure of TomoPen and its efficiency, the simulation strategy introduces several techniques: (1) weight modifiers to account for any jaw settings using only the 5 cm phase-space file; (2) a simplified MC based model called FastStatic to compute the modifiers faster than pure MC; (3) actual simulation of dynamic jaws. Weight modifiers computed with both FastStatic and pure MC were compared. Dynamic jaws simulations were compared with the convolution/superposition (C/S) of TomoTherapy in the ''cheese'' phantom for a plan with two targets longitudinally separated by a gap of 3 cm. Optimization was performed in two modes: asymmetric jaws-constant couch speed (''running start stop,'' RSS) and symmetric jaws-variable couch speed (''symmetric running start stop,'' SRSS). Measurements with EDR2 films were also performed for RSS for the formal validation of TomoPen with dynamic jaws. Results: Weight modifiers computed with FastStatic were equivalent to pure MC within statistical uncertainties (0.5% for three standard deviations). Excellent agreement was achieved between TomoPen and C/S for both asymmetric jaw opening/constant couch speed and symmetric jaw opening/variable couch speed, with deviations well within 2%/2 mm. For RSS procedure, agreement between C/S and measurements was within 2%/2 mm for 95% of the points and 3%/3 mm for 98% of the points, where dose is greater than 30% of the prescription dose (gamma analysis

  18. Incremental benefit of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of left main coronary artery stent protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisha, Mohammed J; Hsiung, Ming C; Ahmad, Amier; Nanda, Navin C; Elkaryoni, Ahmed; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Yin, Wei-Hsian

    2017-06-01

    Ostial lesions represent a challenging clinical scenario and percutaneous intervention (PCI) of left main coronary artery ostial lesions has been associated with postintervention complications, including protrusion of deployed stents into a sinus of Valsalva or aortic root. We report a case of stent protrusion into the aortic root following aorto-ostial left main coronary artery PCI, in which three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) provided incremental benefit over standard two-dimensional images. Specifically, 3DTEE confirmed the presence of stent protrusion by allowing clear visualization of the stent scaffold, in addition to characterizing the relationship between the stent and surrounding structures. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evolutionary Trends in the Jaw Adductor Mechanics of Ornithischian Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Jaw mechanics in ornithischian dinosaurs have been widely studied for well over a century. Most of these studies, however, use only one or few taxa within a given ornithischian clade as a model for feeding mechanics across the entire clade. In this study, mandibular mechanical advantages among 52 ornithischian genera spanning all subclades are calculated using 2D lever arm methods. These lever arm calculations estimate the effect of jaw shape and difference in adductor muscle line of action on relative bite forces along the jaw. Results show major instances of overlap between taxa in tooth positions at which there was highest mechanical advantage. A relatively low bite force is seen across the tooth row among thyreophorans (e.g., stegosaurs and ankylosaurs), with variation among taxa. A convergent transition occurs from a more evenly distributed bite force along the jaw in basal ornithopods and basal marginocephalians to a strong distal bite force in hadrosaurids and ceratopsids, respectively. Accordingly, adductor muscle vector angles show repeated trends from a mid-range caudodorsal orientation in basal ornithischians to a decrease in vector angles indicating more caudally oriented jaw movements in derived taxa (e.g., derived thyreophorans, basal ornithopods, lambeosaurines, pachycephalosaurs, and derived ceratopsids). Analyses of hypothetical jaw morphologies were also performed, indicating that both the coronoid process and lowered jaw joint increase moment arm length therefore increasing mechanical advantage of the jaw apparatus. Adaptive trends in craniomandibular anatomy show that ornithischians evolved more complex feeding apparatuses within different clades as well as morphological convergences between clades. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Temporomandibular joint movement; Evaluation of protrusive splint therapy with GRASS MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J. (Dept. of Radiology, Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Fukui Medical School (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.).

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of dimplelike protrusions employed in recent heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preibisch, S; Dietzel, D; Buschmann, M H; Friebe, C

    2011-01-01

    This study is motivated by the observation that recent investigations of dimpled surfaces employed for enhancing heat transfer rarely go beyond general parameters like pressure losses and heat transfer performance. Here, we explore a real world dimpled cross-flow heat exchanger. In particular, we are interested in the global parameters, but also in the local flow situation around a single dimplelike protrusion. Detailed PIV-experiments and simulations of the local flow around single protrusions and groups of them reveal the flow structures essential for heat transfer. These local results are brought in conjunction with the general performance of the heat exchanger. Based on local results, simulations of the complete heat exchanger are carried out which are found to be in reasonable agreement with the global parameters found experimentally.

  2. Histologic effects of mandibular protrusion splints in antigen-induced TMJ arthritis in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    von Bremen, Julia; K?hler, Kernt; Siudak, Krystyna; Zahner, Daniel; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Background Although it is common clinical practice to treat children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) with functional appliances, the scientific evidence for this is limited. The aim of this study was to study the histologic effects of mandibular protrusion splints in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in rabbits. Methods Twenty-eight ten-week old New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: AO (TMJ arthritis, no splint), AS (TMJ arthritis, mandibular splint ...

  3. A Case of Maxillary Protrusion with Congenitally Missing Canine Teeth in the Mandible

    OpenAIRE

    松井, 啓至; 酒徳, 明彦

    1996-01-01

    A patient that had a maxillary protrusion with congenitally missing canine teeth in the mandible was successfully treated with the extraction of the maxillary first premolars. The patient's cooperation in wearing headgear appliance was highly favorable. Her profile changes were pronounced and esthetically pleasing. A review of her post-treatment records revealed an excellent esthetic and occlusal result even though the first premolars were aligned instead of the canine teeth in the mandible. ...

  4. Scintiscanning of the jaw and visceral cranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, N.; Hofer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The first eight chapters provide a general survey of basic principles and aspects of bone scintiscanning (radiopharmaceuticals, scintiscanning techniques, examination techniques, analytical criteria), and in contrast to these explain the criteria and limits of skeletal radiology of the skull, from which result the criteria of application of bone scintiscanning in this body region. The information obtainable by radiologic and scintigraphic examination of pathologic bone processes is compared, and the specific evaluation criteria of the scintiscan of the skull are explained as the basis of the clinical diagnosis. The following chapters go into details of combined radiologic and scintigraphic examination of bone tumours and tumour-like bone disease, of ostitis, fractures and osteotomy of the jaw, including cysts and pathologic processes of the mandibular joint. The information is explained by representative examples. Another complete chapter is devoted to the scintiscanning of bone graft and disturbed growth processes of the visceral cranium. The differential diagnostic analysis of the various pathologic processes on the basis of the scintigram is explained along the criteria of dignity, extension, dissemination, early detection, and follow-up checking. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Salient Point Detection in Protrusion Parts of 3D Object Robust to Isometric Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirloo, Mahsa; Ebrahimnezhad, Hosein

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel method is proposed to detect 3D object salient points robust to isometric variations and stable against scaling and noise. Salient points can be used as the representative points from object protrusion parts in order to improve the object matching and retrieval algorithms. The proposed algorithm is started by determining the first salient point of the model based on the average geodesic distance of several random points. Then, according to the previous salient point, a new point is added to this set of points in each iteration. By adding every salient point, decision function is updated. Hence, a condition is created for selecting the next point in which the iterative point is not extracted from the same protrusion part so that drawing out of a representative point from every protrusion part is guaranteed. This method is stable against model variations with isometric transformations, scaling, and noise with different levels of strength due to using a feature robust to isometric variations and considering the relation between the salient points. In addition, the number of points used in averaging process is decreased in this method, which leads to lower computational complexity in comparison with the other salient point detection algorithms.

  6. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion: a clinical observation of 30 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Weidong; Li Yazhou; Cao Wei; Yang Wei; Zhang Peng; Wang Zhimin; Wu Zhiqun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effects and safety of radiofrequency thermocoagulation in treating the lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion. Methods: Thirty patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion, whose diagnoses were confirmed by clinical manifestations and CT findings, were involved in this study. The needle was punctured to the target point of the diseased intervertebral space under C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. After the testing of sensory nerve, motor nerve and temperature was made, the target needles were heated until the nerve radiofrequency temperature meter reached the point of 92 degree C. This point of temperature was held for 100 seconds and the procedure was repeated for four cycles. Results: Six months after the treatment, all patients showed an obvious improvement in VAS, which decreased from 7.83 ± 0.33 before operation to 2.37 ± 0.48 after treatment (P < 0.05). According to the modified Macnab therapeutic evaluation criteria, excellent result was seen in 9, good result in 12, fair result in 5 and poor result in 4 cases, with a total effective rate of 86.7%. No serious complications occurred in all patients. Conclusion: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation is an effective and safe method for the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion. (authors)

  7. Glenoid fossa position in Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Cristina; Giuntini, Veronica; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion to better clarify the role of this craniofacial component in Class III skeletal disharmony. A sample of 30 subjects, aged 8 years +/- 6 months, with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion, normal skeletal vertical relationships, and normal mandibular dimensions, was compared with a control group of 33 subjects with skeletal and dental Class I relationships. The comparisons between the Class III group and the control group on the cephalometric measures for the assessment of glenoid fossa position were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test at P <0.05. Subjects with Class III malocclusion had a significantly more mesial position of the glenoid fossa, when compared with the control group as measured with 3 parameters. An anterior position of the glenoid fossa is a possible diagnostic anatomic feature of Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion. An effective measurement to evaluate glenoid fossa position in craniofacial relationships is the cephalometric distance from the glenoid fossa to the frontomaxillary-nasal suture.

  8. A Graphical User Interface for Software-assisted Tracking of Protein Concentration in Dynamic Cellular Protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Tanumoy; Rathmann, Isabel; Galic, Milos

    2017-07-11

    Filopodia are dynamic, finger-like cellular protrusions associated with migration and cell-cell communication. In order to better understand the complex signaling mechanisms underlying filopodial initiation, elongation and subsequent stabilization or retraction, it is crucial to determine the spatio-temporal protein activity in these dynamic structures. To analyze protein function in filopodia, we recently developed a semi-automated tracking algorithm that adapts to filopodial shape-changes, thus allowing parallel analysis of protrusion dynamics and relative protein concentration along the whole filopodial length. Here, we present a detailed step-by-step protocol for optimized cell handling, image acquisition and software analysis. We further provide instructions for the use of optional features during image analysis and data representation, as well as troubleshooting guidelines for all critical steps along the way. Finally, we also include a comparison of the described image analysis software with other programs available for filopodia quantification. Together, the presented protocol provides a framework for accurate analysis of protein dynamics in filopodial protrusions using image analysis software.

  9. An evaluation of self-esteem and quality of life in orthodontic patients: effects of crowding and protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental crowding and lip protrusion on self-esteem and quality of life (QOL) in female orthodontic patients with Class I malocclusion. The study sample consisted of 201 patients (mean age 22.6 ± 3.0 years) who sought orthodontic treatment. All the patients were evaluated before treatment in terms of their degree of dental crowding and lip protrusion. Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) were used to determine self-esteem and QOL and to evaluate whether these values were related to malocclusion severity. The results indicated that severe crowding and severe protrusion can result in lower self-esteem and poorer QOL (P self-esteem and QOL scores than severe crowding or protrusion patients.

  10. Palatoglossus coupling in selective upper airway stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Edenharter, Günther; Bas, Murat; Wirth, Markus; Hofauer, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) of the hypoglossal nerve is a useful therapy to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Is it known that multiple obstructions can be solved by this stimulation technique, even at the retropalatal region. The aim of this study was to verify the palatoglossus coupling at the soft palate during stimulation. Single-center, prospective clinical trail. Twenty patients who received an sUAS implant from April 2015 to April 2016 were included. A drug-induced sedated endoscopy (DISE) was performed before surgery. Six to 12 months after activation of the system, patients' tongue motions were recorded, an awake transnasal endoscopy was performed with stimulation turned on, and a DISE with stimulation off and on was done. Patients with a bilateral protrusion of the tongue base showed a significantly increased opening at the retropalatal level compared to ipsilateral protrusions. Furthermore, patients with a clear activation of the geniohyoid muscle showed a better reduction in apnea-hypopnea index. A bilateral protrusion of the tongue base during sUAS seems to be accompanied with a better opening of the soft palate. This effect can be explained by the palatoglossal coupling, due to its linkage of the muscles within the soft palate to those of the lateral tongue body. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:E378-E383, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Histological and morphological evaluation of condylar cartilage of young rats in response to stimulation of mandibular protrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Peixoto Nogueira de Sá; Adilson Luiz Ramos; Jacqueline Nelises Zanoni; Fabrício Dias de Souza; Daniele Esteves Pepelascov; Raquel Sano Suga Terada

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histogical and morphological aspects of the condyle in response to mandibular protrusion induced by composite resin occlusal planes. Thirty five-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided in two groups. One group received a composite resin type of oclusal plane that induced mandibular protrusion, and the other was the control group, without treatment. Animals were euthanized after experimental time intervals of 7, 21 and 30 days. For...

  12. Surgical treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in "Krokodil" drug addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Yuri M; Hakobyan, Koryun A; Poghosyan, Anna Yu; Avetisyan, Eduard K

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective study of jaw osteonecrosis treatment in patients using the "Krokodil" drug from 2009 to 2013. On the territory of the former USSR countries there is widespread use of a self-produced drug called "Krokodil". Codeine containing analgesics ("Sedalgin", "Pentalgin" etc), red phosphorus (from match boxes) and other easily acquired chemical components are used for synthesis of this drug, which used intravenously. Jaw osteonecrosis develops as a complication in patients who use "Krokodil". The main feature of this disease is jawbone exposure in the oral cavity. Surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". 40 "Krokodil" drug addict patients with jaw osteonecrosis were treated. Involvement of maxilla was found in 11 patients (27.5%), mandible in 21 (52.5%), both jaws in 8 (20%) patients. 35 Lesions were found in 29 mandibles and 21 lesions in 19 maxillas. Main factors of treatment success are: cessation of "Krokodil" use in the pre- (minimum 1 month) and postoperative period and osteonecrosis area resection of a minimum of 0.5 cm beyond the visible borders of osteonecrosis towards the healthy tissues. Surgery was not delayed until sequestrum formation. In the mandible marginal or segmental resection (with or without TMJ exarticulation) was performed. After surgery recurrence of disease was seen in 8 (23%) cases in the mandible, with no cases of recurrence in the maxilla. According to our experience in this case series, surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". Cessation of drug use and jaw resection minimize the rate of recurrences in such patients. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aliya A; Sándor, George K B; Dore, Edward; Morrison, Archibald D; Alsahli, Mazen; Amin, Faizan; Peters, Edmund; Hanley, David A; Chaudry, Sultan R; Lentle, Brian; Dempster, David W; Glorieux, Francis H; Neville, Alan J; Talwar, Reena M; Clokie, Cameron M; Mardini, Majd Al; Paul, Terri; Khosla, Sundeep; Josse, Robert G; Sutherland, Susan; Lam, David K; Carmichael, Robert P; Blanas, Nick; Kendler, David; Petak, Steven; Ste-Marie, Louis Georges; Brown, Jacques; Evans, A Wayne; Rios, Lorena; Compston, Juliet E

    2009-03-01

    In 2003, the first reports describing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in patients receiving bisphosphonates (BP) were published. These cases occurred in patients with cancer receiving high-dose intravenous BP; however, 5% of the cases were in patients with osteoporosis receiving low-dose bisphosphonate therapy. We present the results of a systematic review of the incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of BP associated ONJ. We conducted a comprehensive literature search for relevant studies on BP associated ONJ in oncology and osteoporosis patients published before February 2008.All selected relevant articles were sorted by area of focus. Data for each area were abstracted by 2 independent reviewers. The results showed that the diagnosis is made clinically. Prospective data evaluating the incidence and etiologic factors are very limited. In oncology patients receiving high-dose intravenous BP, ONJ appears to be dependent on the dose and duration of therapy, with an estimated incidence of 1%-12% at 36 months of exposure. In osteoporosis patients, it is rare, with an estimated incidence < 1 case per 100,000 person-years of exposure. The incidence of ONJ in the general population is not known. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a causal link between low-dose BP use in the osteoporosis patient population and ONJ. We concluded BP associated ONJ is associated with high-dose BP therapy primarily in the oncology patient population. Prevention and treatment strategies are currently based on expert opinion and focus on maintaining good oral hygiene and conservative surgical intervention.

  14. Assessment of Normal Eyeball Protrusion Using Computed Tomographic Imaging and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Gil, Young-Chun; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Shin, Hyun Jin; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess normal eyeball protrusion from the orbital rim using two- and three-dimensional images and demonstrate the better suitability of CT images for assessment of exophthalmos. The facial computed tomographic (CT) images of Korean adults were acquired in sagittal and transverse views. The CT images were used in reconstructing three-dimensional volume of faces using computer software. The protrusion distances from orbital rims and the diameters of eyeballs were measured in the two views of the CT image and three-dimensional volume of the face. Relative exophthalmometry was calculated by the difference in protrusion distance between the right and left sides. The eyeball protrusion was 4.9 and 12.5 mm in sagittal and transverse views, respectively. The protrusion distances were 2.9 mm in the three-dimensional volume of face. There were no significant differences between right and left sides in the degree of protrusion, and the difference was within 2 mm in more than 90% of the subjects. The results of the present study will provide reliable criteria for precise diagnosis and postoperative monitoring using CT imaging of diseases such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and orbital tumors.

  15. Bone and Soft Tissue Changes after Two-Jaw Surgery in Cleft Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Sang Yun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOrthognathic surgery is required in 25% to 35% of patients with a cleft lip and palate, for whom functional recovery and aesthetic improvement after surgery are important. The aim of this study was to examine maxillary and mandibular changes, along with concomitant soft tissue changes, in cleft patients who underwent LeFort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy (two-jaw surgery.MethodsTwenty-eight cleft patients who underwent two-jaw surgery between August 2008 and November 2013 were included. Cephalometric analysis was conducted before and after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative measurements of the bone and soft tissue were compared.ResultsThe mean horizontal advancement of the maxilla (point A was 6.12 mm, while that of the mandible (point B was -5.19 mm. The mean point A-nasion-point B angle was -4.1° before surgery, and increased to 2.5° after surgery. The mean nasolabial angle was 72.7° before surgery, and increased to 88.7° after surgery. The mean minimal distance between Rickett's E-line and the upper lip was 6.52 mm before surgery and 1.81 mm after surgery. The ratio of soft tissue change to bone change was 0.55 between point A and point A' and 0.93 between point B and point B'.ConclusionsPatients with cleft lip and palate who underwent two-jaw surgery showed optimal soft tissue changes. The position of the soft tissue (point A' was shifted by a distance equal to 55% of the change in the maxillary bone. Therefore, bone surgery without soft tissue correction can achieve good aesthetic results.

  16. SU-F-T-531: Determination of Site-Specific Dynamic-Jaw Versus Static-Jaw RapidArc Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, C [Community Hospital, Munster, IN (United States); Brewer, M [Franciscan St Margaret Health, Hammond, IN (United States); Studenski, M [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic-jaw tracking maximizes the area blocked by both jaw and MLC in RapidArc. We developed a method to quantify jaw tracking. Methods: An Eclipse Scripting API (ESAPI) was used to export beam parameters for each arc’s control points. The specific beam parameters extracted were: gantry angle, control point number, meterset, x-jaw positions, y-jaw positions, MLC bank-number, MLC leaf-number, and MLC leaf-position. Each arc contained 178 control points with 120 MLC positions. MATLAB routines were written to process these parameters in order to calculate both the beam aperture (unblocked) size for each control point. An average aperture size was weighted by meterset. Jaw factor was defined as the ratio between dynamic-jaw to static-jaw aperture size. Jaw factor was determined for forty retrospectively replanned patients treated with static-jaw delivery sites including lung, brain, prostate, H&N, rectum, and bladder. Results: Most patients had multiple arcs and reduced-field boosts, resulting in 151 fields. Of these, the lowest (0.4722) and highest (0.9622) jaw factor was observed in prostate and rectal cases, respectively. The median jaw factor was 0.7917 meaning there is the potential unincreased blocking by 20%. Clinically, the dynamic-jaw tracking represents an area surrounding the target which would receive MLC-only leakage transmission of 1.68% versus 0.1% with jaws. Jaw-tracking was more pronounced at areas farther from the target. In prostate patients, the rectum and bladder had 5.5% and 6.3% lower mean dose, respectively; the structures closer to the prostate such as the rectum and bladder both had 1.4% lower mean dose. Conclusion: A custom ESAPI script was coupled with a MATLAB routine in order to extract beam parameters from static-jaw plans and their replanned dynamic-jaw deliveries. The effects were quantified using jaw factor which is the ratio between the meterset weighted aperture size for dynamic-jaw fields versus static-jaw fields.

  17. Effects of Jaw Clenching and Jaw Alignment Mouthpiece Use on Force Production During Vertical Jump and Isometric Clean Pull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Charles R; Fu, Yang-Chieh; Cazas-Moreno, Vanessa; Valliant, Melinda W; Gdovin, Jacob R; Williams, Charles C; Garner, John C

    2018-01-01

    Allen, CR, Fu, Y-C, Cazas-Moreno, V, Valliant, MW, Gdovin, JR, Williams, CC, and Garner, JC. Effects of jaw clenching and jaw alignment mouthpiece use on force production during vertical jump and isometric clean pull. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 237-243, 2018-This study examined the effects of jaw clenching, a self-adapted, jaw-repositioning mouthpiece on force production during maximum countermovement vertical jump and maximum isometric midthigh clean pull assessments in an attempt to determine any ergogenic effect attributable to clenching, jaw-repositioning mouthpiece use, or the combination of both. Thirty-six male subjects performed vertical jump and isometric clean pull assessments from a force platform under various mouthpiece and clench conditions. A 3 × 2 (mouthpiece × clench) repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to analyze each of the following force production variables for both assessments: peak force, normalized peak force, and rate of force development. In addition, jump height was analyzed for the vertical jump. Results revealed improvements in peak force (F1,35 = 15.84, p ≤ 0.001, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.31), normalized peak force (F1,35 = 16.28, p ≤ 0.001, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32), and rate of force development (F1,35 = 12.89, p = 0.001, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.27) during the isometric clean pull assessment when participants maximally clenched their jaw, regardless of mouthpiece condition. There were no statistically significant differences in jump height, peak force, normalized peak force, or rate of force development during the vertical jump for any treatment condition. This study supports previous research demonstrating that the implementation of remote voluntary contractions such as jaw clenching can lead to concurrent activation potentiation and a resulting ergogenic effect during activities involving and requiring high-force production.

  18. A mechanism of leading-edge protrusion in the absence of Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraneni, Praveen; Fogelson, Ben; Rubinstein, Boris; Noguera, Philippe; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Mogilner, Alex; Li, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Cells employ protrusive leading edges to navigate and promote their migration in diverse physiological environments. Classical models of leading-edge protrusion rely on a treadmilling dendritic actin network that undergoes continuous assembly nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex, forming ruffling lamellipodia. Recent work demonstrated, however, that, in the absence of the Arp2/3 complex, fibroblast cells adopt a leading edge with filopodia-like protrusions (FLPs) and maintain an ability to move, albeit with altered responses to different environmental signals. We show that formin-family actin nucleators are required for the extension of FLPs but are insufficient to produce a continuous leading edge in fibroblasts lacking Arp2/3 complex. Myosin II is concentrated in arc-like regions of the leading edge in between FLPs, and its activity is required for coordinated advancement of these regions with formin-generated FLPs. We propose that actomyosin contraction acting against membrane tension advances the web of arcs between FLPs. Predictions of this model are verified experimentally. The dependence of myosin II in leading-edge advancement helps explain the previously reported defect in directional movement in the Arpc3-null fibroblasts. We provide further evidence that this defect is cell autonomous during chemotaxis. © 2015 Suraneni et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Central xanthoma of the jaw in association with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Nicholas J; Addante, Rocco R; de Abreu, Francine B; Memoli, Vincent A

    2018-05-01

    Xanthomas are histiocytic lesions of the skin, soft tissue and bone and are generally considered to be reactive in nature. When they arise in the bones of the jaw, they are referred to as central xanthomas. New evidence supports the hypothesis that central xanthomas are a separate and distinct entity from their extragnathic counterparts. Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that has been associated with giant cell lesions which also commonly occur in the jaw. We present a case of a 15year-old-male with NS who presented with a radiolucent lesion of the mandible that on excision, was found to be a central xanthoma. Although giant cell lesions have been well described in NS, xanthomas of the jaw have not been reported. We will also discuss the entities that must be excluded prior to making a diagnosis of central xanthoma, as this can affect both treatment and follow up. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Early diagnosis of osteomyelitis occurred in the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Sook; Na, Seung Mog; Lee, Un Gyeong; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1994-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis provide good prognosis and prevent severe complications. Therefore, it is important to early diagnose and treat before the bony changes are observed in conventional radiograms. Authors experienced three cases of early osteomyelitis, and scintigrams were useful to differentiate them from other diseases. The purpose of this report was to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis occurred in the jaws. The characteristic features were as follows: 1. In clinical examination, the patients complained mild pain and localized swelling in the jaws. 2. In radiographic findings, the conventional radiograms showed relatively mild bony change in the jaws. 3. The more severe periosteal reactions were observed in radiograms in children than in adult patient. 4. It showed marked increased uptake of radioisotopes in all scintigrams. 5. The three phase bone scanning were helpful to differentiate osteomyelitis from soft tissue diseases.

  1. Reversal of negative charges on the surface of Escherichia coli thioredoxin: pockets versus protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancusso, Romina; Cruz, Eduardo; Cataldi, Marcela; Mendoza, Carla; Fuchs, James; Wang, Hsin; Yang, Xiaomin; Tasayco, María Luisa

    2004-04-06

    Recent studies of proteins with reversed charged residues have demonstrated that electrostatic interactions on the surface can contribute significantly to protein stability. We have used the approach of reversing negatively charged residues using Arg to evaluate the effect of the electrostatics context on the transition temperature (T(m)), the unfolding Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG), and the unfolding enthalpy change (DeltaH). We have reversed negatively charged residues at a pocket (Asp9) and protrusions (Asp10, Asp20, Glu85), all located in interconnecting segments between elements of secondary structure on the surface of Arg73Ala Escherichia coli thioredoxin. DSC measurements indicate that reversal of Asp in a pocket (Asp9Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -7.3 degrees C) produces a larger effect in thermal stability than reversal at protrusions: Asp10Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -3.1 degrees C, Asp20Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = 2.0 degrees C, Glu85Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = 3.9 degrees ). The 3D structure of thioredoxin indicates that Asp20 and Glu85 have no nearby charges within 8 A, while Asp9 does not only have Asp10 as sequential neighbor, but it also forms a 5-A long-range ion pair with the solvent-exposed Lys69. Further DSC measurements indicate that neutralization of the individual charges of the ion pair Asp9-Lys69 with nonpolar residues produces a significant decrease in stability in both cases: Asp9Ala/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -3.7 degrees C, Asp9Met/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -5.5 degrees C, Lys69Leu/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -5.1 degrees C. However, thermodynamic analysis shows that reversal or neutralization of Asp9 produces a 9-15% decrease in DeltaH, while both reversal of Asp at protrusions and neutralization of Lys69 produce negligible changes. These results correlate well with the NMR analysis, which demonstrates that only the substitution of Asp9 produces extensive conformational changes and these changes occur in the surroundings of Lys69. Our results led us to

  2. On The Evolution of Human Jaws and Teeth: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yalcin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The jaws and teeth of Homo sapiens have evolved, from the last common ancestor of chimpanzee and men to their current form. Many factors such as the foods eaten and the processing of foods by fire and tools have effected this evolution course. The evolution of the masticatory complex is related to other anatomical features such as brain size and bipedal posture, and leads to important proceedings like the formation of speech and language. In this review, the evolution of human jaws and teeth and its impact on the general course of human evolution is discussed.

  3. Jaw1/LRMP has a role in maintaining nuclear shape via interaction with SUN proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozono, Takuma; Tadahira, Kazuko; Okumura, Wataru; Itai, Nao; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Dohi, Taeko; Tonozuka, Takashi; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2018-06-06

    Jaw1/LRMP is characterized as a type II integral membrane protein that is localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), however, its physiological functions have been poorly understood. An alignment of amino acid sequence of Jaw1 with KASH proteins, outer nuclear membrane proteins, revealed that Jaw1 has a partial homology to the KASH domain. Here, we show that the function of Jaw1 is to maintain nuclear shape in mouse melanoma cell line. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of Jaw1 caused a severe defect in nuclear shape, and the defect was rescued by ectopic expression of siRNA-resistant Jaw1. Since co-immunoprecipitation assay indicates that Jaw1 interacts with SUN proteins that are inner nuclear proteins and microtubules, this study suggests that Jaw1 has a role in maintaining nuclear shape via interactions with SUN proteins and microtubules.

  4. The relationships among jaw-muscle fiber architecture, jaw morphology, and feeding behavior in extant apes and modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    The jaw-closing muscles are responsible for generating many of the forces and movements associated with feeding. Muscle physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA) and fiber length are two architectural parameters that heavily influence muscle function. While there have been numerous comparative studies of hominoid and hominin craniodental and mandibular morphology, little is known about hominoid jaw-muscle fiber architecture. We present novel data on masseter and temporalis internal muscle architecture for small- and large-bodied hominoids. Hominoid scaling patterns are evaluated and compared with representative New- (Cebus) and Old-World (Macaca) monkeys. Variation in hominoid jaw-muscle fiber architecture is related to both absolute size and allometry. PCSAs scale close to isometry relative to jaw length in anthropoids, but likely with positive allometry in hominoids. Thus, large-bodied apes may be capable of generating both absolutely and relatively greater muscle forces compared with smaller-bodied apes and monkeys. Compared with extant apes, modern humans exhibit a reduction in masseter PCSA relative to condyle-M1 length but retain relatively long fibers, suggesting humans may have sacrificed relative masseter muscle force during chewing without appreciably altering muscle excursion/contraction velocity. Lastly, craniometric estimates of PCSAs underestimate hominoid masseter and temporalis PCSAs by more than 50% in gorillas, and overestimate masseter PCSA by as much as 30% in humans. These findings underscore the difficulty of accurately estimating jaw-muscle fiber architecture from craniometric measures and suggest models of fossil hominin and hominoid bite forces will be improved by incorporating architectural data in estimating jaw-muscle forces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Fluxes of water through aquaporin 9 weaken membrane-cytoskeleton anchorage and promote formation of membrane protrusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommie Karlsson

    Full Text Available All modes of cell migration require rapid rearrangements of cell shape, allowing the cell to navigate within narrow spaces in an extracellular matrix. Thus, a highly flexible membrane and a dynamic cytoskeleton are crucial for rapid cell migration. Cytoskeleton dynamics and tension also play instrumental roles in the formation of different specialized cell membrane protrusions, viz. lamellipodia, filopodia, and membrane blebs. The flux of water through membrane-anchored water channels, known as aquaporins (AQPs has recently been implicated in the regulation of cell motility, and here we provide novel evidence for the role of AQP9 in the development of various forms of membrane protrusion. Using multiple imaging techniques and cellular models we show that: (i AQP9 induced and accumulated in filopodia, (ii AQP9-associated filopodial extensions preceded actin polymerization, which was in turn crucial for their stability and dynamics, and (iii minute, local reductions in osmolarity immediately initiated small dynamic bleb-like protrusions, the size of which correlated with the reduction in osmotic pressure. Based on this, we present a model for AQP9-induced membrane protrusion, where the interplay of water fluxes through AQP9 and actin dynamics regulate the cellular protrusive and motile activity of cells.

  6. Clostridium difficile toxin CDT induces formation of microtubule-based protrusions and increases adherence of bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis by production of the Rho GTPase-glucosylating toxins A and B. Recently emerging hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains additionally produce the binary ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase, which ADP-ribosylates actin and inhibits actin polymerization. Thus far, the role of CDT as a virulence factor is not understood. Here we report by using time-lapse- and immunofluorescence microscopy that CDT and other binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins, including Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and Clostridium perfringens iota toxin, induce redistribution of microtubules and formation of long (up to >150 microm microtubule-based protrusions at the surface of intestinal epithelial cells. The toxins increase the length of decoration of microtubule plus-ends by EB1/3, CLIP-170 and CLIP-115 proteins and cause redistribution of the capture proteins CLASP2 and ACF7 from microtubules at the cell cortex into the cell interior. The CDT-induced microtubule protrusions form a dense meshwork at the cell surface, which wrap and embed bacterial cells, thereby largely increasing the adherence of Clostridia. The study describes a novel type of microtubule structure caused by less efficient microtubule capture and offers a new perspective for the pathogenetic role of CDT and other binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxins in host-pathogen interactions.

  7. Modeling the synergy of cofilin and Arp2/3 in lamellipodial protrusive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tania, Nessy; Condeelis, John; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2013-11-05

    Rapid polymerization of actin filament barbed ends generates protrusive forces at the cell edge, leading to cell migration. Two important regulators of free barbed ends, cofilin and Arp2/3, have been shown to work in synergy (net effect greater than additive). To explore this synergy, we model the dynamics of F-actin at the leading edge, motivated by data from EGF-stimulated mammary carcinoma cells. We study how synergy depends on the localized rates and relative timing of cofilin and Arp2/3 activation at the cell edge. The model incorporates diffusion of cofilin, membrane protrusion, F-actin capping, aging, and severing by cofilin and branch nucleation by Arp2/3 (but not G-actin recycling). In a well-mixed system, cofilin and Arp2/3 can each generate a large pulse of barbed ends on their own, but have little synergy; high synergy occurs only at low activation rates, when few barbed ends are produced. In the full spatially distributed model, both synergy and barbed-end production are significant over a range of activation rates. Furthermore, barbed-end production is greatest when Arp2/3 activation is delayed relative to cofilin. Our model supports a direct role for cofilin-mediated actin polymerization in stimulated cell migration, including chemotaxis and cancer invasion. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Space Closure with Loop Mechanics for Treatment of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay, N; Rajesh, R N G; Scindia, Rajat; Ajith, Sreedevi D

    2015-01-01

    This case report intends to highlight the space closure with tear drop loop mechanics for bimaxillary protrusion. Loops can be fabricated in a sectional or full arch wire, and closing loops are usually used in loop mechanics for extraction space closure. The major advantage of loop mechanics is the lack of friction between the bracket and arch wire during space closure. An adult patient with bimaxillary protrusion reported to the clinic. The patient was treated successfully by maximum retraction of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth after extraction of all first premolars. Space closure was begun using a moment differential between posterior and anterior segments created by a Tear drop loop. Anterior teeth were moved with bodily movement, and no anchorage loss of the posterior segments was seen using a Tear drop loop spring. A stable result with normal over jet and overbite was achieved with retraction of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. With a Tear drop loop, individual biomechanical responses can be achieved, and it is possible to calculate force magnitude for every patient. PMID:26028908

  9. A study on normal value of eyeball protrusion in Korean adult using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chi Sung; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1984-01-01

    CT may be valuably used in determination of proptosis. Normal value of eyeball protrusion was measured in normal Koreans using CT. Among 86 Koreans, 26 have normal both eyes, but 60 have one normal eye with one abnormal eye (chiefly, proptosis and and eyeball tumor). The results of 112 eyes are as follows: Absolute measurement of 'a', that is, the distance between cornea and IZL (interzygomatic line) is 16.0±3.4 mm in male (for 63 eye), 15.7±4.0 mm in female for 49 eyes. Ratio of 'a' over 'A' (A-P diameter of eyeball) is 57±12% is male (for 63 eye), 57±14% in female (for 49 eye) Discrepancy of eyeball protrusion between both eyes is 0.67±1.5 mm (for 26 adults). Practically, normal range of eyeball prtotrusion ('a') is 12.6 mm < male < 19.4 mm, 11.7 mm < female < 19.7 mm. 'a/A' ratio over 70% and over 2mm discrepancy between both eyes are also suggested as genuine exophthalmos

  10. The origin of X-ray protrusions in the VELA supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We propose a possible explanation for the formation of X-ray protrusions in the Vela SNR, recently observed by the ROSAT X-ray telescope (Aschenbach, Egger & Trumper, 1995, Nature, 373, 587). We suggest that the highly asymmetric shape of the Vela SNR is the result of the interaction of the SN ejecta/shock with the pre-existing wind-driven shell blown-up in a medium with a density gradient (perpendicular to the Galactic plane). The interaction of the radiative (north-east) half of the remnant, approaching towards the Galactic plane, with dense obstacles (cloudlets or wind zones of stars) can produce X-ray "bullets" radially moving beyond the SNR boundary. These "bullets" originate due to the cooling and condensation of a gas swept-up by converging conical shocks arising behind the dense obstacles overtaken by the SN shock. The X-ray protrusions observed in the western part of the remnant might be explained by outflows of hot gas of the SNR's interior emanating through the gaps in the shell. The origin of the X-ray "jet" (Markwardt & Ogelman, 1995, Nature, 375, 40) in the central part of the Vela SNR is also discussed.

  11. Jaw morphology and ontogeny in five species of Ophryothrocha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, Martin Oliver; Worsaae, Katrine; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny

    2010-01-01

    Detailed scanning electron microscopy of jaws within the genus Ophryotrocha (Dorvilleidae, Annelida) was performed on 871 jaw parts. The investigations resulted in new understandings of the ontogeny and jaw morphology and have systematic implications for the family. Five species in the genus (Oph...

  12. Modulation of human exteroceptive jaw reflexes during simulated mastication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Sowman, P.F.; Türker, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes in synaptic input from lower lip afferents to human jaw muscle motoneurons during simulated mastication. Methods: The lower lip of 14 subjects was stimulated electrically under static and dynamic conditions. In the static condition, subjects bit at mid-open position

  13. Measurements on the movement of the lower jaw in speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, S.G.; Slis, I.H.

    1970-01-01

    This report concerns some preliminary measurements on the movement of the lower jaw in speech. Such measurements may be interesting for several reasons. One of these is that they more easily than measurements on the movements of other articulators may give some insight into the effect of stress,

  14. Cell based bone tissue engineering in jaw defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Gert J.; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; Koole, Ron; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    In 6 patients the potency of bone tissue engineering to reconstruct jaw defects was tested. After a bone marrow aspirate was taken, stem cells were cultured, expanded and grown for 7 days on a bone substitute in an osteogenic culture medium to allow formation of a layer of extracellular bone matrix.

  15. The ideal male jaw angle--An Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2016-04-01

    The ideal male jaw angle has not been established. With the advent of additive manufacturing, precise customized shaping is a reality. This study aimed to define the ideal masculine mandibular angle as an aid for 3-dimensional (3D) design. An Internet survey was conducted using black/white photographs of celebrities and non-celebrities. Preferences regarding gonial angle (profile and frontal views), intergonial width and vertical jaw angle position (face frontal view), and angle curvature and definition in oblique views were obtained using simplified, unbalanced Likert scales. Constructs were defined for planning 3D implant designs. The preferred jaw angle had these characteristics: 130° in face profile view, intergonial width similar to facial width, vertical position in frontal view at the oral commissure or at least not below the lower lip, jawline slope in the face frontal view nearly parallel to (with a maximum 15° downward deviation from) a line extending from the lateral canthus to the alare, ascending ramus slope 65°-75° to the Frankfort horizontal, and curvature in the oblique view visible from earlobe to chin and not pointy. Photogrammetric analysis of panel preferences lead to constructs with values useful for the design of 3D printed jaw angles. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. surgical management of aggressive synchronous jaw central giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... Central giant cell granuloma ( CGCG) appears to be a lesion that is unique to the jaws. It is difficult to ... have been noted, particularly in the long bones. Though rare ... examination and biochemical and radiographic investigations are ... A photomicrograph depicting histopathologic features consistent with ...

  17. Assessment of the survival of dental implants in irradiated jaws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients ...

  18. Assessment of the Survival of Dental Implants in Irradiated Jaws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    frequency of dental implant placement in irradiated jaws from. 2002 to 2008 in India. Table 2 ..... Linsen SS, Martini M, Stark H. Long-term results of endosteal implants following radical oral ... Oral Health 2015:5;1-6. 21. Visch LL, van Waas MA ...

  19. Application of flat plate cavitation data to the analysis of limited cavitation from an isolated triangular surface protrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated surface roughness can cause significant localized pressure reductions which can lead to premature cavitation and degradation of the cavitation performance of a marine vehicle. The characteristic velocity theory was developed to analyze the limited cavitation characteristics of isolated surface protrusions. This theory is dependent upon knowing the boundary layer velocity profile in the vicinity of the roughness and the limited cavitation number for the roughness in a uniform stream. In the investigation described in this paper, the equation for triangular surface protrusions was determined experimentally by testing sharpedged flat plates in a water tunnel. These data were then employed in the characteristic velocity theory to calculate the cavitation characteristics of a triangular protrusion in a turbulent boundary layer for comparison with experimental data

  20. Optimal measurement for "posterolateral protrusion" of the vertebral artery at the craniovertebral junction using computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ohya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Among extraosseous abnormalities of the vertebral artery (VA at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ, available evidence regarding "posterolateral protrusion," the VA running distant from the groove over the superior surface of the posterior arch of the atlas, is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal measurement to indicate posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography angiography (CTA images of 40 consecutive patients with cervical disease were reviewed. Ultimately, 66 arteries were included in this study. Five parameters predicted to indicate posterolateral protrusion of the VA were defined (A-E and measured by two surgeons twice over a 2-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were used to examine intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was performed to determine the most optimal parameter to predict posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Results: Excellent inter-observer reliability and intra-observer reproducibility were obtained for all parameters (ICC = 0.87-0.99. Among them, parameter A, defined as the maximal length from the outer surface of the VA to the outer surface of the posterior arch of the atlas, was most accurately described posterolateral protrusion of the VA. The optimal cut-off value of parameter A obtained with ROC curves was 8.3 mm (sensitivity 97.5%, specificity 100%. Conclusions: The measurement in this study can quantitatively evaluate the posterolateral protrusion of the VA. Before posterior surgery at the CVJ, pre-operative CTA can help surgeons detect anomalous VA and reduce the risk of intra-operative VA injury.

  1. Improved patient repositioning accuracy by integrating an additional jaw fixation into a high precision face mask system in stereotactic radiotherapy of the head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatta, E.; Liesenfeld, S.M.; Bank, P.; Guenther, R.; Wiezorek, T.; Wendt, T.G.; Wurm, R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: For high precision radiotherapy of the neurocranium a precise, reproducible positioning technique is the basic pre-requisite. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a modification of the commercially available stereotactical BrainLab trademark -head mask system on accuracy in patient positioning during fractionated radiotherapy. Material and Methods: 29 patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy of the head. Immobilization was provided by a two layer thermoplastic mask system (BrainLab trademark). 18 of these patients received an additional custom made fixation either of the upper jaw (OKF) or of the mandibula (UKF). The positioning accuracy was assessed by measurements of the shifting of anatomical landmarks in relation to therigid mask system on biplanar simulator films using a digital imaging system. Before each measurement a fine adjustment of the simulator to an optical ring system was performed. The reference radiographs were done just before CT-planning. During a 2-7 weeks lasting course of radiotherapy displacement measurements in relation to the reference images for all three dimensions (z, y and x) were done once a week. In 29 patients 844 measurements were analyzed. Results: An additional jaw fixation improves the reproducibility of patient positioning significantly in all three spatial dimensions. The standard deviation in lateral direction (x) was 0.6 mm with jaw fixation vs. 0.7 mm without jaw fixation (p [de

  2. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  3. Gap junctions are selectively associated with interlocking ball-and-sockets but not protrusions in the lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sondip K; Lee, Jai Eun; Brako, Lawrence; Jiang, Jean X; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2010-11-09

    Ball-and-sockets and protrusions are specialized interlocking membrane domains between lens fibers of all species studied. Ball-and-sockets and protrusions are similar in their shape, size, and surface morphology, and are traditionally believed to play a key role in maintaining fiber-to-fiber stability. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that ball-and-sockets and protrusions possess important structural and functional differences during fiber cell differentiation and maturation. Intact lenses of leghorn chickens (E7 days to P62 weeks old) and rhesus monkeys (1.5-20 years old) were studied with SEM, freeze-fracture TEM, freeze-fracture immunogold labeling (FRIL), and filipin cytochemistry for membrane cholesterol detection. SEM showed that ball-and-sockets were distributed along the long and short sides of hexagonal fiber cells, whereas protrusions were located along the cell corners, from superficial to deep cortical regions in both chicken and monkey lenses. Importantly, by freeze-fracture TEM, we discovered the selective association of gap junctions with all ball-and-sockets examined, but not with protrusions, in both species. In the embryonic chicken lens (E18), the abundant distribution of ball-and-socket gap junctions was regularly found in an approximate zone extending at least 300 μm deep from the equatorial surface of the superficial cortical fibers. Many ball-and-socket gap junctions often protruded deeply into neighboring cells. However, in the mature fibers of monkey lenses, several ball-and-sockets exhibited only partial occupancy of gap junctions with disorganized connexons, possibly due to degradation of gap junctions during fiber maturation and aging. FRIL analysis confirmed that both connexin46 (Cx46) and connexin50 (Cx50) antibodies specifically labeled ball-and-socket gap junctions, but not protrusions. Furthermore, filipin cytochemistry revealed that the ball-and-socket gap junctions contained different amounts of cholesterol (i.e., cholesterol

  4. Combined use of miniscrews and clear appliances for the treatment of bialveolar protrusion without conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nak-Chun; Park, Young-Chel; Jo, Yong-Min; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2009-05-01

    The increasing demand for esthetic orthodontic treatment has led to the development of tooth-colored and even "invisible" appliances. Although sequential removable clear aligners have several advantages over conventional bracket systems, they have some limitations in extraction treatment. This case report presents the esthetic extraction treatment of a patient with bialveolar protrusion; conventional brackets were not used. The treatment was completed in 2 steps. The first step involved segmental retraction of the anterior teeth by using miniscrews and an anterior lingual splint with a clear lever arm. The second step involved alignment and finishing by using sequential removable clear aligners. The patient's esthetic demands were fulfilled successfully during treatment, and satisfactory facial profile and occlusion were achieved after treatment.

  5. A patient with protrusion and multiple missing teeth treated with autotransplantation and space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeong-Min; Paik, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Simon; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2014-05-01

    To present a patient treated with submerging autotransplantation (SA) of an immature premolar and subsequent orthodontic space closure (OSC) and to report a 10-year follow-up result. A 10-year-old boy had multiple missing premolars with an asymmetric pattern (maxillary right first and second premolars, teeth 14 and 15; maxillary left second premolar, tooth 25; and mandibular right second premolar, tooth 45). After considering several treatment options, tooth 35 with immature root development underwent SA into the missing site of tooth 15 at a depth 5 mm below the occlusal plane and was stabilized with sutures to create a symmetric missing condition of the premolars in the four quadrants. Three months after autotransplantation, spontaneous eruption of the transplanted tooth was observed. Nine months after autotransplantation, presence of the lamina dura of the transplanted tooth was confirmed with a periapical radiograph. Active orthodontic treatment was initiated to reduce lip protrusion by closing the missing spaces of teeth 14, 25, 35, and 45 and to correct dental midline deviation. After 33 months of active orthodontic treatment, Class I canine and molar relationships were obtained. During the 10-year follow-up, the pulp vitality of the transplanted tooth was maintained without any pathologic findings, including root resorption or pulp canal obliteration. In a patient with lip protrusion and multiple congenitally missing premolars with an asymmetric pattern, SA of one premolar from the normal quadrant into the quadrant missing two premolars with subsequent OSC of the missing sites of the other premolars can be an effective treatment modality.

  6. Leaf transmission reduction using moving jaws for dynamic MLC IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidhalter, D.; Fix, M. K.; Niederer, P.; Mini, R.; Manser, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate to what extent it is possible to use the secondary collimator jaws to reduce the transmitted radiation through the multileaf collimator (MLC) during an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A method is developed and introduced where the jaws follow the open window of the MLC dynamically (dJAW method). With the aid of three academic cases (Closed MLC, Sliding-gap, and Chair) and two clinical cases (prostate and head and neck) the feasibility of the dJAW method and the influence of this method on the applied dose distributions are investigated. For this purpose the treatment planning system Eclipse and the Research-Toolbox were used as well as measurements within a solid water phantom were performed. The transmitted radiation through the closed MLC leads to an inhomogeneous dose distribution. In this case, the measured dose within a plane perpendicular to the central axis differs up to 40% (referring to the maximum dose within this plane) for 6 and 15 MV. The calculated dose with Eclipse is clearly more homogeneous. For the Sliding-gap case this difference is still up to 9%. Among other things, these differences depend on the depth of the measurement within the solid water phantom and on the application method. In the Chair case, the dose in regions where no dose is desired is locally reduced by up to 50% using the dJAW method instead of the conventional method. The dose inside the chair-shaped region decreased up to 4% if the same number of monitor units (MU) as for the conventional method was applied. The undesired dose in the volume body minus the planning target volume in the clinical cases prostate and head and neck decreased up to 1.8% and 1.5%, while the number of the applied MU increased up to 3.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The new dJAW method has the potential to enhance the optimization of the conventional IMRT to a further step

  7. Diagnosis of cervical intervertebral disc protrusion and the relation between localization of the lesion and the neurological symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Abe, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Tashiro, Kunio; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Ito, Terufumi.

    1985-01-01

    In the cervical disc disease, computed tomography (CT) myelographic and conventional myelographic findings were surgically confirmed. The authors classified the disc protrusion into two types, and demonstrated the characteristic features of these two types in CT myelography and conventional myelography. Moreover, the correlation with the localization of the disc protrusion and the laterality of the myelopathy are discussed. All cases were obtained using a late generation scanner and the patient in the supine position with the neck in the neutral position. Using conventional myelography, all examinations were obtained with the neck in a flexion, neutral and extended positions. Twenty-two patients with cervical disc disease operated on by an anterior approach were studied by CT myelography and conventional myelography. According to the style of the compression on the spinal cord, the cervical disc protrusion was classified into two main groups, the subligamentous type and epiligamentous type. This study included 10 patients of the subligamentous type and 12 patients of the epiligamentous type. The localization of the disc protrusion and the laterality of the myelopathy often corresponded with each other. Not only the localization of the lesion, but also the pincer effect, especially the oblique pincer effect, which is reinforced by dynamic factors, are important in the understanding of the manifestations of myelopathy. In the subligamentous type, the main cause of the myelopathy is considered to be the mechanical pressure by the prolapsed nucleus pulposus. In the epiligamentous type, on the other hand, it is believed to be the pincer effect, reinforced by dynamic factors. (author)

  8. Oroantral fistula from bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Sharp

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates like alendronic acid, disodium etidronate, and risedronate are effective for preventing postmenopausal and corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. They are also useful in the treatment of Paget’s disease, hypercalcaemia of malignancy and in bony metastases. However osteonecrosis of the jaw has been reported following intravenous bisphosphonate use and rarely in those taking them orally.Increasingly, oroantral fistulae have been shown to occur as sequelae of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw and this case report highlights a patient that presented to our ENT department and required sinus surgery in collaboration with maxillofacial surgeons.This case report aims to raise awareness among ENT surgeons to these patients on bisphosphonates that could present to them with sinus disease from oroantral fistulae. There is an on-going audit in the maxillofacial community on this emerging trend.

  9. Multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol

    2003-01-01

    We present two cases of multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 1 : a nine year-old boy visited CNU Hospital for orthodontic treatment and his radiographs showed cystic lesions surrounding the crowns of teeth 13 and 17 respectively, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. Subsequently, two more cysts were found on his follow-up radiographs in 12 and 15 months. The two cysts were determined to be odontogenic keratocysts. The boy had no skeletal abnormalities and no skin lesions associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 2: a fifty-eight year old man had three impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucencies, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. He had no additional abnormalities associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Multiple jaw cysts can occur at any age, and periodic radiographic surveillance may be needed for any cases of impacted tooth.

  10. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  11. Multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We present two cases of multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 1 : a nine year-old boy visited CNU Hospital for orthodontic treatment and his radiographs showed cystic lesions surrounding the crowns of teeth 13 and 17 respectively, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. Subsequently, two more cysts were found on his follow-up radiographs in 12 and 15 months. The two cysts were determined to be odontogenic keratocysts. The boy had no skeletal abnormalities and no skin lesions associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 2: a fifty-eight year old man had three impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucencies, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. He had no additional abnormalities associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Multiple jaw cysts can occur at any age, and periodic radiographic surveillance may be needed for any cases of impacted tooth.

  12. Failure analysis of vise jaw holders for hacksaw machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Ali Al-Bahkali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure analysis in mechanical components has been investigated in many studies in the last few years. Failure analysis and prevention are important functions in all engineering disciplines. Materials engineers are often the lead role in the analysis of failures, where a component or product fails in service or if a failure occurs during manufacturing or production processing. In any case, one must determine the cause of the failure to prevent future occurrences and/or to improve the performance of the device, component or structure. For example, the vise jaw holders of hacksaws can break due to accidental heavy loads or machine misuse. The parts that break are the stationary and movable vise jaw holders and the connecter power screw between the holders. To investigate the failure of these components, a three-dimensional finite element model for stress analysis was performed. First, the analysis identified the broken components of the hacksaw machine. In addition, the type of materials of the broken parts was identified, a CAD model was built, and the hacksaw mechanism was analyzed to determine the accurate applied loads on the broken parts. After analyzing the model using Abaqus CAE software, the results showed that the location of the high stresses was identical with the high-stress locations in the original, broken parts. Furthermore, the power screw was subjected to a high load, which deformed the power screw. Also, the stationary vise jaw holder was broken by impact because it was not touched by the power screw until the movable vise jaw holder broke. A conclusion is drawn from the failure analysis and a way to improve the design of the broken parts is suggested.

  13. Imaging of jaw with dental CT software program: Normal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myong Gon; Seo, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hak Young; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duk Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Young Hwan

    1994-01-01

    Dental CT software program can provide reformatted cross-sectional and panoramic images that cannot be obtained with conventional axial and direct coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study is to describe the method of the technique and to identify the precise anatomy of jaw. We evaluated 13 mandibles and 7 maxillae of 15 subjects without bony disease who were being considered for endosseous dental implants. Reformatted images obtained by the use of bone algorithm performed on GE HiSpeed Advantage CT scanner were retrospectively reviewed for detailed anatomy of jaw. Anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(mandibular foramen, inferior alveolar canal, mental foramen, canal for incisive artery, nutrient canal, lingual foramen and mylohyoid groove), muscular insertion(mylohyoid line, superior and inferior genial tubercle and digastric fossa) and other anatomy(submandibular fossa, sublingual fossa, contour of alveolar process, oblique line, retromolar fossa, temporal crest and retromolar triangle) were well delineated in mandible. In maxilla, anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(greater palatine foramen and groove, nasopalatine canal and incisive foramen) and other anatomy(alveolar process, maxillary sinus and nasal fossa) were also well delineated. Reformatted images using dental CT software program provided excellent delineation of the jaw anatomy. Therefore, dental CT software program can play an important role in the preoperative assessment of mandible and maxilla for dental implants and other surgical conditions

  14. Jaw lesions associated with impacted tooth: A radiographic diagnostic guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motazavi, Hamed; Bharvand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This review article aimed to introduce a category of jaw lesions associated with impacted tooth. General search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks were used to find relevant studies using keywords such as 'jaw lesion', 'jaw disease', 'impacted tooth', and 'unerupted tooth'. More than 250 articles were found, of which approximately 80 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 47 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following 10 lesions were identified as having a relationship with impacted tooth: dentigerous cysts, calcifying odontogenic cysts, unicystic (mural) ameloblastomas, ameloblastomas, ameloblastic fibromas, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and odontomas. When clinicians encounter a lesion associated with an impacted tooth, they should first consider these entities in the differential diagnosis. This will help dental practitioners make more accurate diagnoses and develop better treatment plans based on patients' radiographs

  15. Analysis of feeding function and jaw stability in bedridden elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Fumiyo; Mizukami, Miki; Ayano, Rika; Mukai, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between jaw stability and the feeding function of 53 bedridden elderly dysphagic patients. Investigations included a questionnaire on daily life activities and meals, oral examinations, functional tests for feeding ability, and assessments of feeding function during the meal. The results of intraoral examination of this patient population for jaw stability revealed that 34.0% of individuals had posterior support for occlusion regardless of whether they had natural teeth or dentures. Thus, the number classified as having mandibular stability (ST) was 18 and that with no mandibular stability (NST) was 35. In a Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test (RSST), 83.3% of the NST group and 40.0% of the ST group were unable to swallow more than 3 times within 30 seconds. In a water swallowing test, 91.4% of the NST of group was unable to swallow 15 mL of water by a single swallow, while 40.0% of ST group was capable. The results suggest that jaw stabilization by occlusion with the posterior teeth or dental prosthetics is important to feeding function, particularly swallowing.

  16. Jaw lesions associated with impacted tooth: A radiographic diagnostic guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motazavi, Hamed; Bharvand, Maryam [Dept. of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This review article aimed to introduce a category of jaw lesions associated with impacted tooth. General search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks were used to find relevant studies using keywords such as 'jaw lesion', 'jaw disease', 'impacted tooth', and 'unerupted tooth'. More than 250 articles were found, of which approximately 80 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 47 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following 10 lesions were identified as having a relationship with impacted tooth: dentigerous cysts, calcifying odontogenic cysts, unicystic (mural) ameloblastomas, ameloblastomas, ameloblastic fibromas, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and odontomas. When clinicians encounter a lesion associated with an impacted tooth, they should first consider these entities in the differential diagnosis. This will help dental practitioners make more accurate diagnoses and develop better treatment plans based on patients' radiographs.

  17. Sella size and jaw bases - Is there a correlation???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sella turcica is an important cephalometric structure and attempts have been made in the past to correlate its dimensions to the malocclusion. However, no study has so far compared the size of sella to the jaw bases that determine the type of malocclusion. The present study was undertaken to find out any such correlation if it exists. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 110 adults consisting of 40 Class I, 40 Class II, and 30 Class III patients were assessed for the measurement of sella length, width, height, and area. The maxillary length, mandibular ramus height, and body length were also measured. The sella dimensions were compared among three malocclusion types by one-way ANOVA. Pearson correlation was calculated between the jaw size and sella dimensions. Furthermore, the ratio of jaw base lengths and sella area were calculated. Results and Conclusion: Mean sella length, width and area were found to be greatest in Class III, followed by Class I and least in Class II though the results were not statistically significant. 3 out of 4 measured dimensions of sella, correlated significantly with mandibular ramus and body length each. However, only one dimension of sella showed significant correlation with maxilla. The mandibular ramus and body length show a nearly constant ratio to sella area (0.83–0.85, 0.64–0.65, respectively in all the three malocclusions. Thus, mandible has a definite and better correlation to the size of sella turcica.

  18. Electromagnetic Simulations of an Embedded BPM in Collimator Jaws

    CERN Document Server

    Boccard, C; Nosych, A

    2011-01-01

    Next gen­er­a­tion of the LHC col­li­ma­tors will be equipped with but­ton beam po­si­tion mon­i­tors (BPMs) em­bed­ded into the col­li­ma­tor jaws. Such a so­lu­tion will im­prove the ac­cu­ra­cy of the jaw align­ment with respect to the beam and re­duce the beam time nec­es­sary for the collima­tor setup. This paper de­scribes re­sults of elec­tro­mag­net­ic simu­la­tions of the jaw BPMs per­formed with the CST Par­ti­cle Stu­dio suite, aimed at char­ac­ter­i­sa­tion of the BPMs as well as the simulation soft­ware it­self. The re­sults are com­pared to the mea­sure­ments ob­tained with beam on a pro­to­type sys­tem in­stalled in the CERN SPS.

  19. A comparison of cephalometric analyses for assessing sagittal jaw relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erum, G.; Fida, M.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the seven methods of cephalometric analysis for assessing sagittal jaw relationship and to determine the level of agreement between them. Seven methods, describing anteroposterior jaw relationships (A-B plane, ANB, Wits, AXB, AF-BF, FABA and Beta angle) were measured on the lateral cephalographs of 85 patients. Correlation analysis, using Cramer's V-test, was performed to determine the possible agreement between the pair of analyses. The mean age of the sample, comprising 35 males and 50 females was 15 years and 3 months. Statistically significant relationships were found among seven sagittal parameters with p-value <0.001. Very strong correlation was found between AXB and AF-BF distance (r=0.924); and weak correlation between ANB and Beta angle (r=0.377). Wits appraisal showed the greatest coefficient of variability. Despite varying strengths of association, statistically significant correlations were found among seven methods for assessing sagittal jaw relationship. FABA and A-B plane may be used to predict the skeletal class in addition to the established ANB angle. (author)

  20. Complex Sensory Corpuscles in the Upper Jaw of Horsfield's Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela; Páč, L.; Knotek, Z.; Tichý, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2009), s. 193-197 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mechanoreceptors * reptiles * Testudines Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2009

  1. Complex Sensory Corpuscles in the Upper Jaw of Horsfield's Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela; Páč, L.; Knotek, Z.; Tichý, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2009), s. 193-197 ISSN 0001-7213 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) KJB601110919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mechanoreceptors * reptiles * Testudines Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2009

  2. Dental maturation, eruption, and gingival emergence in the upper jaw of newborn primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Jankord, Kathryn D; Progar, Abbigal J; Bonar, Christopher J; Evans, Sian; Williams, Lawrence; Vinyard, Christopher J; Deleon, Valerie B

    2015-12-01

    In this report we provide data on dental eruption and tooth germ maturation at birth in a large sample constituting the broadest array of non-human primates studied to date. Over 100 perinatal primates, obtained from natural captive deaths, were screened for characteristics indicating premature birth, and were subsequently studied using a combination of histology and micro-CT. Results reveal one probable unifying characteristic of living primates: relatively advanced maturation of deciduous teeth and M1 at birth. Beyond this, there is great diversity in the status of tooth eruption and maturation (dental stage) in the newborn primate. Contrasting strategies in producing a masticatory battery are already apparent at birth in strepsirrhines and anthropoids. Results show that dental maturation and eruption schedules are potentially independently co-opted as different strategies for attaining feeding independence. The most common strategy in strepsirrhines is accelerating eruption and the maturation of the permanent dentition, including replacement teeth. Anthropoids, with only few exceptions, accelerate mineralization of the deciduous teeth, while delaying development of all permanent teeth except M1. These results also show that no living primate resembles the altricial tree shrew (Tupaia) in dental development. Our preliminary observations suggest that ecological explanations, such as diet, provide an explanation for certain morphological variations at birth. These results confirm previous work on perinatal indriids indicating that these and other primates telegraph their feeding adaptations well before masticatory anatomy is functional. Quantitative analyses are required to decipher specific dietary and other influences on dental size and maturation in the newborn primate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Perioperative antibiotic regimen in rats treated with pamidronate plus dexamethasone and subjected to dental extraction: a study of the changes in the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Martínez-Canovas, Ascensión; Molina-Miñano, Francisco; Gómez-García, Francisco; Vicente-Ortega, Vicente

    2011-10-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is a well-known condition associated with long-term bisphosphonate use. This study analyzed the prophylactic effect of antibiotic treatment in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with pamidronate plus dexamethasone and subjected to oral surgery in the form of dental extraction. One hundred twenty animals were included in a randomized prospective study. Animals in group I (n = 60) were treated with dexamethasone 1 mg/kg and pamidronate 3 mg/kg 3 times per week for 7, 14, and 21 days. All were subjected to right mandibular or maxillary molar extraction 8, 15, and 22 days after the start of dosing. Animals in group II (n = 60) received the same treatment except for the addition of penicillin 0.1 mL/kg per day for 3 days before and 4 days after extraction. Rats in the 2 groups were sacrificed 14 and 28 days after extraction. A clinical and histologic evaluation was performed. In group I, osteonecrosis was documented in 18 cases (34.6%; affecting the upper and lower jaws in 10 and 8 cases, respectively). In group II, osteonecrosis was documented in 5 cases (9.61%; affecting the upper and lower jaws in 3 and 2 cases, respectively). The difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P = .002). The adoption of preventive measures (antibiotic prophylaxis) in invasive dental procedures results in a significant decrease in osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with bisphosphonate use. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative evaluation of rate of space closure after extraction using E-chain and stretched modules in bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Rajat; Londhe, S M; Kumar, Prasanna

    2011-04-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the rate of space closure between E-chain mechanics in one side of upper arch and by elastomeric module with ligature wire on the contralateral side in same patient. Thirty bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion cases were taken up for comprehensive fixed orthodontic treatment after extraction of all first premolars to retract both upper and lower anterior teeth. After initial alignment and levelling, alginate impressions were made for upper and lower arches and models constructed. In the upper arch model a vernier caliper was used to measure the extraction space in both sides from middle point of distal surface of canine to the middle most point of mesial surface of second premolar. This is the amount of space present before the onset of retraction mechanics. During space closure procedure two different retracting components were applied in right and left sides of each case. On right side elastic chain (E-chain) applied in both upper and lower arches and on left side elastomeric module with steel ligature (0.010") stretched double its diameter fixed in both arches. Both the mechanisms produced approximately 250-300 g of force as measured by a tension gauge. After onset of retraction mechanism all patients were recalled after every six weeks for three visits. In all these three visits modules and E-chains were changed. In all three visits impression was made, models constructed, and the remaining available space was measured by a vernier caliper up to 0.1 mm level variations. Mean value for total space closure in case of E-chain was 2.777 mm whereas in case of module with ligature wire the value increased to 3.017 mm. Mean value for rate of space closure in case of E-chain was 0.2143 mm, whereas in case of module with ligature wire the value increased to 0.2343 mm with a standard deviation of 0.001104 and 0.001194, respectively. The standard deviation for total space closure was 0.1305 for E-chain and 0.1487 for module with ligature

  5. Asymptotic solutions for flow in microchannels with ridged walls and arbitrary meniscus protrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Toby

    2017-11-01

    Flow over structured surfaces exhibiting apparent slip, such as parallel ridges, have received much attention experimentally and numerically, but analytical and asymptotic solutions that account for the microstructure have so far been limited to unbounded geometries such as shear-driven flows. Analysis for channel flows has been limited to (close to) flat interfaces spanning the grooves between ridges, but in applications the interfaces (menisci) can highly protrude and have a significant impact on the apparent slip. In this presentation, we consider pressure-driven flow through a microchannel with longitudinal ridges patterning one or both walls. With no restriction on the meniscus protrusion, we develop explicit formulae for the slip length using a formal matched asymptotic expansion. Assuming the ratio of channel height to ridge period is large, the periodicity is confined to an inner layer close to the ridges, and the expansion is found to all algebraic orders. As a result, the error is exponentially small and, under a further ``diluteness'' assumption, the explicit formulae are compared to finite element solutions. They are found to have a very wide range of validity in channel height (even when the menisci can touch the opposing wall) and so are useful for practitioners.

  6. Room-temperature growth of a carbon nanofiber on the tip of conical carbon protrusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanemura, Masaki; Okita, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Tanemura, S.; Morishima, R.

    2004-01-01

    Glassy carbon was Ar + -ion bombarded with a simultaneous Mo supply under ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a microprotrusion fabrication system that consists of a differentially pumped ion gun and a seed-material supply source. Conical protrusions were formed by sputtering with a seed supply, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grew on the tips even at room temperature. The length of CNFs reached up to ∼10 μm, and their diameter was almost uniform (50 nm) in the growth direction. The short CNFs aligned in the ion beam direction, whereas the long ones were non-aligned. The CNF growth on a glassy carbon surface was ascribed to the enhanced surface texturing and to the massive redeposition of C atoms onto cones, both of which are specific to the oblique ion bombardment: The former would lead to an increase in the number of possible nucleation sites for the CNF growth, and the C atoms arising from the latter process would migrate toward the conical tips, thus forming CNFs

  7. Jaw-Dropping: Functional Variation in the Digastric Muscle in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Abigail A; Santana, Sharlene E

    2018-02-01

    Diet and feeding behavior in mammals is strongly linked to the morphology of their feeding apparatus. Cranio-muscular morphology determines how wide, forcefully, and quickly the jaw can be opened or closed, which limits the size and material properties of the foods that a mammal can eat. Most studies of feeding performance in mammals have focused on skull form and jaw muscles involved in generating bite force, but few explore how jaw abduction is related to feeding performance. In this study, we explored how the morphology of the digastric muscle, the primary jaw abducting muscle in mammals, and its jaw lever mechanics are related to diet in morphologically diverse noctilionoid bats. Results showed that insectivorous bats have strong digastric muscles associated with proportionally long jaws, which suggests these species can open their jaws quickly and powerfully during prey capture and chewing. Short snouted frugivorous bats exhibit traits that would enable them to open their jaws proportionally wider to accommodate the large fruits that they commonly feed on. Our results support the hypothesis that digastric muscle and jaw morphology are correlated with diet in bats, and that our results may also apply to other groups of mammals. Anat Rec, 301:279-290, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dentoskeletal Overjet Measurements of Iraqi Adult Sample with Different Skeletal Jaw Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaa A Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many attempts were done to develop a method that actually reflects the sagittal jaw discrepancies without depending on cranial landmarks or dental occlusion. This study aimed to use one of these methods (dentoskeletal overjet for assessing the sagittal jaw relationships of Iraqi adult sample with different skeletal jaw relationship. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 90 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi individuals with no previous orthodontic treatment. Cephalometric analysis of skeletal sagittal jaw relationship -ANB angle, beta angle and Wits appraisal- will perform for everyone to divide the sample into three groups (skeletal class I, II, III for which the dentoskeletal overjet will be measured. All cephalometric measurements will be done using AutoCAD. Results: Descriptive statistics of all variables with different skeletal jaw relationship showed that mean values of dentoskeletal overjet were (1.15, 3.91 and –2.01 mm for skeletal class I, class II and class III jaw relationship respectively. Accurate reproducibility of dentoskeletal overjet in assessment of jaw skeletal relationship showed that the lowest value was for assessment of skeletal class III jaw relationship (73% and the value for assessment of both skeletal class I and class II was higher (93%. Conclusions: Dentoskeletal overjet could be utilized in accurate representation of skeletal jaw relationship.

  9. Histological and morphological evaluation of condylar cartilage of young rats in response to stimulation of mandibular protrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Peixoto Nogueira de Sá

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the histogical and morphological aspects of the condyle in response to mandibular protrusion induced by composite resin occlusal planes. Thirty five-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided in two groups. One group received a composite resin type of oclusal plane that induced mandibular protrusion, and the other was the control group, without treatment. Animals were euthanized after experimental time intervals of 7, 21 and 30 days. For histological analysis, thickness of the proliferative, serial and hypertrophic layers was measured, as well as each layer separately. The highest difference in cartilage thickness was observed at day 21, showing a significant increase of the proliferative layer. There were also other histomorphological changes related to occlusal plane interference. Condylar forward repositioning induced by composite occlusal planes influenced the endochondral ossification, increasing the proliferative layer.

  10. Dental diseases and radionuclide imaging of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jose A; Pardo, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Cuadrado, Maria L; Ruibal, Alvaro

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of radionuclide bone scans of the jaws with data obtained at the nuclear medicine department from a brief and feasible dental history, taking special account of cases with a positive scan and no recent dental events. Ninety-eight patients undergoing radionuclide bone scan as part of their diagnosis in non-dental, oncological and non-oncological diseases were imaged with 99mTc-labelled oxidronate. Superior and inferior halves of the mandible and maxilla (392 quadrants) were regarded as normal or having an abnormally high uptake. A recent (1 year) dental history was also obtained through a brief questionnaire and data were referred to each quadrant of the jaws. The association between the bone scan and dental disease was assessed by means of the chi-squared test. The overall results of scintigraphy and history coincided in 66 patients (46 with abnormal and 20 with normal findings; P = 0.002). Twenty-five patients had a positive scintigram without any known dental disorder. Results of scintigraphy and history coincided in 254 quadrants (78 with abnormal and 176 with normal findings; P < 0.001). Eighty-three quadrants had hot spots in the scintigram without any known dental lesion. It can be concluded that abnormal jaw scintigrams are frequent in patients without known dental disease, and this may indicate silent osteoblastic activity. These observations should be reported to the dentist for several reasons. First, they may reveal asymptomatic dental lesions. Second, the use of oral prostheses and implants is increasing and they require the support of healthy alveolar bone.

  11. Self-Controlling Rig for Jaw Crusher Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Jadhav; Anup Pawar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a method for easy assembly of the bearing in the housing by standardized way. The assembly of bearing should take place on the atomized set up. Based on this method a assembly setup was constructed which enables to assembly of the shaft with bearing of different models of jaw crusher. First tests were done with manual alignment and it shows that with proper alignment shaft assembly is very easy operation and also safe. Results of those tests show that the dev...

  12. [Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia of the jaws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzou, S; Boulaadas, M; El Ayoubi, A; Nazih, N; Essakalli, L; Kzadri, M

    2011-06-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign and rare tumor of the jaws. It is more commonly seen in middle-aged black women. Most cases are asymptomatic and are found during routine radiographic examination. We report two complicated cases of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, one with facial deformity and the other with chronic osteitis. The diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is based on clinical and radiological features. The lesions are commonly bilateral and symmetrical. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Multiple fibromyxomas of the jaws: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Eiid, Salma Belal [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-15

    Fibromyxoma of the jaw is a rare benign mesenchymal odontogenic tumor with locally aggressive behavior. In the present report, a 13-year-old female patient presented to our university hospital with delayed eruption of some of her teeth. A panoramic radiograph taken at the initial examination revealed four pericoronal radiolucencies related to the four third molars. Thereafter, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination was performed. After the surgical removal of these molars, the microscopic examination diagnosed the four lesions as fibromyxomas. Here, we have discussed the clinical, panoramic radiography, MRI, and histopathological findings of the case.

  14. [The application of Edgewise technique auxillary with extra oral anchorage and class III elastic in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H H; Weng, S E; Chen, R J

    1995-12-01

    In the treatment of growing bimaxillary protrusion patients,Edgewise technique auxillary with extra oral anchorage and class III elastic help to improve the patient's chin shape,recover his beauty of lower facial part and get a good occlusion along with the growing of mandible.The purpose of this study is:analysis the force system in the treatment and evaluate the result of the treatment with some typical cases.

  15. Three-dimensional matrix fiber alignment modulates cell migration and MT1-MMP utility by spatially and temporally directing protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Stephanie I.; Wu, Pei-Hsun; He, Lijuan; Feng, Yunfeng; Krisnamurthy, Ranjini; Longmore, Gregory D.; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-10-01

    Multiple attributes of the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) have been independently implicated as regulators of cell motility, including pore size, crosslink density, structural organization, and stiffness. However, these parameters cannot be independently varied within a complex 3D ECM protein network. We present an integrated, quantitative study of these parameters across a broad range of complex matrix configurations using self-assembling 3D collagen and show how each parameter relates to the others and to cell motility. Increasing collagen density resulted in a decrease and then an increase in both pore size and fiber alignment, which both correlated significantly with cell motility but not bulk matrix stiffness within the range tested. However, using the crosslinking enzyme Transglutaminase II to alter microstructure independently of density revealed that motility is most significantly predicted by fiber alignment. Cellular protrusion rate, protrusion orientation, speed of migration, and invasion distance showed coupled biphasic responses to increasing collagen density not predicted by 2D models or by stiffness, but instead by fiber alignment. The requirement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was also observed to depend on microstructure, and a threshold of MMP utility was identified. Our results suggest that fiber topography guides protrusions and thereby MMP activity and motility.

  16. Genomic and pathogenic analysis of a Muscovy duck parvovirus strain causing short beak and dwarfism syndrome without tongue protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu; Wan, Chunhe; Fu, Guanghua; Qi, Baomin; Cheng, Longfei; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Zhenhai

    2017-12-01

    In 2008, clinical cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) caused by Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection were found in mule duck and Taiwan white duck farms in Fujian, China. A MDPV LH strain causing duck SBDS without tongue protrusion was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis show that the MDPV LH strain was clustered together with other MDPV strains, but divergent from GPV isolates. Two major fragment deletions were found in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of MDPV LH similar to the ones in the ITR of MDPV GX5, YY and SAAS-SHNH strains. To investigate the pathogenicity of the MDPV LH strain, virus infection of young mule ducks was performed. The infected ducks showed SBDS symptoms including retard growth and shorten beaks without tongue protrusion. Atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was identified in the infected ducks. The results show that MDPV LH strain is moderately pathogenic to mule duck, leading to occurrence of SBDS. As far as we know, it is the first study showing that SBDS without tongue protrusion, and atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius possibly associated with immunosuppression were found in the MDPV-infected ducks. The established duck-MDPV-SBDS system will help us to further work on the virus pathogenesis and develop efficacious vaccine against MDPV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Comparing the anchorage effects of micro-implant and J hook on treating patients with maxillary protrusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Liu, Guo-yuan; Jiang, Yong-lian

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the differences in anchorage effects between micro-implants and J hook in treating patients with Class II division 1 maxillary protrusion. Thirty-one cases of adult patients with Class II division 1 maxillary protrusion were treated. They were divided into 2 groups depending on their selection. The first group included 17 patients for micro-implant anchorage, who adopted micro-implant and sliding mechanism to close maxillary extraction space and depress the mandibular molar. The second group encompassed 14 cases for J hook, who adopted sliding mechanism, J hooks in high traction and Class II intermaxillary traction to close extraction space. X-ray lateral cephalometric radiographs were measured before and after treatment, and SPSS16.0 software package was employed to compare the differences in soft and hard tissue changes before and after treatment between 2 groups. There were statistically significant differences in SNB, ANB, MP-FH, U1-Y, U6-Y, L6-MP, NLA, and UL-Y between the 2 groups before and after treatment, while there was no significant difference in SNA, U1-SN, U1-X, and U6-X between the 2 groups. In treating patients with Class II division 1 maxillary protrusion, micro-implant has stronger anchorage effects than J hook, while at the same time depressing the mandibular molars, and making it more favorable to improve Class II faces.

  18. [Comparison between J-hook and micro-implant anchorage in the treatment of patients with bimaxillary protrusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jing; Li, Qing-Yi; Gong, Ai-Xiu; Hu, Fang; Gu, Yong-Jia

    2008-02-01

    To compare the difference between J-hook and micro-implant anchorage in the treatment of patient with bimaxillary protrusion. Thirty patients with bimaxillary protrusion were divided into two groups (J-hook and micro-implant groups) and treated with MBT appliance. Four first premolars were extracted in all patients. Cephalometric analyses were carried out before and after treatment. In J-hook group and micro-implant group,computerized cephalometric analysis revealed that before treatment U6C-PP was (12.4 +/- 0.2) mm and (12.5 +/- 0.1) mm, respectively,and after treatment U6C-PP was (12.6 +/- 0.1) mm and (12.8 +/- 0.1) mm,respectively. The difference between J-hook group and microimplant group was significant (P micro-implant group was not significant. Both J-hook and micro-implant could provide adequate anchorage in the treatment of patients with bimaxillary protrusion.

  19. SU-F-E-19: A Novel Method for TrueBeam Jaw Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corns, R; Zhao, Y; Huang, V [Fraser Valley Cancer Centre - BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A simple jaw calibration method is proposed for Varian TrueBeam using an EPID-Encoder combination that gives accurate fields sizes and a homogeneous junction dose. This benefits clinical applications such as mono-isocentric half-beam block breast cancer or head and neck cancer treatment with junction/field matching. Methods: We use EPID imager with pixel size 0.392 mm × 0.392 mm to determine the radiation jaw position as measured from radio-opaque markers aligned with the crosshair. We acquire two images with different symmetric field sizes and record each individual jaw encoder values. A linear relationship between each jaw’s position and its encoder value is established, from which we predict the encoder values that produce the jaw positions required by TrueBeam’s calibration procedure. During TrueBeam’s jaw calibration procedure, we move the jaw with the pendant to set the jaw into position using the predicted encoder value. The overall accuracy is under 0.1 mm. Results: Our in-house software analyses images and provides sub-pixel accuracy to determine field centre and radiation edges (50% dose of the profile). We verified the TrueBeam encoder provides a reliable linear relationship for each individual jaw position (R{sup 2}>0.9999) from which the encoder values necessary to set jaw calibration points (1 cm and 19 cm) are predicted. Junction matching dose inhomogeneities were improved from >±20% to <±6% using this new calibration protocol. However, one technical challenge exists for junction matching, if the collimator walkout is large. Conclusion: Our new TrueBeam jaw calibration method can systematically calibrate the jaws to crosshair within sub-pixel accuracy and provides both good junction doses and field sizes. This method does not compensate for a larger collimator walkout, but can be used as the underlying foundation for addressing the walkout issue.

  20. An examination of the degrees of freedom of human jaw motion in speech and mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, D J; Vatikiotis-Bateson, E; Gribble, P L

    1997-12-01

    The kinematics of human jaw movements were assessed in terms of the three orientation angles and three positions that characterize the motion of the jaw as a rigid body. The analysis focused on the identification of the jaw's independent movement dimensions, and was based on an examination of jaw motion paths that were plotted in various combinations of linear and angular coordinate frames. Overall, both behaviors were characterized by independent motion in four degrees of freedom. In general, when jaw movements were plotted to show orientation in the sagittal plane as a function of horizontal position, relatively straight paths were observed. In speech, the slopes and intercepts of these paths varied depending on the phonetic material. The vertical position of the jaw was observed to shift up or down so as to displace the overall form of the sagittal plane motion path of the jaw. Yaw movements were small but independent of pitch, and vertical and horizontal position. In mastication, the slope and intercept of the relationship between pitch and horizontal position were affected by the type of food and its size. However, the range of variation was less than that observed in speech. When vertical jaw position was plotted as a function of horizontal position, the basic form of the path of the jaw was maintained but could be shifted vertically. In general, larger bolus diameters were associated with lower jaw positions throughout the movement. The timing of pitch and yaw motion differed. The most common pattern involved changes in pitch angle during jaw opening followed by a phase predominated by lateral motion (yaw). Thus, in both behaviors there was evidence of independent motion in pitch, yaw, horizontal position, and vertical position. This is consistent with the idea that motions in these degrees of freedom are independently controlled.

  1. Modeling the Excess Cell Surface Stored in a Complex Morphology of Bleb-Like Protrusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Kapustina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cells transition from spread to rounded morphologies in diverse physiological contexts including mitosis and mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transitions. When these drastic shape changes occur rapidly, cell volume and surface area are approximately conserved. Consequently, the rounded cells are suddenly presented with a several-fold excess of cell surface whose area far exceeds that of a smooth sphere enclosing the cell volume. This excess is stored in a population of bleb-like protrusions (BLiPs, whose size distribution is shown by electron micrographs to be skewed. We introduce three complementary models of rounded cell morphologies with a prescribed excess surface area. A 2D Hamiltonian model provides a mechanistic description of how discrete attachment points between the cell surface and cortex together with surface bending energy can generate a morphology that satisfies a prescribed excess area and BLiP number density. A 3D random seed-and-growth model simulates efficient packing of BLiPs over a primary rounded shape, demonstrating a pathway for skewed BLiP size distributions that recapitulate 3D morphologies. Finally, a phase field model (2D and 3D posits energy-based constitutive laws for the cell membrane, nematic F-actin cortex, interior cytosol, and external aqueous medium. The cell surface is equipped with a spontaneous curvature function, a proxy for the cell surface-cortex couple, that is a priori unknown, which the model "learns" from the thin section transmission electron micrograph image (2D or the "seed and growth" model image (3D. Converged phase field simulations predict self-consistent amplitudes and spatial localization of pressure and stress throughout the cell for any posited stationary morphology target and cell compartment constitutive properties. The models form a general framework for future studies of cell morphological dynamics in a variety of biological contexts.

  2. Intra-vesical Prostatic Protrusion (IPP) Can Be Reduced by Prostatic Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Ting, E-mail: ymerically@gmail.com; Amouyal, Grégory, E-mail: gregamouyal@hotmail.com [Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology (France); Thiounn, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.thiounn@egp.aphp.fr [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Urology (France); Pellerin, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.pellerin@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris-Cité (France); Pereira, Héléna, E-mail: helena.pereira@aphp.fr; Giudice, Costantino Del, E-mail: costantino.del-giudice@egp.aphp.fr; Déan, Carole, E-mail: carole.dean@aphp.fr [Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology (France); Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: marc.sapoval2@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris-Cité (France)

    2016-05-15

    BackgroundProstate artery embolization (PAE) is a new approach to improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. PAE results in global reduction of prostate volume (PV). There are no data available on the efficacy of PAE in reducing intra-vesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), an anatomic feature that is clinically related with bladder outlet obstruction and LUTS.ObjectiveTo assess the results of PAE in patients with significant IPP due to median lobe hyperplasia and to compare the IPSS decrease and IPP change.Material and MethodsProspective analysis of 18 consecutive patients with significant IPP (>5 mm) related to median lobe hyperplasia undergoing PAE using 30–500-μm-calibrated trisacryl microspheres. We measured IPP on sagittal T2-weighted images before and 3 months after PAE. IPSS and clinical results were also evaluated at 3 months.ResultsPAE resulted in significant IPP reduction (1.57 cm ± 0.55 before PAE and 1.30 cm ± 0.46 after PAE, p = 0.0005) (Fig. 1) with no complication. IPSS, quality of life (QoL), total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and PV showed significant reduction after PAE, and maximum urinary flow rate (Q{sub max}) showed significant increase after PAE. No significant change of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for clinical evaluation after PAE. A significant correlation was found between the IPP change and the IPSS change (r = 0.636, p = 0.0045).ConclusionPatients had significant IPP reduction as well as significant symptomatic improvement after PAE, and these improvements were positively correlated.

  3. Investigation of thermo-fluid behavior of mixed convection heat transfer of different dimples-protrusions wall patterns to heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, M.; Behzadmehr, A.

    2018-05-01

    This study is a numerical investigation of the effect of improving heat transfer namely, modified rough (dimples and protrusions) surfaces on the mixed convective heat transfer of a turbulent flow in a horizontal tube. The effects of different dimples-protrusions arrangements on the improving the thermal performance of a rough tube are investigated at various Richardson numbers. Three dimensional governing equations are discretized by the finite-volume technique. Based on the obtained results the dimples-protrusions arrangements are modified to find a suitable configuration for which heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop to be balanced. Modified dimples-protrusions arrangements that shows higher performance is presented. Its average thermal performance 18% and 11% is higher than the other arrangements. In addition, the results show that roughening a smooth tube is more effective at the higher Richardson number.

  4. Conservation and variation in the feeding mechanism of the spiny dogfish squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga; Motta

    1998-05-01

    Changes in the feeding mechanism with feeding behavior were investigated using high-speed video and electromyography to examine the kinematics and motor pattern of prey capture, manipulation and transport in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias (Squalidae: Squaliformes). In this study, Squalus acanthias used both suction and ram behaviors to capture and manipulate prey, while only suction was used to transport prey. The basic kinematic feeding sequence observed in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates is conserved in the spiny dogfish. Prey capture, bite manipulation and suction transport events are characterized by a common pattern of head movements and motor activity, but are distinguishable by differences in duration and relative timing. In general, capture events are longer in duration than manipulation and transport events, as found in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates. Numerous individual effects were found, indicating that individual sharks are capable of varying head movements and motor activity among successful feeding events. Upper jaw protrusion in the spiny dogfish is not restricted by its orbitostylic jaw suspension; rather, the upper jaw is protruded by 30 % of its head length, considerably more than in the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae: Carcharhiniformes) (18 %) with its hyostylic jaw suspension. One function of upper jaw protrusion is to assist in jaw closure by protruding the upper jaw as well as elevating the lower jaw to close the gape, thus decreasing the time to jaw closure. The mechanism of upper jaw protrusion was found to differ between squaliform and carcharhiniform sharks. Whereas the levator palatoquadrati muscle assists in retracting the upper jaw in the spiny dogfish, it assists in protruding the upper jaw in the lemon shark. This study represents the first comprehensive electromyographic and kinematic analysis of the feeding mechanism in a squaliform shark.

  5. Microbiota associated with chronic osteomyelitis of the jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic osteomyelitis of maxilla and mandible is rare in industrialized countries and its occurrence in developing countries is associated with trauma and surgery, and its microbial etiology has not been studied thoroughly. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the microbiota associated with osteomyelitis of mandible or maxilla from some Brazilian patients. After clinical and radiographic evaluation, samples of bone sequestra, purulent secretion, and biopsies of granulomatous tissues from twenty-two patients with chronic osteomyelitis of mandible and maxilla were cultivated and submitted for pathogen detection by using a PCR method. Each patient harbored a single lesion. Bacterial isolation was performed on fastidious anaerobe agar supplemented with hemin, menadione and horse blood for anaerobes; and on tryptic soy agar supplemented with yeast extract and horse blood for facultative bacteria and aerobes. Plates were incubated in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, at 37ºC for 14 and 3 days, respectively. Bacteria were cultivated from twelve patient samples; and genera Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent. By PCR, bacterial DNA was detected from sixteen patient samples. The results suggest that cases of chronic osteomyelitis of the jaws are usually mixed anaerobic infections, reinforcing the concept that osteomyelitis of the jaws are mainly related to microorganisms from the oral environment, and periapical and periodontal infections may act as predisposing factors.

  6. A study on the mixed jaw lesions associated with teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2000-01-01

    1. Retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of tentative diagnosis or impression from the clinico-radiographic materials of jaw lesions which showed mixed lesions associated with teeth. 2. To observe the diagnostic importance of the calcified part of the lesions which appear as radiopaque areas. 14 cases of jaw lesions which showed mixed lesions associated with teeth were reviewed. These lesions were mostly diagnosed as adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (6 cases) or calcifying odontogenic cysts with (4 cases) or without odontomas (4 cases). The calcified elements of the lesions which demonstrated various sizes and patterns of radiopaque shadows resembled odontoid tissues in some cases but could not be defined in some other cases radiographically. The final histopathologic diagnosis confirmed adenomatoid odontogenic tumors in 4 of the 6 cases. The remaining 2 cases turned out to be odontoma and ameloblastic fibroodontoma. The 4 cases of calcifying odontogenic cysts with odontomas were correct in 3 cases but remaining 1 case was just odontoma. The 4 cases of calcifying odontogenic cysts were proved to be odontogenic keratocyst, calcified peripheral fibroma, unicystic ameloblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnostic accuracy of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors and calcifying odontogenic cysts were high when the lesions show typical appearance. The calcifications which show radiopaque areas could be odontomas or dystrophic calficifations or remnants of bone fragments from resorption.

  7. Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Force Transmission Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Frank Oduori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to perform a static force analysis of the single toggle jaw crusher mechanism and to obtain the force transmission characteristics of the mechanism. In order to obtain force transmission metrics that are characteristic of the structure of the mechanism, such influences as friction, dead weight, and inertia are considered to be extraneous and neglected. Equations are obtained by considering the balance of forces at the moving joints and appropriately relating these to the input torque and the output torque. A mechanical advantage, the corresponding transmitted torque, and the variations thereof, during the cycle of motion of the mechanism, are obtained. The mechanical advantage that characterizes the mechanism is calculated as the mean value over the active crushing stroke of the mechanism. The force transmission characteristics can be used as criteria for the comparison of different jaw crusher mechanism designs in order to select the most suitable design for a given application. The equations obtained can also be used in estimating the forces sustained by the components of the mechanism.

  8. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  9. Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (MRONJ: Etiological Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tenore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ is an uncommon but severe bone disease, can be related to various medicaments (MRONJ including bisphosphonates (BRONJ, antiangiogenic and antiresorptive medicaments such as Denosumab (DRONJ, human monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand. The rise in number in the latest years can be explained with many patients treated with all these drugs, assumed for osteometabolic (i.e osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta or neoplastic diseases (multiple myeloma, metastatic breast, prostate and renal cancer. The onset mechanism of MRONJ is not entirely understood, probably different mechanisms are involved, such as inhibition of the osteoclasts differentiation and function, decrease of the angiogenesis and inflammation/infection of the jaw bones. Some pathogenetic mechanisms are different according to the drugs, for example the cases of the RANK-ligand inhibitor related ONJ may occur without considering the period of medication intake; also the risk of ONJ manifestation after bisphosphonates (BF is not significantly diminished after interrupting the drug therapy, because BF bind to the bone matrix for many years. Drugs currently implicated in osteonecrosis pathology are various, therefore the term ONJ was currently replaced by MRONJ; it is necessary that the anamnestic phase and management of the patients to be more detailed and correct, not only to prevent osteonecrosis but also to plan all necessary treatments before start of the drug therapy.

  10. A study on the mixed jaw lesions associated with teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    1. Retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of tentative diagnosis or impression from the clinico-radiographic materials of jaw lesions which showed mixed lesions associated with teeth. 2. To observe the diagnostic importance of the calcified part of the lesions which appear as radiopaque areas. 14 cases of jaw lesions which showed mixed lesions associated with teeth were reviewed. These lesions were mostly diagnosed as adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (6 cases) or calcifying odontogenic cysts with (4 cases) or without odontomas (4 cases). The calcified elements of the lesions which demonstrated various sizes and patterns of radiopaque shadows resembled odontoid tissues in some cases but could not be defined in some other cases radiographically. The final histopathologic diagnosis confirmed adenomatoid odontogenic tumors in 4 of the 6 cases. The remaining 2 cases turned out to be odontoma and ameloblastic fibroodontoma. The 4 cases of calcifying odontogenic cysts with odontomas were correct in 3 cases but remaining 1 case was just odontoma. The 4 cases of calcifying odontogenic cysts were proved to be odontogenic keratocyst, calcified peripheral fibroma, unicystic ameloblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnostic accuracy of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors and calcifying odontogenic cysts were high when the lesions show typical appearance. The calcifications which show radiopaque areas could be odontomas or dystrophic calficifations or remnants of bone fragments from resorption.

  11. Platelet Lysate: The Better Choice for Jaw Periosteal Cell Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Wanner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated a high quality of minerals formed by serum-free cultured jaw periosteal cells (JPCs by Raman spectroscopy but the mineralization extent was not satisfactory. In the present study, we analyzed the proliferation and mineralization potential of human platelet lysate- (hPL- cultured JPCs in comparison to that of FCS-cultured JPCs. By cell impedance measurements, we detected significantly higher population doubling times of PL-cultured JPCs in comparison to FCS-cultured JPCs. However, this result was not based on lower proliferation activities but on diminished cell sizes which JPCs develop under PL cultivation. The measurements of the metabolic activities clearly showed significantly higher cell proliferation rates under PL culturing. Equivalent levels of the mesenchymal cell markers CD29, CD45, CD73, CD90, and CD105 were detected, but there were significantly increased MSCA-1 levels under PL cultivation. While JPCs only occasionally mineralize under FCS culture conditions, the mineralization potential was significantly stronger under PL cultivation. Moreover, in 4 of 5 analyzed patient cells, the addition of dexamethasone was proved no longer necessary for strong mineralization of PL-cultured JPCs. We conclude that in vitro cultivation of JPCs with platelet lysate is a suitable alternative to FCS culture conditions and a powerful tool for the development of high-quality TE constructs using jaw periosteal cells.

  12. Platelet Lysate: The Better Choice for Jaw Periosteal Cell Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Yvonne; Umrath, Felix; Waidmann, Marc; Reinert, Siegmar; Alexander, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated a high quality of minerals formed by serum-free cultured jaw periosteal cells (JPCs) by Raman spectroscopy but the mineralization extent was not satisfactory. In the present study, we analyzed the proliferation and mineralization potential of human platelet lysate- (hPL-) cultured JPCs in comparison to that of FCS-cultured JPCs. By cell impedance measurements, we detected significantly higher population doubling times of PL-cultured JPCs in comparison to FCS-cultured JPCs. However, this result was not based on lower proliferation activities but on diminished cell sizes which JPCs develop under PL cultivation. The measurements of the metabolic activities clearly showed significantly higher cell proliferation rates under PL culturing. Equivalent levels of the mesenchymal cell markers CD29, CD45, CD73, CD90, and CD105 were detected, but there were significantly increased MSCA-1 levels under PL cultivation. While JPCs only occasionally mineralize under FCS culture conditions, the mineralization potential was significantly stronger under PL cultivation. Moreover, in 4 of 5 analyzed patient cells, the addition of dexamethasone was proved no longer necessary for strong mineralization of PL-cultured JPCs. We conclude that in vitro cultivation of JPCs with platelet lysate is a suitable alternative to FCS culture conditions and a powerful tool for the development of high-quality TE constructs using jaw periosteal cells.

  13. Raman Spectroscopic Analyses of Jaw Periosteal Cell Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brauchle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve safer patient treatments, serum-free cell culture conditions have to be established for cell therapies. In previous studies, we demonstrated that serum-free culture favored the proliferation of MSCA-1+ osteoprogenitors derived from the jaw periosteum. In this study, the in vitro formation of bone-specific matrix by MSCA-1+ jaw periosteal cells (JPCs, 3 donors was assessed and compared under serum-free and serum-containing media conditions using the marker-free Raman spectroscopy. Based on a standard fluorescence assay, JPCs from one patient were not able to mineralize under serum-containing culture conditions, whereas the other cells showed similar mineralization levels under both conditions. Raman spectra from mineralizing MSCA-1+ JPCs revealed higher levels of hydroxyapatite formation and higher mineral to matrix ratios under serum-free culture conditions. Higher carbonate to phosphate ratios and higher crystallinity in JPCs cultured under serum-containing conditions indicated immature bone formation. Due to reduced collagen production under serum-free conditions, we obtained significant differences in collagen maturity and proline to hydroxyproline ratios compared to serum-free conditions. We conclude that Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool for the assessment and noninvasive monitoring of in vitro mineralization of osteoprogenitor cells. Further studies should extend this knowledge and improve JPC mineralization by optimizing culture conditions.

  14. DENOSUMAB-RELATED OSTEONECROSIS OF THE JAWS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Petkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are potent and effective drugs frequently used to prevent the skeletal complications associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis in women, to manage patients with multiple myeloma, hypercalcemia, and metastasis of cancer to the bone. The search for new medications with the same therapeutic effectiveness as the bisphosphonates but fewer side effects has resulted in the discovery of Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against the receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, therefore inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function. Denosumab is a class of drugs that are entirely different from the traditional antiresorptive drugs, the bisphosphonates. Denosumab has several advantages, including better tolerability, ease of subcutaneous injection, a shorter half-life, and a reduced incidence of nephrotoxicity. Patients receiving bisphosphonates are at risk to develop a severe devastating complication - osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ - which is challenging to treat. Since 2010 there have been reports of ONJ in patients taking denosumab. In the 2014 position paper of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, the nomenclature “bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw” was changed to “medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw” (MRONJ. The change is justified to accommodate the growing number of osteonecrosis cases involving the maxilla and mandible associated with other antiresorptive (denosumab and antiangiogenic therapies. Here we report a development of denosumab-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (DRONJ - a new type of bony necrosis- in patient with bone metastases of breast cancer on Denosumab therapy. The patient has no previous history of taking bisphosphonates.

  15. [Peculiarities of clinico-neurological signs of the intervertebral discs protrusions in lumbar portion of vertebral column in patients of various age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzniak, M V; Pryĭmak, E V

    2013-11-01

    Clinico-neurological signs of the discogenic pain syndromes, caused by intervertebral disc (IVD) protrusion in a lumbar portion of vertebral column, were analyzed. The strict indications were substantiated for application of the puncture treatment methods for the discogenic pain syndromes in patients of various ages. Clinico-neurological signs of the IVD protrusions constitute the important criterion while the treatment method selection. Differentiated application of the puncture methods permits to improve the treatment results in the patients of various age.

  16. Comparative studies of jaw morphology and ontogeny in two species of asexually reproducing Dorvilleidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, Martin Oliver; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Worsaae, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    found in closely related species (Macnaughton et al. 2009). Details of dentition and numbers of maxillary plates as well as the ontogenetic growth patterns of the jaws were found to provide significant information of systematic value. Based on detailed studies of jaw ontogeny and morphology, Dorvillea...

  17. Electronic speckle-pattern interferometry (ESPI) applied to the study of mechanical behavior of human jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan F.; Moreno de las Cuevas, Vincente; Salgueiro, Jose R.; Suarez, David; Fernandez, Paula; Gallas, Mercedes; Blanchard, Alain

    1996-01-01

    The study of the mechanical behavior of the human jaw during chewing is helpful in several specific medical fields that cover the maxillo-facial area. In this work, electronic speckle pattern interferometry has been applied to study dead jaw bones under external stress which simulates the deformations induced during chewing. Fringes obtained after subtraction of two images of the jaw, the image of the relaxed jaw and that of the jaw under stress, give us information about the most stressed zones. The interferometric analysis proposed here is attractive as it can be done in real time with the jaw under progressive stress. Image processing can be applied for improving the quality of fringes. This research can be of help in orthognathic surgery, for example in diagnosis and treatment of fractured jaws, in oral surgery, and in orthodontics because it would help us to know the stress dispersion when we insert an osseointegrated implant or place an orthodontic appliance, respectively. Studying fragments of human jaw some results about its elasticity and flexibility were obtained.

  18. Osteosarcoma: a comparison of jaw versus nonjaw localizations and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, H.; Schreuder, W.H.; de Lange, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. It is assumed that osteosarcomas of the jaws mainly occur at older ages, whereas the most prominent sites, that is, the long bones, are more affected at ages <20. Jaw-localized tumors are less malignant and have lower metastatic spread rates. Patients and Methods. This study analyses the

  19. Osteosarcoma: A Comparison of Jaw versus Nonjaw Localizations and Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, H.; Schreuder, W. H.; de Lange, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. It is assumed that osteosarcomas of the jaws mainly occur at older ages, whereas the most prominent sites, that is, the long bones, are more affected at ages <20. Jaw-localized tumors are less malignant and have lower metastatic spread rates. Patients and Methods. This study analyses the

  20. Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome detected by aggressive generalized osteitis fibrosa cystica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrouani, Alae; Rzin, Abdelkader; El Khatib, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Severe hyperparathyroidism can affect bone metabolism and be in the origine of multiple brown tumours (generalized osteitis fibrosa cystica). When associated with fibro-ossifying tumours of the jaw, it realizes a rare genetic syndrome referred as Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour HPT-JT. We report the case of a patient we treated for HPT-JT, and literature review.

  1. Some additional Notes on external Features and on the jaw muscles of Orthragoriscus mola (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roon, van J.M.

    1942-01-01

    In 1939 J. M. van Roon and J. J. ter Pelkwijk published some data on two specimens of Orthragoriscus mola (L.) stranded on the Dutch coast. Measurements of bones and muscles of the jaw were given on account of the functional treatise concerning the mechanism of the jaw of Orthragoriscus given by Van

  2. Epidemiology of ameloblastomas of the jaws; A report from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, Marjolijn A. E. M.; van der Waal, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To provide epidemiological data of ameloblastomas of the jaws in the Netherlands over a 25-year time period (1985-2010) and to compare these data with data from other parts of the world. Material and Methods: The data of all patients diagnosed with a primary ameloblastoma of the jaws in

  3. Comparison of nonexposed and exposed bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiodt, Morten; Reibel, Jesper; Oturai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Nonexposed osteonecrosis of the jaws (NE-ONJ) does not fit into the current definition of osteonecrosis, which requires exposed bone. A modification of the classification of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is proposed. This study aimed to test proposed criteria for NE...

  4. Differences in loading of the temporomandibular joint during opening and closing of the jaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijt, M.; Koolstra, J.H.; Lobbezoo, F.; Naeije, M.

    2010-01-01

    Kinematics of the human masticatory system during opening and closing of the jaw have been reported widely. Evidence has been provided that the opening and closing movement of the jaw differ from one another. However, different approaches of movement registration yield divergent expectations with

  5. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  6. Lip line changes in Class III facial asymmetry patients after orthodontic camouflage treatment, one-jaw surgery, and two-jaw surgery: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gung-Chol; Yoo, Jo-Kwang; Kim, Seong-Hun; Moon, Cheol-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of orthodontic camouflage treatment (OCT), one-jaw surgery, and two-jaw surgery on the correction of lip line cant (LLC) and to examine factors affecting the correction of LLC in Class III craniofacial asymmetry patients. A sample of 30 Class III craniofacial asymmetry patients was divided into OCT (n = 10), one-jaw surgery (n = 10), and two-jaw surgery (n = 10) groups such that the pretreatment LLC was similar in each group. Pretreatment and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to measure dental and skeletal parameters and LLC. Pretreatment and posttreatment measurements were compared within groups and between groups. Pearson's correlation tests and multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate factors affecting the amount and rate of LLC correction. The average LLC correction was 1.00° in the one-jaw surgery group, and in the two-jaw surgery group, it was 1.71°. In the OCT group it was -0.04°, which differed statistically significantly from the LLC correction in the other two groups. The amount and rate of LLC correction could be explained by settling of skeletal discrepancies or LLC at pretreatment with goodness of fit percentages of approximately 82% and 41%, respectively. Orthognathic surgery resulted in significant correction of LLC in Class III craniofacial asymmetry patients, while OCT did not.

  7. Application of concentrated growth factors in reconstruction of bone defects after removal of large jaw cysts: The two cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coagulation and blood clot formation in bone defects is sometimes followed by retraction of a blood clot and serum extrusion, thus producing peripheral serum-filled spaces between bony wall and coagulum. This can result in a higher incidence of postoperative complications. Stabilization of blood coagulum, which enables successful primary healing, may be accomplished by autotransplantation, allotransplantation, xenotransplantation, or application of autologous platelet concentrate and concentrated growth factors (CGF. Case report. Two patients with large cystic lesions in the upper and lower jaw were presented. In both patients postoperative bony defects were filled with autologous fibrin rich blocks containing CGF. Postoperative course passed uneventfully. Conclusion. Application of fibrin rich blocks containing CGF is one of the possible methods for reconstruction of bone defects. CGF can be applied alone or mixed with a bone graft. The method is relatively simple, without risk of transmissible and allergic diseases and economically feasible.

  8. Correlation of the Condylar Guidance Obtained by Protrusive Interocclusal Record and Panoramic Radiographs in Completely Edentulous Patients: An in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyati Shah

    2014-01-01

    Results: The results showed statistically significant difference between the condylar guidance values obtained from Orthopantomograph (Radiograph and the condylar guidance values obtained at the stage of jaw relation. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that the condylar guidance values obtained from the Radiographs were higher than those obtained at the stage of jaw relation recording stage.

  9. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-05-22

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).

  10. Jaw osteonecrosis related to bisphosphonate therapy: a severe secondary disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemann, C; Grätz, K W; Riener, M O; Zwahlen, R A

    2007-04-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BON), first described in 2003, is gaining importance due to the increasing indication spectrum of bisphosphonate therapy [S. Takeyama, M. Ito, H. Shinoda, A novel bisphosphonate, TRK-530, for periodontitis, Bone 38 (2006) 31-31; M. Tagil, A. W-Dahl, J. Astrand, D. Little, S. Toksvig-Larsen, Decreasing the catabolic response by a single bisphosphonate infusion shortens the healing time in hemicallotasis operations, Bone 38 (2006) 84-85; E. Rodriguez, M.C. Duran, L.M. Rodriguez, R. Ros, M.R. Aleman, M. Rodriguez-Gaspar, A.M. Lopez, E. Garcia-Valdecasas, F. Santolaria, Intravenous (IV) bisphosphonates for osteopenic cancer survivor women: an alternative treatment, Bone 38 (2006) 72-73; D.G. Little, K. Ward, P. Kiely, M.C. Bellemore, J. Briody, C.T. Cowell, Bisphosphonate rescue in distraction osteogenesis: a case series, Bone 38 (2006) 80-80; R. Marx, Pamidronate (Aredia) and zoledronate (Zometa) induced avascular necrosis of the jaws: a growing epidemic, J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 61 (2003) 1115-1118]. BON patients suffering from varying bony defects and symptoms are extremely restricted in their quality of life. Due to a limited knowledge of the aetiology of BON efficient evidence-based treatment strategies are lacking. Until now 23 patients with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis have been admitted to the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Zurich. A complete history has been recorded. All patients underwent clinical and radiographic examination. CT scans and MRI have been performed in selected cases. All patients had in common that, before signs of BON were observed, a local traumatic incidence had occurred. All patients showed signs of infection which could be remarkably reduced by antibacterial treatment. Furthermore, the period of bisphosphonate treatment was found to be one of the significant factors causing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. The aetiology of BON

  11. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ is a severe complication that has recently emerged in patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates for malignant diseases. This complication usually presents after a minor local trauma during a dental treatment. Several etiopathogenic mechanisms of this pathological condition have been proposed, but no model can explain all morphological changes observed at the macroscopic and microscopic level. BRONJ is likely to be related to direct toxicity in the bone and soft tissue cells, due to nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. This review elucidates the clinical indications and mechanism of action of bisphosphonates, reports some clinical diagnostic criteria for BRONJ, describe the histopathological criteria for BRONJ diagnosis, the potential triggering pathways and the available treatment strategies.

  12. Multiple jaw cysts-unveiling the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Manjima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is a comparatively rare syndrome characterized by basal cell nevi, odontogenic keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. Diagnosis is based on the major and minor clinical and radiographic criteria. Dentist plays a major role in the diagnosis of this disease due to the oral and maxillofacial manifestations of the syndrome. In some cases, jaw cysts are diagnosed by routine radiographs advised by the dentists. Odontogenic keratocysts in such syndromic patients will be multiple and extensive and in some cases results in cortical expansion and facial disfigurement. Thorough clinical examination and investigations prompt an early confirmation of the syndrome, which is very essential to avoid morbidity associated with the syndrome. Here, we report a case of multiple odontogenic cysts in a 16-year-old patient which later was diagnosed as a case of Gorlin Goltz syndrome.

  13. Multiple jaw cysts-unveiling the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjima, S; Naik, Zameera; Keluskar, Vaishali; Bagewadi, Anjana

    2015-03-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is a comparatively rare syndrome characterized by basal cell nevi, odontogenic keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. Diagnosis is based on the major and minor clinical and radiographic criteria. Dentist plays a major role in the diagnosis of this disease due to the oral and maxillofacial manifestations of the syndrome. In some cases, jaw cysts are diagnosed by routine radiographs advised by the dentists. Odontogenic keratocysts in such syndromic patients will be multiple and extensive and in some cases results in cortical expansion and facial disfigurement. Thorough clinical examination and investigations prompt an early confirmation of the syndrome, which is very essential to avoid morbidity associated with the syndrome. Here, we report a case of multiple odontogenic cysts in a 16-year-old patient which later was diagnosed as a case of Gorlin Goltz syndrome.

  14. Fibro-osseous lesions of the face and jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    Maxillofacial fibro-osseous lesions (FOL) consists of lesions that differ, with the exception of fibrous dysplasia, to those found in the rest of the skeleton. FOLs of the face and jaws are cemento-ossifying dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and cemento-ossifying fibroma. Radiology is central to their diagnosis because the pathology for all FOLs is similar, although they range widely in behaviour, from dysplasia, hamartoma to benign neoplasia with occasional recurrence. Furthermore, once diagnosed the management of each is different. For cemento-ossifying dysplasia, this may mean doing nothing, simply because no treatment is generally appropriate. Almost all cemento-ossifying fibromas should be treated surgically, whereas cases of fibrous dysplasia are treated according to their clinical presentation, ranging from review and follow-up to surgery necessary to save the patient's sight or reduce deformity. The most important and frequent features of the FOLs differential diagnosis is discussed with assistance of a flow-chart

  15. Fibro-osseous lesions of the face and jaws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D.S

    2004-01-01

    Maxillofacial fibro-osseous lesions (FOL) consists of lesions that differ, with the exception of fibrous dysplasia, to those found in the rest of the skeleton. FOLs of the face and jaws are cemento-ossifying dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and cemento-ossifying fibroma. Radiology is central to their diagnosis because the pathology for all FOLs is similar, although they range widely in behaviour, from dysplasia, hamartoma to benign neoplasia with occasional recurrence. Furthermore, once diagnosed the management of each is different. For cemento-ossifying dysplasia, this may mean doing nothing, simply because no treatment is generally appropriate. Almost all cemento-ossifying fibromas should be treated surgically, whereas cases of fibrous dysplasia are treated according to their clinical presentation, ranging from review and follow-up to surgery necessary to save the patient's sight or reduce deformity. The most important and frequent features of the FOLs differential diagnosis is discussed with assistance of a flow-chart.

  16. Dental Number Anomalies and Their Prevalence According To Gender and Jaw in School Children 7 To 14 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejdini, Milaim; Çerkezi, Sabetim

    2018-05-20

    This study aimed to find the prevalence of Hypodontia and Hyperdontia in different ethnicities in patients from 7 to 14 years old. A group of 520 children were included aged 7 to 14 years, only the children who went to primary schools. Controls were performed by professional people to preserve the criteria of orthodontic abnormalities evaluation. The data were recorded in the individual card specially formulated for this research and all the patients suspected for hypodontia and hyperdontia the orthopantomography for confirmation was made. The data were analysed using descriptive statistical analysis using χ 2 test for the significant difference for p ˂ 0.05 and Fisher test for p counting the patients with missing third molars was found in 18 patients researched or 3.46%. The most commonly missing teeth were the second lower premolars, the second upper premolars, second upper lateral incisors followed by the lower incisors. Hyperdontia not including the third molars was found in 4 cases of the participants or 0.76% from which the most frequent atypical tooth mesiodens and one case of bilateral hypodontia of a lateral upper incisor with typical shape and size. But there were no significant differences when tested between genders and jaws. The prevalence we found is similar to the prevalence in the region. Our findings indicate that there is a difference between the genders in the prevalence of hypodontia, but without statistical significance, while for hyperdontia we can't see such a difference between the sexes.

  17. Modulating the nanorods protrusion from poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-pyrene microcapsules by 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Erjia; Wang, Tianxiang; Wang, Zhipeng; Gao, Changyou

    2013-09-01

    It was found previously that the Schiff base bonds in poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-pyrene (PAH-Py) microcapsules (MCs) are hydrolyzed at pH 2 within 1 h, leading to disassembly of the MCs and protrusion of pyrene aldehyde (Py) nanorods (NRs) on the capsule surface. Herein, we found a new way to modulate the protrusion of NRs by addition of 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt (PySO3Na). Along with the increase in PySO3Na to Py molar ratio in the MCs solution, the protrusion of NRs was progressively blocked and even inhibited at a ratio of 2.3, and at this condition, the microcapsules were stable under pH 2 for 24 h. After the composite microcapsules with excess PySO3Na were washed with a pH 10 solution and then incubated in a pH 2 solution, the NRs could be protruded from the MCs again. The fluorescence peak position of the PAH-Py/PySO3Na MCs gradually red-shifted with a decrease in pH value, and a sharp transition occurred at p H3.6, demonstrating the formation of pyrene excimers between the PySO3Na small molecules and the pendant Py groups on the PAH chain. The formed excimers take the role of blocking the self-assembly of cleaved Py molecules instead of inhibiting the hydrolysis of the Schiff base, whereas the MCs were stabilized by the charge interaction between PySO3Na and PAH backbone and the hydrophobic interaction between the pyrene rings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of maximum bite force on jaw movement during gummy jelly mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuninori, T; Tomonari, H; Uehara, S; Kitashima, F; Yagi, T; Miyawaki, S

    2014-05-01

    It is known that maximum bite force has various influences on chewing function; however, there have not been studies in which the relationships between maximum bite force and masticatory jaw movement have been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maximum bite force on masticatory jaw movement in subjects with normal occlusion. Thirty young adults (22 men and 8 women; mean age, 22.6 years) with good occlusion were divided into two groups based on whether they had a relatively high or low maximum bite force according to the median. The maximum bite force was determined according to the Dental Prescale System using pressure-sensitive sheets. Jaw movement during mastication of hard gummy jelly (each 5.5 g) on the preferred chewing side was recorded using a six degrees of freedom jaw movement recording system. The motion of the lower incisal point of the mandible was computed, and the mean values of 10 cycles (cycles 2-11) were calculated. A masticatory performance test was conducted using gummy jelly. Subjects with a lower maximum bite force showed increased maximum lateral amplitude, closing distance, width and closing angle; wider masticatory jaw movement; and significantly lower masticatory performance. However, no differences in the maximum vertical or maximum anteroposterior amplitudes were observed between the groups. Although other factors, such as individual morphology, may influence masticatory jaw movement, our results suggest that subjects with a lower maximum bite force show increased lateral jaw motion during mastication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Masticatory jaw movement of Exaeretodon argentinus (Therapsida: Cynodontia inferred from its dental microwear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dental microwear of four postcanine teeth of Exaeretodon argentinus was analyzed using both two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D methods to infer their masticatory jaw movements. Results of both methods were congruent, showing that linear microwear features (scratches were well aligned and mostly directed to the antero-posterior direction in all four teeth examined. These findings support the palinal masticatory jaw movement, which was inferred in previous studies based on the observation of gross morphology of wear facets. In contrast, the lack of detection of lateral scratches confirmed the absence of the lateral jaw movement that was also proposed by a previous study. Considering previous microwear studies on cynodonts, palinal jaw movements observed in Exaeretodon evolved within cynognathian cynodonts from the fully orthal jaw movement of its basal member. Although there are currently only three studies of dental microwear of non-mammalian cynodonts including the present study, microwear analysis is a useful tool for the reconstruction of masticatory jaw movement and its future application to various cynodonts will shed light on the evolutionary process of jaw movement towards the mammalian condition in more detail.

  20. APC/β-catenin-rich complexes at membrane protrusions regulate mammary tumor cell migration and mesenchymal morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odenwald, Matthew A; Prosperi, Jenifer R; Goss, Kathleen H

    2013-01-01

    The APC tumor suppressor is mutated or downregulated in many tumor types, and is prominently localized to punctate clusters at protrusion tips in migratory cells, such as in astrocytes where it has been implicated in directed cell motility. Although APC loss is considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, for example, it is less clear what role APC plays in tumor cell motility and whether loss of APC might be an important promoter of tumor progression in addition to initiation. The localization of APC and β-catenin was analyzed in multiple cell lines, including non-transformed epithelial lines treated with a proteasome inhibitor or TGFβ to induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as several breast cancer lines, by immunofluorescence. APC expression was knocked down in 4T07 mammary tumor cells using lentiviral-mediated delivery of APC-specific short-hairpin (sh) RNAs, and assessed using quantitative (q) reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and western blotting. Tumor cell motility was analyzed by performing wound-filling assays, and morphology via immunofluorescence (IF) and phase-contrast microscopy. Additionally, proliferation was measured using BrdU incorporation, and TCF reporter assays were performed to determine β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcriptional activity. APC/β-catenin-rich complexes were observed at protrusion ends of migratory epithelial cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor or when EMT has been induced and in tumor cells with a mesenchymal, spindle-like morphology. 4T07 tumor cells with reduced APC levels were significantly less motile and had a more rounded morphology; yet, they did not differ significantly in proliferation or β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we found that APC/β-catenin-rich complexes at protrusion ends were dependent upon an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. These findings indicate that membrane protrusions with APC/β-catenin-containing puncta control the migratory potential and

  1. Outcomes and prognostic factors in revision hip arthroplasty for severe intra-pelvic cup protrusion: 246 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinette, J-A; Mertl, P; Combourieu, B; Goncalves, H; Blairon, A; Ehlinger, M; Tabutin, J

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) for intra-pelvic cup protrusion is unclear. Hence, we conducted a large retrospective study to clarify the surgical strategy (hip lever arm and cup mechanical fixation) and the outcomes of reconstruction for severe intra-pelvic cup protrusion. We hypothesized that restoration of the anatomic hip centre in such acetabular revisions decreased the risk of recurrent loosening. The study included 246 THA procedures (in 220 patients), with a follow-up of 5.2 ± 4.9 years (1-24.2) after the index surgery. Bone loss was estimated using the SOFCOT classification (grade III or IV in 80% of cases) and the Paprosky classification (IIIA or IIIB in 58% of cases). Quality of the reconstruction was assessed on X-rays according to the correction of the protrusion and position of the hip centre of rotation. After a clinical follow-up of at least 5 years, with a mean of 9.9 ± 4.1 years (5-24 years), the mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigné score was 14.2 ± 3.1 and the mean Harris Hip Score was 78.0 ± 18.7. Cup protrusion was partially or completely corrected in every case and cup position was normal in 27 (11%) cases. The centre of rotation was within 10mm of the physiological position in 158 (64.2%) cases, acceptable in 77 (31.3%) cases, ascended in 9 (3.7%) cases, and worsened in 1 (0.4%) case. Revision for cup or cup and femoral failures was required in 24 (9.8%) cases. Cumulative survival rates with cup loosening as the endpoint were 88.5% after 5 years, 79.9% after 10 years, and 63.9% at last follow-up at 13.6 years. Our hypothesis that restoration of anatomic hip centre decreased the risk of recurrent loosening was not verified: success or failure in restoring the normal centre of rotation did not correlate significantly with final cup status. Recurrent aseptic loosening was the cause of failure in 9.8% of cases. Ensuring long-term effective mechanical stability had a greater impact on global outcomes than restoring an ideal

  2. A Case Report of Cervical Rhabdomyosarcoma with the Complaint of a Mass Protrusion from Vagina with Bleeding and Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arab

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Botyroide sarcoma is one of the rhabdomyosarcoma which is usually seen in infant's vagina. However, it rarely originates from uterine cervix. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a heterogenic tumor and it is usually diagnosed in second decade of life.Case Report: The patient was a 17 years old virgin girl with the complaint of a mass protrusion from vagina with bleeding and vaginal discharge. Biopsy samples and immunohistochemistry assessments showed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Surgery combined with chemotherapy, significantly increased the survival of patients with uterine cervical rhabdomyosarcoma. Conclusion: The patient underwent radical hysterectomy with restored ovaries and then combined chemotherapy. In the 9 months follow up recurrence has not been observed yet.

  3. APC/β-catenin-rich complexes at membrane protrusions regulate mammary tumor cell migration and mesenchymal morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The APC tumor suppressor is mutated or downregulated in many tumor types, and is prominently localized to punctate clusters at protrusion tips in migratory cells, such as in astrocytes where it has been implicated in directed cell motility. Although APC loss is considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, for example, it is less clear what role APC plays in tumor cell motility and whether loss of APC might be an important promoter of tumor progression in addition to initiation. Methods The localization of APC and β-catenin was analyzed in multiple cell lines, including non-transformed epithelial lines treated with a proteasome inhibitor or TGFβ to induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as several breast cancer lines, by immunofluorescence. APC expression was knocked down in 4T07 mammary tumor cells using lentiviral-mediated delivery of APC-specific short-hairpin (sh) RNAs, and assessed using quantitative (q) reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and western blotting. Tumor cell motility was analyzed by performing wound-filling assays, and morphology via immunofluorescence (IF) and phase-contrast microscopy. Additionally, proliferation was measured using BrdU incorporation, and TCF reporter assays were performed to determine β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcriptional activity. Results APC/β-catenin-rich complexes were observed at protrusion ends of migratory epithelial cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor or when EMT has been induced and in tumor cells with a mesenchymal, spindle-like morphology. 4T07 tumor cells with reduced APC levels were significantly less motile and had a more rounded morphology; yet, they did not differ significantly in proliferation or β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we found that APC/β-catenin-rich complexes at protrusion ends were dependent upon an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Conclusions These findings indicate that membrane protrusions with APC/β-catenin-containing puncta

  4. Pain and Disability in the Jaw and Neck Region following Whiplash Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Henrikson, B; Lampa, E; Marklund, S; Wänman, A

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between whiplash trauma and chronic orofacial pain is unclear, especially with regard to the time elapsed from trauma to development of orofacial pain. The aim was to analyze prevalence of jaw pain and disability, as well as the relationship between pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions in the early nonchronic stage after whiplash trauma. In this case-control study, 70 individuals (40 women, 30 men, mean age 35.5 y) who visited an emergency department with neck pain following a car accident were examined within 3 wk of trauma (group 1) and compared with 70 individuals (42 women, 28 men, mean age 33.8 y), who declined to attend a clinical examination but agreed to fill in questionnaires (group 2). The 2 case groups were compared with a matched control group of 70 individuals (42 women, 28 men, mean age 37.6 y) without a history of neck trauma. All participants completed questionnaires regarding jaw pain and dysfunction, rating pain intensity in jaw and neck regions on the Numerical Rating Scale, the Neck Disability Index, and Jaw Disability Checklist. Compared with controls, individuals with a recent whiplash trauma reported more jaw pain and dysfunction. Furthermore, there was a moderate positive correlation between jaw and neck pain ratings for group 1 (r = 0.61, P whiplash trauma report more jaw pain and disability compared with controls without a history of neck trauma. Furthermore, the correlation between jaw and neck pain intensity implies that intensity of neck pain in the acute stage after whiplash trauma might be a possible risk factor also for development of chronic orofacial pain. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases regulate the formation of dendritic spine head protrusions during chemically induced long-term potentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Szepesi

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are are small membranous protrusions that extend from neuronal dendrites and harbor the majority of excitatory synapses. Increasing evidence has shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a family of extracellularly acting and Zn(2+-dependent endopeptidases, are able to rapidly modulate dendritic spine morphology. Spine head protrusions (SHPs are filopodia-like processes that extend from the dendritic spine head, representing a form of postsynaptic structural remodeling in response to altered neuronal activity. Herein, we show that chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP in dissociated hippocampal cultures upregulates MMP-9 activity that controls the formation of SHPs. Blocking of MMPs activity or microtubule dynamics abolishes the emergence of SHPs. In addition, autoactive recombinant MMP-9, promotes the formation of SHPs in organotypic hippocampal slices. Furthermore, spines with SHPs gained postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors upon cLTP and the synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors was controlled by MMPs. The present results strongly imply that MMP-9 is functionally involved in the formation of SHPs and the control of postsynaptic receptor distribution upon cLTP.

  6. Effect of different head-neck-jaw postures on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, H; Alghadir, A H; Iqbal, Z A

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck relocation error among healthy subjects. 30 healthy adult male subjects participated in this study. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense was measured while standing, habitual sitting, habitual sitting with clenched jaw and habitual sitting with forward head posture during right rotation, left rotation, flexion and extension using kinesthetic sensibility test. Head-neck relocation error was least while standing, followed by habitual sitting, habitual sitting with forward head posture and habitual sitting with jaw clenched. However, there was no significant difference in error between different tested postures during all the movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to see the effect of different induced head-neck-jaw postures on head-neck position sense among healthy subjects. Assuming a posture for a short duration of time doesn't affect head-neck relocation error in normal healthy subjects.

  7. Fibrous dysplasia of the jaws associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Young Joo; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Ki Tae; Chang, Eun Deok; Kim, Young Ok; Lee, Won

    2007-01-01

    There have been few reports on fibrous dyplasia associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism. We report a case of a hemodialysis patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism concomitant with fibrous dysplasia of the jaws causing an abnormal deformity

  8. Emission computer tomographic orthopan display of the jaws - method and normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Koenig, R.; Biersack, H.J.; Wahl, G.

    1990-01-01

    A tomoscintigraphic method is described to create orthopan-like projections of the jaws from SPECT bone scans using cylinder projection. On the basis of this projection a numerical analysis of the dental regions is performed in the same computer code. For each dental region the activity relative to the contralateral region and relative to the average activity of the corresponding jaw is calculated. Using this method, a set of normal activity relations has been established by investigation of 24 patients. (orig.) [de

  9. Jaws calibration method to get a homogeneous distribution of dose in the junction of hemi fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenizo de Castro, E.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Hernandez Rodriguez, R.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Hemi fields treatments are widely used in radiotherapy. Because the tolerance established for the positioning of each jaw is 1 mm, may be cases of overlap or separation of up to 2 mm. This implies heterogeneity of doses up to 40% in the joint area. This paper presents an accurate method of calibration of the jaws so as to obtain homogeneous dose distributions when using this type of treatment. (Author)

  10. Analyzing surface EMG signals to determine relationship between jaw imbalance and arm strength loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Quang Dang Khoa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relationship between dental occlusion and arm strength; in particular, the imbalance in the jaw can cause loss in arm strength phenomenon. One of the goals of this study was to record the maximum forces that the subjects can resist against the pull-down force on their hands while biting a spacer of adjustable height on the right or left side of the jaw. Then EMG measurement was used to determine the EMG-Force relationship of the jaw, neck and arms muscles. This gave us useful insights on the arms strength loss due to the biomechanical effects of the imbalance in the jaw mechanism. Methods In this study to determine the effects of the imbalance in the jaw to the strength of the arms, we conducted experiments with a pool of 20 healthy subjects of both genders. The subjects were asked to resist a pull down force applied on the contralateral arm while biting on a firm spacer using one side of the jaw. Four different muscles – masseter muscles, deltoid muscles, bicep muscles and trapezoid muscles – were involved. Integrated EMG (iEMG and Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD were used to analyze the EMG signals. Results The results showed that (1 Imbalance in the jaw causes loss of arm strength contra-laterally; (2 The loss is approximately a linear function of the height of the spacers. Moreover, the iEMG showed the intensity of muscle activities decreased when the degrees of jaw imbalance increased (spacer thickness increased. In addition, the tendency of Higuchi fractal dimension decreased for all muscles. Conclusions This finding indicates that muscle fatigue and the decrease in muscle contraction level leads to the loss of arm strength.

  11. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Miyu; Koide, Tetsuro; Matsui, Yuriyo; Matsuda, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been...

  12. The long adventurous journey of rhombic lip cells in jawed vertebrates: a comparative developmental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario F Wullimann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes vertebrate rhombic lip and early cerebellar development covering classic approaches up to modern developmental genetics which identifies the relevant differential gene expression domains and their progeny. Most of this information is derived from amniotes. However, progress in anamniotes, particularly in the zebrafish, has recently been made. The current picture suggests that rhombic lip and cerebellar development in jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes share many characteristics. Regarding cerebellar development, these include a ptf1a expressing ventral cerebellar proliferation (VCP giving rise to Purkinje cells and other inhibitory cerebellar cell types, and an atoh1 expressing upper rhombic lip giving rise to an external granular layer (EGL, i.e., excitatory granule cells and an early ventral migration into the anterior rhombencephalon (cholinergic nuclei. As for the lower rhombic lip (LRL, gnathostome commonalities likely include the formation of precerebellar nuclei (mossy fiber origins and partially primary auditory nuclei (likely convergently evolved from the atoh1 expressing dorsal zone. The fate of the ptf1a expressing ventral LRL zone which gives rise to (excitatory cells of the inferior olive (climbing fiber origin and (inhibitory cells of cochlear nuclei in amniotes, has not been determined in anamniotes. Special for the zebrafish in comparison to amniotes is the predominant origin of anamniote excitatory deep cerebellar nuclei homologues (i.e., eurydendroid cells from ptf1a expressing VCP cells, the sequential activity of various atoh1 paralogues and the incomplete coverage of the subpial cerebellar plate with proliferative EGL cells. Nevertheless, the conclusion that a rhombic lip and its major derivatives evolved with gnathostome vertebrates only and are thus not an ancestral craniate character complex is supported by the absence of a cerebellum (and likely absence of its afferent and efferent nuclei in jawless

  13. Evolution of Muscle Activity Patterns Driving Motions of the Jaw and Hyoid during Chewing in Gnathostomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Herrel, Anthony; Ross, Callum F.; Williams, Susan H.; German, Rebecca Z.; Sanford, Christopher P. J.; Gintof, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Although chewing has been suggested to be a basal gnathostome trait retained in most major vertebrate lineages, it has not been studied broadly and comparatively across vertebrates. To redress this imbalance, we recorded EMG from muscles powering anteroposterior movement of the hyoid, and dorsoventral movement of the mandibular jaw during chewing. We compared muscle activity patterns (MAP) during chewing in jawed vertebrate taxa belonging to unrelated groups of basal bony fishes and artiodactyl mammals. Our aim was to outline the evolution of coordination in MAP. Comparisons of activity in muscles of the jaw and hyoid that power chewing in closely related artiodactyls using cross-correlation analyses identified reorganizations of jaw and hyoid MAP between herbivores and omnivores. EMG data from basal bony fishes revealed a tighter coordination of jaw and hyoid MAP during chewing than seen in artiodactyls. Across this broad phylogenetic range, there have been major structural reorganizations, including a reduction of the bony hyoid suspension, which is robust in fishes, to the acquisition in a mammalian ancestor of a muscle sling suspending the hyoid. These changes appear to be reflected in a shift in chewing MAP that occurred in an unidentified anamniote stem-lineage. This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement. PMID:21705368

  14. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Examination of jaws and teeth using Dental CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Vl.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to establish a new method for dental imaging using Dental CT. Dental computer assisted tomography represents valuable addition to the diagnostics spectrum for planning oral and maxillofacial surgery. High resolution spiral CT and specially designed computer software allow representation of the jaws in different planes that are easy to match. The further allow the display of very small structures relevant to oral surgical interventions and reveal their spatial relationship in three dimensions. Dental CT is indicated, when clinical and conventional radiological techniques will not allow exact interpretation of the situation. It is modern oral implantology that primarily benefits from computer software enabling the assessment of surgical sites in the pre surgical phase. Such planning was not yet possible using two dimensional radiographic techniques. The dental-implantological part expects from radiography sharply defined contours of the external bony contours and the mandibular canal, exactly defined relation between slices and planes, no distortion in the ortho-radial planes, tools for reliable measurements of distances, angles and volumes, possibility to transmit pictures electronically or on hardcopy without loss of quality. Thus communication between dentists and radiologists may and must be intensified and supported by usage of modern telecommunication systems. (author)

  16. Intraosseous Leiomyoma of the Jaw in an Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Ontañón, Adaia; Pozuelo-Arquimbau, Laura; Mateu-Esquerda, Gemma; Arranz-Obispo, Carlos; Cuscó-Albors, Sílvia; Melero-Luque, Mireia; Morla, Arnaud; Marí-Roig, Antoni

    2017-05-15

    Leiomyoma is a benign tumor of the smooth muscle that rarely occurs in the mouth as an intraosseous lesion. The purposes of this paper are to: (1) present a case of an intraosseous solid leiomyoma of the mandible in a 13-year-old child, who presented with a well-defined unilocular radiolucency in the right mandible incidentally discovered during a routine dental radiographic examination; and (2) conduct a review of the literature to describe clinicopathological features and management of intraosseous jaw leiomyoma (IJL). A total of 17 articles describing 18 cases of IJL satisfied the selection criteria; including the present patient, to date a total of 19 cases of IJL have been reported. IJL occurs mainly in young patients (36.8 percent), more often in boys (1:5:1 male-to-female ratio), and reaches a larger size in children than in adults. The treatment of choice for IJL is surgical excision, which should be as minimally invasive as possible, especially in children.

  17. Dental implants for severely atrophied jaws due to ectodermal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to present the successful esthetical and functional rehabilitation of partial anodontia in a case of severe ectodermal dysplasia with complete atrophy of the jaws. A 17-year-old male with Class III malocclusion with partial anodontia sought dental implant treatment. His expectation was that of Class I occlusion. The challenge in the case was to match the expectation, reality, and the clinical possibilities. Ridge augmentation was performed with a combination of rib graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Simultaneously, 6 implants (Nobel Biocare™ - Tapered Groovy were placed in maxillary arch and 10 in the mandible. Simultaneous placement ensured faster and better osseointegration though a mild compromise of the primary stability was observed initially. After adequate healing, Customized Zirconia Procera™ system was used to build the framework. Zirconia crown was cemented to the framework. Radiological and clinical evidence of osseointegration was observed in all 16 dental implants. Successful conversion of Class III to Class I occlusion was achieved with the combination of preprosthetic alveolar ridge augmentation, Procera™ Implant Bridge system. Abnormal angulations and or placement of dental implants would result in failure of the implant. Hence conversion of Class III to Class I occlusion needs complete and complex treatment planning so that the entire masticatory apparatus is sufficiently remodeled. Planning should consider the resultant vectors that would otherwise result in failure of framework or compromise the secondary stability of the dental implant during function. A successful case of rehabilitation of complex partial anodontia is presented.

  18. Pattern and presentation of odontogenic jaw cysts: a clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.U.A.; Ibrahim, M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern and presentations of odontogenic jaw cysts in patients reporting at the Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, from Jan to Dec 2007. Material and Methods: Hundred patients including 70 males and 30 females with the age range 5-65 years were included in the study. History, clinical examination, radiographic examination and histopathologic examination of lesion were carried out for each patient. A proforma was filled for each patient for all relevant information, presentation and pattern. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 10. Results: Out of total 100 patients, 58 percent were diagnosed with radicular cysts, 25 percent with dentigerous cysts, 15 percent with odontogenic keratocyst, 1 percent patient with calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst and 1 percent patient was diagnosed with eruption cyst. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that radicular cyst was the most common odontogenic cysts followed by dentigerous and odontogenic keratocysts respectively in our study sample. (author)

  19. Dental extraction following zoledronate, induces osteonecrosis in rat's jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Gutiérrez, X; Gómez-Clavel, J-F; Gaitán-Cepeda, L-A

    2017-03-01

    Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) is clinically characterized by the presence of exposed bone in the oral cavity that persists for more than eight weeks. Previous attempts to establish an animal model have not sufficiently considered disease features. Our aim was to establish an inexpensive and replicable animal model that develops BRONJ in a short time. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and experimental. In the experimental group, we administered 0.06mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of zoledronic acid (ZA) 7 and 14 days prior to maxillary second molar extraction. At two, four and six weeks after tooth extraction, the animals were euthanized, and we dissected the maxilla following histological procedures. We stained serial slides with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. The samples were harvested for macroscopic, radiologic and histological evaluation of bone changes. At two weeks postextraction, we observed exposed necrotic bone in dental socket areas in experimental groups. Radiological analysis revealed osteolytic lesions accompanied by extensive destruction and sequestrum formation in the same group. Histological examination confirmed the absence of necrotic bone in control groups in contrast with the experimental groups. The percentage of empty lacunae and the number of osteoclasts and the necrotic bone area were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the experimental groups. The animal model using ZA administration to prior dental extraction successfully mimicked human BRONJ lesions. Also, the model was easily replicated, inexpensive and showed different features than other previous BRONJ models.

  20. Intraosseous Benign Lesions of the Jaws: A Radiographic Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadian Langaroodi, Adineh; Lari, Sima Sadat; Shokri, Abbas; Hoseini Zarch, Seyed Hossein; Jamshidi, Shokofeh; Akbari, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Benign maxillo-mandibular tumors and cysts, which are relatively common findings on radiographs, namely the ubiquitous panoramic view, have to be dealt with by dentists on a daily basis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the panoramic radiographic findings pertaining to benign and tumoral lesions in the maxilla and mandible. Applying a case series method, panoramic images of 61 patients with cysts, benign tumors and tumor-like lesions in the jaws who were referred to Hamedan dental school between 2009 and 2011 were evaluated by two radiologists. They were both blind to histopathological results as well as the objectives of our study. Lesions were assessed based on their location, periphery, internal structure and impaction on the surrounding structures. Then the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive tables. Cysts were mostly more common in men despite the equal propensity of both genders to benign tumors. In contrast, women showed a higher frequency of tumor-like lesions. The most common site of involvement was the posterior mandible, with peri-apical tooth lesions as the most prevalent dental association. Radiographically, what we most encountered was unilocular radiolucency pertaining to cysts and benign tumors; nevertheless, tumor-like lesions tended to present with a well-defined radiopacity. Despite its known shortcomings, like every other diagnostic tool, panoramic radiography can contribute to the early detection of maxillary/mandibular lesions that in turn enable the dentist to devise an appropriate treatment plan

  1. The clinical and radiologic consideration of osteosarcoma of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gi Young; Kim, Ki Duck; Park, Chang Seo

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the proper diagnosis and to establish the treatment plan of the osteosarcoma in the jaws through the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic considerations. The authors compared and analyzed t he clinicoradiologic features of the six cases of osteosarcoma, diagnosed at the dental college hospital in Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, during the period from 1975 to 1995. The obtained results were as follows; 1. Osteosarcoma occurred in the mean age, 26.2 years, ranged from 14 to 35 years, and equally in men and women. 2. The swelling was the most common frequent presenting complaints. Other reported symptoms included pain, parasthesia of the lower lip or the lesion. 3. The average interval was seen 3.5 months before the patient had been seen by a doctor. 4. The frequency of the lesions was equally in the maxilla, 3 cases and mandible, 3 cases. 5. Radiologically, osteoblastic osteosarcoma which is seen in the 3 cases was the most frequent histologic type. Chondroblastic osteosarcoma were seen in the 2 cases. there was no correlation between the radiologic appearance and histopathologic type.

  2. [Influences of balancing-side interference on jaw function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K

    1991-03-01

    The influences of experimental balancing-side interference on the jaw function were investigated on 6 subjects. A specially designed onlay was fabricated for the lower second molar, which acted as an artificial balancing-side interference in the lateral mandibular position. The subjects were asked to do maximum clenching, lateral gliding and gum chewing with and without the device. Electromyographic activity of the masseter and the anterior and posterior temporal muscles were measured and the related mandibular movement was simultaneously recorded during these tasks. Introduction of the experimental interference caused alteration in the muscle activity as follows: 1. When the subjects exerted maximum clenching efforts in the lateral mandibular position, the ratio of the temporal muscle activity on the working-side to the balancing-side decreased, while that of the masseter muscle remained unchanged. 2. There was a tendency for the activity in the working-side posterior temporal muscle to increase during gliding from intercuspation. The ratio of the temporal muscle activity on the working-side to the balancing-side decreased during gliding into intercuspation. 3. Prolongation of the occlusal phase associated with the increase of the muscle activity was observed during gum chewing on the side opposite to the interference. It was suggested that the balancing-side interference might provoke a specific muscle activity in the temporal muscles during parafunctional clenching or grinding.

  3. Hyperparathyroidism-Jaw Tumor Syndrome: Results of surgical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit; Patel, Dhaval; Rosenberg, Avi; Boufraqech, Myriem; Ellis, Ryan J.; Nilubol, Naris; Quezado, Martha M.; Marx, Stephen J.; Simonds, William F.; Kebebew, Electron

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is a rare autosomal dominant disease secondary to germline inactivating mutations of the tumor suppressor gene HRPT2/CDC73. The aim of the present study is to determine the optimal surgical approach to parathyroid disease in patients with HPT-JT. Method A retrospective analysis of clinical and genetic features, parathyroid operative outcomes, and disease outcomes in seven unrelated HPT-JT families. Results Seven families had five distinct germline HRPT2/CDC73 mutations. Sixteen affected family members (median age of 30.7 years) were diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism. Fifteen of the 16 patients underwent preoperative tumor localization studies and uncomplicated bilateral neck exploration at initial operation - all were in biochemical remission at most recent follow up. 31% of patients had multiglandular involvement. 37.5% of patients developed parathyroid carcinoma (median overall survival 8.9 years; median follow-up 7.4 years). Long-term follow-up showed 20% of patients had recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions Given the high risk of malignancy and multiglandular involvement in our cohort, we recommend bilateral neck exploration and en-bloc resection of parathyroid tumors suspicious for cancer and life-long postoperative follow-up. PMID:25444225

  4. Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome: Results of operative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit; Patel, Dhaval; Rosenberg, Avi; Boufraqech, Myriem; Ellis, Ryan J; Nilubol, Naris; Quezado, Martha M; Marx, Stephen J; Simonds, William F; Kebebew, Electron

    2014-12-01

    Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is a rare, autosomal-dominant disease secondary to germline-inactivating mutations of the tumor suppressor gene HRPT2/CDC73. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal operative approach to parathyroid disease in patients with HPT-JT. A retrospective analysis of clinical and genetic features, parathyroid operative outcomes, and disease outcomes in 7 unrelated HPT-JT families. Seven families had 5 distinct germline HRPT2/CDC73 mutations. Sixteen affected family members (median age, 30.7 years) were diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Fifteen of the 16 patients underwent preoperative tumor localization studies and uncomplicated bilateral neck exploration at initial operation; all were in biochemical remission at most recent follow-up. Of these patients, 31% had multiglandular involvement; 37.5% of the patients developed parathyroid carcinoma (median overall survival, 8.9 years; median follow-up, 7.4 years). Long-term follow-up showed that 20% of patients had recurrent PHPT. Given the high risk of malignancy and multiglandular involvement in our cohort, we recommend bilateral neck exploration and en bloc resection of parathyroid tumors suspicious for cancer and life-long postoperative follow-up. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Changes of occlusal plane inclination after orthodontic treatment with four premolars extraction in dento-alveolar bimaxillary protrusion cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NR Yuliawati Zenab

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out whether there were changes in occlusal plane inclination after fixed orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion cases where extraction of four first premolars was needed using the standard Edgewise appliances. The sample was fourteen orthodontic patients, aged above sixteen years old, no sexual discrimination, treated with fixed appliances at Orthodontic Specialist Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran. The method was a pre-post design which compared occlusal plane inclination obtained from tracings of lateral cephalograms before and after orthodontic treatment. The results were calculated with the paired t-test analysis. The study revealed that there were no significant changes in occlusal plane inclination after the orthodontic treatment.

  6. The value of emergency CT studies in spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma. Analysis for tumor protrusion and hemorrhagic ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Makiko; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Taro; Cho, Keiichi; Gemma, Kazuhito; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    CT characteristics of spontaneous rupture of HCC (n=13) were reviewed retrospectively, and the value of emergency CT studies in this disease was evaluated. Especially, tumor protrusion ratio (TPR) and ascitic CT numbers were measured to for comparison with the data for unruptured HCCs and ordinary, (e.g., non-hemorrhagic) ascites (n=13). As a result, except for diffuse type HCCs, the TPR was significantly higher than for the unruptured HCCs. Nine cases had intraperitoneal HDAs, and the laterality of the HDAs corresponded with that of the ruptured tumors in 8 cases. Also, the ascitic CT numbers apart from the HDA were still higher than the ordinary ascites. Therefore, a high TPR, HDAs adjacent to the tumor, and elevated ascitic CT numbers are important CT manifestations indicating HCC rupture. Diffuse HCCs, however, require careful clinical evaluation. (author)

  7. The value of emergency CT studies in spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma. Analysis for tumor protrusion and hemorrhagic ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Makiko; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Taro; Cho, Keiichi; Gemma, Kazuhito; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    1997-01-01

    CT characteristics of spontaneous rupture of HCC (n=13) were reviewed retrospectively, and the value of emergency CT studies in this disease was evaluated. Especially, tumor protrusion ratio (TPR) and ascitic CT numbers were measured to for comparison with the data for unruptured HCCs and ordinary, (e.g., non-hemorrhagic) ascites (n=13). As a result, except for diffuse type HCCs, the TPR was significantly higher than for the unruptured HCCs. Nine cases had intraperitoneal HDAs, and the laterality of the HDAs corresponded with that of the ruptured tumors in 8 cases. Also, the ascitic CT numbers apart from the HDA were still higher than the ordinary ascites. Therefore, a high TPR, HDAs adjacent to the tumor, and elevated ascitic CT numbers are important CT manifestations indicating HCC rupture. Diffuse HCCs, however, require careful clinical evaluation. (author)

  8. The role of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) in the evaluation and treatment of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tricia L C; Teo, Jonathan S M; Foo, K T

    2016-04-01

    Intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) may be an underutilized modality for the assessment of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Pressure flow studies or urodynamics have long been the gold standard for the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but are invasive, time-consuming and costly. Potentially, IPP may be a useful adjunct prior to performing urodynamics. Measurement of IPP is taken in the sagittal view, using the transabdominal ultrasound. It is the vertical height from the tip of the protrusion to the base of the prostate. This technique was previously described. We reviewed previous publications that studied the accuracy, positive predictive value and clinical use of IPP. In addition, we noted the comments regarding the challenges of using this technique. IPP has been shown to have a positive predictive value of 72% for BOO. It has been calculated to have an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.71 and 0.84 in some stuies. Clinically, it may be used to predict the outcome of a trial without catheter following acute retention of urine. Patients with higher IPP grade were noted to have a higher risk of clinical progression. Studies have also shown that men with higher IPP are poorer responders to medical treatment such as α-blockers. Compared to other modalities, the advantage of IPP in assessing BOO may be its easy applicability and non-invasive nature. Therefore, there is a consideration for a larger role of IPP in bedside assessment and management of BOO in daily practice. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:535-537, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Influence of the Lower Jaw Position on the Running Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maurer

    Full Text Available The effects of manipulated dental occlusion on body posture has been investigated quite often and discussed controversially in the literature. Far less attention has been paid to the influence of dental occlusion position on human movement. If human movement was analysed, it was mostly while walking and not while running. This study was therefore designed to identify the effect of lower jaw positions on running behaviour according to different dental occlusion positions.Twenty healthy young recreational runners (mean age = 33.9±5.8 years participated in this study. Kinematic data were collected using an eight-camera Vicon motion capture system (VICON Motion Systems, Oxford, UK. Subjects were consecutively prepared with four different dental occlusion conditions in random order and performed five running trials per test condition on a level walkway with their preferred running shoes. Vector based pattern recognition methods, in particular cluster analysis and support vector machines (SVM were used for movement pattern identification.Subjects exhibited unique movement patterns leading to 18 clusters for the 20 subjects. No overall classification of the splint condition could be observed. Within individual subjects different running patterns could be identified for the four splint conditions. The splint conditions lead to a more symmetrical running pattern than the control condition.The influence of an occlusal splint on running pattern can be confirmed in this study. Wearing a splint increases the symmetry of the running pattern. A more symmetrical running pattern might help to reduce the risk of injuries or help in performance. The change of the movement pattern between the neutral condition and any of the three splint conditions was significant within subjects but not across subjects. Therefore the dental splint has a measureable influence on the running pattern of subjects, however subjects individuality has to be considered when choosing the

  10. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Falk; Hyckel, Peter; Ries, Jutta; Stockmann, Phillip; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Amann, Kerstin

    2010-10-13

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL); however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP)-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody)-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL) in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each) to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Msx-1 (p Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue.

  11. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Karl A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL; however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Results Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Conclusions These results explain the sclerotic and osteopetrotic changes of periodontal tissue following BP application and substantiate clinical findings of BP-related impaired remodeling specific to periodontal tissue. RANKL suppression substantiated the clinical finding of impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ-affected bone structures. Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to

  12. [Epidural pharmacotherapy in the treatment of the pain syndrome in osteochondrosis complicated by intervertebral discs protrusion of lumbar part of the vertebral column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhniak, M V; Priĭmak, E V

    2013-03-01

    Experience of application of intralaminar epidural pharmacotherapy for the treatment of the pain syndrome in the patients, suffering osteochondrosis of lumbar portion of vertebral column, complicated by intervertebral discs protrusion, was summarized. The method introduction permits to escape the operative intervention performance for complicated osteochondrosis.

  13. Expression of the BMP receptor Alk3 in the second heart field is essential for development of the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion and atrioventricular septation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggs, Laura E.; Phelps, Aimee L.; Brown, Elizabeth; Kakarla, Jayant; Anderson, Robert H.; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Wessels, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal mesenchymal protrusion (DMP) is a prong of mesenchyme derived from the second heart field (SHF) located at the venous pole of the developing heart. Recent studies have shown that perturbation of its development is associated with the pathogenesis of atrioventricular (AV) septal defect.

  14. Proper Measurement of the Prostate Volume by Transrectal Ultrasound: Experimental Study about the Prostate with Focal Intravesical Protrusion of the Enlarged Central Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the proper volume measurement of prostate with focal intravesical protrusion of enlarged central gland by comparison between methods using craniocaudal length from top of protruded central gland and from prostate base near bladder neck to prostate apex. We made 20 prostate models with focal intravesical protrusion (volume range: 20{approx}50 mL, height of protrusion: about 1 cm) using devil's tongue jelly. Two radiologists measured volume of models 3 times by two kinds of methods using craniocaudal length from top of protruded central gland (method 1) and from prostate base near bladder neck (method 2) by transrectal ultrasound. The accuracy of volume measurement of models was evaluated statistically by comparing their average volume to true volume. Intra- and interobserver agreement was also evaluated. Average true volume of models was 31.05 mL. Each average volume using method 1 by two observers was 37.07 mL and 38.56 mL. Each average volume using method 2 was 30.69 mL and 31.55 mL. Volume measurement using method 2 was approximated to true volume of prostate statistically (p = .654, .823). There was no significant inter- and intra-observer variation in both methods. To measure the accurate volume of prostate with focal intravesical protrusion of enlarged central gland, its craniocaudal length should be measured from prostate base near bladder neck

  15. Implementation and commissioning of an integrated micro-CT/RT system with computerized independent jaw collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Michael D.; Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Jung, Jongho A.; Holdsworth, David W.; Drangova, Maria; Chen, Jeff; Wong, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To design, construct, and commission a set of computer-controlled motorized jaws for a micro-CT/RT system to perform conformal image-guided small animal radiotherapy.Methods: The authors designed and evaluated a system of custom-built motorized orthogonal jaws, which allows the delivery of off-axis rectangular fields on a GE eXplore CT 120 preclinical imaging system. The jaws in the x direction are independently driven, while the y-direction jaws are symmetric. All motors have backup encoders, verifying jaw positions. Mechanical performance of the jaws was characterized. Square beam profiles ranging from 2 × 2 to 60 × 60 mm 2 were measured using EBT2 film in the center of a 70 × 70 × 22 mm 3 solid water block. Similarly, absolute depth dose was measured in a solid water and EBT2 film stack 50 × 50 × 50 mm 3 . A calibrated Farmer ion chamber in a 70 × 70 × 20 mm 3 solid water block was used to measure the output of three field sizes: 50 × 50, 40 × 40, and 30 × 30 mm 2 . Elliptical target plans were delivered to films to assess overall system performance. Respiratory-gated treatment was implemented on the system and initially proved using a simple sinusoidal motion phantom. All films were scanned on a flatbed scanner (Epson 1000XL) and converted to dose using a fitted calibration curve. A Monte Carlo beam model of the micro-CT with the jaws has been created using BEAMnrc for comparison with the measurements. An example image-guided partial lung irradiation in a rat is demonstrated.Results: The averaged random error of positioning each jaw is less than 0.1 mm. Relative output factors measured with the ion chamber agree with Monte Carlo simulations within 2%. Beam profiles and absolute depth dose curves measured from the films agree with simulations within measurement uncertainty. Respiratory-gated treatments applied to a phantom moving with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 5 mm showed improved beam penumbra (80%–20%) from 3.9 to 0.8 mm.Conclusions: A

  16. Orthodontic treatment-induced temporal alteration of jaw-opening reflex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Au; Hasegawa, Naoya; Adachi, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Suda, Naoto

    2017-10-01

    The impairment of orofacial motor function during orthodontic treatment needs to be addressed, because most orthodontic patients experience pain and motor excitability would be affected by pain. In the present study, the temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was investigated to determine if orthodontic treatment affects orofacial motor function. The excitability of jaw-opening reflex evoked by electrical stimulation on the gingiva and recorded bilaterally in the anterior digastric muscles was evaluated at 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 7 days (D7) after orthodontic force application to the teeth of right side; morphological features (e.g., osteoclast genesis and tooth movement) were also evaluated. To clarify the underlying mechanism of orthodontic treatment-induced alteration of orofacial motor excitability, analgesics were administrated for 1 day. At D1 and D3, orthodontic treatment significantly decreased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex but significantly increased the threshold at D7. Other parameters of the jaw-opening reflex were also evaluated (e.g., latency, duration and area under the curve of anterior digastric muscles activity), and only the latency of the D1 group was significantly different from that of the other groups. Temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was significantly correlated with changes in morphological features. Aspirin (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) significantly increased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex, whereas a lower dose (75-150 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) of aspirin or acetaminophen (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) failed to alter the jaw-opening reflex excitability. These results suggest that an increase of the jaw-opening reflex excitability can be induced acutely by orthodontic treatment, possibly through the cyclooxygenase activation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is well known that motor function is affected by pain, but the effect of orthodontic treatment-related pain on the trigeminal

  17. Implementation and commissioning of an integrated micro-CT/RT system with computerized independent jaw collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Michael D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Jung, Jongho A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Holdsworth, David W. [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Surgery, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Drangova, Maria [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Chen, Jeff [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 5W9 (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To design, construct, and commission a set of computer-controlled motorized jaws for a micro-CT/RT system to perform conformal image-guided small animal radiotherapy.Methods: The authors designed and evaluated a system of custom-built motorized orthogonal jaws, which allows the delivery of off-axis rectangular fields on a GE eXplore CT 120 preclinical imaging system. The jaws in the x direction are independently driven, while the y-direction jaws are symmetric. All motors have backup encoders, verifying jaw positions. Mechanical performance of the jaws was characterized. Square beam profiles ranging from 2 × 2 to 60 × 60 mm{sup 2} were measured using EBT2 film in the center of a 70 × 70 × 22 mm{sup 3} solid water block. Similarly, absolute depth dose was measured in a solid water and EBT2 film stack 50 × 50 × 50 mm{sup 3}. A calibrated Farmer ion chamber in a 70 × 70 × 20 mm{sup 3} solid water block was used to measure the output of three field sizes: 50 × 50, 40 × 40, and 30 × 30 mm{sup 2}. Elliptical target plans were delivered to films to assess overall system performance. Respiratory-gated treatment was implemented on the system and initially proved using a simple sinusoidal motion phantom. All films were scanned on a flatbed scanner (Epson 1000XL) and converted to dose using a fitted calibration curve. A Monte Carlo beam model of the micro-CT with the jaws has been created using BEAMnrc for comparison with the measurements. An example image-guided partial lung irradiation in a rat is demonstrated.Results: The averaged random error of positioning each jaw is less than 0.1 mm. Relative output factors measured with the ion chamber agree with Monte Carlo simulations within 2%. Beam profiles and absolute depth dose curves measured from the films agree with simulations within measurement uncertainty. Respiratory-gated treatments applied to a phantom moving with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 5 mm showed improved beam penumbra (80%–20%) from 3.9 to

  18. Regulation of eye and jaw colouration in three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, L; De Oliveira, C; Sköld, H N

    2018-03-25

    Fish can change their skin and eye colour for background matching and signalling. Males of Gasterosteus aculeatus develop ornamental blue eyes and a red jaw during the reproductive season, colours that are further enhanced during courtship. Here, the effects of different hormones on physiological colour changes in the eyes and jaws of male and female G. aculeatus were investigated in vitro. In an in vivo experiment, G. aculeatus were injected with a receptor blocker of a pivotal hormone (noradrenaline) that controls colour change. In males, noradrenaline had aggregating effects on melanophore and erythrophore pigments resulting in blue eyes and a pale jaw, whereas melanocyte-concentrating hormone (MCH) and melatonin resulted in a pale jaw only. When noradrenalin was combined with melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) or prolactin, the jaw became red, while the eyes remained blue. In vivo injection of yohimbine, an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor blocker, resulted in dispersion of melanophore pigment in the eyes and inhibited the blue colouration. Altogether, the data suggest that noradrenalin has a pivotal role in the short-term enhancement of the ornamental colouration of male G. aculeatus, potentially together with MSH or prolactin. This study also found a sex difference in the response to MCH, prolactin and melatonin, which may result from different appearance strategies in males, versus the more cryptic females. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Non-radiation related osteonecrosis of the jaws in dogs: 14 cases (1996 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago ePeralta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an entity of major clinical impact characterized by chronically exposed necrotic mandibular or maxillary bone. Its clinicopathological characteristics and possible inciting or risk factors are well described in humans but only anecdotally reported in dogs. Treatment modalities and outcome vary depending on the inciting factors involved and the extent and severity of the lesions. The objectives of this study were to retrospectively describe the clinicopathological features of non-radiation related osteonecrosis of the jaws in a series of 14 dogs, identify possible inciting or risk factors, and report on the surgical treatment and outcome. For all patients, the medical records were used to collect information regarding signalment, clinical signs, characteristics of the oral, jaw and dental lesions, diagnostic imaging findings, histopathological and microbiological analysis, treatment performed and outcome. The data collected showed that non-radiation related osteonecrosis of the jaws appears to be an infrequent clinical entity but of significant impact in dogs; that a history of systemic antibiotics and dental disease is common among affected dogs; that previous dental extractions are commonly associated with ONJ sites; that using a systematic diagnostic approach is essential for diagnosis; and that thorough surgical débridement combined with a course of oral antibiotics was effective in the described dogs affected by advanced non-radiation related osteonecrosis of the jaws.

  20. Manajemen Pelayanan Mahasiswa Difabel di PLD UIN Sunan Kalijaga Berbasis Komputer Job Access with Speech (JAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzaemah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research attempt to meganalisis how management of computer service JAWS for student of blind at PLD UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta. This research is a field research using qualitative approach. Data collection is done through observation, interview, and documentation. The results of this study indicate that JAWS Computer Service Management in PLD UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta includes several management functions, the first, the planning of the PLD chairman determines the schedule of activities. Second, the organizing of the PLD chair divides the duties of each position. Third, the implementation of all PLD members who have been tasked by the leader perform their duties respectively. Fourth, supervision of all activities in the PLD is always monitored and held a regular meeting to find out the problems faced so that can be solved together. Benefits of the existence of JAWS computer service is to increase knowledge of technology for blind students and train the independence of blind students in doing lecture tasks that blessed with typing as well as paper assignments, thesis and so on. The factors supporting the implementation of JAWS computer service that is the spirit of learning blind students and the help of PLD volunteers. For the inhibiting factor is the number of JAWS computers are very limited so they have to take turns in using it

  1. APPLICATION OF 3D MODELING IN 3D PRINTING FOR THE LOWER JAW RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Dikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: improvement of functional and aesthetic results of microsurgery reconstructions of the lower jaw due to the use of the methodology of 3D modeling and 3D printing. Application of this methodology has been demonstrated on the example of treatment of 4 patients with locally distributed tumors of the mouth cavity, who underwent excision of the tumor with simultaneous reconstruction of the lower jaw with revascularized fibular graft.Before, one patient has already undergo segmental resection of the lower jaw with the defect replacement with the avascular ileac graft and a reconstruction plate. Then, a relapse of the disease and lysis of the graft has developed with him. Modeling of the graft according to the shape of the lower jaw was performed by making osteotomies of the bone part of the graft using three-dimensional virtual models created by computed tomography data. Then these 3D models were printed with a 3D printer of plastic with the scale of 1:1 with the fused deposition modeling (FDM technology and were used during the surgery in the course of modeling of the graft. Sterilizing of the plastic model was performed in the formalin chamber.This methodology allowed more specific reconstruction of the resected fragment of the lower jaw and get better functional and aesthetic results and prepare patients to further dental rehabilitation. Advantages of this methodology are the possibility of simultaneous performance of stages of reconstruction and resection and shortening of the time of surgery.

  2. Kinematic analysis of jaw function in children following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, E W L; Goozée, J V; Murdoch, B E

    2005-07-01

    To investigate jaw movements in children following traumatic brain injury (TBI) during speech using electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Jaw movements of two non-dysarthric children (aged 12.75 and 13.08 years) who had sustained a TBI were recorded using the AG-100 EMA system (Carstens Medizineletronik) during word-initial consonant productions. Mean quantitative kinematic parameters and coefficient of variation (variability) values were calculated and individually compared to the mean values obtained by a group of six control children (mean age 12.57 years, SD 1.52). The two children with TBI exhibited word-initial consonant jaw movement durations that were comparable to the control children, with sub-clinical reductions in speed being offset by reduced distances. Differences were observed between the two children in jaw kinematic variability, with one child exhibiting increased variability, while the other child demonstrated reduced or comparable variability compared to the control group. Possible sub-clinical impairments of jaw movement for speech were exhibited by two children who had sustained a TBI, providing insight into the consequences of TBI on speech motor control development.

  3. Radiographic features of large cystic lesions of the jaws in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, Lipa; Woldenberg, Yitzhak; Bar-Ziv, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The surgical approach to cystic lesions of the jaws is either marsupialisation or enucleation. The treatment of choice is dependent on the size of the lesion, the bony integrity of the cyst and its proximity to anatomical structures.Objectives. To assess large (>2.0 cm) cystic lesions of the jaws using plain film radiography (PFR), CT, multiplanar reconstruction program (MPR) and three-dimensional CT (3D-CT).Patients and methods. Twelve children aged 7-14 years.Results. The classic radiological feature was a unilocular radiolucent area surrounded by a well-defined radio-opaque margin adjacent to the root of a non-viable tooth or associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth. Malposition of teeth and root resorption were more common in dentigerous cysts. The features seen on CT were clear and more precise than those seen on PFR. MPR, by the three-dimensional visualisation of the jaw (axial, panoramic, and bucco-lingual), provided useful information for determining the outline of the cyst and its proximity to adjacent anatomical structures, such as teeth, nerves or maxillary sinus. 3-D CT further and more clearly demonstrated discontinuity in the buccal or palatal/lingual cortices of the jaw bone. PFR was very accurate in determining root resorption.Conclusions. CT with MPR and, ideally, 3-D CT should be used for the comprehensive diagnostic work-up and meticulous surgical management of large cystic lesions of the jaws in children. (orig.)

  4. The oral microbial community of gingivitis and lumpy jaw in captive macropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiabong, John F; Boardman, Wayne; Moore, Robert B; Brown, Melissa H; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-12-01

    Gingivitis and lumpy jaw are diseases of polymicrobial aetiology. Although Fusobacterium necrophorum has been associated with these diseases in macropods, little is known about other organisms associated with these diseases in this animal species. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed the potential pathogens associated with gingivitis and lumpy jaw in macropods. PCR-DGGE profile comparison between the healthy and disease groups indicated a shift in the oral bacterial community structures with similarity coefficients of 48% and 35% for gingivitis and lumpy jaw respectively. Moreover, gingivitis was associated with increase in bacterial diversity (Shannon index = 2.87; PL curve = 45%) while lumpy jaw resulted in a decline in bacterial diversity (Shannon index = 2.47; PL curve = 74%). This study suggest that the establishment of gingivitis and lumpy jaw diseases follows the ecological plaque hypothesis. This forms the basis for an expanded investigation in an epidemiological scale and suggests the need for the appropriate choice of antimicrobial agent(s) and for the effective management and control of polymicrobial diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Directional selection has shaped the oral jaws of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, R Craig; Streelman, J Todd; Kocher, Thomas D

    2003-04-29

    East African cichlid fishes represent one of the most striking examples of rapid and convergent evolutionary radiation among vertebrates. Models of ecological speciation would suggest that functional divergence in feeding morphology has contributed to the origin and maintenance of cichlid species diversity. However, definitive evidence for the action of natural selection has been missing. Here we use quantitative genetics to identify regions of the cichlid genome responsible for functionally important shape differences in the oral jaw apparatus. The consistent direction of effects for individual quantitative trait loci suggest that cichlid jaws and teeth evolved in response to strong, divergent selection. Moreover, several chromosomal regions contain a disproportionate number of quantitative trait loci, indicating a prominent role for pleiotropy or genetic linkage in the divergence of this character complex. Of particular interest are genomic intervals with concerted effects on both the length and height of the lower jaw. Coordinated changes in this area of the oral jaw apparatus are predicted to have direct consequences for the speed and strength of jaw movement. Taken together, our results imply that the rapid and replicative nature of cichlid trophic evolution is the result of directional selection on chromosomal packages that encode functionally linked aspects of the craniofacial skeleton.

  6. Microscopic Evaluation of the Effect of Oral Microbiota on the Development of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Osteonecrosis of the jaws is a side effect associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Using histologic analysis, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of microbial colonies in the development of osteonecrosis in the jaws of rats subjected to nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous bisphosphonates, undergoing surgical procedures. Material and Methods: Thirty-four rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wistar strain were allocated randomly into three groups: 12 animals treated with zoledronic acid; 12 animals treated with clodronate; and 10 animals treated with saline. Sixty days after the start of treatment, the animals underwent three extractions of the upper right molars. After 120 days of drug administration, the rats were killed. Histologic analysis was performed on specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin by the technique of manual counting points using Image-Pro Plus software on images of the right hemimaxilla. Results: Osteonecrosis was induced in the test groups. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of microbial colonies and the presence of non-vital bone (Kruskal-Wallis, P > 0.05. Conclusions: Use of zoledronic acid was associated with non-vital bone and the results suggested that the presence of microbial colonies does not lead to osteonecrosis.

  7. Dental CT: imaging technique, anatomy, and pathologic conditions of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahleitner, Andre; Watzek, G.; Imhof, H.

    2003-01-01

    In addition to conventional imaging methods, dental CT has become an established method for anatomic imaging of the jaws prior to dental implant placement. More recently, this high-resolution imaging technique has gained importance in diagnosing dental-associated diseases of the mandible and maxilla. Since most radiologists have had little experience in these areas, many of the CT findings remain undescribed. The objective of this review article is to present the technique of dental CT, to illustrate the typical appearance of jaw anatomy and dental-related diseases of the jaws with dental CT, and to show where it can serve as an addition to conventional imaging methods in dental radiology. (orig.)

  8. The clinical value of X-ray images of the teeth and jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocklebank, Laetitia

    2003-01-01

    X-ray images of the teeth and jaws are required for a variety of diagnostic purposes to supplement a clinical examination, and are invaluable for providing pictorial information about the structures that cannot be examined with direct vision. They can be acquired using traditional film systems which produce analogue images, or using a variety of alternative image receptors which result in a digital image. Irrespective of the method of image acquisition they are utilised by the dental surgeon in order to benefit their patients' management. Numerous disease processes can affect the teeth and jaws, in addition to a range of developmental abnormalities. These can be classified according to a radiological sieve, which also includes artefactual and iatrogenic features. The key components of the classification are: developmental, inflammatory, traumatic, cystic, neoplastic, osteodystrophies and systemic disorders. This paper will utilise examples of radiographic images of patients to illustrate components of this classification which are unique to the teeth and jaws

  9. Influence of botulinum toxin on rabbit jaw muscle activity and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfage, J A M; Wang, Jeffrey; Lie, S H J T J; Langenbach, Geerling E J

    2012-05-01

    Muscles can adapt their fiber properties to accommodate to new conditions. We investigated the extent to which a decrease in muscle activation can cause an adaptation of fiber properties in synergistic and antagonistic jaw muscles. Three months after the injection of botulinum toxin type A in one masseter (anterior or posterior) muscle changes in fiber type composition and fiber cross-sectional areas in jaw muscles were studied at the microscopic level. The injected masseter showed a steep increase in myosin type IIX fibers, whereas fast fibers decreased by about 50% in size. Depending on the injection site, both synergistic and antagonistic muscles showed a significant increase in the size of their fast IIA fibers, sometimes combined with an increased number of IIX fibers. Silencing the activity in the masseter not only causes changes in the fibers of the injected muscle but also leads to changes in other jaw muscles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Radiographic features of central giant cell granuloma of the jaws in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, L.; Bar-Ziv, J.

    1996-01-01

    The radiographic features of ten pediatric cases of central giant cell granuloma of the jaws were studied, using plain film radiography (PFR), computed tomography (CT), and a dental CT software program (DS). The radiologic features varied from ill-defined destructive lesions to a well-defined, multilocular appearance. Teeth or root displacement was found as the most consistent feature. Root resorption was rare. The features seen on CT were clearer than those seen on PFR. DS, by its visualization of the jaw in three plans - axial, panoramic, and buccolingual - provided useful information for determining the topography of the lesion in its structure (uni- or multilocular) and proximity to adjacent anatomic structures, such as teeth, nerves, or maxillary sinus. CT and, ideally, CT with DS should be used for diagnosis and surgical management of central giant cell granuloma of the jaws in children. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Radiographic features of central giant cell granuloma of the jaws in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodner, L. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Soroka Medical Center, P. O. Box 151, Beer-Sheva 84101 (Israel); Bar-Ziv, J. [Department of Radiology, Hebrew University and Hadassah School of Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1996-02-01

    The radiographic features of ten pediatric cases of central giant cell granuloma of the jaws were studied, using plain film radiography (PFR), computed tomography (CT), and a dental CT software program (DS). The radiologic features varied from ill-defined destructive lesions to a well-defined, multilocular appearance. Teeth or root displacement was found as the most consistent feature. Root resorption was rare. The features seen on CT were clearer than those seen on PFR. DS, by its visualization of the jaw in three plans - axial, panoramic, and buccolingual - provided useful information for determining the topography of the lesion in its structure (uni- or multilocular) and proximity to adjacent anatomic structures, such as teeth, nerves, or maxillary sinus. CT and, ideally, CT with DS should be used for diagnosis and surgical management of central giant cell granuloma of the jaws in children. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Dental CT: imaging technique, anatomy, and pathologic conditions of the jaws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahleitner, Andre [Department of Radiology/Osteology, Medical School, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 25a, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Oral Surgery, Dental School, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 25a, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Watzek, G. [Department of Oral Surgery, Dental School, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 25a, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Imhof, H. [Department of Radiology/Osteology, Medical School, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 25a, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2003-02-01

    In addition to conventional imaging methods, dental CT has become an established method for anatomic imaging of the jaws prior to dental implant placement. More recently, this high-resolution imaging technique has gained importance in diagnosing dental-associated diseases of the mandible and maxilla. Since most radiologists have had little experience in these areas, many of the CT findings remain undescribed. The objective of this review article is to present the technique of dental CT, to illustrate the typical appearance of jaw anatomy and dental-related diseases of the jaws with dental CT, and to show where it can serve as an addition to conventional imaging methods in dental radiology. (orig.)

  13. SU-E-T-471: Small Field Jaw/MLC Reference Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J; Alvarez, P; Followill, D; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Summers, P; Kry, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years the need for small field data of MLCs has increased due to the use of intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT), but moreover the use of stereotactic body radiation (SBRT) has increased, which uses not simply small field sizes, but small jaw and field sizes together. Having reference data for these small fields that is reliable would be invaluable to the physics community. Our study has gathered these values and the data distributions from the Radiological Physics Center's (RPC) site visits between 1990 and the present. Methods: For all measurements, the RPC used a 25 × 25 × 25cm water phantom placed at 100cm SSD. All measurements were made with an Exradin A16 cylindrical ion chamber at an effective depth of 10 cm. A total of 42 Varian machine measurements were used to compose the data for a 6 MV beam and 5 TrueBeam 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) beams were used for FFF data. Results: Jaw/MLC fields were measured for both 6 MV and 6 MF FFF beams with the jaws and MLCs both at the following field sizes: 6×6, 4×4, 3×3, and 2×2cm. Measurements were normalized to the 10×10 field readings (defined by the jaws and MLC). Spread in the data was minimal and demonstrates a high level of accuracy of acquired data. Conclusion: Small field Jaw/MLC reference data for Varian 6MV and 6 MV FFF beams has been analyzed and presented here, composed of the aggregation of numerous RPC site visits. Obtaining reliable small field data remains difficult, however the RPC has collected high fidelity small field Jaw/MLC data. The data are presented as a reference along with their distributions, in such a way that the physicist can act based upon their own desired agreement with the reference data

  14. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA: a new player in shigella flexneri protrusion formation and inter-cellular spreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ambrosi

    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein A (OmpA is a multifaceted predominant outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae whose role in the pathogenesis of various bacterial infections has recently been recognized. Here, the role of OmpA on the virulence of Shigella flexneri has been investigated. An ompA mutant of wild-type S. flexneri 5a strain M90T was constructed (strain HND92 and it was shown to be severely impaired in cell-to-cell spreading since it failed to plaque on HeLa cell monolayers. The lack of OmpA significantly reduced the levels of IcsA while the levels of cell associated and released IcsP-cleaved 95 kDa amino-terminal portion of the mature protein were similar. Nevertheless, the ompA mutant displayed IcsA exposed across the entire bacterial surface. Surprisingly, the ompA mutant produced proper F-actin comet tails, indicating that the aberrant IcsA exposition at bacterial lateral surface did not affect proper activation of actin-nucleating proteins, suggesting that the absence of OmpA likely unmasks mature or cell associated IcsA at bacterial lateral surface. Moreover, the ompA mutant was able to invade and to multiply within HeLa cell monolayers, although internalized bacteria were found to be entrapped within the host cell cytoplasm. We found that the ompA mutant produced significantly less protrusions than the wild-type strain, indicating that this defect could be responsible of its inability to plaque. Although we could not definitely rule out that the ompA mutation might exert pleiotropic effects on other S. flexneri genes, complementation of the ompA mutation with a recombinant plasmid carrying the S. flexneri ompA gene clearly indicated that a functional OmpA protein is required and sufficient for proper IcsA exposition, plaque and protrusion formation. Moreover, an independent ompA mutant was generated. Since we found that both mutants displayed identical virulence profile, these results further supported the

  15. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). Protocols were compared for DNA yield and quality using a qPCR approach. For jaw swarf, all methods provided relatively high DNA yield and quality, while large differences in yield between protocols were observed for vertebrae. Similar results were obtained from samples...... observed, likely reflecting different preparation and storage methods for the trophies. Trial sequencing of DNA capture genomic libraries using 20 000 baits revealed that a significant proportion of captured sequences were derived from tiger sharks. This study demonstrates that archived shark jaws...

  16. Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaw cyst-Basal cell nevus-Bifid rib syndrome or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome involves multiple organ system. The most common findings include multiple odontogenic keratocysts in the jaws and basal cell nevus on the skin that have an early age onset. These multiple odontogenic keratocysts warrant aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications associated with them. Recurrence in these lesions is the most characteristic feature that has to be taken in consideration while explaining the prognosis to the patient. A case report of a child affected with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome diagnosed, treated and followed at this hospital is presented here.

  17. Solitary Intra-Osseous Myofibroma of the Jaw: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Dhupar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the jaw bone shares its clinical, radiographic and histological features with other spindle cell tumors. The rarity of this lesion can make diagnosis difficult for clinicians and pathologists. We report a case of a solitary intra-osseous myofibroma in the mandible of a nine-year-old child.

  18. Patterns of variation across primates in jaw-muscle electromyography during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Williams, Susan H; Hylander, William L

    2008-08-01

    Biologists that study mammals continue to discuss the evolution of and functional variation in jaw-muscle activity during chewing. A major barrier to addressing these issues is collecting sufficient in vivo data to adequately capture neuromuscular variation in a clade. We combine data on jaw-muscle electromyography (EMG) collected during mastication from 14 species of primates and one of treeshrews to assess patterns of neuromuscular variation in primates. All data were collected and analyzed using the same methods. We examine the variance components for EMG parameters using a nested ANOVA design across successive hierarchical factors from chewing cycle through species for eight locations in the masseter and temporalis muscles. Variation in jaw-muscle EMGs was not distributed equally across hierarchical levels. The timing of peak EMG activity showed the largest variance components among chewing cycles. Relative levels of recruitment of jaw muscles showed the largest variance components among chewing sequences and cycles. We attribute variation among chewing cycles to (1) changes in food properties throughout the chewing sequence, (2) variation in bite location, and (3) the multiple ways jaw muscles can produce submaximal bite forces. We hypothesize that variation among chewing sequences is primarily related to variation in properties of food. The significant proportion of variation in EMGs potentially linked to food properties suggests that experimental biologists must pay close attention to foods given to research subjects in laboratory-based studies of feeding. The jaw muscles exhibit markedly different variance components among species suggesting that primate jaw muscles have evolved as distinct functional units. The balancing-side deep masseter (BDM) exhibits the most variation among species. This observation supports previous hypotheses linking variation in the timing and activation of the BDM to symphyseal fusion in anthropoid primates and in strepsirrhines

  19. An unusual case of osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with dengue fever and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indurkar, M S; Sethi, R

    2016-03-01

    Osteonecrosis is a disorder rarely occurring in the jaw. Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne disease prevalent in many countries including India. The following report presents an interesting case of maxillary osteonecrosis in a middle aged male with a history of dengue infection. We also diagnosed symptoms of chronic periodontitis, which may have potentiated the necrosis. This case report will describe a novel clinical presentation and management of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) of unknown origin and a possible pathogenesis explaining the association of ONJ with dengue fever and periodontitis. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle, com protrusão maxilar utilizando-se recursos ortopédicos Class II, division 1, with maxillar protrusion's treatment employing orthopedic approachs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Melleiro Gimenez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho tem o propósito de apresentar uma revisão da literatura acerca do tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle, tendo a protrusão maxilar como o principal componente dessa má oclusão, durante a fase de crescimento e desenvolvimento craniofacial. Serão apresentadas as características de cada um desses aparelhos, os seus componentes, a forma adequada de utilização, os seus mecanismos de ação e, principalmente, os seus efeitos em todo o complexo dentofacial. CONCLUSÃO: nos casos em que se verifica apenas a protrusão maxilar, sem envolvimento mandibular, e se faz necessário o controle vertical, pode ser indicado o AEB, conjugado ao aparelho removível derivado do aparelho preconizado por Thurow. Já nas situações de combinação da protrusão maxilar com a retrusão mandibular, uma opção de tratamento é o ativador combinado à ancoragem extrabucal.AIM: The purpose of this research is to review the literature about the treatment of Class II, division 1 malocclusion with maxillary protrusion, during the growth and development period. This review addresses the characteristics of these appliances, their components, correct use, action mechanisms, and mainly their consequences in dentofacial complex. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with maxillary protrusion and with no mandibular component, it may be indicated the use of a maxillary splint similar to the one suggested by Thurow. However, in patients with maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion, it may be indicated an activator associated with extra oral anchorage.

  1. Effect of stimulus parameters and contraction level on inhibitory responses in human jaw-closing muscles: Implications for contingent stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadidi, F; Wang, K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Examine the effect of stimulus duration as well as stimulus intensity and level of muscle contraction on the inhibitory responses in human jaw-closing muscles. Design: The inhibitory jaw-reflexes, ES1 and ES2, were recorded in the surface electromyogram (EMG) of masseter and temporal...

  2. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in a retrospective clinical, radiographic and histopathological study of 166 cystic jaw lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, N. M.; Andersen, Kristian; Blomlôf, J.

    2014-01-01

    , but a low diagnostic sensitivity in relation to the keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) was revealed. The radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and KCOT were the most frequently observed cystic jaw lesions. Conclusion In general, a high diagnostic specificity for all cystic jaw lesions was observed. A low...

  3. [Clinical experience in osteoplastic material Allomatrix-implant and fibrin rich platelets use in surgical treatment of jaw radicular cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'minykh, I A

    2009-01-01

    Bones forming optimizators applying in surgical dentistry is an important element of jaw destructive processes successful treatment. Today use of osteoplastic materials on the collagen basis is widely spread. One of this challenge solution is FRP and Allomatrix-implant material applying to jaws during surgery operations. We described clinical investigation phase: the estimation of postoperative and remote results of treatment was carried out.

  4. Self-organized antireflection CuIn(S,Se)_2 nano-protrusions on flexible substrates by ion erosion based on CuInS_2 nanocrystal precursor inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yi-Chung; Chen, Chia-Wei; Tsai, Hung-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ze; Hu, Fan; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuIn(S,Se)_2 nano-protrusions were demonstrated on 36-cm"2 flexible substrates. • Nano-protrusions were created by ion erosion on selenized CuInS_2 nanocrystal precursor inks. • Tilt orientations and remarkable anti-reflectance characteristics of nano-protrusions can be precisely controlled. - Abstract: In this work, an approach to achieve surface nano-protrusions on a chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se)_2 thin film was demonstrated. Home-made CuInS_2 nanocrystals with average diameter of 20 nm were prepared and characterized. By applying ion erosion process on the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film, large-area self-aligned nano-protrusions can be formed. Interestingly, the process can be applied on flexible substrate where the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film remains intact with no visible cracking after several bending tests. In addition, reflectance spectra reveal the extraordinary anti-reflectance characteristics of nano-protrusions on the CuIn(S,Se)_2 film with the incident light from 350 to 2000 nm. A 36-cm"2 CuIn(S,Se)_2 film with nano-protrusions on flexible molybdenum foil substrate has been demonstrated, which demonstrated the feasibility of developing low cost with a high optical absorption CuIn(S,Se)_2 flexible thin film.

  5. Three-dimensional and topographic relationships between the orbital margins with reference to assessment of eyeball protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the topographic relationships among the eyeball and four orbital margins with the aim of identifying the correlation between orbital geometry and eyeball protrusion in Koreans. Three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering of the face was performed using serial computed-tomography images of 141 Koreans, and several landmarks on the bony orbit and the cornea were directly marked on the 3D volumes. The anterior-posterior distances from the apex of the cornea to each orbital margin and between the orbital margins were measured in both eyes. The distances from the apex of the cornea to the superior, medial, inferior, and lateral orbital margins were 5.8, 5.8, 12.0, and 17.9 mm, respectively. Differences between sides were observed in all of the orbital margins, and the distances from the apex of the cornea to the superior and inferior orbital margins were significantly greater in females than in males. The anterior-posterior distance between the superior and inferior orbital margins did not differ significantly between males (6.3 mm) and females (6.2 mm). The data obtained in this study will be useful when developing practical guidelines applicable to forensic facial reconstruction and orbitofacial surgeries.

  6. Re-examination of Oostenbroek et al. (2016): evidence for neonatal imitation of tongue protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N; Murray, Lynne; Simpson, Elizabeth; Heimann, Mikael; Nagy, Emese; Nadel, Jacqueline; Pedersen, Eric J; Brooks, Rechele; Messinger, Daniel S; Pascalis, Leonardo De; Subiaul, Francys; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F

    2017-09-27

    The meaning, mechanism, and function of imitation in early infancy have been actively discussed since Meltzoff and Moore's (1977) report of facial and manual imitation by human neonates. Oostenbroek et al. (2016) claim to challenge the existence of early imitation and to counter all interpretations so far offered. Such claims, if true, would have implications for theories of social-cognitive development. Here we identify 11 flaws in Oostenbroek et al.'s experimental design that biased the results toward null effects. We requested and obtained the authors' raw data. Contrary to the authors' conclusions, new analyses reveal significant tongue-protrusion imitation at all four ages tested (1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks old). We explain how the authors missed this pattern and offer five recommendations for designing future experiments. Infant imitation raises fundamental issues about action representation, social learning, and brain-behavior relations. The debate about the origins and development of imitation reflects its importance to theories of developmental science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Interference of wedge-shaped protrusions on the faces of a Griffith crack in biaxial stress. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, J.A.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-04-01

    An initial investigation of the influence of protrusion interference on the fracture toughness required to prevent unstable propagation of a Griffith crack in a brittle material is described. The interference is caused by relative shear displacement of the crack faces when subjected to remote biaxial stress with neither principal stress parallel to the crack. It is shown that for room temperature cracks smaller than about one centimeter in silicon carbide, or about one millimeter in silicon nitride, the presence of interference changes the fracture stress. A mathematical model based on linear elasticity solutions and including multiple interference sites at arbitrarily specified positions on the crack is presented. Computations of the change in required fracture toughness and its dependence on wedge geometry (size and vertex angle), applied stresses (orientation and magnitude), and location of the interference site are discussed. Results indicate that a single interference site has only a slight effect on required toughness. However, the influence of interference increases monotonically with the number of interference sites. The two-dimensional model described herein is not accurate when the interference sites are closely spaced.

  8. Bimaxillary protrusion with an atrophic alveolar defect: orthodontics, autogenous chin-block graft, soft tissue augmentation, and an implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Grace S C; Chang, Chris H N; Roberts, W Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. This complex malocclusion had a discrepancy index of 21, and 8 additional points were scored for the atrophic dental implant site (maxillary right central incisor). The comprehensive treatment plan included extraction of 4 teeth (both maxillary first premolars, the maxillary right central incisor, and the mandibular right first molar), orthodontic closure of all spaces except for the future implant site (maxillary right central incisor), augmentation of the alveolar defect with an autogenous chin-block graft, enhancement of the gingival biotype with a connective tissue graft, and an implant-supported prosthesis. Orthodontists must understand the limitations of bone grafts. Augmented alveolar defects are slow to completely turn over to living bone, so they are usually good sites for implants but respond poorly to orthodontic space closure. However, postsurgical orthodontic treatment is often indicated to optimally finish the esthetic zone before placing the final prosthesis. The latter was effectively performed for this patient, resulting in a total treatment time of about 36 months for comprehensive interdisciplinary care. An excellent functional and esthetic result was achieved. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Laverty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB in the third carpal bones (C3 of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA. Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark front (MF into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC. We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  10. Investigation of Pitch and Jaw Width to Decrease Delivery Time of Helical Tomotherapy Treatments for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, Monica; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Gibbons, John P.; Lee, Tae Kyu; Rosen, Isaac I.; Fields, Robert S.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy plans using a combination of pitch and jaw width settings were developed for 3 patients previously treated for head and neck cancer. Three jaw widths (5, 2.5, and 1 cm) and 4 pitches (0.86, 0.43, 0.287, and 0.215) were used with a (maximum) modulation factor setting of 4. Twelve plans were generated for each patient using an identical optimization procedure (e.g., number of iterations, objective weights, and penalties, etc.), based on recommendations from TomoTherapy (Madison, WI). The plans were compared using isodose plots, dose volume histograms, dose homogeneity indexes, conformity indexes, radiobiological models, and treatment times. Smaller pitches and jaw widths showed better target dose homogeneity and sparing of normal tissue, as expected. However, the treatment time increased inversely proportional to the jaw width, resulting in delivery times of 24 ± 1.9 min for the 1-cm jaw width. Although treatment plans produced with the 2.5-cm jaw were dosimetrically superior to plans produced with the 5-cm jaw, subsequent calculations of tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities suggest that these differences may not be radiobiologically meaningful. Because treatment plans produced with the 5-cm jaw can be delivered in approximately half the time of plans produced with the 2.5-cm jaw (5.1 ± 0.6 min vs. 9.5 ± 1.1 min), use of the 5-cm jaw in routine treatment planning may be a viable approach to decreasing treatment delivery times from helical tomotherapy units.

  11. Prevention of functional disorders of temple-lower-jaw joints in the orthopedic treatment of patients with terminal defects of teeth row

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokmakova E.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of temple-lower-jaw joints was provided in 40 patients with defects of teeth row, complicated with distal displacement of lower jaw. It was functional disorders of temple-lower-jaw joint and identified the possibility of their prevention

  12. Evolution of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals: gene loss coincides with lack of upper jaw incisors in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Opazo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes that give rise to genomic variability in extant species is an active area of research within evolutionary biology. With the availability of whole genome sequences, it is possible to quantify different forms of variability such as variation in gene copy number, which has been described as an important source of genetic variability and in consequence of phenotypic variability. Most of the research on this topic has been focused on understanding the biological significance of gene duplication, and less attention has been given to the evolutionary role of gene loss. Gremlin 2 is a member of the DAN gene family and plays a significant role in tooth development by blocking the ligand-signaling pathway of BMP2 and BMP4. The goal of this study was to investigate the evolutionary history of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals, a group that possesses highly divergent teeth morphology. Results from our analyses indicate that gremlin 2 has experienced a mixture of gene loss, gene duplication, and rate acceleration. Although the last common ancestor of cetartiodactyls possessed a single gene copy, pigs and camels are the only cetartiodactyl groups that have retained gremlin 2. According to the phyletic distribution of this gene and synteny analyses, we propose that gremlin 2 was lost in the common ancestor of ruminants and cetaceans between 56.3 and 63.5 million years ago as a product of a chromosomal rearrangement. Our analyses also indicate that the rate of evolution of gremlin 2 has been accelerated in the two groups that have retained this gene. Additionally, the lack of this gene could explain the high diversity of teeth among cetartiodactyl mammals; specifically, the presence of this gene could act as a biological constraint. Thus, our results support the notions that gene loss is a way to increase phenotypic diversity and that gremlin 2 is a dispensable gene, at least in cetartiodactyl mammals.

  13. Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma of the upper jaw: Report of a rare case with long-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khalili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS is a rare malignant mixed odontogenic tumor which is usually considered as the malignant counterpart of ameloblastic fibroma. Only mesenchymal component represents sarcomatous alterations and ameloblast-like epithelial nest remains bland in AFS. Here, we report a case of AFS in a 26-year-old man in the maxilla, which was regarded as an uncommon location for this tumor. After 2 years follow up, no evidence of recurrence was noted. We also emphasize on comprehensive clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic evaluation of such patients rather than immunohistochemical staining to make an accurate diagnosis.

  14. Osteonecrosis of the jaw after dental implant placement. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Calvo-Guirado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past few years, the occurrence of an oral lesion, called osteonecrosis of the jaw, has increasingly been reported in patients undergoing treatment with systemic bisphosphonates (BPs; however, few papers dealing with oral biphosphonates related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ can be found in the literature. The purpose of the present case was to report an occurrence of BRONJ after implant insertion. Case report: Ten years ago, eight dental implants were inserted in the jaw of a 65-year-old female. After 5 years of treatment with alendronic acid, a breakdown of the oral mucosa covering the implants occurred with a purulent discharge in the left side of the jaw; periapical radiolucency was present around both distal implants. An en-block resection of the alveolar bone including the two implants was performed. Thirthy-five hyperbaric sessions were taken and no signs of recurrence of the lesion were observed after a follow-up of 20 months. Before the new implant insertion, the patient had suspended the treatment with alendronic acid for 6 months. At the interface of one of the implants, a gap was observed between bone and implant. This bone was non vital, and many osteocyte lacunae were empty. Moreover, this bone appeared to be partially demineralized. Conclusion: There is certainly a temporal association between oral BPs use and development of BRONJ, but a correlation does not necessarily mean causation. In patients undergoing oraltreatment, clinicians must be aware of the increased risk of implant failure.

  15. FUSIMOTOR EFFECTS OF MIDBRAIN STIMULATION ON JAW MUSCLE-SPINDLES OF THE ANESTHETIZED CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAYLOR, A; JUCH, PJW

    The effects of electrical stimulation within the midbrain on fusimotor output to the jaw elevator muscles were studied in anaesthetized cats. Muscle spindle afferents recorded in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were categorised as primary or secondary by their responses to succinylcholine

  16. Renal osteodystrophy with facial hyperostosis and 'rubber jaw' in an adult dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, M G; Davis, G B; Thompson, K G

    1985-07-01

    A nine-year-old male Sheltie dog was presented with bilaterally symmetrical maxilliary swelling, loose teeth and flexible mandibles. The condition was progressive over a period of two months. Biochemical and histopathological examinations supported a diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy with facial hyperostosis and 'rubber jaw'.

  17. Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of the Oral Cavity and Jaws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... Purpose: The purpose was to examine the prevalence, gender, age and site(s) of odontogenic and nonodontogenic benign tumors, and tumor‑like lesions occurring in the oral cavity and jaws in a Turkish population, particularly, in the Eastern Turkey, and to compare findings of this study with other reports.

  18. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral cavity and jaws: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose was to examine the prevalence, gender, age and site(s) of odontogenic and nonodontogenic benign tumors, and tumor‑like lesions occurring in the oral cavity and jaws in a Turkish population, particularly, in the Eastern Turkey, and to compare findings of this study with other reports. Materials and ...

  19. The effect of food bolus location on jaw movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.N.B.; Gezelle Meerburg, P.J.; Luraschi, J.; Whittle, T.; Schimmel, M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Peck, C.C.; Murray, G.M.; Minami, I.

    2012-01-01

    Masticatory efficiency in individuals with extensive tooth loss has been widely discussed. However, little is known about jaw movement smoothness during chewing and the effect of differences in food bolus location on movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency. The aim of this study was to

  20. Computer tomography valorization of the vascular lingual channels in the jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, Sebastian; Capiel, Carlos h; Bouzas, Carlos; Vuotto, Miguel; Ferrari, Daniela; Bazzano, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency, location and position of vascular lingual channels of jaw by dental CT and classifying them based on its location. Material and methods: Dental CT of 100 consecutive patients were reevaluated as previous evaluation to the positioning of dental implants. They are classified by linking their location on the jaw with the number of tooth present or absent in that area. Results: All patients had at least one lingual vascular channel in the jaw; 36 patients presented two channels, eight patients presented three and a patient presented four. The more frequent location was between the sectors of the pieces 31 and 41. Sixteen patients showed two channels (superior and inferior) in that location. The second location by frequency was between pieces 32 and 33 (nine patients). The average distance between the lingual surface of the alveolar rim and the vascular channels was of 16 mm. Conclusion: the dental CT is an excellent method for the identification of the vascular lingual channels by its multiplanar capacity and appropriate image resolution. The characterization and classification of these conduits by a method of easy reading for the radiologists and the dentists assure a correct pre surgical valuation avoiding hemorrhages during the jaw perforation in the positioning of dental implants. (author) [es

  1. Myxoma of the Jaw Bones: Analysis of 27 Cases | Ajike | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-seven patients with histologically confirmed cases of odontogenic myxoma of the jaws were managed in a 10-year period. They represent 8.5% of all odontogenic tumours seen during the period. There was a female preponderance with the female to male ratio of 2.4:1. The age range was 11-70 years with majority ...

  2. New look at the anatomy of the jaws by dental CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We represent a part of a retrospective study of CT findings of the jaws and teeth's by Dental CT. For preoperative planning in dental implantology, 215 jaws of 169 patients was investigated. There have been established the reasons for the lost of teeth's, the exact anatomical situation, the height and the vestibular-lingual thickness of the alveolar crest, the thickness of the cortical bone, the presence and volume of the bone defects, the bone mineral density in the implantation zone. A try has been made to create a mathematic model for calculating the risk of failed osseointegration. The investigating of jaws and teeth by Dental CT made it possible to find and localize excessive vascular canals in the frontal parts of the mandible, which is important to prevent complications in operative insertion of implants. There is a high percentage of patients with a great vestibular cortical resorption in the incisive and premolar region of both jaws. The existence of such similar situation in younger patients without periodontal disease

  3. Dosimetric effect on pediatric conformal treatment plans using dynamic jaw with Tomotherapy HDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kim, Dong-Wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Xin; Penagaricano, Jose; Liang, Xiaoying; Hardee, Matthew; Morrill, Steve; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is important to minimize the radiation dose delivered to healthy tissues in pediatric cancer treatment because of the risk of secondary malignancies. Tomotherapy HDA provides a dynamic jaw (DJ) delivery mode that creates a sharper penumbra at the craniocaudal ends of a target in addition to a fixed jaw (FJ) delivery mode. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its dosimetric effect on the pediatric cancer cases. We included 6 pediatric cases in this study. The dose profiles and plan statistics—target dose conformity, uniformity, organ-at-risk (OAR) mean dose, beam-on time, and integral dose—were compared for each case. Consequently, the target dose coverage and uniformity were similar for different jaw settings. The OAR dose sparing depended on its relative location to the target and disease sites. For example, in the head and neck cancer cases, the brain stem dose using DJ 2.5 was reduced by more than two-fold (2.4 Gy vs. 6.3 Gy) than that obtained with FJ 2.5. The integral dose with DJ 2.5 decreased by more than 9% compared with that with FJ 2.5. Thus, using dynamic jaw in pediatric cases could be critical to reduce a probability of a secondary malignancy.

  4. Dosimetric effect on pediatric conformal treatment plans using dynamic jaw with Tomotherapy HDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Kim, Dong-Wook; Zhang, Xin; Penagaricano, Jose; Liang, Xiaoying; Hardee, Matthew; Morrill, Steve; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2015-01-01

    It is important to minimize the radiation dose delivered to healthy tissues in pediatric cancer treatment because of the risk of secondary malignancies. Tomotherapy HDA provides a dynamic jaw (DJ) delivery mode that creates a sharper penumbra at the craniocaudal ends of a target in addition to a fixed jaw (FJ) delivery mode. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its dosimetric effect on the pediatric cancer cases. We included 6 pediatric cases in this study. The dose profiles and plan statistics—target dose conformity, uniformity, organ-at-risk (OAR) mean dose, beam-on time, and integral dose—were compared for each case. Consequently, the target dose coverage and uniformity were similar for different jaw settings. The OAR dose sparing depended on its relative location to the target and disease sites. For example, in the head and neck cancer cases, the brain stem dose using DJ 2.5 was reduced by more than two-fold (2.4 Gy vs. 6.3 Gy) than that obtained with FJ 2.5. The integral dose with DJ 2.5 decreased by more than 9% compared with that with FJ 2.5. Thus, using dynamic jaw in pediatric cases could be critical to reduce a probability of a secondary malignancy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. JAW CYSTS AND GUIDED BONE REGENERATION (a late complication after enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Lalabonova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary jaw bone possesses a high regenerative capacity. Yet sometimes the defects enucleation of jaw cysts leaves may regenerate only partially or not at all. For this reason some researchers advise treatment of the residual cavities after cystectomy using bone regeneration stimulation methods. We report a case of an atypical complication after enucleation of a maxillary cyst manifesting itself eight years after the initial treatment. The symptoms the patient reported were at first periodic sweating on the left sides of face and head. This was followed by a piercing pain in the left palpebral fissure radiating to the middle of the palate and felt in the left cheekbone, left eye and left supraorbital ridge. The patient has a history of maxillary cysts recurring three times and of three operations she had 20, 12 and 8 years previously. The multiple recurrences of the cysts after their enucleation indicates poor regenerative capacity of the body which resulted in the formation of cicatricial tissue. It is most probably this tissue that was responsible for the disruption of the nerve conduction capacity which can account for the reported symptoms. We filled the cavity with bone graft material which boosted the bone structure regeneration. Although maxillary jaws possess high regenerative capacity we advise the use of guided bone regeneration in cases of large bone defects that usually occur after enucleation of jaw cysts.

  6. Influence of botulinum toxin on rabbit jaw muscle activity and anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, J.A.M.; Wang, J.; Lie, S.H.J.T.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Muscles can adapt their fiber properties to accommodate to new conditions. We investigated the extent to which a decrease in muscle activation can cause an adaptation of fiber properties in synergistic and antagonistic jaw muscles. Methods: Three months after the injection of botulinum

  7. Time to onset of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fung, Ppl; Bedogni, G; Bedogni, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a potentially severe adverse effect of bisphosphonates (BP). Although the risk of ONJ increases with increasing duration of BP treatment, there are currently no reliable estimates of the ONJ time to onset (TTO). The objective of this study was to esti...

  8. Beam feasibility study of a collimator with in-jaw beam position monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Daniel; Nosych, Andriy A.; Valentino, Gianluca; Aberle, Oliver; Aßmann, Ralph W.; Bertarelli, Alessandro; Boccard, Christian; Bruce, Roderik; Burkart, Florian; Calvo, Eva; Cauchi, Marija; Dallocchio, Alessandro; Deboy, Daniel; Gasior, Marek; Jones, Rhodri; Kain, Verena; Lari, Luisella; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    At present, the beam-based alignment of the LHC collimators is performed by touching the beam halo with both jaws of each collimator. This method requires dedicated fills at low intensities that are done infrequently and makes this procedure time consuming. This limits the operational flexibility, in particular in the case of changes of optics and orbit configuration in the experimental regions. The performance of the LHC collimation system relies on the machine reproducibility and regular loss maps to validate the settings of the collimator jaws. To overcome these limitations and to allow a continuous monitoring of the beam position at the collimators, a design with jaw-integrated Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) was proposed and successfully tested with a prototype (mock-up) collimator in the CERN SPS. Extensive beam experiments allowed to determine the achievable accuracy of the jaw alignment for single and multi-turn operation. In this paper, the results of these experiments are discussed. The non-linear response of the BPMs is compared to the predictions from electromagnetic simulations. Finally, the measured alignment accuracy is compared to the one achieved with the present collimators in the LHC.

  9. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzburger Walter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is now recognized as an important ingredient in both population persistence and diversification. The traits and directions in which an ancestral source population displays phenotypic plasticity might partly determine the trajectories in morphospace, which are accessible for an adaptive radiation, starting from the colonization of a novel environment. In the case of repeated colonizations of similar environments from the same source population this "flexible stem" hypothesis predicts similar phenotypes to arise in repeated subsequent radiations. The Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus spp. in Nicaragua has radiated in parallel in several crater-lakes seeded by populations originating from the Nicaraguan Great Lakes. Here, we tested phenotypic plasticity in the pharyngeal jaw of Midas Cichlids. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of cichlids, a second set of jaws functionally decoupled from the oral ones, is known to mediate ecological specialization and often differs strongly between sister-species. Results We performed a common garden experiment raising three groups of Midas cichlids on food differing in hardness and calcium content. Analyzing the lower pharyngeal jaw-bones we find significant differences between diet groups qualitatively resembling the differences found between specialized species. Observed differences in pharyngeal jaw expression between groups were attributable to the diet's mechanical resistance, whereas surplus calcium in the diet was not found to be of importance. Conclusions The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of Midas Cichlids can be expressed plastically if stimulated mechanically during feeding. Since this trait is commonly differentiated - among

  10. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschick, Moritz; Barluenga, Marta; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2011-04-30

    Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is now recognized as an important ingredient in both population persistence and diversification. The traits and directions in which an ancestral source population displays phenotypic plasticity might partly determine the trajectories in morphospace, which are accessible for an adaptive radiation, starting from the colonization of a novel environment. In the case of repeated colonizations of similar environments from the same source population this "flexible stem" hypothesis predicts similar phenotypes to arise in repeated subsequent radiations. The Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus spp.) in Nicaragua has radiated in parallel in several crater-lakes seeded by populations originating from the Nicaraguan Great Lakes. Here, we tested phenotypic plasticity in the pharyngeal jaw of Midas Cichlids. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of cichlids, a second set of jaws functionally decoupled from the oral ones, is known to mediate ecological specialization and often differs strongly between sister-species. We performed a common garden experiment raising three groups of Midas cichlids on food differing in hardness and calcium content. Analyzing the lower pharyngeal jaw-bones we find significant differences between diet groups qualitatively resembling the differences found between specialized species. Observed differences in pharyngeal jaw expression between groups were attributable to the diet's mechanical resistance, whereas surplus calcium in the diet was not found to be of importance. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of Midas Cichlids can be expressed plastically if stimulated mechanically during feeding. Since this trait is commonly differentiated--among other traits--between Midas Cichlid species, its plasticity

  11. The biological basis of treating jaw discrepancies: An interplay of mechanical forces and skeletal configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamesinis, Konstantinos; Basdra, Efthimia K

    2018-05-01

    Jaw discrepancies and malrelations affect a large proportion of the general population and their treatment is of utmost significance for individuals' health and quality of life. The aim of their therapy is the modification of aberrant jaw development mainly by targeting the growth potential of the mandibular condyle through its cartilage, and the architectural shape of alveolar bone through a suture type of structure, the periodontal ligament. This targeted treatment is achieved via external mechanical force application by using a wide variety of intraoral and extraoral appliances. Condylar cartilage and sutures exhibit a remarkable plasticity due to the mechano-responsiveness of the chondrocytes and the multipotent mesenchymal cells of the sutures. The tissues respond biologically and adapt to mechanical force application by a variety of signaling pathways and a final interplay between the proliferative activity and the differentiation status of the cells involved. These targeted therapeutic functional alterations within temporo-mandibular joint ultimately result in the enhancement or restriction of mandibular growth, while within the periodontal ligament lead to bone remodeling and change of its architectural structure. Depending on the form of the malrelation presented, the above treatment approaches, in conjunction or separately, lead to the total correction of jaw discrepancies and the achievement of facial harmony and function. Overall, the treatment of craniofacial and jaw anomalies can be seen as an interplay of mechanical forces and adaptations occurring within temporo-mandibular joint and alveolar bone. The aim of the present review is to present up-to-date knowledge on the mechano-biology behind jaw growth modification and alveolar bone remodeling. Furthermore, future molecular targeted therapeutic strategies are discussed aiming at the improvement of mechanically-driven chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of jaw muscle spindle afferent activity following intramuscular injections with hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    2001-05-01

    Transient noxious chemical stimulation of small diameter muscle afferents modulates jaw movement-related responses of caudal brainstem neurons. While it is likely that the effect is mediated from the spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) via the caudally projecting Probst's tract, the mechanisms of pain induced modulations of jaw muscle spindle afferents is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that jaw muscle nociceptors gain access to muscle spindle afferents in the same muscle via central mechanisms and alter their sensitivity. Thirty-five neurons recorded from the Vmes were characterized as muscle spindle afferents based on their responses to passive jaw movements, muscle palpation, and electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve. Each cell was tested by injecting a small volume (250 microl) of either 5% hypertonic and/or isotonic saline into the receptor-bearing muscle. Twenty-nine units were tested with 5% hypertonic saline, of which 79% (23/29) showed significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during one or more phases of ramp-and-hold movements. Among the muscle spindle primary-like units (n = 12), MFRs of 4 units were facilitated, five reduced, two showed mixed responses and one unchanged. In secondary-like units (n = 17), MFRs of 9 were facilitated, three reduced and five unchanged. Thirteen units were tested with isotonic saline, of which 77% showed no significant changes of MFRs. Further analysis revealed that the hypertonic saline not only affected the overall output of muscle spindle afferents, but also increased the variability of firing and altered the relationship between afferent signal and muscle length. These results demonstrated that activation of muscle nociceptors significantly affects proprioceptive properties of jaw muscle spindles via central neural mechanisms. The changes can have deleterious effects on oral motor function as well as kinesthetic sensibility.

  13. Experimental muscle pain produces central modulation of proprioceptive signals arising from jaw muscle spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, N F; Ro, J Y

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection with hypertonic saline, a well-established experimental model for muscle pain, on central processing of proprioceptive input from jaw muscle spindle afferents. Fifty-seven cells were recorded from the medial edge of the subnucleus interpolaris (Vi) and the adjacent parvicellular reticular formation from 11 adult cats. These cells were characterized as central units receiving jaw muscle spindle input based on their responses to electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve, muscle palpation and jaw stretch. Forty-five cells, which were successfully tested with 5% hypertonic saline, were categorized as either dynamic-static (DS) (n=25) or static (S) (n=20) neurons based on their responses to different speeds and amplitudes of jaw movement. Seventy-six percent of the cells tested with an ipsilateral injection of hypertonic saline showed a significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during opening and/or holding phases. The most remarkable saline-induced change was a significant reduction of MFR during the hold phase in S units (100%, 18/18 modulated). Sixty-nine percent of the DS units (11/16 modulated) also showed significant changes in MFRs limited to the hold phase. However, in the DS neurons, the MFRs increased in seven units and decreased in four units. Finally, five DS neurons showed significant changes of MFRs during both opening and holding phases. Injections of isotonic saline into the ipsilateral masseter muscle had little effect, but hypertonic saline injections made into the contralateral masseter muscle produced similar results to ipsilateral injections with hypertonic saline. These results unequivocally demonstrate that intramuscular injection with an algesic substance, sufficient to produce muscle pain, produces significant changes in the proprioceptive properties of the jaw movement-related neurons. Potential mechanisms involved in saline-induced changes in the

  14. Jaw muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: histochemical correlations with feeding ecology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Meister, Andrew B; Leonard, Gerald L; Schrank, Gordon D; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2011-12-01

    Differences in fiber type distribution in the axial muscles of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes have previously been linked to differences in locomotor performance, behavior, and diet across species. Using ATPase assays, we examined fiber types of the jaw opening sternohyoideus muscle across five species, as well as fiber types of three jaw closing muscles (adductor mandibulae A1, A2, and A3). The jaw muscles of some species of Hawaiian stream gobies contained substantial red fiber components. Some jaw muscles always had greater proportions of white muscle fibers than other jaw muscles, independent of species. In addition, comparing across species, the dietary generalists (Awaous guamensis and Stenogobius hawaiiensis) had a lower proportion of white muscle fibers in all jaw muscles than the dietary specialists (Lentipes concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Eleotris sandwicensis). Among Hawaiian stream gobies, generalist diets may favor a wider range of muscle performance, provided by a mix of white and red muscle fibers, than is typical of dietary specialists, which may have a higher proportion of fast-twitch white fibers in jaw muscles to help meet the demands of rapid predatory strikes or feeding in fast-flowing habitats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 interacts with Vav2 to synchronize the cell volume decrease response with cell protrusion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3 causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC, a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.

  16. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  17. The relationship between jaw-opening force and the cross-sectional area of the suprahyoid muscles in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisa, E; Tohara, H; Nakane, A; Wakasugi, Y; Hara, K; Yamaguchi, K; Yoshimi, K; Minakuchi, S

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a clinical cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between jaw-opening force and the cross-sectional area of the suprahyoid muscles and whole skeletal muscle mass. Subjects were healthy 39 males and 51 females without dysphagia and sarcopenia, aged 65 years and older. Jaw-opening force was measured three times using a jaw-opening sthenometer; the maximum of these three was taken as the measurement value. The cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscles were evaluated using ultrasonography. The skeletal muscle mass index, gait speed and grip strength were evaluated according to the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. For each sex, a multiple regression analysis determined the factors that affect jaw-opening force. Jaw-opening force was associated with the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle in males (regression coefficient [β] = 0.441, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.28-56.09) and females (β = 0.28, 95% CI = 3.10-54.57). Furthermore, in females only, jaw-opening force was associated with the skeletal muscle mass index (β = 0.40, 95% CI = 3.67-17.81). In contrast, jaw-opening force was not associated with the cross-sectional area of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle in either sex. In healthy elderly males and females, jaw-opening force was positively associated with the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle. However, the jaw-opening force was positively associated with the skeletal muscle mass index only in females. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Mollá, Enrique; Costa, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6 +/- 14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P < 0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated ( P = 0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together ( P < 0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms.

  19. Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Costa, Salvador [Department of Radiology, Clinica Quiron, Avda Blasco Ibanez 14, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Molla, Enrique [Department of Radiology, Clinica Quiron, Avda Blasco Ibanez 14, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Department of Morphological Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-01-01

    To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6{+-}14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P<0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated (P=0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together (P<0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  20. Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Costa, Salvador; Molla, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6±14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P<0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated (P=0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together (P<0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  1. Cone-beam computed tomography in the management of dentigerous cyst of the jaws: A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya, Lakshminarayanan; Ranganathan, Kannan; Praveen, B; Gunaseelan, Rajan; Shanmugasundaram, S

    2013-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an emerging technology finding application in all branches of dentistry. The current series highlights the application of CBCT in the preoperative assessment of dentigerous cyst of the jaws

  2. Jaw-opening reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability changes during quiet sleep in non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Dongyuan; Lavigne, Gilles J.; Lee, Jye-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that the reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles is reduced during sleep. Design: Polysomnographic recordings in the electrophysiological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratories. Participants and Interventions: The reflex a...

  3. Giant cell lesion of the jaw as a presenting feature of Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Bridget P; Patel, Maya

    2018-05-30

    This is a case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with a left jaw mass which was resected and found to be a giant cell granuloma of the mandible. Her history and physical examination were suggestive for Noonan syndrome which was confirmed with genetic testing and the finding of a PTPN11 gene mutation which has rarely been associated with giant cell lesions of the jaw. Given her particular genetic mutation and the presence of a giant cell lesion, we present a case of Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Multiple prismatic calcium phosphate layers in the jaws of present-day sharks (Chondrichthyes; Selachii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingerkus, G; Séret, B; Guilbert, E

    1991-01-15

    Jaws of large individuals, over 2 m in total length, of the shark species Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark) and Isurus oxyrinchus (mako shark) of the family Lamnidae, and Galeocerdo cuvieri (tiger shark) and Carcharhinus leucas (bull shark) of the family Carcharhinidae were found to have multiple, up to five, layers of prismatic calcium phosphate surrounding the cartilages. Smaller individuals of these species and other known species of living chondrichthyans have only one layer of prismatic calcium phosphate surrounding the cartilages, as also do most species of fossil chondrichthyans. Two exceptions are the fossil shark genera Xenacanthus and Tamiobatis. Where it is found in living forms, this multiple layered calcification does not appear to be phylogenetic, as it appears to be lacking in other lamnid and carcharhinid genera and species. Rather it appears to be functional, only appearing in larger individuals and species of these two groups, and hence may be necessary to strengthen the jaw cartilages of such individuals for biting.

  5. Osteonecrosis of the jaw: a rare and devastating side effect of bisphosphonates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, P

    2009-12-01

    Evidence has emerged that bisphosphonate use in cancer patients is associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw. This form of osteonecrosis has been termed bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ). BIONJ is commonly precipitated by a tooth extraction in patients treated with long term, potent, high dose intravenous bisphosphonates for the management of myeloma, breast or prostate cancer. The overall prevalence of BIONJ is about 5% in patients with these malignancies. Current evidence shows that the risk of BIONJ in non-cancerous patients, such as those with osteoporosis, is very low and appears to be comparable with that of the general population. Prescribing physicians need to encourage cancer patients to see their dentists before the initiation of bisphosphonate treatment, and regularly thereafter.

  6. Autosomal dominant type of endosteal hyperostosis with unusual manifestations of sclerosis of the jaw bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Naoyuki; Nonaka, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Motomasa

    1987-01-01

    We report three cases of autosomal dominant type endosteal hyperostosis which occurred in one Japanese family. A new pattern of sclerotic changes in the jaw bones is evident. In all members of the family there was a symmetrical thickening of the diaphyseal cortices of the long bones. The affected bones were only minimally widened and the epiphyses and metaphyses were spared. Endosteal sclerosis of the neurocranium was present with loss of the diploe. The sclerotic changes included enlargement and mottled sclerosis of both the maxilla and mandible, with multiple embedded teeth and odontomas. The ramus of the mandible was spared. Severe sclerosis of the jaw bones was present only in a 28-year-old women. The 2-year-son showed only focal sclerosis in the mandible, and his grandmother had minimal changes in the skeleton.

  7. [Acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy for treatment of temple-jaw joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Wen

    2009-04-01

    To compare clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy and simple magnetic therapy on temple-jaw joint dysfunction. Eighty-two cases were randomly divided into an observation group (n = 52) and a control group (n = 30). The observation group was treated with acupuncture at Xiaguan (ST 7), Jiache (ST 6), Hegu (LI 4), etc. and AL-2 low frequency electromagnetic comprehensive treatment instrument; the control group was treated with AL-2 low frequency electromagnetic comprehensive treatment instrument. The cured and markedly effective rate of 90.4% in the observation group was significantly better than 66.7% in the control group (P magnetic therapy is significantly better than that of the simple magnetic therapy on temple-jaw joint dysfunction.

  8. Bisphosphonate-associated Osteonecrosis of the jaws and endodontic treatment: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are commonly used in the management of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease, and to prevent bone complications and treat malignant hypercalcemia in certain types of cancer. Although this class of drugs has clear evidence of medical efficacy, there are an, increasing number of reports of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws that have substantial implications for the patient and for the treating dentist. This article reviews proposed possible mechanisms of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws and describes two case reports where non-surgical and surgical root canal treatment were precipitating factors. Recommendations for prevention and treatment of the disease follow. Thorough history-taking and timely consultation with the patient's oral surgeon and oncologist are emphasized.

  9. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  10. [The clinical and X-ray classification of osteonecrosis of the low jaw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Iu A; Basin, E M; Sokolina, I A

    2013-01-01

    To elaborate a clinical and X-ray classification of osteonecrosis of the low jaw in people with desomorphine or pervitin addiction. Ninety-two patients with drug addiction who had undergone orthopantomography, direct frontal X-ray of the skull, and multislice computed tomography, followed by multiplanar and three-dimensional imaging reconstruction were examined. One hundred thirty four X-ray films and 74 computed tomographic images were analyzed. The authors proposed a clinical and X-ray classification of osteonecrosis of the low jaw in people with desomorphine or pervitin addiction and elaborated recommendations for surgical interventions on the basis of the developed classification. The developed clinical and X-ray classification and recommendations for surgical interventions may be used to treat osteonecroses of various etiology.

  11. Relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Imai, Mikako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions. Twelve adult volunteers, including 4 bruxism patients, participated in this study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography of the temporal muscle, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' homes. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes were observed most frequently, with single short-burst episodes the second most frequent. The frequencies of RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes were significantly higher during decreased esophageal pH episodes than those during other times. Both the electromyography and the decreased esophageal pH episodes were most frequently observed in the supine position. These results suggest that most jaw muscle activities, ie, RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes, occur in relation to gastroesophageal reflux mainly in the supine position.

  12. Actinomyces israelii in osteoradionecrosis of the jaws. Histopathologic and immunocytochemical study of five cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happonen, R.P.; Viander, M.; Pelliniemi, L.; Aitasalo, K.

    1983-01-01

    Five surgically treated patients with osteoradionecrosis of the jaws are presented. The clinical history of the disease varied from 3 to 17 years. In three cases the progression of the disease was enhanced by surgical procedures performed in the irradiated area causing exfoliation of the premaxillary area in one case and spontaneous mandibular fracture in two cases. Actinomyces israelii was demonstrated in tissue sections of all five cases by using FITC-labeled specific antiserum and additionally with peroxidase-antiperoxidase method in one case. Candida was found in histologic sections of three cases. Radiation damage in the oral soft tissues and jawbones makes the atmosphere favorable for anaerobic microorganisms. The present results indicate that the role of A. israelii in the pathogenesis of osteoradionecrosis of the jaws has not been fully appreciated

  13. High-resolution computed tomography of the toothed jaw compared with histologic microsections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.M.; Fuhrmann, R.; Diedrich, P.; Guenther, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    Human bone segments of the toothed jaw were scanned using high-resolution CT with axial and coronal contiguous 1 and 2 mm slices. The bone segments were sliced analogous to the performed CT image positions. Contact films and micro-sections were made from the cuttings. Length and width of the teeth, the thickness of the alveolar bone and the distance between bone and dental surface were measured. Comparison of the CT measurements with contact films and histological specimen yielded best results for axial slices with 1 mm slice thickness (mean error 0.3-0.5 mm). Coronary oriented slices showed an error of 0.3-1.6 mm. 3D-reformatting can improve spatial orientation for axially produced image series. For CT imaging of the toothed jaw concerning the dento-alveolar structures, contiguous axial scanning with 1 mm slice thickness appears to be the concept of choice. (orig.) [de

  14. Hyperparathyroidism-jaw Tumor Syndrome: An Overlooked Cause of Severe Hypercalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Joseph Wolfgang; Winchester, Rhonda; Alsaygh, Nebras; Bartlett, Anne M; Luttrell, Louis

    2016-09-01

    Ossifying fibromas of the maxillofacial bones are an uncommon form of benign neoplasm usually treated by surgical excision. Up to 30% of patients with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, a rare form of multiple endocrine neoplasia resulting from autosomal dominant inactivating mutation of the Hrpt2 tumor suppressor gene, initially present with ossifying fibromas. Coincident hypercalcemia because of the presence of parathyroid adenoma is common in these patients, of whom 15% may have or may develop parathyroid carcinoma. The authors present a case of severe postsurgical hypercalcemia after removal of a large maxillary ossifying fibroma in a patient with previously unrecognized hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor AU3 syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pneumatic muscle actuated parallel asymmetrical gripper system with one mobile jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper pertains to the field of the current global endeavours in industrial robot construction, the presented research being oriented towards identifying innovative constructive solutions for gripper systems. The utilisation of the linear pneumatic muscle as actuator of the gripper system ensures a construction that is light, highly compliant, and that meets the safety requirements related to interaction with humans. The paper further presents and discusses such a system of asymmetrical construction with a single mobile jaw.

  16. Central Giant Cell Granuloma of the Jaws: Correlation between Vascularity and Biologic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Giant cell lesions of the bone comprise a group of jaw bone pathologies. Different pathogeneses such as reactive, vascular or neoplastic have been proposed for these lesions. In addition, differentiating between aggressive and nonaggressive central giant cell granuloma (CGCG of the jaws based on histopathologic features is still impossible and due to different treatment protocols for the two groups, correct diagnosis is necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of CD34 between aggressive and nonaggressive CGCGs of the jaws. Methods & Materials: This retrospective study was carried out on 16 paraffin blocks in each aggressive and nonaggressive CGCGs group. The expression of CD34 was evaluated with immunohistochemical technique. Afterwards, t-test was used for quantitative evaluation and comparison of CD34 expression among the two groups. Eventually, statistical analysis was performed using Spss20 software. Significance was assigned at p < 0.05. Results: In the present study, the average age of patients in aggressive and nonaggressive groups was 20.93±8.08 and 26.18±16.97, respectively. In both groups, female predilection was observed. Mandible was the most common site of involvement in the aggressive group and the distribution of nonaggressive lesions was equal between both jaws. Although the expression of CD34 in the aggressive group was higher than the nonaggressive group, no statistically significant difference was seen (p=0.15. Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, it appears that CD34 protein cannot be used for identifying the clinical behavior of CGCGs.

  17. Osteonecrosis of the jaw: effect of bisphosphonate type, local concentration, and acidic milieu on the pathomechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Sven; Pautke, Christoph; Opelz, Christine; Westphal, Ines; Drosse, Inga; Schwager, Joanna; Bauss, Frieder; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Schieker, Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw has been reported in patients receiving high doses of intravenous nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) because of malignant disease. The exact pathomechanisms have been elusive and questions of paramount importance remain unanswered. Recent studies have indicated toxic effects of bisphosphonates on different cell types, apart from osteoclast inhibition. Multipotent stem cells play an important role in the processes of wound healing and bone regeneration, which seem to be especially impaired in the jaws of patients receiving high doses of N-BPs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different bisphosphonate derivatives and dose levels combined with varying pH levels on the mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. The effect of 2 N-BPs (zoledronate and ibandronate) and 1 non-N-BP (clodronate) on immortalized mesenchymal stem cells was tested at different concentrations, reflecting 1, 3, and 6 months and 1, 3, 5, and 10 years of exposure to standard oncology doses of the 2 N-BPs and equimolar concentrations of clodronate at different pH values (7.4, 7.0, 6.7, and 6.3). Cell viability and activity were analyzed using a WST assay. Cell motility was investigated using scratch wound assays and visualized using time-lapse microscopy. Both types of bisphosphonates revealed remarkable differences. Zoledronate and ibandronate showed a dose- and pH-dependent cellular toxicity. Increasing concentrations of both N-BPs and an acidic milieu led to a significant decrease in cell viability and activity (P key role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients receiving high doses of N-BPs for malignant diseases. Also the potency of N-BPs might be different, suggesting a greater risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw with zoledronate. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Myoelectric manifestations of jaw elevator muscle fatigue and recovery in healthy and TMD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, T; Falla, D; Tartaglia, G M; Sforza, C; Deregibus, A

    2012-09-01

    The effects of muscle pain and fatigue on the control of jaw elevator muscles are not well known. Furthermore, the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery from fatigue in the masticatory muscles are not reported in literature. The main aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the possible use of surface electromyography (sEMG) as an objective measure of fatigue of the jaw elevator muscles, (ii) to compare the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the temporalis anterior and masseter muscles bilaterally, (iii) to assess recovery of the investigated muscles after an endurance test and (iv) to compare fatigue and recovery of the jaw elevator muscles in healthy subjects and patients with muscle-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The study was performed on twenty healthy volunteers and eighteen patients with muscle-related TMD. An intra-oral compressive-force sensor was used to measure the voluntary contraction forces close to the intercuspal position and to provide visual feedback of submaximal forces to the subject. Surface EMG signals were recorded with linear electrode arrays during isometric contractions at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction force, during an endurance test and during the recovery phase. The results showed that (i) the slope of the mean power spectral frequency (MNF) and the initial average rectified value (ARV) could be used to monitor fatigue of the jaw elevators, (ii) the temporalis anterior and masseter muscle show the same myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery and (iii) the initial values of MNF and ARV were lower in patients with muscle-related TMD. The assessment of myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the masticatory muscles may assist in the clinical assessment of TMDs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Selection of osteoprogenitors from the jaw periosteum by a specific animal-free culture medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Alexander

    Full Text Available The goal of our research work is to establish mesenchymal osteoprogenitors derived from human jaw periosteum for tissue engineering applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery. For future autologous and/or allogeneic transplantations, some issues must be addressed. On the one hand, animal-free culture conditions have yet to be established. On the other hand, attempts should be undertaken to shorten the in vitro culturing process efficiently. The aim of the present study is to compare and analyze the phenotype of osteoprogenitors from the jaw periosteum under normal FCS-containing and animal-free culture conditions. Therefore, we analyzed the proliferation rates of MesenCult-XF medium (MC- in comparison to DMEM-cultured JPCs. Whereas jaw periosteal cells (JPCs show relatively slow proliferation rates and a fibroblastoid shape under DMEM culture conditions, MC-cultured JPCs diminished their cell size significantly and proliferated rapidly. By live-monitoring measurements of adhesion and proliferation, we made an interesting observation: whereas the proliferation of the MSCA-1(+ subpopulation and the unseparated cell fraction were favored by the animal-free culture medium, the proliferation of the MSCA-1(- subpopulation seemed to be repressed under these conditions. The alkaline phosphatase expression pattern showed similar results under both culture conditions. Comparison of the mineralization capacity revealed an earlier formation of calcium-phosphate precipitates under MC culture conditions; however, the mineralization capacity of the DMEM-cultured cells seemed to be higher. We conclude that the tested animal-free medium is suitable for the in vitro expansion and even for the specific selection of osteoprogenitor cells derived from the jaw periosteum.

  20. The effect of food bolus location on jaw movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, W N B; Gezelle Meerburg, P J; Luraschi, J; Whittle, T; Schimmel, M; Lobbezoo, F; Peck, C C; Murray, G M; Minami, I

    2012-09-01

    Masticatory efficiency in individuals with extensive tooth loss has been widely discussed. However, little is known about jaw movement smoothness during chewing and the effect of differences in food bolus location on movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether experimental differences in food bolus location (anterior versus posterior) had an effect on masticatory efficiency and jaw movement smoothness. Jaw movement smoothness was evaluated by measuring jerk-cost (calculated from acceleration) with an accelerometer that was attached to the skin of the mentum of 10 asymptomatic subjects, and acceleration was recorded during chewing on two-colour chewing gum, which was used to assessed masticatory efficiency. Chewing was performed under two conditions: posterior chewing (chewing on molars and premolars only) and anterior chewing (chewing on canine and first premolar teeth only). Jerk-cost and masticatory efficiency (calculated as the ratio of unmixed azure colour to the total area of gum, the unmixed fraction) were compared between anterior and posterior chewing with the Wilcoxon signed rank test (two-tailed). Subjects chewed significantly less efficiently during anterior chewing than during posterior chewing (P = 0·0051). There was no significant difference in jerk-cost between anterior and posterior conditions in the opening phase (P = 0·25), or closing phase (P = 0·42). This is the first characterisation of the effect of food bolus location on jaw movement smoothness at the same time as recording masticatory efficiency. The data suggest that anterior chewing decreases masticatory efficiency, but does not influence jerk-cost. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The Challenge Treatment of Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    M Rodríguez Sánchez; Bassi AP; Carvalho PS

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates toxicological effect on alveolar bone could be associated to medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw. (MRONJ) Oral surgical procedures as; tooth extractions, implants placements or trauma are suggested risk factors. The aim of this paper is to describe a case of MRONJ and recurrence after the first right mandibular molar extraction. A 54 years old man was referred to the Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic of Aracatuba Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP...

  2. Brown tumor of the jaw after pregnancy and lactation in a MEN1 patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Casteràs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT include brown tumors (BT, which are osteoclastic focal lesions often localized in the jaws. Brown tumors are a rare manifestation of pHTP in Europe and USA; however, they are frequent in developing countries, probably related to vitamin D deficiency and longer duration and severity of disease. In the majority of cases, the removal of the parathyroid adenoma is enough for the bone to remineralize, but other cases require surgery. Hyperparathyroidism in MEN1 develops early, and is multiglandular and the timing of surgery remains questionable. To our knowledge, there are no reports of BT in MEN 1 patients. We present a 29-year-old woman with MEN 1 who developed a brown tumor of the jaw 24 months after getting pregnant, while breastfeeding. Serum corrected calcium remained under 2.7 during gestation, and at that point reached a maximum of 2.82 mmol/L. Concomitant PTH was 196 pg/mL, vitamin D 13.7 ng/mL and alkaline phosphatase 150 IU/L. Bone mineral density showed osteopenia on spine and femoral neck (both T-scores = −1.6. Total parathyroidectomy was performed within two weeks, with a failed glandular graft autotransplantation, leading to permanent hypoparathyroidism. Two months after removal of parathyroid glands, the jaw tumor did not shrink; thus, finally it was successfully excised. We hypothesize that higher vitamin D and mineral requirements during maternity may have triggered an accelerated bone resorption followed by appearance of the jaw BT. We suggest to treat pHPT before planning a pregnancy in MEN1 women or otherwise supplement with vitamin D, although this approach may precipitate severe hypercalcemia.

  3. JAWS: Just Add Water System - A device for detection of nucleic acids in Martian ice caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, Eske; Mørk, Søren

    2002-01-01

    with a regulation of pH and salt concentrations e.g. the MOD systems and could be installed on a planetary probe melting its way down the Martian ice caps e.g. the NASA Cryobot. JAWS can be used for detection of remains of ancient life preserved in the Martian ice as well as for detection of contamination brought...... to the planet from Earth....

  4. Ameloblastomatous Change in Radicular Cyst of The Jaw in a Nigerian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, F O; Sede, M A; Ojo, A M

    2015-06-01

    To determine the incidence, age, gender, jaw-sites and subtypes of radicular cyst, and to determine the incidence of ameloblastomatous change in radicular cyst in a Nigerian population. A 10-year retrospective analysis of all diagnosed orofacial lesions in the Department of Oral Pathology and Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. From the 785 diagnosed orofacial lesions within the study period; there were 54 (6.9%) cases of radicular cysts of the jaws. The peak age group was the 3(rd) decade (n=23, 42.6%) with a mean age of 31 ± 1.7 years. There were 29 (53.7%) males and 25 (46.3%) females, giving a ratio of 1.2:1. The mandible was the commonest jaw-site (n=32, 59.3%). There were 12 (22.2%) cases of periapical cyst which were significantly associated with anterior maxillary site (n=8, 14.8%) [p=0.001]. Seven (13.0%) cases of cystic ameloblastoma were diagnosed among the radicular cysts, with a predilection of the lesions for 3(rd) and 4(th) decades of life (n=6, 11.1%), and posterior mandible (n=5, 9.3%). This study showed a low incidence of radicular cyst of the jaw among orofacial lesions and a relatively higher incidence of ameloblastomatous change in radicular cyst compared to previous reports. Immuno-histochemical examination is recommended to differentiate radicular cyst with ameloblastomatous-like change from cystic ameloblastoma arising from radicular cyst.

  5. Converting Chemical Energy to Electricity through a Three-Jaw Mini-Generator Driven by the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Wang, Lei; Ji, Fanqin; Shi, Feng

    2016-05-11

    Energy conversion from a mechanical form to electricity is one of the most important research advancements to come from the horizontal locomotion of small objects. Until now, the Marangoni effect has been the only propulsion method to produce the horizontal locomotion to induce an electromotive force, which is limited to a short duration because of the specific property of surfactants. To solve this issue, in this article we utilized the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to provide the propulsion for a sustainable energy conversion from a mechanical form to electricity. We fabricated a mini-generator consisting of three parts: a superhydrophobic rotator with three jaws, three motors to produce a jet of oxygen bubbles to propel the rotation of the rotator, and three magnets integrated into the upper surface of the rotator to produce the magnet flux. Once the mini-generator was placed on the solution surface, the motor catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. This generated a large amount of oxygen bubbles that caused the generator and integrated magnets to rotate at the air/water interface. Thus, the magnets passed under the coil area and induced a change in the magnet flux, thus generating electromotive forces. We also investigated experimental factors, that is, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the turns of the solenoid coil, and found that the mini-generator gave the highest output in a hydrogen peroxide solution with a concentration of 10 wt % and under a coil with 9000 turns. Through combining the stable superhydrophobicity and catalyst, we realized electricity generation for a long duration, which could last for 26 000 s after adding H2O2 only once. We believe this work provides a simple process for the development of horizontal motion and provides a new path for energy reutilization.

  6. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P recruitment behaviour were organised into localised MU task groups. MUs with different task specificity in seven examined tasks were observed. The RMS EMG values obtained from the different recording sites were also significantly (P recruitment was significantly (P recruited MUs and the RMS EMG values decreased significantly (P recruitment behaviour in discrete subvolumes of the masseter in response to small changes in vertical jaw relations. These fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of the Cingulata Jaw: An Ecomorphological Approach to Armadillo's Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Serrano-Fochs

    Full Text Available Finite element analyses (FEA were applied to assess the lower jaw biomechanics of cingulate xenarthrans: 14 species of armadillos as well as one Pleistocene pampathere (11 extant taxa and the extinct forms Vassallia, Eutatus and Macroeuphractus. The principal goal of this work is to comparatively assess the biomechanical capabilities of the mandible based on FEA and to relate the obtained stress patterns with diet preferences and variability, in extant and extinct species through an ecomorphology approach. The results of FEA showed that omnivorous species have stronger mandibles than insectivorous species. Moreover, this latter group of species showed high variability, including some similar biomechanical features of the insectivorous Tolypeutes matacus and Chlamyphorus truncatus to those of omnivorous species, in agreement with reported diets that include items other than insects. It remains unclear the reasons behind the stronger than expected lower jaw of Dasypus kappleri. On the other hand, the very strong mandible of the fossil taxon Vassallia maxima agrees well with the proposed herbivorous diet. Moreover, Eutatus seguini yielded a stress pattern similar to Vassalia in the posterior part of the lower jaw, but resembling that of the stoutly built Macroeuphractus outesi in the anterior part. The results highlight the need for more detailed studies on the natural history of extant armadillos. FEA proved a powerful tool for biomechanical studies in a comparative framework.

  8. Processing system of jaws tomograms for pathology identification and surgical guide modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putrik, M. B., E-mail: pmb-88@mail.ru; Ivanov, V. Yu. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Lavrentyeva, Yu. E. [Private dental clinic «Uraldent», Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The aim of the study is to create an image processing system, which allows dentists to find pathological resorption and to build surgical guide surface automatically. X-rays images of jaws from cone beam tomography or spiral computed tomography are the initial data for processing. One patient’s examination always includes up to 600 images (or tomograms), that’s why the development of processing system for fast automation search of pathologies is necessary. X-rays images can be useful not for only illness diagnostic but for treatment planning too. We have studied the case of dental implantation – for successful surgical manipulations surgical guides are used. We have created a processing system that automatically builds jaw and teeth boundaries on the x-ray image. After this step, obtained teeth boundaries used for surgical guide surface modeling and jaw boundaries limit the area for further pathologies search. Criterion for the presence of pathological resorption zones inside the limited area is based on statistical investigation. After described actions, it is possible to manufacture surgical guide using 3D printer and apply it in surgical operation.

  9. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Rahmani, Somayeh; Jafari, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as "jaw disease," "jaw lesions," "radiolucent rim," "radiolucent border," and "radiolucent halo." More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs. PMID:26730374

  10. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws: clinical and radiological evaluation of 22 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Yu; Zhao, Yi-Fang [School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wuhan University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zwahlen, Roger A. [University of Hong Kong, Discipline of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry (China); Zheng, Yun-Fei [School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wang, Shi-Ping [Wuhan University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics of central giant cell granulomas (CGCGs) of the jaws. A retrospective analysis of a 20-year database was performed regarding both clinical and radiological features of 22 patients affected with CGCGs of the jaws. Fourteen women and 8 men were included with the age range of 7-81 years (mean 31.7 years). Among the 22 lesions, 16 were located in the mandible and 6 in the maxilla. Painless swelling was the most common clinical feature in 18 of all cases. Limited mouth opening was noted in 2 patients where the lesions involved the condyle. Radiographically, 13 lesions were homogeneously osteolytic and 9 lesions were trabeculated. Fifteen lesions were unilocular and 14 lesions presented with well-defined but not sclerotic margins. CT images in 5 patients clearly showed the trabeculation within the lesions. The follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 11 years with a mean period of 5 years. Three out of 9 aggressive and 1 out of 13 nonaggressive lesions developed recurrence. Diagnosis of CGCGs of the jaws depends on both correct interpretation of clinical, radiographic and pathological data. Differentiation between aggressive and nonaggressive CGCGs should be considered to improve individual treatment planning. (orig.)

  11. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam; Rarahmani, Somayeh; Jafati, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as 'jaw disease,' 'jaw lesions,' 'radiolucent rim,' 'radiolucent border,' and 'radiolucent halo.' More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs

  12. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws: clinical and radiological evaluation of 22 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Yu; Zhao, Yi-Fang; Zwahlen, Roger A.; Zheng, Yun-Fei; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics of central giant cell granulomas (CGCGs) of the jaws. A retrospective analysis of a 20-year database was performed regarding both clinical and radiological features of 22 patients affected with CGCGs of the jaws. Fourteen women and 8 men were included with the age range of 7-81 years (mean 31.7 years). Among the 22 lesions, 16 were located in the mandible and 6 in the maxilla. Painless swelling was the most common clinical feature in 18 of all cases. Limited mouth opening was noted in 2 patients where the lesions involved the condyle. Radiographically, 13 lesions were homogeneously osteolytic and 9 lesions were trabeculated. Fifteen lesions were unilocular and 14 lesions presented with well-defined but not sclerotic margins. CT images in 5 patients clearly showed the trabeculation within the lesions. The follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 11 years with a mean period of 5 years. Three out of 9 aggressive and 1 out of 13 nonaggressive lesions developed recurrence. Diagnosis of CGCGs of the jaws depends on both correct interpretation of clinical, radiographic and pathological data. Differentiation between aggressive and nonaggressive CGCGs should be considered to improve individual treatment planning. (orig.)

  13. The relevance of clinical and radiographic features of jaw lesions: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Piragine ARAUJO

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out in a Brazilian population and the aim was to describe the prevalence and the clinic-radiographical features of jaw lesions. In addition, a comparison between the main diagnosis hypothesis and final diagnosis was accessed. A prospective study which evaluated all patients with jaw lesions diagnosed in an Oral Diagnosis Center, between August 2013 and October 2014. A total of 450 patients were observed for the first time, and 130 had some type of jaw lesion. The mean age of the patients was 35.2 years ± 17.86. Among these, 71 were women (54.62% and 87 were Caucasian (66.92%. The mandible was affected more frequently (71.43% than the maxilla (28.57%. Swelling and pain were the most frequent clinical signs and symptoms and were observed in 60 (42.85% and 38 (27.14% cases, respectively. The panoramic x-ray was the main radiographic exam utilized (88.57%. Radiolucent lesions accounted for 89 cases (63.57% and the unilocular form was present in 114 cases (81.43%. A total of 93 cases had histopathological analyses and the periapical cyst was the most frequent lesion. In the other 47 lesions, the diagnosis was conducted by clinical and radiographic management. Bone lesions were frequent, being noted on first visit in approximately 30% of patients; in 1/3 of the cases, the diagnoses were completed with a combination of clinical and radiographic exams.

  14. Variation in the shape and mechanical performance of the lower jaws in ceratopsid dinosaurs (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Leonardo; Farke, Andrew A; Kotsakis, Tassos; Teresi, Luciano; Piras, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Ceratopsidae represents a group of quadrupedal herbivorous dinosaurs that inhabited western North America and eastern Asia during the Late Cretaceous. Although horns and frills of the cranium are highly variable across species, the lower jaw historically has been considered to be relatively conservative in morphology. Here, the lower jaws from 58 specimens representing 21 ceratopsoid taxa were sampled, using geometric morphometrics and 2D finite element analysis (FEA) to explore differences in morphology and mechanical performance across Ceratopsoidea (the clade including Ceratopsidae, Turanoceratops and Zuniceratops). Principal component analyses and non-parametric permuted manovas highlight Triceratopsini as a morphologically distinct clade within the sample. A relatively robust and elongate dentary, a larger and more elongated coronoid process, and a small and dorso-ventrally compressed angular characterize this clade, as well as the absolutely larger size. By contrast, non-triceratopsin chasmosaurines, Centrosaurini and Pachyrhinosaurini have similar morphologies to each other. Zuniceratops and Avaceratops are distinct from other taxa. No differences in size between Pachyrhinosaurini and Centrosaurini are recovered using non-parametric permuted anovas. Structural performance, as evaluated using a 2D FEA, is similar across all groups as measured by overall stress, with the exception of Triceratopsini. Shape, size and stress are phylogenetically constrained. A longer dentary as well as a long coronoid process result in a lower jaw that is reconstructed as relatively much more stressed in triceratopsins. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  15. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam; Rarahmani, Somayeh; Jafati, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin [Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as 'jaw disease,' 'jaw lesions,' 'radiolucent rim,' 'radiolucent border,' and 'radiolucent halo.' More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs.

  16. Processing system of jaws tomograms for pathology identification and surgical guide modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putrik, M. B.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Lavrentyeva, Yu. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to create an image processing system, which allows dentists to find pathological resorption and to build surgical guide surface automatically. X-rays images of jaws from cone beam tomography or spiral computed tomography are the initial data for processing. One patient’s examination always includes up to 600 images (or tomograms), that’s why the development of processing system for fast automation search of pathologies is necessary. X-rays images can be useful not for only illness diagnostic but for treatment planning too. We have studied the case of dental implantation – for successful surgical manipulations surgical guides are used. We have created a processing system that automatically builds jaw and teeth boundaries on the x-ray image. After this step, obtained teeth boundaries used for surgical guide surface modeling and jaw boundaries limit the area for further pathologies search. Criterion for the presence of pathological resorption zones inside the limited area is based on statistical investigation. After described actions, it is possible to manufacture surgical guide using 3D printer and apply it in surgical operation

  17. A new pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Ibrahim

    Full Text Available The Kem Kem beds in South Eastern Morocco contain a rich early Upper (or possibly late Lower Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage. Fragmentary remains, predominantly teeth and jaw tips, represent several kinds of pterosaur although only one species, the ornithocheirid Coloborhynchus moroccensis, has been named. Here, we describe a new azhdarchid pterosaur, Alanqa saharica nov. gen. nov. sp., based on an almost complete well preserved mandibular symphysis from Aferdou N'Chaft. We assign additional fragmentary jaw remains, some of which have been tentatively identified as azhdarchid and pteranodontid, to this new taxon which is distinguished from other azhdarchids by a remarkably straight, elongate, lance-shaped mandibular symphysis that bears a pronounced dorsal eminence near the posterior end of its dorsal (occlusal surface. Most remains, including the holotype, represent individuals of approximately three to four meters in wingspan, but a fragment of a large cervical vertebra, that probably also belongs to A. saharica, suggests that wingspans of six meters were achieved in this species. The Kem Kem beds have yielded the most diverse pterosaur assemblage yet reported from Africa and provide the first clear evidence for the presence of azhdarchids in Gondwana at the start of the Late Cretaceous. This, the relatively large size achieved by Alanqa, and the additional evidence of variable jaw morphology in azhdarchids provided by this taxon, indicates a longer and more complex history for this clade than previously suspected.

  18. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  19. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  20. Jaw-motor effects of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress in patients with deep bite and matched control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    clenching, during evoked pain and stress between deep bite patients and controls was investigated. DESIGN: In 30 deep bite patients and in 30 sex-/age-matched controls with neutral occlusion EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter and anterior temporalis muscles before and during evoked pain......OBJECTIVE: The effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress on masticatory muscle activity in TMD-patients has been discussed. Furthermore, associations between TMD and deep bite patients have been studied. Accordingly in the present study, comparison of EMG responses at rest, maximal...... and before and during a stress task. Evoked pain was induced by injections of glutamate into the masseter (local pain) and brachioradialis (remote pain) muscles and resting EMG activity was recorded before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10min. A precision task was used to simulate a stressful condition and EMG...

  1. The Pseudopod System for Axon-Glia Interactions: Stimulation and Isolation of Schwann Cell Protrusions that Form in Response to Axonal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitelon, Yannick; Feltri, M Laura

    2018-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system, axons dictate the differentiation state of Schwann cells. Most of this axonal influence on Schwann cells is due to juxtacrine interactions between axonal transmembrane molecules (e.g., the neuregulin growth factor) and receptors on the Schwann cell (e.g., the ErbB2/ErbB3 receptor). The fleeting nature of this interaction together with the lack of synchronicity in the development of the Schwann cell population limits our capability to study this phenomenon in vivo. Here we present a simple Boyden Chamber-based method to study this important cell-cell interaction event. We isolate the early protrusions of Schwann cells that are generated in response to juxtacrine stimulation by sensory neuronal membranes. This method is compatible with a large array of current biochemical analyses and provides an effective approach to study biomolecules that are differentially localized in Schwann cell protrusions and cell bodies in response to axonal signals. A similar approach can be extended to different kinds of cell-cell interactions.

  2. Cone-beam computed tomography-based diagnosis and treatment simulation for a patient with a protrusive profile and a gummy smile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Toshihiro; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    For patients with bimaxillary protrusion, significant retraction and intrusion of the anterior teeth are sometimes essential to improve the facial profile. However, severe root resorption of the maxillary incisors occasionally occurs after treatment because of various factors. For instance, it has been reported that approximation or invasion of the incisive canal by the anterior tooth roots during retraction may cause apical root damage. Thus, determination of the position of the maxillary incisors is key for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning in such cases. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) may be useful for simulating the post-treatment position of the maxillary incisors and surrounding structures in order to ensure safe teeth movement. Here, we present a case of Class II malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion, wherein apical root damage due to treatment was minimized by pretreatment evaluation of the anatomical structures and simulation of the maxillary central incisor movement using CBCT. Considerable retraction and intrusion of the maxillary incisors, which resulted in a significant improvement in the facial profile and smile, were achieved without severe root resorption. Our findings suggest that CBCT-based diagnosis and treatment simulation may facilitate safe and dynamic orthodontic tooth movement, particularly in patients requiring maximum anterior tooth retraction. PMID:29732305

  3. Vocal anatomy, tongue protrusion behaviour and the acoustics of rutting roars in free-ranging Iberian red deer stags (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Roland; Volodin, Ilya; Volodina, Elena; Carranza, Juan; Torres-Porras, Jerónimo

    2012-03-01

    Roaring in rutting Iberian red deer stags Cervus elaphus hispanicus is unusual compared to other subspecies of red deer, which radiated from the Iberian refugium after the last glacial maximum. In all red deer stags, the larynx occupies a permanent low mid-neck resting position and is momentarily retracted almost down to the rostral end of the sternum during the production of rutting calls. Simultaneous with the retraction of the larynx, male Iberian red deer pronouncedly protrude the tongue during most of their rutting roars. This poses a mechanical challenge for the vocal tract (vt) and for the hyoid apparatus, as tongue and larynx are strongly pulled in opposite directions. This study (i) examines the vocal anatomy and the acoustics of the rutting roars in free-ranging male C. e. hispanicus; (ii) establishes a potential mechanism of simultaneous tongue protrusion and larynx retraction by applying a two-dimensional model based on graphic reconstructions in single video frames of unrestrained animals; and (iii) advances a hypothesis of evaporative cooling by tongue protrusion in the males of a subspecies of red deer constrained to perform all of the exhausting rutting activities, including acoustic display, in a hot and arid season. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  4. A fixed-jaw method to protect critical organs during intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiayun; Chen, Xinyuan; Huang, Manni; Dai, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plays an important role in cancer radiotherapy. For some patients being treated with IMRT, the extremely low tolerances of critical organs (such as lens, ovaries, and testicles) cannot be met during treatment planning. The aim of this article is to introduce a new planning method to overcome that problem. In current planning practice, jaw positions are automatically set to cover all target volumes by the planning system (e.g., Pinnacle 3 system). Because of such settings, critical organs may be fully blocked by the multileaf collimator (MLC), but they still sit in the field that is shaped by collimator jaws. These critical organs receive doses from the transmission and leakage of MLC leaves. We manually fixed jaw positions to block them to further reduce such doses. This method has been used for different treatment sites in our clinic, and it was thoroughly evaluated in patients with radical hysterectomy plus ovarian transposition after surgery. For each patient, 2 treatment plans were designed with the same optimization parameters: the original plan with automatically chosen jaw positions (called O-plan) and the plan with fixed-jaw positions (named F-plan). In the F-plan, the jaws were manually fixed to block the ovaries. For target coverage, the mean conformity index (CI) of the F-plan (1.28 ± 0.02) was remarkably lower than that of the O-plan (1.53 ± 0.09) (p < 0.05). The F-plan and the O-plan performed similarly in target dose homogeneity. Meanwhile, for the critical organ sparing, the mean dose of both ovaries were much lower in the F-plan than that in the O-plan (p < 0.05). The V 20 , V 30 , and V 40 of bladder were also lower in the F-plan (93.57 ± 1.98, 73.99 ± 5.76, and 42.33 ± 3.7, respectively) than those in the O-plan (97.98 ± 1.11, 85.07 ± 4.04, and 49.71 ± 3.63, respectively) (p < 0.05). The maximum dose to the spinal cord planning organ at risk (OAR) volume (PRV) in the O-plan (3940.24 ± 102.8) was

  5. Fetal jaw movement affects Ihh signaling in mandibular condylar cartilage development: the possible role of Ihh as mechanotransduction mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Esrat; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Rafiq, Ashiq Mahmood; Hashimoto, Ryuju; Inoue, Takayuki; Udagawa, Jun; Sekine, Joji; Otani, Hiroki

    2014-10-01

    Jaw movement is an important mechanical factor for prenatal development of the condylar cartilage of mandible. Fetal jaw movement restriction has been shown to cause deformity of the mandibular condyle. We hypothesized that this treatment affects the expression of mechanosensitive molecules, namely Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) in the condyle. We restrained jaw movement by suturing the jaw of E15.5 mouse embryos and allowed them to develop until E18.5 using exo utero system, and analyzed them by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods. Morphological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical study showed that the mandibular condylar cartilage was reduced and deformed, the volume and total cell numbers in the condylar cartilage were also reduced, and number and/or distribution of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells, Ihh-positive cells in the mesenchymal and pre-hypertrophic zones were significantly and correspondingly decreased in the sutured group. Using in situ hybridization, reduced expression of Ihh, PTHrP and their related receptors were observed in condylar cartilage of the sutured embryos. Our results revealed that the altered mechanical stress induced by prenatal jaw movement restriction decreased proliferating cells, the amount of cartilage, and altered expression of the Ihh and PTHrP, suggesting that Ihh act as mechanotransduction mediators in the development of mandibular condylar cartilage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the increased calcification of the jaw bone with CT-Scan after dental implant placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, Barunawaty

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the changes of jaw bone density around the dental implant after placement using computed tomography scan (CT-Scan). This retrospective study consisted of 30 patients who had lost 1 posterior tooth in maxilla or mandible and installed dental implant. The patients took CT-Scan before and after implant placement. Hounsfield Unit (HU) was measured around the implants and evaluated the difference of HU before and after implant installation. The mean HU of jaw bone was 542.436 HU and 764.9 HU before and after implant placement, respectively (p<0.05). The means HUs for male were 632.3 HU and 932.2 HU and those for female 478.2 HU and 645.5 HU before and after implant placement, respectively (p<0.05). Also, the jaw bone with lower density needed longer period for implant procedure and the increased change of HU of jaw bone was less in the cases which needed longer period for osseointegration. CT-Scan could be used to assess the change of bone density around dental implants. Bone density around dental implant was increased after placement. The increased rate of bone density could be determined by the quality of jaw bone before implant placement.

  7. Assessment of the increased calcification of the jaw bone with CT-Scan after dental implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Barunawaty

    2011-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the changes of jaw bone density around the dental implant after placement using computed tomography scan (CT-Scan). This retrospective study consisted of 30 patients who had lost 1 posterior tooth in maxilla or mandible and installed dental implant. The patients took CT-Scan before and after implant placement. Hounsfield Unit (HU) was measured around the implants and evaluated the difference of HU before and after implant installation. The mean HU of jaw bone was 542.436 HU and 764.9 HU before and after implant placement, respectively (p<0.05). The means HUs for male were 632.3 HU and 932.2 HU and those for female 478.2 HU and 645.5 HU before and after implant placement, respectively (p<0.05). Also, the jaw bone with lower density needed longer period for implant procedure and the increased change of HU of jaw bone was less in the cases which needed longer period for osseointegration. CT-Scan could be used to assess the change of bone density around dental implants. Bone density around dental implant was increased after placement. The increased rate of bone density could be determined by the quality of jaw bone before implant placement.

  8. Assessment of the increased calcification of the jaw bone with CT-Scan after dental implant placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Barunawaty [Faculty of Dentistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the changes of jaw bone density around the dental implant after placement using computed tomography scan (CT-Scan). This retrospective study consisted of 30 patients who had lost 1 posterior tooth in maxilla or mandible and installed dental implant. The patients took CT-Scan before and after implant placement. Hounsfield Unit (HU) was measured around the implants and evaluated the difference of HU before and after implant installation. The mean HU of jaw bone was 542.436 HU and 764.9 HU before and after implant placement, respectively (p<0.05). The means HUs for male were 632.3 HU and 932.2 HU and those for female 478.2 HU and 645.5 HU before and after implant placement, respectively (p<0.05). Also, the jaw bone with lower density needed longer period for implant procedure and the increased change of HU of jaw bone was less in the cases which needed longer period for osseointegration. CT-Scan could be used to assess the change of bone density around dental implants. Bone density around dental implant was increased after placement. The increased rate of bone density could be determined by the quality of jaw bone before implant placement.

  9. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  10. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  11. Functional anatomy and kinematics of the oral jaw system during terrestrial feeding in Periophthalmus barbarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Krijn B; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter; Dierick, Manuel; Wassenbergh, Sam Van

    2014-10-01

    The Atlantic mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus, is an amphibious fish that successfully overcomes the numerous physical challenges of capturing prey in a terrestrial environment. However, it is unclear what changes in the morphology and function of the feeding apparatus contribute to the mudskipper's successful transition from aquatic to terrestrial capture of prey. In particular, how does the mudskipper achieve effective prehension of land-based prey using its percomorph feeding apparatus? To address that question, we performed a morphological analysis of the feeding apparatus of P. barbarus based on microcomputed tomography scanning, histological sectioning, and dissections as well as a kinematic analysis based on high-speed video and X-ray video to quantify the movements of the oral jaw apparatus elements. Our results show that the neurocranium remains in a fixed position relative to the pectoral girdle as the fish pivots over its pectoral fins toward the prey. The premaxilla rotates dorsally and protrudes downward over the prey. The dentary is rotated ventrally over an angle of 120°, which is facilitated by an intramandibular joint. These motions of the neurocranium, premaxilla, and dentary reorient the mouth aperture so it is parallel to the substrate, thereby allowing the jaws to be placed over the prey. The prey is grabbed between the oral teeth or scooped into the mouth primarily via rapid closing motion of the lower jaw. This analysis of P. barbarus clarifies the morphological and kinematic characteristics required by fish to become successful terrestrial feeders at the environmental transition between water and land. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ontogeny of the Alligator Cartilago Transiliens and Its Significance for Sauropsid Jaw Muscle Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Henry P.; Holliday, Casey M.

    2011-01-01

    The cartilago transiliens is a fibrocartilaginous structure within the jaw muscles of crocodylians. The cartilago transiliens slides between the pterygoid buttress and coronoid region of the lower jaw and connects two muscles historically identified as m. pseudotemporalis superficialis and m. intramandibularis. However, the position of cartilago transiliens, and its anatomical similarities to tendon organs suggest the structure may be a sesamoid linking a single muscle. Incompressible sesamoids often form inside tendons that wrap around bone. However, such structures rarely ossify in reptiles and have thus far received scant attention. We tested the hypothesis that the cartilago transiliens is a sesamoid developed within in one muscle by investigating its structure in an ontogenetic series of Alligator mississippiensis using dissection, 3D imaging, and polarizing and standard light microscopy. In all animals studied, the cartilago transiliens receives collagen fibers and tendon insertions from its two main muscular attachments. However, whereas collagen fibers were continuous within the cartilaginous nodule of younger animals, such continuity decreased in older animals, where the fibrocartilaginous core grew to displace the fibrous region. Whereas several neighboring muscles attached to the fibrous capsule in older individuals, only two muscles had significant contributions to the structure in young animals. Our results indicate that the cartilago transiliens is likely a sesamoid formed within a single muscle (i.e., m. pseudotemporalis superficialis) as it wraps around the pterygoid buttress. This tendon organ is ubiquitous among fossil crocodyliforms indicating it is a relatively ancient, conserved structure associated with the development of the large pterygoid flanges in this clade. Finally, these findings indicate that similar tendon organs exist among potentially homologous muscle groups in birds and turtles, thus impacting inferences of jaw muscle homology

  13. Osteomalacia: the missing link in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Alberto; Saia, Giorgia; Bettini, Giordana; Tronchet, Anita; Totola, Andrea; Bedogni, Giorgio; Tregnago, Paolo; Valenti, Maria Teresa; Bertoldo, Francesco; Ferronato, Giuseppe; Nocini, Pier Francesco; Blandamura, Stella; Dalle Carbonare, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a well-documented adverse event from treatment with nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs). During a preliminary histomorphometric study aimed at assessing the rate of bone remodeling in the jaws of patients with surgically resected BRONJ, we found a defect of bone mineralization (unpublished data). We hypothesized that osteomalacia could be a risk factor for BRONJ in patients taking NBPs. Therefore, we looked for static and dynamic histomorphometric evidence of osteomalacia in biopsies from subjects with and without BRONJ. This case-control study used histomorphometric analysis of bone specimens of patients using NBPs (22 patients with BRONJ and 21 patients without BRONJ) who required oral surgical interventions for the treatment/prevention of osteonecrosis. Patients were given tetracycline hydrochloride according to a standardized protocol before taking bone biopsies from their jaws. Biopsies with evidence of osteomyelitis or necrosis at histology were excluded from the study. Osteomalacia was defined as a mineralization lag time >100 days, a corrected mean osteoid thickness >12.5 mm, and an osteoid volume >10%. In all, 77% of patients with BRONJ were osteomalacic compared with 5% of patients without BRONJ, according to histomorphometry. Because osteomalacia was found almost exclusively in NBP users with BRONJ, this is likely to be a generalized process in which the use of NBPs further deteriorates mechanisms of bone repair. Osteomalacia represents a new and previously unreported risk factor for disease development. This finding may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease and help with the development of strategies to increase the safety of NBP administration.

  14. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dosimetric characteristics of a 6 MV photon beam from a linear accelerator with asymmetric collimator jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.; Ayyangar, K.M.; Suntharalingam, N.

    1988-01-01

    Dosimetric measurements have been made of a 6 MV photon beam from a linear accelerator equipped with asymmetric jaws. The field size factors for asymmetrically set fields are compared to those for symmetrically set fields. The change of beam quality has been measured as a function of off-axis position of the asymmetric fields to assess its effect on depth dose. Additional measurements include beam penumbra and shape of isodose curves for open and wedge fields as the field opening is moved asymmetrically from the central ray

  16. The jaw is a second-class lever in Pedetes capensis (Rodentia: Pedetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Cox

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian jaw is often modelled as a third-class lever for the purposes of biomechanical analyses, owing to the position of the resultant muscle force between the jaw joint and the teeth. However, it has been proposed that in some rodents the jaws operate as a second-class lever during distal molar bites, owing to the rostral position of the masticatory musculature. In particular, the infraorbital portion of the zygomatico-mandibularis (IOZM has been suggested to be of major importance in converting the masticatory system from a third-class to a second-class lever. The presence of the IOZM is diagnostic of the hystricomorph rodents, and is particularly well-developed in Pedetes capensis, the South African springhare. In this study, finite element analysis (FEA was used to assess the lever mechanics of the springhare masticatory system, and to determine the function of the IOZM. An FE model of the skull of P. capensis was constructed and loaded with all masticatory muscles, and then solved for biting at each tooth in turn. Further load cases were created in which each masticatory muscle was removed in turn. The analyses showed that the mechanical advantage of the springhare jaws was above one at all molar bites and very close to one during the premolar bite. Removing the IOZM or masseter caused a drop in mechanical advantage at all bites, but affected strain patterns and cranial deformation very little. Removing the ZM had only a small effect on mechanical advantage, but produced a substantial reduction in strain and deformation across the skull. It was concluded that the masticatory system of P. capensis acts as a second class lever during bites along almost the entire cheek tooth row. The IOZM is clearly a major contributor to this effect, but the masseter also has a part to play. The benefit of the IOZM is that it adds force without substantially contributing to strain or deformation of the skull. This may help explain why the

  17. Development of Flight Slit-Jaw Optics for Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masahito; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Hara, Hirohisa; Narukage, Noriyuki; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; hide

    2015-01-01

    In sounding rocket experiment CLASP, I have placed a slit a mirror-finished around the focal point of the telescope. The light reflected by the mirror surface surrounding the slit is then imaged in Slit-jaw optical system, to obtain the alpha-ray Lyman secondary image. This image, not only to use the real-time image in rocket flight rocket oriented direction selection, and also used as a scientific data showing the spatial structure of the Lyman alpha emission line intensity distribution and solar chromosphere around the observation area of the polarimetric spectroscope. Slit-jaw optical system is a two off-axis mirror unit part including a parabolic mirror and folding mirror, Lyman alpha transmission filter, the optical system magnification 1x consisting camera. The camera is supplied from the United States, and the other was carried out fabrication and testing in all the Japanese side. Slit-jaw optical system, it is difficult to access the structure, it is necessary to install the low place clearance. Therefore, influence the optical performance, the fine adjustment is necessary optical elements are collectively in the form of the mirror unit. On the other hand, due to the alignment of the solar sensor in the US launch site, must be removed once the Lyman alpha transmission filter holder including a filter has a different part from the mirror unit. In order to make the structure simple, stray light measures Aru to concentrate around Lyman alpha transmission filter. To overcome the difficulties of performing optical alignment in Lyman alpha wavelength absorbed by the atmosphere, it was planned following four steps in order to reduce standing time alignment me. 1: is measured in advance refractive index at Lyman alpha wavelength of Lyman alpha transmission filter (121.567nm), to prepare a visible light Firuwo having the same optical path length in the visible light (630nm). 2: The mirror structure CLASP before mounting unit standing, dummy slit and camera standing

  18. SU-F-E-20: A Mathematical Model of Linac Jaw Calibration Integrated with Collimator Walkout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y; Corns, R; Huang, V [Fraser Valley Cancer Centre - BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate jaw calibration is possible, but it does not necessarily achieve good junctions because of collimator rotation walkout. We developed a mathematical model seeking to pick an origin for calibration that minimizes the collimator walkout effect. Methods: We use radioopaque markers aligned with crosshair on the EPID to determine the collimator walkout at collimator angles 0°, 90° and 270°. We can accurately calibrate jaws to any arbitrary origin near the radiation field centre. While the absolute position of an origin moves with the collimator walkout, its relative location to the crosshair is an invariant. We studied two approaches to select an optimal origin. One approach seeks to bring all three origin locations (0°–90°–270°) as close as possible by minimizing the perimeter of the triangle formed by these points. The other approach focuses on the gap for 0°–90° junctions. Results: Our perimeter cost function has two variables and non-linear behaviour. Generally, it does not have zero-perimeter-length solution which leads to perfect jaw matches. The zero solution can only be achieved, if the collimator rotates about a single fixed axis. In the second approach, we can always get perfect 0°–0° and 0°–90° junctions, because we ignore the 0°–270° situation. For our TrueBeams, both techniques for selecting an origin improved junction dose inhomogeneities to less than ±6%. Conclusion: Our model considers the general jaw matching with collimator rotations and proposes two potential solutions. One solution optimizes the junction gaps by considering all three collimator angles while the other only considers 0°–90°. The first solution will not give perfect matching, but can be clinically acceptable with minimized collimator walkout effect, while the second can have perfect junctions at the expense of the 0°–270° junctions. Different clinics might choose between these two methods basing on their clinical practices.

  19. Study on the hard tissue changes in osteomyelitis of the jaws using CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2009-01-01

    To assess the clinical findings and hard tissue changes of osteomyelitis of the jaws using computed tomographic (CT) image analysis. We reviewed and interpreted the CT images of 163 patients (64 males and 99 females, age range from 10 to 87 years) who visited the Seoul National University Dental Hospital from April 23, 2006 to December 31, 2008 and were diagnosed as osteomyelitis of the jaws through clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic examination. Each CT findings was investigated for frequency, correlation with age and gender. Of the 163 patients, 31 (19.0%) were affected on the maxilla, 135 (82.8%) were affected on the mandible, and 3 (1.8%) were affected on the both jaws simultaneously. The mean age of the patients who were affected on the maxilla was 61.0 years and that of the patients who were affected on the mandible was 56.2 years. On the maxilla, the most frequent site of disease was the posterior area (83.9%) and on the mandible, mandibular body (83.0%), followed by angle (48.1%), ramus (38.5%), condyle (13.3%), incisal area (9.6%), and coronoid process (3.0%). Among the 31 maxillary osteomyelitis, defect in the trabecular bone was observed in 28 (90.3%), osteosclerosis 20 (64.5%), defect in the cortical bone 27 (87.1%), sequestrum 17 (54.8%), and periosteal reaction 2 (6.5%). Among the 135 mandibular osteomyelitis, defect in the trabecular bone was observed in 100 (74.1%), osteosclerosis 104 (77.0%), defect in the cortical bone 116 (85.9%), sequestrum 36 (26.7%), and periosteal reaction 67 (49.6%). Of our cases, the maxillary osteomyelitis was visibly observed more frequently in females than males. The incidence is the highest in seventies (28.8%) and the lowest in teens (3.1%). The osteomyelitis of the jaws was observed more frequently in males than females before the age of 50, and observed more frequently in females after the age of 50. The most noticeable point was that the sequestrum was observed more often on maxillary osteomyelitis and the

  20. SU-F-E-20: A Mathematical Model of Linac Jaw Calibration Integrated with Collimator Walkout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y; Corns, R; Huang, V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate jaw calibration is possible, but it does not necessarily achieve good junctions because of collimator rotation walkout. We developed a mathematical model seeking to pick an origin for calibration that minimizes the collimator walkout effect. Methods: We use radioopaque markers aligned with crosshair on the EPID to determine the collimator walkout at collimator angles 0°, 90° and 270°. We can accurately calibrate jaws to any arbitrary origin near the radiation field centre. While the absolute position of an origin moves with the collimator walkout, its relative location to the crosshair is an invariant. We studied two approaches to select an optimal origin. One approach seeks to bring all three origin locations (0°–90°–270°) as close as possible by minimizing the perimeter of the triangle formed by these points. The other approach focuses on the gap for 0°–90° junctions. Results: Our perimeter cost function has two variables and non-linear behaviour. Generally, it does not have zero-perimeter-length solution which leads to perfect jaw matches. The zero solution can only be achieved, if the collimator rotates about a single fixed axis. In the second approach, we can always get perfect 0°–0° and 0°–90° junctions, because we ignore the 0°–270° situation. For our TrueBeams, both techniques for selecting an origin improved junction dose inhomogeneities to less than ±6%. Conclusion: Our model considers the general jaw matching with collimator rotations and proposes two potential solutions. One solution optimizes the junction gaps by considering all three collimator angles while the other only considers 0°–90°. The first solution will not give perfect matching, but can be clinically acceptable with minimized collimator walkout effect, while the second can have perfect junctions at the expense of the 0°–270° junctions. Different clinics might choose between these two methods basing on their clinical practices.

  1. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  2. Contrast-enhanced multidetector computerized tomography for odontogenic cysts and cystic-appearing tumors of the jaws: is it useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Naoya; Chindasombatjaroen, Jira; Tomita, Seiki; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Uchiyama, Yuka; Hasegawa, Yoko; Kishino, Mitsunobu; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT), particularly contrast-enhanced CT, in differentiation of jaw cysts and cystic-appearing tumors. We retrospectively analyzed contrast-enhanced CT images of 90 patients with odontogenic jaw cysts or cystic-appearing tumors. The lesion size and CT values were measured and the short axis to long axis (S/L) ratio, contrast enhancement (CE) ratio, and standard deviation ratio were calculated. The lesion size and the S/L ratio of keratocystic odontogenic tumors were significantly different from those of radicular cysts and follicular cysts. There were no significant differences in the CE ratio among the lesions. Multidetector CT provided diagnostic information about the size of odontogenic cysts and cystic-appearing tumors of the jaws that was related to the lesion type, but showed no relation between CE ratio and the type of these lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Jaw Osteomyelitis as a Complication of Sickle Cell Anaemia in Three Omani Patients; Case reports and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Al-Ismaili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is a common haemoglobinopathy among people from the Middle East, the Afro-Caribbean region, the Mediterranean and East India. While osteomyelitis of the long bones is a welldocumented complication of SCA, there are few documented cases of SCA patients presenting with jaw osteomyelitis. We report three SCA patients with chronic jaw osteomyelitis who presented to the Department of Oral Health, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 2009 and 2013. Two of the patients had osteomyelitis of the mandible and the third had osteomyelitis of the maxilla. In addition, a brief review of the literature is presented focusing on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of jaw osteomyelitis among patients with SCA.

  4. Postural stability and the influence of concurrent muscle activation--Beneficial effects of jaw and fist clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhof, Steffen; Leibold, Timo; Hellmann, Daniel; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies reported on the potential benefits of submaximum clenching of the jaw on human postural control in upright unperturbed stance. However, it remained unclear whether these effects might also be observed among active controls. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to comparatively examine the influence of concurrent muscle activation in terms of submaximum clenching of the jaw and submaximum clenching of the fists on postural stability. Posturographic analyses were conducted with 17 healthy young adults on firm and foam surfaces while either clenching the jaw (JAW) or clenching the fists (FIST), whereas habitual standing served as the control condition (CON). Both submaximum tasks were performed at 25% maximum voluntary contraction, assessed, and visualized in real time by means of electromyography. Statistical analyses revealed that center of pressure (COP) displacements were significantly reduced during JAW and FIST, but with no differences between both concurrent clenching activities. Further, a significant increase in COP displacements was observed for the foam as compared to the firm condition. The results showed that concurrent muscle activation significantly improved postural stability compared with habitual standing, and thus emphasize the beneficial effects of jaw and fist clenching for static postural control. It is suggested that concurrent activities contribute to the facilitation of human motor excitability, finally increasing the neural drive to the distal muscles. Future studies should evaluate whether elderly or patients with compromised postural control might benefit from these physiological responses, e.g., in the form of a reduced risk of falling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Jaw lever analysis of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: a simulation study of morphological diversity and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-08-01

    Differences in feeding behavior and performance among the five native Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes (Sicyopterus stimpsoni, Lentipes concolor, Awaous guamensis, Stenogobius hawaiiensis, and Eleotris sandwicensis) have been proposed based on the skeletal anatomy of their jaws and dietary specialization. However, performance of the feeding apparatus likely depends on the proportions and configurations of the jaw muscles and the arrangement of the jaw skeleton. We used a published mathematical model of muscle function to evaluate potential differences in jaw closing performance and their correlations with morphology among these species. For example, high output force calculated for the adductor mandibulae muscles (A2 and A3) of both A. guamensis and E. sandwicensis matched expectations based on the morphology of these species because these muscles are larger than in the other species. In contrast, Stenogobius hawaiiensis exhibited an alternative morphological strategy for achieving high relative output forces of both A2 and A3, in which the placement and configuration of the muscles conveyed high mechanical advantage despite only moderate cross-sectional areas. These differing anatomical pathways to similar functional performance suggest a pattern of many-to-one mapping of morphology to performance. In addition, a functional differentiation between A2 and A3 was evident for all species, in which A2 was better suited for producing forceful jaw closing and A3 for rapid jaw closing. Thus, the diversity of feeding performance of Hawaiian stream gobies seems to reflect a maintenance of functional breadth through the retention of some primitive traits in combination with novel functional capacities in several species. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Hybrid fixation in the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for lower jaw advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ladeira Pereira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Miniplate and screw fixation has been widely used in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, but some issues remain unclear concerning its lack of rigidity when compared to Spiessl's bicortical technique. This paper demonstrates the hybrid fixation technique in a case report. A 34-year-old female patient underwent a double jaw surgery with counter-clockwise rotation of the mandible fixed using the hybrid fixation technique. The patient evolved well in the postoperative period and is still under follow up after 14 months, reporting satisfaction with the results and no significant deviation from the treatment plan up to now. No damage to tooth roots was done, maxillomandibular range of motion was within normality and regression of the inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia was observed bilaterally. The hybrid mandibular fixation is clearly visible in the panoramic and cephalometric control radiographs. It seems that the hybrid fixation can sum the advantages of both monocortical and bicortical techniques in lower jaw advancement, increasing fixation stability without significant damage to the mandibular articulation and the inferior alveolar nerve. A statistical investigation seems necessary to prove its efficacy.

  7. Kinematics and Mechanics analysis of trap-jaw ant Odontomachus monticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenteng; Yao, Guang; Zhang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Deyuan

    2018-03-01

    Trap-jaw ants of the genus Odontomachus exhibit spectacularly rapid predatory and fugitive strikes. In order to reveal the extraordinary impact resistance of the apical teeth material, we analyzed the kinematics and mechanics of the closing mandibles. Odontomachus monticola is an Odontomachus species and extensive in China. We video-recorded jaw-strikes to measure the closing velocity and acceleration. The experimental results showed that O. monticola’s mandibles closed at a highest velocity of 35.42 m/s and a highest acceleration of 750,000 m/s2 within an average duration of 0.16 ms. In addition, in order to measure the strike force, we developed an extraordinary measuring method with poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) piezoelectric film. First, the dynamic calibration of the PVDF piezoelectric film was conducted, then the calibrated piezoelectric film was struck by O. monticola. Finally, the mandible strike force was calculated according to the calibration result and the output signal. The measurements results demonstrated that the strike force ranges from 102.2 N to 235.2 N, which is impressive contrast with O. monticola’s body weight.

  8. A case of brain abscess caused by radioosteomyelitis of the jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saruwatari, Tomoko; Koga, Makoto; Yoh, Junko; Sakaino, Hidenori; Koga, Chihiro; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare case of a brain abscess secondary to radioosteomyelitis of the jaw. A 61-year-old man who had received irradiation to a tumor of the tonsil in 1991 had been conservatively treated for radioosteomyelitis of the mandible at our hospital at regular intervals. Then he felt narrowing of the visual field with a serious headache and was immediately admitted to our hospital in September 2006. On the next day, convulsive seizures occurred. Brain CT scanning was immediately performed and demonstrated a low density area in the right occipital lobe. The patient was given a diagnosis of brain abscess. A craniotomy followed by aspiration with drainage was performed by a neurosurgeon. After the operation, the narrowing of visual field improved immediately, and both CT and MRI revealed disappearance of the low density area. Hematogenous infection due to radioosteomyelitis of the jaw was strongly suspected to have caused the brain abscess. After discharge from our hospital, no further symptoms have occurred. (author)

  9. Bisphosphonates-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw: pharmacology and clinical procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Belchior Duplat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a consequent condition of a variety of local and systemic factors that compromises the bone blood flow. Bisphosphonates are a class of compounds widely used for the treatment of disorders of bone metabolism, such as bone metastasis and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw is a new complication, published for the first time at 2003, and can be defined as an unexpected necrosis development on the oral cavity in patients who received bisphosphonates and were not being treated with head and neck radiotherapy. Radiographies show radiolucent zones or sclerotic bone and, in some cases, show areas with delayed or absent bone remodeling after extraction, remain the socket cavity. The treatment can be done in accordance with the condition stage, since management of 0,12% chlorhexidine and antibiotics until laser utilization, hyperbaric oxygen, surgical debridement and resection. It is important to promote more communication between physicians and dentists to guarantee dental attention during the bisphosphonate administration, establishing oral health and preventing complications, such as osteonecrosis induced by this medication.

  10. BISPHOSPHONATES-INDUCED OSTEONECROSIS OF THE JAW: PHARMACOLOGY AND CLINICAL PROCEDURES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Belchior Duplat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a consequent condition of a variety of local and systemic factors that compromises the bone blood flow. Bisphosphonates are a class of compounds widely used for the treatment of disorders of bone metabolism, such as bone metastasis and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw is a new complication, published for the first time at 2003, and can be defined as an unexpected necrosis development on the oral cavity in patients who received bisphosphonates and were not being treated with head and neck radiotherapy. Radiographies show radiolucent zones or sclerotic bone and, in some cases, show areas with delayed or absent bone remodeling after extraction, remain the socket cavity. The treatment can be done in accordance with the condition stage, since management of 0,12% chlorhexidine and antibiotics until laser utilization, hyperbaric oxygen, surgical debridement and resection. It is important to promote more communication between physicians and dentists to guarantee dental attention during the bisphosphonate administration, establishing oral health and preventing complications, such as osteonecrosis induced by this medication.

  11. Developmental odontogenic cysts of jaws: a clinical study of 245 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Javad; Kahnamouii, Shiva Solahaye

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative frequency of developmental odontogenic cysts in an Iranian population. In this study 245 cysts from both jaws, treated in the Faculty of Dentistry at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences during a 10-year period from 1998 to 2008, were analyzed in order to evaluate the incidence of such cysts. We had permission from all the patients. Case histories of 65% of male and 35% of female patients were analyzed. The age of the patients varied from 14 to 64 years, with an average of 33.21 ± 10.89. In this 10-year study of odontogenic cysts, 97 cases were developmental odontogenic cysts with the following inci-dence: dentigerous cyst, 44%; odontogenic keratocyst, 36%; primordial cyst, 9%; Gorlin cyst, 2%; lateral periodontal cyst, 3%; eruption cyst, 3%; and gingival cyst, 3% (adults 2%, infants 1%). A total of 60% of the cysts were found in the mandible and 40% in the maxilla. Regarding the mandible, the molar region was involved in 47% of the cases, premolar region in 33% and anterior region in 20% (total = 100%). Regarding the maxilla, the canine-to-canine region was involved in 52% of the cases, premolar region in 20% and molar region in 28% (total = 100%). An important finding in this study was the fact that 39% of the jaw cysts were developmental odontogenic cysts and the most common developmental odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cyst and OKC (odontogenic keratocyst).

  12. Predictable Technique to Register Retruded Contact Position (RCP) Using a Disposable Jaw Relation Recording Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Tony; Lobel, William A; Massad, Joseph; Ahuja, Swati; Danilov, Zarko Jack

    2015-05-01

    The dental literature presents various definitions and techniques to describe and register centric relation (CR) or centric occlusion (CO). Briefly reviewing the literature in relation to CR, this article proposes the use of the term retruded contact position (RCP), clinically defined as retruded, unstrained, repeatable position and where the mandibular movements start when a Gothic arch tracing is used. With this clinical definition, a technique can be easily selected that meets all the requirements of such position. The article discusses the use of a jaw recorder that is an intraorally graphic recording device that results in a tracing of mandibular movements in one plane, with the apex of the tracing indicating the retruded, unstrained, and repeatable relationship. The intersection of the arcs produced by the right and left working movement form the apex of the Gothic arch tracing. Several clinical situations using the jaw recorder are described. Clinicians can now quickly and accurately record RCP, balance complete, partial, or implant dentures, and orthopedically reposition the mandible. The technique achieves highly reliable and reproducible results.

  13. A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, R; Lekholm, U; Rockler, B; Brånemark, P I

    1981-12-01

    Osseointegration implies a firm, direct and lasting connection between vital bone and screw-shaped titanium implants of defined finish and geometry-fixtures. Thus, there is no interposed tissue between fixture and bone. Osseointegration can only be achieved and maintained by a gentle surgical installation technique, a long healing time and a proper stress distribution when in function. During a 15-year period (1965-1980), 2768 fixtures were installed in 410 edentulous jaws of 371 consecutive patients. All patients were provided with facultatively removable bridges and were examined at continuous yearly controls. The surgical and prosthetic technique was developed and evaluated over a pilot period of 5 years. The results of standardized procedures applied on a consecutive clinical material with an observation time of 5-9 years were thought to properly reflect the potential of the method. In this group, 130 jaws were provided with 895 fixtures, and of these 81% of the maxillary and 91% of the mandibular fixtures remained stable, supporting bridges. In 89% of the maxillary and 100% of the mandibular cases, the bridges were continuously stable. During healing and the first year after connection of the bridge, the mean value for marginal bone loss was 1.5 mm. Thereafter only 0.1 mm was lost annually. The clinical results achieved with bridges on osseointegrated fixtures fulfill and exceed the demands set by the 1978 Harvard Conference on successful dental implantation procedures.

  14. Effect of peripherally and cortically evoked swallows on jaw reflex responses in anesthetized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taku; Yoshihara, Midori; Sakai, Shogo; Tsuji, Kojun; Nagoya, Kouta; Magara, Jin; Tsujimura, Takanori; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-05-03

    This study aimed to investigate whether the jaw-opening (JOR) and jaw-closing reflexes (JCR) are modulated during not only peripherally, but also centrally, evoked swallowing. Experiments were carried out on 24 adult male Japanese white rabbits. JORs were evoked by trigeminal stimulation at 1 Hz for 30 sec. In the middle 10 sec, either the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or cortical swallowing area (Cx) was simultaneously stimulated to evoke swallowing. The peak-to-peak JOR amplitude was reduced during the middle and late 10-sec periods (i.e., during and after SLN or Cx stimulation), and the reduction was dependent on the current intensity of SLN/Cx stimulation: greater SLN/Cx stimulus current resulted in greater JOR inhibition. The reduction rate was significantly greater during Cx stimulation than during SLN stimulation. The amplitude returned to baseline 2 min after 10-sec SLN/Cx stimulation. The effect of co-stimulation of SLN and Cx was significantly greater than that of SLN stimulation alone. There were no significant differences in any parameters of the JCR between conditions. These results clearly showed that JOR responses were significantly suppressed, not only during peripherally evoked swallowing but also during centrally evoked swallowing, and that the inhibitory effect is likely to be larger during centrally compared with peripherally evoked swallowing. The functional implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Force and Strength Analysis of the Reel with Jaw of Torsion-bar Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Liu, Weiqi; Wang, Jiawei; Gu, Le

    2017-06-01

    Structure characteristics and working principle of the reel with jaw of torsion-bar spring are introduced. The reel can not only eliminate the leakage risks of hydraulic jaw, but also reduce the investment cost of enterprises and improve the surface quality of the products. The static analysis of mandrel, sector plate and oblique wedge were conducted, and the main data of stress distribution and deformation were obtained, which provide a reliable theoretical basis for the design and optimization of the reel. The research results show that the external support has a great effect on the stress and deformation of the mandrel. With the increase of the weight of steel stress increases, the drum deformation increases, but the analysis of the position of maximum stress, can be obtained to drum stress and deformation is the main reason of excessive bending moment caused by heavy steel rolls. The bending moment and deformation can be reduced significantly at the end of the steel coil, which can effectively improve the service life of the drum.

  16. Study of the neural basis of striatal modulation of the jaw-opening reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Ana C; Fillipini, B; Pazo, Jorge Horacio

    2010-02-01

    Previous experimental data from this laboratory demonstrated the participation of the striatum and dopaminergic pathways in central nociceptive processing. The objective of this study was to examine the possible pathways and neural structures associated with the analgesic action of the striatum. The experiments were carried out in rats anesthetized with urethane. The jaw-opening reflex (JOR) was evoked by electrical stimulation of the tooth pulp of lower incisors and recorded in the anterior belly of the digastric muscles. Intrastriatal microinjection of apomorphine, a nonspecific dopamine agonist, reduced or abolished the JOR amplitude. Electrolytic or kainic acid lesions, unilateral to the apomorphine-injected striatum, of the globus pallidus, substantia nigra pars reticulata, subthalamic nucleus and bilateral lesion the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM), blocked the inhibition of the JOR by striatal stimulation. These findings suggest that the main output nuclei of the striatum and the RVM may be critical elements in the neural pathways mediating the inhibition of the reflex response, evoked in jaw muscles by noxious stimulation of dental pulp.

  17. Multimodality Treatment for Rehabilitation of Adult Orthodontic Patient with Complicated Dental Condition and Jaw Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Liaw

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old man with severe malocclusion requested comprehensive oral rehabilitation. He presented with retrognathic mandible, anterior deep bite and a gummy smile in the premaxilla, and tenting occlusal plane with severe buccal crossbite of the left maxillary posterior teeth. Inappropriate fixed prostheses spanned the maxilla and the mandible with a class II jaw relationship. A detailed analysis indicated the need for orthodontic treatment, orthognathic surgery, bone graft at the deficient alveolar ridge for implant surgery and a revision of all prostheses. Over a 2-year-period of management, the patient received anterior osteotomy for intrusion of lower anterior teeth, bilateral sagittal splitting osteotomy for mandible advancement and posterior osteotomy for inward upward repositioning of posterior teeth of the left maxilla to correct major jaw deformities. The deficient alveolar ridge in the premaxilla was augmented by autogenous bone graft harvested during the orthognathic surgery. He sequentially had mini-plate and dental implant as anchorage assisting teeth alignment in the mandible. Two 3-fixture-supported implant prostheses were delivered in the premaxilla and the mandible. The improvement in cosmesis, stability and function through treatment and a 2-year clinical follow-up were considered satisfactory.

  18. Possible interbreeding in late Italian Neanderthals? New data from the Mezzena jaw (Monti Lessini, Verona, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Condemi

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the mandible of Riparo Mezzena a Middle Paleolithic rockshelter in the Monti Lessini (NE Italy, Verona found in 1957 in association with Charentian Mousterian lithic assemblages. Mitochondrial DNA analysis performed on this jaw and on other cranial fragments found at the same stratigraphic level has led to the identification of the only genetically typed Neanderthal of the Italian peninsula and has confirmed through direct dating that it belongs to a late Neanderthal. Our aim here is to re-evaluate the taxonomic affinities of the Mezzena mandible in a wide comparative framework using both comparative morphology and geometric morphometrics. The comparative sample includes mid-Pleistocene fossils, Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. This study of the Mezzena jaw shows that the chin region is similar to that of other late Neanderthals which display a much more modern morphology with an incipient mental trigone (e.g. Spy 1, La Ferrassie, Saint-Césaire. In our view, this change in morphology among late Neanderthals supports the hypothesis of anatomical change of late Neanderthals and the hypothesis of a certain degree of interbreeding with AMHs that, as the dating shows, was already present in the European territory. Our observations on the chin of the Mezzena mandible lead us to support a non abrupt phylogenetic transition for this period in Europe.

  19. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in patients who receive Bone Targeting Agents (BTAs): the power of e-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Migliorati, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    The definition, pathobiology and risk factors of ONJ in cancer patients who receive BTAs are discussed in the recent ecancer module for osteonecrosis of the jaw (http://ecancer.org/education/module/276-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw.php). ONJ prevention, early diagnosis and management are presented. The critical question of the performance of dental extraction, during BTA therapy, as indicated with the recent studies, is supported. The importance of the collaboration between dental and oncology professionals and the patients is highlighted and can be achieved through appropriate education. The ecancer modules are valuable tools for successful e-learning in medical oncology education, including ONJ.

  20. Ribbon-wise customized lingual appliance and orthodontic anchor screw for the treatment of skeletal high-angle maxillary protrusion without bowing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Toru; Ito, Goshi; Miyazawa, Ken; Tabuchi, Masako; Goto, Shigemi

    2018-05-02

    This case report demonstrates the treatment of a skeletal Class II high-angle adult patient with bimaxillary protrusion, angle Class I occlusion, and crowded anterior teeth. A ribbon-wise arch wire and a customized lingual appliance with anterior vertical slots were used to achieve proper torque control of the maxillary anterior teeth. An orthodontic anchor screw and a palatal bar were used for vertical control to avoid increasing the Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA) by maxillary molar extrusion. Through the combined use of the ribbon-wise customized lingual appliance, palatal bar, and orthodontic anchor screw, vertical control and an excellent treatment result were achieved without the vertical and horizontal bowing effects peculiar to conventional lingual treatment.

  1. Ultrasound image features of intravesical prostatic protrusion indicated failure of medication therapy of finasteride and doxazosin in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Yunkai; Liu, Jianping; Qi, Jun; Kang, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) is a type of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) adenoma, and it plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of bladder outlet obstruction in patients with lower urinary tract syndromes (LUTS/BPH). The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of a combination therapy with finasteride and doxazosin on IPP in BPU/LUTS patients. A total of 322 BPH patients with enlarged prostatic volume as well as moderate to severe symptom scores were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the degree of IPP (IPP > 10 mm, 5-10 mm,  0.05). Failure rates of the medication differed significantly among the four groups. The study indicated that the combination therapy using finasteride and doxazosin could not reduce the degree of IPP. LUTS/BPH patients with IPP which contributes to the failure of medication tend to have a higher risk of progression.

  2. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Wiese, Kristin M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Hua, Chia-ho; Daw, Najat; Navid, Fariba; Davidoff, Andrew M.; McGregor, Lisa; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; McCrarey, Lola

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board−approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  3. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasin, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.krasin@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Wiese, Kristin M. [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Spunt, Sheri L. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Hua, Chia-ho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Daw, Najat [Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Navid, Fariba [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Davidoff, Andrew M. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); McGregor, Lisa [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); McCrarey, Lola [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board-approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  4. Functional anatomy of the hypoglossal innervated muscles of the rat tongue: a model for elongation and protrusion of the mammalian tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, J R; Goldberg, S J

    2000-12-01

    This anatomical investigation in the rat was designed to illustrate the detailed organization of the tongue's muscles and their innervation in order to elucidate the actions of the muscles of the higher mammalian tongue and thereby clarify the protrusor subdivision of the hypoglossal-tongue complex. The hypoglossal innervated, extrinsic styloglossus, hyoglossus, and genioglossus and the intrinsic transversus, verticalis and longitudinalis linguae muscles were observed by microdissection and analysis of serial transverse-sections of the tongue. Sihler's staining technique was applied to whole rat tongues to demonstrate the hypoglossal nerve branching patterns. Dissections of the tongue demonstrate the angles at which the extrinsic muscles act on the base of the tongue. The Sihler stained hypoglossal nerves demonstrate branches to the styloglossus and hyoglossus emanating from its lateral division while branches to the genioglossus muscle exit from its medial division. The largest portions of both XIIth nerve divisions can be seen to enter the body of the tongue to innervate the intrinsic muscles. Transverse sections of the tongue demonstrate the organization of the intrinsic muscle fibers of the tongue. Longitudinal muscle fibers run along the entire circumference of the tongue. Alternating sheets of transverse lingual and vertical lingual muscles can be observed to insert into the circumference of the tongue. Most importantly in clarifying tongue protrusion, we demonstrate the transversus muscle fibers enveloping the most superior and inferior portions of the longitudinalis muscles. Longitudinal muscle fascicles are completely encircled and thus are likely to be compressed by transverse muscle fascicles resulting in elongation of the tongue. We discuss our findings in relation to biomechanical studies, that describe the tongue as a muscular hydrostat and thereby define the "elongation-protrusion apparatus" of the mammalian tongue. In so doing, we clarify the

  5. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  6. Immediate effect of occlusal contact pattern in lateral jaw position on the EMG activity in jaw-elevator muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K; Yugami, K; Akishige, S; Ai, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental alterations of nonworking-side occlusal contacts on jaw-elevator muscle activity. Individual devices were fabricated to simulate various lateral occlusal relationships. Twelve human subjects were asked to carry out submaximal lateral clenching, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and anterior and posterior temporalis muscles was measured. Clenching in a lateral mandibular position under natural conditions induced an activity pattern with a clear dominance of the anterior and posterior temporalis muscles on the working side. Working-side dominance in the anterior temporalis was reduced moderately when an experimental nonworking-side occlusal contact was added. Dominance decreased dramatically when an experimental nonworking-side interference was added. The working-side activity in the posterior temporalis was also reduced dramatically by an experimental nonworking-side interference, but not by a nonworking-side occlusal contact. None of the experimental contact patterns had a significant effect on the masseter activity. These results suggest that the nonworking-side occlusal contacts have a significant effect on clenching-induced temporalis muscle activity.

  7. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  8. Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) Slit-Jaw Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, P.; Champey, P. R.; Winebarger, A. R.; Kobayashi, K.; Savage, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer is a NASA sounding rocket payload providing a 0.6 - 2.5 nm spectrum with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. The instrument is comprised of a novel optical design, featuring a Wolter1 grazing incidence telescope, which produces a focused solar image on a slit plate, an identical pair of stigmatic optics, a planar diffraction grating and a low-noise detector. When MaGIXS flies on a suborbital launch in 2019, a slit-jaw camera system will reimage the focal plane of the telescope providing a reference for pointing the telescope on the solar disk and aligning the data to supporting observations from satellites and other rockets. The telescope focuses the X-ray and EUV image of the sun onto a plate covered with a phosphor coating that absorbs EUV photons, which then fluoresces in visible light. This 10-week REU project was aimed at optimizing an off-axis mounted camera with 600-line resolution NTSC video for extremely low light imaging of the slit plate. Radiometric calculations indicate an intensity of less than 1 lux at the slit jaw plane, which set the requirement for camera sensitivity. We selected a Watec 910DB EIA charge-coupled device (CCD) monochrome camera, which has a manufacturer quoted sensitivity of 0.0001 lux at F1.2. A high magnification and low distortion lens was then identified to image the slit jaw plane from a distance of approximately 10 cm. With the selected CCD camera, tests show that at extreme low-light levels, we achieve a higher resolution than expected, with only a moderate drop in frame rate. Based on sounding rocket flight heritage, the launch vehicle attitude control system is known to stabilize the instrument pointing such that jitter does not degrade video quality for context imaging. Future steps towards implementation of the imaging system will include ruggedizing the flight camera housing and mounting the selected camera and lens combination to the instrument structure.

  9. The Redox Balance in Erythrocytes, Plasma, and Periosteum of Patients with Titanium Fixation of the Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borys

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium miniplates and screws are commonly used for fixation of jaw fractured or osteotomies. Despite the opinion of their biocompatibility, in clinical practice symptoms of chronic inflammation around the fixation develop in some patients, even many years after the application of miniplates and screws. The cause of these complications is still an unanswered question. Taking into account that oxidative stress is one of the toxic action of titanium, we have evaluated the antioxidant barrier as well as oxidative stress in the erythrocytes, plasma and periosteum covering the titanium fixation of the jaw. The study group was composed of 32 patients aged 20–30 with inserted miniplates and screws. The antioxidant defense: catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, uric acid (UA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, as well as oxidative damage products: advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGE, dityrosine, kynurenine, N-formylkynurenine, tryptophan, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative status index (OSI were evaluated. SOD1 activity (↓37%, and tryptophan levels (↓34% showed a significant decrease while AOPP (↑25%, TOS (↑80% and OSI (↑101% were significantly elevated in maxillary periosteum of patients who underwent bimaxillary osteotomies as compared to the control group. SOD-1 (↓55%, TAC (↓58.6%, AGE (↓60% and N-formylkynurenine (↓34% was statistically reduced while AOPP (↑38%, MDA (↑29%, 4-HNE (↑114%, TOS (↑99%, and OSI (↑381% were significantly higher in the mandibular periosteum covering miniplates/screw compared with the control tissues. There were no correlations between antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in the periosteum of all patients and the blood. As exposure to the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy leads to disturbances of redox balance in the periosteum surrounding titanium implants of the maxilla

  10. Quantitative analysis of dental microwear in hadrosaurid dinosaurs, and the implications for hypotheses of jaw mechanics and feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vincent S.; Barrett, Paul M.; Purnell, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the feeding mechanisms and diet of nonavian dinosaurs is fundamental to understanding the paleobiology of these taxa and their role in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. Various methods, including biomechanical analysis and 3D computer modeling, have been used to generate detailed functional hypotheses, but in the absence of either direct observations of dinosaur feeding behavior, or close living functional analogues, testing these hypotheses is problematic. Microscopic scratches that form on teeth in vivo during feeding are known to record the relative motion of the tooth rows to each other during feeding and to capture evidence of tooth–food interactions. Analysis of this dental microwear provides a powerful tool for testing hypotheses of jaw mechanics, diet, and trophic niche; yet, quantitative analysis of microwear in dinosaurs has not been attempted. Here, we show that analysis of tooth microwear orientation provides direct evidence for the relative motions of jaws during feeding in hadrosaurid ornithopods, the dominant terrestrial herbivores of the Late Cretaceous. Statistical testing demonstrates that Edmontosaurus teeth preserve 4 distinct sets of scratches in different orientations. In terms of jaw mechanics, these data indicate an isognathic, near-vertical posterodorsal power stroke during feeding; near-vertical jaw opening; and propalinal movements in near anterior and near posterior directions. Our analysis supports the presence of a pleurokinetic hinge, and the straightness and parallelism of scratches indicate a tightly controlled occlusion. The dominance of scratched microwear fabrics suggests that Edmontosaurus was a grazer rather than a browser. PMID:19564603

  11. Modern trends in the conservative management of lower jaw radio-necrosis following radiotherapy for tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapkova, L.

    1997-01-01

    This is a report on radio-necrosis of the lower jaw developing after radiation treatment for tongue cancer. Brief literature data concerning lower jaw osteoradionecrosis are presented, including incidence rate, dependence on the type of irradiation and doses applied and overall therapeutic approach to the lesion. An original scheme for complex conservative management, consistent with the specific pathogenetic patterns of post-irradiation necrosis, promoting active osteogenesis is proposed. It includes: antibiotics (4 quinolines, metronidazole, lincomycin, cephalosporin, nystatin), local antiseptic drugs (gargle with camomile, sol. tripaflavini 2 per cent, borax-glycerin, sterile 10 per cent solution of sodium chloride and the like), Miacalcic (calcitonin), vitamin D2, calcium-phospho C, parenteral nutrition, vitamins, retabolil, analgesics (general and local). The scheme, used in three patients with lower jaw radio-necrosis developing after radiotherapy for lingual cancer, yields very good results - pain relief, disappearance of trismus, with nutrition and sleep returning to normal. After demarcation of the necrotic tissue, sequestrectomy is done with ensuing complete epithelization. Lower jaw integrity is preserved without any functional and cosmetic defects. The duration of treatment is 8, 4 and 2 months, respectively (author)

  12. Determination of capacity of single-toggle jaw crusher, taking into account parameters of kinematics of its working mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikov, N. S.; Timofeev, I. P.

    2018-05-01

    Efficiency increase of jaw crushers makes the foundation of rational kinematics and stiffening of the elements of the machine possible. Foundation of rational kinematics includes establishment of connection between operation mode parameters of the crusher and its technical characteristics. The main purpose of this research is just to establish such a connection. Therefore this article shows analytical procedure of getting connection between operation mode parameters of the crusher and its capacity. Theoretical, empirical and semi-empirical methods of capacity determination of a single-toggle jaw crusher are given, taking into account physico-mechanical properties of crushed material and kinematics of the working mechanism. When developing a mathematical model, the method of closed vector polygons by V. A. Zinoviev was used. The expressions obtained in the article give an opportunity to solve important scientific and technical problems, connected with finding the rational kinematics of the jaw crusher mechanism, carrying out a comparative assessment of different crushers and giving the recommendations about updating the available jaw crushers.

  13. Root canal therapy for the prevention of osteonecrosis of the jaws: an evidence-based clinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgidis, Athanassios; Arora, Amit; Lyroudia, Kleoniki; Antoniades, Konstantinos

    2010-12-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse effect of bone preservation treatment. There is a sufficient body of evidence to associate osteonecrosis of the jaws development with dental extractions and trauma caused from ill-fitting dentures. In this review, we critically appraise available evidence about the clinical efficacy of root canal therapy in patients receiving bisphosphonates.We review a series of theories to explain why endodontic treatment is a safe clinical intervention to prevent osteonecrosis of the jaws in patients receiving bisphosphonates. Root canal therapy could postpone or even eradicate the need for dental extractions of carious teeth in patients on bisphosphonates who may develop osteonecrosis of the jaws. Patients receiving bisphosphonates should be offered the full range of preventive care to reduce their risk to both dental caries and periodontal disease, so that the need for both endodontic therapy and dental extractions will be reduced. Implementing such a strategy would require both practitioner and patient education through the combined efforts of medical and dental societies. Such an approach is justified, as the risk of compromising the oral health of patients on bisphosphonates undertaking endodontic treatment is negligible compared with the benefit from avoiding dental extractions.

  14. Retrospective analysis of 27 cases of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw treated surgically or nonsurgically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yu Lu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a high success rate of conservative and surgical treatment of BRONJ. This is the first reported use of GBR to successfully treat oral BPh-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Irrigation with antimicrobial rinses may result in pain reduction, and regression or even resolution of BRONJ.

  15. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Coolen, Marion; Fish, Jennifer; Griffin, John N; Bertocchini, Federica; Minoux, Maryline; Rijli, Filippo M; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Casane, Didier; Mazan, Sylvie; Depew, Michael J

    2013-05-15

    The acquisition of jaws constitutes a landmark event in vertebrate evolution, one that in large part potentiated their success and diversification. Jaw development and patterning involves an intricate spatiotemporal series of reciprocal inductive and responsive interactions between the cephalic epithelia and the cranial neural crest (CNC) and cephalic mesodermal mesenchyme. The coordinated regulation of these interactions is critical for both the ontogenetic registration of the jaws and the evolutionary elaboration of variable jaw morphologies and designs. Current models of jaw development and evolution have been built on molecular and cellular evidence gathered mostly in amniotes such as mice, chicks and humans, and augmented by a much smaller body of work on the zebrafish. These have been partnered by essential work attempting to understand the origins of jaws that has focused on the jawless lamprey. Chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish) are the most distant group to amniotes within extant gnathostomes, and comprise the crucial clade uniting amniotes and agnathans; yet despite their critical phylogenetic position, evidence of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of jaw development in chondrichthyans is still lacking. Recent advances in genome and molecular developmental biology of the lesser spotted dogfish shark, Scyliorhinus canicula, make it ideal for the molecular study of chondrichthyan jaw development. Here, following the 'Hinge and Caps' model of jaw development, we have investigated evidence of heterotopic (relative changes in position) and heterochronic (relative changes in timing) shifts in gene expression, relative to amniotes, in the jaw primordia of S. canicula embryos. We demonstrate the presence of clear proximo-distal polarity in gene expression patterns in the shark embryo, thus establishing a baseline molecular baüplan for branchial arch-derived jaw development and further validating the utility of the 'Hinge and Caps' model in comparative

  16. An electromyographic study of aspects of 'deprogramming' of human jaw muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, S J; Carr, A B; Christensen, L V; Ziebert, G J

    1990-11-01

    Surface electromyograms from the right and left masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were used to detect peripheral correlates of deprogramming, also known as programming and reprogramming, of jaw elevator muscles. Putative deprogramming was attempted through the clinically recommended use of a leaf gauge, placed for 15 min between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth and disoccluding the posterior teeth by about 2 mm. Studied contractile activities were those of postural activity (subconscious, semi-isometric, minimal activity) and intercuspal teeth clenching (conscious, isometric, maximal activity). Use of the leaf gauge did not affect normalized postural activity (about 4%), the duration (about 900 ms) and static work efforts of clenching (about 1200 microV.s), the time to peak mean voltage of clenching (about 400 ms), and the peak mean voltage of clenching (about 300 microV). Activity and asymmetry indices showed that the studied motor innervation patterns were not changed by the leaf gauge.

  17. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the jaw treated with skull base surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Misaki; Asato, Ryo; Torii, Hiroko; Kanda, Tomoko; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Shigeru; Ito, Juichi; Tanaka, Shinzou

    2009-01-01

    Head and neck osteosarcomas are rare. A 33-year-old woman received radiation therapy for lymphoepithelioma of the epipharynx in her childhood. After twenty-two years, she presented with a swelling of the right cheek. We did a work up, and diagnosed her radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the jaw. We treated her with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery including skull base resection, and adjuvant chemo-therapy. A small skin recurrence developed after one year, but it was resected under local anesthesia, and there have been no recurrences since. We think that skull base surgery with a combined approach is a useful method in therapy for osteosarcomas in the skull base region. (author)

  19. Large number of ultraconserved elements were already present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor.

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianli; Lee, Alison P; Kodzius, Rimantas; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2009-01-01

    Stephen (2008) identified 13,736 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in placental mammals and investigated their evolution in opossum, chicken, frog, and fugu. They found that there was a massive expansion of UCEs during tetrapod evolution and the substitution rate in UCEs showed a significant decline in tetrapods compared with fugu, suggesting they were exapted in tetrapods. They considered it unlikely that these elements are ancient but evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes. In this study, we investigated the evolution of UCEs in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark and show that nearly half the UCEs were present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The substitution rate in UCEs is higher in fugu than in elephant shark, and approximately one-third of ancient UCEs have diverged beyond recognition in teleost fishes. These data indicate that UCEs have evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes, which may have implications for their vast diversity and evolutionary success.

  20. GIANT CELL GRANULOMAS OF THE JAWS (ANALYSIS OF 1,083 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yazdi

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell granulomas of the jaws are rather common in [rail, however, more reliable data need to be published In this retrospecti ve study 1,083 cases ojPGCO and CGCG (817 peripheral and 203 central were extracted from 6800 oral biopsy archives of the Oral Pathology Department and were analyzed: Age and sex ofthe patients and type and location distribution were obtained Our results show that most cases ofPGCG and CGCG occurred before"nthe fifth and during fourth decade, respectively. Slight predominance offemales was notedfor both types. Mandible wa~ often more affected (60.3%, especially in the premolarmolar region. The results obtained in this study were in agreement with other independent reports.

  1. Large number of ultraconserved elements were already present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor.

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianli

    2009-03-01

    Stephen (2008) identified 13,736 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in placental mammals and investigated their evolution in opossum, chicken, frog, and fugu. They found that there was a massive expansion of UCEs during tetrapod evolution and the substitution rate in UCEs showed a significant decline in tetrapods compared with fugu, suggesting they were exapted in tetrapods. They considered it unlikely that these elements are ancient but evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes. In this study, we investigated the evolution of UCEs in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark and show that nearly half the UCEs were present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The substitution rate in UCEs is higher in fugu than in elephant shark, and approximately one-third of ancient UCEs have diverged beyond recognition in teleost fishes. These data indicate that UCEs have evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes, which may have implications for their vast diversity and evolutionary success.

  2. Bisphosphonates and oral pathology II. Osteonecrosis of the jaws: review of the literature before 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefanía Fresco, Ruth; Ponte Fernández, Ruth; Aguirre Urizar, José Manuel

    2006-11-01

    Bisphosphonates are bone-turnover modulating drugs which are used in the management of a number of bone diseases ranging from osteoporosis to neoplasic pathology-associated osteolysis. In the last years a number of cases of osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with these drugs have been reported. In this review we analyze the cases published in the literature indexed from 2003 to December 2005. During this period 246 cases were reported, being more frequently associated with women in the sixth decade of life. More frequently associated bisphosphonates were the nitrogenated bisphosphonates (pamidronate, zolendronic acid) and the most common oral antecedent was a dental extraction. Nevertheless more than 25% of the cases were spontaneous. The most frequent site was the mandible and most of the cases presented clinical evidence of bone exposure and pain. Different treatments have been proposed with different antibiotic therapies with or without surgery, showing in general terms an uncertain prognosis with low healing rates.

  3. Chromosome evaluation of Angus calves with unilateral congenital cleft lip and jaw (cheilognathoschisis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, H A; Vogt, D W; Kintner, L D

    1982-04-01

    Two purebred Angus calves with unilateral cleft lip and jaw were karyotyped and anatomically described. Both calves, 1 male and 1 female, were from the same farm and were born in March and April 1980. The defect was most pronounced in the female calf. Both calves exhibited an elevated midline of the hard palate. The female calf also manifested characteristics indicative of proportionate dwarfism. Karyotypes were constructed after a 72-hour culture of peripheral blood. The 2N number was 60 with no apparent chromosome abnormality. The coefficient of relationship between the 2 affected calves was calculated to be 0.78%. The cause of the defect could not be ascertained from the limited data available.

  4. A feasibility study of using conventional jaws to deliver complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Xia, P

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that simple intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans can be produced with a series of rectangular segments formed by conventional jaws. This study investigates whether complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer can be delivered with the conventional jaws efficiently. Six nasopharyngeal cancer patients, previously treated with multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-IMRT plans, were re-planned using conventional jaw delivery options. All IMRT plans were subject to the plan acceptance criteria of the RTOG-0225 protocol. For a selected patient, the maximum number of segments varied from five to nine per beam, and was tested for both jaws-only IMRT (JO-IMRT) plans and MLC-IMRT plans. Subsequently, JO-IMRT plans and MLC-IMRT on the same treatment planning system were attempted for all patients with identical beams. The dose distribution, dose volume histograms (DVH), the conformal index (COIN), the uniformity index and delivery efficiency were compared between the MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans. All JO-IMRT plans met the RTOG-0225 criteria for tumor coverage and sensitive structures sparing. The corresponding MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans show comparable conformality and uniformity, with average COINs of the planning gross tumor volume(pGTV) 37.7% ± 18.7% versus 37.9% ± 18.1%, and the average uniformity index 82.8% ± 2.5% versus 83.6% ± 3.1%, respectively. The average monitor unit for JO-IMRT plans was about twice that of MLC-IMRT plans. In conclusion, conventional jaws can be used solely to deliver complex IMRT plans for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer yet still within a practical delivery time.

  5. Imaging of the jaw cysts with a dental CT software program : distinction of odontogenic keratocysts from other cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Man; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lee, Won Hoon; Oh, Kyu Hyen; Jung, Hak Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Sung, Nak Kwan; Jung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a dental CT software program in the assessment of jaw cysts and in the differentiation of odontogenic keratocysts and other cysts. Seventeen patients with proven jaw cysts(8 maxillae and 9 mandibles) were evaluated with a dental CT sofware program for location, locularity, the presence or absence of marginal scallping, and height to length ratio. For the delineation of involvement or displace-ment of neurovascular bundles, cortical erosion, perforation or expansion, and tooth root resorption by the jaw cysts, images from this program were compared to conventional images. Seventeen lesions icomprised 15 odontogenic cysts (five odontogenic keratocysts, five radicular, three residual and two dentigerous cysts) and two non-odontogenic cysts (one nasopalatine duct cyst and one postoperative maxillary cyst). Images of jaw cysts obtained with the dental CT software program delineated much more clearly than conventional images the status of neurovascular bundle and cortical bone, but there was no clear difference between the two modalities in delineating tooth root erosion. Dental CT findings of five mandibular odontogenic keratocysts were scalloped margin in all, mandibular ramus involvement in four, height to length ratio below 60% in four ,and multilocularity in two. The findings of the other 12 cysts (eight maxillae and four mandibles) were unilocularity in all, smooth inner margin in ten, height to length ratio below 60% in only two, and ramus involvement in none. A dental CT software program is an improved imaging modality for assessing jaw cysts;and findings which tend to indicate odontogenic keratocysts are marginal scalloping, mandibular ramus involvement, prominent spread along the marrow space and multilocularity

  6. Survival, Function, and Complications of Oral Implants Placed in Bone Flaps in Jaw Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Ding, Qian; Liu, Cunrui; Sun, Yannan; Xie, Qiufei; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review attempted to determine the survival rate of implants placed in bone flaps in jaw rehabilitation and the functional gains and the most common complications related to these implants. An electronic search was undertaken of PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI records from 1990 through July 2014. Two independent examiners read the titles and abstracts of the results to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. Subsequently, the reference lists of the selected publications were hand searched. Descriptive statistics were used to report all data related to the survival rate of implants placed in bone flaps in jaw rehabilitation, the functional gains, and complications. A total of 20 studies were included for systematic review without repetition. The mean follow-up time after implant placement ranged from 1.75 to 9.5 years. Within the limitations of available studies, the survival rate of implants placed in bone flaps in jaw rehabilitation ranged from 82.4% to 100%. Of the 20 included studies, 15 reported a survival rate higher than 90%. The cumulative survival rate was 93.2%, with the longest follow-up time being 12.9 years. The most common complications related to these implants were peri-implant bone resorption or peri-implant inflammation, and peri-implant soft tissue proliferation. The main factors associated with the survival rate of implants in bone flaps were reported as time of implant placement and radiotherapy. Despite some persistent soft tissue problems and implant loss, most patients reached a satisfactory functional and esthetic outcome, as evaluated by clinical examination and subjectively by the patients at interview. Implant-supported dental prosthetic rehabilitation in reconstructed jaws improved the quality of life in terms of speech, nutrition, oral competence, and facial appearance. Placement of implants in bone flaps in jaw rehabilitation was demonstrated to be a reliable technique with a high survival rate. Multicentered

  7. Open-mouth jaw locking in cats: a literature review and use of computed tomography in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Anna E; Anderson, Thomas; Gracis, Margherita; Doran, Ivan; Warren-Smith, Chris; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J

    2017-11-01

    Case series summary This report summarises and reviews the published cases of open-mouth jaw locking in cats and describes three further cases. Case 1 was a 5-year-old, 5.3 kg male neutered domestic shorthair cat. CT identified changes consistent with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysplasia with osseous degenerative changes, and the cat subsequently underwent bilateral partial zygomectomy with bilateral partial coronoidectomy. Case 2 was a 10-year-old, 6.0 kg male neutered Exotic Shorthair. Aside from a fracture of the left maxillary canine tooth crown and absence of the left maxillary fourth premolar tooth, no abnormalities were found on CT scan. The cat also underwent bilateral partial zygomectomy with bilateral partial coronoidectomy. The third case was a 1-year-old, 4.0 kg male neutered Persian cat. Changes on CT were consistent with bilateral TMJ dysplasia, and the cat underwent staged bilateral partial zygomectomy with bilateral partial coronoidectomy. There was no recurrence of open-mouth jaw locking in any of the cases on long-term follow-up. Relevance and novel information Open-mouth jaw locking has been reported in cats of a wide range of ages, from 1-10 years of age. Cats with all skull types (brachycephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic) may be affected, but brachycephalic breeds seem to be over-represented. A CT scan with the jaw locked in place is recommended for diagnosis and surgical planning purposes; two of the cases reported here document the first cases of TMJ dysplasia in cats to be definitively diagnosed using CT. Trauma and symphyseal or TMJ laxity may also predispose to development of the condition. Partial coronoidectomy and partial zygomatic arch resection performed alone or in combination are generally successful at preventing recurrence. Bilateral partial zygomectomy with bilateral partial coronoidectomy has not previously been reported as a surgical treatment, and is recommended when open-mouth jaw locking occurs bilaterally.

  8. Idiopathic Osteosclerosis of the Jaw in a Brazilian Population: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen de Souza Tolentino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report cases of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO, to review the literature on the subject, and to discuss its main characteristics, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of 354 panoramic radiographs, searching for IO, its size, shape, location, and noting patients’ demographic information. Literature review used Medline and Lilacs databases and the terms idiopathic osteosclerosis OR bone sclerosis OR dense bone island AND jaws. Results: IO was identified in 5.6% of the radiographs (n=20 patients, 22 foci. Patients were healthy, with an age ranging from 5 to 51 years (mean=29.8, with male-female ratio of 3:2. IOs were found mainly in the premolar/molar region, at root apices, between roots, away from the teeth, laterally to the tooth, and in edentulous areas. The distribution between right and left sides of the jaw was equal for the 22 foci, with only one case in the maxilla. IOs were localized, well-defined, radiopaque, mostly round or ovoid in shape, but sometimes irregular. In some cases, IOs were similar to condensing osteitis, but differential diagnosis also considered complex odontoma, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, and residual roots. Twenty studies on the topic were reviewed. Conclusions: Incidence of IO in the Brazilian sample was 5.6%, with age ranging from 5 to 51 years (mean=29.8, and male-female ratio of 3:2. The radiopacities occurred in different locations, with significant prevalence in the mandible. The findings and the literature review corroborate the hypothesis that IO should be considered developmental variation of normal bone that does not require treatment.

  9. Jaw-opening force test to screen for Dysphagia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Koji; Tohara, Haruka; Wada, Satoko; Iida, Takatoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2014-05-01

    To assess the jaw-opening force test (JOFT) for dysphagia screening. Criterion standard. University dental hospital. Patients complaining of dysphagia (N=95) and with symptoms of dysphagia with chronic underlying causes (mean age ± SD, 79.3±9.61y; range, 50-94y; men: n=49; mean age ± SD, 77.03±9.81y; range, 50-94y; women: n=46; mean age ± SD, 75.42±9.73y; range, 51-93y) admitted for treatment between May 2011 and December 2012 were included. None. All patients were administered the JOFT and underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The mean jaw-opening strength was compared with aspiration (ASP) and pharyngeal residue observations of the FEES, which was used as the criterion standard. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Forces of ≤3.2kg for men and ≤4kg for women were appropriate cutoff values for predicting ASP with a sensitivity and specificity of .57 and .79 for men and .93 and .52 for women, respectively. Based on the ROC analyses for predicting pharyngeal residue, forces of ≤5.3kg in men and ≤3.9kg in women were appropriate cutoff values, with a sensitivity and specificity of .80 and .88 for men and .83 and .81 for women, respectively. The JOFT could be a useful screening tool for predicting pharyngeal residue and could provide useful information to aid in the referral of patients for further diagnostic imaging testing. However, given its low sensitivity to ASP the JOFT should be paired with other screening tests that predict ASP. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental odontogenic cysts of jaws: a clinical study of 245 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Yazdani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative frequency of developmental odontogenic cysts in an Iranian population. Materials and methods. In this study 245 cysts from both jaws, treated in the Faculty of Dentistry at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences during a 10-year period from 1998 to 2008, were analyzed in order to evaluate the incidence of such cysts. We had permission from all the patients. Case histories of 65% of male and 35% of female patients were analyzed. The age of the patients varied from 14 to 64 years, with an average of 33.21 ± 10.89. Results. In this 10-year study of odontogenic cysts, 97 cases were developmental odontogenic cysts with the following incidence: dentigerous cyst, 44%; odontogenic keratocyst, 36%; primordial cyst, 9%; Gorlin cyst, 2%; lateral periodontal cyst, 3%; eruption cyst, 3%; and gingival cyst, 3% (adults 2%, infants 1%. A total of 60% of the cysts were found in the mandible and 40% in the maxilla. Regarding the mandible, the molar region was involved in 47% of the cases, premolar region in 33% and anterior region in 20% (total = 100%. Regarding the maxilla, the canine-to-canine region was involved in 52% of the cases, premolar region in 20% and molar region in 28% (total = 100%. Conclusion. An important finding in this study was the fact that 39% of the jaw cysts were developmental odontogenic cysts and the most common developmental odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cyst and OKC (odontogenic keratocyst.

  11. Effects of increased occlusal vertical dimension on the jaw-opening reflex in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiguchi, Mio; Funaki, Yukiha; Kato, Chiho; Okihara, Hidemasa; Ishida, Takayoshi; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Malocclusion with deep overbite and facial esthetics improve when facial height is intentionally increased during orthodontic extrusion of the posterior teeth. Thus, a better understanding of post-treatment stability of increased occlusal vertical dimension (iOVD) in adult patients is important. We focused on the jaw-opening reflex (JOR), which plays an important role in the control of jaw movements during mastication, and investigated the effects of iOVD on the JOR in rats with an electrophysiological technique. One hundred and twenty 13-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Rats in the experimental group received a 2-mm buildup of composite resin on the maxillary molars at 13 weeks of age. The JOR was induced by low-intensity electrical stimulation of the left inferior alveolar nerve. The electromyographic responses were recorded from the digastric muscle at 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, and 23 weeks of age. JOR properties including latency, duration, and peak-to-peak amplitude were measured and compared between the groups. The latency of the JOR was significantly longer and the peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control group from 14 to 19 weeks of age, while the reflex duration was not significantly different. Intra-group comparisons of the latency and peak-to-peak amplitudes among rats 14-19 weeks of age were significantly different between the experimental group and the control group. iOVD affected the latency and amplitude of the JOR but not the duration. The JOR adapted after 10 weeks of iOVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  13. Brain activity associated with memory and cognitive function during jaw-tapping movement in healthy subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Yeon; Shin, Ae-Sook; Na, Byung-Jo; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Park, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether jaw-tapping movement, a classically described as an indication of personal well-being and mental health, stimulates the memory and the cognitive regions of the brain and is associated with improved brain performance. Twelve healthy right-handed female subjects completed the study. Each patient performed a jaw-tapping task and an n-back task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjects were trained to carry out the jaw-tapping movement at home twice a day for 4 weeks. The fMRI was repeated when they returned. During the first and second jaw-tapping session, both sides of precentral gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) were activated. And during the second session of the jaw-tapping task, parts of frontal lobe and temporal lobe related to memory function were more activated. In addition, the total percent task accuracy in n-back task significantly increased after 4 weeks of jawtapping movement. After jaw-tapping training for 4 weeks, brain areas related to memory showed significantly increased blood oxygen level dependent signals. Jaw-tapping movement might be a useful exercise for stimulating the memory and cognitive regions of the brain.

  14. Evaluation of jaw and neck muscle activities while chewing using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG

  15. Choice of biomaterials—Do soft occlusal splints influence jaw-muscle activity during sleep? A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Taro; Takeuchi, Tamiyo; Tomonaga, Akio; Yachida, Wataru; Ohata, Noboru; Svensson, Peter

    2012-12-01

    AimThe choice of biomaterials for occlusal splints may significantly influence biological outcome. In dentistry, hard acrylic occlusal splints (OS) have been shown to have a temporary and inhibitory effect on jaw-muscle activity, such as tooth clenching and grinding during sleep, i.e., sleep bruxism (SB). Traditionally, this inhibitory effect has been explained by changes in the intraoral condition rather than the specific effects of changes in occlusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of another type of occlusal surface, such as a soft-material OS in addition to a hard-type OS in terms of changes in jaw-muscle activity during sleep. Materials and methodsSeven healthy subjects (mean ± SD, six men and one woman: 28.9 ± 2.7 year old), participated in this study. A soft-material OS (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) was fabricated for each subject and the subjects used the OS for five continuous nights. The EMG activity during sleep was compared to baseline (no OS). Furthermore, the EMG activity during the use of a hard-type OS (Michigan-type OS, acrylic resin), and hard-type OS combined with contingent electrical stimulation (CES) was compared to baseline values. Each session was separated by at least two weeks (washout). Jaw-muscle activity during sleep was recorded with single-channel ambulatory devices (GrindCare, MedoTech, Herlev, Denmark) in all sessions for five nights. ResultsJaw-muscle activity during sleep was 46.6 ± 29.8 EMG events/hour at baseline and significantly decreased during the hard-type OS (17.4 ± 10.5, P = 0.007) and the hard-type OS + CES (10.8 ± 7.1, P = 0.002), but not soft-material OS (36.3 ± 24.5, P = 0.055). Interestingly, the soft-material OS (coefficient of variance = 98.6 ± 35.3%) was associated with greater night-to-night variations than baseline (39.0 ± 11.8%) and the hard-type OS + CES (53.3 ± 13.7%, P < 0.013). ConclusionThe present pilot study in small sample showed that a soft

  16. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  17. Gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer: upper gastrointestinal series and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyu Sun; Yun, Ku Sub; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hun; Kang, Gu; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the causes of gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer, upper gastrointestinal study was correlated with pathologic findings. We evaluated 41 cases (M:F = 1.7:1, average age = 49) of early gastric cancer, retrospectively. The gastric wall shortening were classified as Grade I; none, Grade II; intermediate, and Grade III; prominent. Pathologic findings such as size of lesions, depth of tumor invasion, degree of the submucosal fibrosis, degree of thickness of the submucosa and muscularis propria, and morphologic patterns of lesions including conversing mucosal folds were correlated with the degree of gastric wall shortening on upper gastrointestinal series. Submucosal fibrosis was present in 4 cases in Grade I (n = 21), 4 cases in Grade II (n = 6) and 8 cases in Grade III (n = 10). Positive conversing mucosal folds were seen in 5 cases in Grade I (n = 17), 0 case in Grade II (n = 2) and 9 cases in Grade III (n = 9). Gastric wall shortening was significantly associated with submucosal fibrosis and conversing mucosal folds of early gastric cancer. (ρ = 0.0001, and ρ = 0.02, respectively) Upper gastrointestinal finding of gastric wall protrusion in patients with early gastric cancer should not misinterprete as advanced gastric cancer since the finding could be a result of submucosal fibrosis

  18. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  19. Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, A.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Belosi, M. F.; Cozzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied.Methods: The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests.Results: Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (±1SD) were −8%± 16%, −3%± 15%, −16%± 18%, and −9%± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and −10%± 14%, −5%± 12%, −19%± 17%, and −13%± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: −0.1%± 0.3%, 0.0%± 0.4%, −0.3%± 0.3%, and −0.1%± 0.3% for AAA and −0.2%± 0.4%, −0.1%± 0.4%, −0.5%± 0.5%, and −0.3%± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave

  20. "Converting a bi-jaw surgery to a single-jaw surgery:" Posterior maxillary dentoalveolar intrusion with microimplants to avoid the need of a maxillary surgery in the surgical management of skeletal Class III vertical malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of a vertical skeletal Class III malocclusion with mandibular prognathism revolves around the protocol of bi-jaw surgery (maxillary LeFort I impaction and mandibular bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with setback. The maxillary surgery not only provides increased stability to the ultimate surgical outcome but also increases the amount by which the mandibular set back can be done, therefore aiding in greater profile improvement. With the need of maxillary surgery almost inevitable in treating such situations, the complexity and the increased discomfort associated with such surgery can never be ignored. Is it at all possible to convert a bi-jaw surgery into a single-jaw surgery with the aid of microimplants? With increasing number of patients being treated with microimplants for anterior openbite and gummy smiles, our idea was to incorporate this novel protocol in treating Class III vertical situations and therefore avoid the need of a maxillary surgery in treating such a situation, together with achieving optimum treatment outcome.

  1. The fabrication of a customized occlusal splint based on the merging of dynamic jaw tracking records, cone beam computed tomography, and CAD-CAM digital impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Aslanidou

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The SICAT software provides a three-dimensional real-dynamic simulation of mandibular movements relative to the patient-specific anatomy of the jaw; thus, it opens new possibilities and potentials for the management of temporomandibular disorders.

  2. Mouse preferential incising force orientation changes during jaw closing muscle hyperalgesia and is sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, C G; Morris-Wiman, J

    2016-12-01

    Mouse incising is controlled by a central pattern generator and this activity can change in the presence of pain. The incising frequency and maximum force generation decreases with pain. In this study, we used repetitive acidic injections in the left masseter muscle of male and female mice to determine differences between baseline and jaw muscle pain conditions and the effect of sex on preferential incising direction. A within subject design was used to evaluate data previously acquired using multi-axis force data (X, Y and Z) from the 4th baseline recording day and day 7 post-injection (day of maximal pain response) for each mouse of each sex. A total of 34 female and male (age 3-9months) CD-1 mice were evaluated. After mathematically rotating the X and Y axes to align the Y axis to be parallel to the wire struts of the cage top, data were analyzed to determine incising direction preference during baseline (non-pain) and pain (day 7) conditions and between sex. Radar plots of X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z axes depicted the average direction of incising preference between baseline and pain conditions for each sex. Statistical differences among groups were tested using a mixed model ANOVA. Similar to previous findings, female mice had a more robust difference in incising direction preference when comparing male and female pain conditions and this was most evident in the X-Z axes. The incising frequencies most commonly affected were 5.3, 6.2 and 7.6Hz. Male mice varied little in their incising direction preference between the baseline and pain conditions. In addition, statistical comparison of ratios of the percent of time spent incising in the Z versus X axes for each incising frequency found that the incising preference was not different when comparing 5.3 and 7.6Hz frequencies. Finally, female mice used a novel approach to minimize pain while incising by rotating their head and body nearly 180 degrees while males did not use this strategy as frequently. The preferred incising

  3. Homology of the jaw muscles in lizards and snakes-a solution from a comparative gnathostome approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Homology or shared evolutionary origin of jaw adductor muscles in lizards and snakes has been difficult to establish, although snakes clearly arose within the lizard radiation. Lizards typically have temporal adductors layered lateral to medial, and in snakes the muscles are arranged in a rostral to caudal pattern. Recent work has suggested that the jaw adductor group in gnathostomes is arranged as a folded sheet; when this theory is applied to snakes, homology with lizard morphology can be seen. This conclusion revisits the work of S.B. McDowell, J Herpetol 1986; 20:353-407, who proposed that homology involves identity of m. levator anguli oris and the loss of m. adductor mandibulae externus profundus, at least in "advanced" (colubroid) snakes. Here I advance the folded sheet hypothesis across the whole snake tree using new and literature data, and provide a solution to this homology problem. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Finite element analysis to determine the stress distribution, displacement and safety factor on a microplate for the fractured jaw case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Juan; Mahardika, Muslim

    2018-03-01

    Microplate is a connecting plate that can be used for jaw bone fixation. In the last two decades, microplate has been used so many times to help reconstruction of fractured jaw bone which is called mandibular bone or mandible bone. The plate is used to provide stable fixation of the fractured bone tissue during healing and reconstruction process. In this study Finite Element Analysis was used to predict the stress concentration and distribution on a microplate, displacement on the microplate and also to determine the safety factor of the microplate based on maximum allowable stress value, and finally to ascertain whether microplate is safe to use or not. The microplate was produced from punching process using titanium grade 1 (pure titanium) as material with a thickness of 500 µm. The results of the research indicated that the microplate was safe to use according to the maximum stress around the hole, displacement around the hole and also the safety factor of the microplate.

  5. Effect of Jaw Clenching on Balance Recovery: Dynamic Stability and Lower Extremity Joint Kinematics after Forward Loss of Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Ringhof, Steffen; Stein, Thorsten; Hellmann, Daniel; Schindler, Hans J.; Potthast, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Postural control is crucial for most tasks of daily living, delineating postural orientation and balance, with its main goal of fall prevention. Nevertheless, falls are common events, and have been associated with deficits in muscle strength and dynamic postural stability. Recent studies reported on improvements in rate of force development and static postural control evoked by jaw clenching activities, potentially induced by facilitation of human ...

  6. Molecular phylogenetics and diversification of trap-jaw ants in the genera Anochetus and Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larabee, F. J.; Fisher, B. L.; Schmidt, C. A.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; Janda, Milan; Suarez, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, OCT 01 (2016), s. 143-154 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 156/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Odontomachus * Anochetus * trap-jaw ants Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790316301804

  7. Effects of Botulinum Toxin on Jaw Motor Events during Sleep in Sleep Bruxism Patients: A Polysomnographic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Young Joo; Lee, Moon Kyu; Kato, Takafumi; Park, Hyung Uk; Heo, Kyoung; Kim, Seong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection on jaw motor episodes during sleep in patients with or without orofacial pain who did not respond to oral splint treatment. Methods: Twenty subjects with a clinical diagnosis of SB completed this study. Ten subjects received bilateral BoNT-A injections (25 U per muscle) into the masseter muscles only (group A), and the other 10 received the injections into both the masseter and temporalis muscles (group B). Video-polysomnographic (vPSG) recordings were made before and at 4 weeks after injection. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) and orofacial activity (OFA) were scored and analyzed for several parameters (e.g., frequency of episodes, bursts per episode, episode duration). The peak amplitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the two muscles was also measured. Results: BoNT-A injection did not reduce the frequency, number of bursts, or duration for RMMA episodes in the two groups. The injection decreased the peak amplitude of EMG burst of RMMA episodes in the injected muscles (p < 0.001, repeated measure ANOVA) in both groups. At 4 weeks after injection, 9 subjects self-reported reduction of tooth grinding and 18 subjects self-reported reduction of morning jaw stiffness. Conclusions: A single BoNT-A injection is an effective strategy for controlling SB for at least a month. It reduces the intensity rather than the generation of the contraction in jaw-closing muscles. Future investigations on the efficacy and safety in larger samples over a longer follow-up period are needed before establishing management strategies for SB with BoNT-A. Citation: Shim YJ; Lee MK; Kato T; Park HU; Heo K; Kim ST. Effects of botulinum toxin on jaw motor events during sleep in sleep bruxism patients: a polysomnographic evaluation. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):291-298. PMID:24634627

  8. What are the differences for IMRT plans configured with beam data collected with either the jaws or the MLCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, D.J.; Alahakone, D.; Meyer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) is currently the most widely used dose calculation algorithm for photons within the Eclipse treatment planning system. Configuration of this algorithm requires field profiles, percentage depth doses and output factors for a wide range of field sizes, usually measured with the jaws defining the field. However, delivery of complex fields such as required for rotational IMRT beam shaping is done with the MLC. The purpose of this work is to determine if significant differences result between two separately configured AAA algorithms, one using beam data collected with the jaw defining the field and the other with the MLC. Methods Two separate sets of beam data were collected, one with the jaw and one with the MLC defining the field. Each set of data was then used to configure two distinct AAA algorithms. A variety of comparisons were made using various IMRT techniques including sliding window, step and shoot, RapidArc and segmented fields, calculated with both algorithms. Plan differences are presented along with verification measurements made with TLDs and the diode based ArcCheck device. Results The largest differences observed were at the surface and in highly modulated areas. The magnitude of the differences was on the order of 0.5%; with the MLC defined AAA predicting more dose than the jaw defined AAA. Discussion and Conclusion Although these initial results reveal only small differences, a full analysis of all plans will be presented before conclusions can be made as to what algorithm should be implemented clinically.

  9. Is Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw an Infection? A Histological and Microbiological Ten-Year Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of infection in the etiology of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ is poorly understood. Large-scale epidemiological descriptions of the histology and microbiology of BRONJ are not found in the literature. Herein, we present a systematic review of BRONJ histology and microbiology (including demographics, immunocompromised associations, clinical signs and symptoms, disease severity, antibiotic and surgical treatments, and recovery status validating that infection should still be considered a prime component in the multifactorial disease.

  10. Medication--related osteonecrosis of the jaws. The first reported cases in the Baltic States and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleckas, Linas; Stacevičius, Mindaugas; Proškutė, Dovilė; Povilaitytė, Jurgita

    2015-01-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a severe side effect of antiresorptive or antiangiogenic therapy that manifests as an exposed bone, accompanied by clinical signs of infection, persisting for more than 8 weeks, without history of radiation therapy or metastases to the jaws. The aim of the study was to present first MRONJ cases in Lithuania and review trends in the modern research literature on the subject. We retrospectively reviewed patient charts with a diagnosis of "Inflammatory conditions of the jaws" treated in Vilnius University Hospital Žalgiris Clinic, Department of maxillofacial surgery in 2007-2014. Patients diagnosed with MRONJ were selected for the study. Demographic data, characteristics of the disease and treatment modalities were analysed. Nine cases (five male and four female) of MRONJ were analysed. The mean patient age was 69±7,9 years. Predominant primary malignancy was prostate cancer. Osteonecrotic lesions were located both in maxilla and mandible. In all cases we started with a conservative treatment first. After the antibiotic therapy with or without sequestrectomy, the condition of all patients stabilized and improved to stage I MRONJ. MRONJ is a disturbing condition resulting in a severely worsened quality of life in the affected patients. This is the first case series of successfully treated patients suffering from stage II or III MRONJ in the Baltic States. A more comprehensive understanding of MRONJ will hopefully allow clinicians to enhance accuracy in risk assessment and forecast positive and negative outcomes of antiresorptive or antiangiogenic therapy.

  11. Impact of orthognathic surgery on oral health-related quality of life in patients with jaw deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabe, K; Kojima, T; Kato, Y; Saito, I; Kobayashi, T

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of orthognathic surgery on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) in patients with jaw deformities. The subjects were 65 patients (21 males and 44 females) who underwent orthognathic surgery. The mean age of the patients was 23.6 years. Forty-seven patients had skeletal class III malocclusions, eight patients had skeletal class II, and 10 patients had skeletal class I with facial asymmetry and/or open bite. OHRQOL was assessed using the Japanese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-J54) before and 6 months after surgery. While OHIP-J54 scores in the patients before surgery were significantly higher than those in the control subjects, OHIP-J54 scores after surgery were significantly lower than those before surgery. OHIP-J54 scores in older patients were significantly higher than those in younger patients. In conclusion, most patients with jaw deformities have lower OHRQOL than individuals with normal occlusion, and orthognathic surgery has a positive impact on OHRQOL. The determination of OHRQOL in patients with jaw deformities seems to be very useful for understanding the patients' problems and for assessing the extent of changes in terms of patient well-being. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Marija; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Lari, L.; Rossi, A.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2015-02-01

    The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more) of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.

  13. Thermomechanical assessment of the effects of a jaw-beam angle during beam impact on Large Hadron Collider collimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cauchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely and successfully operate high-energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. However, the requirements to handle high-intensity beams can be demanding, and accident scenarios must be well studied in order to assess if the collimator design is robust against possible error scenarios. One of the catastrophic, though not very probable, accident scenarios identified within the LHC is an asynchronous beam dump. In this case, one (or more of the 15 precharged kicker circuits fires out of time with the abort gap, spraying beam pulses onto LHC machine elements before the machine protection system can fire the remaining kicker circuits and bring the beam to the dump. If a proton bunch directly hits a collimator during such an event, severe beam-induced damage such as magnet quenches and other equipment damage might result, with consequent downtime for the machine. This study investigates a number of newly defined jaw error cases, which include angular misalignment errors of the collimator jaw. A numerical finite element method approach is presented in order to precisely evaluate the thermomechanical response of tertiary collimators to beam impact. We identify the most critical and interesting cases, and show that a tilt of the jaw can actually mitigate the effect of an asynchronous dump on the collimators. Relevant collimator damage limits are taken into account, with the aim to identify optimal operational conditions for the LHC.

  14. Assessment of the Survival of Dental Implants in Irradiated Jaws Following Treatment of Oral Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Meenakshi Chauhan; Solanki, Swati; Pujari, Sudarshan C; Shaw, Eisha; Sharma, Swati; Anand, Abhishek; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2016-01-01

    Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients. Materials and Methods: Data of oral cancer treated patients was collected retrospectively from 2002 to 2008. We took 46 oral cancer treated patients in which implants were placed in irradiated jaws for rehabilitation. Results: It was found that out of 162 dental implants placed, 52 failed. Furthermore, there was no variation in the implant survival rate in between both the jaws. Radiation dose of <50 Gy units also showed significantly increased amount of implant survival rate. Conclusions: Implant survival is multifactorial and depends upon a number of factors like level of radiation exposure in that area, time gap between last radiation doses etc., Further research is required in this field to improve the esthetics and quality of life of cancer treated patients. PMID:27843270

  15. Assessment of the survival of dental implants in irradiated jaws following treatment of oral cancer: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Chauhan Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients. Materials and Methods: Data of oral cancer treated patients was collected retrospectively from 2002 to 2008. We took 46 oral cancer treated patients in which implants were placed in irradiated jaws for rehabilitation. Results: It was found that out of 162 dental implants placed, 52 failed. Furthermore, there was no variation in the implant survival rate in between both the jaws. Radiation dose of <50 Gy units also showed significantly increased amount of implant survival rate. Conclusions: Implant survival is multifactorial and depends upon a number of factors like level of radiation exposure in that area, time gap between last radiation doses etc., Further research is required in this field to improve the esthetics and quality of life of cancer treated patients.

  16. Allometric shape change of the lower pharyngeal jaw correlates with a dietary shift to piscivory in a cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellig, Christoph J.; Kerschbaumer, Michaela; Sefc, Kristina M.; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-07-01

    The morphological versatility of the pharyngeal jaw of cichlid fishes is assumed to represent a key factor facilitating their unparalleled trophic diversification and explosive radiation. It is generally believed that the functional design of an organism relates to its ecology, and thus, specializations to different diets are typically associated with distinct morphological designs, especially manifested in the cichlids’ pharyngeal jaw apparatus. Thereby, the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) incorporates some of the most predictive features for distinct diet-related morphotypes. Thus, considering that piscivorous cichlids experience an ontogenetic dietary shift from typically various kinds of invertebrates to fish, concomitant morphological changes in the LPJ are expected. Using Lepidiolamprologus elongatus, a top predator in the shallow rocky habitat of Lake Tanganyika, as model, and applying geometric and traditional morphometric techniques, we demonstrate an allometric change in ontogenetic LPJ shape development coinciding with the completion of the dietary shift toward piscivory. The piscivorous LPJ morphotype is initiated in juvenile fish by increasing elongation and narrowing of the LPJ and—when the fish reach a size of 80-90 mm standard length—further refined by the elongation of the posterior muscular processes, which serve as insertion for the fourth musculus levator externus. The enlarged muscular processes of the fully mature piscivorous morphotype provide for the construction of a powerful lever system, which allows the large individuals to process large prey fish and rely on exclusive piscivory.

  17. Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate-exposed jaw bone analysis of bone turnover-related cell signalling after bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, F; Hyckel, P; Amann, K; Ries, J; Stockmann, P; Schlegel, Ka; Neukam, Fw; Nkenke, E

    2011-05-01

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (aRANKL). Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a side-effect. Aetiopathology models failed to explain their restriction to the jaw. The osteoproliferative transcription factor Msx-1 is expressed constitutively only in mature jaw bone. Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. This study compared the expression of Msx-1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-2 and RANKL, in ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone. An automated immunohistochemistry-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone samples (n = 20 each): cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL and GAPDH mRNA levels. Labelling indices were significantly lower for Msx-1 (P Msx-1, 22-fold lower (P Msx-1, RANKL suppression and BMP-2 induction were consistent with the bisphosphonate-associated osteopetrosis and impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ. Msx-1 suppression suggested a possible explanation of the exclusivity of ONJ in jaw bone. Functional analyses of Msx-1- RANKL interaction during bone remodelling should be performed in the future. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  19. The clinical and radiologic consideration of cementifying and ossifying fibroma of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Eun Young; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the proper diagnosis and to establish the treatment plan of cementifying and ossifying fibroma in the jaws through the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic considerations. The authors compared and analyzed the clinicoradiologic features of the thirteen cases of cementifying and ossifying fibroma, diagnosed at the Dental college hospital in Yonsei university, Seoul, Korea, during the period from 1980 to 1995. The obtained results were as follows : 1. Cementifying and ossifying fibroma occurred in the mean age, 44 years, ranged from 29 to 65 years and the male to female ratio was approximately 1:5. 2. Swelling was the most common frequent presenting complaints. Other reported symptoms included pain, tooth mobility and symptom. 3. The frequency of the lesions was twelve cases in the mandible and one case in the maxilla. And eleven of thirteen cases were distributed on the premolar and molar region. 4. Radiologically, eight of thirteen cases were well defined lesions, five cases were relatively well defined lesions. And nine of thirteen cases were mixed lesions, three cases were radiopaque lesions, and only one case was purely radiolucent lesion. 5. Histologically, seven of thirteen cases were classified ossifying fibroma, four cases were cemento-ossifying fibroma, and two cases were cementifying fibroma.

  20. Emergence of the acute-phase protein hemopexin in jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Helen; Buckingham, E Bryan; Criscitiello, Michael F; Flajnik, Martin F

    2010-01-01

    When released from damaged erythrocytes free heme not only provides a source of iron for invading bacteria but also highly toxic due to its ability to catalyze free radical formation. Hemopexin (Hx) binds free heme with very high-affinity and thus protects against heme toxicity, sequesters heme from pathogens, and helps conserve valuable iron. Hx is also an acute-phase serum protein (APP), whose expression is induced by inflammation. To date Hx has been identified as far back in phylogeny as bony fish where it is called warm-temperature acclimation-related 65 kDa protein (WAP65), as serum protein levels are increased at elevated environmental temperatures as well as by infection. During analysis of nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) plasma we isolated a Ni(2+)-binding serum glycoprotein and characterized it as the APP Hx. We subsequently cloned Hx from nurse shark and another cartilaginous fish species, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea. Functional analysis showed shark Hx, like that of mammals, binds heme but is found at unusually high levels in normal shark serum. As an Hx orthologue could not be found in the genomes of jawless vertebrates or lower deuterostomes it appears to have arisen just prior to the emergence of jawed vertebrates, coincident with the second round of genome-wide duplication and the appearance of tetrameric hemoglobin (Hb). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.